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Sample records for comprehensive point mutants

  1. NH exchange in point mutants of human ubiquitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahr, Nicole; Fiedler, Erik; Günther, Robert; Hofmann, Hans-Jörg; Berger, Stefan

    2011-08-01

    Several point mutants of human ubiquitin (Ub(T9V), Ub(F45W), Ub(F45G), and Ub(A46S)) were prepared by recombinant techniques. The NH exchange rate constants were measured by the NMR diffusion and the MEXICO methods and compared with those in the wild type to examine the influence of structural changes and to improve the understanding of this important reaction in studies of protein folding and denaturation. The observed changes follow qualitatively the polarity and steric alterations caused by the introduced amino acids. Attempts to reproduce quantitatively the observed changes by modeling studies and molecular dynamics simulations were not satisfactory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pressure Points in Reading Comprehension: A Quantile Multiple Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how selected pressure points or areas of vulnerability are related to individual differences in reading comprehension and whether the importance of these pressure points varies as a function of the level of children's reading comprehension. A sample of 245 third-grade children were given an assessment battery…

  3. A comprehensive dataset of genes with a loss-of-function mutant phenotype in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Johnny; Meinke, David

    2012-03-01

    Despite the widespread use of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) as a model plant, a curated dataset of Arabidopsis genes with mutant phenotypes remains to be established. A preliminary list published nine years ago in Plant Physiology is outdated, and genome-wide phenotype information remains difficult to obtain. We describe here a comprehensive dataset of 2,400 genes with a loss-of-function mutant phenotype in Arabidopsis. Phenotype descriptions were gathered primarily from manual curation of the scientific literature. Genes were placed into prioritized groups (essential, morphological, cellular-biochemical, and conditional) based on the documented phenotypes of putative knockout alleles. Phenotype classes (e.g. vegetative, reproductive, and timing, for the morphological group) and subsets (e.g. flowering time, senescence, circadian rhythms, and miscellaneous, for the timing class) were also established. Gene identities were classified as confirmed (through molecular complementation or multiple alleles) or not confirmed. Relationships between mutant phenotype and protein function, genetic redundancy, protein connectivity, and subcellular protein localization were explored. A complementary dataset of 401 genes that exhibit a mutant phenotype only when disrupted in combination with a putative paralog was also compiled. The importance of these genes in confirming functional redundancy and enhancing the value of single gene datasets is discussed. With further input and curation from the Arabidopsis community, these datasets should help to address a variety of important biological questions, provide a foundation for exploring the relationship between genotype and phenotype in angiosperms, enhance the utility of Arabidopsis as a reference plant, and facilitate comparative studies with model genetic organisms.

  4. FireProt: Energy- and Evolution-Based Computational Design of Thermostable Multiple-Point Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, David; Beerens, Koen; Sebestova, Eva; Bendl, Jaroslav; Khare, Sagar; Chaloupkova, Radka; Prokop, Zbynek; Brezovsky, Jan; Baker, David; Damborsky, Jiri

    2015-11-01

    There is great interest in increasing proteins' stability to enhance their utility as biocatalysts, therapeutics, diagnostics and nanomaterials. Directed evolution is a powerful, but experimentally strenuous approach. Computational methods offer attractive alternatives. However, due to the limited reliability of predictions and potentially antagonistic effects of substitutions, only single-point mutations are usually predicted in silico, experimentally verified and then recombined in multiple-point mutants. Thus, substantial screening is still required. Here we present FireProt, a robust computational strategy for predicting highly stable multiple-point mutants that combines energy- and evolution-based approaches with smart filtering to identify additive stabilizing mutations. FireProt's reliability and applicability was demonstrated by validating its predictions against 656 mutations from the ProTherm database. We demonstrate that thermostability of the model enzymes haloalkane dehalogenase DhaA and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane dehydrochlorinase LinA can be substantially increased (ΔTm = 24°C and 21°C) by constructing and characterizing only a handful of multiple-point mutants. FireProt can be applied to any protein for which a tertiary structure and homologous sequences are available, and will facilitate the rapid development of robust proteins for biomedical and biotechnological applications.

  5. FireProt: Energy- and Evolution-Based Computational Design of Thermostable Multiple-Point Mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bednar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is great interest in increasing proteins' stability to enhance their utility as biocatalysts, therapeutics, diagnostics and nanomaterials. Directed evolution is a powerful, but experimentally strenuous approach. Computational methods offer attractive alternatives. However, due to the limited reliability of predictions and potentially antagonistic effects of substitutions, only single-point mutations are usually predicted in silico, experimentally verified and then recombined in multiple-point mutants. Thus, substantial screening is still required. Here we present FireProt, a robust computational strategy for predicting highly stable multiple-point mutants that combines energy- and evolution-based approaches with smart filtering to identify additive stabilizing mutations. FireProt's reliability and applicability was demonstrated by validating its predictions against 656 mutations from the ProTherm database. We demonstrate that thermostability of the model enzymes haloalkane dehalogenase DhaA and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane dehydrochlorinase LinA can be substantially increased (ΔTm = 24°C and 21°C by constructing and characterizing only a handful of multiple-point mutants. FireProt can be applied to any protein for which a tertiary structure and homologous sequences are available, and will facilitate the rapid development of robust proteins for biomedical and biotechnological applications.

  6. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of ENU-induced Disc1-Q31L and -L100P mutant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Hirotaka

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1 is considered to be a candidate susceptibility gene for psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression. A recent study reported that N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU-induced mutations in exon 2 of the mouse Disc1 gene, which resulted in the amino acid exchange of Q31L and L100P, caused an increase in depression-like behavior in 31 L mutant mice and schizophrenia-like behavior in 100P mutant mice; thus, these are potential animal models of psychiatric disorders. However, remaining heterozygous mutations that possibly occur in flanking genes other than Disc1 itself might induce behavioral abnormalities in the mutant mice. Here, to confirm the effects of Disc1-Q31L and Disc1-L100P mutations on behavioral phenotypes and to investigate the behaviors of the mutant mice in more detail, the mutant lines were backcrossed to C57BL/6JJcl through an additional two generations and the behaviors were analyzed using a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Results Contrary to expectations, 31 L mutant mice showed no significant behavioral differences when compared with wild-type control mice in any of the behavioral tests, including the Porsolt forced swim and tail suspension tests, commonly used tests for depression-like behavior. Also, 100P mutant mice exhibited no differences in almost all of the behavioral tests, including the prepulse inhibition test for measuring sensorimotor gating, which is known to be impaired in schizophrenia patients; however, 100P mutant mice showed higher locomotor activity compared with wild-type control mice in the light/dark transition test. Conclusions Although these results are partially consistent with the previous study in that there was hyperactivity in 100P mutant mice, the vast majority of the results are inconsistent with those of the previous study; this discrepancy may be explained by differences in the genetic background of the

  7. A Comprehensive Dataset of Genes with a Loss-of-Function Mutant Phenotype in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Johnny; Meinke, David

    2012-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) as a model plant, a curated dataset of Arabidopsis genes with mutant phenotypes remains to be established. A preliminary list published nine years ago in Plant Physiology is outdated, and genome-wide phenotype information remains difficult to obtain. We describe here a comprehensive dataset of 2,400 genes with a loss-of-function mutant phenotype in Arabidopsis. Phenotype descriptions were gathered primarily from manual curation of the scientific literature. Genes were placed into prioritized groups (essential, morphological, cellular-biochemical, and conditional) based on the documented phenotypes of putative knockout alleles. Phenotype classes (e.g. vegetative, reproductive, and timing, for the morphological group) and subsets (e.g. flowering time, senescence, circadian rhythms, and miscellaneous, for the timing class) were also established. Gene identities were classified as confirmed (through molecular complementation or multiple alleles) or not confirmed. Relationships between mutant phenotype and protein function, genetic redundancy, protein connectivity, and subcellular protein localization were explored. A complementary dataset of 401 genes that exhibit a mutant phenotype only when disrupted in combination with a putative paralog was also compiled. The importance of these genes in confirming functional redundancy and enhancing the value of single gene datasets is discussed. With further input and curation from the Arabidopsis community, these datasets should help to address a variety of important biological questions, provide a foundation for exploring the relationship between genotype and phenotype in angiosperms, enhance the utility of Arabidopsis as a reference plant, and facilitate comparative studies with model genetic organisms. PMID:22247268

  8. Toward a comprehensive theory of radiation-induced swelling and creep - the point defect concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, L.K.; Yoo, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    The theory of void swelling and irradiation creep is now fairly comprehensive. A unifying concept on which most of this understanding rests is that of the rate theory point defect concentrations. Several basic aspects of this unifying conept are reviewed. These relate to local fluctuations in point defect concentrations produced by cascades, the effects of thermal and radiation-produced divacancies, and the effects of point defect trapping

  9. Comprehensive overview of the Point-by-Point model of prompt emission in fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudora, A. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Bucharest Magurele (Romania); Hambsch, F.J. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Directorate G - Nuclear Safety and Security, Unit G2, Geel (Belgium)

    2017-08-15

    The investigation of prompt emission in fission is very important in understanding the fission process and to improve the quality of evaluated nuclear data required for new applications. In the last decade remarkable efforts were done for both the development of prompt emission models and the experimental investigation of the properties of fission fragments and the prompt neutrons and γ-ray emission. The accurate experimental data concerning the prompt neutron multiplicity as a function of fragment mass and total kinetic energy for {sup 252}Cf(SF) and {sup 235}U(n,f) recently measured at JRC-Geel (as well as other various prompt emission data) allow a consistent and very detailed validation of the Point-by-Point (PbP) deterministic model of prompt emission. The PbP model results describe very well a large variety of experimental data starting from the multi-parametric matrices of prompt neutron multiplicity ν(A,TKE) and γ-ray energy E{sub γ}(A,TKE) which validate the model itself, passing through different average prompt emission quantities as a function of A (e.g., ν(A), E{sub γ}(A), left angle ε right angle (A) etc.), as a function of TKE (e.g., ν(TKE), E{sub γ}(TKE)) up to the prompt neutron distribution P(ν) and the total average prompt neutron spectrum. The PbP model does not use free or adjustable parameters. To calculate the multi-parametric matrices it needs only data included in the reference input parameter library RIPL of IAEA. To provide average prompt emission quantities as a function of A, of TKE and total average quantities the multi-parametric matrices are averaged over reliable experimental fragment distributions. The PbP results are also in agreement with the results of the Monte Carlo prompt emission codes FIFRELIN, CGMF and FREYA. The good description of a large variety of experimental data proves the capability of the PbP model to be used in nuclear data evaluations and its reliability to predict prompt emission data for fissioning

  10. Generation of comprehensive transposon insertion mutant library for the model archaeon, Haloferax volcanii, and its use for gene discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiljunen, Saija; Pajunen, Maria I; Dilks, Kieran; Storf, Stefanie; Pohlschroder, Mechthild; Savilahti, Harri

    2014-12-09

    Archaea share fundamental properties with bacteria and eukaryotes. Yet, they also possess unique attributes, which largely remain poorly characterized. Haloferax volcanii is an aerobic, moderately halophilic archaeon that can be grown in defined media. It serves as an excellent archaeal model organism to study the molecular mechanisms of biological processes and cellular responses to changes in the environment. Studies on haloarchaea have been impeded by the lack of efficient genetic screens that would facilitate the identification of protein functions and respective metabolic pathways. Here, we devised an insertion mutagenesis strategy that combined Mu in vitro DNA transposition and homologous-recombination-based gene targeting in H. volcanii. We generated an insertion mutant library, in which the clones contained a single genomic insertion. From the library, we isolated pigmentation-defective and auxotrophic mutants, and the respective insertions pinpointed a number of genes previously known to be involved in carotenoid and amino acid biosynthesis pathways, thus validating the performance of the methodologies used. We also identified mutants that had a transposon insertion in a gene encoding a protein of unknown or putative function, demonstrating that novel roles for non-annotated genes could be assigned. We have generated, for the first time, a random genomic insertion mutant library for a halophilic archaeon and used it for efficient gene discovery. The library will facilitate the identification of non-essential genes behind any specific biochemical pathway. It represents a significant step towards achieving a more complete understanding of the unique characteristics of halophilic archaea.

  11. Comprehensive MALDI-TOF biotyping of the non-redundant Harvard Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 transposon insertion mutant library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumeraci, Tonio; Jensen, Vanessa; Talbot, Steven R; Hofmann, Winfried; Kostrzewa, Markus; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; von Neuhoff, Nils; Häussler, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative bacterium that is ubiquitously present in the aerobic biosphere. As an antibiotic-resistant facultative pathogen, it is a major cause of hospital-acquired infections. Its rapid and accurate identification is crucial in clinical and therapeutic environments. In a large-scale MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry-based screen of the Harvard transposon insertion mutant library of P. aeruginosa strain PA14, intact-cell proteome profile spectra of 5547 PA14 transposon mutants exhibiting a plethora of different phenotypes were acquired and analyzed. Of all P. aeruginosa PA14 mutant profiles 99.7% were correctly identified as P. aeruginosa with the Biotyper software on the species level. On the strain level, 99.99% of the profiles were mapped to five different individual P. aeruginosa Biotyper database entries. A principal component analysis-based approach was used to determine the most important discriminatory mass features between these Biotyper groups. Although technical replicas were consistently categorized to specific Biotyper groups in 94.2% of the mutant profiles, biological replicas were not, indicating that the distinct proteotypes are affected by growth conditions. The PA14 mutant profile collection presented here constitutes the largest coherent P. aeruginosa MALDI-TOF spectral dataset publicly available today. Transposon insertions in thousands of different P. aeruginosa genes did not affect species identification from MALDI-TOF mass spectra, clearly demonstrating the robustness of the approach. However, the assignment of the individual spectra to sub-groups proved to be non-consistent in biological replicas, indicating that the differentiation between biotyper groups in this nosocomial pathogen is unassured.

  12. Effect of Power Point Enhanced Teaching (Visual Input) on Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners' Listening Comprehension Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehati, Samira; Khodabandehlou, Morteza

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation was an attempt to study on the effect of power point enhanced teaching (visual input) on Iranian Intermediate EFL learners' listening comprehension ability. To that end, a null hypothesis was formulated as power point enhanced teaching (visual input) has no effect on Iranian Intermediate EFL learners' listening…

  13. Analysis of an ordered, comprehensive STM mutant library in infectious Borrelia burgdorferi: insights into the genes required for mouse infectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Lin

    Full Text Available The identification of genes important in the pathogenesis of Lyme disease Borrelia has been hampered by exceedingly low transformation rates in low-passage, infectious organisms. Using the infectious, moderately transformable B. burgdorferi derivative 5A18NP1 and signature-tagged versions of the Himar1 transposon vector pGKT, we have constructed a defined transposon library for the efficient genome-wide investigation of genes required for wild-type pathogenesis, in vitro growth, physiology, morphology, and plasmid replication. To facilitate analysis, the insertion sites of 4,479 transposon mutants were determined by sequencing. The transposon insertions were widely distributed across the entire B. burgdorferi genome, with an average of 2.68 unique insertion sites per kb DNA. The 10 linear plasmids and 9 circular plasmids had insertions in 33 to 100 percent of their predicted genes. In contrast, only 35% of genes in the 910 kb linear chromosome had incapacitating insertions; therefore, the remaining 601 chromosomal genes may represent essential gene candidates. In initial signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM analyses, 434 mutants were examined at multiple tissue sites for infectivity in mice using a semi-quantitative, Luminex-based DNA detection method. Examples of genes found to be important in mouse infectivity included those involved in motility, chemotaxis, the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system, and other transporters, as well as putative plasmid maintenance genes. Availability of this ordered STM library and a high-throughput screening method is expected to lead to efficient assessment of the roles of B. burgdorferi genes in the infectious cycle and pathogenesis of Lyme disease.

  14. Getting to the point: attempting to improve juror comprehension of capital penalty phase instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amy E; Haney, Craig

    2011-10-01

    This research examined the effects of several versions of capital penalty phase instructions on juror comprehension. Study One documented the impact of California's recently implemented "plain language" instruction. It showed that although the new instruction has clear advantages over the previous version, significant comprehension problems remain. Study Two evaluated several modified instructions designed to enhance comprehension. Participants heard either a standard patterned instruction or one of two alternatives-a psycholinguistically improved instruction, or a "pinpoint" instruction using case-related facts to illustrate key terms-in a simulated death penalty sentencing phase. Persons who heard modified instructions demonstrated higher levels of comprehension on virtually every measure as compared to those in the standard instruction condition.

  15. Test sensitivity is important for detecting variability in pointing comprehension in canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongrácz, Péter; Gácsi, Márta; Hegedüs, Dorottya; Péter, András; Miklósi, Adám

    2013-09-01

    Several articles have been recently published on dogs' (Canis familiaris) performance in two-way object choice experiments in which subjects had to find hidden food by utilizing human pointing. The interpretation of results has led to a vivid theoretical debate about the cognitive background of human gestural signal understanding in dogs, despite the fact that many important details of the testing method have not yet been standardized. We report three experiments that aim to reveal how some procedural differences influence adult companion dogs' performance in these tests. Utilizing a large sample in Experiment 1, we provide evidence that neither the keeping conditions (garden/house) nor the location of the testing (outdoor/indoor) affect a dogs' performance. In Experiment 2, we compare dogs' performance using three different types of pointing gestures. Dogs' performance varied between momentary distal and momentary cross-pointing but "low" and "high" performer dogs chose uniformly better than chance level if they responded to sustained pointing gestures with reinforcement (food reward and a clicking sound; "clicker pointing"). In Experiment 3, we show that single features of the aforementioned "clicker pointing" method can slightly improve dogs' success rate if they were added one by one to the momentary distal pointing method. These results provide evidence that although companion dogs show a robust performance at different testing locations regardless of their keeping conditions, the exact execution of the human gesture and additional reinforcement techniques have substantial effect on the outcomes. Consequently, researchers should standardize their methodology before engaging in debates on the comparative aspects of socio-cognitive skills because the procedures they utilize may differ in sensitivity for detecting differences.

  16. Comprehensive analysis of Curie-point depths and lithospheric effective elastic thickness at Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Li, C. F.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic Ocean remains at the forefront of geological exploration. Here we investigate its deep geological structures and geodynamics on the basis of gravity, magnetic and bathymetric data. We estimate Curie-point depth and lithospheric effective elastic thickness to understand deep geothermal structures and Arctic lithospheric evolution. A fractal exponent of 3.0 for the 3D magnetization model is used in the Curie-point depth inversion. The result shows that Curie-point depths are between 5 and 50 km. Curie depths are mostly small near the active mid-ocean ridges, corresponding well to high heat flow and active shallow volcanism. Large curie depths are distributed mainly at continental marginal seas around the Arctic Ocean. We present a map of effective elastic thickness (Te) of the lithosphere using a multitaper coherence technique, and Te are between 5 and 110 km. Te primarily depends on geothermal gradient and composition, as well as structures in the lithosphere. We find that Te and Curie-point depths are often correlated. Large Te are distributed mainly at continental region and small Te are distributed at oceanic region. The Alpha-Mendeleyev Ridge (AMR) and The Svalbard Archipelago (SA) are symmetrical with the mid-ocean ridge. AMR and SA were formed before an early stage of Eurasian basin spreading, and they are considered as conjugate large igneous provinces, which show small Te and Curie-point depths. Novaya Zemlya region has large Curie-point depths and small Te. We consider that fault and fracture near the Novaya Zemlya orogenic belt cause small Te. A series of transform faults connect Arctic mid-ocean ridge with North Atlantic mid-ocean ridge. We can see large Te near transform faults, but small Curie-point depths. We consider that although temperature near transform faults is high, but mechanically the lithosphere near transform faults are strengthened.

  17. Aggregation of Trp > Glu point mutants of human gamma-D crystallin provides a model for hereditary or UV-induced cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebryany, Eugene; Takata, Takumi; Erickson, Erika; Schafheimer, Nathaniel; Wang, Yongting; King, Jonathan A

    2016-06-01

    Numerous mutations and covalent modifications of the highly abundant, long-lived crystallins of the eye lens cause their aggregation leading to progressive opacification of the lens, cataract. The nature and biochemical mechanisms of the aggregation process are poorly understood, as neither amyloid nor native-state polymers are commonly found in opaque lenses. The βγ-crystallin fold contains four highly conserved buried tryptophans, which can be oxidized to more hydrophilic products, such as kynurenine, upon UV-B irradiation. We mimicked this class of oxidative damage using Trp→Glu point mutants of human γD-crystallin. Such substitutions may represent a model of UV-induced photodamage-introduction of a charged group into the hydrophobic core generating "denaturation from within." The effects of Trp→Glu substitutions were highly position dependent. While each was destabilizing, only the two located in the bottom of the double Greek key fold-W42E and W130E-yielded robust aggregation of partially unfolded intermediates at 37°C and pH 7. The αB-crystallin chaperone suppressed aggregation of W130E, but not W42E, indicating distinct aggregation pathways from damage in the N-terminal vs C-terminal domain. The W130E aggregates had loosely fibrillar morphology, yet were nonamyloid, noncovalent, showed little surface hydrophobicity, and formed at least 20°C below the melting temperature of the native β-sheets. These features are most consistent with domain-swapped polymerization. Aggregation of partially destabilized crystallins under physiological conditions, as occurs in this class of point mutants, could provide a simple in vitro model system for drug discovery and optimization. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  18. COMPREHENSIVE COMPARISON OF TWO IMAGE-BASED POINT CLOUDS FROM AERIAL PHOTOS WITH AIRBORNE LIDAR FOR LARGE-SCALE MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Widyaningrum

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The integration of computer vision and photogrammetry to generate three-dimensional (3D information from images has contributed to a wider use of point clouds, for mapping purposes. Large-scale topographic map production requires 3D data with high precision and accuracy to represent the real conditions of the earth surface. Apart from LiDAR point clouds, the image-based matching is also believed to have the ability to generate reliable and detailed point clouds from multiple-view images. In order to examine and analyze possible fusion of LiDAR and image-based matching for large-scale detailed mapping purposes, point clouds are generated by Semi Global Matching (SGM and by Structure from Motion (SfM. In order to conduct comprehensive and fair comparison, this study uses aerial photos and LiDAR data that were acquired at the same time. Qualitative and quantitative assessments have been applied to evaluate LiDAR and image-matching point clouds data in terms of visualization, geometric accuracy, and classification result. The comparison results conclude that LiDAR is the best data for large-scale mapping.

  19. Comprehensive Analysis of Mandibular Residual Asymmetry after Bilateral Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy Correction of Menton Point Deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Han; Zhu, Ping; Lin, Qiuping; Huang, Xiaoqiong; Xu, Yue; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    post-surgical volumetric measurement showed no statistical differences between bilateral mandibular regions. Mandibular asymmetry persists after Me point correction. A 3D quantification of mandibular residual asymmetry after Me point correction and mandible de-rotation with virtual BSSRO sets up a true reference mirror plane for comprehensive asymmetry assessment of bilateral mandibular structure, thereby providing an accurate guidance for orthognathic surgical planning.

  20. Comprehensive Interpretation of a Three-Point Gauss Quadrature with Variable Sampling Points and Its Application to Integration for Discrete Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Doo Kwon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the characteristics of a variable three-point Gauss quadrature using a variable set of weighting factors and corresponding optimal sampling points. The major findings were as follows. The one-point, two-point, and three-point Gauss quadratures that adopt the Legendre sampling points and the well-known Simpson’s 1/3 rule were found to be special cases of the variable three-point Gauss quadrature. In addition, the three-point Gauss quadrature may have out-of-domain sampling points beyond the domain end points. By applying the quadratically extrapolated integrals and nonlinearity index, the accuracy of the integration could be increased significantly for evenly acquired data, which is popular with modern sophisticated digital data acquisition systems, without using higher-order extrapolation polynomials.

  1. Measuring the impact of a 'point of view' disability simulation on nursing students' empathy using the Comprehensive State Empathy Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levett-Jones, Tracy; Lapkin, Samuel; Govind, Natalie; Pich, Jacqueline; Hoffman, Kerry; Jeong, Sarah Yeun-Sim; Norton, Carol Anne; Noble, Danielle; Maclellan, Lorna; Robinson-Reilly, Melissa; Everson, Naleya

    2017-12-01

    Although empathy is an integral component of professional practice and person-centred care, a body of research has identified that vulnerable patients groups frequently experience healthcare that is less than optimal and often lacking in empathy. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of an immersive point-of-view simulation on nursing students' empathy towards people with an Acquired Brain Injury. A convenience sample of 390 nursing students from a cohort of 488 participated in the study, giving a response rate of 80%. Students undertook the simulation in pairs and were randomly allocated to the role of either a person with Acquired Brain Injury or a rehabilitation nurse. The simulated 'patients' wore a hemiparesis suit that replicated the experience of dysphasia, hemianopia and hemiparesis. Characteristics of the sample were summarised using descriptive statistics. A two-group pre-test post-test design was used to investigate the impact of the simulation using the Comprehensive State Empathy Scale. t-Tests were performed to analyse changes in empathy pre post and between simulated 'patients' and 'rehabilitation nurses'. On average, participants reported significantly higher mean empathy scores post simulation (3.75, SD=0.66) compared to pre simulation (3.38 SD=0.61); t (398)=10.33, pempathy towards people with a disability. Research with other vulnerable patient groups, student cohorts and in other contexts would be beneficial in taking this work forward. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effects of Pictorial Contexts on Listening and Reading Comprehension in English : A Schematic Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    西田, 正

    1984-01-01

    This paper begins with a brief examination of the relationship between reading and listening comprehension with emphasis placed on the similarities inherent in both the receptive skills. Goodman (1967) and Smith (1979) characterize reading as an interaction between printed information and the readers' knowledge. This characterization is true of listening comprehension because listeners make full use of the knowledge to understand the auditory information which is received. Schema theory p...

  3. Health Information Technology Evaluation Framework (HITREF) Comprehensiveness as Assessed in Electronic Point-of-Care Documentation Systems Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockolow, Paulina S; Bowles, Kathryn H; Rogers, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the Health Information Technology (HIT) Reference-based Evaluation Framework (HITREF) comprehensiveness in two HIT evaluations in settings different from that in which the HITREF was developed. Clinician satisfaction themes that emerged from clinician interviews in the home care and the hospital studies were compared to the framework components. Across both studies, respondents commented on 12 of the 20 HITREF components within 5 of the 6 HITREF concepts. No new components emerged that were missing from the HITREF providing evidence that the HITREF is a comprehensive framework. HITREF use in a range of HIT evaluations by researchers new to the HITREF demonstrates that it can be used as intended. Therefore, we continue to recommend the HITREF as a comprehensive, research-based HIT evaluation framework to increase the capacity of informatics evaluators' use of best practice and evidence-based practice to support the credibility of their findings for fulfilling the purpose of program evaluation.

  4. Evolved osmotolerant Escherichia coli mutants frequently exhibit defective N-acetylglucosamine catabolism and point mutations in cell shape-regulating protein MreB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, James D; Garcia, Carlos; Olson, Michelle; Callaway, Emily; Kao, Katy C

    2014-06-01

    Biocatalyst robustness toward stresses imposed during fermentation is important for efficient bio-based production. Osmotic stress, imposed by high osmolyte concentrations or dense populations, can significantly impact growth and productivity. In order to better understand the osmotic stress tolerance phenotype, we evolved sexual (capable of in situ DNA exchange) and asexual Escherichia coli strains under sodium chloride (NaCl) stress. All isolates had significantly improved growth under selection and could grow in up to 0.80 M (47 g/liter) NaCl, a concentration that completely inhibits the growth of the unevolved parental strains. Whole genome resequencing revealed frequent mutations in genes controlling N-acetylglucosamine catabolism (nagC, nagA), cell shape (mrdA, mreB), osmoprotectant uptake (proV), and motility (fimA). Possible epistatic interactions between nagC, nagA, fimA, and proV deletions were also detected when reconstructed as defined mutations. Biofilm formation under osmotic stress was found to be decreased in most mutant isolates, coupled with perturbations in indole secretion. Transcriptional analysis also revealed significant changes in ompACGL porin expression and increased transcription of sulfonate uptake systems in the evolved mutants. These findings expand our current knowledge of the osmotic stress phenotype and will be useful for the rational engineering of osmotic tolerance into industrial strains in the future. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Mutant with Point Mutations in UL39 Is Impaired for Acute Viral Replication in Mice, Establishment of Latency, and Explant-Induced Reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Heba H; Thompson, Thornton W; Konen, Adam J; Haenchen, Steve D; Hilliard, Joshua G; Macdonald, Stuart J; Morrison, Lynda A; Davido, David J

    2018-04-01

    In the process of generating herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) mutations in the viral regulatory gene encoding infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), we isolated a viral mutant, termed KOS-NA, that was severely impaired for acute replication in the eyes and trigeminal ganglia (TG) of mice, defective in establishing a latent infection, and reactivated poorly from explanted TG. To identify the secondary mutation(s) responsible for the impaired phenotypes of this mutant, we sequenced the KOS-NA genome and noted that it contained two nonsynonymous mutations in UL39 , which encodes the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, ICP6. These mutations resulted in lysine-to-proline (residue 393) and arginine-to-histidine (residue 950) substitutions in ICP6. To determine whether alteration of these amino acids was responsible for the KOS-NA phenotypes in vivo , we recombined the wild-type UL39 gene into the KOS-NA genome and rescued its acute replication phenotypes in mice. To further establish the role of UL39 in KOS-NA's decreased pathogenicity, the UL39 mutations were recombined into HSV-1 (generating UL39 mut ), and this mutant virus showed reduced ocular and TG replication in mice comparable to that of KOS-NA. Interestingly, ICP6 protein levels were reduced in KOS-NA-infected cells relative to the wild-type protein. Moreover, we observed that KOS-NA does not counteract caspase 8-induced apoptosis, unlike wild-type strain KOS. Based on alignment studies with other HSV-1 ICP6 homologs, our data suggest that amino acid 950 of ICP6 likely plays an important role in ICP6 accumulation and inhibition of apoptosis, consequently impairing HSV-1 pathogenesis in a mouse model of HSV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE HSV-1 is a major human pathogen that infects ∼80% of the human population and can be life threatening to infected neonates or immunocompromised individuals. Effective therapies for treatment of recurrent HSV-1 infections are limited, which emphasizes a critical need to understand in

  6. Comprehension and utilisation of pointing gestures and gazing in dog-human communication in relatively complex situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Gabriella; Gácsi, Márta; Topál, József; Miklósi, Adám

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the visual communication between humans and dogs in relatively complex situations. In the present research, we have modelled more lifelike situations in contrast to previous studies which often relied on using only two potential hiding locations and direct association between the communicative signal and the signalled object. In Study 1, we have provided the dogs with four potential hiding locations, two on each side of the experimenter to see whether dogs are able to choose the correct location based on the pointing gesture. In Study 2, dogs had to rely on a sequence of pointing gestures displayed by two different experimenters. We have investigated whether dogs are able to recognise an 'indirect signal', that is, a pointing toward a pointer. In Study 3, we have examined whether dogs can understand indirect information about a hidden object and direct the owner to the particular location. Study 1 has revealed that dogs are unlikely to rely on extrapolating precise linear vectors along the pointing arm when relying on human pointing gestures. Instead, they rely on a simple rule of following the side of the human gesturing. If there were more targets on the same side of the human, they showed a preference for the targets closer to the human. Study 2 has shown that dogs are able to rely on indirect pointing gestures but the individual performances suggest that this skill may be restricted to a certain level of complexity. In Study 3, we have found that dogs are able to localise the hidden object by utilising indirect human signals, and they are able to convey this information to their owner.

  7. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  8. Organizational Stressors and Related Stress Intensities in Tehran\\'s Comprehensive Rehabilitation Centers: From the Employees\\' Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayyereh Tavafi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rehabilitation services employees are exposed to stressors at everyday work because they are in touch with people who disability and problems have associated with. Inappropriate policies and processes in work place aggravate stress and would adversely affect mental and physical health of this population which in turn would affect their quality of work. Materials & Methods: In order to determine the status of inappropriate organizational policies and processes as organizational stressors and related stress intensities in Tehran’s comprehensive rehabilitation centers, in a descriptive study all of the personnel were asked to fill a questionnaire which consisted of 32 questions. Content validity was approved by expertise people and reliability was 0.83. Results: Revealed that misevaluation of employees (%98 and using unclear and inappropriate criteria for evaluating personal (%95 were the most prevalent inappropriate organizational policy and process that personnel confronted with. Also we found that exposure to "inequality of payment for similar jobs" and "invalidity of criteria which were used for personnel evaluation", induced highest degree of stress on employees (2.64 from 4 & 1.71from 4 respectively. Conclusion: We conclude that as the most prevalent factor which induced stress in personnel is misevaluation, correction of personnel evaluation system should be over emphasized.

  9. A comprehensive review of the implementation of hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) to the production of flour and flour-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Traikou, Athina

    2005-01-01

    The production of flour and semolina and their ensuing products, such as bread, cake, spaghetti, noodles, and corn flakes, is of major importance, because these products constitute some of the main ingredients of the human diet. The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system aims at ensuring the safety of these products. HACCP has been implemented within the frame of this study on various products of both Asian and European origin; the hazards, critical control limits (CCLs), observation practices, and corrective actions have been summarized in comprehensive tables. Furthermore, the various production steps, packaging included, were thoroughly analyzed, and reference was made to both the traditional and new methodologies in an attempt to pinpoint the occurring differences (advantages and disadvantages) per process.

  10. Sharing mutants and experimental information prepublication using FgMutantDb (https://scabusa.org/FgMutantDb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Thomas T; Basenko, Evelina; Harb, Omar; Brown, Neil A; Urban, Martin; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E; Bregitzer, Phil P

    2018-06-01

    There is no comprehensive storage for generated mutants of Fusarium graminearum or data associated with these mutants. Instead, researchers relied on several independent and non-integrated databases. FgMutantDb was designed as a simple spreadsheet that is accessible globally on the web that will function as a centralized source of information on F. graminearum mutants. FgMutantDb aids in the maintenance and sharing of mutants within a research community. It will serve also as a platform for disseminating prepublication results as well as negative results that often go unreported. Additionally, the highly curated information on mutants in FgMutantDb will be shared with other databases (FungiDB, Ensembl, PhytoPath, and PHI-base) through updating reports. Here we describe the creation and potential usefulness of FgMutantDb to the F. graminearum research community, and provide a tutorial on its use. This type of database could be easily emulated for other fungal species. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Can tautomerization of the A·T Watson-Crick base pair via double proton transfer provoke point mutations during DNA replication? A comprehensive QM and QTAIM analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovarets, Ol'ha O; Hovorun, Dmytro M

    2014-01-01

    Trying to answer the question posed in the title, we have carried out a detailed theoretical investigation of the biologically important mechanism of the tautomerization of the A·T Watson-Crick DNA base pair, information that is hard to establish experimentally. By combining theoretical investigations at the MP2 and density functional theory levels of QM theory with quantum theory of atoms in molecules analysis, the tautomerization of the A·T Watson-Crick base pair by the double proton transfer (DPT) was comprehensively studied in vacuo and in the continuum with a low dielectric constant (ϵ = 4) corresponding to a hydrophobic interfaces of protein-nucleic acid interactions. Based on the sweeps of the electron-topological, geometric, and energetic parameters, which describe the course of the tautomerization along its intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC), it was proved that the A·T → A(∗)·T(∗) tautomerization through the DPT is a concerted (i.e. the pathway without an intermediate) and asynchronous (i.e. protons move with a time gap) process. The limiting stage of this phenomenon is the final PT along the N6H⋯O4 hydrogen bond (H-bond). The continuum with ϵ = 4 does not affect qualitatively the course of the tautomerization reaction: similar to that observed in vacuo, it proceeds via a concerted asynchronous process with the same structure of the transition state (TS). For the first time, the nine key points along the IRC of the A·T base pair tautomerization, which could be considered as electron-topological "fingerprints" of a concerted asynchronous process of the tautomerization via the DPT, have been identified and fully characterized. These nine key points have been used to define the reactant, TS, and product regions of the DPT in the A·T base pair. Considering the energy dependence of each of the three H-bonds, which stabilize the Watson-Crick and Löwdin's base pairs, along the IRC of the tautomerization, it was found that all these H

  12. Promising rice mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Two induced mutants namely, Mut NS 1 (tall) and Mut NS 5 (semi-dwarf) derived from rice variety Nizersail were evaluated for various agronomic characters at four locations in Bangladesh. Both the mutants matured about three weeks earlier and yielded significantly higher than the parent variety Nizersail. (author). 3 tabs., 9 refs

  13. Comprehensive Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Comprehensive Care Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Comprehensive Care Understand the importance of comprehensive MS care ... In this article A complex disease requires a comprehensive approach Today multiple sclerosis (MS) is not a ...

  14. Mutant heterosis in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In the variety TKM6 a high yielding semidwarf mutant has been induced. This TKM6 mutant was used in test crosses with a number of other varieties and mutants to examine the extent of heterosis of dwarfs in rice and to select superior crosses. An excerpt of the published data is given. It appears from the backcross of the mutant with its original variety, that an increase in number of productive tillers occurs in the hybrid, leading to a striking grain yield increase, while the semi-dwarf culm length (the main mutant character) reverts to the normal phenotype. In the cross with IR8 on the other hand, there is only a minimal increase in tiller number but a substantial increase in TGW leading to more than 30% yield increase over the better parent

  15. Mutant power: using mutant allele collections for yeast functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Kaitlyn L; Kumar, Anuj

    2016-03-01

    The budding yeast has long served as a model eukaryote for the functional genomic analysis of highly conserved signaling pathways, cellular processes and mechanisms underlying human disease. The collection of reagents available for genomics in yeast is extensive, encompassing a growing diversity of mutant collections beyond gene deletion sets in the standard wild-type S288C genetic background. We review here three main types of mutant allele collections: transposon mutagen collections, essential gene collections and overexpression libraries. Each collection provides unique and identifiable alleles that can be utilized in genome-wide, high-throughput studies. These genomic reagents are particularly informative in identifying synthetic phenotypes and functions associated with essential genes, including those modeled most effectively in complex genetic backgrounds. Several examples of genomic studies in filamentous/pseudohyphal backgrounds are provided here to illustrate this point. Additionally, the limitations of each approach are examined. Collectively, these mutant allele collections in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the related pathogenic yeast Candida albicans promise insights toward an advanced understanding of eukaryotic molecular and cellular biology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Comprehensive comparison of two image-based point clouds from aerial photos with airborne lidar for large-scale mapping : Door detection to envelope reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widyaningrum, E.; Gorte, B.G.H.

    2017-01-01

    The integration of computer vision and photogrammetry to generate three-dimensional (3D) information from images has contributed to a wider use of point clouds, for mapping purposes. Large-scale topographic map production requires 3D data with high precision and

  17. A comprehensive evaluation of two MODIS evapotranspiration products over the conterminous United States: using point and gridded FLUXNET and water balance ET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpuri, Naga M.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Singh, Ramesh K.; Bohms, Stefanie; Verdin, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing datasets are increasingly being used to provide spatially explicit large scale evapotranspiration (ET) estimates. Extensive evaluation of such large scale estimates is necessary before they can be used in various applications. In this study, two monthly MODIS 1 km ET products, MODIS global ET (MOD16) and Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) ET, are validated over the conterminous United States at both point and basin scales. Point scale validation was performed using eddy covariance FLUXNET ET (FLET) data (2001–2007) aggregated by year, land cover, elevation and climate zone. Basin scale validation was performed using annual gridded FLUXNET ET (GFET) and annual basin water balance ET (WBET) data aggregated by various hydrologic unit code (HUC) levels. Point scale validation using monthly data aggregated by years revealed that the MOD16 ET and SSEBop ET products showed overall comparable annual accuracies. For most land cover types, both ET products showed comparable results. However, SSEBop showed higher performance for Grassland and Forest classes; MOD16 showed improved performance in the Woody Savanna class. Accuracy of both the ET products was also found to be comparable over different climate zones. However, SSEBop data showed higher skill score across the climate zones covering the western United States. Validation results at different HUC levels over 2000–2011 using GFET as a reference indicate higher accuracies for MOD16 ET data. MOD16, SSEBop and GFET data were validated against WBET (2000–2009), and results indicate that both MOD16 and SSEBop ET matched the accuracies of the global GFET dataset at different HUC levels. Our results indicate that both MODIS ET products effectively reproduced basin scale ET response (up to 25% uncertainty) compared to CONUS-wide point-based ET response (up to 50–60% uncertainty) illustrating the reliability of MODIS ET products for basin-scale ET estimation. Results from this research

  18. Productive mutants of niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    Seeds of six niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) varieties ('GA-10', 'ONS-8', 'IGP-72', 'N-71', 'NB-9' and 'UN-4') were treated with 0.5, 0.75 and 1% ethyl methanesulphonate. After four generations of selection, 29 mutant lines were developed and those were evaluated from 1990-92 during Kharif (July to October) and Rabi (December to March) seasons. Average plant characteristics and yield data of four high yielding mutants along with 'IGP-76' (National Check), GA-10 (Zonal Check) and 'Semiliguda Local' (Local Check) are presented

  19. Connexin mutants and cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C Beyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The lens is a multicellular, but avascular tissue that must stay transparent to allow normal transmission of light and focusing of it on the retina. Damage to lens cells and/or proteins can cause cataracts, opacities that disrupt these processes. The normal survival of the lens is facilitated by an extensive network of gap junctions formed predominantly of connexin46 and connexin50. Mutations of the genes that encode these connexins (GJA3 and GJA8 have been identified and linked to inheritance of cataracts in human families and mouse lines. In vitro expression studies of several of these mutants have shown that they exhibit abnormalities that may lead to disease. Many of the mutants reduce or modify intercellular communication due to channel alterations (including loss of function or altered gating or due to impaired cellular trafficking which reduces the number of gap junction channels within the plasma membrane. However, the abnormalities detected in studies of other mutants suggest that they cause cataracts through other mechanisms including gain of hemichannel function (leading to cell injury and death and formation of cytoplasmic accumulations (that may act as light scattering particles. These observations and the anticipated results of ongoing studies should elucidate the mechanisms of cataract development due to mutations of lens connexins and abnormalities of other lens proteins. They may also contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of disease due to connexin mutations in other tissues.

  20. Comprehensive Evaluation of the Sustainable Development of Power Grid Enterprises Based on the Model of Fuzzy Group Ideal Point Method and Combination Weighting Method with Improved Group Order Relation Method and Entropy Weight Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Dai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As an important implementing body of the national energy strategy, grid enterprises bear the important responsibility of optimizing the allocation of energy resources and serving the economic and social development, and their levels of sustainable development have a direct impact on the national economy and social life. In this paper, the model of fuzzy group ideal point method and combination weighting method with improved group order relation method and entropy weight method is proposed to evaluate the sustainable development of power grid enterprises. Firstly, on the basis of consulting a large amount of literature, the important criteria of the comprehensive evaluation of the sustainable development of power grid enterprises are preliminarily selected. The opinions of the industry experts are consulted and fed back for many rounds through the Delphi method and the evaluation criteria system for sustainable development of power grid enterprises is determined, then doing the consistent and non dimensional processing of the evaluation criteria. After that, based on the basic order relation method, the weights of each expert judgment matrix are synthesized to construct the compound matter elements. By using matter element analysis, the subjective weights of the criteria are obtained. And entropy weight method is used to determine the objective weights of the preprocessed criteria. Then, combining the subjective and objective information with the combination weighting method based on the subjective and objective weighted attribute value consistency, a more comprehensive, reasonable and accurate combination weight is calculated. Finally, based on the traditional TOPSIS method, the triangular fuzzy numbers are introduced to better realize the scientific processing of the data information which is difficult to quantify, and the queuing indication value of each object and the ranking result are obtained. A numerical example is taken to prove that the

  1. Photorepair mutants of Arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, C.Z.; Yee, J.; Mitchell, D.L.; Britt, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    UV radiation induces two major DNA damage products, the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and, at a lower frequency, the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidinone dimer (6-4 product). Although Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae produce a CPD-specific photolyase that eliminates only this class of dimer, Arabidopsis thaliana, Drosophila melanogaster, Crotalus atrox, and Xenopus laevis have recently been shown to photoreactivate both CPDs and 6-4 products. We describe the isolation and characterization of two new classes of mutants of Arabidopsis, termed uvr2 and uvr3, that are defective in the photoreactivation of CPDs and 6-4 products, respectively. We demonstrate that the CPD photolyase mutation is genetically linked to a DNA sequence encoding a type II (metazoan) CPD photolyase. In addition, we are able to generate plants in which only CPDs or 6-4 products are photoreactivated in the nuclear genome by exposing these mutants to UV light and then allowing them to repair one or the other class of dimers. This provides us with a unique opportunity to study the biological consequences of each of these two major UV-induced photoproducts in an intact living system

  2. Construindo Marcas Mutantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizete De Azevedo Kreutz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo é o resultado de estudos realizados desde 2000 e busca instrumentalizar os proñssionals para a construção de Marcas Mutantes, que é   uma tendência contemporânea nas estratégias comunicacionais e de branding. Embora esta estratégia ainda não esteja consolidada, observamos que a mesma tem obtido um crescimento constante e tem sido adotadas pelas mais diferentes categorias de marcas e não apenas por aquelas direcionadas aos jovens, ao esporte, ao entretenimento, como era no principia. Com base na Hermenêutica de Profundidade de Thompson (1995, alicerçada nas pesquisas bibliográficas, de intemet, entrevistas e análise semiótica, desenhamos um método de construção de Marcas Mutantes dividido em sete fases. Como resultado, esperamos que este estudo possa auxiliar na compreensão dos processos envolvidos, ao mesmo tempo que provoque a discussão sobreo mesmo e, por consequência, o seu aprimoramento.

  3. Induction and characterization of Arabidopsis mutants by Ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Y. H.; Choi, J. D.; Park, J. Y.; Lee, J. R.; Sohn, H. S.

    2008-03-01

    This study was conducted to search the proper conditions and times for irradiating proton beam to seeds generally used for induction of mutant. Arabidopsis as model plants has good characters that is a short generation time, producing a lot of seeds, sequenced genome, developed maker. This points were the best materials for plant breeding for this study. The data of inducing mutants of Arabidopsis is used to be applicate to crops have more longer generation that is the final goals of this study. The goals of this project were to inducing and characterizing arabidopsis mutants by the proton ion beam and γ-ray. As well as, the purpose of this study was securing more than 10 lines of arabidopsis mutants in this project and also to know the changed DNA structure of the mutants using the basic data for applying to the more study

  4. Induction and characterization of Arabidopsis mutants by Ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Y. H.; Choi, J. D.; Park, J. Y.; Lee, J. R.; Sohn, H. S. [Gyeongbuk Institute for Bio Industry, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    This study was conducted to search the proper conditions and times for irradiating proton beam to seeds generally used for induction of mutant. Arabidopsis as model plants has good characters that is a short generation time, producing a lot of seeds, sequenced genome, developed maker. This points were the best materials for plant breeding for this study. The data of inducing mutants of Arabidopsis is used to be applicate to crops have more longer generation that is the final goals of this study. The goals of this project were to inducing and characterizing arabidopsis mutants by the proton ion beam and {gamma}-ray. As well as, the purpose of this study was securing more than 10 lines of arabidopsis mutants in this project and also to know the changed DNA structure of the mutants using the basic data for applying to the more study

  5. Analysis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis mutant libraries reveals loci-dependent transcription biases and strategies to novel mutant discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of Johne’s disease in ruminants and it has been implicated as a cause of Crohn’s disease in humans. The generation of comprehensive random mutant banks by transposon mutagenesis is a fundamental wide genomic technology utilized...

  6. Isozyme differences in barley mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AI-Jibouri, A A.M.; Dham, K M [Department of Botany, Nuclear Research Centre, Baghdad (Iraq)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Thirty mutants (M{sub 11}) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) induced by physical and chemical mutagens were analysed for isozyme composition using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results show that these mutants were different in the isozymes leucine aminopeptidase, esterase and peroxidase. The differences included the number of forms of each enzyme, relative mobility value and their intensity on the gel. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase isozyme was found in six molecular forms and these forms were similar in all mutants. (author)

  7. Isozyme differences in barley mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AI-Jibouri, A.A.M.; Dham, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Thirty mutants (M 11 ) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) induced by physical and chemical mutagens were analysed for isozyme composition using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results show that these mutants were different in the isozymes leucine aminopeptidase, esterase and peroxidase. The differences included the number of forms of each enzyme, relative mobility value and their intensity on the gel. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase isozyme was found in six molecular forms and these forms were similar in all mutants. (author)

  8. Why the tautomerization of the G·C Watson-Crick base pair via the DPT does not cause point mutations during DNA replication? QM and QTAIM comprehensive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovarets', Ol'ha O; Hovorun, Dmytro M

    2014-01-01

    The ground-state tautomerization of the G·C Watson-Crick base pair by the double proton transfer (DPT) was comprehensively studied in vacuo and in the continuum with a low dielectric constant (ϵ = 4), corresponding to a hydrophobic interface of protein-nucleic acid interactions, using DFT and MP2 levels of quantum-mechanical (QM) theory and quantum theory "Atoms in molecules" (QTAIM). Based on the sweeps of the electron-topological, geometric, polar, and energetic parameters, which describe the course of the G·C ↔ G*·C* tautomerization (mutagenic tautomers of the G and C bases are marked with an asterisk) through the DPT along the intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC), it was proved that it is, strictly speaking, a concerted asynchronous process both at the DFT and MP2 levels of theory, in which protons move with a small time gap in vacuum, while this time delay noticeably increases in the continuum with ϵ = 4. It was demonstrated using the conductor-like polarizable continuum model (CPCM) that the continuum with ϵ = 4 does not qualitatively affect the course of the tautomerization reaction. The DPT in the G·C Watson-Crick base pair occurs without any intermediates both in vacuum and in the continuum with ϵ = 4 at the DFT/MP2 levels of theory. The nine key points along the IRC of the G·C base pair tautomerization, which could be considered as electron-topological "fingerprints" of a concerted asynchronous process of the tautomerization via the DPT, have been identified and fully characterized. These key points have been used to define the reactant, transition state, and product regions of the DPT reaction in the G·C base pair. Analysis of the energetic characteristics of the H-bonds allows us to arrive at a definite conclusion that the middle N1H⋯N3/N3H⋯N1 and the lower N2H⋯O2/N2H⋯O2 parallel H-bonds in the G·C/G*·C* base pairs, respectively, are anticooperative, that is, the strengthening of the middle H-bond is accompanied

  9. THE NATURE OF COMPREHENSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CLELAND, DONALD L.

    THE NATURE OF COMPREHENSION IS DEFINED AND CLARIFIED. THE LITERATURE IS SURVEYED TO SHOW THAT THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPTS IS IMPORTANT IN INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITIES. IT IS POINTED OUT THAT CONCEPTS ARE BUILT FROM PERCEPTS, IMAGES, SENSATION, AND MEMORIES, AND THAT THE STEPS WHICH ARE EMPLOYED AS CONCEPTS ARE BUILT AND REFINED AND INCLUDE PERCEIVING,…

  10. Evaluation of tall rice mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    One tall mutant (Mut NS1) of rice variety Nizersail was put to multilocation on-farm trial. It showed improvement over the parent in respect of by earlier maturity and higher grain yield at all locations and thus it appears as an improved mutant of Nizersail. (author). 6 refs

  11. Hybrid Capture-Based Comprehensive Genomic Profiling Identifies Lung Cancer Patients with Well-Characterized Sensitizing Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Point Mutations That Were Not Detected by Standard of Care Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, James H; Schrock, Alexa B; Johnson, Adrienne; Lipson, Doron; Gay, Laurie M; Ramkissoon, Shakti; Vergilio, Jo-Anne; Elvin, Julia A; Shakir, Abdur; Ruehlman, Peter; Reckamp, Karen L; Ou, Sai-Hong Ignatius; Ross, Jeffrey S; Stephens, Philip J; Miller, Vincent A; Ali, Siraj M

    2018-03-14

    In our recent study, of cases positive for epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) exon 19 deletions using comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP), 17/77 (22%) patients with prior standard of care (SOC) EGFR testing results available were previously negative for exon 19 deletion. Our aim was to compare the detection rates of CGP versus SOC testing for well-characterized sensitizing EGFR point mutations (pm) in our 6,832-patient cohort. DNA was extracted from 40 microns of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections from 6,832 consecutive cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) of various histologies (2012-2015). CGP was performed using a hybrid capture, adaptor ligation-based next-generation sequencing assay to a mean coverage depth of 576×. Genomic alterations (pm, small indels, copy number changes and rearrangements) involving EGFR were recorded for each case and compared with prior testing results if available. Overall, there were 482 instances of EGFR exon 21 L858R (359) and L861Q (20), exon 18 G719X (73) and exon 20 S768I (30) pm, of which 103 unique cases had prior EGFR testing results that were available for review. Of these 103 cases, CGP identified 22 patients (21%) with sensitizing EGFR pm that were not detected by SOC testing, including 9/75 (12%) patients with L858R, 4/7 (57%) patients with L861Q, 8/20 (40%) patients with G719X, and 4/7 (57%) patients with S768I pm (some patients had multiple EGFR pm). In cases with available clinical data, benefit from small molecule inhibitor therapy was observed. CGP, even when applied to low tumor purity clinical-grade specimens, can detect well-known EGFR pm in NSCLC patients that would otherwise not be detected by SOC testing. Taken together with EGFR exon 19 deletions, over 20% of patients who are positive for EGFR -activating mutations using CGP are previously negative by SOC EGFR mutation testing, suggesting that thousands of such patients per year in the U.S. alone could experience improved clinical

  12. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  13. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  14. Mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roosien, J.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis the isolation and characterization of a number of mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus, a plant virus with a coat protein dependent genome, is described. Thermo-sensitive (ts) mutants were selected since, at least theoretically, ts mutations can be present in all virus coded functions. It was found that a high percentage of spontaneous mutants, isolated because of their aberrant symptoms, were ts. The majority of these isolates could grow at the non-permissive temperature in the presence of a single wild type (wt) component. To increase the mutation rate virus preparations were treated with several mutagens. After nitrous acid treatment or irradiation with ultraviolet light, an increase in the level of mutations was observed. UV irradiation was preferred since it did not require large amounts of purified viral components. During the preliminary characterization of potential ts mutants the author also obtained one structural and several symptom mutants which were analysed further (chapter 7, 8 and 9). The properties of the ts mutants are described in chapter 3-7. (Auth.)

