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Sample records for compound wiretap channel

  1. A Perspective on the MIMO Wiretap Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Oggier, Frederique

    2015-10-01

    A wiretap channel is a communication channel between a transmitter Alice and a legitimate receiver Bob, in the presence of an eavesdropper Eve. The goal of communication is to achieve reliability between Alice and Bob, but also confidentiality despite Eve’s presence. Wiretap channels are declined in all kinds of flavors, depending on the underlying channels used by the three players: discrete memoryless channels, additive Gaussian noise channels, or fading channels, to name a few. In this survey, we focus on the case where the three players use multiple-antenna channels with Gaussian noise to communicate. After summarizing known results for multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) channels, both in terms of achievable reliable data rate (capacity) and code design, we introduce the MIMO wiretap channel. We then state the MIMO wiretap capacity, summarize the idea of the proof(s) behind this result, and comment on the insights given by the proofs on the physical meaning of the secrecy capacity. We finally discuss design criteria for MIMO wiretap codes.

  2. Secret Sharing over Fast-Fading MIMO Wiretap Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloch Matthieu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Secret sharing over the fast-fading MIMO wiretap channel is considered. A source and a destination try to share secret information over a fast-fading MIMO channel in the presence of an eavesdropper who also makes channel observations that are different from but correlated to those made by the destination. An interactive, authenticated public channel with unlimited capacity is available to the source and destination for the secret sharing process. This situation is a special case of the "channel model with wiretapper" considered by Ahlswede and Csiszár. An extension of their result to continuous channel alphabets is employed to evaluate the key capacity of the fast-fading MIMO wiretap channel. The effects of spatial dimensionality provided by the use of multiple antennas at the source, destination, and eavesdropper are then investigated.

  3. The MISO wiretap channel with channel uncertainty: Asymptotic perspectives

    KAUST Repository

    Chaaban, Anas

    2017-05-12

    The N-antenna MISO Gaussian wiretap channel with imperfect channel-state information at the transmitter (CSIT) is studied in terms of secrecy rate scaling versus the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and N. Two schemes are considered, beamforming (BF) and artificial noise injection (AN). It is shown that if the CSIT error is independent of SNR, then both schemes do not achieve scaling versus SNR. However, if this error vanishes as SNR increases, then AN achieves the optimal scaling versus SNR, contrary to BF. Scaling can be achieved in BF by increasing N. In fact, BF achieves the optimal scaling versus N. In the AN scheme however, injecting noise in multiple direction deteriorates its scaling versus N. Nevertheless, AN can achieve the optimal scaling if noise is sent in only one direction. This leads to better performance than BF if the CSIT error is smaller than a threshold which is also derived.

  4. Secure Transmission with Multiple Antennas: The MISOME Wiretap Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Khisti, Ashish; Wornell, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    The role of multiple antennas for secure communication is investigated within the framework of Wyner's wiretap channel. We characterize the secrecy capacity in terms of generalized eigenvalues when the sender and eavesdropper have multiple antennas, the intended receiver has a single antenna, and the channel matrices are fixed and known to all the terminals, and show that a beamforming strategy is capacity-achieving. In addition, we show that in the high signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio regime the...

  5. The MISO Wiretap Channel with Noisy Main Channel Estimation in the High Power Regime

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2017-02-07

    We improve upon our previous upper bound on the secrecy capacity of the wiretap channel with multiple transmit antennas and single-antenna receivers, with noisy main channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter (CSI-T). Specifically, we show that if the main CSI error does not scale with the power budget at the transmitter P̅, then the secrecy capacity is )bounded above essentially by log log (P̅ yielding a secure degree of freedom (sdof) equal to zero. However, if the main CSI error scales as O(P̅-β), for β ∈ [0,1], then the sdof is equal to β.

  6. Wiretap Channel With Causal State Information and Secure Rate-Limited Feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Alejandro; Cohen, Asaf

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the secrecy capacity of a wiretap channel in the presence of causal state information and secure rate-limited feedback. In this scenario, the causal state information from the channel is available to both the legitimate transmitter and legitimate receiver. In addition, the legitimate receiver can send secure feedback to the transmitter at a limited rate Rf . We shown that the secrecy capacity is bounded. Moreover, when the channel to the legitimate receiver is less ...

  7. On the secrecy capacity of the MISO wiretap channel under imperfect channel estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2014-12-01

    We consider a wiretap channel consisting of a source with multiple antennas, a legitimate receiver and an eavesdropper with a single antenna each. The channels between the source and the receivers undergo fast fading. We assume that the transmitter, in addition to the statistics of both channels, is only aware of a noisy version of the CSI to the legitimate receiver referred to as main channel. The legitimate receiver is aware of both its instantaneous channel gain and the transmitter\\'s estimate of the main channel. On the other hand, the eavesdropper\\'s receiver, in addition to its instantaneous channel realization, is aware of the actual main CSI and the transmitter\\'s estimate as well. While the capacity of this channel is still open even with perfect CSI at the transmitter, we provide in this paper upper and lower bounds on the secrecy capacity. The upper bound is tighter than the one corresponding to perfect main CSI and the gap between the two upper bounds is characterized in function of the channel estimation error variance, at high-SNR. Furthermore, we show that our upper and lower bounds coincide in the case of no main CSI providing a trivial secrecy capacity.

  8. On the secrecy capacity of the wiretap channel with imperfect main channel estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2014-10-01

    We study the secrecy capacity of fast fading channels under imperfect main channel (between the transmitter and the legitimate receiver) estimation at the transmitter. Lower and upper bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity are derived for a class of independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) fading channels. The achievable rate follows from a standard wiretap code in which a simple on-off power control is employed along with a Gaussian input. The upper bound is obtained using an appropriate correlation scheme of the main and eavesdropper channels and is the best known upper bound so far. The upper and lower bounds coincide with recently derived ones in case of perfect main CSI. Furthermore, the upper bound is tight in case of no main CSI, where the secrecy capacity is equal to zero. Asymptotic analysis at high and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is also given. At high SNR, we show that the capacity is bounded by providing upper and lower bounds that depend on the channel estimation error. At low SNR, however, we prove that the secrecy capacity is asymptotically equal to the capacity of the main channel as if there were no secrecy constraint. Numerical results are provided for i.i.d. Rayleigh fading channels.

  9. On the ergodic secrecy capacity of the wiretap channel under imperfect main channel estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2011-11-01

    The ergodic secrecy capacity of the wiretap channel is known when the main channel (between the transmitter and the legitimate receiver) state information (CSI) is perfect at the transmitter and the coherence period is sufficiently large to enable random coding arguments in each block. In a fast fading scenario, when the codeword length spans many coherence periods, the secrecy capacity is still not known. In this paper, we present a framework that characterizes this secrecy capacity under imperfect main channel estimation at the transmitter. Inner and outer bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity are derived for a class of independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) fading channels. The achievable rate is a simple on-off scheme using a Gaussian input. The upper bound is obtained using an appropriate correlation scheme of the main and the eavesdropper channels. The upper and the lower bounds coincide with recently derived ones in the perfect main CSI extreme. Furthermore, the lower bound matches the upper bound in no main CSI extreme, where the secrecy capacity is equal to zero. Numerical results are provided for independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channels. © 2011 IEEE.

  10. On the input distribution and optimal beamforming for the MISO VLC wiretap channel

    KAUST Repository

    Arfaoui, Mohamed Amine

    2017-05-12

    We investigate in this paper the achievable secrecy rate of the multiple-input single-output (MISO) visible light communication (VLC) Gaussian wiretap channel with single user and single eavesdropper. We consider the cases when the location of eavesdropper is known or unknown to the transmitter. In the former case, we derive the optimal beamforming in closed form, subject to constrained inputs. In the latter case, we apply robust beamforming. Furthermore, we study the achievable secrecy rate when the input follows the truncated generalized normal (TGN) distribution. We present several examples which demonstrate the substantial improvements in the secrecy rates achieved by the proposed techniques.

  11. On the Secrecy Capacity of the Multiple-Antenna Wiretap Channel with Limited CSI Feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2015-12-01

    We study the ergodic secrecy capacity of a block fading wiretap channel when there are multiple antennas at the transmitter, the legitimate receiver and the eavesdropper. We consider that the receivers are aware of their respective channel matrices while the transmitter is only provided by a B-bits feedback of the main channel state information. The feedback bits are sent by the legitimate receiver, at the beginning of each fading block, over an error free public link with limited capacity. Assuming an average transmit power constraint, we provide an upper and a lower bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity. Then, we present a framework to design the optimal codebooks for feedback and transmission. In addition, we show that the proposed lower and upper bounds coincide asymptotically as the capacity of the feedback link becomes large; hence, fully characterizing the secrecy capacity in this case.

  12. On the ergodic secret message capacity of the wiretap channel with finite-rate feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2012-07-01

    We study the secret message capacity of an ergodic block fading wiretap channel with partial channel state information at the transmitter and perfect channel state information at the receivers. We consider that in addition to the statistics of the main and the eavesdropper channel state information (CSI), the sender is provided by the legitimate receiver with a q-bit feedback, at the beginning of each coherence block, through an error-free feedback channel, with capacity q bits. We establish upper and lower bounds on the secrecy capacity. We show that a positive secrecy rate is achievable even when the feedback is at the end of each coherence block and q = 1. We also show that the lower and the upper bounds coincide asymptotically as q → ∞. Finally, asymptotic analysis at high Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) are presented where it is found that the capacity is bounded at high-SNR and present a simple suboptimal scalar quantizer that is capacity achieving, without the need of any numerical optimization, as q → ∞. When applied to Rayleigh fading channels, we show that, at high-SNR, a 4-bit feedback achieves 90% of the secrecy capacity when perfect main CSI is available at the transmitter. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. Secure Multiple-Antenna Block-Fading Wiretap Channels with Limited CSI Feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2017-07-18

    In this paper, we investigate the ergodic secrecy capacity of a block-fading wiretap channel with limited channel knowledge at the transmitter. We consider that the legitimate receiver, the eavesdropper and the transmitter are equipped with multiple antennas and that the receiving nodes are aware of their respective channel matrices. The transmitter, on the other hand, is only provided by a B-bit feedback of the main channel state information. The feedback bits are sent by the legitimate receiver, at the beginning of each fading block, over an error-free public link with limited capacity. The statistics of the main and the eavesdropper channel state information are known at all nodes. Assuming an average transmit power constraint, we establish upper and lower bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity. Then, we present a framework to design the optimal codebooks for feedback and transmission. In addition, we show that the proposed lower and upper bounds coincide asymptotically as the capacity of the feedback link becomes large, i.e. $B \\ ightarrow \\\\infty$ ; hence, fully characterizing the ergodic secrecy capacity in this case. Besides, we analyze the asymptotic behavior of the presented secrecy rates, at high Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), and evaluate the gap between the bounds.

  14. Ergodic secret message capacity of the wiretap channel with finite-rate feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2014-06-01

    We study the secret message capacity of an ergodic block fading wiretap channel with partial channel state information at the transmitter and perfect channel state information at the receivers, under both a short term power constraint (STPC) and a long term power constraint (LTPC). We consider that in addition to the statistics of the main and the eavesdropper channel state information (CSI), the sender is provided by the legitimate receiver with a q-bit feedback, at the beginning of each coherence block, through an error-free public channel, with capacity q bits. We establish upper and lower bounds on the secrecy capacity. We show that the lower and the upper bounds coincide asymptotically as q → ∞. When applied to Rayleigh fading channels, we show that, a 4-bit feedback achieves about 90% of the secrecy capacity when perfect main CSI is available at the transmitter. Finally, asymptotic analysis at high and low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) is presented. It is found that the capacity is bounded at high-SNR, whereas at asymptotically low-SNR, the lower bounds and the upper bound scale linearly with SNR under STPC. Furthermore, subject to LTPC, the capacity at low-SNR is equal to the capacity of the main channel without secrecy constraint and with perfect CSI at both the transmitter and the receiver, under a mild condition on the fading statistics. We also show that a positive secrecy rate is achievable even when the feedback is at the end of each coherence block and q=1. © 2002-2012 IEEE.

  15. Feeding Back the Output or Sharing the State: Which Is Better for the State-Dependent Wiretap Channel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Dai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the general wiretap channel with channel state information (CSI at the transmitter and noiseless feedback is investigated, where the feedback is from the legitimate receiver to the transmitter, and the CSI is available at the transmitter in a causal or noncausal manner. The capacity-equivocation regions are determined for this model in both causal and noncausal cases, and the results are further explained via Gaussian and binary examples. For the Gaussian model, we find that in some particular cases, the noiseless feedback performs better than Chia and El Gamal’s CSI sharing scheme, i.e., the secrecy capacity of this feedback scheme is larger than that of the CSI sharing scheme. For the degraded binary model, we find that the noiseless feedback performs no better than Chia and El Gamal’s CSI sharing scheme. However, if the cross-over probability of the wiretap channel is large enough, we show that the two schemes perform the same.