  15. Root hair mutants of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engvild, K.C.; Rasmussen, K.

    2005-01-01

    Barley mutants without root hairs or with short or reduced root hairs were isolated among M 2 seeds of 'Lux' barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) after acidified sodium azide mutagenesis. Root hair mutants are investigated intensively in Arabidopsis where about 40 genes are known. A few root hair mutants are known in maize, rice, barley and tomato. Many plants without root hairs grow quite well with good plant nutrition, and mutants have been used for investigations of uptake of strongly bound nutrients like phosphorus, iron, zinc and silicon. Seed of 'Lux' barley (Sejet Plant Breeding, Denmark) were soaked overnight, and then treated with 1.5-millimolarsodium azide in 0.1 molar sodium phosphate buffer, pH 3, for 2.5 hours according to the IAEA Manual on Mutation Breeding (2nd Ed.). After rinsing in tap water and air-drying, the M 2 seeds were sown in the field the same day. Spikes, 4-6 per M 1 plant, were harvested. The mutation frequency was similar to that obtained with other barley cultivars from which low-phytate mutants were isolated [5]. Seeds were germinated on black filter paper in tap water for 3 or 4 days before scoring for root hair mutants

  16. Mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 with enhanced resistance to ionizing radiation. 4. Peculiarities of recombination in Gamsup(r) mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresler, S.E.; Kalinin, V.L.; Laneeva, N.I.

    1984-01-01

    Radioresistant mutant Gam sup(r) 444 differs from a wild type and from Gam sup(r) 445 mutant in decreased frequency of long episome heritage ORF 1 (pur E + -tsx + -proC + -lac + ) and F 14 (ilv + -argE + ), containing hot points of RecRecF - depending recombination and in increased frequency of chromosome mobilization and integrative suppression of temperature sensitive dna A46 mutation by sexual factor F. In this respect Gam sup(r) 444 mutant resembles rec BC sbs B mutant with RecF - recombination type

  17. Mutants induced in winter rye (Secale cereale L.): Short straw-mutant No. 2714 and late-senescence mutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muszynski, S; Darlewska, M [Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Science, Warsaw Agricultural University, Warsaw (Poland)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Mutants were induced by treating dormant seeds with ionizing radiation (fast neutrons) or chemicals (N-nitroso-N-ethyl urea or sodium azide). Among several mutants obtained, of special value is the short-straw mutant No. 2714 and a late senescent mutant. (author)

  18. Development of compact mutants in apple and sour cherry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagaja, S.W.; Przybyla, A.; Machnik, B.

    1982-01-01

    During the period 1973 - 79 studies were conducted with the aim of developing compact mutants in apple and cherry cultivars and in apple vegetative rootstocks. During the investigations the effect of the dose of gamma rays on frequency of the mutants was studied. Attempts were also made to evolve a micropropagation technique adapted to propagate P 2 and P 22 apple rootstocks, as an aid in mutation breeding. Several mutants were produced in all the material studied, but none of them have yet reached a sufficient developmental stage to enable their complete assessment. On the basis of the results obtained so far the following conclusions can be drawn: higher doses of irradiation resulted in higher frequency of mutants in most apple cultivars and apple rootstocks; in sour cherries the effect of dose depended on the cultivars. Among V 1 shoots developed from sleeping buds on irradiated scion wood, compact mutants were found; their frequency, however, was about 60% lower than among V 1 shoots developed directly from irradiated dormant buds. In apple rootstocks A 2 and M 26 several dwarfed mutants were found; some of these produced thorny plants and some had lower rooting ability; both these characteristics are inferior from the practical point of view. Multiplication and rooting media for in vitro propagation of apple rootstocks, worked out for M 26, were found unsuitable for the rootstocks P 2 and P 22; modifications made in the growth substance composition of the above media enabled satisfactory propagation to be obtained. (author)

  19. Molecular and biochemical analyses of spontaneous and X-ray-induced mutants in human lymphoblastoid cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liber, H L; Call, K M; Little, J B

    1987-05-01

    The authors have isolated a series of 14 spontaneously arising and 28 X-ray-induced mutants at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (hgprt) locus in human lymphoblastoid cells. Among the spontaneous mutants, 5/14 (36%) had detectable alterations in their restriction fragment pattern after hybridization with a human cDNA probe for hgprt. Of the 10 remaining mutants, 4 had partial HGPRT enzyme activity, which suggested that they contained point mutations. Among the 28 mutants induced by 150 rad of X-rays, 15 (54%) had deletions of part or all of the hgprt gene. Of the remaining 13 (18% overall) 5 had partial HGPRT enzyme activity, which suggested that they contained point mutations. These data imply that in this human cell system, X-rays induce both point mutants which have residual enzyme activity as well as mutations involving relatively large deletions of DNA. 48 reference, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  20. Applications of Protein Thermodynamic Database for Understanding Protein Mutant Stability and Designing Stable Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromiha, M Michael; Anoosha, P; Huang, Liang-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    Protein stability is the free energy difference between unfolded and folded states of a protein, which lies in the range of 5-25 kcal/mol. Experimentally, protein stability is measured with circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry, and fluorescence spectroscopy using thermal and denaturant denaturation methods. These experimental data have been accumulated in the form of a database, ProTherm, thermodynamic database for proteins and mutants. It also contains sequence and structure information of a protein, experimental methods and conditions, and literature information. Different features such as search, display, and sorting options and visualization tools have been incorporated in the database. ProTherm is a valuable resource for understanding/predicting the stability of proteins and it can be accessed at http://www.abren.net/protherm/ . ProTherm has been effectively used to examine the relationship among thermodynamics, structure, and function of proteins. We describe the recent progress on the development of methods for understanding/predicting protein stability, such as (1) general trends on mutational effects on stability, (2) relationship between the stability of protein mutants and amino acid properties, (3) applications of protein three-dimensional structures for predicting their stability upon point mutations, (4) prediction of protein stability upon single mutations from amino acid sequence, and (5) prediction methods for addressing double mutants. A list of online resources for predicting has also been provided.

  1. Indy mutants: live long and prosper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart eFrankel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Indy encodes the fly homologue of a mammalian transporter of di and tricarboxylatecomponents of the Krebs cycle. Reduced expression of fly Indy or two of the C. elegansIndy homologs leads to an increase in life span. Fly and worm tissues that play key roles inintermediary metabolism are also the places where Indy genes are expressed. One of themouse homologs of Indy (mIndy is mainly expressed in the liver. It has been hypothesizedthat decreased INDY activity creates a state similar to caloric restriction (CR. Thishypothesis is supported by the physiological similarities between Indy mutant flies on highcalorie food and control flies on CR, such as increased physical activity and decreases inweight, egg production, triglyceride levels, starvation resistance, and insulin signaling. Inaddition, Indy mutant flies undergo changes in mitochondrial biogenesis also observed inCR animals. Recent findings with mIndy knockout mice support and extend the findingsfrom flies. mIndy-/- mice display an increase in hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis, lipidoxidation and decreased hepatic lipogenesis. When mIndy-/- mice are fed high calorie foodthey are protected from adiposity and insulin resistance. These findings point to INDY as apotential drug target for the treatment of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and obesity.

  2. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  3. Normal aging modulates the neurotoxicity of mutant huntingtin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Diguet

    Full Text Available Aging likely plays a role in neurodegenerative disorders. In Huntington's disease (HD, a disorder caused by an abnormal expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the protein huntingtin (Htt, the role of aging is unclear. For a given tract length, the probability of disease onset increases with age. There are mainly two hypotheses that could explain adult onset in HD: Either mutant Htt progressively produces cumulative defects over time or "normal" aging renders neurons more vulnerable to mutant Htt toxicity. In the present study, we directly explored whether aging affected the toxicity of mutant Htt in vivo. We studied the impact of aging on the effects produced by overexpression of an N-terminal fragment of mutant Htt, of wild-type Htt or of a beta-Galactosidase (beta-Gal reporter gene in the rat striatum. Stereotaxic injections of lentiviral vectors were performed simultaneously in young (3 week and old (15 month rats. Histological evaluation at different time points after infection demonstrated that the expression of mutant Htt led to pathological changes that were more severe in old rats, including an increase in the number of small Htt-containing aggregates in the neuropil, a greater loss of DARPP-32 immunoreactivity and striatal neurons as assessed by unbiased stereological counts.The present results support the hypothesis that "normal" aging is involved in HD pathogenesis, and suggest that age-related cellular defects might constitute potential therapeutic targets for HD.

  4. Officially released mutant varieties - the FAO/IAEA Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maluszynski, M.; Nichterlein, K.; Zanten, L. van; Ahloowalia, B.S.

    2000-01-01

    In the approximately 70 year-old history of induced mutations, there are many examples on the development of new and valuable alteration in plant characters significantly contributing to increased yield potential of specific crops. However, knowledge on the success of induced mutations in crop improvement among geneticists and breeders is usually limited to species of their interest. The present paper contains a comprehensive list of officially released mutant varieties, based on information from plant breeders. The number of mutant varieties officially released and recorded in the FAO/IAEA Mutant Varieties Database before the end of 2000 is 2,252. Almost half of these varieties have been released during the last 15 years. Considering a significant delay in the dissemination of information on newly released varieties and difficulties in the collection of such data, there has been a renaissance in the use of mutation techniques in crop improvement. At the demand of geneticists, plant breeders, and more recently molecular geneticists, for information on released mutant varieties of specific crops, the MVD was transferred to the web site of the FAO/IAEA Joint Division. The MVD will be available on our web pages early in 2001. (author)

  5. Mutant genes in pea breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiecicki, W.K.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Mutations of genes Dpo (dehiscing pods) and A (anthocyanin synthesis) played a role in pea domestication. A number of other genes were important in cultivar development for 3 types of usage (dry seeds, green vegetable types, fodder), e.g. fn, fna, le, p, v, fas and af. New genes (induced and spontaneous), are important for present ideotypes and are registered by the Pisum Genetics Association (PGA). Comparison of a pea variety ideotype with the variation available in gene banks shows that breeders need 'new' features. In mutation induction experiments, genotype, mutagen and method of treatment (e.g. combined or fractionated doses) are varied for broadening the mutation spectrum and selecting more genes of agronomic value. New genes are genetically analysed. In Poland, some mutant varieties with the gene afila were registered, controlling lodging by a shorter stem and a higher number of internodes. Really non-lodging pea varieties could strongly increase seed yield. But the probability of detecting a major gene for lodging resistance is low. Therefore, mutant genes with smaller influence on plant architecture are sought, to combine their effect by crossing. Promising seem to be the genes rogue, reductus and arthritic as well as a number of mutant genes not yet genetically identified. The gene det for terminal inflorescence - similarly to Vicia faba - changes plant development. Utilisation of assimilates and ripening should be better. Improvement of harvest index should give higher seed yield. A number of genes controlling disease resistance are well known (eg. Fw, Fnw, En, mo and sbm). Important in mass screening of resistance are closely linked gene markers. Pea gene banks collect respective lines, but mutants induced in highly productive cultivars would be better. Inducing gene markers sometimes seems to be easier than transfer by crossing. Mutation induction in pea breeding is probably more important because a high number of monogenic features are

  6. An extra early mutant of pigeonpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravikesavan, R.; Kalaimagal, T.; Rathnaswamy, R.

    2001-01-01

    The redgram (Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth) variety 'Prabhat DT' was gamma irradiated with 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gy doses. Several mutants have been identified viz., extra early mutants, monostem mutants, obcordifoliate mutants and bi-stigmatic mutants. The extra early mutant was obtained when treated with 100 Gy dose. The mutant was selfed and forwarded from M 2 to M 4 generation. In the M 4 generation the mutant line was raised along with the parental variety. Normal cultural practices were followed and the biometrical observations were recorded. It was observed that for the characters viz., total number of branches per plant, number of pods per plants, seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and seed yield per plant there was no difference between the mutant and parent variety. Whereas, regarding the days to flowering and maturity the mutants were earlier than the parents. The observation was recorded from two hundred plants each. The mutant gives the same yield in 90 days as that of the parent variety in 107 days, which make it an economic mutant

  7. Dwarf mutant of rice variety Seratus Malam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugiono, P. S.; Soemanggono, A.M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Seeds of 'Seratus Malam', a local tall upland variety with long panicles and high yield potential were irradiated with 10-50 krad gamma rays in 1983. From 50,000 M 2 plants, 130 semidwarf mutants and 1 dwarf mutant were selected. The dwarf mutant M-362 was obtained from the 10 krad treatment. The mutant shows about 50% reduction in plant height, but also in number of productive tillers. Thus the yield per plant is also significantly less. However, the mutant gene is not allelic to DGWG and therefore may be useful in cross breeding. (author)

  8. Fixed Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Fixed Points - From Russia with Love - A Primer of Fixed Point Theory. A K Vijaykumar. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 101-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point ... 24 hours a day. For young children whose home is a playground, it’s the best way to ...

  10. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  11. Cytoembryologic study of gamma-ray induced sterile Pisum sativum L. mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molkhova, E.; Vasileva, M.

    1977-01-01

    Three new pea mutant forms are described - 1878, Crampled petal Waxless type, and Lathyrus type - which were induced by different gamma-ray ( 60 Co) doses and rates. The flowers of the 1878 and Crampled petal Waxless type mutants were very much deformed, while those of the Lathyrus type had smaller flowers with normal morphology. The three mutant forms were entirely sterile and were propagated by segregation in the progeny of heterozygous sister plants. PMC meiosis and the development of the male gametophyte of the Lathyrus type mutant had a normal course, while in the mutant forms Crampled petal Waxless type and 1878 slight disturbances were observed, but the pollen of all three mutants was not functional. The development of the female gametophyte of the three mutants stops at an early phase and only in the Lathyrus type mutant in single cases embryosacks were formed with differentiated sex apparatus and early stages of embryo and endosperm development were scored, but they also soon degenerate. It is pointed out that sterility of the three pea mutant forms studied depends on factors, which stop at different stages the normal development of the generative organs, of the female gametophyte and of embryogenesis. (author)

  12. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Sordaria macrospora Mutants Identifies Developmental Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrousian, Minou; Teichert, Ines; Masloff, Sandra; Kück, Ulrich

    2012-02-01

    The study of mutants to elucidate gene functions has a long and successful history; however, to discover causative mutations in mutants that were generated by random mutagenesis often takes years of laboratory work and requires previously generated genetic and/or physical markers, or resources like DNA libraries for complementation. Here, we present an alternative method to identify defective genes in developmental mutants of the filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora through Illumina/Solexa whole-genome sequencing. We sequenced pooled DNA from progeny of crosses of three mutants and the wild type and were able to pinpoint the causative mutations in the mutant strains through bioinformatics analysis. One mutant is a spore color mutant, and the mutated gene encodes a melanin biosynthesis enzyme. The causative mutation is a G to A change in the first base of an intron, leading to a splice defect. The second mutant carries an allelic mutation in the pro41 gene encoding a protein essential for sexual development. In the mutant, we detected a complex pattern of deletion/rearrangements at the pro41 locus. In the third mutant, a point mutation in the stop codon of a transcription factor-encoding gene leads to the production of immature fruiting bodies. For all mutants, transformation with a wild type-copy of the affected gene restored the wild-type phenotype. Our data demonstrate that whole-genome sequencing of mutant strains is a rapid method to identify developmental genes in an organism that can be genetically crossed and where a reference genome sequence is available, even without prior mapping information.

  13. Una estrategia para favorecer la comprensión y el aprendizaje en las Ciencias Morfológicas: Presentaciones en PowerPoint. [ A strategy to improve the comprehension and learning in morphological science: powerpoint presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carranza, Miriam L. y Celaya, Gabriela

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a hypertext to the Morphological Sciences in biological area was developed and evaluated. The application with format of digital atlas approaches Anatomical, Histological and Functional concepts about the man and animals in integrated form. PowerPoint presentation was developed to operators which experience in the handling of software are limited. This digital resource was qualified as a good complement of other didactic materials. In this knowledge area offers opportunity to develop significant knowledge to improve the understanding and learning through an interactive methodology

  14. PNRI mutant variety: Cordyline 'Afable'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurigue, Fernando B.

    2012-01-01

    Cordyline 'Afable', registered by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute as NSIC 2009 Or-83, is an induced mutant developed from Cordyline 'Kiwi' by treating stem cuttings with acute gamma radiation from a Cobalt-60 source. The new mutant is identical to Cordyline 'Kiwi' in growth habit but differs in foliage color, and exhibits field resistance to Phytophthora sp., a fungus that causes leaf blight and rot in Ti plants. Results of this mutation breeding experiment showed that leaf color was altered by gamma irradiation and resistance to fungal diseases was improved. It also demonstrated how mutations that occur in nature may be generated artificially. Propagation of cordyline 'Afable' is true-to-type by vegetative propagation methods, such as separation of suckers and offshoots, shoot tip cutting, and top cutting. Aside from landscaping material, terrarium or dish-garden plant, it is ideal as containerized plant for indoor and outdoor use. The leaves or shoots may be harvested as cut foliage for flower arrangements. (author)

  15. Multiplex Sequence Analysis Demonstrates the Competitive Growth Advantage of the A-to-G Mutants of Clarithromycin-Resistant Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ge; Rahman, M. Sayeedur; Humayun, M. Zafri; Taylor, Diane E.

    1999-01-01

    Clarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori is due to point mutation within the 23S rRNA. We examined the growth rates of different types of site-directed mutants and demonstrated quantitatively the competitive growth advantage of A-to-G mutants over other types of mutants by a multiplex sequencing assay. The results provide a rational explanation of why A-to-G mutants are predominantly observed among clarithromycin-resistant clinical isolates.

  16. Multiplex sequence analysis demonstrates the competitive growth advantage of the A-to-G mutants of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G; Rahman, M S; Humayun, M Z; Taylor, D E

    1999-03-01

    Clarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori is due to point mutation within the 23S rRNA. We examined the growth rates of different types of site-directed mutants and demonstrated quantitatively the competitive growth advantage of A-to-G mutants over other types of mutants by a multiplex sequencing assay. The results provide a rational explanation of why A-to-G mutants are predominantly observed among clarithromycin-resistant clinical isolates.

  17. Dew Point

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, Shelly

    1999-01-01

    Dew Point was a solo exhibition originating at PriceWaterhouseCoopers Headquarters Gallery, London, UK and toured to the Centre de Documentacio i Museu Textil, Terrassa, Spain and Gallery Aoyama, Tokyo, Japan.

  18. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  19. Tipping Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  20. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... see news reports about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The ...

  1. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... TV falls with about the same force as child falling from the third story of a building. ...

  2. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture ... about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The force of a ...

  3. Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts for Families Guide Facts for Families - Vietnamese Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation No. 52; Updated October 2017 Evaluation ... with serious emotional and behavioral problems need a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation. Comprehensive psychiatric evaluations usually require a ...

  4. Children's hypertext comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, P.C.J.; Segers, E.; Broek, P. van den

    2017-01-01

    The present chapter gives an overview of the literature on hypertext comprehension, children's hypertext comprehension and individual variation therein, ending with a perspective for future research. Hypertext comprehension requires the reader to make bridging inferences between the different parts

  5. Gamma ray induced mutants in Coleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudevan, K.; Jos, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The germplasm collection of Chinese potato (Coleus parviflorus Benth) contains almost no variation for yield contributing traits. The crop does not produce seeds. Treatment of underground tubers with 1 kR, 2 kR, 3 kR and 4 kR gamma rays resulted in 50 morphologically different mutants which are maintained as mutant clones. In the M 1 V 1 generation, suspected mutant sprouts, were carefully removed and grown separately. The most interesting mutant types are the following: (i) erect mutant with spoon shaped light green leaves, 30 cm long inflorescences against 20 cm in the control, cylindrical tubers measuring ca. 7.0 cm long and 3 cm girth against 4 cm and 2.5 cm in the control (ii) early mutants 1 and 2, one having less leaf serration, the other having light green small leaves and dwarf type (iii) fleshy leaf mutant, dark green, thick and smooth leaves. Control plants spread almost in 1 m 2 area and bear tubers from the nodes of branches. In the early mutants tuber formation is mainly restricted to the base of the plant, which makes harvest easier. The crop usually matures within 150 - 160 days, the early mutants are ready for harvest 100 days after planting. As the mutants are less spreading, the yield could be increased by closer spacing

  6. Gamma ray induced mutants in Coleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, K; Jos, J S [Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Trivandrum, Kerala (India)

    1988-07-01

    The germplasm collection of Chinese potato (Coleus parviflorus Benth) contains almost no variation for yield contributing traits. The crop does not produce seeds. Treatment of underground tubers with 1 kR, 2 kR, 3 kR and 4 kR gamma rays resulted in 50 morphologically different mutants which are maintained as mutant clones. In the M{sub 1}V{sub 1} generation, suspected mutant sprouts, were carefully removed and grown separately. The most interesting mutant types are the following: (i) erect mutant with spoon shaped light green leaves, 30 cm long inflorescences against 20 cm in the control, cylindrical tubers measuring ca. 7.0 cm long and 3 cm girth against 4 cm and 2.5 cm in the control (ii) early mutants 1 and 2, one having less leaf serration, the other having light green small leaves and dwarf type (iii) fleshy leaf mutant, dark green, thick and smooth leaves. Control plants spread almost in 1 m{sup 2} area and bear tubers from the nodes of branches. In the early mutants tuber formation is mainly restricted to the base of the plant, which makes harvest easier. The crop usually matures within 150 - 160 days, the early mutants are ready for harvest 100 days after planting. As the mutants are less spreading, the yield could be increased by closer spacing.

  7. Population Shift between the Open and Closed States Changes the Water Permeability of an Aquaporin Z Mutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xin, Lin; Helix Nielsen, Claus; Su, Haibin

    2012-01-01

    gate in the triple mutant with R189 as the primary steric gate in both mutant and WT AqpZ. The double gates (R189 and W43-F183) result in a high population of the closed conformation in the mutant. Occasionally an open state, with diffusive water permeability very close to that of WT AqpZ, was observed...... be modulated and may further point to how aquaporin function can be optimized for biomimetic membrane applications....

  8. Selective Negative Allosteric Modulation Of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors - A Structural Perspective of Ligands and Mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Kasper; Isberg, Vignir; Tehan, Benjamin G

    2015-01-01

    modulators. In this analysis, we make the first comprehensive structural comparison of all metabotropic glutamate receptors, placing selective negative allosteric modulators and critical mutants into the detailed context of the receptor binding sites. A better understanding of how the different m......Glu allosteric modulator binding modes relates to selective pharmacological actions will be very valuable for rational design of safer drugs....

  9. Studies on cytological, physiological and genetic characteristics in somatic mutant strains of Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeta, T.; Somegou, M.; Nakahira, K.; Miyazaki, Y.; Kondo, T.

    1982-01-01

    From microscopic observation of the pollen of induced mutant strains in Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don), it was found that there were large differences in pollen fertility among the mutant strains, and that it deviated year to year from the mother plants. The large differences in frequency of sterile pollen among mutant strains depended on the genetic characteristics of each mutant strain. Higher frequencies of sterile pollen were observed at the terminal part of branchlets in some mutant strains, and this was considered to be induced by the lateness of flower-bud formation at low temperature conditions in late summer. Delayed formation and gibberellic acid treatment applied for flower induction resulted in low fertility and abnormality of pollen in mutant strains. Chromosome aberration in mutant strains was caused either by gamma irradiation or by some mutational events that responded to environmental conditions. In the former case, aberration might have been maintained for a long period through vegetative propagation. Some of the irregularities were due to mitotic cell division, because cells with micronuclei at the pacytene stage in pollen mother cells and with fragments at MI were observed. Somatic mutability of Kuma-sugi mutants after re-irradiation was investigated. From waxless mutants morphological somatic mutations, which have fat or stout stems and thick and short needles, were frequently produced, whereas from morphological mutants the lowest somatic mutation frequency was induced. In some mutant strains higher rooting ability than the mother plants was found, and the possibility of character improvement was pointed out. (author)

  10. Profiling classroom reading comprehension development practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    teaching practices for reading comprehension development from case study schools with achievement profiles at the PIRLS international .... who can understand the plot, character, setting, point of view ...... A teacher's handbook. Pretoria: DoE.

  11. Deletion map of CYC1 mutants and its correspondence to mutationally altered iso-1-cytochromes c of yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, F.; Jackson, M.; Liebman, S.W.; Schweingruber, A.M.; Stewart, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    Mutants arising spontaneously from sporulated cultures of certain strains of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, contained deletions of the CYC1 gene which controls the primary structure of iso-1-cytochrome c. At least 60 different kinds of deletions were uncovered among the 104 deletions examined and these ranged in length from those encompassing only two adjacent point mutants to those encompassing at least the entire CYC1 gene. X-ray-induced recombination rates of crosses involving these deletions and cyc1 point mutants resulted in the assignment of 211 point mutants to 47 mutational sites and made it possible to unambiguously order 40 of these 47 sites. Except for one mutant, cyc1-15, there was a strict colinear relationship between the deletion map and the positions of 13 sites that were previously determined by amino acid alterations in iso-1-cytochromes c from intragenic revertants

  12. Studies on reduced height mutants in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narahari, P.; Bhagwat, S.G.

    1984-01-01

    Two cross-bred derivatives of the mutant TR5xTR17 and TR21 continued to show promise and were advanced to wider scale testing. TR5 was found to carry a semi-dwarfing gene different from that in IR8. New semi-dwarf mutants were screened from M 2 through M 4 from two separate radiation experiments. The gibberellin response of seedlings of mutant and tester strains was evaluated and crosses of tester stocks and mutant semi-dwarfs were made for genetic analyses. (author)

  13. Report for fiscal 1980 on comprehensive survey for nationwide geothermal resources. Survey on Curie point method (Associated material - operation flight report); 1980 nendo zenkoku chinetsu shigen sogo chosa hokokusho. Curie tenho chosa (futai shiryo sagyo shinchoku hokokusho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-10-01

    With an objective to identify the status of distribution of deep underground thermal structure, aerial magnetism investigations were executed in the south Kyushu area, and data used in the Curie point method were collected. This paper summarizes the progresses and achievements of the work during the investigation. The report for April 1981 summarized preparation of equipment and materials by EG and G Geometrics Corporation, and the work schedules with the Idemitsu Geothermal Development, Petroleum Resources Development, and Naka-Nippon Airways. The report for April 22 compiled the site preparation and the test flight. The report for April 28 compiled the calibration and magnetism compensation flight. The report for May 5 compiled the implementation of the second flight , and the result of survey for 292 km in total. The report for May 10 compiled the implementation of the third to fifth flights, and the results of measurements for 584 km, 519 km and 360 km, respectively. The report for May 18 compiled the implementation of the sixth to eighth (final) flights, and the results of measurements for 513 km, 584 km and 68 km, respectively. (NEDO)

  14. Ensemble-based computational approach discriminates functional activity of p53 cancer and rescue mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Demir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The tumor suppressor protein p53 can lose its function upon single-point missense mutations in the core DNA-binding domain ("cancer mutants". Activity can be restored by second-site suppressor mutations ("rescue mutants". This paper relates the functional activity of p53 cancer and rescue mutants to their overall molecular dynamics (MD, without focusing on local structural details. A novel global measure of protein flexibility for the p53 core DNA-binding domain, the number of clusters at a certain RMSD cutoff, was computed by clustering over 0.7 µs of explicitly solvated all-atom MD simulations. For wild-type p53 and a sample of p53 cancer or rescue mutants, the number of clusters was a good predictor of in vivo p53 functional activity in cell-based assays. This number-of-clusters (NOC metric was strongly correlated (r(2 = 0.77 with reported values of experimentally measured ΔΔG protein thermodynamic stability. Interpreting the number of clusters as a measure of protein flexibility: (i p53 cancer mutants were more flexible than wild-type protein, (ii second-site rescue mutations decreased the flexibility of cancer mutants, and (iii negative controls of non-rescue second-site mutants did not. This new method reflects the overall stability of the p53 core domain and can discriminate which second-site mutations restore activity to p53 cancer mutants.

  15. Masked rat: an x-ray-induced mutant with chronic blepharitis, alopecia, and pasteurellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, R.L.; Lutzner, M.A.; Hansen, C.T.

    1976-01-01

    An autosomal recessive mutation had been previously x-ray-induced in the rat and named the masked rat (genotype mk/mk). This study describes the mutant's appearance, histology, and microflora. The rat's eyelids were swollen, often to the point of closure, and its face was partially covered by a brownish crust, giving the mutant a mask-like appearance. The chronic blepharitis was also accompanied by alopecia that appeared as bare patches across the mutant's back. Pasteurella pneumotropica was found in eyelids and on skin from all masked rats. The normal rat demonstrated a resistance to Pasteurella pneumotropica infection, or, conversely, the masked rat appeared to be genetically predisposed to pasteurellosis

  16. Determining mutant spectra of three RNA viral samples using ultra-deep sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H

    2012-06-06

    RNA viruses have extremely high mutation rates that enable the virus to adapt to new host environments and even jump from one species to another. As part of a viral transmission study, three viral samples collected from naturally infected animals were sequenced using Illumina paired-end technology at ultra-deep coverage. In order to determine the mutant spectra within the viral quasispecies, it is critical to understand the sequencing error rates and control for false positive calls of viral variants (point mutantations). I will estimate the sequencing error rate from two control sequences and characterize the mutant spectra in the natural samples with this error rate.

  17. Evaluation of Yield and Chemical Characteristics of some Peanut Mutants Induced by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-daem, G.A.; Anwar, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate some promising mutants in peanut for yielding ability over three generation (M5, M6 and M7) and to evaluate yield attributes as will as chemical characteristics of these mutants in M7 generation induced by 100 Gy gamma radiation. The obtained results showed that the increase of yield / plot over three generation as a percentage of control was 5% for mutant 7, 10.2 % for mutant 10; 22% for mutant 9 and 22.9% for mutant 8. This increase in yield may be due to increase of one or more of yield attributes for most mutant lines. The significant increase for. No .of pods and seeds/ plant, weight of pods and seeds/ plant and 100- seed weight in M7 as compared to the control. For saturated fatty acid composition, results revealed that total saturated fatty acids ranged from 17.79% for mutant 8 to 21.75 for mutant 2 compared to 24.21% for control. Reduction of total saturated fatty acid was noticed for different mutants compared to that of the original variety. However, for total unsaturated fatty acids, results indicated that total unsaturated fatty acid composition ranged from 77.95% for mutant 9 to 82.09% for mutant 8 compared to 75.49% for control. Higher total unsaturated fatty acids for all mutant lines were obtained than that of the control, however, total saturated (TS)/ total unsaturated (TU) ratio was decreased for all mutants compared to control. The physical and chemical contents of Peanut oils showed that the refractive indices were ranged from 1.4620 to 1.4718 specific gravity were in range of 0.9146 to 0.9177. Acid value was range from 0.54 to 0.89% lodine value was ranged from 94.56 to 101.85. Saponification value was ranged from 185.2 to 190.7 and unsaponifiable matter was ranged from 0.98 to 1.33. The peroxide values ranged from 1.15 to 2.33 meq/kg oil. Also, fortified yoghurt made with replaced mutant peanut oil by 50% as milk fat substitute. Data showed that chemical composition and organolyptic properties had the

  18. Genetic fingerprinting of mutant rose cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S; Prasad, K V; Singh, K P; Singh, A.P. [Division of Floriculture and Landscaping, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi (India)], E-mail: kvprasad66@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    Six rose mutants evolved at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi from four parent cultivars were characterized based on RAPD markers. Contrary to the earlier findings our effort has conclusively proven that the RAPD markers are indeed robust tools to discern the mutants from their parents. Among 40 primers screened, 7 primers produced inconsistent banding pattern. The number of polymorphic bands varied between 4 (OPA 14) and 10 (OPA1) with an average of 6.5 bands per primer. The percentage polymorphism ranged from 62.5 (OPM 9) to 100 percent (OPA 1). Most of the primers produced monomorphic bands between parent and mutant rose cultivars. When primer OPA 2 was used a specific band of 2.5 kb was noticed in mutant cv. Pusa Urmil and cv. Pusa Abhishek but was absent in parent cv. Jantar Mantar. A polymorphic band of 750 bp was noticed in the parent Kiss of Fire and helped in differentiating the parent from its mutant when amplified with OPK 3. Primer OPS 16 produced discriminatory band of 800 bp in mutant cv. Pink Sport of Montezuma while it was absent in its parent cv. Montezuma. Another specific band of 650 bp was present in parent cv. Montezuma and absent in its mutant cv. Pink Sport of Montezuma signifying the uniqueness of the mutant. Primer OPM 5 brought out distinct polymorphism among the parent Jantar Mantar and its three mutants with absence of a specific band of 1.5 kb in the parent. The four parents and 6 mutants were divided into four distinct groups in the Dendogram constructed by UPGMA method. The most genetically similar cultivar among the 10 cultivars analyzed are Montezuma and its pink sport of Montezuma whereas Abhisarika a mutant of cv. Kiss of Fire was distinctly different and formed a separate cluster. (author)

  19. Point of Care Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Goudie, Adrian; Chiorean, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, the use of portable ultrasound scanners has enhanced the concept of point of care ultrasound (PoC-US), namely, "ultrasound performed at the bedside and interpreted directly by the treating clinician." PoC-US is not a replacement for comprehensive ultrasound, but rather allows...... and critical care medicine, cardiology, anesthesiology, rheumatology, obstetrics, neonatology, gynecology, gastroenterology and many other applications. In the future, PoC-US will be more diverse than ever and be included in medical student training....

  20. Early ripening, productive soybean mutant variety suitable for combine harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausse, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    Between 1979 and 1981 seeds of the early ripening Swedish variety ''Fiskeby V'' were treated with N-nitroso-N-methylurea, sodium azide or gamma rays. Induced mutants were selected which are characterized by longer stalk, higher insertion point of the lowest pods and improved grain yield as well as sufficiently early maturity. Starting from 60 000 treated seeds, 6 mutant lines were developed, and in 1988 one variety named ''Dorado'' was released. Under optimal agrotechnical conditions in fields of 2-10 ha ''Dorado'' achieved grain yields between 1,5 and 2,3 t/ha during the last four years. It is intended to grow this variety in the middle and southern districts of the German Democratic Republic, primarily for human consumption. A technology for growing this variety was recommended

  1. Generation and characterization of pigment mutants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compared to the wild CC-124, these mutants are characterized by a decrease in chlorophyll a & b content and an increase in carotenoids. The lowest decrease in chlorophyll a was 3 to 4 folds, while the highest increase in carotenoids was 2 to 4 folds. The result of bio-test, using the resulting pigment mutant of C. reinhardtii ...

  2. A mutant of a mutant of a mutant of a ...: Irradiation of progressive radiation-induced mutants in a mutation-breeding programme with Chrysanthenum morifolium RAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broertjes, C.; Koene, P.; Veen, J.W.H. van.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation-induced sports in Chrysanthemum morifolium RAM. have been reported for several years. It has become an everyday practice to produce flower-colour mutants from outstanding cross-breeding products, even before they are distributed for the commercial production of cut flowers. One of the most successful and recent examples is that of cv. Horim, of which hundreds of mutants were produced by successive use of radiation-induced mutants in the mutation-breeding programme. Over about 4 years a variety of flower-colour mutants was obtained, not only largely including the outstanding characteristics of the original cultivar but sometimes even with an appreciable improvement in quality and yield. It is expected that the latter types, the Miros group, will soon completely supersede the spontaneous or raditation-induced Horim sports and mutants and take over the leading position of the Horim group in the production of all-year-round (AYR) cut-flowers. (orig.)

  3. Los mutantes de la escuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Armando Jaramillo-Ocampo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra los resultados parciales del estudio “Juegos en el recreo escolar: un escenario para la formación ciudadana”, cuya pretensión fue comprender los imaginarios sociales de juego en el recreo escolar y su relación con la convivencia social desde la proximidad del enfoque de complementariedad y el diseño de investigación emergente, planteado por Murcia y Jaramillo (2008. Se presentan los desarrollos logrados en dos categorías centrales del estudio: el patio y el cuerpo; dos categorías que mutan constantemente como entidades vivas en la escuela, hacia la configuración de sujetos que reconocen en el otro y lo otro su posibilidad. La escuela viva, donde es posible “ser en relación con”… se reduce a un espacio temporal y físico, limitado por la campana, “el recreo”. El texto muestra, desde la voz de los actores, esa vida que se da y se quita en la escuela y que se posiciona como una más de las imposiciones normalizadas para controlar. Reconoce, finalmente, una propuesta desde la posibilidad que estos dos mutantes propician para una escuela libre y dinámica.

  4. N-glycan maturation mutants in Lotus japonicus for basic and applied glycoprotein research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carina T.; Loke, Ian; Lorentzen, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Studies of protein N-glycosylation are important for answering fundamental questions on the diverse functions of glycoproteins in plant growth and development. Here we generated and characterised a comprehensive collection of Lotus japonicusLORE1 insertion mutants, each lacking the activity of one...... in the target glyco-genes. For example, both mass spectrometry and immunoblotting experiments suggest that proteins derived from the α1,3-fucosyltransferase (Lj3fuct) mutant completely lacked α1,3-core fucosylation. Mass spectrometry also suggested that the Lotus japonicus convicilin 2 was one of the main...

  5. Parallel analysis of tagged deletion mutants efficiently identifies genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robin; Parrish, Mark L; Cadera, Emily; Larson, Lynnelle; Matson, Clinton K; Garrett-Engele, Philip; Armour, Chris; Lum, Pek Yee; Shoemaker, Daniel D

    2003-07-30

    Increased levels of HMG-CoA reductase induce cell type- and isozyme-specific proliferation of the endoplasmic reticulum. In yeast, the ER proliferations induced by Hmg1p consist of nuclear-associated stacks of smooth ER membranes known as karmellae. To identify genes required for karmellae assembly, we compared the composition of populations of homozygous diploid S. cerevisiae deletion mutants following 20 generations of growth with and without karmellae. Using an initial population of 1,557 deletion mutants, 120 potential mutants were identified as a result of three independent experiments. Each experiment produced a largely non-overlapping set of potential mutants, suggesting that differences in specific growth conditions could be used to maximize the comprehensiveness of similar parallel analysis screens. Only two genes, UBC7 and YAL011W, were identified in all three experiments. Subsequent analysis of individual mutant strains confirmed that each experiment was identifying valid mutations, based on the mutant's sensitivity to elevated HMG-CoA reductase and inability to assemble normal karmellae. The largest class of HMG-CoA reductase-sensitive mutations was a subset of genes that are involved in chromatin structure and transcriptional regulation, suggesting that karmellae assembly requires changes in transcription or that the presence of karmellae may interfere with normal transcriptional regulation. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Induction of Mutants in Durum Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Ubaidi, M.; Ibrahim, I.; AL-Hadithi, A.

    2002-01-01

    This investigation presents a breeding program for induction and development of a new genotype of durum wheat, resistant to lodging with high yield, by irradiation durum wheat hybrids (F2) with gamma rays 100 Gy, during 1990-1997 cultivation seasons. This program involves: induction of variability, selection evaluation of the mutants at three locations: Twaitha (Baghdad) Latifya ( Babylon) and Swari (Kutt). All mutants showed resistance to lodging and there was a significant reduction in plant height. Mutant SIXIZ-22 surpassed other mutants and its origin in lodging resistance and plant height (83.5,82.8 and 89.4 cm) in the three locations at generation M5 and M6, respectively. Also, there were significant differences between mutant and their origin in the number of spikes/M 2 and grain yild during the two successive generation. On the other hand, mutant IZxCO-105 surpassed other mutants in the number of spikes/M 2 (231.8,242.3 and 292) and grain yield (4336,3376 and 5232 kg/ha) in all testing location, respectively . (authors) 14 refs., 4 tabs

  7. Comprehensive metabolic panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic panel - comprehensive; Chem-20; SMA20; Sequential multi-channel analysis with computer-20; SMAC20; Metabolic panel 20 ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) - blood. In: ... Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: ...

  8. Spectrum of induced floral mutants in Petunia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmaja, V.; Sudhakar, P.

    1987-01-01

    A total of six floral mutants of garden Petunia isolated from the populations raised from the seed treatment with γ-rays, 2, 4-D and sodium azide are described. Five of the mutants viz. stellata, Campyloflora, Rubriflora mixed, Grandiflora and Albiflora mixed originated as segregants in M 2 generation while the chimeral floral phenotype was expressed in M 1 generation itself. Breeding behaviour of these horticulturally interesting altered floral phenotypes were studied in subsequent generations and appropriate conclusions were drawn regarding mode of inheritance of the mutant traits. 15 refs., 4 figures, 1 table. (author)

  9. A sorghum (Sorghum bicolor mutant with altered carbon isotope ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govinda Rizal

    Full Text Available Recent efforts to engineer C4 photosynthetic traits into C3 plants such as rice demand an understanding of the genetic elements that enable C4 plants to outperform C3 plants. As a part of the C4 Rice Consortium's efforts to identify genes needed to support C4 photosynthesis, EMS mutagenized sorghum populations were generated and screened to identify genes that cause a loss of C4 function. Stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C of leaf dry matter has been used to distinguishspecies with C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways. Here, we report the identification of a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor mutant with a low δ13C characteristic. A mutant (named Mut33 with a pale phenotype and stunted growth was identified from an EMS treated sorghum M2 population. The stable carbon isotope analysis of the mutants showed a decrease of 13C uptake capacity. The noise of random mutation was reduced by crossing the mutant and its wildtype (WT. The back-cross (BC1F1 progenies were like the WT parent in terms of 13C values and plant phenotypes. All the BC1F2 plants with low δ13C died before they produced their 6th leaf. Gas exchange measurements of the low δ13C sorghum mutants showed a higher CO2 compensation point (25.24 μmol CO2.mol-1air and the maximum rate of photosynthesis was less than 5μmol.m-2.s-1. To identify the genetic determinant of this trait, four DNA pools were isolated; two each from normal and low δ13C BC1F2 mutant plants. These were sequenced using an Illumina platform. Comparison of allele frequency of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs between the pools with contrasting phenotype showed that a locus in Chromosome 10 between 57,941,104 and 59,985,708 bps had an allele frequency of 1. There were 211 mutations and 37 genes in the locus, out of which mutations in 9 genes showed non-synonymous changes. This finding is expected to contribute to future research on the identification of the causal factor differentiating C4 from C3 species that can be used

  10. Trehalose, glycogen and ethanol metabolism in the gcr1 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seker, Tamay; Hamamci, H.

    2003-01-01

    Since Gcr1p is pivotal in controlling the transcription of glycolytic enzymes and trehalose metabolism seems to be one of the control points of glycolysis, we examined trehalose and glycogen synthesis in response to 2 % glucose pulse during batch growth in gcr1 (glucose regulation-1) mutant lacking...... fully functional glycolytic pathway and in the wild-type strain. An increase in both trehalose and glycogen stores was observed 1 and 2 h after the pulse followed by a steady decrease in both the wild-type and the gcr1 mutant. The accumulation was faster while the following degradation was slower in gcr......1 cells compared to wild-type ones. Although there was no distinct glucose consumption in the mutant cells it seemed that the glucose repression mechanism is similar in gcr1 mutant and in wild-type strain at least with respect to trehalose and glycogen metabolism....

  11. Study of the UV-sensitivity of the morphological Salmonella typhimurium mutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakanyan, V A; Dombrovskii, A M; Belokrysenko, S S; Levashev, V S [Vtoroj Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR)

    1975-05-01

    As regards sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation, the morphological mutant S. typhimurium LT2 WT ED 143 is similar to the ion-mutants E. coli K12. Data are presented on the sensitivity of the mutant and initial strains to ultraviolet radiation at various phases of growth, on the capacity for restoring the bacteriophages P22 and Felix O after irradiation and on the influence of various treatments after ultraviolet irradiation (incubation in minimum media and at 42/sup 0/ C) on the irradiated strains. The results of densitometry of the membrane proteins of the initial and mutant strains point to a connection between unusual morphology, the disruption of division and the enhanced sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation on one hand and the state of the membrane components of the bacterial cell on the other.

  12. Semi-dwarf mutants for rice improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Ramli; Osman, Mohammad; Ibrahim, Rusli

    1990-01-01

    Full text: MARDI and the National University of Malaysia embarked on a programme to induce resistance against blast in rice in 1978. MARDI also obtained semi dwarf mutants of cvs 'Mahsuri', 'Muda', 'Pongsu seribu' and 'Jarum Mas', which are under evaluation. The popular local rice variety 'Manik' was subjected to gamma irradiation (15-40 krad) and 101 promising semidwarf mutants have been obtained following selection in M 2 -M 6 . 29 of them show grain yields of 6.0-7.3 t/ha, compared with 5.7t for 'Manik'. Other valuable mutants were found showing long grain, less shattering, earlier maturity, and glutinous endosperm. One mutant, resistant to brown plant hopper yields 6.3t/ha. (author)

  13. X-rays sensitive mammalian cell mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsumi, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    A phenomenon that in x-ray-sensitive mammalian-cell mutants, cellular death due to x-ray radiation was not increased by caffeine, but on the contrary, the dead cells were resuscitated by it was discussed. The survival rate of mutant cells increased by caffein in a low concentration. This suggested that caffeine may have induced some mechanism to produce x-ray resistant mutant cells. Postirradiation treatment with caffeine increased considerably the survival rate of the mutant cells, and this suggested the existence of latent caffeine-sensitive potentially lethal damage repair system. This system, after a few hours, is thought to be substituted by caffeine-resistant repair system which is induced by caffeine, and this may be further substituted by x-ray-resistant repair system. The repair system was also induced by adenine. (Ueda, J.)

  14. Generation and characterization of pigment mutants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... aquatic ecosystems were studied. In the present ... logy and photosynthesis research (Stolbov, 1995;. Pedersen ... Microalgal strain and cultivation conditions ..... evaluated for their ecotoxicological effects using 124y-1 mutant.

  15. Molecular Determinants of Mutant Phenotypes, Inferred from Saturation Mutagenesis Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Arti; Gupta, Kritika; Khare, Shruti; Jain, Pankaj C; Patel, Siddharth; Kumar, Prasanth; Pulianmackal, Ajai J; Aghera, Nilesh; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2016-11-01

    Understanding how mutations affect protein activity and organismal fitness is a major challenge. We used saturation mutagenesis combined with deep sequencing to determine mutational sensitivity scores for 1,664 single-site mutants of the 101 residue Escherichia coli cytotoxin, CcdB at seven different expression levels. Active-site residues could be distinguished from buried ones, based on their differential tolerance to aliphatic and charged amino acid substitutions. At nonactive-site positions, the average mutational tolerance correlated better with depth from the protein surface than with accessibility. Remarkably, similar results were observed for two other small proteins, PDZ domain (PSD95 pdz3 ) and IgG-binding domain of protein G (GB1). Mutational sensitivity data obtained with CcdB were used to derive a procedure for predicting functional effects of mutations. Results compared favorably with those of two widely used computational predictors. In vitro characterization of 80 single, nonactive-site mutants of CcdB showed that activity in vivo correlates moderately with thermal stability and solubility. The inability to refold reversibly, as well as a decreased folding rate in vitro, is associated with decreased activity in vivo. Upon probing the effect of modulating expression of various proteases and chaperones on mutant phenotypes, most deleterious mutants showed an increased in vivo activity and solubility only upon over-expression of either Trigger factor or SecB ATP-independent chaperones. Collectively, these data suggest that folding kinetics rather than protein stability is the primary determinant of activity in vivo This study enhances our understanding of how mutations affect phenotype, as well as the ability to predict fitness effects of point mutations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  16. The 2001 Comprehensive Review

    CERN Multimedia

    Åkesson, T

    A new approach for CERN to monitor the LHC-experiments' technical and scientific progress was introduced last year: The Comprehensive Reviews. A significant fraction of the full LHCC committee is mobilized during two days to review the complete project status. This event took place for ATLAS during 2-3 of July this year. With a rather exhaustive program we presented our status in 39 talks. It was a demanding and close to impossible task for the referees to comprehend the ATLAS status by listening to this massive amount of information, but from the ATLAS point-of-view we judged it important that the referees were exposed to both the progress and the remaining problem areas. The referees were satisfied with our status; probably more so this year than last year. They judged the main critical issues to be: The schedules of the barrel toroid, the end-cap TRT, the LAr barrel and end-cap A, and the MDTs. The procurement of radiation hard electronics was also thought to be a critical issue. They were informed of ...

  17. Molecular analysis of waxy mutants in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatou, O.; Amano, E.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The 'waxy' gene is a structural gene coding a glycosyl transferase which synthesises amylose in the endosperm tissue. 'Non-waxy' rice cultivars have an active gene and their amylose content is 18-25% depending upon gene performance and modifier genes. In 'waxy' rice, no amylose is found because the enzyme is absent. In mutants induced by gamma rays, neutrons, EI or EMS, amylose content ranged from 0 to 20%, i.e. there are intermediate phenotypes as well. Some of them had the same amount of the enzyme as a 'non-waxy' cultivar, even fully 'waxy' mutants showed a certain amount of the enzyme. This suggests that in mutants there may be no structural change in the enzyme gene but the enzyme produced might be less active. By molecular analysis of the mutants' genes it was found that only two mutants induced by thermal neutrons show structural alterations, the changes in other mutants are either too small to be detected by Southern analysis or are outside the structural gene in question. (author)

  18. Commercialization Of Orchid Mutants For Floriculture Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakinah Ariffin; Zaiton Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Orchids are the main contributors to cut flower industry in Malaysia with an existing good market and a huge business potential. Orchid industry has been established in Malaysia since 1960s but only started to develop and expand since 1980s. Continuous development of new orchid varieties is essential to meet customers' demands. Orchid mutagenesis research using gamma irradiation at Malaysian Nuclear Agency has successfully generated a number of new orchid varieties with commercial potentials. Therefore, Nuclear Malaysia has collaborated with an industrial partner, Hexagon Green Sdn Bhd (HGSB), to carry out commercialization research on these mutants under a Technofund project entitled 'Pre-Commercialization of Mutant Orchids for Cut Flowers Industry' from July 2011 to July 2014. Through this collaboration, Dendrobium orchid mutant plants developed by Nuclear Malaysia were transferred to HGSB's commercial orchid nursery at Bukit Changgang Agrotechnology Park, Banting, Selangor, for mass-propagation. The activities include evaluations on plant growth performance, flower quality, post harvest and market potential of these mutants. Mutants with good field performance have been identified and filed for Plant Variety Protection (PVP) with Department of Agriculture Malaysia. This paper describes outputs from this collaboration and activities undertaken in commercializing these mutants. (author)

  19. Professional SharePoint 2010 Development

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzo, Tom; Fried, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Learn to leverage the features of the newest version of SharePoint, in this update to the bestseller. More than simply a portal, SharePoint is Microsoft's popular content management solution for building intranets and Web sites or hosting wikis and blogs. Offering broad coverage on all aspects of development for the SharePoint platform, this comprehensive book shows you exactly what SharePoint does, how to build solutions, and what features are accessible within SharePoint. Written by one of the most recognized names in SharePoint development, Professional SharePoint 2010 Development offers an

  20. Whole-genome analysis of herbicide-tolerant mutant rice generated by Agrobacterium-mediated gene targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Masaki; Kumagai, Masahiko; Motoyama, Ritsuko; Sasaki-Yamagata, Harumi; Mori-Hosokawa, Satomi; Hamada, Masao; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Katayose, Yuichi; Itoh, Takeshi; Toki, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    Gene targeting (GT) is a technique used to modify endogenous genes in target genomes precisely via homologous recombination (HR). Although GT plants are produced using genetic transformation techniques, if the difference between the endogenous and the modified gene is limited to point mutations, GT crops can be considered equivalent to non-genetically modified mutant crops generated by conventional mutagenesis techniques. However, it is difficult to guarantee the non-incorporation of DNA fragments from Agrobacterium in GT plants created by Agrobacterium-mediated GT despite screening with conventional Southern blot and/or PCR techniques. Here, we report a comprehensive analysis of herbicide-tolerant rice plants generated by inducing point mutations in the rice ALS gene via Agrobacterium-mediated GT. We performed genome comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) array analysis and whole-genome sequencing to evaluate the molecular composition of GT rice plants. Thus far, no integration of Agrobacterium-derived DNA fragments has been detected in GT rice plants. However, >1,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion/deletion (InDels) were found in GT plants. Among these mutations, 20-100 variants might have some effect on expression levels and/or protein function. Information about additive mutations should be useful in clearing out unwanted mutations by backcrossing. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  1. From one body mutant to one cell mutant. A progress of radiation breeding in crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatomi, Shigeki

    1996-01-01

    An effective method was established to obtain non-chimeral mutants with wide spectrum of flower colors, regenerated from floral organs on which mutated sectors were come out on chronic irradiated plants. By this way, six mutant varieties of flower colors have been selected from one pink flower of chrysanthemum, and cultivated for cut-flower production. By the same method, 3 mutant varieties with small and spray type flowers were selected in Eustoma. Mutant varieties such as a rust disease resistant in sugarcane, 6 dwarfs in Cytisus and pure-white mushroom in velvet shank have been selected successively for short period. (J.P.N.)

  2. Gamma-radiation Mutagenesis in Genetically Unstable Barley Mutants. Pt. 2. Comparison of Various Mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balchiuniene, L.

    1995-01-01

    Spontaneous and gamma-induced mutability was compared in two groups of genetically unstable barley ear structure mutants - tweaky spike (tw) and branched ear (be). Instability in different loci causes different levels of spontaneous and gamma-induced mutability. A high spontaneous level of chlorophyll mutations is peculiar to be-ust mutants. It is suggested that the high level of induced chlorophyll mutations in allelic tw mutants is a result of better surviving of chlorophyll mutation carriers in the genotypical-physiological environment created by mutant tw alleles. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs

  3. Officially released mutant varieties in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.; Van Zanten, L.; Shu, Q.Y.; Maluszynski, M.