  16. On the secrecy capacity of the broadcast wiretap channel with imperfect channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we consider secure broadcasting over fast fading channels. Assuming imperfect main channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter, we first provide an upper and a lower bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity when a common message is broadcasted to multiple legitimate receivers in the presence of one eavesdropper. For this case, we show that the secrecy rate is limited by the legitimate receiver having, on average, the worst main channel link. Then, we present an expression for the achievable secrecy sum-rate when each legitimate receiver is interested in an independent message. The special cases of high SNR, perfect and no-main CSI are also analyzed. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the obtained results for the case of independent but not necessarily identically distributed Rayleigh fading channels.

  17. On the secrecy capacity of the broadcast wiretap channel with limited CSI feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2016-10-27

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of secure broadcasting over block-fading channels with limited channel knowledge at the transmitter. More particularly, we analyze the effect of having imperfect channel state information (CSI) via a finite rate feedback on the throughput of a broadcast channel where the transmission is intended for multiple legitimate receivers in the presence of an eavesdropper. First, we partially characterize the ergodic secrecy capacity of the system when the source broadcasts the same information to all the receivers, i.e., common message transmission. Then, we look at the independent messages case, where the transmitter broadcasts multiple independent messages to the legitimate receivers. For this case, we present lower and upper bounds on the ergodic secrecy sum-capacity. In both scenarios, we show that the proposed lower and upper bounds coincide asymptotically as the capacity of the feedback links becomes large, hence, fully characterizing the secrecy capacity in this case.

  18. PERBANDINGAN HUKUM PENGATURAN TINDAKAN PENYADAPAN (WIRETAPPING DI INDONESIA DAN FILIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milda Istiqomah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aims to analyze the comparative perspective on wiretapping in investigation process based on Law Number 15 Year 2003 on Combating Criminal Acts of Terrorism Indonesia and Republict Act 9372 on the Human Security Act (HSA of the Philippines. This study uses normative juridical method including legislative approach (statute aproach and comparative approach. Based on the discussion, it concludes that there are some similarities and differences regarding the wiretapping based on two laws, however article Article 31 paragraph (1 (, (2, and (3 of law Number 15 Year 2003 are assumed to potentially violate human rights for the terrorist suspects. Key words: comparative law, wiretapping, terrorism Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaturan tindakan penyadapan (wiretapping terkait kewenangan penyidik dalam proses penyidikan menurut Undang-Undang Nomor 15 tahun 2003 tentang Pemberantasan Tindak Pidana Terorisme Indonesia dan menurut Republict Act 9372 Human Security Act (HSA Filipina. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian yuridis normatif dengan pendekatan perundang-undangan (statute aproach dan pendekatan perbandingan (comparative approach. Berdasarkan hasil pembahasan tentang perbandingan antara tindakan penyadapan sebagai kewenangan penyidik dalam kedua undang-undang, bahwa terdapat beberapa persamaan dan perbedaan mengenai pengaturan tindakan penyadapan tersebut dimana Pasal 31 ayat (1(, (2, dan (3 Undang-Undang Nomor 15 tahun 2003 lebih berpotensi menimbulkan pelanggaran hak asasi manusia (HAM bagi tersangka tindak pidana terorisme. Kata kunci: perbandingan hukum, penyadapan, terorisme

  19. Hydraulic characteristics of flood waves passing compound channels

    OpenAIRE

    冨永, 晃宏; 長尾, 正志; 三尾, 憲史; 劉, 建

    1994-01-01

    Hydraulic characteristics of unsteady flows were investigated experimentally when flood waves were passing through compound open channels. Some noticeable features of unsteady flow structure in compound channels were revealed which were significantly different from those in single rectangular channels. The unsteadiness of velocity appears very large in main channels and the peak of velocity appears very earlier than in rectangular channels. Lateral shear stress increases in a rising stage at ...

  20. Secure transmission for mixed FSO-RF relay networks with physical-layer key encryption and wiretap coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dawei; Ren, Pinyi; Cheng, Julian; Du, Qinghe; Wang, Yichen; Sun, Li

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a secure transmission scheme to protect the confidential messages in a mixed free space optical-radio frequency (FSO-RF) relay network against malicious eavesdroppers. In the proposed scheme, the physical-layer key generation, encryption method and physical-layer wiretap coding are exploited to protect the FSO and RF links. Specifically, the overall transmission is divided into two time slots. In the first time slot, the transmitter and relay of the FSO link utilize the channel reciprocity of the FSO link to generate key packets. In the second time slot, the confidential messages will be securely transmitted from the transmitter to the receiver assisted by the relay over two phases. In the first phase, the transmitter sends the confidential messages to the relay through the FSO link encrypted by the generated key packets. In the second phase, the relay will forward these confidential messages to the receiver through the RF link protected by the physical-layer wiretap coding. For the proposed scheme, the key generation rate can be obtained. In addition, we analyze the performance of the connection outage probability and the secrecy outage probability, and optimally design the target transmission rate and secrecy rate such that the average secrecy rate is maximized. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the performance superiority of the proposed scheme in terms of the average secrecy rate.

  1. Discharge estimation in compound channels with fixed and mobile ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1School of Civil Engineering, University of Cukurova, Adana, Turkey. 2Civil Engineering Department ... Flood and floodworks; river engineering; mathematical modelling. 1. Introduction. Compound channels which ... Nevertheless, SCM and DCM are still widely used in engineering prac- tice, due to their simplicity in use, ...

  2. Ion channeling study of defects in multicomponent semiconductor compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turos, A.; Nowicki, L.; Stonert, A.

    2002-01-01

    Compound semiconductor crystals are of great technological importance as basic materials for production of modern opto- and microelectronic devices. Ion implantation is one of the principal techniques for heterostructures processing. This paper reports the results of the study of defect formation and transformation in binary and ternary semiconductor compounds subjected to ion implantation with ions of different mass and energy. The principal analytical technique was He-ion channeling. The following materials were studied: GaN and InGaN epitaxial layers. First the semi empirical method of channeling spectra analysis for ion implanted multicomponent single crystal was developed. This method was later complemented by the more sophisticated method based on the Monte Carlo simulation of channeling spectra. Next, the damage buildup in different crystals and epitaxial layers as a function of the implantation dose was studied for N, Mg, Te, and Kr ions. The influence of the substrate temperature on the defect transformations was studied for GaN epitaxial layers implanted with Mg ions. Special attention was devoted to the study of growth conditions of InGaN/GaN/sapphire heterostructures, which are important component of the future blue laser diodes. In-atom segregation and tetragonal distortion of the epitaxial layer were observed and characterized. Next problem studied was the incorporation of hydrogen atoms in GaAs and GaN. Elastic recoil detection (ERDA) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) were applied for the purpose. (author)

  3. Flow discharge prediction in compound channels using linear genetic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azamathulla, H. Md.; Zahiri, A.

    2012-08-01

    SummaryFlow discharge determination in rivers is one of the key elements in mathematical modelling in the design of river engineering projects. Because of the inundation of floodplains and sudden changes in river geometry, flow resistance equations are not applicable for compound channels. Therefore, many approaches have been developed for modification of flow discharge computations. Most of these methods have satisfactory results only in laboratory flumes. Due to the ability to model complex phenomena, the artificial intelligence methods have recently been employed for wide applications in various fields of water engineering. Linear genetic programming (LGP), a branch of artificial intelligence methods, is able to optimise the model structure and its components and to derive an explicit equation based on the variables of the phenomena. In this paper, a precise dimensionless equation has been derived for prediction of flood discharge using LGP. The proposed model was developed using published data compiled for stage-discharge data sets for 394 laboratories, and field of 30 compound channels. The results indicate that the LGP model has a better performance than the existing models.

  4. Shear and shearless Lagrangian structures in compound channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enrile, F.; Besio, G.; Stocchino, A.

    2018-03-01

    Transport processes in a physical model of a natural stream with a composite cross-section (compound channel) are investigated by means of a Lagrangian analysis based on nonlinear dynamical system theory. Two-dimensional free surface Eulerian experimental velocity fields of a uniform flow in a compound channel form the basis for the identification of the so-called Lagrangian Coherent Structures. Lagrangian structures are recognized as the key features that govern particle trajectories. We seek for two particular class of Lagrangian structures: Shear and shearless structures. The former are generated whenever the shear dominates the flow whereas the latter behave as jet-cores. These two type of structures are detected as ridges and trenches of the Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponents fields, respectively. Besides, shearlines computed applying the geodesic theory of transport barriers mark Shear Lagrangian Coherent Structures. So far, the detection of these structures in real experimental flows has not been deeply investigated. Indeed, the present results obtained in a wide range of the controlling parameters clearly show a different behaviour depending on the shallowness of the flow. Shear and Shearless Lagrangian Structures detected from laboratory experiments clearly appear as the flow develops in shallow conditions. The presence of these Lagrangian Structures tends to fade in deep flow conditions.

  5. Computation of gradually varied flow in compound open channel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Although, natural channels are rarely rectangular or trapezoidal in cross section, these cross sections are assumed for the computation of steady, gradually varied flow in open channel networks. The accuracy of the computed results, therefore, becomes questionable due to differences in the hydraulic and geometric ...

  6. Computation of gradually varied flow in compound open channel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, ... 2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Carolina, ... channels, interconnected storm water drainage systems and irrigation canals fed from different sources. The flow of water in an open channel can be treated as ...

  7. Computation of gradually varied flow in compound open channel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Although, natural channels are rarely rectangular or trapezoidal in cross section, these cross sections are assumed for the computation of steady, gradually var- ied flow in open channel networks. The accuracy of the computed results, therefore, becomes questionable due to differences in the hydraulic and ...

  8. Modulation of chloride channel functions by the plant lignan compounds kobusin and eudesmin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu eJiang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant lignans are diphenolic compounds widely present in vegetables, fruits and grains. These compounds have been demonstrated to have protective effect against cancer, hypertension and diabetes. In the present study, we showed that two lignan compounds, kobusin and eudesmin, isolated from Magnoliae Flos, could modulate intestinal chloride transport mediated by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR and calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs chloride channels. The compounds potentiated CFTR channel function in both FRT cells and in HT-29 cells. The modulating effects of kobusin and eudesmin on the activity of CaCCgie (CaCC expressed in gastrointestinal epithelial cells were also investigated, and the result showed that both compounds could stimulate CaCCgie-mediated short-circuit currents and the stimulation was synergistic with ATP. In ex vivo studies, both compounds potentiated CFTR and CaCCgie chloride channel activities in mouse colonic epithelia. Remarkably, the compounds showed inhibitory effects toward ANO1/CaCC-mediated short-circuit currents in ANO1/CaCC-expressing FRT cells, with IC50 values of 75 M for kobusin and 100 M for eudesmin. In charcoal transit study, both compounds mildly reduced gastrointestinal motility in mice. Taken together, these results revealed a new kind of activity displayed by the lignan compounds, one that is concerned with the modulation of chloride channel function.

  9. Search for entrance channel effects in compound nuclear formation

    CERN Document Server

    Maj, A; Herskind, B; Bracco, A; Camera, F; Hagemann, G; Varmette, P

    1999-01-01

    The entrance channel effect was studied for the decay of sup 1 sup 7 sup 0 W formed in fusion reactions with different beam-target combinations. The average number of emitted neutrons suggest a lower effective excitation energy in the (alpha,xn) decay channel when more mass-symmetric reaction is used, especially at the highest angular momenta. The results are in qualitative agreement with predictions of the dissipative fusion model.

  10. Opportunistic capacity and error exponent regions for compound channel with feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, Aditya; Tatikonda, Sekhar

    2009-01-01

    Variable length communication over a compound channel with feedback is considered. Traditionally, capacity of a compound channel without feedback is defined as the maximum rate that is determined before the start of communication such that communication is reliable. This traditional definition is pessimistic. In the presence of feedback, an opportunistic definition is given. Capacity is defined as the maximum rate that is determined at the end of communication such that communication is relia...

  11. Algebraic lattice Codes achieve the capacity of the compound block-fading channel

    OpenAIRE

    Campello, A; Ling, C; Belfiore, JC

    2016-01-01

    We propose a lattice coding scheme that achieves the capacity of the compound block-fading channel. Our lattice construction exploits the multiplicative structure of number fields and their group of units to absorb ill-conditioned channel realizations. To shape the constellation, a discrete Gaussian distribution over the lattice points is applied. A by-product of our results is a refined analysis of the probability of error of the lattice Gaussian distribution in the AWGN channel.

  12. Discharge estimation in compound channels with fixed and mobile ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a flood event the discharge for a particular river may increase so rapidly that the bankfull condition is breached and the flow passes over onto the floodplain. The structure of the flow then becomes more complex by the momentum transfer between the floodplain and the main channel due to the significant dissimilar ...

  13. Gradually varied flow in compound open channels; Flujo gradualmente variado en canales de seccion compuesta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotela Avila, Gilberto [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-03-01

    The author shows that the computation of gradually-varied-flow profiles in prismatic compound channels involves the solution of the dynamic equation, but using the compound channel Froude number defined by Blalock and Sturm. The same equation is used for non-prismatic channels by dividing the channel into short reaches and carrying the computation step by step through an iterative process. [Spanish] El autor demuestra que los perfiles del flujo gradualmente variado en canales prismaticos de seccion compuesta se pueden determinar mediante la integracion de la llamada ecuacion dinamica, pero usando el numero de Froude definido por Blalock y Sturm para este tipo de canales. Cuando no son prismaticos, tambien se aplica la ecuacion de la energia por tramos y el calculo sigue un proceso iterativo una vez definidos los tirantes criticos multiples y la zona en que se desarrolla el perfil.

  14. Quaternary ammonium compounds as structural probes of single batrachotoxin-activated Na+ channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium (QA) blockers are well-known structural probes for studying the permeation pathway of voltage-gated K+ channels. In this study we have examined the effects of a series of n-alkyl- trimethylammonium compounds (Cn-QA) on batrachotoxin (BTX)-activated Na+ channels from skeletal muscle incorporated into planar lipid bilayers. We found that these amphipathic QA compounds (Cn-QA where n = 10-18) block single Na+ channels preferentially from the internal side with equilibrium dissociation constants (KD) in the submicromolar to micromolar range. External application of amphipathic QA compounds is far less effective, by a factor of greater than 200. The block can be described by a QA molecule binding to a single site in the Na+ channel permeation pathway. QA binding affinity is dependent on transmembrane voltage with an effective valence (delta) of approximately 0.5. QA dwell times (given as mean closed times, tau c) increase as a function of n-alkyl chain length, ranging from approximately 13 ms for C10-QA to 500 ms for C18-QA at +50 mV. The results imply that there is a large hydrophobic region within the Na+ channel pore which accepts up to 18 methylene groups of the Cn-QA cation. This hydrophobic domain may be of clinical significance since it also interacts with local anesthetics such as cocaine and mepivacaine. Finally, like BTX-activated Na+ channels in bilayers, unmodified Na+ channels in GH3 cells are also susceptible to QA block. Amphipathic QA cations elicit both tonic and use-dependent inhibitions of normal Na+ currents in a manner similar to that of local anesthetic cocaine. We conclude that amphipathic QA compounds are valuable structural probes to study the permeation pathway of both normal and BTX-activated Na+ channels. PMID:1662681

  15. Molecular understanding of sterically controlled compound release through an engineered channel protein (FhuA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauer Bernhard

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently we reported a nanocontainer based reduction triggered release system through an engineered transmembrane channel (FhuA Δ1-160; Onaca et al., 2008. Compound fluxes within the FhuA Δ1-160 channel protein are controlled sterically through labeled lysine residues (label: 3-(2-pyridyldithiopropionic-acid-N-hydroxysuccinimide-ester. Quantifying the sterical contribution of each labeled lysine would open up an opportunity for designing compound specific drug release systems. Results In total, 12 FhuA Δ1-160 variants were generated to gain insights on sterically controlled compound fluxes: Subset A six FhuA Δ1-160 variants in which one of the six lysines in the interior of FhuA Δ1-160 was substituted to alanine and Subset B six FhuA Δ1-160 variants in which only one lysine inside the barrel was not changed to alanine. Translocation efficiencies were quantified with the colorimetric TMB (3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine detection system employing horseradish peroxidase (HRP. Investigation of the six subset A variants identified position K556A as sterically important. The K556A substitution increases TMB diffusion from 15 to 97 [nM]/s and reaches nearly the TMB diffusion value of the unlabeled FhuA Δ1-160 (102 [nM]/s. The prominent role of position K556 is confirmed by the corresponding subset B variant which contains only the K556 lysine in the interior of the barrel. Pyridyl labeling of K556 reduces TMB translocation to 16 [nM]/s reaching nearly background levels in liposomes (13 [nM]/s. A first B-factor analysis based on MD simulations confirmed that position K556 is the least fluctuating lysine among the six in the channel interior of FhuA Δ1-160 and therefore well suited for controlling compound fluxes through steric hindrance. Conclusions A FhuA Δ1-160 based reduction triggered release system has been shown to control the compound flux by the presence of only one inner channel sterical hindrance based on 3

  16. Entrance channel dependent light-charged particle emission of the 156Er compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.F.; Bierman, J.D.; Kelly, M.P.; Sonzogni, A.A.; Vandenbosch, R.; van Schagen, J.P.S.

    1996-01-01

    Light-charged particle decay from the 156 Er compound nucleus, populated by 12 C+ 144 Sm and 60 Ni+ 96 Zr at the same excitation energy, were measured in coincidence with the evaporation residues. The high energy slope of charged particle spectra for the 60 Ni-induced reaction is steeper than for the 12 C-induced reaction. Model calculations including particle evaporation during compound nucleus formation result in good agreement with the data. This suggests that the difference in the charged particle spectra between the two entrance channels is due to a longer formation time in the 60 Ni-induced reaction. 14 refs., 3 figs

  17. CFTR chloride channel as a molecular target of anthraquinone compounds in herbal laxatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Xu, Li-na; He, Cheng-yan; Liu, Xin; Fang, Rou-yu; Ma, Tong-hui

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To clarify whether CFTR is a molecular target of intestinal fluid secretion caused by the anthraquinone compounds from laxative herbal plants. Methods: A cell-based fluorescent assay to measure I− influx through CFTR chloride channel. A short-circuit current assay to measure transcellular Cl− current across single layer FRT cells and freshly isolated colon mucosa. A closed loop experiment to measure colon fluid secretion in vivo. Results: Anthraquinone compounds rhein, aloe-emodin and 1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone (DHAN) stimulated I− influx through CFTR chloride channel in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of physiological concentration of cAMP. In the short-circuit current assay, the three compound enhanced Cl− currents in epithelia formed by CFTR-expressing FRT cells with EC50 values of 73±1.4, 56±1.7, and 50±0.5μmol/L, respectively, and Rhein also enhanced Cl− current in freshly isolated rat colonic mucosa with a similar potency. These effects were completely reversed by the CFTR selective blocker CFTRinh-172. In in vivo closed loop experiments, rhein 2 mmol/L stimulated colonic fluid accumulation that was largely blocked by CFTRinh-172. The anthraquinone compounds did not elevate cAMP level in cultured FRT cells and rat colonic mucosa, suggesting a direct effect on CFTR activity. Conclusion: Natural anthraquinone compounds in vegetable laxative drugs are CFTR potentiators that stimulated colonic chloride and fluid secretion. Thus CFTR chloride channel is a molecular target of vegetable laxative drugs. PMID:21602836

  18. A comparative study of longitudinal dispersion models in rigid vegetated compound meandering channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzadkhoo, Maryam; Keshavarzi, Alireza; Hamidifar, Hossein; Javan, Mahmood

    2018-03-26

    Releasing and mixing of pollutants in rivers can cause serious threats for downstream users. Longitudinal dispersion is an important factor in describing pollutant transport process in rivers. The focus of this study is on the effect of floodplain rigid vegetation characteristics including its arrangement, density and relative depth (the ratio of the flow depth in the main channel to that over floodplain) on flow and longitudinal dispersion coefficient in a meandering channel with compound cross section. Digital image processing technique was used to measure the tracer concentration. Sequential images were continuously captured at seven sections downstream of release point. PVC cylinders were installed over the floodplain to simulate rigid vegetation in tandem and random arrangements. Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (Micro-ADV) was used to measure 3-D velocity components. The results showed that roughening the flood plain with stems increases the longitudinal flow velocity and Reynolds shear stress in the main channel, while these parameters decrease in the flood plain compared to non-vegetated cases. As a result, in the presence of rigid vegetation, the travel time decreases in the main channel up to 20% compared to non-vegetated conditions. As the relative flow depth increases, the dimensionless longitudinal dispersion coefficient, K/U ∗ H, decreases up to 74%. Also, the dimensionless longitudinal dispersion coefficient increases up to 38% with stem density in a specific relative flow depth of D r  = 0.11. Finally, a comparison has been made between laboratory data and some well-known previously reported models. Later, the most accurate equations are presented for predicting the longitudinal dispersion coefficient in rigid vegetated compound meandering channels. The results of the present study reveal that rigid vegetation over flood plain can be used as an alternative method in river rehabilitation projects for environmental management purposes. Copyright

  19. Investigating the Lateral Mixing Coefficient in a Compound Channel with Emergent Vegetation over the Floodplain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein hamidifar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Water quality control is very important for people, animals and plants. Predicting the spread of contaminants is important for managing and protecting rivers and streams to the balance of the ecosystem. Pollutants are introduced into waterways, though a variety of sources such as point and non-point sources. Under steady state conditions, where longitudinal mixing is not significant, studying the lateral mixing is essential in evaluating the influence of pollutants on water quality. Lateral or transverse mixing is the hydraulic process by which a plume of contaminant spreads laterally and dilutes. In water quality management, the transverse mixing is more significant than either vertical or longitudinal dispersion, especially, when dealing with the release of wastes from point sources. Hence, a wide range of field, laboratory and numerical modelling approaches, including laboratory and field measurements, and analytical and numerical investigations have been developed, to quantify the lateral mixing coefficient. However, most of the researchers have ignored the effects of vegetation on the lateral mixing process in their studies. Many studies have shown that the flow characteristics through vegetation are different from those in non-vegetated waterways. For example, laboratory studies have revealed that flow velocity and large-scale turbulence tend to be greatly decreased within a plant canopy, because the resistance to flow by the vegetation. Also, vegetation affects the transport of dissolved and particulate material, such as sediment, nutrients and pollutants. In this study, the effect of the floodplain vegetation on lateral mixing coefficient in compound channels is investigated experimentally. Also, a comparison is made between the results of the present study with those obtained by previous researchers. Materials and Methods: Experiments were carried out in a laboratory flume 18m long, 0.9m wide and 0.6m high with an

  20. General anesthetic octanol and related compounds activate wild-type and delF508 cystic fibrosis chloride channels

    OpenAIRE

    Marcet, Brice; Becq, Frédéric; Norez, Caroline; Delmas, Patrick; Verrier, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel is defective during cystic fibrosis (CF). Activators of the CFTR Cl− channel may be useful for therapy of CF. Here, we demonstrate that a range of general anesthetics like normal-alkanols (n-alkanols) and related compounds can stimulate the Cl− channel activity of wild-type CFTR and delF508-CFTR mutant.The effects of n-alkanols like octanol on CFTR activity were measured by iodide (125I) efflux and patch-clamp techniques o...

  1. Application of the Shiono and Knight Method in asymmetric compound channels with different side slopes of the internal wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawadi, Wisam; Al-Rekabi, Wisam S.; Al-Aboodi, Ali H.