    2004-01-01

    The use of mutation techniques for crop improvement in China has a long and well-established tradition of more than 50 years. As the result of intensive research in many institutes dealing with application of nuclear technologies more than 620 cultivars of 44 crop species have been released. Numerous mutant varieties have been grown on a large scale bringing significant economic impact, sustaining crop production and greatly contributing to increase of food production also in stress prone areas of the country. However, there is still missing information not only on the number of mutant varieties released in particular crop species but also on mutagens applied, selection approaches and on the use of mutants in cross breeding. Numerous Chinese scientists collected and systematized this information. Results of their work were often published in local scientific journals in the Chinese language and as such were unavailable to breeders from other countries. Having this in mind, we requested Dr. Liu Luxiang, the Director of the Department of Plant Mutation Breeding and Genetics, Institute for Application of Atomic Energy, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Beijing to help us in finding as much information as possible on mutant varieties officially released in China. The data has been collected in close collaboration with his colleagues from various institutions all over the country and then evaluated, edited and prepared for publication by our team responsible for the FAO/IAEA Database of Officially Released Mutant Varieties. We would like to thank all Chinese colleagues who contributed to this list of Chinese mutant varieties. We hope that this publication will stimulate plant breeders in China to collect more information on released mutant varieties and especially on the use of mutated genes in cross breeding. (author)

  4. Development of high yielding mutants in lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.A.; Sarwar, G.; Siddiqui, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) locally known as Masoor, is the second most important rabi pulse crop, after chickpea, in Pakistan. It is cultivated on an area of over 63,400 ha, which constitutes about 4.83% of the total area under pulses. The annual production of the crop is 28,200 tones with an average yield of 445 kg/ha. Yield at the national level is very low, about one-half of the world's yield, which is mainly due to non-availability of high yield potential genotypes. Keeping in view the importance of mutants in developing a large number of new varieties, an induced mutations programme was initiated at AEARC, Tandojam during 1987-88, to develop high yielding varieties in lentil. For this, seeds of two lentil varieties, 'Masoor-85' and 'ICARDA-8' had been irradiated with gamma-rays ranging from 100-600 Gy in NIAB, Faisalabad during 1990. Selections were made in M2 on the basis of earliness, plant height, branches/plant and 100 grain weight. After confirming these mutants in M3 they were promoted in station yield trials and studied continuously for three consecutive years (1993- 1995). Overall results revealed that these mutants have consistent improvement of earliness in flowering and maturity. Plant height also increased in all mutant lines except AEL 23/40/91 where reduction in this attribute was observed as compared to parent variety. Mutant lines AEL 49/20/91 and AEL 13/30/91 showed improvement in 100 grain weight. The improvement of some agronomic characters enhanced the yield of mutant lines in comparison to parent varieties (Masoor-85 and ICARDA-8). The diversity in yield over the respective parents was computed from 6.94 to 60.12%. From these encouraging results it is hoped that mutant lines like AEL 12/30/91 and AEL 49/20/91 may serve as potential lentil genotypes in future. (author)

  5. Computational identification of adaptive mutants using the VERT system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkler James

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Evolutionary dynamics of microbial organisms can now be visualized using the Visualizing Evolution in Real Time (VERT system, in which several isogenic strains expressing different fluorescent proteins compete during adaptive evolution and are tracked using fluorescent cell sorting to construct a population history over time. Mutations conferring enhanced growth rates can be detected by observing changes in the fluorescent population proportions. Results Using data obtained from several VERT experiments, we construct a hidden Markov-derived model to detect these adaptive events in VERT experiments without external intervention beyond initial training. Analysis of annotated data revealed that the model achieves consensus with human annotation for 85-93% of the data points when detecting adaptive events. A method to determine the optimal time point to isolate adaptive mutants is also introduced. Conclusions The developed model offers a new way to monitor adaptive evolution experiments without the need for external intervention, thereby simplifying adaptive evolution efforts relying on population tracking. Future efforts to construct a fully automated system to isolate adaptive mutants may find the algorithm a useful tool.

  6. The research progress on plant mutant germplasm resources in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Cexi; Ji Linzhen; Zhao Shirong

    1991-07-01

    Mutants induced by nuclear radiation or other mutagens are new artificial germplasm resources. Some mutants have been applied in plant breeding and great achievements have been reached. The status and progress on the collection, identification and utilization of mutants in China are introduced. A proposal for developing mutant germplasm resources with good agronomic characters is suggested

  7. Professional SharePoint 2010 Development

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzo, Tom; Fried, Jeff; Swider, Paul J; Hillier, Scot; Schaefer, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Updated guidance on how to take advantage of the newest features of SharePoint programmability More than simply a portal, SharePoint is Microsoft's popular content management solution for building intranets and websites or hosting wikis and blogs. Offering broad coverage on all aspects of development for the SharePoint platform, this comprehensive book shows you exactly what SharePoint does, how to build solutions, and what features are accessible within SharePoint. Written by a team of SharePoint experts, this new edition offers an extensive selection of field-tested best practices that shows

  8. Case in Language Comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, Markus; Lamers, Monique

    2012-01-01

    Research on human language comprehension has been heavily influenced by properties of the English language. Since case plays only a minor role in English, its role for language comprehension has only recently become a topic for extensive research on psycholinguistics. In the psycholinguistic

  9. Spectrum of Physics Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasiak, W.; Godlewska, M.; Rosiek, R.; Wcislo, D.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research on the relationship between self-assessed comprehension of physics lectures and final grades of junior high school students (aged 13-15), high school students (aged 16-18) and physics students at the Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland (aged 21). Students' declared level of comprehension was measured…

  10. Bacterio-opsin mutants of Halobacterium halobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betlach, Mary; Pfeifer, Felicitas; Friedman, James; Boyer, Herbert W.

    1983-01-01

    The bacterio-opsin (bop) gene of Halobacterium halobium R1 has been cloned with about 40 kilobases of flanking genomic sequence. The 40-kilobase segment is derived from the (G+C)-rich fraction of the chromosome and is not homologous to the major (pHH1) or minor endogenous covalently closed circular DNA species of H. halobium. A 5.1-kilobase Pst I fragment containing the bop gene was subcloned in pBR322 and a partial restriction map was determined. Defined restriction fragments of this clone were used as probes to analyze the defects associated with the bop gene in 12 bacterio-opsin mutants. Eleven out of 12 of the mutants examined had inserts ranging from 350 to 3,000 base pairs either in the bop gene or up to 1,400 base pairs upstream. The positions of the inserts were localized to four regions in the 5.1-kilobase genomic fragment: within the gene (one mutant), in a region that overlaps the 5′ end of the gene (seven mutants), and in two different upstream regions (three mutants). Two revertants of the mutant with the most distal insert had an additional insert in the same region. The polar effects of these inserts are discussed in terms of inactivation of a regulatory gene or disruption of part of a coordinately expressed operon. Given the defined nature of the bop mRNA—i.e., it has a 5′ leader sequence of three ribonucleotides—these observations indicate that the bop mRNA might be processed from a large mRNA transcript. Images PMID:16593291

  11. Chlorophyll mutants in Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) Savi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetleva, D.; Petkova, S.

    1991-01-01

    Three-year investigations were conducted on chlorophyll mutants of three type: viridissima, claroviridis, flavoviridis, viridocostata and xanthomarginata produced post gamma irradiation ( 60 Co, 8 krad, 280 rad/min). Cell division rate in spectrum and in quantity of induced aberrations was found to have no significant differences with the control. Chlorophyll mutations compared to the control are less developed and their productive characters are less manifested. Cell division rate and the quantity of induced aberrations have no relation to the elements of productivity in the mutants investigated. 3 tabs., 12 refs

  12. Parametric statistical change point analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jie

    2000-01-01

    This work is an in-depth study of the change point problem from a general point of view and a further examination of change point analysis of the most commonly used statistical models Change point problems are encountered in such disciplines as economics, finance, medicine, psychology, signal processing, and geology, to mention only several The exposition is clear and systematic, with a great deal of introductory material included Different models are presented in each chapter, including gamma and exponential models, rarely examined thus far in the literature Other models covered in detail are the multivariate normal, univariate normal, regression, and discrete models Extensive examples throughout the text emphasize key concepts and different methodologies are used, namely the likelihood ratio criterion, and the Bayesian and information criterion approaches A comprehensive bibliography and two indices complete the study

  13. A γA-Crystallin Mouse Mutant Secc with Small Eye, Cataract and Closed Eyelid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Hei Cheng

    Full Text Available Cataract is the most common cause of visual loss in humans. A spontaneously occurred, autosomal dominant mouse mutant Secc, which displayed combined features of small eye, cataract and closed eyelid was discovered in our laboratory. In this study, we identified the mutation and characterized the cataract phenotype of this novel Secc mutant. The Secc mutant mice have eyelids that remain half-closed throughout their life. The mutant lens has a significant reduction in size and with opaque spots clustered in the centre. Histological analysis showed that in the core region of the mutant lens, the fiber cells were disorganized and clefts and vacuoles were observed. The cataract phenotype was evident from new born stage. We identified the Secc mutation by linkage analysis using whole genome microsatellite markers and SNP markers. The Secc locus was mapped at chromosome 1 flanked by SNPs rs3158129 and rs13475900. Based on the chromosomal position, the candidate cataract locus γ-crystallin gene cluster (Cryg was investigated by sequencing. A single base deletion (299delG in exon 3 of Cryga which led to a frame-shift of amino acid sequence from position 91 was identified. As a result of this mutation, the sequences of the 3rd and 4th Greek-key motifs of the γA-crystallin are replaced with an unrelated C-terminal peptide of 75 residues long. Coincidentally, the point mutation generated a HindIII restriction site, allowing the identification of the CrygaSecc mutant allele by RFLP. Western blot analysis of 3-week old lenses showed that the expression of γ-crystallins was reduced in the CrygaSecc mutant. Furthermore, in cell transfection assays using CrygaSecc mutant cDNA expression constructs in 293T, COS-7 and human lens epithelial B3 cell lines, the mutant γA-crystallins were enriched in the insoluble fractions and appeared as insoluble aggregates in the transfected cells. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the Secc mutation leads to the

  14. Quotient-Comprehension Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Cho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Quotients and comprehension are fundamental mathematical constructions that can be described via adjunctions in categorical logic. This paper reveals that quotients and comprehension are related to measurement, not only in quantum logic, but also in probabilistic and classical logic. This relation is presented by a long series of examples, some of them easy, and some also highly non-trivial (esp. for von Neumann algebras. We have not yet identified a unifying theory. Nevertheless, the paper contributes towards such a theory by introducing the new quotient-and-comprehension perspective on measurement instruments, and by describing the examples on which such a theory should be built.

  15. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Hochstrasser, Stefan; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe O

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The costs of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation are established and compared to the corresponding costs of usual care. The effect on health-related quality of life is analyzed. METHODS: An unprecedented and very detailed cost assessment was carried out, as no guidelines existed...... and may be as high as euro 1.877. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is more costly than usual care, and the higher costs are not outweighed by a quality of life gain. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is, therefore, not cost-effective....

  16. Ethanol production using engineered mutant E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Clark, David P.

    1991-01-01

    The subject invention concerns novel means and materials for producing ethanol as a fermentation product. Mutant E. coli are transformed with a gene coding for pyruvate decarboxylase activity. The resulting system is capable of producing relatively large amounts of ethanol from a variety of biomass sources.

  17. Molecular Genetic Identification Of Some Flax Mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AMER, I.M.; MOUSTAFA, H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Five flax genotypes (Linum usitatissimum L.) i.e., commercial cultivar Sakha 2, the mother variety Giza 4 and three mutant types induced by gamma rays, were screened for their salinity tolerance in field experiments (salinity concentration was 8600 and 8300 ppm for soil and irrigation water, respectively). Mutation 6 was the most salt tolerant as compared to the other four genotypes.RAPD technique was used to detect some molecular markers associated with salt tolerance in flax (Mut 6), RAPD-PCR results using 12 random primers exhibited 149 amplified fragments; 91.9% of them were polymorphic and twelve molecular markers (8.1%) for salt tolerant (mutant 6) were identified with molecular size ranged from 191 to 4159 bp and only eight primers successes to amplify these specific markers. Concerning the other mutants, Mut 15 and Mut 25 exhibited 4.3% and 16.2% specific markers, respectively. The induced mutants exhibited genetic similarity to the parent variety were about 51%, 58.3% and 61.1% for Mut 25, Mut 6 and Mut 15, respectively. These specific markers (SM) are used for identification of the induced mutations and it is important for new variety registration.

  18. Induced mutants for cereal grain protein improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Out of 17 papers and one summary presented, six dealing with the genetic improvement of seed protein using ionizing radiations fall within the INIS subject scope. Other topics discussed were non-radiation induced mutants used for cereal grain protein improvement

  19. Male sterile mutant in Vigna radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Kalpana; Raghuvanshi, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    Single and combined treatment of γ-rays and 0.25 per cent EMS were tried on Vigna radiata variety K851. A male sterile mutant was isolated in M 2 generation. Experiments indicated male sterility to be recessive and monogenic in nature. 6 figures. (author)

  20. Knockin mouse with mutant Gα11 mimics human inherited hypocalcemia and is rescued by pharmacologic inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roszko, Kelly L; Bi, Ruiye; Gorvin, Caroline M

    2017-01-01

    in patients with autosomal-dominant hypocalcemia type 2 (ADH2), an inherited disorder of hypocalcemia, low parathyroid hormone (PTH), and hyperphosphatemia. We have generated knockin mice harboring the point mutation GNA11 c.C178T (p.Arg60Cys) identified in ADH2 patients. The mutant mice faithfully replicated...... human ADH2. They also exhibited low bone mineral density and increased skin pigmentation. Treatment with NPS 2143, a negative allosteric modulator of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), increased PTH and calcium concentrations in WT and mutant mice, suggesting that the gain-of-function effect of GNA11...

  1. Allele-specific Gene Silencing of Mutant mRNA Restores Cellular Function in Ullrich Congenital Muscular Dystrophy Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Noguchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD is an inherited muscle disorder characterized clinically by muscle weakness, distal joint hyperlaxity, and proximal joint contractures. Sporadic and recessive mutations in the three collagen VI genes, COL6A1, COL6A2, and COL6A3, are reported to be causative. In the sporadic forms, a heterozygous point mutation causing glycine substitution in the triple helical domain has been identified in higher rate. In this study, we examined the efficacy of siRNAs, which target point mutation site, on specific knockdown toward transcripts from mutant allele and evaluated consequent cellular phenotype of UCMD fibroblasts. We evaluated the effect of siRNAs targeted to silence-specific COL6A1 alleles in UCMD fibroblasts, where simultaneous expression of both wild-type and mutant collagen VI resulted in defective collagen localization. Addition of mutant-specific siRNAs allowed normal extracellular localization of collagen VI surrounding fibroblasts, suggesting selective inhibition of mutant collagen VI. Targeting the single-nucleotide COL6A1 c.850G>A (p.G284R mutation responsible a sporadic autosomal dominant form of UCMD can potently and selectively block expression of mutant collagen VI. These results suggest that allele-specific knockdown of the mutant mRNA can potentially be considered as a therapeutic procedure in UCMD due to COL6A1 point mutations.

  2. Phanerochaete mutants with enhanced ligninolytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakar, S.N.; Perez, A.; Gonzales, J.

    1994-01-01

    In addition to lignin, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organo pollutants in soils and aqueous media. Most of the organic compounds are degraded under ligninolytic conditions with the involvement of the extracellular enzymes, lignin peroxidases, and manganese-dependent peroxidases, which are produced as secondary metabolites triggered by conditions of nutrient starvation (e.g., nitrogen limitation). The fungus and its enzymes can thus provide alternative technologies for bioremediation, bio pulping, bio bleaching, and other industrial applications. The efficiency and effectiveness of the fungus can be enhanced by increasing production and secretion of the important enzymes in large quantities and as primary metabolites under enriched conditions. One way this can be achieved is through isolation of mutants that are deregulated, or are hyper producers or super secretors of key enzymes under enriched conditions. Through UV-light and γ-ray mutagenesis, we have isolated a variety of mutants, some of which produce key enzymes of the ligninolytic system under high-nitrogen growth conditions. One of the mutants, 76UV, produced 272 U of lignin peroxidases enzyme activity/L after 9 d under high nitrogen (although the parent strain does not produce this enzyme under these conditions). The mutant and the parent strains produced up to 54 and 62 U/L, respectively, of the enzyme activity under low nitrogen growth conditions during this period. In some experiments, the mutant showed 281 U/L of enzyme activity under high nitrogen after 17 d

  3. Comprehensive Essays for World History Finals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Martha J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a novel approach to comprehensive questions in world history examinations. Recommends using current events as illustrative reference points for complex subjects such as nationalism, liberalism, and international trade. Students receive information packets on the events for several weeks and must relate the subjects to these events. (MJP)

  4. Comprehensive geriatric assessment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-14

    Sep 14, 2007 ... i.e. difficulty performing simple physical and mental tasks necessary for daily life. ... Definition. Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) is a multidimensional .... The formation of a programme of therapy is decided on.

  5. Spectrum of physics comprehension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasiak, W; Godlewska, M; Rosiek, R; Wcislo, D

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research on the relationship between self-assessed comprehension of physics lectures and final grades of junior high school students (aged 13-15), high school students (aged 16-18) and physics students at the Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland (aged 21). Students' declared level of comprehension was measured during a physics lecture on a prearranged scale of 1-10 with the use of a personal response system designed for the purpose of this experiment. Through the use of this tool, we obtained about 2000 computer records of students' declared comprehension of a 45 min lecture, which we named ‘the spectrum of comprehension’. In this paper, we present and analyse the correlation between students' declared comprehension of the content presented in the lecture and their final learning results. (paper)

  6. Structural dataset for the PPARγ V290M mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Puhl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function mutation V290M in the ligand-binding domain of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ is associated with a ligand resistance syndrome (PLRS, characterized by partial lipodystrophy and severe insulin resistance. In this data article we discuss an X-ray diffraction dataset that yielded the structure of PPARγ LBD V290M mutant refined at 2.3 Å resolution, that allowed building of 3D model of the receptor mutant with high confidence and revealed continuous well-defined electron density for the partial agonist diclofenac bound to hydrophobic pocket of the PPARγ. These structural data provide significant insights into molecular basis of PLRS caused by V290M mutation and are correlated with the receptor disability of rosiglitazone binding and increased affinity for corepressors. Furthermore, our structural evidence helps to explain clinical observations which point out to a failure to restore receptor function by the treatment with a full agonist of PPARγ, rosiglitazone.

  7. Homologous Recombination Defective Arabidopsis Mutants Exhibit Enhanced Sensitivity to Abscisic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Roy

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA acts as an important plant hormone in regulating various aspects of plant growth and developmental processes particularly under abiotic stress conditions. An increased ABA level in plant cells inhibits DNA replication and cell division, causing plant growth retardation. In this study, we have investigated the effects of ABA on the growth responses of some major loss-of-function mutants of DNA double-stand break (DSB repair genes in Arabidopsis during seed germination and early stages of seedling growth for understanding the role of ABA in the induction of genome instability in plants. A comparative analysis of ABA sensitivity of wild-type Arabidopsis and the knockout mutant lines related to DSB sensors, including atatm, atatr, the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ pathway genes, and mutants related to homologous recombination (HR pathway genes showed relatively enhanced sensitivity of atatr and HR-related mutants to ABA treatment. The expression levels of HR-related genes were increased in wild-type Arabidopsis (Col-0 during seed germination and early stages of seedling growth. Immunoblotting experiments detected phosphorylation of histone H2AX in wild-type (Col-0 and DSB repair gene mutants after ABA treatment, indicating the activation of DNA damage response due to ABA treatment. Analyses of DSB repair kinetics using comet assay under neutral condition have revealed comparatively slower DSB repair activity in HR mutants. Overall, our results have provided comprehensive information on the possible effect of ABA on DNA repair machinery in plants and also indicated potential functional involvement of HR pathway in repairing ABA induced DNA damage in Arabidopsis.

  8. Isolation and characterisation of a dwarf rice mutant exhibiting defective gibberellins biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, S H; Gururani, M A; Lee, J W; Ahn, B-O; Chun, S-C

    2014-03-01

    We have isolated a severe dwarf mutant derived from a Ds (Dissociation) insertion mutant rice (Oryza sativa var. japonica c.v. Dongjin). This severe dwarf phenotype, has short and dark green leaves, reduced shoot growth early in the seedling stage, and later severe dwarfism with failure to initiate flowering. When treated with bioactive GA3 , mutants are restored to the normal wild-type phenotype. Reverse transcription PCR analyses of 22 candidate genes related to the gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis pathway revealed that among 22 candidate genes tested, a dwarf mutant transcript was not expressed only in one OsKS2 gene. Genetic analysis revealed that the severe dwarf phenotype was controlled by recessive mutation of a single nuclear gene. The putative OsKS2 gene was a chromosome 4-located ent-kaurene synthase (KS), encoding the enzyme that catalyses an early step of the GA biosynthesis pathway. Sequence analysis revealed that osks2 carried a 1-bp deletion in the ORF region of OsKS2, which led to a loss-of-function mutation. The expression pattern of OsKS2 in wild-type cv Dongjin, showed that it is expressed in all organs, most prominently in the stem and floral organs. Morphological characteristics of the dwarf mutant showed dramatic modifications in internal structure and external morphology. We propose that dwarfism in this mutant is caused by a point mutation in OsKS2, which plays a significant role in growth and development of higher plants. Further investigation on OsKS2 and other OsKS-like proteins is underway and may yield better understanding of the putative role of OsKS in severe dwarf mutants. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  9. Identification of Mutant Genes and Introgressed Tiger Salamander DNA in the Laboratory Axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, M Ryan; Vaughn-Wolfe, Jennifer; Elias, Alexandra; Kump, D Kevin; Kendall, Katharina Denise; Timoshevskaya, Nataliya; Timoshevskiy, Vladimir; Perry, Dustin W; Smith, Jeramiah J; Spiewak, Jessica E; Parichy, David M; Voss, S Randal

    2017-01-31

    The molecular genetic toolkit of the Mexican axolotl, a classic model organism, has matured to the point where it is now possible to identify genes for mutant phenotypes. We used a positional cloning-candidate gene approach to identify molecular bases for two historic axolotl pigment phenotypes: white and albino. White (d/d) mutants have defects in pigment cell morphogenesis and differentiation, whereas albino (a/a) mutants lack melanin. We identified in white mutants a transcriptional defect in endothelin 3 (edn3), encoding a peptide factor that promotes pigment cell migration and differentiation in other vertebrates. Transgenic restoration of Edn3 expression rescued the homozygous white mutant phenotype. We mapped the albino locus to tyrosinase (tyr) and identified polymorphisms shared between the albino allele (tyr a ) and tyr alleles in a Minnesota population of tiger salamanders from which the albino trait was introgressed. tyr a has a 142 bp deletion and similar engineered alleles recapitulated the albino phenotype. Finally, we show that historical introgression of tyr a significantly altered genomic composition of the laboratory axolotl, yielding a distinct, hybrid strain of ambystomatid salamander. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of identifying genes for traits in the laboratory Mexican axolotl.

  10. Comparative metabolic profiling of mce1 operon mutant vs wild-type Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Adriano; Medina-Cleghorn, Daniel; Marjanovic, Olivera; Nomura, Daniel K; Riley, Lee W

    2015-11-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis disrupted in a 13-gene operon (mce1) accumulates free mycolic acids (FM) in its cell wall and causes accelerated death in mice. Here, to more comprehensively analyze differences in their cell wall lipid composition, we used an untargeted metabolomics approach to compare the lipid profiles of wild-type and mce1 operon mutant strains. By liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we identified >400 distinct lipids significantly altered in the mce1 mutant compared to wild type. These lipids included decreased levels of saccharolipids and glycerophospholipids, and increased levels of alpha-, methoxy- and keto mycolic acids (MA), and hydroxyphthioceranic acid. The mutant showed reduced expression of mmpL8, mmpL10, stf0, pks2 and papA2 genes involved in transport and metabolism of lipids recognized to induce proinflammatory response; these lipids were found to be decreased in the mutant. In contrast, the transcripts of mmpL3, fasI, kasA, kasB, acpM and RV3451 involved in MA transport and metabolism increased; MA inhibits inflammatory response in macrophages. Since the mce1 operon is known to be regulated in intracellular M. tuberculosis, we speculate that the differences we observed in cell wall lipid metabolism and composition may affect host response to M. tuberculosis infection and determine the clinical outcome of such an infection. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. PNRI mutant variety: sansevieria 'Sword of Ibe'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurigue, Fernando B.

    2011-01-01

    Sansevieria 'Sword of Ibe,' registered by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute as NSIC 2008 Or-66, is a chlorophyll mutant of Sansevieria trifasciata 'Moonshine' developed by treating its suckers or shoots arising from a rhizome with acute gamma radiation from a Cobalt-60 source. The new mutant is identical in growth habit and vigor to Sansevieria 'Moonshine,' also known as Moonglow. Results of this mutation breeding experiment showed that leaf color and flowering were altered by gamma irradiation without changing the other characteristics of the plant. Propagation is true-to-type by separation of sucker and top cutting. The plant is recommended for use as landscaping material and as pot plant for indoor and outdoor use. The leaves may be harvested as cut foliage for Japanese flower arrangements. (author)

  12. Serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase mutant of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwell, R.; Murray, A.; Joy, K.; Lea, P.

    1987-01-01

    A photorespiratory mutant of barley (LaPr 85/84), deficient in both of the major peaks of serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity detected in the wild type, also lacks serine:pyruvate and asparagine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activities. Genetic analysis of the mutation demonstrated that these three activities are all carried on the same enzyme. The mutant, when placed in air, accumulated a large pool of serine, showed the expected rate (50%) of ammonia release during photorespiration but produced CO 2 at twice the wild type rate when it was fed [ 14 C] glyoxylate. Compared with the wild type, LaPr 85/84 exhibited abnormal transient changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence when the CO 2 concentration of the air was altered, indicating that the rates of the fluorescence quenching mechanisms were affected in vivo by the lack of this enzyme

  13. Intact interval timing in circadian CLOCK mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Sara; Gallistel, C R

    2008-08-28

    While progress has been made in determining the molecular basis for the circadian clock, the mechanism by which mammalian brains time intervals measured in seconds to minutes remains a mystery. An obvious question is whether the interval-timing mechanism shares molecular machinery with the circadian timing mechanism. In the current study, we trained circadian CLOCK +/- and -/- mutant male mice in a peak-interval procedure with 10 and 20-s criteria. The mutant mice were more active than their wild-type littermates, but there were no reliable deficits in the accuracy or precision of their timing as compared with wild-type littermates. This suggests that expression of the CLOCK protein is not necessary for normal interval timing.

  14. The application of shortened upper leaf mutant in barley breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Hua

    2004-01-01

    The shortened upper leaf mutant was induced from Fuji Nigo by γ-ray irradiation. Fuji Nigo, the mutant, cross-cut F 1 , F 2 and back-cross F 1 , F 2 were used to analyze mutant heredity by comparative study. The yield, chlorophyll content, light intensity, dry matter of mutant were investigated. The results showed that (1) the mutant character was controlled by a couple of nuclear genes which were partial dominance; (2) the transmittance of the mutant colony was better than that of Fuji Nigo and bottom dry matter was much more than that of Fuji Nigo; (3) under the condition of high fertilizer and high plant population , the yield of mutant was higher than that of Fuji Nigo; (4) the content of chlorophyll a in the mutant was higher than that in Fuji Nigo

  15. ''Fushi'' - excellent mutant germplasm for peanut improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.; Zhou, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The mutant line ''Fushi'' was selected following seed treatment of the variety ''Shi Xuan 64'' in 1960 with 32 P. Many good peanut varieties were developed using ''Fushi'' in cross-breeding (ref. Mutation Breeding Newsletter No. 30 (July 1987) p. 2-3). In the past 10 years, planting areas of these varieties added up to 3,3 million ha in South China, peanut production was increased by more than 500 000 t valued 500 million Yuan. (author)

  16. Radiation induced early maturing mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Chauhan, S.V.S.; Sharma, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    In M 2 generation, two early maturing plants were screened from a single spike progeny of a plant obtained from 20 kR of gamma-ray irradiation of a six-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Jyoti). Their true breeding nature was confirmed in M 3 generation. These mutants flower and mature 38 and 22 days earlier than those of control. (auth.)

  17. Rational points on varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Poonen, Bjorn

    2017-01-01

    This book is motivated by the problem of determining the set of rational points on a variety, but its true goal is to equip readers with a broad range of tools essential for current research in algebraic geometry and number theory. The book is unconventional in that it provides concise accounts of many topics instead of a comprehensive account of just one-this is intentionally designed to bring readers up to speed rapidly. Among the topics included are Brauer groups, faithfully flat descent, algebraic groups, torsors, étale and fppf cohomology, the Weil conjectures, and the Brauer-Manin and descent obstructions. A final chapter applies all these to study the arithmetic of surfaces. The down-to-earth explanations and the over 100 exercises make the book suitable for use as a graduate-level textbook, but even experts will appreciate having a single source covering many aspects of geometry over an unrestricted ground field and containing some material that cannot be found elsewhere. The origins of arithmetic (o...

  18. Grain product of 34 soya mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmeron E, J.; Mastache L, A. A.; Valencia E, F.; Diaz V, G. E.; Cervantes S, T.; De la Cruz T, E.; Garcia A, J. M.; Falcon B, T.; Gatica T, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    This work was development with the objective of obtaining information of the agronomic behavior of 34 soya mutant lines (R 4 M 18 ) for human consumption and this way to select the 2 better lines. The genetic materials were obtained starting from the variety ISAAEG-B M2 by means of the application of recurrent radiation with Co 60 gammas, to a dose of 350 Gray for the first two generations and both later to 200 Gray and selection during 17 cycles, being obtained the 34 better lines mutants with agronomic characteristic wanted and good flavor. The obtained results were that the mutant lines L 25 and L 32 produced the major quantity in branches/plant number with 7.5 and 7.25, pods/plant number with 171.25 and 167, grains/plant number with 350.89 and 333.07 and grain product (ton/ha) to 15% of humidity 5.15 and 4.68 ton/ha, respectively. (Author)

  19. Multivariate analysis for selecting apple mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faedi, W.; Bagnara, G.L.; Rosati, P.; Cecchini, M.

    1992-01-01

    The mutlivariate analysis of four year records on several vegetative and productive traits of twenty-one apple mutants (3 of 'Jonathan', 3 of 'Ozark Gold', 14 of 'Mollie's Delicious', 1 of 'Neipling's Early Stayman)' induced by gamma radiations showed that observation of some traits of one-year-old shoots is the most efficient way to reveal compact growing apple mutants. In particular, basal cross-section area, total length and leaf area resulted the most appropriate parameters, while internode length together with conopy height and width are less appropriate. The most interesting mutants we found are: one of 'Mollie's Delicious for the best balance among tree and fruit traits and for high skin color; one of 'Neipling's Early Stayman' with an earlier and more extensively red colored apple than the original clone. (author)

  20. Probiotic features of Lactobacillus plantarum mutant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Pasquale; Gallone, Anna; Russo, Pasquale; Capozzi, Vittorio; Albenzio, Marzia; Spano, Giuseppe; Fiocco, Daniela

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum wild-type and derivative mutant strains was investigated. Bacterial survival was evaluated in an in vitro system, simulating the transit along the human oro-gastro-intestinal tract. Interaction with human gut epithelial cells was studied by assessing bacterial adhesive ability to Caco-2 cells and induction of genes involved in innate immunity. L. plantarum strains were resistant to the combined stress at the various steps of the simulated gastrointestinal tract. Major decreases in the viability of L. plantarum cells were observed mainly under drastic acidic conditions (pH ≤ 2.0) of the gastric compartment. Abiotic stresses associated to small intestine poorly affected bacterial viability. All the bacterial strains significantly adhered to Caco-2 cells, with the ΔctsR mutant strain exhibiting the highest adhesion. Induction of immune-related genes resulted higher upon incubation with heat-inactivated bacteria rather than with live ones. For specific genes, a differential transcriptional pattern was observed upon stimulation with different L. plantarum strains, evidencing a possible role of the knocked out bacterial genes in the modulation of host cell response. In particular, cells from Δhsp18.55 and ΔftsH mutants strongly triggered immune defence genes. Our study highlights the relevance of microbial genetic background in host-probiotic interaction and might contribute to identify candidate bacterial genes and molecules involved in probiosis.

  1. Radiation studies in Cajanus cajan: meiotic behaviour in some M/sub 2/ mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, S.S.N.; Akhaury, S.B. (Ranchi Univ. (India). Dept. of Botany)

    1982-01-01

    A qualitative study of the mutants produced in M/sub 2/ generation has been made. The mutants were classified as: (1) chlorophyll mutant, (2) morphological mutant, (3) pollen mutant, (4) semi-sterile and (5) sterile mutant. Cytological investigations of pollen mutants, sterile and semi-sterile mutants have revealed that these mutants generally arise at higher dose levels (20 Kr and 25 Kr).

  2. Molecular analysis of mutants of the Neurospora adenylosuccinate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-08-07

    Aug 7, 2012 ... and mutants induced with X-ray, UV or chemical mutagens. ... We have sequenced the ad-8 locus from 13 of these mutants and identified the molecular nature ..... mutants in yeast by selection for constitutive behavior in pig-.

  3. Biological changes in Barley mutants resistant to powdery mildew disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, I. M.; Fahim, M. M.; Moustafa, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    physiological studies showed that all kinds of chlorophyll (a), (b) and (a + b) content in infected plant were decreased while, the carotenes pigment were increased. Infection generally reduced total sugars content of all resistant mutants. Infected resistant mutant showed more phenols content and peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase activities than healthy ones of the mutants. (Author)

  4. A review of teaching second/ foreign language listening comprehension research(Part 5 Text production and comprehension)

    OpenAIRE

    尹, 松

    2002-01-01

    Among the four skills of the language acquisition, it has been pointed out that listening comprehension is the most difficult skill. The research on effective methods of teaching listening comprehension has been carried out from various viewpoints. After introducing the theory of listening comprehension, this review will describe recent trends in the teach-ing of listening as a second/foreign language. This will be done by focusing primarily on schema activator and strategy-instruction in tea...

  5. Interior point algorithms theory and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Yinyu

    2011-01-01

    The first comprehensive review of the theory and practice of one of today's most powerful optimization techniques. The explosive growth of research into and development of interior point algorithms over the past two decades has significantly improved the complexity of linear programming and yielded some of today's most sophisticated computing techniques. This book offers a comprehensive and thorough treatment of the theory, analysis, and implementation of this powerful computational tool. Interior Point Algorithms provides detailed coverage of all basic and advanced aspects of the subject.

  6. Probability theory a comprehensive course

    CERN Document Server

    Klenke, Achim

    2014-01-01

    This second edition of the popular textbook contains a comprehensive course in modern probability theory. Overall, probabilistic concepts play an increasingly important role in mathematics, physics, biology, financial engineering and computer science. They help us in understanding magnetism, amorphous media, genetic diversity and the perils of random developments at financial markets, and they guide us in constructing more efficient algorithms.   To address these concepts, the title covers a wide variety of topics, many of which are not usually found in introductory textbooks, such as:   • limit theorems for sums of random variables • martingales • percolation • Markov chains and electrical networks • construction of stochastic processes • Poisson point process and infinite divisibility • large deviation principles and statistical physics • Brownian motion • stochastic integral and stochastic differential equations. The theory is developed rigorously and in a self-contained way, with the c...

  7. Comprehensive identification of essential Staphylococcus aureus genes using Transposon-Mediated Differential Hybridisation (TMDH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgis Timothy A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years there has been an increasing problem with Staphylococcus aureus strains that are resistant to treatment with existing antibiotics. An important starting point for the development of new antimicrobial drugs is the identification of "essential" genes that are important for bacterial survival and growth. Results We have developed a robust microarray and PCR-based method, Transposon-Mediated Differential Hybridisation (TMDH, that uses novel bioinformatics to identify transposon inserts in genome-wide libraries. Following a microarray-based screen, genes lacking transposon inserts are re-tested using a PCR and sequencing-based approach. We carried out a TMDH analysis of the S. aureus genome using a large random mariner transposon library of around a million mutants, and identified a total of 351 S. aureus genes important for survival and growth in culture. A comparison with the essential gene list experimentally derived for Bacillus subtilis highlighted interesting differences in both pathways and individual genes. Conclusion We have determined the first comprehensive list of S. aureus essential genes. This should act as a useful starting point for the identification of potential targets for novel antimicrobial compounds. The TMDH methodology we have developed is generic and could be applied to identify essential genes in other bacterial pathogens.

  8. Comprehension Strategy Gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Gayle

    2002-01-01

    Describes the idea of creating a glove for each of the comprehension strategies for use with different text structures. Notes that the gloves serve as a multisensory approach by providing visual clues through icons on each finger and the palm. Discusses three different gloves: the prereading glove, the narrative text structure glove, and the…

  9. Painless reading comprehension

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, EdD, Darolyn "Lyn"

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension gets easier as students learn what kind of reader they are, discover how to keep facts in their head, and much more. Bonus Online Component: includes additional games, including Beat the Clock, a line match game, and a word scramble.

  10. Comprehensive Environmental Management Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjeresen, D.L.; Roybal, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information about Los Alamos National Laboratory's Comprehensive Environmental Management Plan. The topics covered include: waste minimization, waste generation, environmental concerns, public relations of the laboratory, and how this plan will help to answer to the demands of the laboratory as their mission changes

  11. A comprehensive psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive psychiatric service was established in 1969 in the Faroe Islands. This service was created as a department of a general hospital. The spheres covered by this department, operating in the midst of the community were: acute and chronic patients, a liaison-psychiatric service...

  12. Gamma-radiation Mutagenesis in Genetically Unstable Barley Mutants. Pt. 1. Chlorophyll Mutations in Allelic tw Mutants and Their Revertants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaitkuniene, V.

    1995-01-01

    Genotypical environment is an essential factor determining the mutability of mutants of the same type. Decreased chlorophyll mutant frequency was a common characteristic of all tested tw type (tw, tw 1 , tw 2 ) mutants induced in barley c. 'Auksiniai II'. The mutability of all the tested revertants was close to that of the initial c. 'Auksiniai II'. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Cognitive Correlates of Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Phillips, Beth

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to understand cognitive foundations of oral language comprehension (i.e., listening comprehension), we examined how inhibitory control, theory of mind, and comprehension monitoring are uniquely related to listening comprehension over and above vocabulary and age. A total of 156 children in kindergarten and first grade from…

  14. High yielding mutants of blackgram variety 'PH-25'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, R.C.; Mohapatra, B.D.; Panda, B.S.

    2001-01-01

    Seeds of blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) variety 'PH-5' were treated with chemical mutagens ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), nitrosoguanidine (NG), maleic hydrazide (MH) and sodium azide (NaN 3 ), each at 3 different concentrations. Thirty six mutant lines developed from mutagenic treatments along with parent varieties were tested in M 4 generation. The mutants showed wide variation in most of the traits and multivariante D 2 analysis showed genetic divergence among themselves. Twenty of the thirty mutants showed genetic divergence from parent. Ten selected high yielding mutants were tested in M 5 . Yield and other productive traits of five high yielding mutants in M 4 and M 5 are presented

  15. Nature of mutants induced by ionizing radiation in cultured hamster cells. III. Molecular characterization of HPRT-deficient mutants induced by. gamma. -rays or. cap alpha. -particles showing that the majority have deletions of all or part of the hprt gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thacker, J

    1986-05-01

    DNA from 58 independent HPRT-deficient mutants of V79 hamster cells induced by ionizing radiation was analysed by Southern blot hybridization to a full-length hamster hprt cDNA. About half of the ..gamma..-ray-induced mutants (20/43) were apparently total gene deletions, because they lacked all functional hprt gene sequences hybridizing to the cDNA probe. Another 10 mutants showed various partial deletions and/or rearrangements of the hprt gene. The remaining 13 mutants showed no detectable change in comparison to the structure of the normal gene, which correlated well with previous characterization of these mutants indicating that most carry point mutations in the hprt gene. Thus, 70% or more of radiation-induced HPRT-deficient mutants arise through large genetic changes, especially deletions of all or part of the hprt gene. 16 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  16. A review of the studies on listening comprehension in the second language

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Michiko

    2003-01-01

    Few studies have been done on the listening comprehension processing, especially in second language. However, recent studies show that listening comprehension is considered as an active and cognitive process. This paper overviews studies on listening comprehension in the second language by presenting some models of listening comprehension processing. Then, listening comprehension was studied from cognitive psychology and educational point of view. Finally, the direction of future researches o...

  17. Anatomia foliar de microtomateiros fitocromo-mutantes e ultra-estrutura de cloroplastos Leaf anatomy of micro-tomato phytochrome-mutants and chloroplast ultra-structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyrandir Cabral de Melo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plantas fitocromo-mutantes têm sido utilizadas com o intuito de caracterizar isoladamente, dentre os demais fotorreceptores, a ação dos fitocromos sobre eventos ligados à fotomorfogênese. Raros são os estudos que relatam a ação dos fitocromos sobre aspectos estruturais, embora sejam fundamentais à compreensão do desenvolvimento das plantas. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se analisar características ultraestruturais de cloroplastos e aspectos anatômicos foliares dos microtomateiros (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Micro-Tom fitocromo-mutantes aurea (subexpressa fitocromos, hp1 e atroviolacea (ambos supra-responsivos a eventos mediados por fitocromo em plantas em estágio de floração. Observou-se que os fitocromos são responsáveis pela expressão de muitas características anatômicas da epiderme foliar, assim como do mesofilo e da ultraestrutura dos cloroplastos.Phytochrome-mutant plants have been used for phytochrome action characterization among all photoreceptors, in events of photomorphogenesis. Studies relating the phytochrome action on structural aspects, which are fundamental to the comprehension of plant development, are rare. The objective of this work was to analyze chloroplast ultra structure and leaf anatomical characteristics of micro-tomatos (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Micro-Tom phytochrome-mutants aurea (sub express phytochrome, hp1 and atroviolacea (both super express phytochrome events-mediated in plants in the flowering stage. The results show that phytochromes are responsible for the expression of many characteristics of leaf epidermis, mesophyll and chloroplast ultra-structure.

  18. Mutant p53 interactions with supercoiled DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brázdová, Marie; Němcová, Kateřina; Činčárová, Lenka; Šebest, Peter; Pivoňková, Hana; Brázda, Václav; Fojta, Miroslav; Paleček, Emil

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 6 (2007), s. 639-640 ISSN 0739-1102. [Alban 2007: The 15th Conversation . 19.06.2007-23.06.2007, Albany] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1K04119; GA ČR(CZ) GP204/06/P369; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : mutant p53 * supercoiled DNA * cancer Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  19. Radiation induced desynaptic mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, H.M.

    1974-01-01

    Spontaneous occurrence of asynapsis and desynapsis has been frequently reported in a number of crop plants (Beadle 1930, 1933; Beasley and Brown 1942; Li et al. 1945; Magoon et al. 1961; Miller 1963) and other angiospermic texa (Calarier 1955; Chennaveraiah and Krisnappa 1968; Ehrenberg 1949; Johnson 1941, 1944; Roy and Jha 1958). However, there are only a few reports of induced asynapsis or desynapsis (Gottschalk and Baquar 1971; Martini and Bozzini 1966). The present paper deals with the morphology and meiotic behavior of gamma-ray induced barley mutants showing high degree of desynapsis resulting in partial to complete sterility. (author)

  20. Search for C4 developmental mutants in Panicum maximum Jacq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fladung, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Mutant plants are useful tools for studying developmental processes in defined genetic backgrounds by comparing them with their respective wild type forms. In this sense, developmental mutants or mutations involved in the establishment of certain leaf or flower specific traits are of special interest. In particular, the evolution of C 4 photosynthesis from C 3 precursors was accompanied by severe developmental changes in leaf morphology and anatomy. Our search of such mutants was followed by the idea to approach the evolution of the C 4 syndrome from a mutagenic point of view. Variants affecting normal development of the C 4 leaf anatomy may, in fact, represent possible regressive steps in C4 photosynthesis. Seeds of the C4 grass Panicum maximum Jacq. were mutagenized using ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) and putative variants were isolated in the M2 generation by visual inspection. Main selection characteristics were whole plant, leaf morphology and pigmentation, and growth characteristics. The choice of a polyploid species for mutagenesis experiments was based on the need of detecting rare mutants, which are possibly lethal when using a diploid plant species. These variants could be of regulatory nature, affecting both morphology and physiology of C 4 photosynthesis early in leaf development. In total, nearly 100 variants were isolated and grown to maturity. Main isolated variants, which conforms to the prediction mentioned above, were as following: large interveinal space-1 and -3 (lis1, lis3), abnormal bundle sheath (abs), midribless (mbl) and variegated leaf -1 (var1). The variant lis1 was a short plant with leaves smaller than the wild type, and had a leaf lamina with a crinkly surface. Photosynthetically, lis1 indicates a clear regression from the C 4 to the C 3 photosynthesis type, which was correlated in the leaf lamina with an increase in the distance between small veins. The variant lis3 was not similar phenotypically to lis1, but it also had very

  1. Comprehensive hard materials

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive Hard Materials deals with the production, uses and properties of the carbides, nitrides and borides of these metals and those of titanium, as well as tools of ceramics, the superhard boron nitrides and diamond and related compounds. Articles include the technologies of powder production (including their precursor materials), milling, granulation, cold and hot compaction, sintering, hot isostatic pressing, hot-pressing, injection moulding, as well as on the coating technologies for refractory metals, hard metals and hard materials. The characterization, testing, quality assurance and applications are also covered. Comprehensive Hard Materials provides meaningful insights on materials at the leading edge of technology. It aids continued research and development of these materials and as such it is a critical information resource to academics and industry professionals facing the technological challenges of the future. Hard materials operate at the leading edge of technology, and continued res...

  2. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  3. Changes in protein synthetic activity in early Drosophila embryos mutant for the segmentation gene Krueppel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedian, V.; Summers, M.C.; Kauffman, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    We have identified early embryo proteins related to the segmentation gene Krueppel by [35S]methionine pulse labelling and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein synthesis differences shared by homozygous embryos of two Krueppel alleles when compared to heterozygous and wild-type embryos are reported. The study was extended to syncytial blastoderm stages by pulse labelling and gel analysis of single embryos, using Krueppel-specific proteins from gastrula stages as molecular markers for identifying homozygous Krueppel embryos. Localized expression of interesting proteins was examined in embryo fragments. The earliest differences detected at nuclear migration stages showed unregulated synthesis in mutant embryos of two proteins that have stage specific synthesis in normal embryos. At the cellular blastoderm stage one protein was not synthesized and two proteins showed apparent shifts in isoelectric point in mutant embryos. Differences observed in older embryos included additional proteins with shifted isoelectric points and a number of qualitative and quantitative changes in protein synthesis. Five of the proteins with altered rates of synthesis in mutant embryos showed localized synthesis in normal embryos. The early effects observed are consistent with the hypothesis that the Krueppel product can be a negative or positive regulator of expression of other loci, while blastoderm and gastrula stage shifts in isoelectric point indicate that a secondary effect of Krueppel function may involve post-translational modification of proteins

  4. Induction of drought tolerant mutants of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hissewy, A.A.; Abd Allah, A.

    2001-01-01

    The ultimate goal of crop breeding is to develop varieties with a high yield potential and desirable agronomic characteristics. In Egypt, the most important qualities sought by breeders have been high yield potential, resistance to major diseases and insects, and improved grain and eating quality. However, breeding efforts should concentrate on varieties with the potential to minimize yield losses under unfavorable conditions such as drought, and to maximize yields when conditions are favorable. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Egypt is completely irrigated and a significant portion of the rice cultivated area is subject to water deficit resulting from an inadequate or insufficient irrigation supply. Drought tolerance is a complex trait in that it results from the interaction of histological and physiological characters of plant with environmental factors, both above-ground and under-ground. Accordingly, root characters are closely related to drought tolerance. Little attention has been paid in Egyptian breeding programs to root characters and their relation to shoot characters. Furthermore, induced mutations are considered as one of the most important methods to induce useful mutants, especially with improved root characters, to overcome the drought problem. The present investigation aimed to study the effect of different doses of gamma rays on several characters of three Egyptian rice varieties, i.e. 'Giza 171', 'Giza 175' and 'Giza 176' and to induce one or more mutants possessing drought tolerance

  5. Flower morphology of Dendrobium Sonia mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakinah Ariffin; Azhar Mohamad; Affrida Abu Hassan; Zaiton Ahmad; Mohd Nazir Basiran

    2010-01-01

    Dendrobium Sonia is a commercial hybrid which is popular as cut flower and potted plant in Malaysia. Variability in flower is important for new variety to generate more demands and choices in selection. Mutation induction is a tool in creating variability for new flower color and shape. In vitro cultures of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) were exposed to gamma ray at dose 35 Gy. Phenotypic characteristics of the flower were observed at fully bloomed flower with emphasis on shape and color. Approximately 2000 regenerated irradiated plants were observed and after subsequent flowering, 100 plants were finally selected for further evaluation. Most of the color and shape changes are expressed in different combinations of petal, sepal and lip of the flower. In this work, 11 stable mutants were found different at flower phenotype as compared to control. Amongst these, four mutant varieties with commercial potential has been named as Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaOval', Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaRadiant', Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaHiengDing' and Dendrobium 'Sonia KeenaAhmadSobri'. In this paper, variations in flower morphology and flower color were discussed, giving emphasis on variations in flower petal shape. (author)

  6. High yielding rice mutants for West Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debnath, A.R.; Sen, S.

    1980-01-01

    Four high yielding mutants with specific genetic corrections of the simply inherited characters were developed from IR-8 through X-irradiation. Recurrent selections of the promising isolates were made under diverse agro-climatic conditions in Winter and Summer seasons of West Bengal. The isolates CNM 6 and CNM 25 belonging to early maturity group and CNM 20 and CNM 31, to mid-early maturity group were finally selected at X 5 generation on the basis of their resistance qualities, maturity period and grain yield. They were evaluated upto X 10 qeneration at multi-locations as Pre-release and Minikit Varieties at State level. They were also placed at the National Screening Nursery (NSN) for screening against multiple diseases and pests at the National level. CNM 6 is reported to be promising in IRTP nurseries. It is reported that CNM 25 (IET 5646) ranked 2nd on the basis of average grain yield, CNM 20 (IET 5937) and CNM 31 (IET 5936) were resistant to diseases and with yield comparable to Jaya. These four productive mutants of superior types are widely accepted. CNM 6 is recommended for cultivation in Bankura and Birbhum districts and CNM 25 and CNM 31 in the different agro-climatic zones of West Bengal. (author)

  7. Fixed points and self-reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond M. Smullyan

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown how Gödel's famous diagonal argument and a generalization of the recursion theorem are derivable from a common construation. The abstract fixed point theorem of this article is independent of both metamathematics and recursion theory and is perfectly comprehensible to the non-specialist.

  8. Allosteric Mutant IDH1 Inhibitors Reveal Mechanisms for IDH1 Mutant and Isoform Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Xiaoling; Baird, Daniel; Bowen, Kimberly; Capka, Vladimir; Chen, Jinyun; Chenail, Gregg; Cho, YoungShin; Dooley, Julia; Farsidjani, Ali; Fortin, Pascal; Kohls, Darcy; Kulathila, Raviraj; Lin, Fallon; McKay, Daniel; Rodrigues, Lindsey; Sage, David; Touré, B. Barry; van der Plas, Simon; Wright, Kirk; Xu, Ming; Yin, Hong; Levell, Julian; Pagliarini, Raymond A. (Novartis)

    2017-03-01

    Oncogenic IDH1 and IDH2 mutations contribute to cancer via production of R-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). Here, we characterize two structurally distinct mutant- and isoform-selective IDH1 inhibitors that inhibit 2-HG production. Both bind to an allosteric pocket on IDH1, yet shape it differently, highlighting the plasticity of this site. Oncogenic IDH1R132H mutation destabilizes an IDH1 “regulatory segment,” which otherwise restricts compound access to the allosteric pocket. Regulatory segment destabilization in wild-type IDH1 promotes inhibitor binding, suggesting that destabilization is critical for mutant selectivity. We also report crystal structures of oncogenic IDH2 mutant isoforms, highlighting the fact that the analogous segment of IDH2 is not similarly destabilized. This intrinsic stability of IDH2 may contribute to observed inhibitor IDH1 isoform selectivity. Moreover, discrete residues in the IDH1 allosteric pocket that differ from IDH2 may also guide IDH1 isoform selectivity. These data provide a deeper understanding of how IDH1 inhibitors achieve mutant and isoform selectivity.

  9. Serrated leaf mutant in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, I.A.; Ghulam, Sarwar; Yousaf, Ali; Saleem, M.