    2018-03-01

    The Shiono and Knight Method (SKM) is widely used to predict the lateral distribution of depth-averaged velocity and boundary shear stress for flows in compound channels. Three calibrating coefficients need to be estimated for applying the SKM, namely eddy viscosity coefficient ( λ), friction factor ( f) and secondary flow coefficient ( k). There are several tested methods which can satisfactorily be used to estimate λ, f. However, the calibration of secondary flow coefficients k to account for secondary flow effects correctly is still problematic. In this paper, the calibration of secondary flow coefficients is established by employing two approaches to estimate correct values of k for simulating asymmetric compound channel with different side slopes of the internal wall. The first approach is based on Abril and Knight (2004) who suggest fixed values for main channel and floodplain regions. In the second approach, the equations developed by Devi and Khatua (2017) that relate the variation of the secondary flow coefficients with the relative depth ( β) and width ratio ( α) are used. The results indicate that the calibration method developed by Devi and Khatua (2017) is a better choice for calibrating the secondary flow coefficients than using the first approach which assumes a fixed value of k for different flow depths. The results also indicate that the boundary condition based on the shear force continuity can successfully be used for simulating rectangular compound channels, while the continuity of depth-averaged velocity and its gradient is accepted boundary condition in simulations of trapezoidal compound channels. However, the SKM performance for predicting the boundary shear stress over the shear layer region may not be improved by only imposing the suitable calibrated values of secondary flow coefficients. This is because difficulties of modelling the complex interaction that develops between the flows in the main channel and on the floodplain in this

  2. Extracts and compounds active on TRP ion channels from Waldheimia glabra, a ritual medicinal plant from Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Annamaria; Bassoli, Angela; Borgonovo, Gigliola; Panseri, Sara; Manzo, Alessandra; Pentimalli, Daniela; Schiano Moriello, Aniello; De Petrocellis, Luciano

    2017-08-15

    Waldheimia glabra (Decne.) Regel is a wild plant from the Himalayan Mountains, commonly known as Smooth Ground Daisy. This plant is traditionally used by local populations in religious rituals (incense) or in traditional herbal medicine to treat skin diseases, headache, joint pain and fever. In literature few data are available on the investigation of this aromatic plant. The present work aims at deepening knowledge about the chemical composition of W. glabra extracts and incense, as well as its activity on TRP ion channels. Extracts and incense of W. glabra were analyzed by using HS-SPME GC/MS, GC/MS and NMR analysis. Tests on the activity of W. glabra extracts and isolated compounds (+)-ludartin 1 and B-ring-homo-tonghaosu 2 on TRP channels were also performed. Some extracts and pure compounds from W. glabra showed an interesting activity in terms of efficacy and potency on rat TRPA1, an ion channel involved in several sensory mechanisms, including pungency, environmental irritation and pain perception. Activity is discussed and compared with that of other known TRPA1 natural agonists with different chemical structures. All compounds showed only a negligible inhibition activity on rat TRPM8 ion channel. Our findings demonstrate that W. glabra is involved in the receptor activation mechanism and therefore represents a new natural product potentially useful in pharmaceutical and agrifood research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Study on a resource allocation scheme in multi-hop MIMO-OFDM systems over lognormal-rayleigh compound channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Jun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For new generation wireless communication networks,this paper studies the optimization of the capacity and end-to-end throughput of the MIMO-OFDM based multi-hop relay systems.A water-filling power allocation method is proposed to improve the channel capacity and the throughput of the MIMO-OFDM system based multi-hop relay system in the Lognormal-Rayleigh shadowing compound channels.Simulations on the capacity and throughput show that the water-filling algorithm can improve the system throughput effectively in the MIMO-OFDM multi-hop relay system.

  4. Differential effects of bitter compounds on the taste transduction channels TRPM5 and IP3 receptor type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gees, Maarten; Alpizar, Yeranddy A; Luyten, Tomas; Parys, Jan B; Nilius, Bernd; Bultynck, Geert; Voets, Thomas; Talavera, Karel

    2014-05-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 5 (TRPM5) is a Ca(2+)-activated nonselective cation channel involved in the transduction of sweet, bitter, and umami tastes. We previously showed that TRPM5 is a locus for the modulation of taste perception by temperature changes, and by quinine and quinidine, 2 bitter compounds that suppress gustatory responses. Here, we determined whether other bitter compounds known to modulate taste perception also affect TRPM5. We found that nicotine inhibits TRPM5 currents with an effective inhibitory concentration of ~1.3mM at -50 mV. This effect may contribute to the inhibitory effect of nicotine on gustatory responses in therapeutic and experimental settings, where nicotine is often employed at millimolar concentrations. In addition, it implies the existence of a TRPM5-independent pathway for the detection of nicotine bitterness. Nicotine seems to act from the extracellular side of the channel, reducing the maximal whole-cell conductance and inducing an acceleration of channel closure that leads to a negative shift of the activation curve. TRPM5 currents were unaffected by nicotine's metabolite cotinine, the intensive sweetener saccharin or by the bitter xanthines caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline. We also tested the effects of bitter compounds on another essential element of the sweet taste transduction pathway, the type 3 IP3 receptor (IP3R3). We found that IP3R3-mediated Ca(2+) flux is slightly enhanced by nicotine, not affected by saccharin, modestly inhibited by caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline, and strongly inhibited by quinine. Our results demonstrate that bitter compounds have differential effects on key elements of the sweet taste transduction pathway, suggesting for heterogeneous mechanisms of bitter-sweet taste interactions.

  5. Flood routing in an ephemeral channel with compound cross-section

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Balamurugan

    geological characteristics and (v) channel evaporation and near channel ..... ten in vector form for convenience and all further expla- nations are done using this vector form. The equations can be written as. oW ot ю. oF ox. ¼ S. р16Ю. W ¼. A. Q. & ' ...... bank-full) flow event in an Australian desert stream. Hydrol. Process.

  6. Secure Degrees of Freedom Regions of Multiple Access and Interference Channels: The Polytope Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Jianwei; Ulukus, Sennur

    2014-01-01

    The sum secure degrees of freedom (s.d.o.f.) of two fundamental multi-user network structures, the K-user Gaussian multiple access (MAC) wiretap channel and the K-user interference channel (IC) with secrecy constraints, have been determined recently as K(K-1)/(K(K-1)+1) [1,2] and K(K-1)/(2K-1) [3,4], respectively. In this paper, we determine the entire s.d.o.f. regions of these two channel models. The converse for the MAC follows from a middle step in the converse of [1,2]. The converse for t...

  7. Involvement of transient receptor potential A1 channel in algesic and analgesic actions of the organic compound limonene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimoto, T; Hatakeyama, Y; Takahashi, K; Imagawa, T; Tominaga, M; Ohta, T

    2016-08-01

    TRPA1 is a Ca-permeable nonselective cation channel expressed in sensory neurons and acts as a nocisensor. Recent reports show that some monoterpenes, a group of naturally occurring organic compounds, modulate TRP channel activity. Here, we report that limonene, being contained in citrus fruits and mushrooms, shows a unique bimodal action on TRPA1 channel. We examine the effects of limonene on sensory neurons from wild-type, TRPV1- and TRPA1-gene-deficient mice and on heterologously expressed channels in vitro. Molecular determinants were identified with using mutated channels. Cellular excitability is monitored with ratiometric Ca imaging. Nociceptive and analgesic actions of limonene are also examined in vivo. In wild-type mouse sensory neurons, limonene increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ]i ), which was inhibited by selective inhibitors of TRPA1 but not TRPV1. Limonene-responsive neurons highly corresponded to TRPA1 agonist-sensitive ones. Limonene failed to stimulate sensory neurons from the TRPA1 (-/-) mouse. Heterologously expressed mouse TRPA1 was activated by limonene. Intraplantar injection of limonene elicited acute pain, which was significantly less in TRPA1 (-/-) mice. Systemic administration of limonene reduced nociceptive behaviours evoked by H2 O2 . In both heterologously and endogenously expressed TRPA1, a low concentration of limonene significantly inhibited H2 O2 -induced TRPA1 activation. TRPA1 activation by limonene was abolished in H2 O2 -insensitive cysteine-mutated channels. Topically applied limonene stimulates TRPA1, resulting in elicitation of acute pain, but its systemic application inhibits nociception induced by oxidative stress. Because limonene is a safe compound, it may be utilized for pain control due to its inhibition of TRPA1 channels. What does this study add: Limonene, a monoterpene in essential oils of various plants, has been known for its antitumor and anti-inflammatory properties. However, molecular

  8. Channelling phenomenon in the gamma irradiated Benzo-quinone and other compounds observed under the scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleiman, Y.M.

    1984-01-01

    Scanning Electron Microscope (S.E.M.), has been used to examine the gamma irradiated pure crystals of Benzo-quinone and other compounds in the polycrystaline form. After gamma irradiation, shallow lines (channels) were observed on the crystal's surfaces when the crystal layers arrangements are parallel to the photons beam direction. Holes were also observed when those layers of the crystals are in the nonparallel case. The phenomenon has been studied and analysed in connected with the H-atom bonds disruption, and H-atoms migration through the crystal's layers. (author)

  9. Flood routing in an ephemeral channel with compound cross-section

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Balamurugan

    Arid climatic conditions may favor high intensity rainfall for shorter durations which may result in quick runoff response and flash floods in ephem- ...... Bull L J and Kirkby M J 2002 Dryland river characteristics and concepts. In: Bull L J and Kirkby M J (Eds.) Dryland rivers: Hydrology and geomorphology of semi-arid channels.

  10. Simulation study of ballistic spin-MOSFET devices with ferromagnetic channels based on some Heusler and oxide compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziosi, Patrizio; Neophytou, Neophytos

    2018-02-01

    Newly emerged materials from the family of Heuslers and complex oxides exhibit finite bandgaps and ferromagnetic behavior with Curie temperatures much higher than even room temperature. In this work, using the semiclassical top-of-the-barrier FET model, we explore the operation of a spin-MOSFET that utilizes such ferromagnetic semiconductors as channel materials, in addition to ferromagnetic source/drain contacts. Such a device could retain the spin polarization of injected electrons in the channel, the loss of which limits the operation of traditional spin transistors with non-ferromagnetic channels. We examine the operation of four material systems that are currently considered some of the most prominent known ferromagnetic semiconductors: three Heusler-type alloys (Mn2CoAl, CrVZrAl, and CoVZrAl) and one from the oxide family (NiFe2O4). We describe their band structures by using data from DFT (Density Functional Theory) calculations. We investigate under which conditions high spin polarization and significant ION/IOFF ratio, two essential requirements for the spin-MOSFET operation, are both achieved. We show that these particular Heusler channels, in their bulk form, do not have adequate bandgap to provide high ION/IOFF ratios and have small magnetoconductance compared to state-of-the-art devices. However, with confinement into ultra-narrow sizes down to a few nanometers, and by engineering their spin dependent contact resistances, they could prove promising channel materials for the realization of spin-MOSFET transistor devices that offer combined logic and memory functionalities. Although the main compounds of interest in this paper are Mn2CoAl, CrVZrAl, CoVZrAl, and NiFe2O4 alone, we expect that the insight we provide is relevant to other classes of such materials as well.

  11. Biophysical characterization of KV3.1 potassium channel activating compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskin, Bahar; von Schoubye, Nadia Lybøl; Sheykhzade, Majid

    2015-01-01

    The effect of two positive modulators, RE1 and EX15, on the voltage-gated K+ channel Kv3.1 was investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique on HEK293 cells expressing Kv3.1a. RE1 and EX15 increased the Kv3.1 currents in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 value of 4.5 and 1.3...

  12. Total and Compound Formation Cross Sections for Americium Nuclei: Recommendations for Coupled-Channels Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-11

    Calculations for total cross sections and compound-nucleus (CN) formation cross sections for americium isotopes are described, for use in the 2017 NA-22 evaluation effort. The code ECIS 2006 was used in conjunction with Frank Dietrich's wrapper `runtemplate'.

  13. Measurement of light charged particles in the decay channels of medium-mass excited compound nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdre, S.; Pasquali, G.; Carboni, S.; Bini, M.; Poggi, G.; Barlini, S.; Casini, G.; Piantelli, S.; Bardelli, L.; Nannini, A.; Cinausero, M.; Gramegna, F.; Degerlier, M.; Kravchuk, V.L.; Marchi, T.; Baiocco, G.; Bruno, M.; D'Agostino, M.; Morelli, L.; Vannini, G.; Benzoni, G.; Blasi, N.; Brambilla, S.; Wieland, O.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Corsi, A.; Crespi, F.; Leoni, S.; Million, B.; Nicolini, R.; Montanari, D.; Bednarczyk, P.; Ciemala, M.; Fornal, B.; Kmiecik, M.; Maj, A.; Matejska-Minda, M.; Mazurek, K.; Meczynski, W.; Myalski, S.; Styczen, J.; Zieblinski, M.; Dudek, J.

    2014-01-01

    The 48 Ti on 40 Ca reactions have been studied at 300 and 600 MeV focusing on the fusion-evaporation (FE) and fusion-fission (FF) exit channels. Energy spectra and multiplicities of the emitted light charged particles have been compared to Monte Carlo simulations based on the statistical model. Proton emission in the FE channel is well reproduced by the Gemini++ statistical code run with standard input values. An excess of particles has been found at both bombarding energies also associated to a slightly different CM-energy spectrum with respect to the predicted one. Indeed, in this mass region (A ∼ 100) models predict that shape transitions can occur at high spin values and relatively scarce data exist in the literature about coincidence measurements between evaporation residues and light charged particles. Signals of shape transitions can be found in the variations of the lineshape of high energy gamma rays emitted from the de-excitation of GDR states gated on different regions of angular momenta. For this purpose it is important to keep under control the FE and FF processes, to regulate the statistical model parameters and to control the onset of possible preequilibrium emissions from 300 to 600 MeV bombarding energy

  14. Molecular Docking Analysis of Ginger Active Compound on Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily V Member 1 (TRPV1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fifteen Aprila Fajrin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ginger had been reported to ameliorate painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN in an animal model. Gingerol and shogaol were active compounds of ginger that potentially act on transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1, a key receptor in PDN. This study aims to predict the binding of gingerol and shogaol to TRPV1 using an in silico model. The ligands of the docking study were 3 chemical compounds of each gingerol and shogaol, i.e. 6-shogaol, 8-shogaol, 10-shogaol, 6-gingerol, 8 gingerol and 10-gingerol. Capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, was used as a native ligand. The TRPV1 structure was taken from Protein Data Bank (ID 3J9J. The docking analysis was performed using Autodock Vina. The result showed that among the ginger active compounds, 6-shogaol had the strongest binding energy (-7.10 kcal/mol to TRPV1. The 6-shogaol lacked the potential hydrogen bond to Ile265 of TRPV1 protein, which capsacin had. However, it's binding energy towards TRPV1 was not significantly different compared to capsaicin. Therefore, 6-shogaol had potential to be developed as a treatment for PDN.