    1988-01-01

    Dry dormant seeds of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek) were treated with gamma rays (15, 30 and 60 kR). The serrated leaf mutation was noticed in M 2 of cultivar Pak 32 treated with 60 kR. Cf 14 plants, 3 showed the altered leaf structure and the others were normal. The feature of this mutant was the deep serration of leaflet margins. The mutant had large thick leaflets with prominent venation. The mutant bred true in the M 3 and successive generation. Details of the morphological characteristics of the mutant are presented. The mutant exhibited slower growth particularly during the early stages of development, flowered later and attained shorter height. There was an increase in the number of pods, in seed weight and in seed protein content, but number of seed per pod was considerably reduced. The seed coat colour showed a change from green to yellowish green. In the mutant's flowers the stamina were placed much below the stigma level and the stigma sometimes protruded the corolla. Outcrossing of 4% recorded in some of the mutant lines revealed a reduced cleistogamy. The low number of seeds per pod in the mutant could be due to reduced pollen fertility. The mutant behaved as monogenic recessive. The symbols SL/sl are proposed for this allelic pair. The mutant may have use as a green manure crop because of its large foliage and for the breeders as a genetic marker

  10. Characterization of a Weak Allele of Zebrafish cloche Mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Huang, Zhibin; Chen, Xiaohui; He, Fei; Wang, Kun; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Linfeng; Xu, Xiangmin; Liao, Wangjun; Ruan, Hua; Luo, Shenqiu; Zhang, Wenqing

    2011-01-01

    Hematopoiesis is a complicated and dynamic process about which the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Danio rerio (zebrafish) is an excellent vertebrate system for studying hematopoiesis and developmental mechanisms. In the previous study, we isolated and identified a cloche 172 (clo 172) mutant, a novel allele compared to the original cloche (clo) mutant, through using complementation test and initial mapping. Here, according to whole mount in-situ hybridization, we report that the endothelial cells in clo 172 mutant embryos, although initially developed, failed to form the functional vascular system eventually. In addition, further characterization indicates that the clo 172 mutant exhibited weaker defects instead of completely lost in primitive erythroid cells and definitive hematopoietic cells compared with the clo s5 mutant. In contrast, primitive myeloid cells were totally lost in clo 172 mutant. Furthermore, these reappeared definitive myeloid cells were demonstrated to initiate from the remaining hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in clo 172 mutant, confirmed by the dramatic decrease of lyc in clo 172 runx1w84x double mutant. Collectively, the clo 172 mutant is a weak allele compared to the clo s5 mutant, therefore providing a model for studying the early development of hematopoietic and vascular system, as well as an opportunity to further understand the function of the cloche gene. PMID:22132109

  11. On the structural affinity of macromolecules with different biological properties: Molecular dynamics simulations of a series of TEM-1 mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giampaolo, Alessia Di [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Universita’ degli Studi di l’Aquila, Via Vetoio snc, 67100 Coppito (AQ) (Italy); Mazza, Fernando [Department of Health Sciences, Univ. of L’Aquila, 67010 L’Aquila (Italy); Daidone, Isabella [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Universita’ degli Studi di l’Aquila, Via Vetoio snc, 67100 Coppito (AQ) (Italy); Amicosante, Gianfranco; Perilli, Mariagrazia [Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche Applicate e Biotecnologiche, Università degli Studi di l’Aquila, Via Vetoio snc, 67100 Coppito (AQ) (Italy); Aschi, Massimiliano, E-mail: massimiliano.aschi@univaq.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Universita’ degli Studi di l’Aquila, Via Vetoio snc, 67100 Coppito (AQ) (Italy)

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of TEM-1 mutants. •Mutations effects on the mechanical properties are considered. •Mutants do not significantly alter the average enzymes structure. •Mutants produce sharp alterations in enzyme conformational repertoire. •Mutants also produce changes in the active site volume. -- Abstract: Molecular Dynamics simulations have been carried out in order to provide a molecular rationalization of the biological and thermodynamic differences observed for a class of TEM β-lactamases. In particular we have considered the TEM-1(wt), the single point mutants TEM-40 and TEM-19 representative of IRT and ESBL classes respectively, and TEM-1 mutant M182T, TEM-32 and TEM-20 which differ from the first three for the additional of M182T mutation. Results indicate that most of the thermodynamic, and probably biological behaviour of these systems arise from subtle effects which, starting from the alterations of the local interactions, produce drastic modifications of the conformational space spanned by the enzymes. The present study suggests that systems showing essentially the same secondary and tertiary structure may differentiate their chemical–biological activity essentially (and probably exclusively) on the basis of the thermal fluctuations occurring in their physiological environment.

  12. On the structural affinity of macromolecules with different biological properties: Molecular dynamics simulations of a series of TEM-1 mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giampaolo, Alessia Di; Mazza, Fernando; Daidone, Isabella; Amicosante, Gianfranco; Perilli, Mariagrazia; Aschi, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of TEM-1 mutants. •Mutations effects on the mechanical properties are considered. •Mutants do not significantly alter the average enzymes structure. •Mutants produce sharp alterations in enzyme conformational repertoire. •Mutants also produce changes in the active site volume. -- Abstract: Molecular Dynamics simulations have been carried out in order to provide a molecular rationalization of the biological and thermodynamic differences observed for a class of TEM β-lactamases. In particular we have considered the TEM-1(wt), the single point mutants TEM-40 and TEM-19 representative of IRT and ESBL classes respectively, and TEM-1 mutant M182T, TEM-32 and TEM-20 which differ from the first three for the additional of M182T mutation. Results indicate that most of the thermodynamic, and probably biological behaviour of these systems arise from subtle effects which, starting from the alterations of the local interactions, produce drastic modifications of the conformational space spanned by the enzymes. The present study suggests that systems showing essentially the same secondary and tertiary structure may differentiate their chemical–biological activity essentially (and probably exclusively) on the basis of the thermal fluctuations occurring in their physiological environment

  13. Investigating reading comprehension through EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Baretta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2012n63p69   Experimental studies point that different factors can influence reading comprehension, such as the topic, text type, reading task, and others. The advances in technologies for the past decades have provided researchers with several possibilities to investigate what goes on in one’s brain since their eyes meet the page until comprehension is achieved. Since the mid-80’s, numerous studies have been conducted with the use of the electroencephalogram (EEG to investigate the process of reading, through the analysis of different components – n400, n100 or n1, P2, among others. These components reveal, for example, how the brain integrates the meaning of a specific word in the semantic context of a given sentence.  based on previous studies, which demonstrate that different types of words affect cognitive load, this paper aims at investigating how the brain processes function and content words inserted in expository and narrative texts with suitable / unsuitable conclusions. results showed that the type of text and word influence the cognitive load in different scalp areas (midline, right and left hemispheres. The  n1s were more pronounced to the content words inserted in narrative texts and to the function words inserted in the expository type of texts, corroborating former studies.

  14. Yield potential of a radiation induced early-dwarf mutant in linseed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayar, G.G.

    1975-01-01

    An early maturing dwarf mutant, TL-1 was isolated in the high yielding linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) wariety Neelum following seed irradiation with 50 kR gamma rays. The yield components of the mutant have been evaluated for its productivity in the M 7 generation. TL-1 is compact and significantly short in height (41.8 +- 2.71 cm) as compared to Neelum (79.2 +- 3.08 cm). In flowering the mutant is 30 days earlier than the parent under Trombay conditions. TL-1 and Neelum did not differ significantly in their mean number of primary branches. Although the mean seed yield per plant is lower, in 1000 seed weight the mutant is markedly superior to the parent. The oil content in TL-1 is significantly higher by 3.5 percent points than Neelum and its oil is lighter in colour. By growing more plants per unit area with reduced spacing, the yield potential of TL-1 was considerably increased. The productivity of oil per hectare per day of TL-1 was higher than Neelum. (author)

  15. Prevalence of precore-defective mutant of hepatitis B virus in HBV carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niitsuma, H; Ishii, M; Saito, Y; Miura, M; Kobayashi, K; Ohori, H; Toyota, T

    1995-08-01

    Two hundred and seventy-three serum specimens from hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers were examined for the presence of a characteristic one point mutation at nucleotide (nt) 1896 from the EcoRI site of the HBV genome in the precore region (the preC mutant) using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. This assay approach could detect preC mutants or wild-type sequences when either form constituted more than 10% of the total sample. Overall, 65.5% (76/116) of HBeAg-positive carriers had only the preC wild-type. All HBeAg-positive asymptomatic carriers (n = 14) had only the preC wild-type. In patients with chronic hepatitis B and in anti-HBe-positive asymptomatic carriers, increased prevalence of the preC mutant was associated with the development of anti-HBe antibodies and normalization of the serum alanine aminotransferase concentration. Furthermore, 27 (29.0%) of 93 HBeAg-negative carriers had unexpectedly preC wild-type sequences only. Direct sequencing of the HBV precore region of HBV specimens from 24 patients revealed no mutation at nt 1896, supporting the specificity of the RFLP analysis. These results suggest that RFLP analysis was accurate for the detection of the preC mutation and that the absence of serum HBeAg cannot be explained solely by the dominance of the preC mutant.

  16. Mutants of Cercospora kikuchii altered in cercosporin synthesis and pathogenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upchurch, R.G.; Walker, D.C.; Rollins, J.A.; Ehrenshaft, M.; Daub, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have obtained spontaneous and UV-induced stable mutants, altered in the synthesis of cercosporin, of the fungal soybean pathogen Cercospora kikuchii. The mutants were isolated on the basis of colony color on minimal medium. The UV-induced mutants accumulated, at most, 2% of wild-type cercosporin levels on all media tested. In contrast, cercosporin accumulation by the spontaneous mutants was strongly medium regulated, occurring only on potato dextrose medium but at concentrations comparable to those produced by the wild-type strain. UV-induced mutants unable to synthesize cercosporin on any medium were unable to incite lesions when inoculated onto the soybean host. Cercosporin was reproducibly isolated from all inoculated leaves showing lesions. Although cercosporin involvement in disease has been indirectly suggested by many previous studies, this is the first report in which mutants blocked in cercosporin synthesis have been used to demonstrate that cercosporin is a crucial pathogenicity factor for this fungal genus

  17. Temperature sensitive riboflavin mutants of Penicillium vermiculatum Dangeard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, J.; Chaudhari, K.L.

    1974-01-01

    Two temperature sensitive UV induced riboflavin mutants rib 1 and rib 6 have been physiologically and genetically characterized. The two mutants behave differently with regard to their temperature sensitivity. The rib 1 mutant exhibits a leaky growth in minimal medium between 15 0 C and 30 0 C but grows well when the medium is supplemented with riboflavin. At 35 0 C the growth response of the mutant is at its max. and at 40 0 C and below 15 0 C it ceases to grow. The rib 6 mutant which is red brown in colour shows wild type character at temp. below 25 0 C in minimal medium but requires riboflavin at 30 0 C and above. Heterokaryotic analysis revealed the nonallelic nature of the two temperature mutants. Genetic tests of allelic relationship between riboflavin markers by crossing were also done. (author)

  18. A comprehensive French grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Glanville

    2013-01-01

    Characterized by clear and accessible explanations, numerous examples and sample sentences, a new section on register and tone, and useful appendices covering topics including age and time, A Comprehensive French Grammar, Sixth Edition is an indispensable tool for advanced students of French language and literature.A revised edition of this established, bestselling French grammarIncludes a new section on register and medium and offers expanded treatment of French punctuationFeatures numerous examples and sample sentences, and useful appendices covering topics including age, time, and dimension

  19. Comprehensive multiplatform collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kundan; Wu, Xiaotao; Lennox, Jonathan; Schulzrinne, Henning G.

    2003-12-01

    We describe the architecture and implementation of our comprehensive multi-platform collaboration framework known as Columbia InterNet Extensible Multimedia Architecture (CINEMA). It provides a distributed architecture for collaboration using synchronous communications like multimedia conferencing, instant messaging, shared web-browsing, and asynchronous communications like discussion forums, shared files, voice and video mails. It allows seamless integration with various communication means like telephones, IP phones, web and electronic mail. In addition, it provides value-added services such as call handling based on location information and presence status. The paper discusses the media services needed for collaborative environment, the components provided by CINEMA and the interaction among those components.

  20. Identification of the second mutation of BADH2 gene derived from rice mutant lines induced by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I Ishak

    2016-01-01

    The BADH2 gene acts as suppressor of 2-acetyl-1-pyrolline (2AP) biosynthesis in plants. 2AP is the volatile compound which provides fragrance in rice. Biosynthesis of 2AP occurs when BADH2 loses its function as suppressor gene. Aromatic rice cultivars naturally incur mutation of BADH2 gene at 8 bp. In this experiment, aromatic mutant rice lines derived from irradiation of Sintanur cultivar by gamma rays with dose of 100 Gy were studied in molecular level. These mutant lines were characterized at the M10 plantgeneration under the assumption that genetically these aromatic mutant rice lines were homozygotic. Several primers related to aroma in rice have been used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a thermal cycler instrument. Gel electrophoreses were carried out using 1.5% agarose in TAE buffer. DNA fragments at 254 bp and 355 bp (base pair) were taken and amplified by primer for nucleotide sequencing of these fragments. Molecular identification and characterization after electrophoresis showed that the mutant line from AR1020 can be differentiated from AR.1080 at 254 bp. Nucleotide sequence data from of these DNA fragments showed that point mutations (deletions and substitutions) occurred at the BADH2 gene in exon 7; those are called second mutation and were caused by gamma rays effects. The Sintanur variety was used as check cultivar and its DNA sequence was compared to that of the AR.1020 mutant line. The results from both DNA sequences (from cv. Sintanur and AR.1020) derived from fragments at 254 bp show that point mutations occurred within exon 7 and earlier stop codon occurred in the AR.1020 mutant rice line. Further, the use of EA primer in PCR resulted in detection of deletion and substitution of nucleotides in the AR.1020 mutant line. (author)

  1. Some mutants in maize obtained by irradiation with thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconu, P.

    1993-01-01

    Irradiation was carried out at the Bucharest Institute of Atomic Physics and the National Laboratory Brookhaven, USA. A description is given of 22 genic mutants affecting leaf color, plant size, and branching capacity. Characteristics related to pollen fertility and the vegetative period were affected in all the mutants. Improvement of pollen fertility was attempted over four generations without success. The maize mutants obtained by irradiation may be considered as being without practical significance. (author). 7 figs., 1 tab. 11 ref

  2. Chemotaxis-defective mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, D B; Sheridan, R E; Russell, R L

    1975-06-01

    The technique of countercurrent separation has been used to isolate 17 independent chemotaxis-defective mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The mutants, selected to be relatively insensitive to the normally attractive salt NaCl, show varying degrees of residual sensitivity; some are actually weakly repelled by NaCl. The mutants are due to single gene defects, are autosomal and recessive, and identify at least five complementation groups.

  3. Study on ionizing radiosensitivity of respiratory deficiency yeast mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Shuhong; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Jin Genming; Wei Zengquan; Xie Hongmei

    2006-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of respiratory deficiency yeast mutants has been studied in this work. The mutants which were screened from the yeasts after ionizing irradiation were irradiated with 12 C 6+ at different doses. Because of the great change in its mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA, the respiratory deficiency yeast mutants show radio-sensitivity at dose less than 1 Gy and radioresistance at doses higher than 1 Gy. (authors)

  4. Defective Glycinergic Synaptic Transmission in Zebrafish Motility Mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Hirata, Hiromi; Carta, Eloisa; Yamanaka, Iori; Harvey, Robert J.; Kuwada, John Y.

    2010-01-01

    Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo) mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR) β subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic ...

  5. Studies on mutant breeding of Hibiscus syriacus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Ki Un; Kim, Young Taik.

    1997-01-01

    Hibiscus has been known as a national flower of Korea. Hibiscus has such a characteristic of self-incompatibility that all the plant exist as natural hybrids and have heterogeneous genes. Many domestic 91 varieties of Hibiscus syriacus were collected. Radiosensitivity of H. Syriacus irradiated with γ-ray was investigated in plant cuttings. The plant height was reduced by 45% in 5KR irradiated group, compared to control group. The radiation dose of 5KR could be recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus cuttings. Radiosensitivity of γ-ray irradiated Hibiscus seed were investigated. The germination rate, survival rate and plant height was better in the 4KR irradiation plot than control. The radiation dose of 10∼12KR are recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus. Promising mutant lines were selected form the varieties of Hwarang, Wolsan no. 176, Ilpyondansim, Emille, Hanol, Yongkwang, Saeyongkwang, Chungmu, Imjinhong, Arang, Hungdansim-1 and Hongdansim-2. (author). 66 refs., 16 tabs., 13 figs

  6. Google: a narrativa de uma marca mutante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizete de Azevedo Kreutz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As marcas mutantes já fazem parte de nossa realidade, embora ainda não totalmente percebidas e/ou aceitas como tal. O presente artigo busca refletir sobre a relevância dessas novas estratégias de comunicação e branding, identificando suas principais características. Para isso, utilizamos o método de estudo de caso, o Google, ancorado nos métodos de pesquisa bibliográfica e de internet. A escolha foi intencional, posto que a organização é referência em sua categoria, mecanismo de busca, e reflete essa estratégia comunicacional contemporânea. Como resultado, as informações obtidas nos possibilitam compreender essa tendência de comportamento de marca que busca a interação com seus públicos.

  7. Studies on mutant breeding of Hibiscus syriacus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Ki Un; Kim, Young Taik

    1997-01-01

    Hibiscus has been known as a national flower of Korea. Hibiscus has such a characteristic of self-incompatibility that all the plant exist as natural hybrids and have heterogeneous genes. Many domestic 91 varieties of Hibiscus syriacus were collected. Radiosensitivity of H. Syriacus irradiated with {gamma}-ray was investigated in plant cuttings. The plant height was reduced by 45% in 5KR irradiated group, compared to control group. The radiation dose of 5KR could be recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus cuttings. Radiosensitivity of {gamma}-ray irradiated Hibiscus seed were investigated. The germination rate, survival rate and plant height was better in the 4KR irradiation plot than control. The radiation dose of 10{approx}12KR are recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus. Promising mutant lines were selected form the varieties of Hwarang, Wolsan no. 176, Ilpyondansim, Emille, Hanol, Yongkwang, Saeyongkwang, Chungmu, Imjinhong, Arang, Hungdansim-1 and Hongdansim-2. (author). 66 refs., 16 tabs., 13 figs.

  8. Recombination-deficient mutants of Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaie, Y.; Kada, T.

    1976-01-01

    Two mutant strains of Bacillus subtilis Marburg, NIG43 and NIG45, were isolated. They showed high sensitivities to gamma rays, ultraviolet light (uv), and chemicals. Deficiencies in genetic recombination of these two mutants were shown by the experiments on their capacity in transformation, SPO2 transfection, and PBS1 phage transduction, as well as on their radiation and drug sensitivities and their Hcr + capacity for uv-exposed phage M2. Some of these characteristics were compared with those of the known strains possessing the recA1 or recB2 alleles. Mapping studies revealed that the mutation rec-43 of strain NIG43 lies in the region of chromosome replication origin. The order was purA dna-8132 rec-43. Another mutation, rec-45, of strain NIG45 was found to be tightly linked to recA1. The mutation rec-43 reduced mainly the frequency of PBS1 transduction. On the other hand, the mutation rec-45 reduced the frequency of recombination involved both in transformation and PBS1 tranduction. The mutation rec-43 of strain NIG43 is conditional, but rec-45 of strain NIG45 is not. The uv impairment in cellular survival of strain NIG43 was gradually reverted at higher salt or sucrose concentrations, suggesting cellular possession of a mutated gene product whose function is conditional. In contrast to several other recombination-deficient strains, SPO2 lysogens of strains NIG43 and NIG45 were not inducible, indicating involvement of rec-43 + or rec-45 + gene product in the development of SPO2 prophage to a vegetative form. The uv-induced deoxyribonucleic acid degradation in vegetative cells was higher in rec-43 and rec-45 strains

  9. Winter barley mutants created in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayats, O.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Increasing fodder and protein production is one of the objectives of the development of agriculture in Ukraine. Higher productivity of fodder crops, due to new highly productive varieties, is the means to meet this aim. Winter barley is an important crop for fodder purposes. The climate of the Ukraine is favourable for growing this crop. The areas used for the growth of winter barley are however, small (500,000-550,000 ha) and there is a shortage of good quality varieties. The main aim of the work was therefore to create new varieties of highly productive winter barley, of good quality. The new varieties and mutation lines of winter barley were created under the influence of water solutions of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH - 0,012, 0,005%), N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEH - 0,05; 0.025; 0,012%) ethyleneimine (EI - 0,02; 0,01; 0,005%) on winter barley seeds of the varieties of local and foreign selections. On the basis of many years of investigations (1984-94) the following mutations were described: hard-grained, winter-hardiness, earliness, middle-maturity, late-maturity, wide and large leaves, narrow leaves, multinodal, great number of leaves, great number of flowers, strong stem (lodging resistant), tallness, semi-dwarfness, dwarfness, and high productivity. Particularly valuable are mutants with high productivity of green bulk. Their potential yield is 70 t/ha. As a result of the work two varieties of winter barley 'Shyrokolysty' and 'Kormovy' were released into the State register of plant varieties of the Ukraine. The other valuable mutant genotypes are used in cross breeding programmes. (author)

  10. Tobacco Industry Marketing Practices at Point-of-Sale (Argentina ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Point-of-sale advertising refers to the display of promotional materials where tobacco ... a comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship as mandated by ... Asian outlook: New growth dependent on new productivity.

  11. Isoenzymes performance of some rice varieties and their mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winarno, Ermin; Suliwarno, Ambyah; Ismachin, M.

    1992-01-01

    Isoenzymes performance of some rice varieties and their mutants. Genetics studies on alcohol dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, peroxidase, acid phosphase, and aminopeptidase isoenzymes were carried out on several groups of rice varieties and their mutant lines. The first groups consisted of Atomita I, Pelita I/1, A227/5, Mudgo, TN-1, and IR-26. The second group was Cisadane variety and its five mutants, namely OBS 18, OBS 208, OBS 297, OBS 306, and OBS 330. The third group was mutants line 627-10-3 and its mutants, namely 1063, 1066, 1067, 1076, and 1090. Isoenzymes extracts of the rice leaves were fractionated using polyacrylamide gel disc electrophoresis. The pattern of acid phosphate isoenzyme shows the specific character of rice mutants susceptible to brown plant hopper biotype 1. The gene(s) controlling malic enzyme in Cisadane's mutants is (are) estimated more resistant toward gamma irradiation than gene(s) responsible for controlling the other enzymes. Generally, the isoenzymes zymograms show that gene(s) controlling the mutants enzyme have undergone mutation. This case is shown by the changes of Rm value, as well as the amount and intensity of mutants bands. (authors). 7 refs., 7 figs

  12. Agronomic performance of old soybean variety 'Altona' derived mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodosne, K.G.; Heszky, L.E.

    2001-01-01

    An induced mutation program has been initiated at the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding to develop early maturing cultivars with good yielding capacity. Some new mutants have been produced by irradiation of variety Altona with 60 Co gamma rays. Ten years of breeding resulted in two new mutant varieties named 'Noventa' and 'Gate 511'. The present study deals with agronomic performance of these mutants. Registered soybean varieties Altona and 'McCall' as well as Altona derived mutants (Gate 511 and Noventa) have been compared

  13. Seed protein and nitrogen fixation in chickpea mutant variety Hyprosola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, H E; Gibson, A H; Oram, R N [CSIRO, Division of Plant Industry, Canberra ACT (Australia); Shaikh, M A.Q. [Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh (Bangladesh)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: 'Hyprosola' is a high yielding, high protein mutant cultivar obtained after gamma irradiation from the variety 'Faridpur-1'. The mutant yields 45 % more protein per unit area. The essential amino acid index is unchanged. It is likely that the high nutritional value in 'Hyprosola' seed protein arises from an increase in the albumin:globulin ratio. Nitrogen fixation rates of the mutant during the first 7 weeks of growth were found to be similar to 'Faridpur-1'. Under field conditions, the mutant may be able to nodulate more rapidly and more extensively than the parent variety. (author)

  14. Morphological and physiological investigations on mutants of Fusarium monoliforme IM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gancheva, V.

    1996-01-01

    High-producing mutants of Fusarium moniliforme IM are obtained as a result of gamma irradiation. The cultural characteristics of mutant strains 3284, 3211 and 76 following incubation of the producers for 14 days on potato-glucose agar are described. The colour of the aerial and substrate mycelium and the ability of the mutant strains to form conidiae and pigments are discussed in detail. The differences in the ability of mutants to assimilate different carbon and nitrogen sources are of specific importance for modelling nutrient media for submerged cultivation of F. moniliforme. 2 tabs., 2 figs. 7 refs

  15. Comprehensive overview of prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farhan Ullah; Ihsan, Awais Ullah; Khan, Hidayat Ullah; Jana, Ruby; Wazir, Junaid; Khongorzul, Puregmaa; Waqar, Muhammad; Zhou, Xiaohui

    2017-10-01

    Prostatitis is a common urinary tract syndrome that many doctors find problematic to treat effectively. It is the third most commonly found urinary tract disease in men after prostate cancer and Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH). Prostatitis may account for 25% of all office visits made to the urological clinics complaining about the genital and urinary systems all over the world. In the present study, we classified prostatitis and comprehensively elaborated the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of acute bacterial prostatitis (category I), chronic bacterial prostatitis (category II), chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) (category III), and asymptomatic prostatitis (category IV). In addition, we also tried to get some insights about other types of prostatitis-like fungal, viral and gonococcal prostatitis. The aim of this review is to present the detail current perspective of prostatitis in a single review. To the best of our knowledge currently, there is not a single comprehensive review, which can completely elaborate this important topic in an effective way. Furthermore, this review will provide a solid platform to conduct future studies on different aspects such as risk factors, mechanism of pathogenesis, proper diagnosis, and rational treatment plans for fungal, viral, and gonococcal prostatitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Comprehensive national energy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This Comprehensive National Energy Strategy sets forth a set of five common sense goals for national energy policy: (1) improve the efficiency of the energy system, (2) ensure against energy disruptions, (3) promote energy production and use in ways that respect health and environmental values, (4) expand future energy choices, and (5) cooperate internationally on global issues. These goals are further elaborated by a series of objectives and strategies to illustrate how the goals will be achieved. Taken together, the goals, objectives, and strategies form a blueprint for the specific programs, projects, initiatives, investments, and other actions that will be developed and undertaken by the Federal Government, with significant emphasis on the importance of the scientific and technological advancements that will allow implementation of this Comprehensive National Energy Strategy. Moreover, the statutory requirement of regular submissions of national energy policy plans ensures that this framework can be modified to reflect evolving conditions, such as better knowledge of our surroundings, changes in energy markets, and advances in technology. This Strategy, then, should be thought of as a living document. Finally, this plan benefited from the comments and suggestions of numerous individuals and organizations, both inside and outside of government. The Summary of Public Comments, located at the end of this document, describes the public participation process and summarizes the comments that were received. 8 figs.

  17. Double-strand break repair and genetic recombination in topoisomerase and primase mutants of bacteriophage T4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Victor P; Kudryashova, Elena

    2014-09-01

    The effects of primase and topoisomerase II deficiency on the double-strand break (DSB) repair and genetic recombination in bacteriophage T4 were studied in vivo using focused recombination. Site-specific DSBs were induced by SegC endonuclease in the rIIB gene of one of the parents. The frequency/distance relationship was determined in crosses of the wild-type phage, topoisomerase II mutant amN116 (gene 39), and primase mutant E219 (gene 61). Ordinary two-factor (i×j) and three-factor (i k×j) crosses between point rII mutations were also performed. These data provide information about the frequency and distance distribution of the single-exchange (splice) and double-exchange (patch) events. In two-factor crosses ets1×i, the topoisomerase and primase mutants had similar recombinant frequencies in crosses at ets1-i distances longer than 1000 bp, comprising about 80% of the corresponding wild-type values. They, however, differ remarkably in crosses at shorter distances. In the primase mutant, the recombinant frequencies are similar to those in the wild-type crosses at distances less than 100 bp, being a bit diminished at longer distances. In two-factor crosses ets1×i of the topoisomerase mutant, the recombinant frequencies were reduced ten-fold at the shortest distances. In three-factor crosses a6 ets1×i, where we measure patch-related recombination, the primase mutant was quite proficient across the entire range of distances. The topoisomerase mutant crosses demonstrated virtually complete absence of rII(+) recombinants at distances up to 33 bp, with the frequencies increasing steadily at longer distances. The data were interpreted as follows. The primase mutant is fully recombination-proficient. An obvious difference from the wild-type state is some shortage of EndoVII function leading to prolonged existence of HJs and thus stretched out ds-branch migration. This is also true for the topoisomerase mutant. However, the latter is deficient in the ss

  18. The Priority of Listening Comprehension over Speaking in the Language Acquisition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang

    2011-01-01

    By elaborating the definition of listening comprehension, the characteristic of spoken discourse, the relationship between STM and LTM and Krashen's comprehensible input, the paper puts forward the point that the priority of listening comprehension over speaking in the language acquisition process is very necessary.

  19. Convergent mechanisms favor fast amyloid formation in two lambda 6a Ig light chain mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-García, Gilberto; Millán-Pacheco, César; Pastor, Nina

    2017-08-01

    Extracellular deposition as amyloids of immunoglobulin light chains causes light chain amyloidosis. Among the light chain families, lambda 6a is one of the most frequent in light chain amyloidosis patients. Its germline protein, 6aJL2, and point mutants, R24G and P7S, are good models to study fibrillogenesis, because their stability and fibril formation characteristics have been described. Both mutations make the germline protein unstable and speed up its ability to aggregate. To date, there is no molecular mechanism that explains how these differences in amyloidogenesis can arise from a single mutation. To look into the structural and dynamical differences in the native state of these proteins, we carried out molecular dynamics simulations at room temperature. Despite the structural similarity of the germline protein and the mutants, we found differences in their dynamical signatures that explain the mutants' increased tendency to form amyloids. The contact network alterations caused by the mutations, though different, converge in affecting two anti-aggregation motifs present in light chain variable domains, suggesting a different starting point for aggregation in lambda chains compared to kappa chains. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Ascertainment of the effect of differential growth rates of mutants on observed mutant frequencies in X-irradiated mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaap, A.G.A.C.; Simons, J.W.I.M.

    1983-01-01

    As it is not known to what extent differential growth rates of induced mutants lead to over- and under-representation of mutants in treated populations and thereby affect the determination of mutant frequencies, the mutation induction in X-irradiated L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells was determined via two methods. The first method involves the standard protocol which may suffer from the effect of differential growth rates, while the second method is based upon the fluctuation test in which the differential growth rates can be actually measured. It appeared that the standard protocol led to a mutant frequency that was similar to the mutant frequency determined in the fluctuation test. Therefore, the standard protocol appears to lead to only a minor under-estimation if any. Substantial heterogeneity in growth rates of induced mutants was observed, but the mutants with a selective advantage appear largely to compensate for the mutants that are lost because of selective disadvantage. It was calculated that the chance for isolating the same mutant twice from a treated population had been increased 2.2-fold because of the observed differential growth rates. (orig./AJ)

  1. The circling mutant Pcdh15roda is a new mouse model for hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Adriana Amorim; Rzadzinska, Agnieszka K; Ribeiro, Andrea Frozino; Silva, Daniel Almeida da Silva E; Guénet, Jean-Louis; Massironi, Sílvia Maria Gomes; Godard, Ana Lúcia Brunialti

    2013-01-01

    Mouse mutagenesis is a key tool for studying gene function and several mutant alleles have been described and constitute mouse models for human hereditary diseases. Genetic hearing loss represents over 50% of all hearing loss cases in children and, due to the heterogeneity of the disorder, there is still a demand for the isolation and characterization of new genes and alleles. Here we report phenotypic and molecular characterization of a new mouse model for hereditary hearing loss. The mutant rodador, isolated by Massironi and colleagues in 2006, presents an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by deafness and balance dysfunction associated with abnormal stereocilia in the inner ear. The mutation was mapped to mouse chromosome 10, and characterization of the gene Pcdh15 revealed an AT-to-GC transition in intron 23 of mutant animals. The alteration led to the switch of a dinucleotide ApA for ApG, creating a novel intronic acceptor splice site, which leads to incorporation of eight intronic bases into the processed mRNA and alteration of the downstream reading frame. In silico analysis indicated that the mutated protein is truncated and lacks two cadherin domains, and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. Real Time PCR analyses revealed a significantly reduced Pcdh15 mRNA level in the brain of mutant mice, which might be due to the mechanism of non-sense mediated decay. In man, mutations in the orthologue PCDH15 cause non-syndromic deafness and Usher Syndrome Type 1F, a genetic disorder characterized by hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa. Rodador mouse constitutes a new model for studying deafness in these conditions and may help in the comprehension of the pathogeneses of the disease, as well as of the mechanisms involved in the morphogenesis and function of inner ear stereocilia. This is a new ENU-induced allele and the first isolated in a BALB/c background. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychodermatology: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychodermatology is an interesting domain of dermatology that overlaps with psychiatry. This arena in dermatology has received limited diligence, partly due to lack of training in this realm. We present here a comprehensive review of salient features and treatment updates in primary psychiatric dermatoses and have also discussed the role of psyche in psychophysiological cutaneous disorders. Secondary psychiatric morbidity is relatively common among patients visiting the dermatologists but often overlooked and uncared for. Dermatologist should be able to initiate basic pharmacotherapy, should be knowledgeable about various non-pharmacological treatments and know the right time to refer the patient to the psychiatrist. Awareness and pertinent treatment of psychodermatological disorders among dermatologists will lead to a more holistic treatment approach and better prognosis in this unique group of patients.

  3. Comprehensive Environmental Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjeresen, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Environmental Management Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory is in the process of initiating and then implementing a Comprehensive Environmental Management Plan (CEMP). There are several environmental impact and compliance drivers for this initiative. The Los Alamos CEMP is intended to be a flexible, long-range process that predicts, minimizes, treats, and disposes of any waste generated in execution of the Los Alamos mission - even if that mission changes. The CEMP is also intended to improve stakeholder and private sector involvement and access to environmental information. The total quality environmental management (TQEM) process will benchmark Los Alamos to private sector and DOE operations, identify opportunities for improvement, prioritize among opportunities, implement projects, measure progress, and spur continuous improvement in Environmental Management operations

  4. Comprehensive nuclear materials

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Todd; Stoller, Roger; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive Nuclear Materials encapsulates a panorama of fundamental information on the vast variety of materials employed in the broad field of nuclear technology. The work addresses, in five volumes, 3,400 pages and over 120 chapter-length articles, the full panorama of historical and contemporary international research in nuclear materials, from Actinides to Zirconium alloys, from the worlds' leading scientists and engineers. It synthesizes the most pertinent research to support the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments. The work discusses the major classes of materials suitable for usage in nuclear fission, fusion reactors and high power accelerators, and for diverse functions in fuels, cladding, moderator and control materials, structural, functional, and waste materials.

  5. Analysis of a brittle-culm mutant of rice (Oryza sativa) induced bay gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doat, Jacqueline; Marie, R.

    1977-01-01

    An unexpected ''brittle-culm'' mutant has been screened in the progeny of the rice cultivar ''Balilla 28'' after a seed treatment by gamma rays from a Cobalt-60 source. This property proved hereditable and true-breeding. It does not affect the high resistance to lodging of rice plants. Important difference were pointed out between control and mutant lines in cellulose content and 1 p. cent NaOH extracts: ''brittle-culm'' straw contains less cellulose and shows a degradation of glucid coupounds. The brittleness of plant tissues appears to be correlated with a partial depolymerization of cellulose, associated with a possible transformation from alpha- to beta- or gamma-cellulose [fr

  6. Superfund Removal Site Points, Region 9, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of CERCLA (Superfund) Removal sites. CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act)...

  7. Mutants dissecting development and behaviour in drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Adita; Chandrashekaran, Shanti; Sharma, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    We have traced in this paper the progress in Drosophila genetics research from the 1960s, at the IARI, spearheaded by the visionary insight of M. S. Swaminathan. The work started with the study of indirect effect of radiation and the synergistic interaction of physical and chemical mutagens on chromosomal and genetic changes. This paved the way for the study of single gene mutants in dissecting developmental and behavioural processes. New genes discovered by us have been shown to encode conserved cell signalling molecules controlling developmental and behavioural pathways. With the complete sequencing of the Drosophila genome, in the year 2000, mounting evidence for the homology between Drosophila and human genes controlling genetic disorders became available. This has led to the fly becoming an indispensable tool for studying human diseases as well as a model to test for drugs and pharmaceuticals against human diseases and complex behavioural processes. For example wingless in Drosophila belongs to the conserved Wnt gene family and aberrant WNT signalling is linked to a range of human diseases, most notably cancer. Inhibition as well as activation of WNT signalling form the basis of an effective therapy for some cancers as well as several other clinical conditions. Recent experiments have shown that WNTs might also normally participate in self-renewal, proliferation or differentiation of stem cells and altering WNT signalling might be beneficial to the use of stem cells for therapeutic means. Likewise, the stambhA mutant of Drosophila which was discovered for its temperature-dependent paralytic behaviour is the fly homologue of Phospholipase Cβ. Phospholipase C mediated G protein signalling plays a central role in vital processes controlling epilepsy, vision, taste, and olfaction in animals. Proteins of the G-signalling pathway are of intense research interest since many human diseases involve defects in G-protein signalling pathways. In fact, approximately 50

  8. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Long Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT is larger than that of wild type (WT and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape.

  9. Gamma-ray induced mutants in castor (Ricinus communis L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janila, P.; Ashok Kumar, A.; Rajashekar Reddy, N.; Hemalatha, V.

    2007-01-01

    We report isolation of three recessive mutants in castor using dry seed irradiation with gamma rays. The crinkled leaf mutant (crf) was identified in K-55-112 M2 family and leafy mutant (lea) in H-55-577 M2 family; both are recessive lethal and thus maintained as heterozygotes. The cri mutant has highly wrinkled leaves resembling finger millet head and failed to enter reproductive phase, consequently did not produce seeds. The number of leaf lobes is reduced in lea mutant and though it produced spikes, the male and female flowers are converted to leafy appendages. The third mutant, fused (Ius) stem identified in H-55-617 M2 family is a recessive mutant. The branches of which are fused at the base and though each branch terminates in to monoceous spike like normal plant, the spike is highly condensed. The three mutants under report are valuable genetic stocks for development of linkage maps in castor, which is at infancy. (author)

  10. Development of Database Software with Plant Mutant Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namgoong, Won; Lee, M. J.; Kim, J. D.; Ma, N. K.

    2007-03-01

    In this research, mutants induced by nuclear radiation are developed information computerised system. The status and progress on the collection, identification and utilization of mutants in Korea are introduced. And it was produced home page, manual, test record, construction of system

  11. Clear Plaque Mutants of Lactococcal Phage TP901-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kot, Witold; Kilstrup, Mogens; Vogensen, Finn K.

    2016-01-01

    We report a method for obtaining turbid plaques of the lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1 and its derivative TP901-BC1034. We have further used the method to isolate clear plaque mutants of this phage. Analysis of 8 such mutants that were unable to lysogenize the host included whole genome...

  12. Isolation and characterization of stable mutants of Streptomyces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Daunorubicin and its derivative doxorubicin are antitumour anthracycline antibiotics produced by Streptomyces peucetius. In this study we report isolation of stable mutants of S. peucetius blocked in different steps of the daunorubicin biosynthesis pathway. Mutants were screened on the basis of colony colour since producer ...

  13. Photosynthetic characterization of a rolled leaf mutant of rice ( Oryza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new rolling leaf rice mutant was identified which showed an apparently straighter longitudinal shape normal transverse rolling characters at all developing stages. The chlorophyll contents per fresh weight of this mutant leaves were lower than those of wild-type. The electron transfer rate (ETR) and photochemical ...

  14. Mutant strain of C. acetobutylicum and process for making butanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mahendra K.; Beacom, Daniel; Datta, Rathin

    1993-01-01

    A biologically pure asporogenic mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum is produced by growing sporogenic C. acetobutylicum ATCC 4259 and treating the parent strain with ethane methane sulfonate. The mutant which as been designated C. acetobutylicum ATCC 55025 is useful in an improved ABE fermentation process, and produces high concentrations of butanol and total solvents.

  15. Sorghum Brown Midrib Mutants, Tools to Improve Biomass for Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    To improve sorghum for cellulosic bioenergy uses, brown midrib mutants are being investigated for their ability to increase the conversion efficiency of biomass. brown midrib 6 and 12 (bmr6 and 12) mutants affect monolignol biosynthesis resulting in reduced lignin content and altered lignin composi...

  16. Isozyme patterns of powdery mildew resistant wheat mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Wengau; Li Zhengkui; Wang Kefeng

    1989-01-01

    Full Text: Wheat mutants induced by gamma irradiation and showing improved resistance to powdery mildew were analysed for isozymes. The peroxidase band 3A could be related to the disease reaction. The band 3A is absent in resistant mutants, the higher the activity of band 3A the greater the susceptibility. (author)

  17. Strain improvement in dye decolourising mutants of Mucor mucedo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... M. mucedo {MMM1-U.V. irradiated mutant and MMM2-EMS (ethyl methyl sulfonate) treated ... tions were induced and two positive mutants (MMM1, .... yeast biofilter for the treatment of a Nigerian fertilizer plant effluent. World J.

  18. Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bame, K.J.; Kiser, C.S.; Esko, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have isolated Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in proteoglycan synthesis by radiographic screening for cells unable to incorporate 35 SO 4 into acid-precipitable material. Some mutants did not incorporate 35 SO 4 into acid-precipitable material, whereas others incorporated about 3-fold less radioactivity. HPLC anion exchange chromatographic analysis of radiolabelled glycosaminoglycans isolated from these mutants revealed many are defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis. Mutants 803 and 677 do not synthesize heparan sulfate, although they produce chondroitin sulfate: strain 803 makes chondroitin sulfate normally, whereas 677 overaccumulates chondroitin sulfate by a factor of three. These mutants fall into the same complementation group, suggesting that the mutations are allelic. A second group of heparan sulfate biosynthetic mutants, consisting of cell lines 625, 668 and 679, produce undersulfated heparan sulfate and normal chondroitin sulfate. Treatment of the chains with nitrous acid should determine the position of the sulfate groups along the chain. These mutants may define a complementation group that is defective in the enzymes which modify the heparan sulfate chain. To increase the authors repertoire of heparan sulfate mutants, they are presently developing an in situ enzyme assay to screen colonies replica plated on filter discs for sulfotransferase defects

  19. Screening of in vitro derived mutants of banana against nematodes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rest of the mutants namely Ro Im V4 6-1-2 and Si Im V4 6-2-5 were found to be susceptible to nematodes. The resistant and moderately resistant mutants of banana could be further used in breeding programmes as well as being recognized as potential cultivars of commerce. Key words: Banana, nematode, resistance, ...

  20. The End of Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jo

    2018-01-01

    Have teachers become too dependent on points? This article explores educators' dependency on their points systems, and the ways that points can distract teachers from really analyzing students' capabilities and achievements. Feldman argues that using a more subjective grading system can help illuminate crucial information about students and what…

  1. Demerit points systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    In 2012, 21 of the 27 EU Member States had some form of demerit points system. In theory, demerit points systems contribute to road safety through three mechanisms: 1) prevention of unsafe behaviour through the risk of receiving penalty points, 2) selection and suspension of the most frequent

  2. Phage Pl mutants with altered transducing abilities for Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, J.D.; Harriman, P.D.

    1974-01-01

    A search was made for mutants of the coliphage P1 with altered transducing frequencies. A method was developed for the rapid assay of transducing frequencies in single plaques using prophage lambda as the transduced bacterial marker. This procedure selects for mutants altered in their ability to package host DNA. Mutants with 5 to 10 times higher or 10 to 20 times lower frequencies than those of wild-type P1 were found. Not only are the markers used for the detection of the mutants affected, but all other markers are similarly affected (not always to the same extent). One of the high transducing frequency mutants is a suppressible amber, indicating that loss of a function increases P1's ability to package host DNA preferentially. (U.S.)

  3. Spectrum of mutant characters utilized in developing improved cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donini, B.; Kawai, T.; Micke, A.

    1984-01-01

    Although about 500 cultivars are known to have been developed by using induced mutations, the range of mutant traits seems to be rather narrow. Mutant traits have mostly been used that can be detected visually on an individual plant basis. However, in the background of such mutants other valuable mutations have been found in later generations. In cross-breeding with mutants valuable characteristics occurred, which could not be predicted from the phenotypes of the parents. It is concluded that improved attributes in the released mutant varieties do not comprise the entire genetic variation that could derive from mutagenesis. Current selection techniques are inadequate to exploit the full potential of mutagenesis for plant breeding. (author)

  4. Poliovirus Mutants Resistant to Neutralization with Soluble Cell Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Gerardo; Peters, David; Racaniello, Vincent R.

    1990-12-01

    Poliovirus mutants resistant to neutralization with soluble cellular receptor were isolated. Replication of soluble receptor-resistant (srr) mutants was blocked by a monoclonal antibody directed against the HeLa cell receptor for poliovirus, indicating that the mutants use this receptor to enter cells. The srr mutants showed reduced binding to HeLa cells and cell membranes. However, the reduced binding phenotype did not have a major impact on viral replication, as judged by plaque size and one-step growth curves. These results suggest that the use of soluble receptors as antiviral agents could lead to the selection of neutralization-resistant mutants that are able to bind cell surface receptors, replicate, and cause disease.

  5. The agronomic characters of a high protein rice mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harn, C.; Won, J.L.; Choi, K.T.

    1975-01-01

    Mutant lines (M 5 -M 9 ) of macro-phenotypic traits from several varieties were screened for the protein content. Mutant 398 (M 9 ) is one of the high protein mutants selected from Hokwang. Three years' tests revealed that it has a high protein line under any condition of cultivation. Except for early maturity and short culmness, other agronomic and yield characters were similar to the original variety. There was no difference between the mutant 398 and its mother variety in grain shape and weight, and also the size and protein content of the embryo. The high protein content of the mutant is attributable to the increase of protein in the endosperm. About 150 normal-looking or a few days-earlier-maturing selections were made from Jinheung variety in the M 3 and screened for protein. Promising lines in terms of the plant type, yield and protein were obtained. (author)

  6. Mildew resistant and less lodging wheat mutants induced in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naghedi-Ahmadi, I.

    1989-01-01

    ''Tabassi'' is a lodging and mildew susceptible cultivar. To induce mutations, seeds were gamma irradiated (50 to 150 Gy) in 1982 and selection for lodging resistance was carried out in M 2 . During field experiments with the mutant lines in 1985/86 there has been a heavy mildew epidemic under which mutant 63-5-I (derived from 50 Gy treatment) exhibited considerable resistance and as a consequence, higher yield. The control was 100% infected, the mutant only 40%. The mutant yielded 31% more grain, 7.5% less straw and 4.5% more protein than the control. Lodging of 63-5-I was only 60% in an experiment under rainfed conditions in the same season, resulting in a relative yield increase of about 11%. In 1986/87 there was no mildew epidemic and the mutant yielded the same as ''Tabassi''

  7. Characteristics of mutant lines of sweet potato flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryanti

    2012-01-01

    Research on mutation induction of sweet potato Sari variety has been conducted. Flour mutant lines were obtained from selection of M1V5 tubers irradiated by gamma rays at the dose of 10 Gy. Flour was made by peeling of tubers, then dried, blended and sieved. The quality test of flour have been done by measuring degree of whiteness, proximate, amylose contents, water content, soluble water, swelling power, and flour characteristics. The result of this work showed that flour of C6.26.13 mutant line had higher protein content than the parent plant with concentration of 3.62 % and its amylose content was also higher than the other mutant lines. The soluble water value of mutant lines were significant different compared to the parent plant from 1.82 to 2.25 % and swelling power from 4.28 to 5.55 %. The flour granule of the mutant line was different compared to the parent plant. (author)

  8. Photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability in several soybean mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandanegara, S.; Hendratno, K.

    1987-01-01

    Photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability in several soybean mutant lines. A greenhouse experiment has been carried out to study photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability of five mutant lines and two soybean varieties. An amount of 330 uCi of 14 CO 2 was fed to the plants including of the non-fixing reference crop (Chippewa non-nodulating isoline). Nitrogen fixation measurements was carried out using 15 N isotope dilution technique according to A-value concept. Results showed that beside variety/mutant lines, plant growth also has important role in photosynthetic and N fixing capability. Better growth and a higher photosynthetic capability in Orba, mutant lines nos. 63 and 65 resulted in a greater amount of N 2 fixed (mg N/plant) than other mutant lines. (author). 12 refs.; 5 figs

  9. Study on growth condition of Trichoderma mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jian'ai; Xiao Min; Wang Weiming; Chen Weijing; Sun Yongtang

    2002-01-01

    Some Trichoderma mutants were cultured under different conditions 4 strains, T5, T0803, T1010, T1003 were selected with different mediums and every medium was mixed with fungicide of 40 ppm. The fungicides were procymidone + chlorothalonil, maneb and phosethyl-Al. The pH of medium were 5, 6, 7 and 8, respectively. The growing temperatures were 15, 20, 25 and 30 degree C, respectively. After the hypha growing for some days under natural high temperature, they were put in low temperature for producing spores. The growing times for these hypha were 3,4,5 and 6 days, respectively. All dates were analyzed on statistics with the orthogonal array and ranges (R) were different with different factor and levels (R = 40.4, 42.4, 48.0, 62.8, 107.0). The results showed that the strain was the most influent condition (R = 107.0) and the changed temperature time from high to low was the least influent condition (R = 40.4). Each factor variance was significant and A 3 b 4 C 2 D 1 E 3 was the optimum combined condition, under which T1010 grew more quickly and produced the most spores

  10. Assessment and application of oats mutant forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velikovsky, V [Vyzkumny a Slechtitelsky Ustav Obilnarsky, Kromeriz (Czechoslovakia)

    1978-04-01

    Five oat varieties were studied for the effect of X-rays on the degree of survival, on the occurrence rate of mutations, and on the possibility of obtaining improved forms for further breeding work. Oats were treated with doses of 20,000 and 40,000 R and the latter dose was found to be highly lethal. For this reason, further studies were performed with doses of 15,000 and 25,000 R. The 'Diadem' variety (CSSR) showed the highest sensitivity to irradiation. The varieties 'Tiger' (West Germany) and 'Diane' (Belgium) showed medium susceptibility and the 'Permit' and 'Pollux' varieties (both W. Germany) were the least sensitive. In selection oriented mainly to stalk shortening and to higher resistance to lodging, the greatest number of useful macromutations was obtained from the 'Permit' variety after exposure of dry seeds to a dose of 20,000 R. The most promising mutant forms obtained in this variety were sent to some breeding stations of the Plant-Breeding and Seed-Production Enterprise Oseva for further breeding use.

  11. (Context comprehension in digital social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Kercia Barros Demétrio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we address the reading issue from the point of view of complexity. Understanding, according to Beaugrande (1997, that the text is a communicative event whose configuration involves elements of different nature, including the participants of interaction, we think that traditional approaches to reading, even those which are focused on interaction, do not satisfactorily bolster comprehension of this phenomenon. In order to analyze how aspects that characterize reading as a complex activity show at (context comprehension in digital social media, we leaned on the articles by Pellanda (2005 and by Franco (2011 and we were supported by the autopoietic theory by Maturana and Varela (1995, as well as by the concepts of emergency and incorporation by Hanks (2008. Through the analysis of two examples of interaction conveyed in virtual environment, we observed that reading triggers readers’ autopoiesis as living systems.

  12. Radiation induced mutants in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayar, G.G.; Rajendran, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    Full text: Stem cuttings and true seeds of three promising cultivars of cassava were exposed respectively to 1 to 5 kR and 10 to 50 kR acute gamma rays from a 60 Co source. Treatments of stem cuttings beyond 5 kR and seeds beyond 50 kR were lethal. One mutant each in the cultivars M4, H-165 and H-2304 was obtained from the stem irradiated populations. Another mutant was found in the seed irradiated progeny of H-2304. The mutant of M4 is characterised by light green (chlorina) leaves. The mutant of H-165 shows significantly shorter petiole (22,5 against 35.2 cm) and narrow leaf lobes, while the H-2304 mutant shows speckled leaves, branching and early flowering. The mutant found in the seed irradiated progeny of H-2304 is having yellow tuber flesh indicating the presence of carotene. The mutants may be useful in studies related to basic information as well as in practical breeding. The chlorina mutant in M4 showed slow growth and high HCN content in leaves. Late branching may be a useful trait in the traditionally non-branching clones of cassava to maintain the desirable leaf area index during high leaf fall period. Early flowering could be useful in a recombinant breeding programme. The tuber yield of the short petiole mutant in H-165 increased by 20% - 25% through closer planting. The narrow leaf lobes of this mutant permit better light penetration to lower leaves. (author)

  13. Human liver cell trafficking mutants: characterization and whole exome sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yuan

    Full Text Available The HuH7 liver cell mutant Trf1 is defective in membrane trafficking and is complemented by the casein kinase 2α subunit CK2α''. Here we identify characteristic morphologies, trafficking and mutational changes in six additional HuH7 mutants Trf2-Trf7. Trf1 cells were previously shown to be severely defective in gap junction functions. Using a Lucifer yellow transfer assay, remarkable attenuation of gap junction communication was revealed in each of the mutants Trf2-Trf7. Electron microscopy and light microscopy of thiamine pyrophosphatase showed that several mutants exhibited fragmented Golgi apparatus cisternae compared to parental HuH7 cells. Intracellular trafficking was investigated using assays of transferrin endocytosis and recycling and VSV G secretion. Surface binding of transferrin was reduced in all six Trf2-Trf7 mutants, which generally correlated with the degree of reduced expression of the transferrin receptor at the cell surface. The mutants displayed the same transferrin influx rates as HuH7, and for efflux rate, only Trf6 differed, having a slower transferrin efflux rate than HuH7. The kinetics of VSV G transport along the exocytic pathway were altered in Trf2 and Trf5 mutants. Genetic changes unique to particular Trf mutants were identified by exome sequencing, and one was investigated in depth. The novel mutation Ile34Phe in the GTPase RAB22A was identified in Trf4. RNA interference knockdown of RAB22A or overexpression of RAB22AI34F in HuH7 cells caused phenotypic changes characteristic of the Trf4 mutant. In addition, the Ile34Phe mutation reduced both guanine nucleotide binding and hydrolysis activities of RAB22A. Thus, the RAB22A Ile34Phe mutation appears to contribute to the Trf4 mutant phenotype.

  14. Point specificity in acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Emma M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The existence of point specificity in acupuncture is controversial, because many acupuncture studies using this principle to select control points have found that sham acupoints have similar effects to those of verum acupoints. Furthermore, the results of pain-related studies based on visual analogue scales have not supported the concept of point specificity. In contrast, hemodynamic, functional magnetic resonance imaging and neurophysiological studies evaluating the responses to stimulation of multiple points on the body surface have shown that point-specific actions are present. This review article focuses on clinical and laboratory studies supporting the existence of point specificity in acupuncture and also addresses studies that do not support this concept. Further research is needed to elucidate the point-specific actions of acupuncture.

  15. Homologous series of induced early mutants in indican rice. Pt.1. The production of homologous series of early mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; Yang Hefeng; He Zhentian; Han Yuepeng; Liu Xueyu

    1999-01-01

    The percentage of homologous series of early mutants induced from the same Indican rice variety were almost the same (1.37%∼1.64%) in 1983∼1993, but the ones from the different eco-typical varieties were different. The early variety was 0.73%, the mid variety was 1.51%, and the late variety was 1.97%. The percentage of homologous series of early mutants from the varieties with the same pedigree and relationship were similar, but the one from the cog nation were lower than those from distant varieties. There are basic laws and characters in the homologous series of early mutants: 1. The inhibited phenotype is the basic of the homologous series of early mutants; 2. The production of the homologous series of early mutants is closely related with the growing period of the parent; 3. The parallel mutation of the stem and leaves are simultaneously happened with the variation of early or late maturing; 4. The occurrence of the homologous series of early mutants is in a state of imbalance. According to the law of parallel variability, the production of homologous series of early mutants can be predicted as long as the parents' classification of plant, pedigree and ecological type are identified. Therefore, the early breeding can be guided by the law of homologous series of early mutants

  16. Transgenic mice expressing mutant Pinin exhibit muscular dystrophy, nebulin deficiency and elevated expression of slow-type muscle fiber genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Hsu-Pin; Hsu, Shu-Yuan; Wu, Wen-Ai; Hu, Ji-Wei; Ouyang, Pin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Pnn CCD domain functions as a dominant negative mutant regulating Pnn expression and function. •Pnn CCD mutant Tg mice have a muscle wasting phenotype during development and show dystrophic histological features. •Pnn mutant muscles are susceptible to slow fiber type gene transition and NEB reduction. •The Tg mouse generated by overexpression of the Pnn CCD domain displays many characteristics resembling NEB +/− mice. -- Abstract: Pinin (Pnn) is a nuclear speckle-associated SR-like protein. The N-terminal region of the Pnn protein sequence is highly conserved from mammals to insects, but the C-terminal RS domain-containing region is absent in lower species. The N-terminal coiled-coil domain (CCD) is, therefore, of interest not only from a functional point of view, but also from an evolutionarily standpoint. To explore the biological role of the Pnn CCD in a physiological context, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing Pnn mutant in skeletal muscle. We found that overexpression of the CCD reduces endogenous Pnn expression in cultured cell lines as well as in transgenic skeletal muscle fibers. Pnn mutant mice exhibited reduced body mass and impaired muscle function during development. Mutant skeletal muscles show dystrophic histological features with muscle fibers heavily loaded with centrally located myonuclei. Expression profiling and pathway analysis identified over-representation of genes in gene categories associated with muscle contraction, specifically those related to slow type fiber. In addition nebulin (NEB) expression level is repressed in Pnn mutant skeletal muscle. We conclude that Pnn downregulation in skeletal muscle causes a muscular dystrophic phenotype associated with NEB deficiency and the CCD domain is incapable of replacing full length Pnn in terms of functional capacity

  17. Transgenic mice expressing mutant Pinin exhibit muscular dystrophy, nebulin deficiency and elevated expression of slow-type muscle fiber genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hsu-Pin; Hsu, Shu-Yuan [Department of Anatomy, Chang Gung University Medical College, Taiwan (China); Wu, Wen-Ai; Hu, Ji-Wei [Transgenic Mouse Core Laboratory, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Ouyang, Pin, E-mail: ouyang@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Anatomy, Chang Gung University Medical College, Taiwan (China); Transgenic Mouse Core Laboratory, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Pnn CCD domain functions as a dominant negative mutant regulating Pnn expression and function. •Pnn CCD mutant Tg mice have a muscle wasting phenotype during development and show dystrophic histological features. •Pnn mutant muscles are susceptible to slow fiber type gene transition and NEB reduction. •The Tg mouse generated by overexpression of the Pnn CCD domain displays many characteristics resembling NEB{sup +/−} mice. -- Abstract: Pinin (Pnn) is a nuclear speckle-associated SR-like protein. The N-terminal region of the Pnn protein sequence is highly conserved from mammals to insects, but the C-terminal RS domain-containing region is absent in lower species. The N-terminal coiled-coil domain (CCD) is, therefore, of interest not only from a functional point of view, but also from an evolutionarily standpoint. To explore the biological role of the Pnn CCD in a physiological context, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing Pnn mutant in skeletal muscle. We found that overexpression of the CCD reduces endogenous Pnn expression in cultured cell lines as well as in transgenic skeletal muscle fibers. Pnn mutant mice exhibited reduced body mass and impaired muscle function during development. Mutant skeletal muscles show dystrophic histological features with muscle fibers heavily loaded with centrally located myonuclei. Expression profiling and pathway analysis identified over-representation of genes in gene categories associated with muscle contraction, specifically those related to slow type fiber. In addition nebulin (NEB) expression level is repressed in Pnn mutant skeletal muscle. We conclude that Pnn downregulation in skeletal muscle causes a muscular dystrophic phenotype associated with NEB deficiency and the CCD domain is incapable of replacing full length Pnn in terms of functional capacity.

  18. Ectopic Mineralization and Conductive Hearing Loss in Enpp1asj Mutant Mice, a New Model for Otitis Media and Tympanosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Cong; Harris, Belinda S; Johnson, Kenneth R

    2016-01-01

    Otitis media (OM), inflammation of the middle ear, is a common cause of hearing loss in children and in patients with many different syndromic diseases. Studies of the human population and mouse models have revealed that OM is a multifactorial disease with many environmental and genetic contributing factors. Here, we report on otitis media-related hearing loss in asj (ages with stiffened joints) mutant mice, which bear a point mutation in the Enpp1 gene. Auditory-evoked brainstem response (ABR) measurements revealed that around 90% of the mutant mice (Enpp1asj/asj) tested had moderate to severe hearing impairment in at least one ear. The ABR thresholds were variable and generally elevated with age. We found otitis media with effusion (OME) in all of the hearing-impaired Enpp1asj/asj mice by anatomic and histological examinations. The volume and inflammatory cell content of the effusion varied among the asj mutant mice, but all mutants exhibited a thickened middle ear epithelium with fibrous polyps and more mucin-secreting goblet cells than controls. Other abnormalities observed in the Enpp1 mutant mice include over-ossification at the round window ridge, thickened and over-calcified stapedial artery, fusion of malleus and incus, and white patches on the inside of tympanic membrane, some of which are typical symptoms of tympanosclerosis. An excessive yellow discharge was detected in the outer ear canal of older asj mutant mice, with 100% penetrance by 5 months of age, and contributes to the progressive nature of the hearing loss. This is the first report of hearing loss and ear pathology associated with an Enpp1 mutation in mice. The Enpp1asj mutant mouse provides a new animal model for studying tympanosclerotic otitis and otitis media with effusion, and also provides a specific model for the hearing loss recently reported to be associated with human ENPP1 mutations causing generalized arterial calcification of infancy and hypophosphatemic rickets.

  19. Comprehensive facilities plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory`s Comprehensive Facilities Plan (CFP) document provides analysis and policy guidance for the effective use and orderly future development of land and capital assets at the Berkeley Lab site. The CFP directly supports Berkeley Lab`s role as a multiprogram national laboratory operated by the University of California (UC) for the Department of Energy (DOE). The CFP is revised annually on Berkeley Lab`s Facilities Planning Website. Major revisions are consistent with DOE policy and review guidance. Facilities planing is motivated by the need to develop facilities for DOE programmatic needs; to maintain, replace and rehabilitate existing obsolete facilities; to identify sites for anticipated programmatic growth; and to establish a planning framework in recognition of site amenities and the surrounding community. The CFP presents a concise expression of the policy for the future physical development of the Laboratory, based upon anticipated operational needs of research programs and the environmental setting. It is a product of the ongoing planning processes and is a dynamic information source.

  20. Comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, C.; Nemeth, S.; Zamora, G.; Vahtel, M.; Soliz, P.; Barriga, S.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, several research groups have developed automatic algorithms to detect diabetic retinopathy (DR) in individuals with diabetes (DM), using digital retinal images. Studies have indicated that diabetics have 1.5 times the annual risk of developing primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) as do people without DM. Moreover, DM patients have 1.8 times the risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although numerous investigators are developing automatic DR detection algorithms, there have been few successful efforts to create an automatic algorithm that can detect other ocular diseases, such as POAG and AMD. Consequently, our aim in the current study was to develop a comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm that not only detects DR in retinal images, but also automatically identifies glaucoma suspects and AMD by integrating other personal medical information with the retinal features. The proposed system is fully automatic and provides the likelihood of each of the three eye disease. The system was evaluated in two datasets of 104 and 88 diabetic cases. For each eye, we used two non-mydriatic digital color fundus photographs (macula and optic disc centered) and, when available, information about age, duration of diabetes, cataracts, hypertension, gender, and laboratory data. Our results show that the combination of multimodal features can increase the AUC by up to 5%, 7%, and 8% in the detection of AMD, DR, and glaucoma respectively. Marked improvement was achieved when laboratory results were combined with retinal image features.

  1. Cultural Knowledge in News Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the main lines of the design and the findings of a reception study on news comprehension. This empirical study is a comparison of the comprehension processes of Danes and French Canadians over a set of news texts from both countries. Comprehension is explored from a cultural...... perspective, through the lens of cognition and pragmatics, revealing the role played by cultural knowledge in comprehension and the underlying relationship between a text and its intended audience. It is argued that recipients ‘problematise’ the news texts, a process by which the texts answer questions...

  2. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access Database contains a selected set of...

  3. Daptomycin Tolerance in the Staphylococcus aureus pitA6 Mutant Is Due to Upregulation of the dlt Operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechler, Lukas; Bonetti, Eve-Julie; Reichert, Sebastian; Flötenmeyer, Matthias; Schrenzel, Jacques; Bertram, Ralph; François, Patrice; Götz, Friedrich

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of how bacteria become tolerant toward antibiotics during clinical therapy is a very important object. In a previous study, we showed that increased daptomycin (DAP) tolerance of Staphylococcus aureus was due to a point mutation in pitA (inorganic phosphate transporter) that led to intracellular accumulation of both inorganic phosphate (Pi) and polyphosphate (polyP). DAP tolerance in the pitA6 mutant differs from classical resistance mechanisms since there is no increase in the MIC. In this follow-up study, we demonstrate that DAP tolerance in the pitA6 mutant is not triggered by the accumulation of polyP. Transcriptome analysis revealed that 234 genes were at least 2.0-fold differentially expressed in the mutant. Particularly, genes involved in protein biosynthesis, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and replication and maintenance of DNA were downregulated. However, the most important change was the upregulation of the dlt operon, which is induced by the accumulation of intracellular Pi The GraXRS system, known as an activator of the dlt operon (d-alanylation of teichoic acids) and of the mprF gene (multiple peptide resistance factor), is not involved in DAP tolerance of the pitA6 mutant. In conclusion, DAP tolerance of the pitA6 mutant is due to an upregulation of the dlt operon, triggered directly or indirectly by the accumulation of Pi. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Structural characterization of V57D and V57P mutants of human cystatin C, an amyloidogenic protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlikowska, Marta; Szymańska, Aneta [University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18/19, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Borek, Dominika; Otwinowski, Zbyszek [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390-8816 (United States); Skowron, Piotr; Jankowska, Elżbieta, E-mail: elaj@chem.univ.gda.pl [University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18/19, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

    2013-04-01

    Val57 point mutants of human cystatin C, which were designed to assess the influence of changes in the properties of the L1 loop on the dimerization propensity, were structurally characterized. Wild-type human cystatin C (hCC wt) is a low-molecular-mass protein (120 amino-acid residues, 13 343 Da) that is found in all nucleated cells. Physiologically, it functions as a potent regulator of cysteine protease activity. While the biologically active hCC wt is a monomeric protein, all crystallization efforts to date have resulted in a three-dimensional domain-swapped dimeric structure. In the recently published structure of a mutated hCC, the monomeric fold was preserved by a stabilization of the conformationally constrained loop L1 caused by a single amino-acid substitution: Val57Asn. Additional hCC mutants were obtained in order to elucidate the relationship between the stability of the L1 loop and the propensity of human cystatin C to dimerize. In one mutant Val57 was substituted by an aspartic acid residue, which is favoured in β-turns, and in the second mutant proline, a residue known for broadening turns, was substituted for the same Val57. Here, 2.26 and 3.0 Å resolution crystal structures of the V57D andV57P mutants of hCC are reported and their dimeric architecture is discussed in terms of the stabilization and destabilization effects of the introduced mutations.

  5. Genetic studies on dwarf triticale mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalepa, S.

    1984-01-01

    The parents, F 1 , F 2 and backcrosses derived from triticale dwarf mutants and tall cultivars were studied during the 1979-80 crop season. Data was taken on individual plants to estimate dwarf inheritance, gene action and interrelationships of grain yield and selected yield related traits. The direct and indirect effects of grain yield per spike on other grain yield components were also studied. Results indicate that dwarfing is controlled by two, partially dominant, genes. Additional crosses involving other hexaploid triticale lines revealed the inheritance of other characters. The results in F 2 show that glossy plant, waxy covering of the neck and hairy neck are dominant, while short straw is recessive. Waxy covering on the spike seems to be controlled by two genes with additive action. Observation of F 2 progenies indicates that a gene for waxy neck covering Wx and hairy neck Hp might be located on the same chromosome at a distance of about 19 units. Plant height showed a positive phenotypic correlation with grain yield and 1,000 kernel weight. Non-significant correlations were found between plant height and number of grains per spike, harvest index and spikelet fertility. Path coefficient analyses at the phenotypic level indicated that the direct effects of grain number on grain yield were large while the direct effects of 1,000 kernel weight were relatively small. The results of this study indicate that selection for high kernel number is the most important factor in a breeding programme for increasing grain yield in some dwarf triticale. It was found that epistasis is not involved in the inheritance of harvest index. Additive, dominance and additive x dominance epistasis were important for grain yield per spike. A duplicate type of epistasis was found for 1,000 kernel weight and number of grains per spikelet. (author)

  6. Induced mutant for male sterility in niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujatha, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.), an important oilseed crop of the family Compositae is highly cross-pollinated due to the twin mechanisms of protandry and incompatibility. Studies revealed the functional nature of protandry and the breakdown of incompatibility with alteration in temperature. It has very small flowers (disc florets) arranged in a capitulum that open on 3-4 consecutive days which pose problems in emasculation for cross-breeding. To induce mutations, seeds of variety 'IGP-76' were irradiated with γ-rays 200 to 1000 Gy. All seeds of M 1 plants were sown separately in individual plant-to progeny rows. The results of screening of M 2 segregating material indicated that γ-ray treatment was effective in induction of male sterility. Frequency of visible mutations were higher in sibbed progeny as compared to open pollinated population and male sterile plants were observed only in sibbed population (1000 Gy). Male sterile plants could easily be identified at the flowering stage by their altered floral morphology (disc florets transformed into ligulate ray florets) and complete absence or presence of a rudimentary anther column. Seeds were collected following sib-mating with the fertile counterparts. Progeny segregated in a ration of 3 normal : 1 male sterile. Further work on the mechanism of sterility, maintenance and linkage relationships with associated characters is under progress. This is the first report of induction of male sterility in niger through the use of physical mutagens. The availability of this mutant will be of great value for exploitation of heterosis on commercial basis. (author)

  7. Mapping pathological phenotypes in Reelin mutant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina eMichetti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD are neurodevelopmental disorders with multifactorial origin characterized by social communication and behavioural perseveration deficits. Several studies showed an association between the reelin gene mutation and increased risk of ASD and a reduced reelin expression in some brain regions of ASD subjects, suggesting a role for reelin deficiency in ASD etiology. Reelin is a large extracellular matrix glycoprotein playing important roles during development of the central nervous system. To deeply investigate the role of reelin dysfunction as vulnerability factor in ASD, we investigated the behavioural, neurochemical and brain morphological features of reeler male mice. We recently reported a genotype-dependent deviation in ultrasonic vocal repertoire and a general delay in motor development in reeler pups. We now report that adult male heterozygous reeler mice did not show social behaviour and communication deficits during male-female social interactions. Wildtype and heterozygous mice also showed a typical light/dark locomotor activity profile, with a peak during the central interval of the dark phase. However, when faced with a mild stressful stimulus (a saline injection only heterozygous mice showed an over response to stress. At the end of the behavioural studies, we conducted high performance liquid chromatography and magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy to investigate whether reelin mutation influences brain monoamine and metabolites levels in regions involved in ASD. Low levels of dopamine in cortex and high levels of glutamate and taurine in hippocampus were detected in heterozygous mice, in line with clinical data collected on ASD children. Altogether, our data detected subtle but relevant neurochemical abnormalities in reeler mice supporting this mutant line, particularly male subjects, as a valid experimental model to estimate the contribution played by reelin deficiency in the global ASD

  8. Ethanol production using nuclear petite yeast mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, A.; Oliver, S.G. [Department of Biomolecular Sciences, UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    Two respiratory-deficient nuclear petites, FY23{Delta}pet191 and FY23{Delta}cox5a, of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were generated using polymerase-chain-reaction-mediated gene disruption, and their respective ethanol tolerance and productivity assessed and compared to those of the parental grande, FY23WT, and a mitochondrial petite, FY23{rho}{sup 0}. Batch culture studies demonstrated that the parental strain was the most tolerant to exogenously added ethanol with an inhibition constant. K{sub i}, of 2.3% (w/v) and a specific rate of ethanol production, q{sub p}, of 0.90 g ethanol g dry cells{sup -1} h{sup -1}. FY23{rho}{sup 0} was the most sensitive to ethanol, exhibiting a K{sub i} of 1.71% (w/v) and q{sub p} of 0.87 g ethanol g dry cells{sup -1} h{sup -1}. Analyses of the ethanol tolerance of the nuclear petites demonstrate that functional mitochondria are essential for maintaining tolerance to the toxin with the 100% respiratory-deficient nuclear petite, FY23{Delta}pet191, having a K{sub i} of 2.14% (w/v) and the 85% respiratory-deficient FY23{Delta}cox5a, having a K{sub i} of 1.94% (w/v). The retention of ethanol tolerance in the nuclear petites as compared to that of FY23{rho}{sup 0} is mirrored by the ethanol productivities of these nuclear mutants, being respectively 43% and 30% higher than that of the respiratory-sufficient parent strain. This demonstrates that, because of their respiratory deficiency, the nuclear petites are not subject of the Pasteur effect and so exhibit higher rates of fermentation. (orig.)

  9. Circulation of Pneumocystis dihydropteroate synthase mutants in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, Solène; Damiani, Céline; Perrot, Maëla; Rouillé, Amélie; Virmaux, Michèle; Quinio, Dorothée; Moalic, Elodie; Saliou, Philippe; Berthou, Christian; Le Meur, Yann; Totet, Anne; Nevez, Gilles

    2012-10-01

    Data on the prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) mutants in France are still limited. In this study, mutant prevalence in the Brest region (western France) was determined. Archival pulmonary specimens from 85 patients infected with P. jirovecii and admitted to our institution (University Hospital, Brest) from October 2007 to February 2010 were retrospectively typed at the DHPS locus using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Type identification was successful in 66 of 85 patients. Sixty-four patients were infected with a wild type, whereas mutants were found in 2 patients (2/66, 3%). Medical chart analysis revealed that these 2 patients usually lived in Paris. Another patient usually lived on the French Riviera, whereas 63 patients were from the city of Brest. Thus, the corrected prevalence of mutants in patients who effectively lived in our geographic area was 0% (0/63). Taking into account that i) Paris is characterized by a high prevalence of mutants from 18.5% to 40%, ii) infection diagnoses were performed in the 2 Parisians during their vacation Paris to Brest through infected vacationers. The study shows that the usual city of patient residence, rather than the city of infection diagnosis, is a predictor of mutants and that P. jirovecii infections involving mutants do not represent a public health issue in western France. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cytogenetic characteristics of soft wheat mutants under x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakaryan, Zh.O.; Avakyan, V.A.; Amirbekyan, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    Radiosensitivity of induced mutants of soft wheat is studied by criteria of frequency and character of changes in 1 and 2 divisions of meiosis. Two constant induced mutant forms of soft wheat were investigated. Mutant lines of squareheads with red ear (re) and erectoids 37/1 were obtained by X-ray irradiating hydride seeds F 1 of hybride combination of Alty-Agach Awnless 1. Seeds of mutants and initial kinds were exposed to X-rays at a dose of 10 kR. A conclusion may be drawn on the basis of studying the meiosis process in mutants and initial kinds of soft wheat on X-ray radiation that the mutants are more radiosensitive. This testifies to that that the induced mutants of soft wheat represent new genotypes in comparison with the initial kinds and differ from the latter not only in morphological characters but in the reaction norm with respect to external medium factors, i.e. the limit of possible changeability of the genotype has been extended [ru

  11. Methods of producing protoporphyrin IX and bacterial mutants therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jizhong; Qiu, Dongru; He, Zhili; Xie, Ming

    2016-03-01

    The presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed in certain embodiments to a method of producing protoporphyrin IX by (1) cultivating a strain of Shewanella bacteria in a culture medium under conditions suitable for growth thereof, and (2) recovering the protoporphyrin IX from the culture medium. The strain of Shewanella bacteria comprises at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX. In certain embodiments of the method, the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or of shew_1140. In other embodiments, the presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed to mutant strains of Shewanella bacteria having at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX during cultivation of the bacteria. In certain embodiments the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or shew_1140.

  12. Genetics of Ustilago violacea. I. Carotenoid mutants and carotenogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garber, E.D.; Baird, M.L.; Chapman, D.J.

    1975-01-01

    Wild-type strains of Ustilago violacea produce pink colonies on laboratory medium and yield white, orange, pumpkin, and yellow colonies after uv mutagenesis. The wild-type strains contain neurosporene and lycopene; one orange mutant, γ-carotene; and one yellow mutant, β-carotene. One white mutant had no detectable carotenoids. Diploid colonies heterozygous for wild type and orange, pumpkin, yellow, or white are phenotypically wild type. Diploid colonies heterozygous for yellow and orange are also phenotypically wild type. Diploid colonies heterozygous for white and orange; white and yellow; and white, yellow, and orange are phenotypically light orange, light yellow, and orange-yellow, respectively. The white mutants give a circular complementation map; the color mutants fit a linear complementation map. We propose a multienzyme of four identical dehydrogenases and one or two identical cyclases for carotenogenesis in this species. The white and color mutants represent structural mutations altering the conformation of the dehydrogenase or cyclase, respectively. Furthermore, cyclases may or may not aggregate in association with the dehydrogenase aggregate to form the multienzyme aggregate responsible for the color mutants

  13. Interesting Interest Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2012-01-01

    on spatial invariance of interest points under changing acquisition parameters by measuring the spatial recall rate. The scope of this paper is to investigate the performance of a number of existing well-established interest point detection methods. Automatic performance evaluation of interest points is hard......Not all interest points are equally interesting. The most valuable interest points lead to optimal performance of the computer vision method in which they are employed. But a measure of this kind will be dependent on the chosen vision application. We propose a more general performance measure based...... position. The LED illumination provides the option for artificially relighting the scene from a range of light directions. This data set has given us the ability to systematically evaluate the performance of a number of interest point detectors. The highlights of the conclusions are that the fixed scale...

  14. Influencing Food Selection with Point-of-Choice Nutrition Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Chervin, Doryn; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of a point-of-choice nutrition information program that used a comprehensive set of communication functions in its design. Results indicate that point-of-choice information without direct tangible rewards can (to a moderate degree) modify food-selection behavior of cafeteria patrons. (JN)

  15. Promising semi-dwarf mutant in wheat variety K68

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, D [Banaras Hindu Univ. (India). Dept. of Genetics and Plant Breeding

    1977-04-01

    A semi-dwarf mutant (HUW-SDf 1) was induced from common wheat Var. K68 through the exposure of /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays at 15 kR. This mutant along with other induced mutants and control was assessed for yield components, yield and grain quality (M/sub 4/ generation); internode length reduction pattern and the yielding ability at three levels of nitrogen (M/sub 5/ generation). The mutant was significantly shorter in height and almost equal in tillers per plant and grains per spike to K68. However, it showed marked reduction in spike length and spikelets per spike. On the other hand, it possessed significantly higher (50.04 g) 1000-grain weight against control (41.15 g). The mutant gave 56.0% higher yield than the control. Grain quality studies indicated that the mutant possessed significantly higher (14.15%) total protein than K68. It was equally as good as K68 in lysine content. Pelshenke value (62.5 min) of the mutant indicated medium hard nature of gluten as compared to hard nature (198.0) of the control. The mutant showed 24.0% reduction in total culm length compared to K68. Reduction occurred due to maximum and almost equal reduction in 5th and 4th internodes (ca 34.0%) followed by 3rd, 2nd and 1st. The mutant showed similar yield and yield response to increasing nitrogen levels (80 to 160 kg per ha.) as for current commercial semi-dwarf varieties.

  16. Microsoft SharePoint 2010 development cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Musters, Ed

    2011-01-01

    The plan of the book is to build a relationship with the Author as your personal guide through the most common "pattern" of SharePoint development. In cookbook style, you will be led carefully step by step through a comprehensive set of recipes. The practical example starts quickly and builds logically throughout the chapters to create a common theme. You will be developing coding techniques that you will be able to apply to the real world. In fact, this book will train you for the first SharePoint development project you will join. This book is written for the ASP.NET developer who wants to g

  17. Comprehensive asymmetric dark matter model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Stephen J.; Volkas, Raymond R.

    2018-05-01

    Asymmetric dark matter (ADM) is motivated by the similar cosmological mass densities measured for ordinary and dark matter. We present a comprehensive theory for ADM that addresses the mass density similarity, going beyond the usual ADM explanations of similar number densities. It features an explicit matter-antimatter asymmetry generation mechanism, has one fully worked out thermal history and suggestions for other possibilities, and meets all phenomenological, cosmological and astrophysical constraints. Importantly, it incorporates a deep reason for why the dark matter mass scale is related to the proton mass, a key consideration in ADM models. Our starting point is the idea of mirror matter, which offers an explanation for dark matter by duplicating the standard model with a dark sector related by a Z2 parity symmetry. However, the dark sector need not manifest as a symmetric copy of the standard model in the present day. By utilizing the mechanism of "asymmetric symmetry breaking" with two Higgs doublets in each sector, we develop a model of ADM where the mirror symmetry is spontaneously broken, leading to an electroweak scale in the dark sector that is significantly larger than that of the visible sector. The weak sensitivity of the ordinary and dark QCD confinement scales to their respective electroweak scales leads to the necessary connection between the dark matter and proton masses. The dark matter is composed of either dark neutrons or a mixture of dark neutrons and metastable dark hydrogen atoms. Lepton asymmetries are generated by the C P -violating decays of heavy Majorana neutrinos in both sectors. These are then converted by sphaleron processes to produce the observed ratio of visible to dark matter in the universe. The dynamics responsible for the kinetic decoupling of the two sectors emerges as an important issue that we only partially solve.

  18. Inventory classification based on decoupling points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Wikner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ideal state of continuous one-piece flow may never be achieved. Still the logistics manager can improve the flow by carefully positioning inventory to buffer against variations. Strategies such as lean, postponement, mass customization, and outsourcing all rely on strategic positioning of decoupling points to separate forecast-driven from customer-order-driven flows. Planning and scheduling of the flow are also based on classification of decoupling points as master scheduled or not. A comprehensive classification scheme for these types of decoupling points is introduced. The approach rests on identification of flows as being either demand based or supply based. The demand or supply is then combined with exogenous factors, classified as independent, or endogenous factors, classified as dependent. As a result, eight types of strategic as well as tactical decoupling points are identified resulting in a process-based framework for inventory classification that can be used for flow design.

  19. Fusion genetic analysis of jasmonate-signalling mutants in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Bøgh; Raventos, D.; Mundy, John Williams

    2002-01-01

    as two recessive mutants, designated joe1 and 2, that overexpress the reporter. Genetic analysis indicated that reporter overexpression in the joe mutants requires COI. joe1 responded to MeJA with increased anthocyanin accumulation, while joe2 responded with decreased root growth inhibition. In addition...... activity was also induced by the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine and antagonized by the protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid. FLUC bio-imaging, RNA gel-blot analysis and progeny analyses identified three recessive mutants that underexpress the FLUC reporter, designated jue1, 2 and 3, as well...

  20. Characterization of mutants of yeast sensitive to x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strike, T.L.

    1978-01-01

    This study deals with the characterization of mutants at the rad50 to rad57 loci selected on the basis of their sensitivity to x rays. They were also examined for sensitivity to uv and mms and for characteristics of mutation induction, heteroallelic reversion (gene conversion), liquid holding recovery from x rays, and sporulation. All the mutants were slightly to moderately sensitive to uv though they did not show the extreme sensitivity of the rad1 to rad22 mutations, and all demonstrated cross sensitivity to both x rays and MMS. If a mutant was very sensitive to x-rays, it was usually very sensitive to MMS also

  1. Subunit-specific phenotypes of Salmonella typhimurium HU mutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Hillyard, D R; Edlund, M; Hughes, K T; Marsh, M; Higgins, N P

    1990-01-01

    Salmonella hupA and hupB mutants were studied to determine the reasons for the high degree of conservation in HU structure in bacteria. We found one HU-1-specific effect; the F'128 plasmid was 25-fold less stable in hupB compared with hupA or wild-type cells. F' plasmids were 120-fold more unstable in hupA hupB double mutants compared with wild-type cells, and the double mutant also had a significant alteration in plasmid DNA structure. pBR322 DNA isolated from hupA hupB strains was deficient...

  2. Radiation induced mutants in cape-gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Roy, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    Dry seeds of Physalis peruviana (n=24) were irradiated with different doses of gamma-rays. The M 1 plants were grown to maturity and their seeds collected and sown separately for M 2 generation. Mutants were isolated from M 2 seedlings and plants. Mutant characters obtained were virido-albino chlorophyllous, high yielding, small leaf and fruit, semi-sterile and curly leaf type etc. The high yielding and small leaf and fruit mutants bred true in M 3 and M 4 generation reproducing the characters of the M 2 generation. (author)

  3. Pragmatic Comprehension Development through Telecollaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieyan, Vahid; Sharafi-Nejad, Maryam; Khavari, Zahra; Eng, Lin Siew; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Pragmatic comprehension can be ideally developed through contact with target language speakers. This contact can be provided in English as Foreign Language contexts through telecollaboration. To test the actual effect of telecollaboration on the development of pragmatic comprehension, 30 Iranian undergraduates of English as a Foreign Language…

  4. Reading comprehension in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Laura L; Rutledge, Stefanie

    2014-05-01

    Although individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) self-report reading problems and experience difficulties in cognitive-linguistic functions that support discourse-level reading, prior research has primarily focused on sentence-level processing and auditory comprehension. Accordingly, the authors investigated the presence and nature of reading comprehension in PD, hypothesizing that (a) individuals with PD would display impaired accuracy and/or speed on reading comprehension tests and (b) reading performances would be correlated with cognitive test results. Eleven adults with PD and 9 age- and education-matched control participants completed tests that evaluated reading comprehension; general language and cognitive abilities; and aspects of attention, memory, and executive functioning. The PD group obtained significantly lower scores on several, but not all, reading comprehension, language, and cognitive measures. Memory, language, and disease severity were significantly correlated with reading comprehension for the PD group. Individuals in the early stages of PD without dementia or broad cognitive deficits can display reading comprehension difficulties, particularly for high- versus basic-level reading tasks. These reading difficulties are most closely related to memory, high-level language, and PD symptom severity status. The findings warrant additional research to delineate further the types and nature of reading comprehension impairments experienced by individuals with PD.

  5. Cln6 mutants associated with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis are degraded in a proteasome-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oresic, Kristina; Mueller, Britta; Tortorella, Domenico

    2009-06-01

    NCLs (neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses), a group of inherited neurodegenerative lysosomal storage diseases that predominantly affect children, are the result of autosomal recessive mutations within one of the nine cln genes. The wild-type cln gene products are composed of membrane and soluble proteins that localize to the lysosome or the ER (endoplasmic reticulum). However, the destiny of the Cln variants has not been fully characterized. To explore a possible link between ER quality control and processing of Cln mutants, we investigated the fate of two NCL-related Cln6 mutants found in patient samples (Cln6(G123D) and Cln6(M241T)) in neuronal-derived human cells. The point mutations are predicted to be in the putative transmembrane domains and most probably generate misfolded membrane proteins that are subjected to ER quality control. Consistent with this paradigm, both mutants underwent rapid proteasome-mediated degradation and complexed with components of the ER extraction apparatus, Derlin-1 and p97. In addition, knockdown of SEL1L [sel-1 suppressor of lin-12-like (Caenorhabditis elegans)], a member of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex involved in ER protein extraction, rescued significant amounts of Cln6(G123D) and Cln6(M241T) polypeptides. The results implicate ER quality control in the instability of the Cln variants that probably contributes to the development of NCL.

  6. Length quantization of DNA partially expelled from heads of a bacteriophage T3 mutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serwer, Philip, E-mail: serwer@uthscsa.edu [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900 (United States); Wright, Elena T. [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900 (United States); Liu, Zheng; Jiang, Wen [Markey Center for Structural Biology, Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    DNA packaging of phages phi29, T3 and T7 sometimes produces incompletely packaged DNA with quantized lengths, based on gel electrophoretic band formation. We discover here a packaging ATPase-free, in vitro model for packaged DNA length quantization. We use directed evolution to isolate a five-site T3 point mutant that hyper-produces tail-free capsids with mature DNA (heads). Three tail gene mutations, but no head gene mutations, are present. A variable-length DNA segment leaks from some mutant heads, based on DNase I-protection assay and electron microscopy. The protected DNA segment has quantized lengths, based on restriction endonuclease analysis: six sharp bands of DNA missing 3.7–12.3% of the last end packaged. Native gel electrophoresis confirms quantized DNA expulsion and, after removal of external DNA, provides evidence that capsid radius is the quantization-ruler. Capsid-based DNA length quantization possibly evolved via selection for stalling that provides time for feedback control during DNA packaging and injection. - Graphical abstract: Highlights: • We implement directed evolution- and DNA-sequencing-based phage assembly genetics. • We purify stable, mutant phage heads with a partially leaked mature DNA molecule. • Native gels and DNase-protection show leaked DNA segments to have quantized lengths. • Native gels after DNase I-removal of leaked DNA reveal the capsids to vary in radius. • Thus, we hypothesize leaked DNA quantization via variably quantized capsid radius.

  7. Deregulation of the arginine deiminase (arc) operon in penicillin-tolerant mutants of Streptococcus gordonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldelari, I; Loeliger, B; Langen, H; Glauser, M P; Moreillon, P

    2000-10-01

    Penicillin tolerance is an incompletely understood phenomenon that allows bacteria to resist drug-induced killing. Tolerance was studied with independent Streptococcus gordonii mutants generated by cyclic exposure to 500 times the MIC of penicillin. Parent cultures lost 4 to 5 log(10) CFU/ml of viable counts/24 h. In contrast, each of four independent mutant cultures lost bacteria and were encoded by an operon that was >80% similar to the arginine-deiminase (arc) operon of these organisms. Partial nucleotide sequencing and insertion inactivation of the S. gordonii arc locus indicated that tolerance was not a direct consequence of arc alteration. On the other hand, genetic transformation of tolerance by Tol1 DNA always conferred arc deregulation. In nontolerant recipients, arc was repressed during exponential growth and up-regulated during postexponential growth. In tolerant transformants, arc was constitutively expressed. Tol1 DNA transformed tolerance at the same rate as transformation of a point mutation (10(-2) to 10(-3)). The tolerance mutation mapped on a specific chromosomal fragment but was physically distant from arc. Importantly, arc deregulation was observed in most (6 of 10) of additional independent penicillin-tolerant mutants. Thus, although not exclusive, the association between arc deregulation and tolerance was not fortuitous. Since penicillin selection mimicked the antibiotic pressure operating in the clinical environment, arc deregulation might be an important correlate of naturally occurring tolerance and help in understanding the mechanism(s) underlying this clinically problematic phenotype.

  8. Point defects in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The principal properties of point defects are studied: thermodynamics, electronic structure, interactions with etended defects, production by irradiation. Some measuring methods are presented: atomic diffusion, spectroscopic methods, diffuse scattering of neutron and X rays, positron annihilation, molecular dynamics. Then points defects in various materials are investigated: ionic crystals, oxides, semiconductor materials, metals, intermetallic compounds, carbides, nitrides [fr

  9. Indexing Moving Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    We propose three indexing schemes for storing a set S of N points in the plane, each moving along a linear trajectory, so that any query of the following form can be answered quickly: Given a rectangle R and a real value t, report all K points of S that lie inside R at time t. We first present an...

  10. Generalized zero point anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Jose Alexandre; Maia Junior, Adolfo

    1994-01-01

    It is defined Zero point Anomaly (ZPA) as the difference between the Effective Potential (EP) and the Zero point Energy (ZPE). It is shown, for a massive and interacting scalar field that, in very general conditions, the renormalized ZPA vanishes and then the renormalized EP and ZPE coincide. (author). 3 refs

  11. Poisson branching point processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, K.; Teich, M.C.; Saleh, B.E.A.

    1984-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of a special branching point process. The initial process is assumed to be a homogeneous Poisson point process (HPP). The initiating events at each branching stage are carried forward to the following stage. In addition, each initiating event independently contributes a nonstationary Poisson point process (whose rate is a specified function) located at that point. The additional contributions from all points of a given stage constitute a doubly stochastic Poisson point process (DSPP) whose rate is a filtered version of the initiating point process at that stage. The process studied is a generalization of a Poisson branching process in which random time delays are permitted in the generation of events. Particular attention is given to the limit in which the number of branching stages is infinite while the average number of added events per event of the previous stage is infinitesimal. In the special case when the branching is instantaneous this limit of continuous branching corresponds to the well-known Yule--Furry process with an initial Poisson population. The Poisson branching point process provides a useful description for many problems in various scientific disciplines, such as the behavior of electron multipliers, neutron chain reactions, and cosmic ray showers

  12. The Lagrangian Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, J. Oliver

    2017-01-01

    There are five unique points in a star/planet system where a satellite can be placed whose orbital period is equal to that of the planet. Simple methods for calculating the positions of these points, or at least justifying their existence, are developed.

  13. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    ; the Cumulated Publication Point Indicator (CPPI), which graphically illustrates the cumulated gain of obtained vs. ideal points, both seen as vectors; and the normalized Cumulated Publication Point Index (nCPPI) that represents the cumulated gain of publication success as index values, either graphically......The paper presents comparative analyses of two publication point systems, The Norwegian and the in-house system from the interdisciplinary Danish Institute of International Studies (DIIS), used as case in the study for publications published 2006, and compares central citation-based indicators...... with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS...

  14. Multispectral Image Feature Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Aguilera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel feature point descriptor for the multispectral image case: Far-Infrared and Visible Spectrum images. It allows matching interest points on images of the same scene but acquired in different spectral bands. Initially, points of interest are detected on both images through a SIFT-like based scale space representation. Then, these points are characterized using an Edge Oriented Histogram (EOH descriptor. Finally, points of interest from multispectral images are matched by finding nearest couples using the information from the descriptor. The provided experimental results and comparisons with similar methods show both the validity of the proposed approach as well as the improvements it offers with respect to the current state-of-the-art.

  15. The breeding of Japonica Yanjing 10 rice mutant induced by space mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianhua; Chen Xiulan; Zhang Rong; Wang Jinrong; Liu Jian; Jiao Juan; He Zhentian; Wang Lin

    2011-01-01

    The dry seed of mid-maturing Japonica rice Yanjing 10 was used for space mutation breeding which was carried by a satellite for 15 days in 2006. Through three generations of breeding, a group of mutants were obtained. In the article, we reported in detail the breeding procedures, proposed the breeding technical method for space mutation for rice improvement. Planting multiple seedlings per hill to prohibit tillering at SP 1 generation, and bulked selection in combination with directional selection at the SP 2 ∼ SP 3 generation were the two key points of the breeding methods. (authors)

  16. Genetic studies with morphological mutants of Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Ponty; Das, Arati

    1979-01-01

    Three classes of coloured mutations, viz., fawn, yellow and green, occurred recurrently among the population following UV- and γ-radiation from Co 60 of a wild Aspergillus niger strain 350. Ten mutants were picked up and complementation tests were performed by growing them in pairwise combinations. In two cases, allelic mutants of the same colour were observed. All these mutants were again grown in pairwise crosses with a brown A. niger mutant of different lineage. A poor heterokaryotic growth was, however, observed in one combination which later produced a diploid heterozygous nucleus. It segregated spontaneously to develop a large variety of colonies ranging from haploidy to diploidy including aneuploids. These have been analysed genetically and the possible explanations have been given. (auth.)

  17. Gamma ray induced mutants in Colocasia with improved storability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudevan, K.; Jos, J.S.; Padmaja, G.

    1989-01-01

    Our mutation induction experiments with Colocasia esculenta (taro) were described before. Poor storability of tubers and acridity of tuber flesh in tubers are problems in taro. While screening for induced mutants, variability in shelf-life of tubers was observed. Tubers of the mutant CM 17 did neither spoil nor lose their viability even after storing for 180 days. Yield and results of quality analyses are presented in the Table in comparison with the control variety C 9 (locally known as ''Thamarakkannan''), the check variety Rasmi (well accepted in Kerala) and another mutant CM 1. Besides high yield and long storability, the mutant CM 17 shows a reduction in phenol and sugar, but an increase in dry matter and starch content which were found to be excellent characteristics for making taro chips as the usual browning phenomenon did not occur

  18. Compact type mutants in apple and sour cherries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagaja, S.W.; Przybyla, A.

    1976-01-01

    Induction of mutations in deciduous fruits is considered complementary to the conventional breeding methods. Several promissing mutants, particularly in apples, were described and some of them were introduced to commercial orchards. Studies described herein are aimed at developing compact type mutants in apple cultivars, apple rootstocks and in sour cherry cultivars. Data obtained so far confirm the results of the other authors, who developed compact type mutants in apples and sweet cherries. Physiological studies have shown that the leaves of spontaneous apple mutants of compact type are more efficient in photosynthesis than the leaves of respective standards. In spite of this, using branch ringing techniques, it was found that the leaves of compacts and those of standards do not differ in their productivity. There seem to be several advantages in employing tissue culture technique in mutation breeding. That is why a project was started to work out a method of growing apple shoots from adventitious buds developed on sections of roots. (author)

  19. nitrosoguanidine-induced cadmium resistant mutants of Aspergillus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    nitrosoguanidine-induced cadmium resistant mutants of. Aspergillus niger. SAMAR ... gens and UV irradiation to study transportation of cad- mium ion through cell ..... Rowley W S 1993 Yeast bZib proteins mediate pleiotropic drug and metal ...

  20. Selection of mutants of capsicum annuum induced by gamma ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. I.; Lee, Y. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, E. K. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    For induction and selection of mutations of Capsicum annuum L., dry seeds of pure lines No.1 and No.2 were irradiated with gamma ray of 150Gy, 200Gy and 250Gy. Various mutants were selected such as showing early maturity, short plant height, long fruit and chlorophyll mutations. Mutation frequency of No.1 line was 3.4% in the dose of 150Gy, while the frequency of No.2 line was 2.7% in the dose of 250Gy. For selection of resistant mutant to amino acid analog, the optimum concentration of 5-methyltryptophan (5-MT) and S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine were 25 ppm and 30 ppm, respectively. Four resistant mutant lines to 5-MT were selected among 400 mutant lines.

  1. Characterization of a novel curled-cotyledons mutant in soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARL

    different stages. Protein and amino acid contents in seeds of mutant are higher than those of the wild .... curled shape, from seedling to maturation phase (Figure. 1D-1F). ..... Arabidopsis seed dermination by stimulating abscisic acid synthesis.

  2. early maturing mutants in Indica rice and their traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; He Zhentian; Han Yuepeng; Liu Xueyu; Yang Hefeng; Xu Chenwu; Gu Shiliang

    1998-01-01

    The correlation and genetic parameters of eleven agronomic characters of 50 early mature lines induced from late mature cultivar, IR 1529-68-3-2 were studied by morphological classification and correlation and regression analysis. The results showed that: 1. The early mutants could be divided into two ecotype: early mature type and medium mature type of mid-maturity rice. 2. The 1000-grain weight of early mutants negatively correlated with the length of growing period. 3. According to direct path coefficients, the relation with heading period of early mutants was in order of 1000-grain-weight>plant height>seed sterility. 4.The higher heritability in broad sense were found in plant height, 1000 grain weight and heading period of the early mutants

  3. Signal transduction by normal isoforms and W mutant variants of the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, A D; Ellis, C; Lyman, S D; Anderson, D M; Williams, D E; Bernstein, A; Pawson, T

    1991-09-01

    Germline mutations at the Dominant White Spotting (W) and Steel (Sl) loci have provided conclusive genetic evidence that c-kit mediated signal transduction pathways are essential for normal mouse development. We have analysed the interactions of normal and mutant W/c-kit gene products with cytoplasmic signalling proteins, using transient c-kit expression assays in COS cells. In addition to the previously identified c-kit gene product (Kit+), a second normal Kit isoform (KitA+) containing an in-frame insertion, Gly-Asn-Asn-Lys, within the extracellular domain, was detected in murine mast cell cultures and mid-gestation placenta. Both Kit+ and KitA+ isoforms showed increased autophosphorylation and enhanced association with phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3' kinase and PLC gamma 1, when stimulated with recombinant soluble Steel factor. No association or increase in phosphorylation of GAP and two GAP-associated proteins, p62 and p190, was observed. The two isoforms had distinct activities in the absence of exogenous soluble Steel factor; Kit+, but not KitA+, showed constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation that was accompanied by a low constitutive level of association with PI-3' kinase and PLC gamma 1. Introduction of the point substitutions associated with W37 (Glu582----Lys) or W41 (Val831----Met) mutant alleles into c-kit expression constructs abolished (W37) or reduced (W41) the Steel factor-induced association of the Kit receptor with signalling proteins in a manner proportional to the overall severity of the corresponding W mutant phenotype. These data suggest a diversity of normal Kit signalling pathways and indicate that W mutant phenotypes result from primary defects in the Kit receptor that affect its interaction with cytoplasmic signalling proteins.

  4. Characteristics of the repair - deficient mutants 1435 plague microbe strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temiralieva, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    Repair-deficient mutants 1435 A uvr - hcr - , 1435-17 uvr - hcr + and 1435-35 lon have been obtained from 1435 plague microbe strain, isolated from a large gerbil living in the Central Asian desert region. The mutants have the same cultural-morphological and enzymatic characteristics, the same need in growth factors and similar virulence determinants as the original strain, but they do not cause death of the experimental animals

  5. High yielding small grain mutant of rice variety Pankaj

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-07-01

    Full text: By treatment with EMS a mutant has been produced from the variety Pankaj which has better tillering, longer panicle and more grains per panicle. In multilocation trials at Burdwan, Suri and Rampurhat in West Bengal it yielded significantly more than Pankaj and Mahsuri at all locations, with a mean 5.2t. The mutant named BU 79 would be a suitable substitute for Pankaj and similar long-duration rices. (author)

  6. Investigations on gamma ray induced chlorophyll variegated mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, S.K.; Dwivedi, A.K.; Banerji, B.K.

    1995-01-01

    Considering economic importance of chlorophyll variegation in floriculture trade an attempt was made for cytological, anatomical and biochemical analysis of four Bougainvillea and Lantana depressa chlorophyll variegated mutants for better and clear understanding of origin of chlorophyll variegation. No cytological evidence could be detected for their origin. Anatomical and biochemical examinations revealed that chlorophyll variegation in these mutants were due to changes in biosynthesis pathways and time of chlorophyll synthesis in palisade and spongy mesophyll cells. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Semi-dwarf mutants in triticale and wheat breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    The triticale lines Beagle and DR-IRA have been subjected to ionizing irradiation and chemical mutagenesis in order to produce semi-dwarf mutants. Beagle is 100 cm tall and DR-IRA 80 cm under average field conditions. A bulk then pedigree method is currently represented by 158 single plots of M 6 (or in some cases M 7 ) mutants that are from 5 to 35 cm shorter than the control variety. The shortest mutants are 65 cm in height. Forty of these mutants are also earlier flowering than the control varieties. Replicated yield testing will be conducted on confirmed mutants in 1983. Response to gibberellic acid of these mutants will also be determined. The Cornerstone male-sterility mutant (ms1c) on chromosome arm 4Aα has been combined with the GA-insensitive/reduced height gene Gai/Rht1 which is also on chromosome arm 4Aα. The ms1c mutant has also been combined with Gai/Rht2 on chromosome 4D and with both Gai/Rht1 and Gai/Rht2. The combination ms1c and Gai/Rht1 has been chosen as the basis of a composite cross. Thirteen varieties were tested with GA 3 and seven (Warigal, Aroona, Oxley, Banks, Avocet, Matipo and Toquifen) which contain Gai/Rht1 were crossed with ms1c Gai/Rht1 and entered into an interpollinating F 2 . The entire composite is homozygous for this semi-dwarf allele and selection will be practiced for increased height on a GA-insensitive background. (author)

  8. Isolation of new gravitropic mutants under hypergravity conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Akiko Mori; Masatsugu Toyota; Masatsugu Toyota; Masayoshi Shimada; Mika Mekata; Tetsuya Kurata; Masao Tasaka; Miyo Terao Morita

    2016-01-01

    Forward genetics is a powerful approach used to link genotypes and phenotypes, and mutant screening/analysis has provided deep insights into many aspects of plant physiology. Gravitropism is a tropistic response in plants, in which hypocotyls and stems sense the direction of gravity and grow upwards. Previous studies of gravitropic mutants have suggested that shoot endodermal cells in Arabidopsis stems and hypocotyls are capable of sensing gravity (i.e., statocytes). In the present study, we ...

  9. Isolation of New Gravitropic Mutants under Hypergravity Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Akiko; Toyota, Masatsugu; Shimada, Masayoshi; Mekata, Mika; Kurata, Tetsuya; Tasaka, Masao; Morita, Miyo T.

    2016-01-01

    Forward genetics is a powerful approach used to link genotypes and phenotypes, and mutant screening/analysis has provided deep insights into many aspects of plant physiology. Gravitropism is a tropistic response in plants, in which hypocotyls and stems sense the direction of gravity and grow upward. Previous studies of gravitropic mutants have suggested that shoot endodermal cells in Arabidopsis stems and hypocotyls are capable of sensing gravity (i.e., statocytes). In the present study, we r...

  10. X-ray-induced mutants resistant to 8-azaguanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, J.H.; Dewey, W.C.; Hopwood, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    Asynchronous Chinese hamster ovary cells were irradiated and colony survival in Alpha MEM medium with dialyzed serum was determined with or without 15 μg/ml 8-Azaguanine (AG). Data indicated that a reproducible assay for the system was dependent upon controlling cell density at least two days prior to induction as well as throughout the expression period. Generally, spontaneous and radiation-induced mutant frequencies decreased when cell densities exceeded a critical density of 3-6 x 10 4 cells/cm 2 . Infrequently, the critical density was exceeded by a factor of two with no observed decrease, possibly correlated with a longer cell doubling time. Drug depletion artifacts can occur because of drug degradation, or because wild-type cells utilize the drug or produce conditions which reduce uptake of the drug. Thus, as the effective drug concentration is lowered, the observed mutant frequency increases because a spectrum of mutants resistant to only low concentrations can now survive. In fact, refeeding with AG at intervals during the incubation period lowered spontaneous and radiation-induced frequencies approx. 5-fold. Therefore, to standardize conditions, cells were trypsinized at the end of the expression time and replated at a constant cell number for mutant selection by AG. Over two generations of growth during the expression period were required for optimal manifestation of induced mutants, and when densities were kept below 4 x 10 4 cells/cm 2 at all times, observed mutant frequencies did not change significantly over a period between 80 and 140 h post-induction (over 4 generations for irradiated cells and over 6 generations for controls). Previous reports of observed mutant frequencies decreasing beyond three generations may be due to cell interaction prior to mutant selection

  11. A wheat cold resistance mutant derived from space mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peng; Sun Mingzhu; Zhang Fengyun; Gao Guoqiang; Qiu Denglin; Li Xinhua

    2012-01-01

    A cold resistance mutant, obtained by spaceflight mutagenesis on the seeds of wheat variety Han6172, and the DNA of cold resistance mutant and contrast Han6172 were compared by SRAP technique. 380 pairs of primers were screened, 6 pairs of them had polymorphisms between mutant and contrast, the rate was 1.58%, and this data indicated that there are no obvious DNA differences between mutant and contrast Six specific fragments were obtained, 3 fragments of them were amplified in mutant. Homology analysis in GenBank showed that Me3-Em7-Mt, Me4-Em11-CK, Me7-Em19-CK and Me6-Em9-Mt all had homologous sequences with wheat chromosome 3B-specific BAC library, and this result indicated that the gene and regulator sequences associated with mutant cold resistance might locate on 3B chromosome. It was speculated that space mutation induced the mutation of 3B chromosome primary structure, and influenced the expressions of cold resistance genes, which resulted in the mutation of cold resistance ability. (authors)

  12. Proteomic analysis of the flooding tolerance mechanism in mutant soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Setsuko; Nanjo, Yohei; Nishimura, Minoru

    2013-02-21

    Flooding stress of soybean is a serious problem because it reduces growth; however, flooding-tolerant cultivars have not been identified. To analyze the flooding tolerance mechanism of soybean, the flooding-tolerant mutant was isolated and analyzed using a proteomic technique. Flooding-tolerance tests were repeated five times using gamma-ray irradiated soybeans, whose root growth (M6 stage) was not suppressed even under flooding stress. Two-day-old wild-type and mutant plants were subjected to flooding stress for 2days, and proteins were identified using a gel-based proteomic technique. In wild-type under flooding stress, levels of proteins related to development, protein synthesis/degradation, secondary metabolism, and the cell wall changed; however, these proteins did not markedly differ in the mutant. In contrast, an increased number of fermentation-related proteins were identified in the mutant under flooding stress. The root tips of mutant plants were not affected by flooding stress, even though the wild-type plants had damaged root. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the mutant increased at an early stage of flooding stress compared with that of the wild-type. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of the fermentation system in the early stages of flooding may be an important factor for the acquisition of flooding tolerance in soybean. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Isolation of new gravitropic mutants under hypergravity conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Mori

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Forward genetics is a powerful approach used to link genotypes and phenotypes, and mutant screening/analysis has provided deep insights into many aspects of plant physiology. Gravitropism is a tropistic response in plants, in which hypocotyls and stems sense the direction of gravity and grow upwards. Previous studies of gravitropic mutants have suggested that shoot endodermal cells in Arabidopsis stems and hypocotyls are capable of sensing gravity (i.e., statocytes. In the present study, we report a new screening system using hypergravity conditions to isolate enhancers of gravitropism mutants, and we also describe a rapid and efficient genome mapping method, using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP-based markers. Using the endodermal-amyloplast less 1 (eal1 mutant, which exhibits defective development of endodermal cells and gravitropism, we found that hypergravity (10 g restored the reduced gravity responsiveness in eal1 hypocotyls and could, therefore, be used to obtain mutants with further reduction in gravitropism in the eal1 background. Using the new screening system, we successfully isolated six ene (enhancer of eal1 mutants that exhibited little or no gravitropism under hypergravity conditions, and using NGS and map-based cloning with SNP markers, we narrowed down the potential causative genes, which revealed a new genetic network for shoot gravitropism in Arabidopsis.