  15. Smart multi-channel two-dimensional micro-gas chromatography for rapid workplace hazardous volatile organic compounds measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Seo, Jung Hwan; Li, Yubo; Chen, Di; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Fan, Xudong

    2013-03-07

    We developed a novel smart multi-channel two-dimensional (2-D) micro-gas chromatography (μGC) architecture that shows promise to significantly improve 2-D μGC performance. In the smart μGC design, a non-destructive on-column gas detector and a flow routing system are installed between the first dimensional separation column and multiple second dimensional separation columns. The effluent from the first dimensional column is monitored in real-time and decision is then made to route the effluent to one of the second dimensional columns for further separation. As compared to the conventional 2-D μGC, the greatest benefit of the smart multi-channel 2-D μGC architecture is the enhanced separation capability of the second dimensional column and hence the overall 2-D GC performance. All the second dimensional columns are independent of each other, and their coating, length, flow rate and temperature can be customized for best separation results. In particular, there is no more constraint on the upper limit of the second dimensional column length and separation time in our architecture. Such flexibility is critical when long second dimensional separation is needed for optimal gas analysis. In addition, the smart μGC is advantageous in terms of elimination of the power intensive thermal modulator, higher peak amplitude enhancement, simplified 2-D chromatogram re-construction and potential scalability to higher dimensional separation. In this paper, we first constructed a complete smart 1 × 2 channel 2-D μGC system, along with an algorithm for automated control/operation of the system. We then characterized and optimized this μGC system, and finally employed it in two important applications that highlight its uniqueness and advantages, i.e., analysis of 31 workplace hazardous volatile organic compounds, and rapid detection and identification of target gas analytes from interference background.

  16. Inhibition of GABAA receptor chloride channel by quinolones and norfloxacin-biphenylacetic acid hybrid compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Y; Miyasaka, T; Fukuda, H; Akahane, K; Kimura, Y

    1996-01-01

    Receptor binding studies have shown that the combination of some new quinolone antibacterial agents with 4-biphenylacetic acid (BPAA), a metabolite of fenbufen, inhibits GABAA receptors. In order to elucidate further the mechanism of these drug interactions, the effect of quinolone antibacterial agents on muscimol-stimulated 36Cl- uptake in rat cerebral cortical synaptoneurosomes was investigated in the absence or presence of BPAA. In the absence of BPAA, quinolones such as norfloxacin (NFLX) and enoxacin attenuated muscimol-stimulated 36Cl- uptake at 10 microM and above. In combination with 10 microM BPAA, the inhibitory effect of these drugs was potentiated and there was a parallel shift of the inhibition curves to the left for these drugs. BPAA alone (1 and 10 microM) did not affect basal or muscimol-stimulated 36Cl- uptake. Hybrid molecules of NFLX and BPAA were synthesized and their inhibitory potency was also investigated. Inhibition curves of muscimol-stimulated 36Cl- uptake revealed that a hybrid with a -CONH(CH2)3- chain between NFLX and BPAA (flexible structure) (1 nM-20 microM) inhibited muscimol-stimulated 36Cl- uptake more potently than did the combination of NFLX (10 nm-100 microM) and 10 microM BPAA. In contrast, another hybrid linked by -CONH-(stretched structure) exhibited a weak inhibitory effect at 10 microM. These results suggest that quinolones in combination with BPAA bind to GABAA receptors, thus inhibiting Cl- channel activity, and that the inhibitory potency of quinolones may be enhanced by an intermolecular interaction with BPAA.

  17. RFID Ownership Transfer with Positive Secrecy Capacity Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Munilla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available RFID ownership transfer protocols (OTPs transfer tag ownership rights. Recently, there has been considerable interest in such protocols; however, guaranteeing privacy for symmetric-key settings without trusted third parties (TTPs is a challenge still unresolved. In this paper, we address this issue and show that it can be solved by using channels with positive secrecy capacity. We implement these channels with noisy tags and provide practical values, thus proving that perfect secrecy is theoretically possible. We then define a communication model that captures spatiotemporal events and describe a first example of symmetric-key based OTP that: (i is formally secure in the proposed communication model and (ii achieves privacy with a noisy tag wiretap channel without TTPs.

  18. Fission via compound states and JπK A. Bohr's channels: what we can learn from recent studies with slow neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furman W.I.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Last data on angular correlations of fission fragments from slow (s-wave neutron induced binary fission of spin-aligned nuclei 235U are discussed in the context of JπK A. Bohrs channels. Special attention is paid to K = 0 channel. Reasons for its suppression are specified for compound nucleus states of negative parity. A brief overview of recent data on T-odd angular correlations in ternary and binary (with emission of a third particle, a neutron or γ-quantum fission induced by slow polarized neutrons is presented. On the basis of the developed theoretical approach it is shown that a valuable information on JπK fission channels at scission point can be inferred from these T-odd angular correlations.

  19. Influence of Channel Morphology on Flow Hydraulics in a Compound Meander Bend of the Lower Brazos River, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, B. U.; Guneralp, I.; Filippi, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    At a meander-bend scale, process-form interactions between channel morphology and flow hydraulics generate unique features called geomorphic units, such as pools, sediment bars, and backwater regions. Geomorphic units play an important role as distinct habitats for aquatic species. In this study, we investigate channel morphology and flow structure of an incised meander bend on the lower Brazos River, Texas, to inform aquatic habitat assessment. The bend represents the characteristics of sand-bed and high-amplitude meandering rivers and contains a localized bank-protection structure along its cutbank. We examine: 1) the spatial characteristics of channel morphology (i.e., geomorphic units); 2) spatial characteristics of flow hydraulics in relation to geomorphic units at low- (Q1), medium- (Q2), and high- (Q3) discharge conditions; and 3) the influence of channel morphology on flow hydraulics within this meander bend. We utilize bathymetric and hydraulic surveys conducted using Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) and simultaneously collected bed-sediment samples. To characterize channel morphology, we use a digital terrain model (DTM) of the bend that we generate by fusing our bathymetric data and an airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR)-derived DTM. We examine flow hydraulics by performing quasi 3-D hydraulic modeling. Results show that channel morphology has a strong influence on the spatial distribution of hydraulic parameters, including water depth, flow velocities, Froude number, and helix strength. At Q1, the emergent mid-channel bar forces flow divergence/convergence and acts as a macro-roughness structure. High flow velocity concentrates in the deeper and narrower sub-channel along the cutbank side. At Q2, the location of the mid-channel bar shifts toward the point bar, forming a new chute sub-channel. Highest flow velocities are still concentrated in the permanent sub-channel along the cutbank, but shift downstream toward the exit

  20. Profiling diverse compounds by flux- and electrophysiology-based primary screens for inhibition of human Ether-à-go-go related gene potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Beiyan; Yu, Haibo; Babcock, Joseph J; Chanda, Pritam; Bader, Joel S; McManus, Owen B; Li, Min

    2010-12-01

    Compound effects on cloned human Ether-à-go-go related gene (hERG) potassium channels have been used to assess the potential cardiac safety liabilities of drug development candidate compounds. In addition to radioactive ligand displacement tests, two other common approaches are surrogate ion-based flux assays and electrophysiological recordings. The former has much higher throughput, whereas the latter measures directly the effects on ionic currents. Careful characterization in earlier reports has been performed to compare the relative effectiveness of these approaches for known hERG blockers, which often yielded good overall correlation. However, cases were reported showing significant and reproducible differences in potency and/or sensitivity by the two methods. This raises a question concerning the rationale and criteria on which an assay should be selected for evaluating unknown compounds. To provide a general basis for considering assays to profile large compound libraries for hERG activity, we have conducted parallel flux and electrophysiological analyses of 2,000 diverse compounds, representative of the 300,000 compound collection of NIH Molecular Library Small Molecular Repository (MLSMR). Our results indicate that at the conventional testing concentration 1.0 μM, the overlap between the two assays ranges from 32% to 50% depending on the hit selection criteria. There was a noticeable rate of false negatives by the thallium-based assay relative to electrophysiological recording, which may be greatly reduced under modified comparative conditions. As these statistical results identify a preferred method for cardiac safety profiling of unknown compounds, they suggest an efficient method combining flux and electrophysiological assays to rapidly profile hERG liabilities of large collection of naive compounds.

  1. Neutron emission and angular momentum distribution study for the compound nucleus 165 Dy in the 4 n and 5 n exit channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benet, P.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis presents a study of neutron emission in the 4n and 5n exit channels of the 156 Dy compound nucleus. Average neutron evaporation energies have been measured as well as the total energy released in the γ-cascades. Then the γ-multiplicity distributions have been determined for each case. When associated with the measured neutron energies, the multiplicity distributions determine the entry lines of the residual nuclei. The difference between the neutron energies measured directly and these energies deduced from γ-cascades poses the problem of the binding energy of the neutron in high temperature and high angular momentum nuclei [fr

  2. On the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff of secret-key agreement over multiple-antenna channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen

    2014-09-01

    We consider secret-key agreement with public discussion over Rayleigh fading quasi-static channels. First, the secret-key diversity gain and the secret-key multiplexing gain are defined. Then, the secret-key diversity multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) is established. The eavesdropper is shown to \\'steal\\' only transmit antennas. We show that likewise the DMT without secrecy constraint, the secret-key DMT is the same either with or without full channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter (CSI-T). This insensitivity of secret-key DMT toward CSI-T highlights a fundamental difference between secret-key agreement and the wiretap channel whose secret DMT depends crucially on CSI-T. Several secret-key DMT-achieving schemes are presented in case of full CSI-T.

  3. On the dynamics of compound bedforms in high-energy tidal channels: field observations in the German Bight and the Danish Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstsen, Verner B.; Winter, Christian; Becker, Marius; Bartholdy, Jesper

    2010-05-01

    Tidal inlets are a common feature along much of the world's coastlines. They interrupt the alongshore continuity of shoreline processes, and by being exposed to both wave and current forcing, tidal inlets belong to the morphologically most dynamic and complex coastal systems on Earth. The tidal channels in these inlets are characterized by high flow velocities and, accordingly, the channel beds are typically sandy and covered with bedforms. The bedform fields in nature are often complex systems with larger primary-bedforms superimposed by smaller secondary-bedforms (cf. Bartholdy et al., 2002). There is a considerable amount of detailed field investigations on the dynamics of primary-bedforms at various temporal scales, ranging from short- to long-term tide-related cycles to flood hydrographs to seasonality. However, Julien et al. (2002) stated that a composite analysis of primary- and secondary-bedforms is recommended for future studies on resistance to flow. Such knowledge on the behaviour of compound bedforms is still deficient. In this study, we combine the findings on the dynamics of primary- and secondary-bedform height from detailed field investigations carried out in two high-energy tidal channels during 2007 and 2008: the Knudedyb tidal inlet channel in the Danish Wadden Sea and the Innenjade tidal channel in the Jade Bay, German Bight (both survey areas being ebb-dominated). We provide process-based explanations of the bedform behaviour and present a conceptual model of compound bedform dynamics. The conducted field investigations comprised repetitive, simultaneous measurements of high-resolution swath bathymetry (using a multibeam echosounder system) and flow velocity (using an acoustic Doppler current profiler) in combination with detailed spatial mapping of bed material characteristics (from grab sampling of bed material). For an objective and discrete analysis of primary- and secondary-bedforms a modified version of the bedform tracking tool

  4. Novel Compound-Forming Technology Using Bioprinting and Electrospinning for Patterning a 3D Scaffold Construct with Multiscale Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanshao Sun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges for tissue engineering is to efficiently provide oxygen and nutrients to cells on a three-dimensional (3D engineered scaffold structure. Thus, achieving sufficient vascularization of the structure is a critical problem in tissue engineering. This facilitates the need to develop novel methods to enhance vascularization. Use of patterned hydrogel structures with multiscale channels can be used to achieve the required vascularization. Patterned structures need to be biocompatible and biodegradable. In this study, gelatin was used as the main part of a hydrogel to prepare a biological structure with 3D multiscale channels using bioprinting combined with selection of suitable materials and electrostatic spinning. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs were then used to confirm efficacy of the structure, inferred from cell viability on different engineered construct designs. HUVECs were seeded on the surface of channels and cultured in vitro. HUVECs showed high viability and diffusion within the construct. This method can be used as a practical platform for the fabrication of engineered construct for vascularization.

  5. Real-time ambient air monitoring adjacent to the Houston ship channel for volatile organic compounds associated with the refinery operations using the trace atmospheric gas analyzer (TAGA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickunas, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    An Urban Air Toxic Monitoring Program was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) to help evaluate the potential toxic air pollution in urban areas. The Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) was used to monitor the ambient air for target compounds associated with industrial, motor vehicle, and natural emissions sources in areas adjacent to the Houston Ship Channel in Texas. In this study, the TAGA used triple quadrupole technology to perform qualitative and quantitative analyses for benzene, toluene, xylenes, styrene, 1,3-butadiene, methyl tert-butyl ether, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane. The concentrations for the various ion pairs of the target compounds were updated approximately every 2 seconds. The information was incorporated into the geographic information system (GIS) along with the global positioning system (GPS) information for the TAGA location, aerial views of the monitoring area, and meteorological data for the associated region. The information is used to isolate the emission sources and help reduce air pollution. The GPS output helps determine a path-averaged concentration along various routes. Combined with meteorological data, this information can be used in risk assessment to calculate downwind impacts associated with the target compounds under other meteorological conditions and to determine health impacts. It was concluded that the TAGA can provide rapid, accurate and reliable analytical information for monitoring ambient air. 2 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs

  6. Two-Channel Kondo Physics due to As Vacancies in the Layered Compound ZrAs1.58Se0.39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Stefan; Cichorek, T.; Bochenek, L.; Schmidt, M.; Niewa, R.; Czuluccki, A.; Auffermann, G.; Steglich, F.; Kniep, R.

    We address the origin of the magnetic-field independent - | A | T 1 / 2 term observed in the low-temperature resistivity of several As-based metallic systems of the PbFCl structure type. For the layered compound ZrAs1.58Se0.39, we show that vacancies in the square nets of As give rise to the low-temperature transport anomaly over a wide temperature regime of almost two decades in temperature. This low-temperature behavior is in line with the non-magnetic version of the two-channel Kondo effect, whose origin we ascribe to a dynamic Jahn-Teller effect operating at the vacancy-carrying As layer with a C4 symmetry. The pair-breaking nature of the dynamical defects in the square nets of As explains the low superconducting transition temperature Tc 0 . 14 K of ZrAs1.58Se0.39, as compared to the free-of-vacancies homologue ZrP1.54S0.46 (Tc 3 . 7 K). Our findings should be relevant to a wide class of metals with disordered pnictogen layers.

  7. Compound-Specific Effects of Mutations at Val787 in DII-S6 of Nav1.4 Sodium Channels on the Action of Sodium Channel Inhibitor Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stein, Richard T.; Soderlund, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Sodium channel inhibitor (SCI) insecticides are hypothesized to inhibit voltage-gated sodium channels by binding selectively to the slow-inactivated state. Replacement of valine at position 787 in the S6 segment of homology domain II of the rat Nav1.4 sodium channel by lysine (V787K) enchances slow inactivation of this channel whereas replacement by alanine or cysteine (V787A, V787C) inhibits slow inactivation. To test the hypothesis that SCI insecticides bind selectively to the slow-inactivated state, we constructed mutated Nav1.4/V787A, Nav1.4/V787C, and Nav1.4/V787K cDNAs, expressed wildtype and mutated channels with the auxiliary β1 subunit in Xenopus oocytes, and used the two-electrode voltage clamp technique to examine the effects of these mutations on channel inhibition by four SCI insecticides (indoxacarb, its bioactivated metabolite DCJW, metaflumizone, and RH3421). Mutations at Val787 affected SCI insecticide sensitivity in a manner that was independent of mutation-induced changes in slow inactivation gating. Sensitivity to inhibition by 10 μM indoxacarb was significantly increased in all three mutated channels, whereas sensitivity to inhibition by 10 μM metaflumizone was significantly reduced in Nav1.4/V787A channels and completely abolished in Nav1.4/V787K channels. The effects of Val787 mutations on metaflumizone were correlated with the hydrophobicity of the substituted amino acid rather than the extent of slow inactivation. None of the mutations at Val787 significantly affected the sensitivity to inhibition by DCJW or RH3421. These results demonstrate that the impact of mutations at Val787 on sodium channel inhibition by SCI insecticides depends on the specific insecticide examined and is independent of mutation-induced changes in slow inactivation gating. We propose that Val787 may be a unique determinant of metaflumizone binding. PMID:22983119

  8. Channelling and channelling radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, A.H.; Uggerhoej, E.

    1987-01-01

    The study of channelling phenomena has developed rapidly since the early 1960s and today channelling has found many applications. The radiation emitted by channelled megaelectronvolt and gigaelectronvolt electrons and positrons has been investigated extensively and the possibility of, for example, constructing intense tunable X- and γ-ray sources is being explored. Multi-gigaelectronvolt radiation and pair-creation processes in single crystals show similarities with strong-field effects and are of particular interest because of high production rates that persist far beyond the channelling regime. (author)

  9. On the dynamics of compound bedforms in high-energy tidal channels: field observations in the German Bight and the Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Winter, Christian; Becker, Marius

    2010-01-01

    erosion in the trough is due to a combination of low flow velocity and the development of an armour layer of shell lag-deposits. Regarding secondary-bedform height, both tidal channels displayed a general increase with increasing mean flow velocity and a general decrease with decreasing mean flow velocity...

  10. On the Secrecy Capacity of MISO Visible Light Communication Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Arfaoui, Mohamed Amine

    2017-02-07

    We study the secrecy capacity of the multiple- input single-output (MISO) Gaussian wiretap visible light communication (VLC) channel. We study a typical VLC scenario with one transmitter, one legitimate receiver, and one eavesdropper. Specifically, we compute the achievable secrecy rate for various input signaling distributions, including the truncated generalized normal (TGN) and uniform distributions. The transmitter is equipped with multiple light sources, while the legitimate and unauthorized receivers are each equipped with a single photodetector. We analyze the achievable secrecy rates via transmit beamforming and artificial noise. In addition, both zero-forcing beamforming and robust beamforming are considered. In the former case, the location of the eavesdropper is assumed to be known, whereas in the latter case, the location of the eavesdropper is unknown. Our numerical results show that the secrecy rate achieved by the TGN distribution is significantly improved as compared to those achieved by the truncated Gaussian and uniform distributions, for both zero-forcing beamforming and robust beamforming. We also derive an upper bound on the achievable secrecy capacity that we used to assess the closeness of the achievable secrecy rates to the derived bound.

  11. The Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoff of Secret-Key Agreement over Multiple-Antenna Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen

    2015-10-26

    We study the problem of secret-key agreement between two legitimate parties, Alice and Bob, in presence an of eavesdropper Eve. There is a public channel with unlimited capacity that is available to the legitimate parties and is also observed by Eve. Our focus is on Rayleigh fading quasi-static channels. The legitimate receiver and the eavesdropper are assumed to have perfect channel knowledge of their channels. We study the system in the high-power regime. First, we define the secret-key diversity gain and the secret-key multiplexing gain. Second, we establish the secret-key diversity multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) under no channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter (CSI-T). The eavesdropper is shown to “steal” only transmit antennas. We show that, likewise the DMT without secrecy constraint, the secret-key DMT is the same either with or without full channel state information at the transmitter. This insensitivity of secret-key DMT toward CSI-T features a fundamental difference between secret-key agreement and the wiretap channel, in which secret DMT depends heavily on CSI-T. Finally, we present several secret-key DMT-achieving schemes in case of full CSI-T. We argue that secret DMT-achieving schemes are also key DMT-achieving. Moreover, we show formally that artificial noise (AN), likewise zero-forcing (ZF), is DMT-achieving. We also show that the public feedback channel improves the outage performance without having any effect on the DMT.

  12. Quantum communication under channel uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noetzel, Janis Christian Gregor

    2012-01-01

    This work contains results concerning transmission of entanglement and subspaces as well as generation of entanglement in the limit of arbitrary many uses of compound- and arbitrarily varying quantum channels (CQC, AVQC). In both cases, the channel is described by a set of memoryless channels. Only forward communication between one sender and one receiver is allowed. A code is said to be ''good'' only, if it is ''good'' for every channel out of the set. Both settings describe a scenario, in which sender and receiver have only limited channel knowledge. For different amounts of information about the channel available to sender or receiver, coding theorems are proven for the CQC. For the AVQC, both deterministic and randomised coding schemes are considered. Coding theorems are proven, as well as a quantum analogue of the Ahlswede-dichotomy. The connection to zero-error capacities of stationary memoryless quantum channels is investigated. The notion of symmetrisability is defined and used for both classes of channels.

  13. A two-channel detection method for autofluorescence correction and efficient on-bead screening of one-bead one-compound combinatorial libraries using the COPAS fluorescence activated bead sorting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintersteiner, Martin; Auer, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    One-bead one-compound combinatorial library beads exhibit varying levels of autofluorescence after solid phase combinatorial synthesis. Very often this causes significant problems for automated on-bead screening using TentaGel beads and fluorescently labeled target proteins. Herein, we present a method to overcome this limitation when fluorescence activated bead sorting is used as the screening method. We have equipped the COPAS bead sorting instrument with a high-speed profiling unit and developed a spectral autofluorescence correction method. The correction method is based on a simple algebraic operation using the fluorescence data from two detection channels and is applied on-the-fly in order to reliably identify hit beads by COPAS bead sorting. Our method provides a practical tool for the fast and efficient isolation of hit beads from one-bead one-compound library screens using either fluorescently labeled target proteins or biotinylated target proteins. This method makes hit bead identification easier and more reliable. It reduces false positives and eliminates the need for time-consuming pre-sorting of library beads in order to remove autofluorescent beads. (technical note)

  14. MTF of compound eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Hamid Reza; Karimzadeh, Ayatollah

    2010-06-07

    Compound eye is a new field of research about miniaturizing imaging systems. We for the first time introduce a dual compound eye that contains three micro lens arrays with aspheric surfaces. The designed dual compound eye in one state is a superposition system in which each channel images all of field of view of the system. With adding a field stop we have decreased the stray light. MTF of ideal superposition compound eye calculated. Also with changing field stop the system is converted to an apposition compound eye in which each channel images only a part of total field of view and so the field of view is larger than that of superposition type.

  15. Electrophysiological characterisation of KCNQ channel modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, R.L

    Potassium (K+) ion channels are ubiquitously expressed in mammalian cells, and each channel serves a precise physiological role due to its specific biophysical characteristics and expression pattern. A few K+ channels are targets for certain drugs, and in this thesis it is suggested that the KCNQ K......+ channels may be targets for neuroprotective, anti-epileptic and anti-nociceptive compounds. The importance of these channels is underscored by the fact that four out of five KCNQ channel subtypes are involved in severe human diseases. However, the pharmacology of the KCNQ channels is yet poorly understood...... as these channels were identified only recently. Therefore, there is a need for understanding the biophysical behavior and pharmacology of these ion channels. KCNQ channels belong to the group of voltage-activated K+ channels. The subfamily consists of KCNQ1-5, which is primarily expressed in the CNS, heart, ear...

  16. On Secrecy Outage of Relay Selection in Underlay Cognitive Radio Networks over Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang

    2017-10-02

    In this paper, the secrecy outage performance of an underlay cognitive decode-and-forward relay network over independent but not necessarily identical distributed (i.n.i.d) Nakagami-m fading channels is investigated, in which the secondary user transmitter communicates with the secondary destination via relays, and an eavesdropper attempts to overhear the information. Based on whether the channel state information (CSI) of the wiretap links is available or not, we analyze the secrecy outage performance with optimal relay selection (ORS) and suboptimal relay selection (SRS) schemes, and multiple relays combining scheme (MRC) scheme is considered for comparison purpose. The exact and asymptotic closed-form expressions for the secrecy outage probability with three different relay selection schemes are derived and verified by Monte-Carlo simulations. The numerical results illustrate that ORS scheme always outperforms SRS and MRC schemes, and SRS scheme is better than MRC scheme in the lower fading parameters scenario. Furthermore, through asymptotic analysis, we find that these three different schemes achieve the same secrecy diversity order, which is determined by the number of the relays, and the fading parameters of the links among the relays and the destination.