  14. Isolation of New Gravitropic Mutants under Hypergravity Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akiko; Toyota, Masatsugu; Shimada, Masayoshi; Mekata, Mika; Kurata, Tetsuya; Tasaka, Masao; Morita, Miyo T

    2016-01-01

    Forward genetics is a powerful approach used to link genotypes and phenotypes, and mutant screening/analysis has provided deep insights into many aspects of plant physiology. Gravitropism is a tropistic response in plants, in which hypocotyls and stems sense the direction of gravity and grow upward. Previous studies of gravitropic mutants have suggested that shoot endodermal cells in Arabidopsis stems and hypocotyls are capable of sensing gravity (i.e., statocytes). In the present study, we report a new screening system using hypergravity conditions to isolate enhancers of gravitropism mutants, and we also describe a rapid and efficient genome mapping method, using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based markers. Using the endodermal-amyloplast less 1 ( eal1 ) mutant, which exhibits defective development of endodermal cells and gravitropism, we found that hypergravity (10 g) restored the reduced gravity responsiveness in eal1 hypocotyls and could, therefore, be used to obtain mutants with further reduction in gravitropism in the eal1 background. Using the new screening system, we successfully isolated six ene ( enhancer of eal1 ) mutants that exhibited little or no gravitropism under hypergravity conditions, and using NGS and map-based cloning with SNP markers, we narrowed down the potential causative genes, which revealed a new genetic network for shoot gravitropism in Arabidopsis .

  15. Sodium azide mutagenesis in wheat: Mutants with golden glumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, K.A.; Jafri, K.A.; Arain, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    In bread wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (2n=6x=42, AABBDD), detection of induced mutations is hampered by the presence of duplicate and triplicate genes. Induced changes in spike characteristics are known, but mutants with changed glume colour do not seem to have been reported. Physical mutagens such as gamma rays, thermal neutrons and fast neutrons, and chemical mutagens like EMS, El, dES and NEH have been extensively used for induction of mutations in bread wheat but it seems as if these mutagens did not induce mutants with changed glume colour. We used sodium azide for inducing mutations in the widely adapted cultivar 'Sonalika', which is characterized by brown glume colour. Presoaked seeds were treated with 0.2M sodium azide for 3 hours. Three spikes were harvested from each M 1 plant. M 2 generation was space-planted as spike progeny. We were successful in identifying 3 mutants with golden glumes. The mutants resemble 'Sonalika' in other spike characteristics. The mutants glume colour was confirmed in M 3 . The mutants were also evaluated for agronomically important characteristics. Some characters were significantly different from the parent. Glume colours may be useful as genetic markers since such characters are less influenced by the environment. Our investigation confirms that also agronomically useful genetic variation may be readily induced in bread wheat through sodium azide

  16. Inactivation of carbenicillin by some radioresistant mutant strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahiera, T.S.; Mahmoud, M.I.; Bashandy, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    Sensitivity test of five bacterial species to carbenicillin was performed microbiologically. The bacterial species were previously isolated from high level radiation environment. All the studied species could either highly decrease the antibiotic activity or even inactivate it completely. Detailed study of the inactivation of carbenicillin by the radioresistant mutant strains B. Laterosporus, B. firmus and M. roseus was performed, in the present study. Using high performace liquid chromatography technique. The gram-positive m. roseus mutant strain seemed to be the most active mutant in degrading the antibiotic. The left over of the antibiotic attained a value of 9% of the original amount after 14 day incubation of the antibiotic with this mutant strain, while the value of the left over reached 36% and 32% after the same period of incubation with the mutants B. laterosporus and B. firmus respectively. In the case of bacillus species, the degradation of the antibiotic started at the same moment when it was added to the bacterial cultures. This fact may indicate that the inactivation of the studied antibiotic by these bacillus species was due to extracellular enzymes extracted rapidly in the surrounding medium. In the case of M. roseus the inactivation process started later. after the addition of the antibiotic to the mutant culture

  17. Leaf and canopy photosynthesis of a chlorophyll deficient soybean mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakowska, Karolina; Alberti, Giorgio; Genesio, Lorenzo; Peressotti, Alessandro; Delle Vedove, Gemini; Gianelle, Damiano; Colombo, Roberto; Rodeghiero, Mirco; Panigada, Cinzia; Juszczak, Radosław; Celesti, Marco; Rossini, Micol; Haworth, Matthew; Campbell, Benjamin W; Mevy, Jean-Philippe; Vescovo, Loris; Cendrero-Mateo, M Pilar; Rascher, Uwe; Miglietta, Franco

    2018-03-02

    The photosynthetic, optical, and morphological characteristics of a chlorophyll-deficient (Chl-deficient) "yellow" soybean mutant (MinnGold) were examined in comparison with 2 green varieties (MN0095 and Eiko). Despite the large difference in Chl content, similar leaf photosynthesis rates were maintained in the Chl-deficient mutant by offsetting the reduced absorption of red photons by a small increase in photochemical efficiency and lower non-photochemical quenching. When grown in the field, at full canopy cover, the mutants reflected a significantly larger proportion of incoming shortwave radiation, but the total canopy light absorption was only slightly reduced, most likely due to a deeper penetration of light into the canopy space. As a consequence, canopy-scale gross primary production and ecosystem respiration were comparable between the Chl-deficient mutant and the green variety. However, total biomass production was lower in the mutant, which indicates that processes other than steady state photosynthesis caused a reduction in biomass accumulation over time. Analysis of non-photochemical quenching relaxation and gas exchange in Chl-deficient and green leaves after transitions from high to low light conditions suggested that dynamic photosynthesis might be responsible for the reduced biomass production in the Chl-deficient mutant under field conditions. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A wheat cold resistance mutant derived from space mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peng; Sun Mingzhu; Zhang Fengyun; Gao Guoqiang; Qiu Denglin; Li Xinhua

    2011-01-01

    A cold resistance mutant, obtained by spaceflight mutagenesis on the seeds of wheat variety Han6172, and the DNA of cold resistance mutant and contrast Han6172 were compared by SRAP technique. 380 pairs of primers were screened, 6 pairs of them had polymorphisms between mutant and contrast, the rate was 1.58%, and this data indicated that there are no obvious DNA differences between mutant and contrast. Six specific fragments were obtained, 3 fragments of them were amplified in mutant. Homology analysis in GenBank showed that Me3-Em7-Mt, Me4-Em11-CK, Me7-Em19-CK and Me6-Em9-Mt all had homologous sequences with wheat chromosome 3B-specific BAC library, and this result indicated that the gene and regulator sequences associated with mutant cold resistance might locate on 3B chromosome. It was speculated that space mutation induced the mutation of 3B chromosome primary structure, and influenced the expressions of cold resistance genes, which resulted in the mutation of cold resistance ability. (authors)

  19. Gamma ray induced male sterility mutant in lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.; Yadav, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Male sterility refers to the failure of pollen grains to bring about effective fertilization, either due to structural default or physiological disfunctioning and has special significance in hybridization programmes. Male steriles have been produced in a number of crop plants like red gram, pigeon pea, mung bean, khesari and lentil. A completely male sterile mutant was isolated in Lens culinaris Medik, after seed treatment with 100 Gy dose of gamma rays. The male sterile mutant showed 100% pollen sterility but was morphologically more vigorous than the parent plants. It showed more branches and its leaves were bigger, more oblong and dark green. The number of flowers borne by the mutant was significantly higher than any other plant of the treatment. The size of the flowers was also increased but the anthers were smaller in size. Pollen grains were few in number, round in shape but empty and did not take up any stain, indicating that normal microsporogenesis had not taken place. This male sterile mutant was used as the female parent and pollinated with pollen of a parent. Four pods with one seed in each were formed indicating that the mutant was female fertile. The seeds were smaller than those of the parent variety and also dark coloured. The mutant showed increased vigour and flower number as compared to parental plants. Lentil is an important pulse crop and induction of variability in its germplasm is necessary for its improvement. Male steriles can be used conveniently in lentil hybridization programmes. (author)

  20. Do acupuncture points exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Xiaohui; Zhang Xinyi; Liu Chenglin; Dang, Ruishan; Huang Yuying; He Wei; Ding Guanghong

    2009-01-01

    We used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence analysis to probe the distribution of four chemical elements in and around acupuncture points, two located in the forearm and two in the lower leg. Three of the four acupuncture points showed significantly elevated concentrations of elements Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in relation to levels in the surrounding tissue, with similar elevation ratios for Cu and Fe. The mapped distribution of these elements implies that each acupuncture point seems to be elliptical with the long axis along the meridian. (note)

  1. Do acupuncture points exist?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Xiaohui; Zhang Xinyi [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (State Key Laboratory), and Synchrotron Radiation Research Center of Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Liu Chenglin [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers' College, Yancheng 224002 (China); Dang, Ruishan [Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang Yuying; He Wei [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ding Guanghong [Shanghai Research Center of Acupuncture and Meridian, Pudong, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-05-07

    We used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence analysis to probe the distribution of four chemical elements in and around acupuncture points, two located in the forearm and two in the lower leg. Three of the four acupuncture points showed significantly elevated concentrations of elements Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in relation to levels in the surrounding tissue, with similar elevation ratios for Cu and Fe. The mapped distribution of these elements implies that each acupuncture point seems to be elliptical with the long axis along the meridian. (note)

  2. La actitud hacia la docencia, la formación integral en la educación secundaria y a su proyecto de vida: Una visión desde los estudiantes de colegios en áreas rurales Attitude towards Teaching, Comprehensive Formation, and Students’ Life Project: The point of view of a group of students from the 11th grade in rural schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elionay Quirós Meneses

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Recibido 18 de junio de 2012 • Corregido 05 de marzo de 2013 • Aceptado 13 de marzo de 2013Estudio transcenccional descriptivo de enfoque cuantitativo acerca de la actitud hacia la docencia, la formación integral en la educación secundaria y a su proyecto de vida: una visión desde los estudiantes de colegios en áreas rurales, el cual fue realizado en el año 2011. Participaron 41 estudiantes de undécimo año de colegios rurales costarricenses que forman parte del programa Esperanza joven, de la División de Educología de la Universidad Nacional. La información se recopiló con una escala Likert, cuyos resultados permitieron destacar, en los estudiantes, una actitud positiva hacia el desempeño docente, la formación integral, evaluación de los aprendizajes, incentivos familiares e institucionales y metas personales. En tanto, la incentivación que ofrece la institución hacia los estudiantes obtuvo una actitud negativa. Lo anterior permite hacer un análisis objetivo y llegar a conclusiones precisas.This paper refers to a cross-sectional descriptive study with a quantitative approach on the point of view of students from rural areas concerning teaching, comprehensive formation of students from the 7th to 11th grades and the students’ life project. The study was conducted in 2011 with the participation of 41 students from the 11th grade of the Costa Rican rural schools involved in the Esperanza Joven program of the School of Educology of the Universidad Nacional. The information was collected through a Likert scale. The results reported a positive attitude towards teacher’s performance, comprehensive formation, evaluation of learning, family and institutional stimulus, and personal goals. In contrast, there was a negative attitude about the motivation of the school to its students. This research included an objective analysis and provided accurate conclusions.

  3. Comprehensive analysis of transport aircraft flight performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2008-04-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the art in comprehensive performance codes for fixed-wing aircraft. The importance of system analysis in flight performance is discussed. The paper highlights the role of aerodynamics, propulsion, flight mechanics, aeroacoustics, flight operation, numerical optimisation, stochastic methods and numerical analysis. The latter discipline is used to investigate the sensitivities of the sub-systems to uncertainties in critical state parameters or functional parameters. The paper discusses critically the data used for performance analysis, and the areas where progress is required. Comprehensive analysis codes can be used for mission fuel planning, envelope exploration, competition analysis, a wide variety of environmental studies, marketing analysis, aircraft certification and conceptual aircraft design. A comprehensive program that uses the multi-disciplinary approach for transport aircraft is presented. The model includes a geometry deck, a separate engine input deck with the main parameters, a database of engine performance from an independent simulation, and an operational deck. The comprehensive code has modules for deriving the geometry from bitmap files, an aerodynamics model for all flight conditions, a flight mechanics model for flight envelopes and mission analysis, an aircraft noise model and engine emissions. The model is validated at different levels. Validation of the aerodynamic model is done against the scale models DLR-F4 and F6. A general model analysis and flight envelope exploration are shown for the Boeing B-777-300 with GE-90 turbofan engines with intermediate passenger capacity (394 passengers in 2 classes). Validation of the flight model is done by sensitivity analysis on the wetted area (or profile drag), on the specific air range, the brake-release gross weight and the aircraft noise. A variety of results is shown, including specific air range charts, take-off weight-altitude charts, payload-range performance

  4. Professional Business Connectivity Services in SharePoint 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Hillier, Scot

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage on Business Connectivity Services within SharePoint 2010 As Microsoft's new multipurpose portal technology, Business Connectivity Services (BCS) is a brand new way for SharePoint users to seamlessly access and integrate data from any application or databases within SharePoint 2010. With this in-depth guide, a team of SharePoint experts walks you through the features of the new BCS, including the ability for users to view and modify the data from SharePoint 2010 with BCS. You'll explore how to use BCS, deploy solutions, create external content types and lists, create .NET

  5. Marine Point Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    will link to the zone forecast and then allow further zooming to the point of interest whereas on the Honolulu, HI Chicago, IL Northern Indiana, IN Lake Charles, LA New Orleans, LA Boston, MA Caribou, ME

  6. Critical-point nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that a change of nuclear shape may be described in terms of a phase transition and that specific nuclei may lie close to the critical point of the transition. Analytical descriptions of such critical-point nuclei have been introduced recently and they are described briefly. The results of extensive searches for possible examples of critical-point behavior are presented. Alternative pictures, such as describing bands in the candidate nuclei using simple ΔK = 0 and ΔK = 2 rotational-coupling models, are discussed, and the limitations of the different approaches highlighted. A possible critical-point description of the transition from a vibrational to rotational pairing phase is suggested

  7. National Wetlands Inventory Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland point features (typically wetlands that are too small to be as area features at the data scale) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The...

  8. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  9. Iowa Geologic Sampling Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Point locations of geologic samples/files in the IGS repository. Types of samples include well cuttings, outcrop samples, cores, drillers logs, measured sections,...

  10. Characterizing fixed points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjo Zlobec

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A set of sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence of a point x⋆ such that f(x⋆ = x⋆ is called a "fixed point theorem". Many such theorems are named after well-known mathematicians and economists. Fixed point theorems are among most useful ones in applied mathematics, especially in economics and game theory. Particularly important theorem in these areas is Kakutani's fixed point theorem which ensures existence of fixed point for point-to-set mappings, e.g., [2, 3, 4]. John Nash developed and applied Kakutani's ideas to prove the existence of (what became known as "Nash equilibrium" for finite games with mixed strategies for any number of players. This work earned him a Nobel Prize in Economics that he shared with two mathematicians. Nash's life was dramatized in the movie "Beautiful Mind" in 2001. In this paper, we approach the system f(x = x differently. Instead of studying existence of its solutions our objective is to determine conditions which are both necessary and sufficient that an arbitrary point x⋆ is a fixed point, i.e., that it satisfies f(x⋆ = x⋆. The existence of solutions for continuous function f of the single variable is easy to establish using the Intermediate Value Theorem of Calculus. However, characterizing fixed points x⋆, i.e., providing answers to the question of finding both necessary and sufficient conditions for an arbitrary given x⋆ to satisfy f(x⋆ = x⋆, is not simple even for functions of the single variable. It is possible that constructive answers do not exist. Our objective is to find them. Our work may require some less familiar tools. One of these might be the "quadratic envelope characterization of zero-derivative point" recalled in the next section. The results are taken from the author's current research project "Studying the Essence of Fixed Points". They are believed to be original. The author has received several feedbacks on the preliminary report and on parts of the project

  11. Photoacoustic Point Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calasso, Irio G.; Craig, Walter; Diebold, Gerald J.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the photoacoustic effect generated by heat deposition at a point in space in an inviscid fluid. Delta-function and long Gaussian optical pulses are used as sources in the wave equation for the displacement potential to determine the fluid motion. The linear sound-generation mechanism gives bipolar photoacoustic waves, whereas the nonlinear mechanism produces asymmetric tripolar waves. The salient features of the photoacoustic point source are that rapid heat deposition and nonlinear thermal expansion dominate the production of ultrasound

  12. Unconventional Quantum Critical Points

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Cenke

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we review the theory of unconventional quantum critical points that are beyond the Landau's paradigm. Three types of unconventional quantum critical points will be discussed: (1). The transition between topological order and semiclassical spin ordered phase; (2). The transition between topological order and valence bond solid phase; (3). The direct second order transition between different competing orders. We focus on the field theory and universality class of these unconventio...

  13. SharePoint governance

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Mudassar

    2013-01-01

    Masteroppgave i informasjons- og kommunikasjonsteknologi IKT590 2013 – Universitetet i Agder, Grimstad SharePoint is a web-based business collaboration platform from Microsoft which is very robust and dynamic in nature. The platform has been in the market for more than a decade and has been adapted by large number of organisations in the world. The platform has become larger in scale, richer in features and is improving consistently with every new version. However, SharePoint ...

  14. Who Benefits from an Intensive Comprehensive Aphasia Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Edna M.; Worrall, Linda; Cherney, Leora R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article summarizes current outcomes from intensive comprehensive aphasia programs (ICAPs) and examines data from one ICAP to identify those who respond and do not respond to treatment. Methods: Participants were divided into 2 groups, responders and nonresponders, based on ±5-point change score on the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised…

  15. Comprehensive Error Rate Testing (CERT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented the Comprehensive Error Rate Testing (CERT) program to measure improper payments in the Medicare...

  16. Stabilization of a duplicated segment Dp (II-I) in an uvs mutant of Aspergillus nidulans through genetic mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Prado, M.A.A. de; Zucchi, T.M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This research presents an analysis of a mutant with a duplicated segment of chromosome II translocated to the paba-y interval of chromosome I. This insertion promotes alterations in the meiotic and mitotic behavior of the strain, mitotic instability, uvs character and deteriorated morphology. The uvs character is closely linked to the insertion point and was shown to be responsible for the mitotic instability. The removal of this mutation through recombination promotes the stabilization of the strain. (author)

  17. Mutation induction and evaluation of high yield rice mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Rahim Harun; Sobri Husein; Rusli Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    The successful use of plant breeding for improving crops requires the existence of genetic variation of useful traits. Unfortunately, the desired variation is often lacking. However, radiation has been used to induce mutations and thereby generate genetic variation from which desired mutants may be selected. Mutation induction has become a proven way of creating variation within a crop variety. It offers the possibility of inducing desired attributes that either cannot be expressed in nature or have been lost during evolution. Rice is security food crop in Malaysia. Efforts were undertaken to enhance rice yield from 4.0 tones per hectare in 1995 to 5.5 tones per hectare in 2010. Proper management and good varieties are two factors that require for enhancing yield of rice. In this research, purified seeds of MR211 and MR219 were gamma irradiated at 100 to 400 Gray and sown for planting as M1 generation at MARDI experimental plot. The M2 population was sown in bulk with population size around 15,000 to 20,000 plants. Individual plant selection was carried out at maturity and each selected plant became a mutant line of M3 generation. Agronomic trial of M3 mutants lines were conducted in Mardi, Tanjung Karang, Selangor. About 115 of selected mutant lines were evaluated. Each row of those mutant lines were planted in two rows at planting distance of 25cm within and between rows. These mutant lines were visually observed and data were recorded in each of every mutant line. (Author)

  18. Defective glycinergic synaptic transmission in zebrafish motility mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Hirata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR β subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic transmission due to a lack of synaptic aggregation of GlyRs. Due to the consequent loss of reciprocal inhibition of motor circuits between the two sides of the spinal cord, motor neurons activate simultaneously on both sides resulting in bilateral contraction of axial muscles of beo mutants, eliciting the so-called ‘accordion’ phenotype. Similar defects in GlyR subunit genes have been observed in several mammals and are the basis for human hyperekplexia/startle disease. By contrast, zebrafish shocked (sho mutants have a defect in slc6a9, encoding GlyT1, a glycine transporter that is expressed by astroglial cells surrounding the glycinergic synapse in the hindbrain and spinal cord. GlyT1 mediates rapid uptake of glycine from the synaptic cleft, terminating synaptic transmission. In zebrafish sho mutants, there appears to be elevated extracellular glycine resulting in persistent inhibition of postsynaptic neurons and subsequent reduced motility, causing the ‘twitch once’ phenotype. We review current knowledge regarding zebrafish ‘accordion’ and ‘twitch once’ mutants, including beo and sho, and report the identification of a new α2 subunit that revises the phylogeny of zebrafish GlyRs.

  19. Defective Glycinergic Synaptic Transmission in Zebrafish Motility Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Hiromi; Carta, Eloisa; Yamanaka, Iori; Harvey, Robert J.; Kuwada, John Y.

    2009-01-01

    Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo) mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR) β subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic transmission due to a lack of synaptic aggregation of GlyRs. Due to the consequent loss of reciprocal inhibition of motor circuits between the two sides of the spinal cord, motor neurons activate simultaneously on both sides resulting in bilateral contraction of axial muscles of beo mutants, eliciting the so-called ‘accordion’ phenotype. Similar defects in GlyR subunit genes have been observed in several mammals and are the basis for human hyperekplexia/startle disease. By contrast, zebrafish shocked (sho) mutants have a defect in slc6a9, encoding GlyT1, a glycine transporter that is expressed by astroglial cells surrounding the glycinergic synapse in the hindbrain and spinal cord. GlyT1 mediates rapid uptake of glycine from the synaptic cleft, terminating synaptic transmission. In zebrafish sho mutants, there appears to be elevated extracellular glycine resulting in persistent inhibition of postsynaptic neurons and subsequent reduced motility, causing the ‘twitch-once’ phenotype. We review current knowledge regarding zebrafish ‘accordion’ and ‘twitch-once’ mutants, including beo and sho, and report the identification of a new α2 subunit that revises the phylogeny of zebrafish GlyRs. PMID:20161699

  20. Biochemical characteristics of mutant lines of currant tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatenko, I.Yu.; Khrustaleva, V.V.; Shcherbakov, V.K.

    1988-01-01

    The currant tomato is used in breeding for fruit quality. It contains up to 50 mg% ascorbic acid, a large quantity of sugar and 8-10% of dry matter. The weight of the fruit, however, does not exceed 1.2-1.5 g. The plants have long, spreading and very branchy stems. Gamma ray induced mutants of currant tomato were used, as initial material in breeding for fruit quality in varieties suitable for mechanized harvesting. The research was carried out mainly at the Department of Vegetable Growing Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Irrigation Farming. The regional variety Lebyazhinskij (suitable for mechanized harvesting) was adopted as the standard. Its fruits contain: 5.6% dry matter, 2.7% sugars, 0.543% titrated acidity, 26.6 mg/100 g ascorbic acid, 0.425 mg% carotene and 0.35% cellulose. The biochemical characteristics of the tomato mutants are shown. In terms of fruit dry matter, all mutants surpassed the standard. The acidity and the ascorbic acid content varied considerably. Most noteworthy in terms of carotene were the lines GP-5, GP-9 and GP-12. An important factor in the production of tomato paste is the fruit cellulose content. The lowest cellulose content is found in mutant GP-3. As shown, all of the mutants were early ripening. The mutants surpassed the standard in simultaneous fruit ripening. Mutant lines GP-3, GP-6, GP-9 and GP-12 will be used in the breeding programme for improving fruit quality of varieties suitable for mechanized harvesting

  1. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents comparative analyses of two publication point systems, The Norwegian and the in-house system from the interdiscplinary Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS), used as case in the study for publications published 2006, and compares central citation-based indicators...... with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS...... for all document types. Statistical significant correlations were only found between WoS and GS and the two publication point systems in between, respectively. The study demonstrates how the nCPPI can be applied to institutions as evaluation tools supplementary to JCI in various combinations...

  2. Decision Point 1 Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablonsky, Al; Barsoumian, Shant; Legere, David

    2013-05-01

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 2a of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO2 from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO2 to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO2 capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to the point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and proliferation. The overall process is carbon negative, resulting in mineralization of CO2 that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at the commercial scale. The project is being conducted in two phases. The primary objectives of Phase 1 were to elaborate proven SkyMine® process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2, complete a NEPA evaluation, and develop a comprehensive carbon life cycle analysis. The objective of the current Phase (2a) is to complete the detailed design of the pilot plant to be built in Phase 2b.

  3. Discovery of AG-120 (Ivosidenib): A First-in-Class Mutant IDH1 Inhibitor for the Treatment of IDH1 Mutant Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovici-Muller, Janeta; Lemieux, René M; Artin, Erin; Saunders, Jeffrey O; Salituro, Francesco G; Travins, Jeremy; Cianchetta, Giovanni; Cai, Zhenwei; Zhou, Ding; Cui, Dawei; Chen, Ping; Straley, Kimberly; Tobin, Erica; Wang, Fang; David, Muriel D; Penard-Lacronique, Virginie; Quivoron, Cyril; Saada, Véronique; de Botton, Stéphane; Gross, Stefan; Dang, Lenny; Yang, Hua; Utley, Luke; Chen, Yue; Kim, Hyeryun; Jin, Shengfang; Gu, Zhiwei; Yao, Gui; Luo, Zhiyong; Lv, Xiaobing; Fang, Cheng; Yan, Liping; Olaharski, Andrew; Silverman, Lee; Biller, Scott; Su, Shin-San M; Yen, Katharine

    2018-04-12

    Somatic point mutations at a key arginine residue (R132) within the active site of the metabolic enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) confer a novel gain of function in cancer cells, resulting in the production of d-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), an oncometabolite. Elevated 2-HG levels are implicated in epigenetic alterations and impaired cellular differentiation. IDH1 mutations have been described in an array of hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. Here, we report the discovery of AG-120 (ivosidenib), an inhibitor of the IDH1 mutant enzyme that exhibits profound 2-HG lowering in tumor models and the ability to effect differentiation of primary patient AML samples ex vivo. Preliminary data from phase 1 clinical trials enrolling patients with cancers harboring an IDH1 mutation indicate that AG-120 has an acceptable safety profile and clinical activity.

  4. Development Of New Chrysanthemum Mutants For Malaysian Floriculture Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaiton Ahmad; Affrida Abu Hassan; Shakinah Salleh; Nurul Hidayah Mahmud; Shuhaimi Shamsudin; Mohamed Najli Mohamed Yasin

    2014-01-01

    This five-year project was in collaboration with Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) under the Bilateral Cooperative Research Program and was partly funded by Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-Based Industry (MOA) under Agriculture R&D Fund. The main objective was to produce new chrysanthemum varieties with good horticultural traits especially for cut flower production. In this project, tissue culture samples of chrysanthemum (red and pink varieties) were sent to JAEA for ion beam irradiations. Plant regeneration and multiplication were carried out at Nuclear Malaysia whilst field screenings for morphological characteristics were done at MARDI Cameron Highlands. Through this project, a number of stable chrysanthemum mutants with various new features have been generated and of these, 8 mutants were selected based on their uniqueness and/or suitability for cut flower production. In preparation for future commercialization process, five of these mutants have been filed for plant variety protection with Department of Agriculture Malaysia and a similar process in Japan is also under consideration. In addition, molecular marker work to fingerprint these mutants has also been initiated and future research may also include development of markers for selected horticultural traits and isolation of unique mutant genes. (author)

  5. Characterization of MMS-sensitive mutants of Neurospora crassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLange, A.M.; Mishra, N.C.

    1982-01-01

    Several MMS-sensitive mutants of Neurospora crassa were compared with the wild-type strain for their relative sensitivities to UV, X-ray, and histidine. They were also compared for the frequency of spontaneous mutation at the loci which confer resistance to p-fluorophenylalanine. The mutants were also examined for possible defects in meiotic behavior in homozygous crosses and for any change in the inducible DNA salvage pathways. On the basis of these characterizations, the present MMS-sensitive mutants of Neurospora can be placed into three groups. On the basis of data presented, the MMS sensitivity of the first group mutants cannot be ascertained to arise from a defect in the DNA repair pathways; instead, it may stem from altered cell permeability or other pleotropic effects of the mus mutations. However, it can be suggested that the second and third group of mus mutants may indeed result from a defect in the DNA repair pathways controlled by the mus genes; this conclusion is based on their cross-sensitivity to a number of DNA-damaging agents such as MMS, UV and/or X-rays, high frequencies of spontaneous mutation and defects in meiotic behavior.

  6. Promising mutant variety of rice evolved through gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, S.C.; Sinha, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    Rice occupies a major share in crop production in the Chotanagpur plateau of Bihar State. Uplands are roughly 40% in area where traditional low yielding rice, known as ''gora'' is cultivated as directly sown crop. Despite introduction of high yielding rice varieties, gora group of rices continue to prevail. It is therefore desired to increase the productivity level of the gora rice by mutation breeding. One such mutant known as ''gora mutant'' was obtained through gamma irradiation (10 kR) of variety Brown gora. The maturity of both parent and mutant remaining constant (ie. 100 days), there is some improvement in other characteristics like plant height, tillering capacity and kernel character. The parent being tall, shy in tillering and red bold kernel, the mutant has dwarfish characteristics, profuse tillering habit and white kernel with fine grains. The yielding capacity of mutant derivative is 30-40% higher than the parent Brown gora. This variety is in pre-release stage, and the farmers have taken great liking for it. (author)

  7. Pollen irradiation method to obtain mutants in cucumber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, S.; Amano, E.

    1988-01-01

    Seed irradiation for mutation induction in dioecious crops like cucumber is not very useful because chimerism of the mutated tissues makes the segregation of mutants in the M 2 generation nearly impossible. This problem does not exist with pollen irradiation. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. var. Nishikisuyo) was used for a model experiment. The petals of male and female flowers were closed by pinching with binding wire before flowering to prevent pollination by insects. On the flowering day, the male flowers were collected and irradiated with 1kR to 10 kR of acute gamma rays (137-Cs), then used to pollinate the female flowers. The M 1 seeds thus obtained are not chimeric but heterozygous for induced mutations. When planted, no mutant phenotype appeared. Selfing within a plant lead to segregation of mutants in the M 2 generation. Seedling examination revealed eight mutants. One mutant line, in which the shape of leaves changed from pentagonal to round heart shape, was found under field conditions. The optimal dose for pollen irradiation seems to be between 2 kR and 4kR

  8. Mutant number distribution in an exponentially growing population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peter; Antal, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    We present an explicit solution to a classic model of cell-population growth introduced by Luria and Delbrück (1943 Genetics 28 491-511) 70 years ago to study the emergence of mutations in bacterial populations. In this model a wild-type population is assumed to grow exponentially in a deterministic fashion. Proportional to the wild-type population size, mutants arrive randomly and initiate new sub-populations of mutants that grow stochastically according to a supercritical birth and death process. We give an exact expression for the generating function of the total number of mutants at a given wild-type population size. We present a simple expression for the probability of finding no mutants, and a recursion formula for the probability of finding a given number of mutants. In the ‘large population-small mutation’ limit we recover recent results of Kessler and Levine (2014 J. Stat. Phys. doi:10.1007/s10955-014-1143-3) for a fully stochastic version of the process.

  9. Mutant number distribution in an exponentially growing population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Peter; Antal, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    We present an explicit solution to a classic model of cell-population growth introduced by Luria and Delbrück (1943 Genetics 28 491–511) 70 years ago to study the emergence of mutations in bacterial populations. In this model a wild-type population is assumed to grow exponentially in a deterministic fashion. Proportional to the wild-type population size, mutants arrive randomly and initiate new sub-populations of mutants that grow stochastically according to a supercritical birth and death process. We give an exact expression for the generating function of the total number of mutants at a given wild-type population size. We present a simple expression for the probability of finding no mutants, and a recursion formula for the probability of finding a given number of mutants. In the ‘large population-small mutation’ limit we recover recent results of Kessler and Levine (2014 J. Stat. Phys. doi:10.1007/s10955-014-1143-3) for a fully stochastic version of the process. (paper)

  10. A preliminary yield trial of some soybean mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratma, Rivaie

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary yield trial of some soybean mutant lines, derived from irradiated Orba variety with dose of 0.40 kGy, were carried out during the wet and dry season in 1979-1982 in Muara and Citayam, Bogor. The result obtained showed that yield potential of mutant lines no. M6/40/10 was higher than that of the control in dry season in 1979 as well as in the wet season of 1979/80 in Muara. Whereas, the yield potential of the mutant lines no. M6/40/8 and no. M6/40/14 were higher than that of the control only in the wet season. The yield potential of semi dwarf mutant lines no. M6/40/68 was highly significant compared to that of the control in dry season in Muara and the wet season in 1981/82 in Citayam. Whereas, the yield potential of the mutant lines no. M6/40/69 was higher yield compared to that of the control in dry season in 1981 in Muara. (author). 10 refs

  11. Analysis of AtCry1 and Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Derek; Purvis, Adam; Ahmad, Margaret; Link, Justin J.; Engle, Dorothy

    Cryptochrome is an incredibly versatile protein that influences numerous biological processes such as plant growth, bird migration, and sleep cycles. Due to the versatility of this protein, understanding the mechanism would allow for advances in numerous fields such as crop growth, animal behavior, and sleep disorders. It is known that cryptochrome requires blue light to function, but the exact processes in the regulation of biological activity are still not fully understood. It is believed that the c-terminal domain of the protein undergoes a conformational change when exposed to blue light which allows for biological function. Three different non-functioning mutants were tested during this study to gain insight on the mechanism of cryptochrome. Absorbance spectra showed a difference between two of the mutants and the wild type with one mutant showing little difference. Immunoprecipitation experiments were also conducted to identify the different c-terminal responses of the mutants. By studying non functioning mutants of this protein, the mechanism of the protein can be further characterized. This two-month research experience in Paris allowed us to experience international and interdisciplinary collaborations in science and immerse in a different culture. The Borcer Fund for Student Research, Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH, and John Hauck Foundation.

  12. Productive mutants in lemongrass induced by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinathan Nair, V.

    1980-01-01

    Seeds of the lemongrass variety O.D. 19 were irradiated with gamma rays at a dose range of 5 to 30 krad. M 1 plants with one or a few tillers differing from the standard plants of O.D. 19 were selected, split into single slips and planted as clonal progenies. Mutants were isolated in M 1 V 1 and carried forward. Forty two M 1 V 2 mutant clones differing from O.D. 19 in morphological characters such as vigour, plant height, growth habit, pigmentation and number of tillers have been established. These were evaluated for tiller number, grass yield and oil content. Six clones gave higher grass yield, the highest being 556 gm per plant per cutting as against 360 gm in the standard. Five clones gave higher oil yield, the highest being 0.42% as against 0.23% in the standard. Isolation of viable mutants with high grass yield and essential oil content indicate the scope for evolving productive mutant varieties in this perennial aromatic grass. The eleven M 1 V 2 mutant clones are being critically evaluated by estimating oil yield per hectare per year. (author)

  13. Results of the use of induced mutants in maize breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, A.; Kovacs, Gezane; Hajos, Laszlone; Geczki, I.

    1979-01-01

    The investigated mutagens have the same effect on the increasing of protein content. In the case of WF9 mutants no essential improvement can be found compared with the untreated co trol selected for protein. ''Lines'' flowering 16-19 days earlier than controls were produced; the most effective agent of this production is the fast neutron. Mutation caused a significant change in their combining ability, but there were more negative variants than positive ones. Three hybrids with stronger stalk than that of MvSc 620 were obtained. Stalk standing ability of mutants did not improve. The flowering date of lines (male) is in r=+0.5672 +++ correlation to the yield of their test hybrid. Mutant lines in SC test cross seemed to be stable. The correlation of the yield of two years is r=+0.8659. The correlation of both the yield of test hybrids to the protein content of mutant lines (r=0.2307) and the flowering date of lines to their protein content (r=-0.3032) is loose. The earliest mutant line of WF9, which produced low crop (5000 kg/ha) when crossed with N6, gave a high-yielding hybrid when crossed with other lines. The average yield of eight combinations was 10050 kg/ha and the highest yield was 11680 kg/ha. (author)

  14. Selection of high hectolitre weight mutants of winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, C.; Jones, P.

    1989-01-01

    Grain quality in wheat includes hectolitre weight (HLW) besides protein content and thousand-grain weight (TGW). The British winter wheat variety ''Guardian'' has a very high yield potential. Although the long grain of ''Guardian'' results in a desirable high TGW the HLW is too low. To select mutants exhibiting increased HLW the character was first analyzed to identify traits that could more easily be screened for using M 2 seeds. In comparison of 6 wheat cultivars, correlation analyses with HLW resulted in coefficients of -0.86 (grain length, L:P 2 seeds for shorter, less prolate grains. Mutagenesis was carried out using EMS sulphonate (1.8 or 3.6%), sodium azide (2 or 20 mM) or X-rays (7.5 or 20 kR). 69 M 2 grains with altered shape were selected. Examination of the M 3 progeny confirmed 6 grain-shape mutants, most of them resulting from EMS treatment (Table). Two of the mutants showed TGW values significantly below the parental variety, but three mutants exhibited HLW and TGW values significantly greater than those of the parental variety. Microplot yield trails on selected M 3 lines are in progress. The influence of physical grain characteristics on HLW offers prospects for mechanical fractionation of large M 2 populations. The application of gravity separators (fractionation on the basis of grain density) and sieves (fractionation on the basis of grain length) in screening mutants possessing improved grain quality is being investigated

  15. Point of sale tobacco advertisements in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, S; Chaudhry, S; Chaudhry, K

    2007-01-01

    The effect of any legislation depends on its implementation. Limited studies indicate that tobacco companies may tend to use such provision for surrogate advertising. The point of sale advertisement provision has been placed in the Indian Tobacco Control legislation. The study was undertaken to assess the Indian scenario in this regard. To assess if there are any violations related to provision of point of tobacco sale advertisements under India's comprehensive tobacco Control legislation in different parts of India. Boards over various shops showing advertisements of tobacco products were observed in the cities of Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Trivandrum and Jaipur, between September 2005 and March 2006. The point of sale advertisements mushroomed after the implementation of 2004 tobacco control legislation. Tobacco advertisement boards fully satisfying the point of sale provision were practically non-existent. The most common violation of point of sale advertisements was the larger size of the board but with tobacco advertisement equal to the size indicated in the legislation and remaining area often showing a picture. Invariably two boards were placed together to provide the impression of a large single repetitive advertisement. More than two boards was not common. Tobacco advertisement boards were also observed on closed shops/ warehouses, shops not selling tobacco products and on several adjacent shops. The purpose of the point of sale advertisements seems to be surrogate advertisement of tobacco products, mainly cigarettes.

  16. Molecular basis of proton uptake in single and double mutants of cytochrome c oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Rowan M; Caplan, David; Pomes, Regis [Molecular Structure and Function, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8 (Canada); Fadda, Elisa, E-mail: pomes@sickkids.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Galway (Ireland)

    2011-06-15

    Cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal enzyme of the respiratory chain, utilizes the reduction of dioxygen into water to pump protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane. The principal pathway of proton uptake into the enzyme, the D channel, is a 2.5 nm long channel-like cavity named after a conserved, negatively charged aspartic acid (D) residue thought to help recruiting protons to its entrance (D132 in the first subunit of the S. sphaeroides enzyme). The single-point mutation of D132 to asparagine (N), a neutral residue, abolishes enzyme activity. Conversely, replacing conserved N139, one-third into the D channel, by D, induces a decoupled phenotype, whereby oxygen reduction proceeds but not proton pumping. Intriguingly, the double mutant D132N/N139D, which conserves the charge of the D channel, restores the wild-type phenotype. We use molecular dynamics simulations and electrostatic calculations to examine the structural and physical basis for the coupling of proton pumping and oxygen chemistry in single and double N139D mutants. The potential of mean force for the conformational isomerization of N139 and N139D side chains reveals the presence of three rotamers, one of which faces the channel entrance. This out-facing conformer is metastable in the wild-type and in the N139D single mutant, but predominant in the double mutant thanks to the loss of electrostatic repulsion with the carboxylate group of D132. The effects of mutations and conformational isomerization on the pKa of E286, an essential proton-shuttling residue located at the top of the D channel, are shown to be consistent with the electrostatic control of proton pumping proposed recently (Fadda et al 2008 Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1777 277-84). Taken together, these results suggest that preserving the spatial distribution of charges at the entrance of the D channel is necessary to guarantee both the uptake and the relay of protons to the active site of the enzyme. These findings highlight the interplay

  17. Molecular basis of proton uptake in single and double mutants of cytochrome c oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Rowan M; Caplan, David; Pomes, Regis; Fadda, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal enzyme of the respiratory chain, utilizes the reduction of dioxygen into water to pump protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane. The principal pathway of proton uptake into the enzyme, the D channel, is a 2.5 nm long channel-like cavity named after a conserved, negatively charged aspartic acid (D) residue thought to help recruiting protons to its entrance (D132 in the first subunit of the S. sphaeroides enzyme). The single-point mutation of D132 to asparagine (N), a neutral residue, abolishes enzyme activity. Conversely, replacing conserved N139, one-third into the D channel, by D, induces a decoupled phenotype, whereby oxygen reduction proceeds but not proton pumping. Intriguingly, the double mutant D132N/N139D, which conserves the charge of the D channel, restores the wild-type phenotype. We use molecular dynamics simulations and electrostatic calculations to examine the structural and physical basis for the coupling of proton pumping and oxygen chemistry in single and double N139D mutants. The potential of mean force for the conformational isomerization of N139 and N139D side chains reveals the presence of three rotamers, one of which faces the channel entrance. This out-facing conformer is metastable in the wild-type and in the N139D single mutant, but predominant in the double mutant thanks to the loss of electrostatic repulsion with the carboxylate group of D132. The effects of mutations and conformational isomerization on the pKa of E286, an essential proton-shuttling residue located at the top of the D channel, are shown to be consistent with the electrostatic control of proton pumping proposed recently (Fadda et al 2008 Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1777 277-84). Taken together, these results suggest that preserving the spatial distribution of charges at the entrance of the D channel is necessary to guarantee both the uptake and the relay of protons to the active site of the enzyme. These findings highlight the interplay

  18. Molecular basis of proton uptake in single and double mutants of cytochrome c oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Rowan M.; Caplan, David; Fadda, Elisa; Pomès, Régis

    2011-06-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal enzyme of the respiratory chain, utilizes the reduction of dioxygen into water to pump protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane. The principal pathway of proton uptake into the enzyme, the D channel, is a 2.5 nm long channel-like cavity named after a conserved, negatively charged aspartic acid (D) residue thought to help recruiting protons to its entrance (D132 in the first subunit of the S. sphaeroides enzyme). The single-point mutation of D132 to asparagine (N), a neutral residue, abolishes enzyme activity. Conversely, replacing conserved N139, one-third into the D channel, by D, induces a decoupled phenotype, whereby oxygen reduction proceeds but not proton pumping. Intriguingly, the double mutant D132N/N139D, which conserves the charge of the D channel, restores the wild-type phenotype. We use molecular dynamics simulations and electrostatic calculations to examine the structural and physical basis for the coupling of proton pumping and oxygen chemistry in single and double N139D mutants. The potential of mean force for the conformational isomerization of N139 and N139D side chains reveals the presence of three rotamers, one of which faces the channel entrance. This out-facing conformer is metastable in the wild-type and in the N139D single mutant, but predominant in the double mutant thanks to the loss of electrostatic repulsion with the carboxylate group of D132. The effects of mutations and conformational isomerization on the pKa of E286, an essential proton-shuttling residue located at the top of the D channel, are shown to be consistent with the electrostatic control of proton pumping proposed recently (Fadda et al 2008 Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1777 277-84). Taken together, these results suggest that preserving the spatial distribution of charges at the entrance of the D channel is necessary to guarantee both the uptake and the relay of protons to the active site of the enzyme. These findings highlight the interplay

  19. Purkinje Cell Compartmentation in the Cerebellum of the Lysosomal Acid Phosphatase 2 Mutant Mouse (Nax - Naked-Ataxia Mutant Mouse)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Karen; Rahimi Balaei, Maryam; Mannan, Ashraf; Del Bigio, Marc R.; Marzban, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The Acp2 gene encodes the beta subunit of lysosomal acid phosphatase, which is an isoenzyme that hydrolyzes orthophosphoric monoesters. In mice, a spontaneous mutation in Acp2 results in severe cerebellar defects. These include a reduced size, abnormal lobulation, and an apparent anterior cerebellar disorder with an absent or hypoplastic vermis. Based on differential gene expression in the cerebellum, the mouse cerebellar cortex can normally be compartmentalized anteroposteriorly into four transverse zones and mediolaterally into parasagittal stripes. In this study, immunohistochemistry was performed using various Purkinje cell compartmentation markers to examine their expression patterns in the Acp2 mutant. Despite the abnormal lobulation and anterior cerebellar defects, zebrin II and PLCβ4 showed similar expression patterns in the nax mutant and wild type cerebellum. However, fewer stripes were found in the anterior zone of the nax mutant, which could be due to a lack of Purkinje cells or altered expression of the stripe markers. HSP25 expression was uniform in the central zone of the nax mutant cerebellum at around postnatal day (P) 18–19, suggesting that HSP25 immunonegative Purkinje cells are absent or delayed in stripe pattern expression compared to the wild type. HSP25 expression became heterogeneous around P22–23, with twice the number of parasagittal stripes in the nax mutant compared to the wild type. Aside from reduced size and cortical disorganization, both the posterior zone and nodular zone in the nax mutant appeared less abnormal than the rest of the cerebellum. From these results, it is evident that the anterior zone of the nax mutant cerebellum is the most severely affected, and this extends beyond the primary fissure into the rostral central zone/vermis. This suggests that ACP2 has critical roles in the development of the anterior cerebellum and it may regulate anterior and central zone compartmentation. PMID:24722417

  20. Mechanisms responsible for imipenem resistance among Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates exposed to imipenem concentrations within the mutant selection window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilara, Foula; Galani, Irene; Souli, Maria; Papanikolaou, Konstantinos; Giamarellou, Helen; Papadopoulos, Antonios

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the propensities of imipenem to select for resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants by determining the mutant prevention concentrations (MPCs) for 9 unrelated clinical isolates and the accession of any relationship with mechanisms of resistance development. The MPC/MIC ratios ranged from 4 to 16. Detection of resistance mechanisms in the mutant derivatives of the nine isolates mainly revealed inactivating mutations in the gene coding for outer membrane protein OprD. Point mutations leading to premature stop codons or amino acid substitution S278P, ≥1bp deletion leading to frameshift mutations and interruption of the oprD by an insertion sequence, were observed. MPC and mutant selection window (MSW) are unique parameters that may guide the implementation of antimicrobial treatment, providing useful information about the necessary imipenem concentration needed in the infection area, in order to avoid the emergence of resistance, especially in clinical situations with high bacterial load. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Engineered disulfide bonds restore chaperone-like function of DJ-1 mutants linked to familial Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Todd; Clark, Lindsay; Ray, Soumya S

    2010-07-13

    Loss-of-function mutations such as L166P, A104T, and M26I in the DJ-1 gene (PARK7) have been linked to autosomal-recessive early onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Cellular and structural studies of the familial mutants suggest that these mutations may destabilize the dimeric structure. To look for common dynamical signatures among the DJ-1 mutants, short MD simulations of up to 1000 ps were conducted to identify the weakest region of the protein (residues 38-70). In an attempt to stabilize the protein, we mutated residue Val 51 to cysteine (V51C) to make a symmetry-related disulfide bridge with the preexisting Cys 53 on the opposite subunit. We found that the introduction of this disulfide linkage stabilized the mutants A104T and M26I against thermal denaturation, improved their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), and restored a chaperone-like function of blocking alpha-synuclein aggregation. The L166P mutant was far too unstable to be rescued by introduction of the V51C mutation. The results presented here point to the possible development of pharmacological chaperones, which may eventually lead to PD therapeutics.

  2. Arabidopsis decuple mutant reveals the importance of SnRK2 kinases in osmotic stress responses in vivo

    KAUST Repository

    Fujii, Hiroaki

    2011-01-10

    Osmotic stress associated with drought or salinity is a major factor that limits plant productivity. Protein kinases in the SNF1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) family are activated by osmotic stress, suggesting that the kinases are involved in osmotic stress signaling. However, due to functional redundancy, their contribution to osmotic stress responses remained unclear. In this report, we constructed an Arabidopsis line carrying mutations in all 10 members of the SnRK2 family. The decuple mutant snrk2.1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/9/10 grew poorly under hyperosmotic stress conditions but was similar to the wild type in culture media in the absence of osmotic stress. The mutant was also defective in gene regulation and the accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA), proline, and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate under osmotic stress. In addition, analysis of mutants defective in the ABA-activated SnRK2s (snrk2.2/3/6) and mutants defective in the rest of the SnRK2s (snrk2.1/4/5/7/8/9/10) revealed that SnRK2s are a merging point of ABA-dependent and -independent pathways for osmotic stress responses. These results demonstrate critical functions of the SnRK2s in mediating osmotic stress signaling and tolerance.

  3. New Novae snack point

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Located next to the car park by the flag poles, a few metres from the Main CERN Reception (building 33), a new snack point catered by Novae will open to the public on Wednesday 8 August. More information will be available in the next issue of the Bulletin!

  4. [Clinical key points. Gonioscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamard, P

    2007-05-01

    Gonioscopy should be performed in all patients with glaucoma or suspected of having glaucoma. Four points are systematically evaluated: the width of the angle, the degree of trabecular pigmentation, the iridotrabecular appositions or synechia, and the level of iris insertion and the shape of the peripheral iris profile.

  5. ACS Zero Point Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolphin, Andrew

    2005-07-01

    The uncertainties in the photometric zero points create a fundamental limit to the accuracy of photometry. The current state of the ACS calibration is surprisingly poor, with zero point uncertainties of 0.03 magnitudes. The reason for this is that the ACS calibrations are based primarily on semi-emprical synthetic zero points and observations of fields too crowded for accurate ground-based photometry. I propose to remedy this problem by obtaining ACS images of the omega Cen standard field with all nine broadband ACS/WFC filters. This will permit the direct determination of the ACS zero points by comparison with excellent ground-based photometry, and should reduce their uncertainties to less than 0.01 magnitudes. A second benefit is that it will facilitate the comparison of the WFPC2 and ACS photometric systems, which will be important as WFPC2 is phased out and ACS becomes HST's primary imager. Finally, three of the filters will be repeated from my Cycle 12 observations, allowing for a measurement of any change in sensitivity.

  6. Point Lepreau generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganong, G.H.D.; Strang, A.E.; Gunter, G.E.; Thompson, T.S.

    Point Lepreau-1 reactor is a 600 MWe generating station expected to be in service by October 1979. New Brunswick is suffering a 'catch up' phenomenon in load growth and needs to decrease dependence on foreign oil. The site is on salt water and extensive study has gone into corrosion control. Project management, financing and scheduling have unique aspects. (E.C.B.)

  7. Least fixed points revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. de Bakker (Jaco)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractParameter mechanisms for recursive procedures are investigated. Contrary to the view of Manna et al., it is argued that both call-by-value and call-by-name mechanisms yield the least fixed points of the functionals determined by the bodies of the procedures concerned. These functionals

  8. Point kinetics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimpland, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    A normalized form of the point kinetics equations, a prompt jump approximation, and the Nordheim-Fuchs model are used to model nuclear systems. Reactivity feedback mechanisms considered include volumetric expansion, thermal neutron temperature effect, Doppler effect and void formation. A sample problem of an excursion occurring in a plutonium solution accidentally formed in a glovebox is presented

  9. Memory mechanisms supporting syntactic comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, David; Waters, Gloria

    2013-04-01

    Efforts to characterize the memory system that supports sentence comprehension have historically drawn extensively on short-term memory as a source of mechanisms that might apply to sentences. The focus of these efforts has changed significantly in the past decade. As a result of changes in models of short-term working memory (ST-WM) and developments in models of sentence comprehension, the effort to relate entire components of an ST-WM system, such as those in the model developed by Baddeley (Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4: 829-839, 2003) to sentence comprehension has largely been replaced by an effort to relate more specific mechanisms found in modern models of ST-WM to memory processes that support one aspect of sentence comprehension--the assignment of syntactic structure (parsing) and its use in determining sentence meaning (interpretation) during sentence comprehension. In this article, we present the historical background to recent studies of the memory mechanisms that support parsing and interpretation and review recent research into this relation. We argue that the results of this research do not converge on a set of mechanisms derived from ST-WM that apply to parsing and interpretation. We argue that the memory mechanisms supporting parsing and interpretation have features that characterize another memory system that has been postulated to account for skilled performance-long-term working memory. We propose a model of the relation of different aspects of parsing and interpretation to ST-WM and long-term working memory.