  17. A dual-channel gas chromatography method for the quantitation of low and high concentrations of NF3 and CF4 to study membrane separation of the two compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Branken, D.J.; Le Roux, J.P.; Krieg, H.M.; Lachmann, G.

    2013-01-01

    A dual-channel gas chromatographic method is described in this paper that can be conveniently used for quantitation of NF3/CF4 mixtures with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD) on one channel for the quantitation of high-concentrations, and a pulsed discharge helium ionization detector (PDHID) on a second channel for the quantitation of low concentrations. It is shown that adequate separation is achieved on both channels with this dual single-column setup in which column switchi...

  18. Ion channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erramli, H.; Blondiaux, G.

    1994-01-01

    Channeling phenomenon was predicted, many years ago, by stark. The first channeling experiments were performed in 1963 by Davies and his coworkers. Parallely Robinson and Oen have investigated this process by simulating trajectories of ions in monocrystals. This technique has been combined with many methods like Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (R.B.S.), Particles Induced X-rays Emission (P.I.X.E) and online Nuclear Reaction (N.R.A.) to localize trace elements in the crystal or to determine crystalline quality. To use channeling for material characterization we need data about the stopping power of the incident particle in the channeled direction. The ratios of channeled to random stopping powers of silicon for irradiation in the direction have been investigated and compared to the available theoretical results. We describe few applications of ion channeling in the field of materials characterization. Special attention is given to ion channeling combined with Charged Particle Activation Analysis (C.P.A.A.) for studying the behaviour of oxygen atoms in Czochralski silicon lattices under the influence of internal gettering and in different gaseous atmospheres. Association between ion channeling and C.P.A.A was also utilised for studying the influence of the growing conditions on concentration and position of carbon atoms at trace levels in the MOVPE Ga sub (1-x) Al sub x lattice. 6 figs., 1 tab., 32 refs. (author)

  19. Development and validation of a thallium flux-based functional assay for the sodium channel NaV1.7 and its utility for lead discovery and compound profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yu; Days, Emily; Romaine, Ian; Abney, Kris K; Kaufmann, Kristian; Sulikowski, Gary; Stauffer, Shaun; Lindsley, Craig W; Weaver, C David

    2015-06-17

    Ion channels are critical for life, and they are targets of numerous drugs. The sequencing of the human genome has revealed the existence of hundreds of different ion channel subunits capable of forming thousands of ion channels. In the face of this diversity, we only have a few selective small-molecule tools to aid in our understanding of the role specific ion channels in physiology which may in turn help illuminate their therapeutic potential. Although the advent of automated electrophysiology has increased the rate at which we can screen for and characterize ion channel modulators, the technique's high per-measurement cost and moderate throughput compared to other high-throughput screening approaches limit its utility for large-scale high-throughput screening. Therefore, lower cost, more rapid techniques are needed. While ion channel types capable of fluxing calcium are well-served by low cost, very high-throughput fluorescence-based assays, other channel types such as sodium channels remain underserved by present functional assay techniques. In order to address this shortcoming, we have developed a thallium flux-based assay for sodium channels using the NaV1.7 channel as a model target. We show that the assay is able to rapidly and cost-effectively identify NaV1.7 inhibitors thus providing a new method useful for the discovery and profiling of sodium channel modulators.

  20. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    property has been used to determine whether a compound is aromatic or not. Mesoionic compounds are structurally very different from ben- zenoid compounds, but they fulfill most of the criteria of aroma- ticity and form a part of a variety of aromatic compounds, which can be classified as follows. A) Benzenoid Compounds.

  1. MARKETING CHANNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marketing channel is a set of entities and institutions, completion of distribution and marketing activities, attend the efficient and effective networking of producers and consumers. Marketing channels include the total flows of goods, money and information taking place between the institutions in the system of marketing, establishing a connection between them. The functions of the exchange, the physical supply and service activities, inherent in the system of marketing and trade. They represent paths which products and services are moving after the production, which will ultimately end up buying and eating by the user.

  2. A dual-channel gas chromatography method for the quantitation of low and high concentrations of NF3 and CF4 to study membrane separation of the two compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branken, D J; le Roux, J P; Krieg, H M; Lachmann, G

    2013-09-13

    A dual-channel gas chromatographic method is described in this paper that can be conveniently used for quantitation of NF3/CF4 mixtures with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD) on one channel for the quantitation of high-concentrations, and a pulsed discharge helium ionization detector (PDHID) on a second channel for the quantitation of low concentrations. It is shown that adequate separation is achieved on both channels with this dual single-column setup in which column switching as used for NF3/CF4 analysis in industrial chromatographic methods are not required, thus yielding an effective analysis method for laboratory-scale investigations. In addition, the use of packed columns with purified divinylbenzene-styrene co-polymers as the sole stationary phase yields satisfactory resolution between NF3 and CF4 at isothermal conditions of 30°C, with elution times of less than 8min on the TCD channel and less than 4min on the PDHID channel. Consequently, this method allows for reliable, straight-forward quantitation of NF3/CF4 mixtures, which is necessary when studying the commercially important problem of NF3 and CF4 separation by different methods. Therefore, the applicability of the method to studying membrane separation of NF3 and CF4 is briefly discussed and illustrated, for which the dual-channel setup is especially beneficial. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Channel Power in Multi-Channel Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); B. Skiera (Bernd)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the literature, little attention has been paid to instances where companies add an Internet channel to their direct channel portfolio. However, actively managing multiple sales channels requires knowing the customers’ channel preferences and the resulting channel power. Two key

  4. Starburst Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Translucent carbon dioxide ice covers the polar regions of Mars seasonally. It is warmed and sublimates (evaporates) from below, and escaping gas carves a numerous channel morphologies. In this example (figure 1) the channels form a 'starburst' pattern, radiating out into feathery extensions. The center of the pattern is being buried with dust and new darker dust fans ring the outer edges. This may be an example of an expanding morphology, where new channels are formed as the older ones fill and are no longer efficiently channeling the subliming gas out. Observation Geometry Image PSP_003443_0980 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 21-Apr-2007. The complete image is centered at -81.8 degrees latitude, 76.2 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 247.1 km (154.4 miles). At this distance the image scale is 24.7 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 74 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 04:52 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 71 degrees, thus the sun was about 19 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 223.4 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  5. BK channel activators and their therapeutic perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Rønn, Lars C B

    2014-01-01

    The large conductance calcium- and voltage-activated K(+) channel (KCa1.1, BK, MaxiK) is ubiquitously expressed in the body, and holds the ability to integrate changes in intracellular calcium and membrane potential. This makes the BK channel an important negative feedback system linking increases...... in intracellular calcium to outward hyperpolarizing potassium currents. Consequently, the channel has many important physiological roles including regulation of smooth muscle tone, neurotransmitter release and neuronal excitability. Additionally, cardioprotective roles have been revealed in recent years. After...... a short introduction to the structure, function and regulation of BK channels, we review the small organic molecules activating BK channels and how these tool compounds have helped delineate the roles of BK channels in health and disease....

  6. KATP Channels in the Cardiovascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Monique N; Coetzee, William A

    2016-01-01

    KATP channels are integral to the functions of many cells and tissues. The use of electrophysiological methods has allowed for a detailed characterization of KATP channels in terms of their biophysical properties, nucleotide sensitivities, and modification by pharmacological compounds. However, even though they were first described almost 25 years ago (Noma 1983, Trube and Hescheler 1984), the physiological and pathophysiological roles of these channels, and their regulation by complex biological systems, are only now emerging for many tissues. Even in tissues where their roles have been best defined, there are still many unanswered questions. This review aims to summarize the properties, molecular composition, and pharmacology of KATP channels in various cardiovascular components (atria, specialized conduction system, ventricles, smooth muscle, endothelium, and mitochondria). We will summarize the lessons learned from available genetic mouse models and address the known roles of KATP channels in cardiovascular pathologies and how genetic variation in KATP channel genes contribute to human disease. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Dynamic Channel Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    21 9. Beowulf Ethernet Channel Bonding.................................................22 F. SUMMARY...on demand, hybrid channel allocation in wireless networks, and 3 Beowulf Ethernet channel bonding. The background information presented in this...channels are available for dynamic allocation [Ref 32]. 9. Beowulf Ethernet Channel Bonding A by-product of using older computers in a NASA research lab

  8. Experimental hydraulic analysis in conduction tunnels at the trunk section working as a channel considering compound roughness; Analisis hidraulico experimental en tuneles de conduccion en seccion baul trabajando como canal, considerando rugosidades compuestas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marengo-Mogollon, Humberto; Cortes-Cortes, Carlos [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico); Arreguin-Cortes, Felipe I [Comision Nacional del Agua (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    This paper presents the roughness coefficients of a conduction tunnel at the trunk section working as a channel obtained experimentally using a hydraulic model of the diversion tunnel of the Hydroelectric Project called El Cajon (Mexico). A comparative analysis between experimental and theoretical coefficients obtained in the literature is shown. [Spanish] Se presentan los coeficientes de rugosidad compuesta de un tunel de conduccion en seccion baul trabajando como canal obtenidos en forma experimental en un modelo hidraulico del tunel de desvio del Proyecto Hidroelectrico El Cajon (Mexico). Se muestra un analisis comparativo entre los coeficientes experimentales y los teoricos obtenidos en la literatura.

  9. A Characeae Cells Plasma Membrane as a Model for Selection of Bioactive Compounds and Drugs: Interaction of HAMLET-Like Complexes with Ion Channels of Chara corallina Cells Plasmalemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataev, Anatoly; Zherelova, Olga; Grishchenko, Valery

    2016-12-01

    Interaction of a HAMLET-like La-OA cytotoxic complex (human α-lactalbumin-oleic acid) and its constituents with the excitable plasmalemma of giant Chara corallina cells was investigated. The voltage-clamp technique was used to study Ca 2+ and Cl - transient currents in the plasmalemma of intact cells. The action of the complex and OA on the target cell membrane has a dose-dependent character. It was found that the La-OA complex has an inhibiting effect on Ca 2+ current across the plasmalemma, while α-lactalbumin alone does not affect the electrophysiological characteristics of the cellular membrane. However, oleic acid blocks Ca 2+ current across the plasmalemma. This is accompanied by the induction of a non-selective conductivity in the cellular membrane, a decrease in the resting potential and plasma membrane resistance of algal cells. We propose that the cytotoxicity of La-OA and other HAMLET-like complexes is determined by oleic acid acting as a blocker of potential-dependent Ca 2+ channels in the plasma membrane of target cells. The presented results show that the study model of green algae C. corallina cells plasmalemma is a convenient tool for the investigation of ion channels in many animal cells.

  10. Lateral transfer of streamwise momentum caused by a roughness transition across a shallow channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaas, D.A.; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.; Hoitink, A.J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Research on lateral exchange of streamwise momentum between parallel flows in open channels has mainly been focused on compound channels composed of a main channel and a floodplain, on mixing layer development downstream of river confluences, and on partially vegetated channels. This study aims to

  11. Multipurpose Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  12. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sydnone, the representative mesoionic compound has been extensively studied because of its unusual structure, chemi- cal properties and synthetic utility. Sydnone is used as a versatile synthon in heterocyclic synthesis. This article gives a brief account of the comparative studies of the structural features of mesoionic ...

  13. Voltage-gated sodium channels as targets for pyrethroid insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Linda M; Emyr Davies, T G; O'Reilly, Andrias O; Williamson, Martin S; Wallace, B A

    2017-10-01

    The pyrethroid insecticides are a very successful group of compounds that have been used extensively for the control of arthropod pests of agricultural crops and vectors of animal and human disease. Unfortunately, this has led to the development of resistance to the compounds in many species. The mode of action of pyrethroids is known to be via interactions with the voltage-gated sodium channel. Understanding how binding to the channel is affected by amino acid substitutions that give rise to resistance has helped to elucidate the mode of action of the compounds and the molecular basis of their selectivity for insects vs mammals and between insects and other arthropods. Modelling of the channel/pyrethroid interactions, coupled with the ability to express mutant channels in oocytes and study function, has led to knowledge of both how the channels function and potentially how to design novel insecticides with greater species selectivity.

  14. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas have been extensively reported in the dental literature, and the term refers to tumors of odontogenic origin. Though the exact etiology is still unknown, the postulated causes include: local trauma, infection, inheritance and genetic mutation. The majority of the lesions are asymptomatic; however, may be accompanied with pain and swelling as secondary complaints in some cases. Here, we report a case of a compound odontome in a 14 year old patient.