  10. Possible refurbishment of Point Lepreau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.M.; Groom, S.H.; Thompson, P.D.; Barclay, J.M.; Allen, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    In February 2000, the NB Power Board of Directors approved Phase one of a project to produce a business case including a detailed scope and estimate associated with the possible refurbishment of the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS). The Preliminary plan for refurbishment projects an 18-month outage starting as early as the spring of 2006. If the station were to be refurbished, then it would be run for another 25 to 30 years. The decision on whether or not to refurbish PLGS has not been made and is not expected until the summer of 2002. The results of the first phase of the project will be used to prepare a detailed business case that will be presented to the NB Power board of directors in January of 2002. At that time a decision will be made as to whether to refurbish the unit, or obtain other means of replacing the energy produced by PLGS. The station currently produces about a third of the power generated within the province. If the business case is approved, all-380 Pressure Tubes and Calandria Tubes, along with their related End Fittings and Feeders would be replaced. This material would be stored in new storage vaults to be constructed at the existing on-site Waste Management Facility. Replacement of other station components will be performed as required, as determined from the results of a comprehensive Plant Condition Assessment. The condition assessments build on work done under the Plant Life Management Program. Point Lepreau Generating Station has operated well since start of commercial operation in early 1983. With a lifetime capacity factor of about 84% (up to the end of 2000), it has proven to be an economic and environmentally sound electricity provider. The station has also had a significant positive economic impact in Southern New Brunswick, employing over 600 people. However the Pressure Tubes and Feeders are nearing the point in time in which they will exceed their fitness for service criteria. Although tubes can be replaced on an

  11. Possible refurbishment of Point Lepreau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.M.; Groom, S.H.; Thompson, P.D.; Barclay, J.M.; Allen, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    In February 2000, the NB Power Board of Directors approved Phase one of a project to produce a business case including a detailed scope and estimate associated with the possible refurbishment of the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS). The Preliminary plan for refurbishment projects an 18-month outage starting as early as the spring of 2006. If the station were to be refurbished, then it would be run for another 25 to 30 years. The decision on whether or not to refurbish PLGS has not been made and is not expected until the summer of 2002. The results of the first phase of the project will be used to prepare a detailed business case that will be presented to the NB Power board of directors in January of 2002. At that time a decision will be made as to whether to refurbish the unit, or obtain other means of replacing the energy produced by PLGS. The station currently produces about a third of the power generated within the province. If the business case is approved, all-380 Pressure Tubes and Calandria Tubes, along with their related End Fittings and Feeders would be replaced. This material would be stored in new storage vaults to be constructed at the existing on-site Waste Management Facility. Replacement of other station components will be performed as required, as determined from the results of a comprehensive Plant Condition Assessment. The condition assessments build on work done under the Plant Life Management Program. Point Lepreau Generating Station has operated well since start of commercial operation in early 1983. With a lifetime capacity factor of about 84% (up to the end of 2000), it has proven to be an economic and environmentally sound electricity provider. The station has also had a significant positive economic impact in Southern New Brunswick, employing over 600 people. However the Pressure Tubes and Feeders are nearing the point in time in which they will exceed their fitness for service criteria. Although tubes can be replaced on an

  12. An induced early mutant in finger millet Eleusin coranaca Gaertn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivashankar, G.; Kempanna, C.; Viswanatha, S.R.

    1975-01-01

    Among the several collections of ragi (Eleusine coracana. Gaertn.) from all over the world, the strain 'H.E.S.927' has been found to be the highest yielder compared to other cultivars. Mutation studies have been conducted on this variety at Bangalore in India to make it suitable for the rainfall pattern of the ragi tract of the Karnataka state. A mutant induced by gamma radiation at 30 K rad has been stabilized. This mutant is early by 30-35 days with comparatively better straw quality. Various morphological characters concerning the yield and yield attributes and the possibility of exploiting it as a genotype for future breeding work and as a promising variety is discussed. Another promising mutant with earhead measuring 15 cm as against the earhead length of 5 to 10 cm of the cultivated varieties is illustrated. (K.B.)

  13. Mutant fatty acid desaturase and methods for directed mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanklin, John [Shoreham, NY; Whittle, Edward J [Greenport, NY

    2008-01-29

    The present invention relates to methods for producing fatty acid desaturase mutants having a substantially increased activity towards substrates with fewer than 18 carbon atom chains relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon chain length specificity, the sequences encoding the desaturases and to the desaturases that are produced by the methods. The present invention further relates to a method for altering a function of a protein, including a fatty acid desaturase, through directed mutagenesis involving identifying candidate amino acid residues, producing a library of mutants of the protein by simultaneously randomizing all amino acid candidates, and selecting for mutants which exhibit the desired alteration of function. Candidate amino acids are identified by a combination of methods. Enzymatic, binding, structural and other functions of proteins can be altered by the method.

  14. Nonsense mutants in the bacteriophage T4D v gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minderhout, L van; Grimbergen, J; Groot, B de [Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Lab. voor Stralengenetica en Chemische Mutagenese; Cohen (J.A.) Instituut voor Radiopathologie en Stralenbescherming, Leiden (Netherlands))

    1975-09-01

    Ten UV-sensitive mutants of T4D with the v phenotype were isolated. Of these ten mutants, two are amber and two opal. In UV curves and in photoreactivation and multiplicity reactivation experiments the nonsense mutants show the v phenotype in su/sup -/ hosts and almost the T4/sup +/ phenotype in su/sup +/ hosts. The mutations are located between rl and e and are alleles of v/sub 1/. In crosses with irradiated and non-irradiated phages the recombinant frequency is not reduced by uvs5. Amber uvs5 propagated in CR63 su/sup +/ is with B su/sup -/ just as sensitive to UV as uvs5 propagated in B su/sup -/, which permits the conclusion that the capsid of T4 phage particles does not contain the v gene product.

  15. Sensorimotor learning in Dab1(scm) (scrambler) mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, R; Strazielle, C

    2011-04-15

    Homozygous Dab1(scm) mouse mutants with cell ectopias in cerebellar cortex and neocortex were compared with non-ataxic controls on two tests of motor coordination: rotorod and grid climbing. Even at the minimal speed of 4 rpm and unlike controls, none of the Dab1(scm) mutants reached criterion on the constant speed rotorod. In contrast, Dab1(scm) mutants improved their performances on the vertical grid over the course of the same number of trials. Thus, despite massive cerebellar degeneration, sensorimotor learning for equilibrium is still possible, indicating the potential usefulness of the grid-climbing test in determining residual functions in mice with massive cerebellar damage. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Gamma rays induced bold seeded high yielding mutant in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wani, A.A.; Anis, M.

    2001-01-01

    In pulses especially in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), genetic variability has been exhausted due to natural selection and hence conventional breeding methods are not very fruitful. Mutation techniques are the best methods to enlarge the genetically conditioned variability of a species within a short time and have played a significant role in the development of many crop varieties. Investigations on the effects of ionizing radiations and chemical mutagens in induction of macro-mutations have received much attention owing to their utmost importance in plant breeding. The present study reports a bold seeded mutant in chickpea, the most dominating pulse crop on the Indian subcontinent. Fresh seeds of chickpea variety 'Pusa-212' were procured from IARI, New Delhi and treated with different doses/concentrations of gamma rays ( 60 Co source at NBRI, Lucknow) and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS), individually as well as in combination, to raise the M1 generation. Seeds of M 1 plants were sown to raise M2 plant progenies. A bold seeded mutant was isolated from 400 Gy gamma ray treatments. The mutant was confirmed as true bred, all the mutant seeds gave rise to morphologically similar plants in M 3 , which were quite distinct from the control. The bold seeded mutant showed 'gigas' characteristics and vigorous growth. The plant remained initially straight but later on attained a trailing habit due to heavy secondary branching. The leaves, petioles, flowers, pods and seeds were almost double that of the parent variety, in size. The flowering occurred 10 days later than the parent and maturity was also delayed accordingly. Observations were recorded on various quantitative traits. Plant height and number of primary branches showed a significant improvement over the parent. It is interesting to note that the number of pods and number of seeds per pod significantly decreased. However, the hundred seed weight (31.73±0.59g) in the mutant plants was more than double in the parent

  17. High yielding and disease resistant mutants of sorghum in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinoso, A; Murty, B R; Taborda, F [Faculty of Agronomy, University of Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela)

    1987-07-01

    The programme was assisted by IAEA under project VEN/5/005 since 1978. It aims at improvement of plant type, earliness and resistance to Macrophomina in the locally adapted varieties Criollo Rojo Pequeno (CRP) and Criollo Blanco Alto (CBA). The mutagenic treatment consisted of seed irradiation at 20, 30 and 40 kR of gamma rays and chemical mutagenesis using sodium azide followed by 5000 kR gamma radiation. The 16 best mutants were evaluated in multilocation trials during M{sub 6}-M{sub 9} 1981-1984: Mutants from CRP namely 1279, 1543, 1265, 2085, 1251 and 1359 and four mutant from CBA, 109, 467, 469 and 81-1227 were found to be superior to their parents and the existing commercial hybrids. CRP 1279, 1543 and 2085 are already under large scale cultivation by farmers and under process for cultivar certification by the Ministry of Agriculture.

  18. How Life History Can Sway the Fixation Probability of Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Yi; Kurokawa, Shun; Giaimo, Stefano; Traulsen, Arne

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the effects of demographic structure on evolutionary dynamics when selection acts on reproduction, survival, or both. In contrast to the previously discovered pattern that the fixation probability of a neutral mutant decreases while the population becomes younger, we show that a mutant with a constant selective advantage may have a maximum or a minimum of the fixation probability in populations with an intermediate fraction of young individuals. This highlights the importance of life history and demographic structure in studying evolutionary dynamics. We also illustrate the fundamental differences between selection on reproduction and selection on survival when age structure is present. In addition, we evaluate the relative importance of size and structure of the population in determining the fixation probability of the mutant. Our work lays the foundation for also studying density- and frequency-dependent effects in populations when demographic structures cannot be neglected. PMID:27129737

  19. Spatial constraints govern competition of mutant clones in human epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, M D; Lynch, C N S; Craythorne, E; Liakath-Ali, K; Mallipeddi, R; Barker, J N; Watt, F M

    2017-10-24

    Deep sequencing can detect somatic DNA mutations in tissues permitting inference of clonal relationships. This has been applied to human epidermis, where sun exposure leads to the accumulation of mutations and an increased risk of skin cancer. However, previous studies have yielded conflicting conclusions about the relative importance of positive selection and neutral drift in clonal evolution. Here, we sequenced larger areas of skin than previously, focusing on cancer-prone skin spanning five decades of life. The mutant clones identified were too large to be accounted for solely by neutral drift. Rather, using mathematical modelling and computational lattice-based simulations, we show that observed clone size distributions can be explained by a combination of neutral drift and stochastic nucleation of mutations at the boundary of expanding mutant clones that have a competitive advantage. These findings demonstrate that spatial context and cell competition cooperate to determine the fate of a mutant stem cell.

  20. Detection of DNA polymorphisms in Dendrobium Sonia White mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affrida Abu Hassan; Putri Noor Faizah Megat Mohd Tahir; Zaiton Ahmad; Mohd Nazir Basiran

    2006-01-01

    Dendrobium Sonia white mutant lines were obtained through gamma ray induced mutation of purple flower Dendrobium Sonia at dosage 35 Gy. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) technique was used to compare genomic variations in these mutant lines with the control. Our objectives were to detect polymorphic fragments from these mutants to provide useful information on genes involving in flower colour expression. AFLP is a PCR based DNA fingerprinting technique. It involves digestion of DNA with restriction enzymes, ligation of adapter and selective amplification using primer with one (pre-amplification) and three (selective amplification) arbitrary nucleotides. A total number of 20 primer combinations have been tested and 7 produced clear fingerprint patterns. Of these, 13 polymorphic bands have been successfully isolate and cloned. (Author)

  1. High yielding and disease resistant mutants of sorghum in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinoso, A.; Murty, B.R.; Taborda, F.

    1987-01-01

    The programme was assisted by IAEA under project VEN/5/005 since 1978. It aims at improvement of plant type, earliness and resistance to Macrophomina in the locally adapted varieties Criollo Rojo Pequeno (CRP) and Criollo Blanco Alto (CBA). The mutagenic treatment consisted of seed irradiation at 20, 30 and 40 kR of gamma rays and chemical mutagenesis using sodium azide followed by 5000 kR gamma radiation. The 16 best mutants were evaluated in multilocation trials during M 6 -M 9 1981-1984: Mutants from CRP namely 1279, 1543, 1265, 2085, 1251 and 1359 and four mutant from CBA, 109, 467, 469 and 81-1227 were found to be superior to their parents and the existing commercial hybrids. CRP 1279, 1543 and 2085 are already under large scale cultivation by farmers and under process for cultivar certification by the Ministry of Agriculture

  2. Symbiotic N fixation of several soybean varieties and mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soertini, G.; Hendratno

    1988-01-01

    Symbiotic N fixation of several soybean varieties and mutants. Research activities comprising of three experiments were carried out to screen several soybean varieties and mutants for symbiotic N fixation potential. The first two experiments involved screening of seven rhizobium strains/isolate for effective N fixation. Depending on the medium used, plant response to strains was different. In sterile medium, rhizobium strain USDA 136, 142 and TAL 102 showed a high nitrogen fixation potential. In soil only rhizobium strain USDA 110 had better performance and proved to be competitive to the native strains. Nitrogen-15 dilution method was used to screen nitrogen fixing ability of several soybean varieties and mutants. Guntur variety showed a better response to high dose of N fertilizer without disturbance in its fixing ability. This variety then was considered good to be introduced in the cropping system. (author). 8 refs

  3. Measurment and Reporting of Comprehensive Income: Search ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurment and Reporting of Comprehensive Income: Search, Challenges, ... of periods of stable and unstable economic situation and satisfies varied users' ... Keywords: Historical accounting; comprehensive income; asset valuation model.

  4. Biochemical Analysis of Two Single Mutants that Give Rise to a Polymorphic G6PD A-Double Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Jiovany Ramírez-Nava

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD is a key regulatory enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular energy and redox balance. Mutations in the gene encoding G6PD cause the most common enzymopathy that drives hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. To gain insights into the effects of mutations in G6PD enzyme efficiency, we have investigated the biochemical, kinetic, and structural changes of three clinical G6PD variants, the single mutations G6PD A+ (Asn126AspD and G6PD Nefza (Leu323Pro, and the double mutant G6PD A− (Asn126Asp + Leu323Pro. The mutants showed lower residual activity (≤50% of WT G6PD and displayed important kinetic changes. Although all Class III mutants were located in different regions of the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme and were not close to the active site, these mutants had a deleterious effect over catalytic activity and structural stability. The results indicated that the G6PD Nefza mutation was mainly responsible for the functional and structural alterations observed in the double mutant G6PD A−. Moreover, our study suggests that the G6PD Nefza and G6PD A− mutations affect enzyme functions in a similar fashion to those reported for Class I mutations.

  5. Bending patterns of chlamydomonas flagella: III. A radial spoke head deficient mutant and a central pair deficient mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, C J; Luck, D J

    1985-01-01

    Flash photomicrography at frequencies up to 300 Hz and computer-assisted image analysis have been used to obtain parameters describing the flagellar bending patterns of mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. All strains contained the uni1 mutation, to facilitate photography. The radial spoke head deficient mutant pf17, and the central pair deficient mutant, pf15, in combination with suppressor mutations that restore motility without restoring the ultrastructural or biochemical deficiencies, both generate forward mode bending patterns with increased shear amplitude and decreased asymmetry relative to the "wild-type" uni1 flagella described previously. In the reverse beating mode, the suppressed pf17 mutants generate reverse bending patterns with large shear amplitudes. Reverse beating of the suppressed pf15 mutants is rare. There is a reciprocal relationship between increased shear amplitude and decreased beat frequency, so that the velocity of sliding between flagellar microtubules is not increased by an increase in shear amplitude. The suppressor mutations alone cause decreased frequency and sliding velocity in both forward and reverse mode beating, with little change in shear amplitude or symmetry.

  6. EMS mutant spectra generated by multi-parameter flow cytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keysar, Stephen B. [Cell and Molecular Biology Graduate Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Fox, Michael H., E-mail: michael.fox@colostate.edu [Cell and Molecular Biology Graduate Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The CHO A{sub L} cell line contains a single copy of human chromosome 11 that encodes several cell surface proteins including glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) linked CD59 and CD90, as well as CD98, CD44 and CD151 which are not GPI-linked. The flow cytometry mutation assay (FCMA) measures mutations of the CD59 gene by the absence of fluorescence when stained with antibodies against the CD59 cell surface protein. We have measured simultaneous mutations in CD59, CD44, CD90, CD98 and CD151 to generate a mutant spectrum for ionizing radiation. After treatment with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) many cells have an intermediate level of CD59 staining. Single cells were sorted from CD59{sup -} regions with varying levels of fluorescence and the resulting clonal populations had a stable phenotype for CD59 expression. Mutant spectra were generated by flow cytometry using the isolated clones and nearly all clones were mutated in CD59 only. Interestingly, about 60% of the CD59 negative clones were actually GPI mutants determined by staining with the GPI specific fluorescently labeled bacterial toxin aerolysin (FLAER). The GPI negative cells are most likely caused by mutations in the X-linked pigA gene important in GPI biosynthesis. Small mutations of pigA and CD59 were expected for the alkylating agent EMS and the resulting spectra are significantly different than the large deletions found when analyzing radiation mutants. After analyzing the CD59{sup -} clonal populations we have adjusted the FCMA mutant regions from 1% to 10% of the mean of the CD59 positive peak to include the majority of CD59 mutants.

  7. An early maturing rice mutant released as a variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azam, M.A.; Imtiaz Uddin, Md.

    2001-01-01

    In the content of food grain production deficiency (about 1.0-1.5 million tons of rice per year according to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, 1998) an induced mutation programme was undertaken in 1985. One moderate early maturing and high yielding rice mutant line (BINA6-84-4-115) has been developed by irradiating F 2 seeds of the cross 'BR4' x 'Iratom 38'. Three treatments viz., 250, 300 and 350 Gy were given to the F 2 seeds. Finally, this line was selected in M 6 generation for advanced yield trial. The line was evaluated in comparative trials with another mutant line BINA6-84-4-163. These two mutant lines had been selected earlier from 300 Gy originated lines. The two check varieties, 'BR 11' and 'BR 22' were also included in the trial, which was conducted in two consecutive T. aman seasons (July to December) during 1994 and 1995 at five locations in Bangladesh. From the results, it was evident that the mutant BINA6-84-4-115 did not differ much with the other mutant lines or check varieties in respect to plant height, number of effective tillers and panicle length but it was 10-18 days earlier than the other 3 entries. It produced a similar yield as the check BR 11 in 1994 and a higher yield than the check BR 11 and BR 22 in 1995. This mutant line gave the highest yield per day among all the entries. In addition to this, the grains are long, fine and possess a high L/B ratio, which are of high commercial value. This line has been released by the National Seed Board of Bangladesh in 1998 as a commercial variety under the name 'BINADHAN-4' for cultivation throughout Bangladesh

  8. High-Protein Soybean Mutants by Using Irradiation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yathaputanon, C.; Kumsueb, B.; Srisombun, S.

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Soybean variety improvement for high seed protein using induced mutation was initiated. Approximately 5,000 seeds of soybean variety Chiang Mai 60 were irradiated with gamma rays at the dose of 200 Grays at Kasetsart University. High-protein seed mutants in M2 to M4 generations were selected at Nakhon Ratchasima Field Crops Research Center during 2004-2008. The Pedigree method of selection was used. Kjeldahl method was used to analyze seed protein percentages. The M2 seeds protein content of the M2 generation was 45.2% while that of the original parent was 43.0%. M3s were seeded plant to row. In each row, the best four plants were selected for protein analysis. The average protein content of selected mutant lines was 3.9% while the check variety had average protein content of 42.4%. In the M4 generation, the result showed that the average protein contents of the selected mutant lines and the check variety were 42.8% and 42.0%, respectively. In the 2007-2008 trials, four promising mutants had and average protein content of 428%, while the check variety had and average protein content of 41.1%. The four mutants produced the mean grain yield of 2.20-2.42 t/Ha, which was 10.21% higher than that of Chiang Mai 60. The mutant lines produced both a high grain protein content and a high grain yield. They will be further tested their adaptability in the research centers and farmer fields

  9. Nanoformulated cell-penetrating survivin mutant and its dual actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriramoju B

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bhasker Sriramoju, Rupinder K Kanwar, Jagat R Kanwar Nanomedicine Laboratory of Immunology and Molecular Biomedical Research (NLIMBR, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia Abstract: In this study, we investigated the differential actions of a dominant-negative survivin mutant (SurR9-C84A against cancerous SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cell lines and differentiated SK-N-SH neurons. In both the cases, the mutant protein displayed dual actions, where its effects were cytotoxic toward cancerous cells and proliferative toward the differentiated neurons. This can be explained by the fact that tumorous (undifferentiated SK-N-SH cells have a high endogenous survivin pool and upon treatment with mutant SuR9-C84A causes forceful survivin expression. These events significantly lowered the microtubule dynamics and stability, eventually leading to apoptosis. In the case of differentiated SK-N-SH neurons that express negligible levels of wild-type survivin, the mutant indistinguishably behaved in a wild-type fashion. It also favored cell-cycle progression, forming the chromosome-passenger complex, and stabilized the microtubule-organizing center. Therefore, mutant SurR9-C84A represents a novel therapeutic with its dual actions (cytotoxic toward tumor cells and protective and proliferative toward neuronal cells, and hence finds potential applications against a variety of neurological disorders. In this study, we also developed a novel poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticulate formulation to surmount the hurdles associated with the delivery of SurR9-C84A, thus enhancing its effective therapeutic outcome. Keywords: survivin mutant, neurological disorders, protein therapeutics, inhibitor of apoptosis protein family, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid

  10. Elevated Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling Is Critical for the Pathogenesis of the Dwarfism in Evc2/Limbin Mutant Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honghao; Kamiya, Nobuhiro; Tsuji, Takehito; Takeda, Haruko; Scott, Greg; Rajderkar, Sudha; Ray, Manas K; Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Allen, Benjamin; Lefebvre, Veronique; Hung, Irene H; Ornitz, David M; Kunieda, Tetsuo; Mishina, Yuji

    2016-12-01

    Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) syndrome is a skeletal dysplasia, characterized by short limbs, postaxial polydactyly, and dental abnormalities. EvC syndrome is also categorized as a ciliopathy because of ciliary localization of proteins encoded by the two causative genes, EVC and EVC2 (aka LIMBIN). While recent studies demonstrated important roles for EVC/EVC2 in Hedgehog signaling, there is still little known about the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the skeletal dysplasia features of EvC patients, and in particular why limb development is affected, but not other aspects of organogenesis that also require Hedgehog signaling. In this report, we comprehensively analyze limb skeletogenesis in Evc2 mutant mice and in cell and tissue cultures derived from these mice. Both in vivo and in vitro data demonstrate elevated Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) signaling in Evc2 mutant growth plates, in addition to compromised but not abrogated Hedgehog-PTHrP feedback loop. Elevation of FGF signaling, mainly due to increased Fgf18 expression upon inactivation of Evc2 in the perichondrium, critically contributes to the pathogenesis of limb dwarfism. The limb dwarfism phenotype is partially rescued by inactivation of one allele of Fgf18 in the Evc2 mutant mice. Taken together, our data uncover a novel pathogenic mechanism to understand limb dwarfism in patients with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome.

  11. Elevated Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling Is Critical for the Pathogenesis of the Dwarfism in Evc2/Limbin Mutant Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghao Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ellis-van Creveld (EvC syndrome is a skeletal dysplasia, characterized by short limbs, postaxial polydactyly, and dental abnormalities. EvC syndrome is also categorized as a ciliopathy because of ciliary localization of proteins encoded by the two causative genes, EVC and EVC2 (aka LIMBIN. While recent studies demonstrated important roles for EVC/EVC2 in Hedgehog signaling, there is still little known about the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the skeletal dysplasia features of EvC patients, and in particular why limb development is affected, but not other aspects of organogenesis that also require Hedgehog signaling. In this report, we comprehensively analyze limb skeletogenesis in Evc2 mutant mice and in cell and tissue cultures derived from these mice. Both in vivo and in vitro data demonstrate elevated Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF signaling in Evc2 mutant growth plates, in addition to compromised but not abrogated Hedgehog-PTHrP feedback loop. Elevation of FGF signaling, mainly due to increased Fgf18 expression upon inactivation of Evc2 in the perichondrium, critically contributes to the pathogenesis of limb dwarfism. The limb dwarfism phenotype is partially rescued by inactivation of one allele of Fgf18 in the Evc2 mutant mice. Taken together, our data uncover a novel pathogenic mechanism to understand limb dwarfism in patients with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome.

  12. Elevated Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling Is Critical for the Pathogenesis of the Dwarfism in Evc2/Limbin Mutant Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honghao; Kamiya, Nobuhiro; Tsuji, Takehito; Takeda, Haruko; Scott, Greg; Ray, Manas K.; Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Lefebvre, Veronique; Hung, Irene H.; Kunieda, Tetsuo; Mishina, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) syndrome is a skeletal dysplasia, characterized by short limbs, postaxial polydactyly, and dental abnormalities. EvC syndrome is also categorized as a ciliopathy because of ciliary localization of proteins encoded by the two causative genes, EVC and EVC2 (aka LIMBIN). While recent studies demonstrated important roles for EVC/EVC2 in Hedgehog signaling, there is still little known about the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the skeletal dysplasia features of EvC patients, and in particular why limb development is affected, but not other aspects of organogenesis that also require Hedgehog signaling. In this report, we comprehensively analyze limb skeletogenesis in Evc2 mutant mice and in cell and tissue cultures derived from these mice. Both in vivo and in vitro data demonstrate elevated Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) signaling in Evc2 mutant growth plates, in addition to compromised but not abrogated Hedgehog-PTHrP feedback loop. Elevation of FGF signaling, mainly due to increased Fgf18 expression upon inactivation of Evc2 in the perichondrium, critically contributes to the pathogenesis of limb dwarfism. The limb dwarfism phenotype is partially rescued by inactivation of one allele of Fgf18 in the Evc2 mutant mice. Taken together, our data uncover a novel pathogenic mechanism to understand limb dwarfism in patients with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome. PMID:28027321

  13. RAPD analysis on male sterility mutant of Lilium asiatic hybrids 'pollyanna' induced by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Yuehui; Zhao Xiangyun; Zhang Kezhong; Huang Shangwu; Lu Changxun

    2005-01-01

    RAPD analysis of 80 random 10-mer primers on Lilium Asiatic hybrids 'pollyanna' and its 20 phenotype male sterility mutants induced by irradiation was carried out. Of the tested primers, 31 primers could produced ideal amplification bands on all materials, 4 primers generated stable different polymorphic bands among 9 mutants and 'pollyanna'. Different polymorphic bands of 7-18 were found among 9 mutants and 'pollyanna'. It was showed that 9 mutants were phenotype male sterility mutant of 'pollyanna'. (authors)

  14. Characterization of three Agrobacterium tumefaciens avirulent mutants with chromosomal mutations that affect induction of vir genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Metts, J; West, J; Doares, S H; Matthysse, A G

    1991-01-01

    Three Agrobacterium tumefaciens mutants with chromosomal mutations that affect bacterial virulence were isolated by transposon mutagenesis. Two of the mutants were avirulent on all hosts tested. The third mutant, Ivr-211, was a host range mutant which was avirulent on Bryophyllum diagremontiana, Nicotiana tabacum, N. debneyi, N. glauca, and Daucus carota but was virulent on Zinnia elegans and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato). That the mutant phenotype was due to the transposon insertion was d...

  15. Nursing supervision for care comprehensiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucieli Dias Pedreschi Chaves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To reflect on nursing supervision as a management tool for care comprehensiveness by nurses, considering its potential and limits in the current scenario. Method: A reflective study based on discourse about nursing supervision, presenting theoretical and practical concepts and approaches. Results: Limits on the exercise of supervision are related to the organization of healthcare services based on the functional and clinical model of care, in addition to possible gaps in the nurse training process and work overload. Regarding the potential, researchers emphasize that supervision is a tool for coordinating care and management actions, which may favor care comprehensiveness, and stimulate positive attitudes toward cooperation and contribution within teams, co-responsibility, and educational development at work. Final considerations: Nursing supervision may help enhance care comprehensiveness by implying continuous reflection on including the dynamics of the healthcare work process and user needs in care networks.

  16. The Resistome: A Comprehensive Database of Escherichia coli Resistance Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, James D; Halweg-Edwards, Andrea L; Erickson, Keesha E; Choudhury, Alaksh; Pines, Gur; Gill, Ryan T

    2016-12-16

    The microbial ability to resist stressful environmental conditions and chemical inhibitors is of great industrial and medical interest. Much of the data related to mutation-based stress resistance, however, is scattered through the academic literature, making it difficult to apply systematic analyses to this wealth of information. To address this issue, we introduce the Resistome database: a literature-curated collection of Escherichia coli genotypes-phenotypes containing over 5,000 mutants that resist hundreds of compounds and environmental conditions. We use the Resistome to understand our current state of knowledge regarding resistance and to detect potential synergy or antagonism between resistance phenotypes. Our data set represents one of the most comprehensive collections of genomic data related to resistance currently available. Future development will focus on the construction of a combined genomic-transcriptomic-proteomic framework for understanding E. coli's resistance biology. The Resistome can be downloaded at https://bitbucket.org/jdwinkler/resistome_release/overview .

  17. Characterization Of Laccase T-DNA Mutants In Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Reitan; Asp, Torben; Mansfield, Shawn

    2009-01-01

    Laccases (P-diphenol:O2 oxidoreductase; EC 1.10.3.2), also termed laccase-like multicopper oxidases, are blue copper-containing oxidases which comprise multigene families in plants. In the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, 17 laccase genes (LAC1 to LAC17) have been annotated. To identify laccases...... for LAC15 T-DNA mutant seeds and an approximate 24 hour delay in germination was observed for these seeds. An approximate 20% reduction in glucose, galactose, and xylose was observed in primary stem cell walls of the LAC2 T-DNA mutants while similar relative increases in xylose were observed for LAC8...

  18. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    2001-09-25

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which has been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  19. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    1998-01-01

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which as been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  20. Higher antibiotic yielding mutants of bacillus subtilis by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.S.; Shaukat, G.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    When Bacillus Subtilis AECL69 was grown in malt extract-pepetone-molasses-sugar (MPMS) medium, it could produce antibiotic substance(s) with antibacterial and antifungal properties in the culture fluid. The bacterial cells grown in MPMS medium were washed and suspended into distilled water and irradiated with gamma rays in Gammacell 220 at different doses. Higher antibiotic yielding isolates (plus mutants) were obtained from cell pollutions irradiated at 15 Kr. These gamma rays-induced plus mutants showed simultaneous higher production of antibacterial as well as antifungal activity. (author)

  1. Regioselective alkane hydroxylation with a mutant AlkB enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Daniel J.; Arnold, Frances H.

    2012-11-13

    AlkB from Pseudomonas putida was engineered using in-vivo directed evolution to hydroxylate small chain alkanes. Mutant AlkB-BMO1 hydroxylates propane and butane at the terminal carbon at a rate greater than the wild-type to form 1-propanol and 1-butanol, respectively. Mutant AlkB-BMO2 similarly hydroxylates propane and butane at the terminal carbon at a rate greater than the wild-type to form 1-propanol and 1-butanol, respectively. These biocatalysts are highly active for small chain alkane substrates and their regioselectivity is retained in whole-cell biotransformations.

  2. A yeast mutant specifically sensitive to bifunctional alkylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhland, A.; Kircher, M.; Wilborn, F.; Brendel, M.

    1981-01-01

    A mutation that specifically confers sensitivity to bi- and tri-functional alkylating agents is presented. No or little cross-sensitivity to radiation or monofunctional agents could be detected. Sensitivity does not seem to be due to preferential alkylation of mutant DNA as parent and mutant strain exhibit the same amount of DNA alkylation and the same pattern of DNA lesions including interstrand crosslinks. The mutation is due to a defect in a nuclear gene which has been designated SNM1 (sensitive to nitrogen mustard); it may control an important step in the repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (orig.(AJ)

  3. Penicillin production by mutant strains of penicillium chrysogenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, Z.S.; Ashour, M.S.; Shihab, A.

    1986-01-01

    The mutagenic agent 8-rays was used to initiate the penicillium chrysogenum isolated from local spices. After irradiation, colonies invariably differing from the parent strain in their morphological and cultural characteristics were tested for antibiotic production on fermentation agar medium. Twenty two isolates were found to be penicillin producing mutant strains. Mutant strain M 24 forming small colonies with white conidia was found to be a high yielding penicillin producer (9550 i.u/ml). All of the 22 isolates obtained lost their ability to produce the antibiotic after 11 months storage at 4 0 with subsequent subculturing

  4. Conceptual Combination During Sentence Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinney, David; Love, Tracy; Walenski, Matthew; Smith, Edward E.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment examined the time course of integration of modifier-noun (conceptual) combinations during auditory sentence comprehension using cross-modal lexical priming. The study revealed that during ongoing comprehension, there is initial activation of features of the noun prior to activation of (emergent) features of the entire conceptual combination. These results support compositionality in conceptual combination; that is, they indicate that features of the individual words constituting a conceptual combination are activated prior to combination of the words into a new concept. PMID:17576278

  5. QRAC-the-Code: a comprehension monitoring strategy for middle school social studies textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeley, Sheri; Riccomini, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Requirements for reading and ascertaining information from text increase as students advance through the educational system, especially in content-rich classes; hence, monitoring comprehension is especially important. However, this is a particularly challenging skill for many students who struggle with reading comprehension, including students with learning disabilities. A randomized pre-post experimental design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a comprehension monitoring strategy (QRAC-the-Code) for improving the reading comprehension of 323 students in grades 6 and 7 in inclusive social studies classes. Findings indicated that both general education students and students with learning disabilities who were taught a simple comprehension monitoring strategy improved their comprehension of textbook content compared to students who read independently and noted important points. In addition, students in the comprehension monitoring condition reported using more reading strategies after the intervention. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  6. Perspectives on Counterterrorism: From Stovepipes to a Comprehensive Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Crelinsten

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article moves beyond the boundaries that limit counterterrorism discourse and practice to present a more comprehensive approach. In a world where distinctions are blurring between internal and external security, international and domestic jurisdictions, and state and non-state actors, it is important to cast our eyes wide in developing an effective approach to counterterrorism that can apply across a broad variety of policy domains and can outlive the electoral horizon of individual governments. A discussion of five approaches to counterterrorism leads to the identification of thirteen different models which, taken together, can point the way towards a comprehensive approach.

  7. Study on comprehensive evaluation methods for nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arie, Kazuo

    1999-03-01

    This investigation on comprehensive-evaluation-methods for nuclear fuel cycle has been performed through open-literature search. As the results, no proper comprehensive-evaluation-method has been found which integrate several factors to be considered into only one factor. In the evaluation of future advanced nuclear energy systems, it is required to evaluate from both view points of natural resources and natural environment, in addition to the other factors such as safety, economy, and proliferation resistance. It is recommended that clarification of specific items or targets to be evaluated is most important as the first thing to be done. Second, methodology for the evaluation should be discussed. (author)

  8. Melting point of yttria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaggs, S.R.

    1977-06-01

    Fourteen samples of 99.999 percent Y 2 O 3 were melted near the focus of a 250-W CO 2 laser. The average value of the observed melting point along the solid-liquid interface was 2462 +- 19 0 C. Several of these same samples were then melted in ultrahigh-purity oxygen, nitrogen, helium, or argon and in water vapor. No change in the observed temperature was detected, with the exception of a 20 0 C increase in temperature from air to helium gas. Post test examination of the sample characteristics, clarity, sphericity, and density is presented, along with composition. It is suggested that yttria is superior to alumina as a secondary melting-point standard

  9. 'Saddle-point' ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, T.J.; Hale, E.B.; Irby, V.D.; Olson, R.E.; Missouri Univ., Rolla; Berry, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    We have studied the ionization of rare gases by protons at intermediate energies, i.e., energies at which the velocities of the proton and the target-gas valence electrons are comparable. A significant channel for electron production in the forward direction is shown to be 'saddle-point' ionization, in which electrons are stranded on or near the saddle-point of electric potential between the receding projectile and the ionized target. Such electrons yield characteristic energy spectra, and contribute significantly to forward-electron-production cross sections. Classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations are found to provide qualitative agreement with our measurements and the earlier measurements of Rudd and coworkers, and reproduce, in detail, the features of the general ionization spectra. (orig.)

  10. Framework of Comprehensive Proliferation Resistance Evaluation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Su; Jo, Seong Youn; Kim, Min Soo; Kim, Jae San; Lee, Hyun Kyung

    2007-01-01

    Civilian nuclear programs can be used as a pretext to acquire technologies, materials, equipment for military weapon programs. Consequently, international society has a strong incentive to develop a nuclear system more proliferation resistant to assure that the civilian nuclear energy system is an unattractive and least desirable route for diversion of weapon usable material. The First step developing a more proliferation resistant nuclear energy system is to develop a systematic and standardized evaluation methodology to ensure that any future nuclear energy system satisfies the proliferation resistance goals. Many attempts to develop systematic evaluation methodology have been proposed and many systems for assessing proliferation resistance have been previously studied. However, a comprehensive proliferation resistance evaluation can not be achieved by simply applying one method since complicated proliferation resistance characteristics, including inherent features and extrinsic features, should be completely evaluated. Therefore, it is necessary to develop one incorporated evaluation methodology to make up for weak points of each evaluation method. The objective of this study is to provide a framework of comprehensive proliferation resistance evaluation methodology by incorporating two generally used evaluation methods, attribute and scenario analysis

  11. The Comprehensive Approach Concept in Multinational Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neag Mihai-Marcel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The planning of operations is regulated by documents covering the participation of forces in military actions in a national and multinational context. The process of planning the operations has been adapted to conceptual planning progress. The concept of allied effect-based operations, which was an alternative to old national concepts, has undergone transformations, so the process of planning operations at allied level is currently based on the concept of a comprehensive approach, which is a strategic concept, do not give up effects. The term action-based operations has been replaced by the term “thought-based thinking” and belongs to the general concept of comprehensive approach. If the planning process meant the effects, so the main planning objectives were the effects, then the planning was based on concrete objectives, the effects being maintained for the economy of effort and maximizing efficiency, the main purpose of the effects being the evaluation of the operations. From this point of view, we consider that the concept has not been abandoned, what has changed, it was just the working method, the subject being still topical.

  12. On Multi-Point Liouville Field Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarrinkamar, S.; Rajabi, A. A.; Hassanabadi, H.

    2013-01-01

    In many cases, the classical or semi-classical Liouville field theory appears in the form of Fuchsian or Riemann differential equations whose solutions cannot be simply found, or at least require a comprehensive knowledge on analytical techniques of differential equations of mathematical physics. Here, instead of other cumbersome methodologies such as treating with the Heun functions, we use the quasi-exact ansatz approach and thereby solve the so-called resulting two- and three-point differential equations in a very simple manner. We apply the approach to two recent papers in the field. (author)

  13. Language comprehension warps the mirror neuron system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah eZarr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Is the mirror neuron system (MNS used in language understanding? According to embodied accounts of language comprehension, understanding sentences describing actions makes use of neural mechanisms of action control, including the MNS. Consequently, repeatedly comprehending sentences describing similar actions should induce adaptation of the MNS thereby warping its use in other cognitive processes such as action recognition and prediction. To test this prediction, participants read blocks of multiple sentences where each sentence in the block described transfer of objects in a direction away or toward the reader. Following each block, adaptation was measured by having participants predict the end-point of videotaped actions. The adapting sentences disrupted prediction of actions in the same direction, but a only for videos of biological motion, and b only when the effector implied by the language (e.g., the hand matched the videos. These findings are signatures of the mirror neuron system.

  14. Language comprehension warps the mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarr, Noah; Ferguson, Ryan; Glenberg, Arthur M

    2013-01-01

    Is the mirror neuron system (MNS) used in language understanding? According to embodied accounts of language comprehension, understanding sentences describing actions makes use of neural mechanisms of action control, including the MNS. Consequently, repeatedly comprehending sentences describing similar actions should induce adaptation of the MNS thereby warping its use in other cognitive processes such as action recognition and prediction. To test this prediction, participants read blocks of multiple sentences where each sentence in the block described transfer of objects in a direction away or toward the reader. Following each block, adaptation was measured by having participants predict the end-point of videotaped actions. The adapting sentences disrupted prediction of actions in the same direction, but (a) only for videos of biological motion, and (b) only when the effector implied by the language (e.g., the hand) matched the videos. These findings are signatures of the MNS.

  15. Comprehensive radiodiagnosis of toxic thyroid adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatov, A.A.; Ginzburg, L.I.; Tatsievskij, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive radionuclide, ultrasound and thermographic study of 18 patients, with toxic, thyroid adenoma are presented. It has been shown that during thermographic examination temperature difference over the node and the symmetrical region is insignificant and does not exceed 1 deg C in most of the patients. It equally pertains to the comparison of temperatures over the node and the hottest and coldest points in the cervical region. Ultrasound examination makes it possible to determine the shape, size, exact location of the node and its internal structure but gives no opportunity to udge its functional activity. It has been shown that a node in toxic adenoma may have homogeneous as well as heterogeneous echo-structure, elevated or lowered echo-density; changes of degenerative-dystrophic nature are not infrequent

  16. High boiling point hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1929-04-29

    A process is given for the production of hydrocarbons of high boiling point, such as lubricating oils, from bituminous substances, such as varieties of coal, shale, or other solid distillable carbonaceous materials. The process consists of treating the initial materials with organic solvents and then subjecting the products extracted from the initial materials, preferably directly, to a reducing treatment in respect to temperature, pressure, and time. The reduction treatment is performed by means of hydrogen under pressure.

  17. DNA deformability changes of single base pair mutants within CDE binding sites in S. Cerevisiae centromere DNA correlate with measured chromosomal loss rates and CDE binding site symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marx Kenneth A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The centromeres in yeast (S. cerevisiae are organized by short DNA sequences (125 bp on each chromosome consisting of 2 conserved elements: CDEI and CDEIII spaced by a CDEII region. CDEI and CDEIII are critical sequence specific protein binding sites necessary for correct centromere formation and following assembly with proteins, are positioned near each other on a specialized nucleosome. Hegemann et al. BioEssays 1993, 15: 451–460 reported single base DNA mutants within the critical CDEI and CDEIII binding sites on the centromere of chromosome 6 and quantitated centromere loss of function, which they measured as loss rates for the different chromosome 6 mutants during cell division. Olson et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998, 95: 11163–11168 reported the use of protein-DNA crystallography data to produce a DNA dinucleotide protein deformability energetic scale (PD-scale that describes local DNA deformability by sequence specific binding proteins. We have used the PD-scale to investigate the DNA sequence dependence of the yeast chromosome 6 mutants' loss rate data. Each single base mutant changes 2 PD-scale values at that changed base position relative to the wild type. In this study, we have utilized these mutants to demonstrate a correlation between the change in DNA deformability of the CDEI and CDEIII core sites and the overall experimentally measured chromosome loss rates of the chromosome 6 mutants. Results In the CDE I and CDEIII core binding regions an increase in the magnitude of change in deformability of chromosome 6 single base mutants with respect to the wild type correlates to an increase in the measured chromosome loss rate. These correlations were found to be significant relative to 105 Monte Carlo randomizations of the dinucleotide PD-scale applied to the same calculation. A net loss of deformability also tends to increase the loss rate. Binding site position specific, 4 data-point correlations were also

  18. Critical point predication device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Kazuhiko; Kariyama, Koji.

    1996-01-01

    An operation for predicting a critical point by using a existent reverse multiplication method has been complicated, and an effective multiplication factor could not be plotted directly to degrade the accuracy for the prediction. The present invention comprises a detector counting memory section for memorizing the counting sent from a power detector which monitors the reactor power, a reverse multiplication factor calculation section for calculating the reverse multiplication factor based on initial countings and current countings of the power detector, and a critical point prediction section for predicting the criticality by the reverse multiplication method relative to effective multiplication factors corresponding to the state of the reactor core previously determined depending on the cases. In addition, a reactor core characteristic calculation section is added for analyzing an effective multiplication factor depending on the state of the reactor core. Then, if the margin up to the criticality is reduced to lower than a predetermined value during critical operation, an alarm is generated to stop the critical operation when generation of a period of more than a predetermined value predicted by succeeding critical operation. With such procedures, forecasting for the critical point can be easily predicted upon critical operation to greatly mitigate an operator's burden and improve handling for the operation. (N.H.)

  19. At the Tipping Point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H. S.

    2011-02-28

    There comes a time in every field of science when things suddenly change. While it might not be immediately apparent that things are different, a tipping point has occurred. Biology is now at such a point. The reason is the introduction of high-throughput genomics-based technologies. I am not talking about the consequences of the sequencing of the human genome (and every other genome within reach). The change is due to new technologies that generate an enormous amount of data about the molecular composition of cells. These include proteomics, transcriptional profiling by sequencing, and the ability to globally measure microRNAs and post-translational modifications of proteins. These mountains of digital data can be mapped to a common frame of reference: the organism’s genome. With the new high-throughput technologies, we can generate tens of thousands of data points from each sample. Data are now measured in terabytes and the time necessary to analyze data can now require years. Obviously, we can’t wait to interpret the data fully before the next experiment. In fact, we might never be able to even look at all of it, much less understand it. This volume of data requires sophisticated computational and statistical methods for its analysis and is forcing biologists to approach data interpretation as a collaborative venture.

  20. Maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enslin, J.H.R.

    1990-01-01

    A well engineered renewable remote energy system, utilizing the principal of Maximum Power Point Tracking can be m ore cost effective, has a higher reliability and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. This paper reports that a high-efficient power electronic converter, for converting the output voltage of a solar panel, or wind generator, to the required DC battery bus voltage has been realized. The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the input source under varying input and output parameters. Maximum power point tracking for relative small systems is achieved by maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor based algorithm. Through practical field measurements it is shown that a minimum input source saving of 15% on 3-5 kWh/day systems can easily be achieved. A total cost saving of at least 10-15% on the capital cost of these systems are achievable for relative small rating Remote Area Power Supply systems. The advantages at larger temperature variations and larger power rated systems are much higher. Other advantages include optimal sizing and system monitor and control

  1. Laser desorption mass spectrometry for point mutation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taranenko, N.I.; Chung, C.N.; Zhu, Y.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    A point mutation can be associated with the pathogenesis of inherited or acquired diseases. Laser desorption mass spectrometry coupled with allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was first used for point mutation detection. G551D is one of several mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene present in 1-3% of the mutant CFTR alleles in most European populations. In this work, two different approaches were pursued to detect G551D point mutation in the cystic fibrosis gene. The strategy is to amplify the desired region of DNA template by PCR using two primers that overlap one base at the site of the point mutation and which vary in size. If the two primers based on the normal sequence match the target DNA sequence, a normal PCR product will be produced. However, if the alternately sized primers that match the mutant sequence recognize the target DNA, an abnormal PCR product will be produced. Thus, the mass spectrometer can be used to identify patients that are homozygous normal, heterozygous for a mutation or homozygous abnormal at a mutation site. Another approach to identify similar mutations is the use of sequence specific restriction enzymes which respond to changes in the DNA sequence. Mass spectrometry is used to detect the length of the restriction fragments generated by digestion of a PCR generated target fragment. 21 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Laser desorption mass spectrometry for point mutation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taranenko, N.I.; Chung, C.N.; Zhu, Y.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    A point mutation can be associated with the pathogenesis of inherited or acquired diseases. Laser desorption mass spectrometry coupled with allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was first used for point mutation detection. G551D is one of several mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene present in 1-3% of the mutant CFTR alleles in most European populations. In this work, two different approaches were pursued to detect G551D point mutation in the cystic fibrosis gene. The strategy is to amplify the desired region of DNA template by PCR using two primers that overlap one base at the site of the point mutation and which vary in size. If the two primers based on the normal sequence match the target DNA sequence, a normal PCR product will be produced. However, if the alternately sized primers that match the mutant sequence recognize the target DNA, an abnormal PCR product will be produced. Thus, the mass spectrometer can be used to identify patients that are homozygous normal, heterozygous for a mutation or homozygous abnormal at a mutation site. Another approach to identify similar mutations is the use of sequence specific restriction enzymes which respond to changes in the DNA sequence. Mass spectrometry is used to detect the length of the restriction fragments by digestion of a PCR generated target fragment. 21 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. SMART POINT CLOUD: DEFINITION AND REMAINING CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Poux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  4. Comprehensive gene expression analysis of rice aleurone cells: probing the existence of an alternative gibberellin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Kenji; Aya, Koichiro; Hirano, Ko; Ordonio, Reynante Lacsamana; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2015-02-01

    Current gibberellin (GA) research indicates that GA must be perceived in plant nuclei by its cognate receptor, GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1). Recognition of GA by GID1 relieves the repression mediated by the DELLA protein, a model known as the GID1-DELLA GA perception system. There have been reports of potential GA-binding proteins in the plasma membrane that perceive GA and induce α-amylase expression in cereal aleurone cells, which is mechanistically different from the GID1-DELLA system. Therefore, we examined the expression of the rice (Oryza sativa) α-amylase genes in rice mutants impaired in the GA receptor (gid1) and the DELLA repressor (slender rice1; slr1) and confirmed their lack of response to GA in gid1 mutants and constitutive expression in slr1 mutants. We also examined the expression of GA-regulated genes by genome-wide microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses and confirmed that all GA-regulated genes are modulated by the GID1-DELLA system. Furthermore, we studied the regulatory network involved in GA signaling by using a set of mutants defective in genes involved in GA perception and gene expression, namely gid1, slr1, gid2 (a GA-related F-box protein mutant), and gamyb (a GA-related trans-acting factor mutant). Almost all GA up-regulated genes were regulated by the four named GA-signaling components. On the other hand, GA down-regulated genes showed different expression patterns with respect to GID2 and GAMYB (e.g. a considerable number of genes are not controlled by GAMYB or GID2 and GAMYB). Based on these observations, we present a comprehensive discussion of the intricate network of GA-regulated genes in rice aleurone cells. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Comprehensive dictionary of electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Laplante, Philip A

    1998-01-01

    The Comprehensive Dictionary of Electrical Engineering is a complete lexicon covering all the fields of electrical engineering.Areas examined include:applied electrical engineeringmicrowave engineeringcontrol engineeringpower engineeringdigital systems engineeringdevice electronicsand much more! The book provides workable definitions for practicing engineers, serves as a reference and research tool for students, and offers practical information for scientists and engineers in other disciplines.

  6. Children's Comprehension of Live Theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jeanne; Fitch, Marguerite

    Two studies investigate the way in which children make sense of a play and the visual, aural, and psychological components of theatre which contribute to this comprehension. In the first study, 32 fifth graders saw "Don Quixote of La Mancha." In the second study, 45 third graders saw "Monkey, Monkey" (about the Chinese Monkey King). The day after…

  7. Listening Comprehension: Approach, Design, Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jack C.

    1983-01-01

    Three dimensions in the teaching of listening comprehension are outlined: (1) a theory is presented that takes account of the cognitive processes used (approach); (2) listeners' needs are analyzed and a taxonomy of microskills and objectives for teaching them are proposed (design); and (3) classroom exercises and activities are suggested…

  8. Comprehensive School Alienation Program, Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    This document presents guidelines developed by the Hawaii State Department of Education's Comprehensive School Alienation Program to consolidate and strengthen the delivery of services to alienated students. It is intended to assist district staff, school administrators, and project personnel in planning and implementing program activities and…

  9. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  10. Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Comprehensive Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun Zeren

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is one of the most important discoveries of psychiatric treatments. This article comprehensively assesses historical progress, mechanism of actions, practical methods, indications, side effects, complications, drug interactions of ECT and attitudes towards ECT. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(4.000: 340-377

  11. Innovation Learning in Comprehensive Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Eila; Hilmola, Antti

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this article is to clarify the concept of innovation and by presenting a research on the basic education outcome assessment data from an innovation learning perspective, answer to a question: Do students learn innovation in comprehensive education? The empirical information in this research is based on data collected in the national…

  12. Prediction during natural language comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, R.M.; Frank, S.L.; Nijhof, A.D.; Hagoort, P.; Bosch, A.P.J. van den

    2016-01-01

    The notion of prediction is studied in cognitive neuroscience with increasing intensity. We investigated the neural basis of 2 distinct aspects of word prediction, derived from information theory, during story comprehension. We assessed the effect of entropy of next-word probability distributions as

  13. Comprehensive School Safety Initiative Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Justice, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) developed the Comprehensive School Safety Initiative in consultation with federal partners and Congress. It is a research-focused initiative designed to increase the safety of schools nationwide through the development of knowledge regarding the most effective and sustainable school safety interventions and…

  14. Glosses, Comprehension, and Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Myong Hee

    2005-01-01

    This study, using both qualitative and quantitative measures, investigates how different types of gloss conditions affect Korean college students' reading comprehension. One hundred and six undergraduates at a university in Korea participated in the study. Twelve were assigned to think aloud, and the rest (ninety-four) took part in the main study…

  15. Constraint Programming for Context Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    A close similarity is demonstrated between context comprehension, such as discourse analysis, and constraint programming. The constraint store takes the role of a growing knowledge base learned throughout the discourse, and a suitable con- straint solver does the job of incorporating new pieces...

  16. Neuroimaging Evidence of Comprehension Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Baker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to synthesize the emerging neuroimaging literature that reveals how the brain responds when readers and listeners encounter texts that demand monitoring of their ongoing comprehension processes. Much of this research has been undertaken by cognitive scientists who do not frame their work in metacognitive terms, and therefore it is less likely to be familiar to psychologists who study metacognition in educational contexts. The important role of metacognition in the development and use of academic skills is widely recognized. Metacognition is typically defined as the awareness and control of one's own cognitive processes. In the domain of reading, the most important metacognitive skill is comprehension monitoring, the evaluation and regulation of comprehension. Readers who monitor their understanding realize when they have encountered difficulty making sense of the text, and they apply error correction procedures to attempt to resolve the difficulty. Metacognition depends on executive control skills that continue to develop into early adulthood, in parallel with the maturation of the executive control regions of the prefrontal cortex. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and event-related potentials (ERP have been used for some time to study neural correlates of basic reading processes such as word identification, but it is only within recent years that researchers have turned to the higher-level processes of text comprehension. The article describes illustrative studies that reveal changes in neural activity when adults apply lexical, syntactic, or semantic standards to evaluate their understanding.

  17. A Mycobacterium leprae Hsp65 mutant as a candidate for mitigating lupus aggravation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana B Marengo

    Full Text Available Hsp60 is an abundant and highly conserved family of intracellular molecules. Increased levels of this family of proteins have been observed in the extracellular compartment in chronic inflammation. Administration of M. leprae Hsp65 [WT] in [NZBxNZW]F(1 mice accelerates the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus [SLE] progression whereas the point mutated K(409A Hsp65 protein delays the disease. Here, the biological effects of M. leprae Hsp65 Leader pep and K(409A pep synthetic peptides, which cover residues 352-371, are presented. Peptides had immunomodulatory effects similar to that observed with their respective proteins on survival and the combined administration of K(409A+Leader pep or K(409A pep+WT showed that the mutant forms were able to inhibit the deleterious effect of WT on mortality, indicating the neutralizing potential of the mutant molecules in SLE progression. Molecular modeling showed that replacing Lysine by Alanine affects the electrostatic potential of the 352-371 region. The number of interactions observed for WT is much higher than for Hsp65 K(409A and mouse Hsp60. The immunomodulatory effects of the point-mutated protein and peptide occurred regardless of the catalytic activity. These findings may be related to the lack of effect on survival when F(1 mice were inoculated with Hsp60 or K(409A pep. Our findings indicate the use of point-mutated Hsp65 molecules, such as the K(409A protein and its corresponding peptide, that may minimize or delay the onset of SLE, representing a new approach to the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  18. Study on homologous series of induced early mutants in Indica rice Ⅱ. the relationship between the homologous series of early mutants induced and the ecotype in Indica rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; Yang Hefeng; He Zhentian; Han Yuepeng; Liu Xueyu

    2001-01-01

    The induced mutation in light sensitivity of the Indica rice leads to induction of the homologous series of early mutants along with the variation of ecological character and the ecoclimate. The induction of mutants was closely related to the ecotype of Indica rice, the homologous series of early mutants in different level were derived from the different ecotype of the Indica rice, otherwise, the similar homologous series of early mutants were derived from the same ecotypic variety. The induction of the early ecotypic variety derived from the homologous series of early mutants provides the basis and possibility for accelerating the development of the new cultivars. (authors)

  19. Concurrent Targeting of KRAS and AKT by MiR-4689 Is a Novel Treatment Against Mutant KRAS Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Hiraki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available KRAS mutations are a major cause of drug resistance to molecular-targeted therapies. Aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR signaling may cause dysregulation of microRNA (miRNA and gene regulatory networks, which leads to cancer initiation and progression. To address the functional relevance of miRNAs in mutant KRAS cancers, we transfected exogenous KRASG12V into human embryonic kidney 293 and MRC5 cells with wild-type KRAS and BRAF genes, and we comprehensively profiled the dysregulated miRNAs. The result showed that mature miRNA oligonucleotide (miR-4689, one of the significantly down-regulated miRNAs in KRASG12V overexpressed cells, was found to exhibit a potent growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic effect both in vitro and in vivo. miR-4689 expression was significantly down-regulated in cancer tissues compared to normal mucosa, and it was particularly decreased in mutant KRAS CRC tissues. miR-4689 directly targets v-ki-ras2 kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS and v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1(AKT1, key components of two major branches in EGFR pathway, suggesting KRAS overdrives this signaling pathway through inhibition of miR-4689. Overall, this study provided additional evidence that mutant KRAS functions as a broad regulator of the EGFR signaling cascade by inhibiting miR-4689, which negatively regulates both RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/AKT pathways. These activities indicated that miR-4689 may be a promising therapeutic agent in mutant KRAS CRC.

  20. Screening of allyl alcohol resistant mutant of Rhizopus oryzae and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanol is a main by-product in the fermentation broth of Rhizopus oryzae during the production of high-optical purity L-lactic acid. By screening the lower activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) mutant, thus decreasing the flux of pyruvic acid to ethanol may be a virtual method for increasing the conversion rate of glucose ...

  1. UV- and gamma-radiation sensitive mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, C.Z.; Yen, C.N.; Cronin, K.; Mitchell, D.; Britt, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    Arabidopsis seedlings repair UV-induced DNA damage via light-dependent and -independent pathways. The mechanism of the ''dark repair'' pathway is still unknown. To determine the number of genes required for dark repair and to investigate the substrate-specificity of this process we isolated mutants with enhanced sensitivity to UV radiation in the absence of photoreactivating light. Seven independently derived UV sensitive mutants were isolated from an EMS-mutagenized population. These fell into six complementation groups, two of which (UVR1 and UVH1) have previously been defined. Four of these mutants are defective in the dark repair of UV-induced pyrimidine [6-4] pyrimidinone dimers. These four mutant lines are sensitive to the growth-inhibitory effects of gamma radiation, suggesting that this repair pathway is also involved in the repair of some type of gamma-induced DNA damage product. The requirement for the coordinate action of several different gene products for effective repair of pyrimidine dimers, as well as the nonspecific nature of the repair activity, is consistent with nucleotide excision repair mechanisms previously described in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and nonplant higher eukaryotes and inconsistent with substrate-specific base excision repair mechanisms found in some bacteria, bacteriophage, and fungi. (author)

  2. 'CM 88' - A multiple disease resistant chickpea mutant variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, M.A.; Hassan, Mahmudul; Sadiq, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Chickpea is the most important grain legume crop of Pakistan. Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei) and Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum F. sp cicer) are most serious diseases, having the potential to devastate a crop. A multiple disease resistant and high yielding mutant CM 88 has been developed through 100 Gy gamma irradiation treatment of variety 'C 727'. This was once a widely grown and popular variety, which lost its resistance to Ascochyta and was replaced. The selection of mutants was performed in the M2 generation grown in the Ascochyta blight nursery and sixteen mutants were selected. In the subsequent generations CM 88 proved resistant to both Ascochyta blight and Fusarium wilt, and exhibited superiority in agronomic characteristics. CM 88 was also tested for many years in the various yield trials on research stations and farmers fields throughout the country. In these trials it out yielded both the parent and standard varieties. The mutant CM 88 has been approved by the Punjab Seed Council on 27 October 1994 for general cultivation in the Punjab Province, especially the Thal area which accounts for more than 70% of the area under chickpea cultivation. (author)

  3. Identification of a Gravitropism-Deficient Mutant in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Yan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A gravitropism-deficient mutant M96 was isolated from a mutant bank, generated by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS mutagenesis of indica rice accession ZJ100. The mutant was characterized as prostrate growth at the beginning of germination, and the prostrate growth phenotype ran through the whole life duration. Tiller angle and tiller number of M96 increased significantly in comparison with the wild type. Tissue section observation analysis indicated that asymmetric stem growth around the second node occurred in M96. Genetic analysis and gene mapping showed that M96 was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene, tentatively termed as gravitropism-deficient M96 (gdM96, which was mapped to a region of 506 kb flanked by markers RM5960 and InDel8 on the long arm of chromosome 11. Sequencing analysis of the open reading frames in this region revealed a nucleotide substitution from G to T in the third exon of LOC_Os11g29840. Additionally, real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression level of LOC_Os11g29840 in the stems was much higher than in the roots and leaves in M96. Furthermore, the expression level was more than four times in M96 stem than in the wild type stem. Our results suggested that the mutant gene was likely a new allele to the reported gene LAZY1. Isolation of this new allele would facilitate the further characterization of LAZY1.

  4. Plants Regeneration Derived From Various on Peanut on Mutant Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewi, Kumala; Masrizal; Mugiono

    1998-01-01

    The study of calli, greenspot formation and shoot regeneration on peanut mutant lines has ben conducted by MS media. Three explants derived from shoot tips, embryo and seeding root of two mutant lines a/20/3 and D/25/3/2 were used in this experiment. the explants were cultured on modified MS media enriched by vitamins, growth regulation, amino acids for fourth teen calli were transferred on regeneration media. The ability of calli formation and plant regeneration of each explant and genotypes of plants was varied. Greenspot and shoot formation were observed seventh days after the calli transferred on regeneration media. It is shown that the ability of calli, greenspot and shoot formation of each explants and genotypes was varied. the high ability of calli, greenspot and shoot formation were found in explant derived from shoot tip and embryo. Seedling root explant has lower ability in calli formation, while greenspot and shoot was formatted. The ability of calli, greenspot and shoot formation on A/20/3 mutant line was better than D/25/3/2 mutant line. (author)

  5. Estimates of selection parameters in protein mutants of spring barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaul, H.; Walther, H.; Seibold, K.H.; Brunner, H.; Mikaelsen, K.

    1976-01-01

    Detailed studies have been made with induced protein mutants regarding a possible genetic advance in selection including the estimation of the genetic variation and heritability coefficients. Estimates were obtained for protein content and protein yield. The variation of mutant lines in different environments was found to be many times as large as the variation of the line means. The detection of improved protein mutants seems therefore possible only in trials with more than one environment. The heritability of protein content and protein yield was estimated in different sets of environments and was found to be low. However, higher values were found with an increasing number of environments. At least four environments seem to be necessary to obtain reliable heritability estimates. The geneticall component of the variation between lines was significant for protein content in all environmental combinations. For protein yield some environmental combinations only showed significant differences. The expected genetic advance with one selection step was small for both protein traits. Genetically significant differences between protein micromutants give, however, a first indication that selection among protein mutants with small differences seems also possible. (author)

  6. Forward genetic screen for auxin-deficient mutants by cytokinin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wu, L.; Luo, P.; Di, D.W.; Wang, L.; Wang, M.; Lu, C.K.; Wei, S.D.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, T.Z.; Amakorová, Petra; Strnad, Miroslav; Novák, Ondřej; Guo, G.Q.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, JUL 6 (2015) ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE MUTANTS * YUCCA FLAVIN MONOOXYGENASES * ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.228, year: 2015

  7. p21-ras effector domain mutants constructed by "cassette" mutagenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stone, J C; Vass, W C; Willumsen, B M

    1988-01-01

    A series of mutations encoding single-amino-acid substitutions within the v-rasH effector domain were constructed, and the ability of the mutants to induce focal transformation of NIH 3T3 cells was studied. The mutations, which spanned codons 32 to 40, were made by a "cassette" mutagenesis...

  8. Ultradian rhythm unmasked in the Pdf clock mutant of Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-20

    Ohtomo et al. .... stand the influence of these two phases, short sampling segments were ... per-long (perL) mutants also showed ultradian rhythms un- der L:L ..... would like to dedicate this paper to the memory of Dr Obaid. Siddiqi.

  9. Disturbed secretion of mutant adiponectin associated with the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Ken; Nagaretani, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Hidehiko; Kobayashi, Hideki; Tanaka, Sachiyo; Maeda, Norikazu; Nagasawa, Azumi; Hibuse, Toshiyuki; Ohashi, Koji; Kumada, Masahiro; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Yoshihisa; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Kihara, Shinji; Funahashi, Tohru; Matsuzawa, Yuji

    2003-06-20

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived protein, consists of collagen-like fibrous and complement C1q-like globular domains, and circulates in human plasma in a multimeric form. The protein exhibits anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic activities. However, adiponectin plasma concentrations are low in obese subjects, and hypoadiponectinemia is associated with the metabolic syndrome, which is a cluster of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. We have recently reported a missense mutation in the adiponectin gene, in which isoleucine at position 164 in the globular domain is substituted with threonine (I164T). Subjects with this mutation showed markedly low level of plasma adiponectin and clinical features of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we examined the molecular characteristics of the mutant protein associated with a genetic cause of hypoadiponectinemia. The current study revealed (1) the mutant protein showed an oligomerization state similar to the wild-type as determined by gel filtration chromatography and, (2) the mutant protein exhibited normal insulin-sensitizing activity, but (3) pulse-chase study showed abnormal secretion of the mutant protein from adipose tissues. Our results suggest that I164T mutation is associated with hypoadiponectinemia through disturbed secretion into plasma, which may contribute to the development of the metabolic syndrome.

  10. A dwarf wheat mutant is associated with increased drought ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was significantly higher than Jingdong 6. Most of the s-dwarf seedlings survived in recovering experiement after water loss. The stalk of s-dwarf seedling also showed reduced gravitropism. This is the first report about a new dwarf wheat mutant associated with increased drought resistance and altered stalk gravitropism.

  11. Semi-dwarf mutant lines of hexaploid triticale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pidra, M.

    1989-01-01

    A spring form of hexaploid secondary triticale ADD 143/71, bred by MOGILEVA at the Plant Breeding Station at Uhretice was used for the mutagen treatment. The mutation experiment started in 1979. Seeds were treated with a 0.8 mM water solution of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNH) (CETL and RELICHOVA, unpublished). From 180 M 1 plants, one spike was harvested per plant. A random sample of these seeds was sown as M 2 in 1980 and several plants with shorter main culm were selected. Selfed progenies of eight mutant plants designated ADD 143-m1, ADD 143-m2, ADD 143-m3 etc. were further tested in M 3 and M 4 . There were significant differences in culm length and in some other characters between the original line and the mutant lines. Especially the line m8 looks like a promising source of semi-dwarfness for breeding programmes of hexaploid triticale. During 1985-1987 genetic analysis was performed on the ADD 143/71 and the mutant lines m2, m6, m7 and m8, which suggest that their mutant genes are allelic and recessive

  12. Enhanced longevity in tau mutant Syrian hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, Malgorzata; Daan, Serge

    The single-gene mutation tau in the Syrian hamster shortens the circadian period by about 20% in the homozygous mutant and simultaneously increases the mass-specific metabolic rate by about 20%. Both effects might be expected to lead to a change in longevity. To test such expectations, the life span

  13. Evaluation on selected dwarf and semidwarf mutants of upland rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riyanti Sumanggono, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    Seratus malam local upland rice variety was irradiated with gamma-rays at doses of O.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 kGy. Observation of radiation effect was carried out on root and shoot length of M 1 seedlings; plant height, panicle length and number of tiller and seed sterility in M 1 plants. Selection for dwarf and semi-dwarf characteristics were done in M 2 plants, and selected again in M 3 . Observation on radiation effect indicated that 'Seratus Malam' seems to be more resistant than the lowland rice varieties. Increasing doses of radiation caused increasing frequency of chlorophyll mutations as well as chlorophyll mutants. Whereas, selection of dwarf or semi-dwarf in M 2 plants seems that mutant and mutation frequencies decreased as the dose increased. Dose of 0.2 kGy was suitable for selection of dwarf or semi-dwarf plants. Plant height could be influenced by environmental condition. Many of the selected M 2 plants were not really dwarf or semi-dwarf mutants. M 3 evaluation of the selected M 2 plants was really beneficial in the mutant selection. (author)

  14. clustering common bean mutants based on heterotic groupings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2015-02-19

    Feb 19, 2015 ... Blair, W.M., Porch, T., Cichy, K., Galeano, H. C,. Lariguet, P., Pankhurst, C. and Broughton, W. 2007a. Induced mutants in common bean. (Phaseolus vulgaris) and their potential use in nutrition quality, breeding and gene discovery. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences. 55:191 - 200. Blair, W.M., Fregene, A.M., ...

  15. Genomic diversity among Basmati rice ( Oryza sativa L) mutants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mutation breeding can be considered successful in obtaining new cultivars and broadening the genetic base of rice crop. In order to obtain new varieties of rice with improved agronomic and grain characteristics, gamma radiation (60Co) has been used to generate novel mutants of the Basmati rice. In this study rice cultivars ...

  16. Kinetics of formation of induced mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chepurnoj, A.I.; Levkovich, N.V.; Mikhova-Tsenova, N.; Mel'nikova, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    UV and γ-radiation mutagenic effect an various strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied by analyzing formation kinetics of induced mutants at the period of postirradiation incubation. Mechanisms of induced reverse formation was suggested. The presented analysis is considered to be differential taking account of more subtle aspects of induced mutagenesis. 8 refs.; 10 figs.; 3 tabs

  17. Proteostasis and ageing: insights from long-lived mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, William A; Page, Melissa M; Selman, Colin

    2017-10-15

    The global increase in life expectancy is creating significant medical, social and economic challenges to current and future generations. Consequently, there is a need to identify the fundamental mechanisms underlying the ageing process. This knowledge should help develop realistic interventions capable of combatting age-related disease, and thus improving late-life health and vitality. While several mechanisms have been proposed as conserved lifespan determinants, the loss of proteostasis - where proteostasis is defined here as the maintenance of the proteome - appears highly relevant to both ageing and disease. Several studies have shown that multiple proteostatic mechanisms, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-induced unfolded protein response (UPR), the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy, appear indispensable for longevity in many long-lived invertebrate mutants. Similarly, interspecific comparisons suggest that proteostasis may be an important lifespan determinant in vertebrates. Over the last 20 years a number of long-lived mouse mutants have been described, many of which carry single-gene mutations within the growth-hormone, insulin/IGF-1 or mTOR signalling pathways. However, we still do not know how these mutations act mechanistically to increase lifespan and healthspan, and accordingly whether mechanistic commonality occurs between different mutants. Recent evidence supports the premise that the successful maintenance of the proteome during ageing may be linked to the increased lifespan and healthspan of long-lived mouse mutants. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Physiological Society.

  18. Siim Nestor soovitab : Mutant Disco. Azymuth. Klubis Hollywood / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2003-01-01

    Mutant Disco klubis Prive 4. juulil. Brasiilia jazz-trio Azmuth klubis BonBon 5. juulil. Pidustuste sarja Hip Hop Cafe sünnipäeva tähistamisest klubis Hollywood 4. juulil, üritusest Ibiza Night 5. juulil

  19. Complementation of sweet corn mutants: a method for grouping ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for sweet corn are now expanding and the demands are increasing due to ... tropical/tropical regions of India is amongst one of the factors ... Maize endosperm mutant genes that affect quality of sweet corn can ... Thus, the concept of comple-.

  20. Genetic identification of a dwarf mutant in cucumber ( Cucumis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dwarf (compact) plant architecture is an important trait in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) breeding. A dwarf type mutant was selected from the cucumbers. The morphological and reproductive characteristics of the dwarf were compared with the vine plants. The dwarf type of cucumbers is characterized by its short ...

  1. Functional analysis of mutant human carnitine acylcarnitine translocases in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJlst, L.; van Roermund, C. W.; Iacobazzi, V.; Oostheim, W.; Ruiter, J. P.; Williams, J. C.; Palmieri, F.; Wanders, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    Long chain fatty acids are translocated as carnitine esters across the mitochondrial inner membrane by carnitine acylcarnitine translocase (CACT). We report functional studies on the mutant CACT proteins from a severe and a mild patient with CACT deficiency. CACT activities in fibroblasts of both

  2. Mutants of Aspergillus nidulans affected in asexual development

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. nidulans mutants by inducing base transitions and transversions ... tone 2, yeast extract 2, hydrolysed casein 1, and (in /g/l) in- ositol 4000, choline .... carbon sources; flu, fluffy mutation; uvsH, sensitivity to UV radiation. Gene symbols ...

  3. Mahalanobis distance screening of Arabidopsis mutants with chlorophyll fluorescence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Codrea, C. C.; Hakala-Yatkin, M.; Karlund-Marttila, A.; Nedbal, Ladislav; Aittokallio, T.; Nevalainen, O. S.; Tyystjärvi, E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 3 (2010), s. 273-283 ISSN 0166-8595 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : arabidopsis thaliana * chlorophyll fluorescence * fluorescence imaging * mutant detection * outlier detection Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.410, year: 2010 http://www.springerlink.com/content/x3586512462pn006/

  4. Potential of multiseeded mutant (msd) to boost sorghum grain yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed number per plant is an important determinant of the grain yield in cereal and other crops. We have isolated a class of multiseeded (msd) sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) mutants that are capable of producing three times the seed number and twice the seed weight per panicle as compared with t...

  5. Genetic characterization of glossy-leafed mutant broccoli lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glossy mutants of Brassica oleracea L. have reduced or altered epicuticular wax on the surface of their leaves as compared to wild-type plants, conveying a shiny green appearance. Mutations conferring glossiness are common and have been found in most B. oleracea crop varieties, including cauliflower...

  6. Forward and reverse genetics: The LORE1 retrotransposon insertion mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukai, Eigo; Malolepszy, Anna; Sandal, Niels Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    The endogenous Lotus retrotransposon 1 (LORE1) transposes in the germ line of Lotus japonicus plants that carry an active element. This feature of LORE1 has been exploited for generation of a large non-transgenic insertion mutant population, where insertions have been annotated using next-generat...

  7. Development and evaluation of drought resistant mutant germ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed from M2 to M5 generations (M = mutant) were used in the study. The M2 to M4 ... facing food insecurity, such as Africa, peasants or small-scale farmers have .... sandy soil removed by washing and the root system examined. A nail board ...

  8. Structural basis for hyperactivity of cN-II mutants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hnízda, Aleš; Škerlová, Jana; Šinalová, Martina; Pachl, Petr; Man, Petr; Novák, Petr; Fábry, Milan; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Veverka, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2015), s. 4 ISSN 1211-5894. [Discussions in Structural Molecular Biology. Annual Meeting of the Czech Society for Structural Biology /13./. 19.03.2015-21.03.2015, Nové Hrady] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378050 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : cN-II mutants * enzyme hyperactivity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  9. Inducement and identification of an endosperm mutant in maize

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-30

    Nov 30, 2011 ... Drummond EP, Ausubel FM (2000). Three unique mutants of. Arabidopsis identify eds loci required for limiting growth of a biotrophic fungal pathogen. Plant J. 24(2): 205-218. Dinges JR, Colleoni C, Myers AM, James MG (2001). Molecular structure of three mutations at the maize sugary1 locus and their.

  10. Abnormal grooming activity in Dab1(scm) (scrambler) mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strazielle, C; Lefevre, A; Jacquelin, C; Lalonde, R

    2012-07-15

    Dab1(scm) mutant mice, characterized by cell ectopias and degeneration in cerebellum, hippocampus, and neocortex, were compared to non-ataxic controls for different facets of grooming caused by brief water immersions, as well as some non-grooming behaviors. Dab1(scm) mutants were strongly affected in their quantitative functional parameters, exhibiting higher starting latencies before grooming relative to non-ataxic littermates of the A/A strain, fewer grooming bouts, and grooming components of shorter duration, with an unequal regional distribution targeting almost totally the rostral part (head washing and forelimb licking) of the animal. Only bouts of a single grooming element were preserved. The cephalocaudal order of grooming elements appeared less disorganized, mutant and control mice initiating the grooming with head washing and forelimb licking prior to licking posterior parts. However, mutants differed from controls in that all their bouts were incomplete but uninterrupted, although intergroup difference for percentage of the incorrect transitions was not significant. In contrast to grooming, Dab1(scm) mice ambulated for a longer time. During walking episodes, they exhibited more body scratching than controls, possibly to compensate for the lack of licking different body parts. In conjunction with studies with other ataxic mice, these results indicate that the cerebellar cortex affects grooming activity and is consequently involved in executing various components, but not in its sequential organization, which requires other brain regions such as cerebral cortices or basal ganglia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of Lysophospholipid Content in Low Phytate Rice Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Chuan; Chen, Yaling; Tan, Yuanyuan; Liu, Lei; Waters, Daniel L E; Rose, Terry J; Shu, Qingyao; Bao, Jinsong

    2017-07-05

    As a fundamental component of nucleic acids, phospholipids, and adenosine triphosphate, phosphorus (P) is critical to all life forms, however, the molecular mechanism of P translocation and distribution in rice grains are still not understood. Here, with the use of five different low phytic acid (lpa) rice mutants, the redistribution in the main P-containing compounds in rice grain, phytic acid (PA), lysophospholipid (LPL), and inorganic P (Pi), was investigated. The lpa mutants showed a significant decrease in PA and phytate-phosphorus (PA-P) concentration with a concomitant increase in Pi concentration. Moreover, defects in the OsST and OsMIK genes result in a great reduction of specific LPL components and LPL-phosphorus (LPL-P) contents in rice grain. In contrast, defective OsMRP5 and Os2-PGK genes led to a significant increase in individual LPL components. The effect of the Os2-PGK gene on the LPL accumulation was validated using breeding lines derived from a cross between KBNT-lpa (Os2-PGK mutation) and Jiahe218. This study demonstrates that these rice lpa mutants lead to the redistribution of Pi in endosperm and modify LPL biosynthesis. Increase LPLs in the endosperm in the lpa mutants may have practical applications in rice breeding to produce "healthier" rice.

  12. Partial diversion of a mutant proinsulin (B10 aspartic acid) from the regulated to the constitutive secretory pathway in transfected AtT-20 cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, D J; Halban, P A; Kahn, C R; Weir, G C; Villa-Komaroff, L

    1989-01-01

    A patient with type II diabetes associated with hyperproinsulinemia has been shown to have a point mutation in one insulin gene allele, resulting in replacement of histidine with aspartic acid at position 10 of the B-chain. To investigate the basis of the proinsulin processing defect, we introduced an identical mutation in the rat insulin II gene and expressed both the normal and the mutant genes in the AtT-20 pituitary corticotroph cell line. Cells expressing the mutant gene showed increased...

  13. Mutant of Japanese pear resistant to Black Spot Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, T.; Nishida, T.; Ikeda, F.

    1987-01-01

    Full text: Nijisseike is one of the leading cultivars of Japanese pear (Pyrus serotinea Rehd.), but susceptible to black spot disease. Farmers try to prevent this disease by wrapping the fruit with a paper bag and by repeated spraying of fungicides. The disease is caused by a Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. Susceptibility is controlled by a single dominant gene. In 1962, grafted trees of this cultivar were planted at a distance between 53 and 93 m from the 60 Co source in the gamma-field (daily dose 15-4 rad). One branch on a tree planted at 53 m was detected as resistant in 1981. Under field conditions, black spots were observed on many fruits and leaves of the original trees by natural infection in early July, however, they were not observed on the mutant. To examine the resistance of the mutant, artificial inoculations were made using spores of the pathogen and the host specific toxin produced by germinating spores. When some drops of the spore suspension are placed on leaves, the formation of black spots depends upon the leaf age. In a resistant cv. as Chojuro, black spot symptoms are formed only when inoculated on young leaves. An intermediate reaction was observed in the mutant, whereas the original Nijisseiki showed severe symptoms. When inoculation was made on matured fruit skins, no black spot was formed on the mutant just like on the resistant cv. Chojuro, while many small black spots were formed and grew into large spots overlapping each other on the susceptible cv. Nijisseiki. In case of the crude toxin inoculation (4-0.04 ppm) of cv. Nijisseiki black spots were formed on the surface of the susceptible fruit skin, and necrotic lesions at the cut end of detached small pieces of leaves, although reaction on fruit skins was weaker compared with inoculation by spores. However, no symptoms were observed from the toxin application on the mutant and the resistant cv. Chojuro. That the resistance of the mutant is classified as

  14. Vernal Point and Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Campos, Teodosio; Chavez S, Nadia; Chavez-Sumarriva, Israel

    2014-05-01

    The time scale was based on the internationally recognized formal chronostratigraphical /geochronological subdivisions of time: The Phanerozoic Eonathem/Eon; the Cenozoic Erathem/Era; the Quaternary System/Period; the Pleistocene and Holocene Series/Epoch. The Quaternary was divided into: (1) The Pleistocene that was characterized by cycles of glaciations (intervals between 40,000 and 100,000 years). (2) The Holocene that was an interglacial period that began about 12,000 years ago. It was believed that the Milankovitch cycles (eccentricity, axial tilt and the precession of the equinoxes) were responsible for the glacial and interglacial Holocene periods. The magnetostratigraphic units have been widely used for global correlations valid for Quaternary. The gravitational influence of the sun and moon on the equatorial bulges of the mantle of the rotating earth causes the precession of the earth. The retrograde motion of the vernal point through the zodiacal band is 26,000 years. The Vernal point passes through each constellation in an average of 2000 years and this period of time was correlated to Bond events that were North Atlantic climate fluctuations occurring every ≡1,470 ± 500 years throughout the Holocene. The vernal point retrogrades one precessional degree approximately in 72 years (Gleissberg-cycle) and approximately enters into the Aquarius constellation on March 20, 1940. On earth this entry was verify through: a) stability of the magnetic equator in the south central zone of Peru and in the north zone of Bolivia, b) the greater intensity of equatorial electrojet (EEJ) in Peru and Bolivia since 1940. With the completion of the Holocene and the beginning of the Anthropocene (widely popularized by Paul Crutzen) it was proposed the date of March 20, 1940 as the beginning of the Anthropocene. The date proposed was correlated to the work presented in IUGG (Italy 2007) with the title "Cusco base meridian for the study of geophysical data"; Cusco was

  15. Unidirectional reflectionless light propagation at exceptional points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of unidirectional reflectionless light propagation in photonic devices at exceptional points (EPs. EPs, which are branch point singularities of the spectrum, associated with the coalescence of both eigenvalues and corresponding eigenstates, lead to interesting phenomena, such as level repulsion and crossing, bifurcation, chaos, and phase transitions in open quantum systems described by non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. Recently, it was shown that judiciously designed photonic synthetic matters could mimic the complex non-Hermitian Hamiltonians in quantum mechanics and realize unidirectional reflection at optical EPs. Unidirectional reflectionlessness is of great interest for optical invisibility. Achieving unidirectional reflectionless light propagation could also be potentially important for developing optical devices, such as optical network analyzers. Here, we discuss unidirectional reflectionlessness at EPs in both parity-time (PT-symmetric and non-PT-symmetric optical systems. We also provide an outlook on possible future directions in this field.

  16. Isolation and characterization of MMS-sensitive mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, L.; Prakash, S.

    1977-01-01

    We have isolated mutants sensitive to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Alleles of rad1, rad4, rad6, rad52, rad55 and rad57 were found among these mms mutants. Twenty-nine of the mms mutants which complement the existing radiation-sensitive (rad and rev) mutants belong to 22 new complementation groups. Mutants from five complementation groups are sensitive only to MMS. Mutants of 11 complementation groups are sensitive to uv or x rays in addition to MMS, mutants of six complementation groups are sensitive to all three agents. The cross-sensitivities of these mms mutants to uv and x rays are discussed in terms of their possible involvement in DNA repair. Sporulation is reduced or absent in homozygous diploids of mms mutants from nine complementation groups

  17. Identification of a novel ga-related bush mutant in pumpkin (cucurbita moschata duchesne)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.; Cao, J.

    2015-01-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) bush mutant plants were characterized by short stems. The sensitivity of pumpkin bush mutant plants to exogenous hormones was identified in this study. Results revealed that internode elongation of bush mutant plants could respond to gibberellins (GA4+7 and GA3), but not to indole acetic acid (IAA) and brassinosteroids (BR); by contrast, the mutant phenotype of bush mutant plants could not be fully rescued by GA4+7 and GA3. The internode of bush mutant plants yielded a lower KS expression level than that of vine plants. Therefore, pumpkin bush mutant plants were designated as GA-related mutant plants eliciting a partial response to GAs; the action of IAA and BR might not be involved in the internode growth of pumpkin bush mutant plants, specifically Cucurbita moschata Duch. (author)

  18. Point/Counterpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ungar, David; Ernst, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Point Argument: "Dynamic Languages (in Reactive Environments) Unleash Creativity," by David Ungar. For the sake of creativity, the profession needs to concentrate more on inventing new and better dynamic languages and environments and less on improving static languages. Counterpoint Argument......: "Explicitly Declared Static Types: The Missing Links," by Erik Ernst. How do we understand software? Using it is a powerful approach, but it provides examples of properties, not general truths. Some static knowledge is needed. This department is part of a special issue on dynamically typed languages....

  19. Mise au point

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tomie est replacé et fixé par des fils d'acier, krönlein lais- sait ce fragment pédiculé au fascia temporalis afin d'évi- ter la dépression de la fosse temporale due à la désinser- tion du muscle temporal [20] ; dans notre série, après reconstitution du cadre, le muscle temporal est suturé à son point d'insertion. pour les tumeurs ...

  20. Torsades de Pointes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Chen, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: 70-year-old male with a history ventricular arrhythmia, AICD (automated implantable cardioverter defibrillator, coronary artery disease and cardiac stents presented to the Emergency Department after three AICD discharges with dyspnea but no chest pain. During triage, he was found to have an irregular radial pulse and was placed on a cardiac monitor. Significant findings: The patient was found to be in a polymorphic ventricular tachycardia; he was alert, awake and asymptomatic. A rhythm strip showed a wide complex tachycardia with the QRS complex varying in amplitude around the isoelectric line consistent with Torsades de Pointes. Discussion: Torsades de Pointes (TdP is a specific type of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. The arrhythmia’s characteristic morphology consists of the QRS complex “twisting” around the isoelectric line with gradual variation of the amplitude, reflecting its literal translation of “twisting of the points.”1 This arrhythmia occurs in the context of prolonged QT. The most common form of acquired QT prolongation is medication induced. Common causes include antiarrhythmics, antipsychotics, antiemetics, and antibiotics.2 Patient specific risk factors include female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, hypothermia and heart disease.3 In the setting of prolonged QT, the repolarization phase is extended. TdP is initiated when a PVC (premature ventricular contraction occurs during this repolarization, known as an ‘R on T’ phenomenon. TdP is often asymptomatic and self-limited. The danger in TdP is its potential to deteriorate into ventricular fibrillation. A mainstay of management of TdP is prevention of risk factors when possible.4 Unstable patients should be treated with synchronized cardioversion. Magnesium sulfate should be administered in all cases of TdP.1 If a patient is not responsive to magnesium, consider isoproterenol, amiodarone, and overdrive

  1. Pointing control for LDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Y.; Briggs, C.

    1988-01-01

    One important aspect of the LDR control problem is the possible excitations of structural modes due to random disturbances, mirror chopping, and slewing maneuvers. An analysis was performed to yield a first order estimate of the effects of such dynamic excitations. The analysis involved a study of slewing jitters, chopping jitters, disturbance responses, and pointing errors, making use of a simplified planar LDR model which describes the LDR dynamics on a plane perpendicular to the primary reflector. Briefly, the results indicate that the command slewing profile plays an important role in minimizing the resultant jitter, even to a level acceptable without any control action. An optimal profile should therefore be studied.

  2. The point on.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In this last article, we find the point of view about the world petroleum activity, the reserves and the recent discoveries, the deep offshore, the technological developments in petroleum upstream. The petroleum situation in China is treated. The trends of world refining are described. The recent technological developments in the petroleum downstream are detailed. The prices of crude oil and the refining margins are the subject of a chapter. The investments of hydrocarbons area are given, the world trade and the lng projects, the gas availability in Western Europe have their place. The trends of European automobile industry and the fuels distribution are also discussed. (N.C.)

  3. Identification of some Rice Mutants using Morphological and Molecular Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobieh, S.E.S.

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was conducted at the experimental farm of plant research department, nuclear research center, atomic energy authority, abu zaabal in order to verify four rice genotypes i.e sakha 102, giza 178, high yielding mutant (Ms 6) and high yielding mutant (MG 16). the (UPOV) rice descriptor was used to identify the germplasm morphologically .Molecular RAPD-PCR was used to identify genetic variability on the molecular level for the tested genotypes. 1- the results indicated that according to (UPOV) rice descriptor eight morphological traits were completely different between mutant Ms 6 in comparison with the parent sakha 102 and mut. MG 16 in comparison parent giza 178, the traits were ; stem thickness, stem length, panicle length, 1000-grain weight, grain length, grain width decorticated grain length and decorticated grain width. 2- using 10 arbitrary primers, through four rice genotypes on the molecular level using RAPD markers. the size of the amplified fragments were ranged from 0.201 to 2.036 k bp. two primers OPB-13 and OPB-16 showed no polymorphism among genotypes tested. 3- the total number of amplicons produced by the 8 polymorphic RAPD profiels was 66. the total number of monomorphic amplicons was 32. however, the total number of polymorphic amplicons was 34. 4- the percentage of polymorphism ranged from (22.22%) for primer OPA-18 to (90%) for primer OPB-11. 5-the highest genetic similarity (90.3%) was between sakha 102 and high yielding mut. (Ms 6). the genetic similarity (75.5%) was between giza 178 and high yielding mut.(MG 16). 6- one positive unique marker amplified by OPA-18 Primer identified the high yielding mutant Ms 6 but three positive unique markers amplified by OPB-17 primer and OPA-18 primer identified the high yielding mutant MG 16

  4. Mutant matrix metalloproteinase-9 reduces postoperative peritoneal adhesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Hussein; El-Rehany, Mahmoud; Roeb, Elke; Abdel-Ghany, Hend; Ramzy, Maggie; Gaber, Shereen

    2016-02-01

    Postoperative peritoneal adhesions continue to be a major source of morbidity and occasional mortality. Studies have shown that matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels are decreased postoperatively which may limits matrix degradation and participate in the development of peritoneal adhesions. In this proof-of-principle study, we evaluated the effect of gene therapy with catalytically inactive mutant MMP-9 on postoperative peritoneal adhesions in rats. Adenovirus encoding mutant MMP-9 (Ad-mMMP-9) or saline was instilled in the peritoneal cavity after cecal and parietal peritoneal injury in rats. Expression of mutant MMP-9 transcript was verified by sequencing. Adenovirus E4 gene expression, adhesion scores, MMP-9, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression were evaluated at sacrifice one week after treatment. Both mutant MMP-9 transcripts and adenovirus E4 gene were expressed in Ad-mMMP-9 treated adhesions. Adhesions severity decreased significantly (p = 0.036) in the Ad-mMMP-9-treated compared with saline-treated adhesions. Expression of MMP-9 mRNA and protein were elevated (p = 0.001 and p = 0.029, respectively) in the Ad-mMMP-9-treated adhesions compared with saline-treated adhesions. While tPA levels were increased (p = 0.02) in Ad-mMMP-9 treated adhesions compared with saline-treated adhesions, TGF-β1 and PAI-1 levels were decreased (p = 0.017 and p = 0.042, respectively). No difference in mortality were found between groups (p = 0.64). Mutant MMP-9 gene therapy effectively transduced peritoneal adhesions resulting in reduction of severity of primary peritoneal adhesions. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Relative Critical Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Lewis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Relative equilibria of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems with symmetry are critical points of appropriate scalar functions parametrized by the Lie algebra (or its dual of the symmetry group. Setting aside the structures – symplectic, Poisson, or variational – generating dynamical systems from such functions highlights the common features of their construction and analysis, and supports the construction of analogous functions in non-Hamiltonian settings. If the symmetry group is nonabelian, the functions are invariant only with respect to the isotropy subgroup of the given parameter value. Replacing the parametrized family of functions with a single function on the product manifold and extending the action using the (coadjoint action on the algebra or its dual yields a fully invariant function. An invariant map can be used to reverse the usual perspective: rather than selecting a parametrized family of functions and finding their critical points, conditions under which functions will be critical on specific orbits, typically distinguished by isotropy class, can be derived. This strategy is illustrated using several well-known mechanical systems – the Lagrange top, the double spherical pendulum, the free rigid body, and the Riemann ellipsoids – and generalizations of these systems.

  6. Reassessing Function Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Finnie

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of the size and development effort for software projects requires estimation models which can be used early enough in the development life cycle to be of practical value. Function Point Analysis (FPA has become possibly the most widely used estimation technique in practice. However the technique was developed in the data processing environment of the 1970's and, despite undergoing considerable reassessment and formalisation, still attracts criticism for the weighting scoring it employs and for the way in which the function point score is adapted for specific system characteristics. This paper reviews the validity of the weighting scheme and the value of adjusting for system characteristics by studying their effect in a sample of 299 software developments. In general the value adjustment scheme does not appear to cater for differences in productivity. The weighting scheme used to adjust system components in terms of being simple, average or complex also appears suspect and should be redesigned to provide a more realistic estimate of system functionality.

  7. Bright point study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.; Harvey, K.; Bruner, M.; Kent, B.; Antonucci, E.

    1982-01-01

    Transition region and coronal observations of bright points by instruments aboard the Solar Maximum Mission and high resolution photospheric magnetograph observations on September 11, 1980 are presented. A total of 31 bipolar ephemeral regions were found in the photosphere from birth in 9.3 hours of combined magnetograph observations from three observatories. Two of the three ephemeral regions present in the field of view of the Ultraviolet Spectrometer-Polarimeter were observed in the C IV 1548 line. The unobserved ephemeral region was determined to be the shortest-lived (2.5 hr) and lowest in magnetic flux density (13G) of the three regions. The Flat Crystal Spectrometer observed only low level signals in the O VIII 18.969 A line, which were not statistically significant to be positively identified with any of the 16 ephemeral regions detected in the photosphere. In addition, the data indicate that at any given time there lacked a one-to-one correspondence between observable bright points and photospheric ephemeral regions, while more ephemeral regions were observed than their counterparts in the transition region and the corona

  8. Referential Zero Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Potrč

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps the most important controversy in which ordinary language philosophy was involved is that of definite descriptions, presenting referential act as a community-involving communication-intention endeavor, thereby opposing the direct acquaintance-based and logical proper names inspired reference aimed at securing truth conditions of referential expression. The problem of reference is that of obtaining access to the matters in the world. This access may be forthcoming through the senses, or through descriptions. A review of how the problem of reference is handled shows though that one main practice is to indulge in relations of acquaintance supporting logical proper names, demonstratives, indexicals and causal or historical chains. This testifies that the problem of reference involves the zero point, and with it phenomenology of intentionality. Communication-intention is but one dimension of rich phenomenology that constitutes an agent’s experiential space, his experiential world. Zero point is another constitutive aspect of phenomenology involved in the referential relation. Realizing that the problem of reference is phenomenology based opens a new perspective upon the contribution of analytical philosophy in this area, reconciling it with continental approach, and demonstrating variations of the impossibility related to the real. Chromatic illumination from the cognitive background empowers the referential act, in the best tradition of ordinary language philosophy.

  9. Glycine receptor mutants of the mouse: what are possible routes of inhibitory compensation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha eSchaefer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Defects in glycinergic inhibition result in a complex neuromotor disorder in humans known as hyperekplexia (OMIM 149400 with similar phenotypes in rodents characterized by an exaggerated startle reflex and hypertonia. Analogous to genetic defects in humans, single point mutations, microdeletions, or insertions in the Glra1 gene but also in the Glrb gene underlie the pathology in mice. The mutations either localized in the α (spasmodic, oscillator, cincinnati, Nmf11 or the β (spastic subunit of the GlyR are much less tolerated in mice than in humans, leaving the question for the existence of different regulatory elements of the pathomechanisms in humans and rodents. In addition to the spontaneous mutations, new insights into understanding of the regulatory pathways in hyperekplexia or glycine encephalopathy arose from the constantly increasing number of knock-out as well as knock-in mutants of GlyRs. Over the last five years, various efforts using in vivo whole cell recordings provided a detailed analysis of the kinetic parameters underlying glycinergic dysfunction. Presynaptic compensation as well as postsynaptic compensatory mechanisms in these mice by other GlyR subunits or GABAA receptors, and the role of extra-synaptic GlyRs is still a matter of debate. A recent study on the mouse mutant oscillator, displayed a novel aspect for compensation of functionality by complementation of receptor domains that fold independently. This review focuses on defects in glycinergic neurotransmission in mice discussed with the background of human hyperekplexia en route to strategies of compensation.

  10. Behavioral and other phenotypes in a cytoplasmic Dynein light intermediate chain 1 mutant mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Gareth T; Haas, Matilda A; Line, Samantha; Shepherd, Hazel L; Alqatari, Mona; Stewart, Sammy; Rishal, Ida; Philpott, Amelia; Kalmar, Bernadett; Kuta, Anna; Groves, Michael; Parkinson, Nicholas; Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham; Brandner, Sebastian; Bannerman, David; Greensmith, Linda; Hafezparast, Majid; Koltzenburg, Martin; Deacon, Robert; Fainzilber, Mike; Fisher, Elizabeth M C

    2011-04-06

    The cytoplasmic dynein complex is fundamentally important to all eukaryotic cells for transporting a variety of essential cargoes along microtubules within the cell. This complex also plays more specialized roles in neurons. The complex consists of 11 types of protein that interact with each other and with external adaptors, regulators and cargoes. Despite the importance of the cytoplasmic dynein complex, we know comparatively little of the roles of each component protein, and in mammals few mutants exist that allow us to explore the effects of defects in dynein-controlled processes in the context of the whole organism. Here we have taken a genotype-driven approach in mouse (Mus musculus) to analyze the role of one subunit, the dynein light intermediate chain 1 (Dync1li1). We find that, surprisingly, an N235Y point mutation in this protein results in altered neuronal development, as shown from in vivo studies in the developing cortex, and analyses of electrophysiological function. Moreover, mutant mice display increased anxiety, thus linking dynein functions to a behavioral phenotype in mammals for the first time. These results demonstrate the important role that dynein-controlled processes play in the correct development and function of the mammalian nervous system.

  11. Culture adaptation of malaria parasites selects for convergent loss-of-function mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Antoine; Affara, Muna; Assefa, Samuel A; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Conway, David J

    2017-01-24

    Cultured human pathogens may differ significantly from source populations. To investigate the genetic basis of laboratory adaptation in malaria parasites, clinical Plasmodium falciparum isolates were sampled from patients and cultured in vitro for up to three months. Genome sequence analysis was performed on multiple culture time point samples from six monoclonal isolates, and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variants emerging over time were detected. Out of a total of five positively selected SNPs, four represented nonsense mutations resulting in stop codons, three of these in a single ApiAP2 transcription factor gene, and one in SRPK1. To survey further for nonsense mutants associated with culture, genome sequences of eleven long-term laboratory-adapted parasite strains were examined, revealing four independently acquired nonsense mutations in two other ApiAP2 genes, and five in Epac. No mutants of these genes exist in a large database of parasite sequences from uncultured clinical samples. This implicates putative master regulator genes in which multiple independent stop codon mutations have convergently led to culture adaptation, affecting most laboratory lines of P. falciparum. Understanding the adaptive processes should guide development of experimental models, which could include targeted gene disruption to adapt fastidious malaria parasite species to culture.

  12. Pyridones as NNRTIs against HIV-1 mutants: 3D-QSAR and protein informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Utsab; Verma, Saroj; Jain, Surabhi; Katti, Setu B.; Prabhakar, Yenamandra S.

    2013-07-01

    CoMFA and CoMSIA based 3D-QSAR of HIV-1 RT wild and mutant (K103, Y181C, and Y188L) inhibitory activities of 4-benzyl/benzoyl pyridin-2-ones followed by protein informatics of corresponding non-nucleoside inhibitors' binding pockets from pdbs 2BAN, 3MED, 1JKH, and 2YNF were analysed to discover consensus features of the compounds for broad-spectrum activity. The CoMFA/CoMSIA models indicated that compounds with groups which lend steric-cum-electropositive fields in the vicinity of C5, hydrophobic field in the vicinity of C3 of pyridone region and steric field in aryl region produce broad-spectrum anti-HIV-1 RT activity. Also, a linker rendering electronegative field between pyridone and aryl moieties is common requirement for the activities. The protein informatics showed considerable alteration in residues 181 and 188 characteristics on mutation. Also, mutants' isoelectric points shifted in acidic direction. The study offered fresh avenues for broad-spectrum anti-HIV-1 agents through designing new molecules seeded with groups satisfying common molecular fields and concerns of mutating residues.

  13. Human GLTP and mutant forms of ACD11 suppress cell death in the Arabidopsis acd11 mutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nikolaj H T; McKinney, Lea V; Pike, Helen

    2008-01-01

    The Arabidopsis acd11 mutant exhibits runaway, programmed cell death due to the loss of a putative sphingosine transfer protein (ACD11) with homology to mammalian GLTP. We demonstrate that transgenic expression in Arabidopsis thaliana of human GLTP partially suppressed the phenotype of the acd11...

  14. PedonnanceofE3rly MatUring MutantS Derived from ''SuPa'~ Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vienna, Austria in 1994. The dry seeds were in-adiated with gamma rays using three doses (170, 210. --iifid 24OC;Y).frOm C.obalt 60 (lCO) in order shorten the plant height and maturity period. From the resulting mutant. PoPulations ortgindtiriifroni modified single seed descent method, five Jery early maturing lines plus the ...

  15. Attenuated bioluminescent Brucella melitensis mutants GR019 (virB4), GR024 (galE), and GR026 (BMEI1090-BMEI1091) confer protection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajashekara, Gireesh; Glover, David A; Banai, Menachem; O'Callaghan, David; Splitter, Gary A

    2006-05-01

    In vivo bioluminescence imaging is a persuasive approach to investigate a number of issues in microbial pathogenesis. Previously, we have applied bioluminescence imaging to gain greater insight into Brucella melitensis pathogenesis. Endowing Brucella with bioluminescence allowed direct visualization of bacterial dissemination, pattern of tissue localization, and the contribution of Brucella genes to virulence. In this report, we describe the pathogenicity of three attenuated bioluminescent B. melitensis mutants, GR019 (virB4), GR024 (galE), and GR026 (BMEI1090-BMEI1091), and the dynamics of bioluminescent virulent bacterial infection following vaccination with these mutants. The virB4, galE, and BMEI1090-BMEI1091 mutants were attenuated in interferon regulatory factor 1-deficient (IRF-1(-/-)) mice; however, only the GR019 (virB4) mutant was attenuated in cultured macrophages. Therefore, in vivo imaging provides a comprehensive approach to identify virulence genes that are relevant to in vivo pathogenesis. Our results provide greater insights into the role of galE in virulence and also suggest that BMEI1090 and downstream genes constitute a novel set of genes involved in Brucella virulence. Survival of the vaccine strain in the host for a critical period is important for effective Brucella vaccines. The galE mutant induced no changes in liver and spleen but localized chronically in the tail and protected IRF-1(-/-) and wild-type mice from virulent challenge, implying that this mutant may serve as a potential vaccine candidate in future studies and that the direct visualization of Brucella may provide insight into selection of improved vaccine candidates.

  16. USING QTM AS AN INSTRUCTIONAL MODEL FOR TEACHING READING COMPREHENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koeswandi Koeswandi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was motivated by the needs for an appropriate English reading comprehension instructional model in Junior High School students. The aims of this research are (1 to describe the qualities of a present guideline for an English instructional model of reading comprehension; (2 to describe the qualities of the existing English instructional model of reading comprehension used in Junior High School; (3 to get the deeply information on the needs towards design; (4 to construct the prototype model of English instructional model of reading comprehension using Quantum Teaching Model (QTM; and (5 to evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the prototype model. The research has used R & D which was conducted in three phases. The first has exploration phase which consists of evaluating the qualities of a present guideline for EIMRC used in JHS in Pemalang Regency, and to analyze the needs of EIMRC using QTM. The second was prototype development phase where the prototype model was constructed and tried out. The last was expert validation in which experts and practitioners were involved to review the model in order to help the refinement. The data were collected from document analysis, in-depth interview, classroom observation, FGD, Tryout and expert judgment. The data were then analyzed by using descriptive-qualitative and interactive analysis. The results of the research showed that the qualities of the present model were fair. Meanwhile, the result of need analysis pointed out that the teachers and the students need the model of EIMRC using QTM. However, the model needs to be revised for the refinement, particularly in terms of mechanical aspects and grammatical points. The research findings conclude that the use of EIMRC using QTM in JHS in Pemalang Regency empirically can improve the students‘ motivation and interaction in RC teaching and Learning activities and increase their reading comprehension achievement. These findings recommend that

  17. Selection and agronomic evaluation of induced mutant lines of sesame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoballah, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Station yield trial: Three high yielding mutants (8, 48, and EFM92) with better and stable performance were developed in our breeding programme and submitted for registration to the Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation. Multi-location yield trials indicated that mutant line EFM92 ranked first in all locations; significant yield increases recorded for it ranged from 14.7 to 74.0% over the check variety. Moreover, it was 15-20 days earlier than the check and/or other mutants. Mutant lines 8 and 48 produced higher seed yields than the check at two different locations. These mutants can probably be grown and produce more yield than the check variety at the low yielding environments. Seed quality assay: During 1996 and 1997, 15 promising lines of sesame including mutants and hybrid populations as well as the local variety were evaluated for seed protein, oil content and fatty acid composition. The protein content varied from 20.6 to 26.7%; hybrid population EXM90 gave the highest value. About 85% of the total fatty acids in the oil are unsaturated (oleic and linoleic) and 15% saturated, mainly palmitic and stearic. Linoleic acid ranged from 41.8 to 47.9%. Mutant lines 6, 9, and EFM92, which gave high oil content (54-55.5%) together with high linoleic acid values (45.2-47.8%), are recommended for breeding for seed oil quality. Heterosis, combining ability and type of gene action in sesame: A half diallel set of crosses involving seven parents was used to study heterosis and combining ability in the F 1 generation as well as the nature of gene action controlling seed yield and its contributing traits in both F 1 and F 2 in order to identify the most efficient breeding methods leading to rapid genetic improvement. The expressions of heterosis varied with the crosses and characters investigated. The maximal significant positive useful heterosis was observed for branches/plant (52.9%) followed by seed yield/plant (38

  18. A comprehensive nuclear test ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The conclusion of a comprehensive nuclear test ban is of critical importance for the future of arms limitation and disarmament. As the 1980 report of the Secretary-General concluded, a comprehensive nuclear test ban is regarded as the first and most urgent step towards the cessation of the nuclear arms race and, in particular, of its qualitative aspects. It could serve as an important measure for the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, both vertical and horizontal. It would have a major arms limitation impact in that it would make it difficult, if not impossible, to develop new designs of nuclear weapons and would also place constraints on the modification of existing weapon designs. The permanent cessation of all nuclear-weapon tests has long been sought by the world community and its achievement would be an event of great international significance

  19. Comprehensive numerical modelling of tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.; Cohen, B.I.; Dubois, P.F.

    1991-01-01

    We outline a plan for the development of a comprehensive numerical model of tokamaks. The model would consist of a suite of independent, communicating packages describing the various aspects of tokamak performance (core and edge transport coefficients and profiles, heating, fueling, magnetic configuration, etc.) as well as extensive diagnostics. These codes, which may run on different computers, would be flexibly linked by a user-friendly shell which would allow run-time specification of packages and generation of pre- and post-processing functions, including workstation-based visualization of output. One package in particular, the calculation of core transport coefficients via gyrokinetic particle simulation, will become practical on the scale required for comprehensive modelling only with the advent of teraFLOP computers. Incremental effort at LLNL would be focused on gyrokinetic simulation and development of the shell

  20. Emergency preparedness: a comprehensive plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    The Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company (ARHCO) has developed comprehensive plans for coping with emergencies ranging from criticality to civil disturbance. A unique notification system provides for immediate contact with key personnel by using a central communications center, crash alarm warning networks, and a continuing telephone cascade notification system. There is also the capability of immediately contacting other contractor key personnel. Certain jobs have been predetermined as necessary for coping with an emergency. An emergency staff consisting of responsible management, with alternates, has been preselected to automatically fill these jobs when notified. Control centers for headquarters and ''field'' are established with telephone and radio communication capabilities and are also supplied with some source materials to assist initiating plans for containing an emergency for recovery. A comprehensive emergency procedures manual has been developed, which contains information of company-wide application and procedures for specific facilities covering almost all accident situations