  15. New Channels, New Possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieterson, Willem; Ebbers, Wolfgang; Østergaard Madsen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution we discuss the characteristics of what we call the fourth generation of public sector service channels: social robots. Based on a review of relevant literature we discuss their characteristics and place into multi-channel models of service delivery. We argue that social robots...... is not one homogenous type of channels, but rather breaks down in different (sub)types of channels, each with different characteristics and possibilities to supplement and/or replace existing channels. Given the variety of channels, we foresee challenges in incorporating these new channels in multi-channel...... models of service delivery. This is especially relevant given the current lack of evaluations of such models, the broad range of channels available, and their different stages of deployment at governments around the world. Nevertheless, social robots offer an potentially very relevant addition...

  16. Evidences for the Formation of Chromium in the Unusual Oxidation State Cr(IV). I. Chemical Reactivity, Microhomogeneity, and Crystal Structures of the Nonstoichiometric Channel Compounds Tl xCr 5Se 8(0 ≤ x≤ 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensch, W.; Helmer, O.; Näther, C.

    1996-11-01

    The topotactic redox reaction between TlCr 5Se 8and bromine in acetonitrile leads to the formation of metastable samples with 0 ≤ xtransition metal chalcogenide crystallizing in the TlV 5S 8type structure with a Tl content xtopotactic redox reaction does not follow simple kinetics but is rather explained on the basis of the superposition of at least three different fundamental steps. EDAX investigations conducted on selected single crystals reveal that dependent on the deintercalation temperature, Tl is laterally inhomogeneous distributed along the needle axis which coincides with the crystallographic baxis. A pronounced maximum is observed at the middle of the crystals. In stoichiometric TlCr 5Se 8the detailed analysis of the anisotropic displacement parameters of the Tl atoms reveal that the Tl atoms are displaced from the central position by about 0.26 Å. As a consequence the Tl atoms are coordinated by seven Se atoms in an irregular coordination polyhedron. Since the positions x0 zare related by a center of symmetry they cannot be occupied simultaneously. Hence it must be assumed that TlCr 5Se 8has a domain structure with local symmetry Cm. In the Tl poorer phases the refinement of the Tl atoms at the central position leads to unusual high U22components. The observed microinhomogenity as well as an enhanced mobility and/or static disorder of the Tl atom within the channel may be responsible for this. The value for U11decreases with decreasing Tl content whereas U33is not affected. This observation is indicative for a different displacement of the Tl atoms from the central position. With respect to the possible reaction mechanisms, according to our structural investigations, the oxidation of monovalent Tl to trivalent Tl can be excluded. With decreasing Tl content the lattice parameters exhibit very anisotropic behavior, which is a direct consequence of the large changes of the interatomic Cr-Cr distances. The average as well as the nonbonding Se-Se distances

  17. Vegetation and Channel Morphology Responses to Ordinary High Water Discharge Events in Arid West Stream Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    events that occur between periods of drought. It is important to understand how vegetation and stream channel morphology respond to various discharge...because there were no discharge events in our study watersheds during our study period that were large enough to affect this part of the channel...AZ 36.94389103 –109.7106684 Southwest– Northeast Compound/ Single Thread Tropical/ Subtropical Steppe Soft Rock Jurassic Navajo sandstone In a

  18. Hadamard quantum broadcast channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingle; Das, Siddhartha; Wilde, Mark M.

    2017-10-01

    We consider three different communication tasks for quantum broadcast channels, and we determine the capacity region of a Hadamard broadcast channel for these various tasks. We define a Hadamard broadcast channel to be such that the channel from the sender to one of the receivers is entanglement-breaking and the channel from the sender to the other receiver is complementary to this one. As such, this channel is a quantum generalization of a degraded broadcast channel, which is well known in classical information theory. The first communication task we consider is classical communication to both receivers, the second is quantum communication to the stronger receiver and classical communication to other, and the third is entanglement-assisted classical communication to the stronger receiver and unassisted classical communication to the other. The structure of a Hadamard broadcast channel plays a critical role in our analysis: The channel to the weaker receiver can be simulated by performing a measurement channel on the stronger receiver's system, followed by a preparation channel. As such, we can incorporate the classical output of the measurement channel as an auxiliary variable and solve all three of the above capacities for Hadamard broadcast channels, in this way avoiding known difficulties associated with quantum auxiliary variables.

  19. Calcium Channel Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... conditions, such as Raynaud's disease For people of African heritage and older people, calcium channel blockers might ... high-blood-pressure/in-depth/calcium-channel-blockers/ART-20047605 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  20. Inhibitory effects of imperatorin on voltage-gated K(+) channels and ATP-sensitive K(+) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Wen; Yang, Chin-Tsang; Chen, Yi-Hung; Gong, Chi-Li; Chen, Yu-Fang; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Leung, Yuk-Man

    2015-02-01

    Imperatorin is a furocoumarin isolated from Angelica archangelica and Cnidium monnieri. It has multiple neuromodulatory actions such as anticonvulsant effects, anxiolytic effects and anti-nociceptive effects. Although there have been reports demonstrating its effects on voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSC) and transient reversal potential (TRP) V1 channels in neurons, there is hitherto no work showing whether this compound affects voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels and ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels. We investigated the effects of imperatorin on K(+) channels using whole-cell configuration voltage-clamp technique. Imperatorin inhibited Kv channels in differentiated neuronal NG108-15 cells, and caused a left shift in the steady-state inactivation curve without affecting activation gating. Imperatorin also inhibited heterologously expressed wild type Kv1.2 and Kv2.1 channels, but became much less potent in inhibiting Kv1.2 V370G, a mutant defective in C-type inactivation, implying that drug inhibition depends on C-type inactivation. At a high concentration (100μM), imperatorin also suppressed KATP channels. Our results suggest that imperatorin inhibited both Kv and KATP channels. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of background absorption on the compound cross-section in resonance scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenkel, A.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of channel-channel correlations in the compound cross-section is studied in a model of a resonance above a compound background characterized by equal absorption in all open channels. A general rule which cannot be derived from unitarity alone is proved for the fluctuating cross-section. It provides new understanding of level-level correlations in scattering through compound nucleus states. (author)

  2. KV7 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Jennifer B; Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A

    2014-01-01

    Potassium channels are key regulators of smooth muscle tone, with increases in activity resulting in hyperpolarisation of the cell membrane, which acts to oppose vasoconstriction. Several potassium channels exist within smooth muscle, but the KV7 family of voltage-gated potassium channels have been...

  3. Quantum Channels With Memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybar, T.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum memory channels represent a very general, yet simple and comprehensible model for causal processes. As such they have attracted considerable research interest, mostly aimed on their transfer capabilities and structure properties. Most notably it was shown that memory channels can be implemented via physically naturally motivated collision models. We also define the concept of repeatable channels and show that only unital channels can be implemented repeat ably with pure memory channels. In the special case of qubit channels we also show that every unital qubit channel has a repeatable implementation. We also briefly explore the possibilities of stroboscopical simulation of channels and show that all random unitary channels can be stroboscopically simulated. Particularly in qubit case, all indivisible qubit channels are also random unitary, hence for qubit all indivisible channels can be stroboscopically simulated. Memory channels also naturally capture the framework of correlated experiments. We develop methods to gather and interpret data obtained in such setting and in detail examine the two qubit case. We also show that for control unitary interactions the measured data will never contradict a simple unitary evolution. Thus no memory effects can be spotted then. (author)

  4. Channel morphology [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan W. Long; Alvin L. Medina; Daniel G. Neary

    2012-01-01

    Channel morphology has become an increasingly important subject for analyzing the health of rivers and associated fish populations, particularly since the popularization of channel classification and assessment methods. Morphological data can help to evaluate the flows of sediment and water that influence aquatic and riparian habitat. Channel classification systems,...

  5. Bismaleimide compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Johnnie E.; Jamieson, Donald R.

    1986-01-14

    Bismaleimides of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, C1 or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

  6. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  7. KCNQ4 channel activation by BMS-204352 and retigabine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Rikke Louise K.; Jespersen, Thomas; Christophersen, P

    2001-01-01

    and concentration-dependent manner in the concentration range 0.1-10 microM. Both compounds shifted the KCNQ4 channel activation curves towards more negative potentials by about 10 mV. Further, the maximal current obtainable at large positive voltages was also increased concentration-dependently by both compounds....... Finally, a pronounced slowing of the deactivation kinetics was induced in particular by BMS-204352. The M-current blocker linopirdine inhibited the baseline current, as well as the BMS-204352-induced activation of the KCNQ4 channels. KCNQ2, KCNQ2/Q3, and KCNQ3/Q4 channels were activated to a similar...

  8. Charged and Neutral Particles Channeling Phenomena Channeling 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabagov, Sultan B.; Palumbo, Luigi

    2010-04-01

    regime by a buried oxide layer / V. Guidi, A. Mazzolari and V. V. Tikhomirov -- A positron source using channeling in crystals for linear colliders / X. Artru ... [et al.] -- Parametric channeling and collapse of charged particles beams in crystals / M. Vysotskyy and V. Vysotskii.The formation and usage of coherent correlated charged particles states in the physics of channeling in crystals / S. V. Adamenko, V. I. Vysotskii and M. V. Vysotskyy -- Surface channeling of magnetic-charged particles on multilayer surface / S. V. Adamenko and V. I. Vysotskii -- Coherent creation of anti-hydrogen atoms in a crystal by relativistic antiproton / Yu. P. Kunashenko -- Thermal equilibrium of light ions in heavy crystals / E. Tsyganov -- Photon emission of electrons in a crystalline undulator / H. Backe ... [et al.] -- Channeling radiation from relativistic electrons in a crystal target as complementary x-ray and gamma ray source at synchrotron light facilities / K. B. Korotchenko, Yu. L. Pivovarov and T. A. Tukhfatullin -- Diffracted channeling radiation and other compound radiation processes / H. Nitta -- Collective scattering on the atom planes under the condition of full transition / A. R. Mkrtchyan ... [et al.] -- The proposal of the experiment on the research of the diffracted channeling radiation / D. A. Baklanov ... [et al.] -- Positron channeling at the DaOne BTF Facility: the cup experiment / L. Quintieri ... [et al.] -- Radiation spectra of 200 MeV electrons in diamond and silicon crystals at axial and planar orientations / K. Fissum ... [et al.] -- Channeling experiments with electrons at the Mainz Microtron Mami / W. Lauth ... [et al.] -- Dechanneling of positrons by dislocations: effects of anharmonic interactions / J. George and A. P. Pathak -- Diffracted channeling radiation from axially channeled relativistic electrons / K. B. Korotchenko ... [et al.] -- Intensive quasi-monochromatic, directed x-ray radiation of planar channeled positron bunch / L. Gevorgian

  9. Mechanism of HERG potassium channel inhibition by tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yan; Lin, Zuoxian [Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530 (China); Xia, Menghang; Zheng, Wei [National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Li, Zhiyuan, E-mail: li_zhiyuan@gibh.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510530 (China)

    2013-03-01

    Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are synthetic quaternary ammonium salts that are widely used in hospitals and industries for the disinfection and surface treatment and as the preservative agent. Recently, the activities of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds have been found to have potential risks to induce the long QT syndrome and cardiac arrhythmia, although the mechanism of action is still elusive. This study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of HERG channel inhibition by these compounds by using whole-cell patch clamp experiments in a CHO cell line stably expressing HERG channels. Tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride exhibited concentration-dependent inhibitions of HERG channel currents with IC{sub 50} values of 4 nM and 17 nM, respectively, which were also voltage-dependent and use-dependent. Both compounds shifted the channel activation I–V curves in a hyperpolarized direction for 10–15 mV and accelerated channel activation and inactivation processes by 2-fold. In addition, tetra-n-octylammonium bromide shifted the inactivation I–V curve in a hyperpolarized direction for 24.4 mV and slowed the rate of channel deactivation by 2-fold, whereas benzethonium chloride did not. The results indicate that tetra-n-octylammonium bromide and benzethonium chloride are open-channel blockers that inhibit HERG channels in the voltage-dependent, use-dependent and state-dependent manners. - Highlights: ► Tetra-n-octylammonium and benzethonium are potent HERG channel inhibitors. ► Channel activation and inactivation processes are accelerated by the two compounds. ► Both compounds are the open-channel blockers to HERG channels. ► HERG channel inhibition by both compounds is use-, voltage- and state dependent. ► The in vivo risk of QT prolongation needs to be studied for the two compounds.

  10. Mathematical expression of discharge capacity of compound open ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, analytical methods, artificial neural network (ANN) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) techniques were utilised to estimate the discharge capacity of compound open channels. (COC). To this end, related datasets were collected from literature. The results showed that the divided channel ...

  11. HIPPI and Fibre Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolmie, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    The High-Performance Parallel Interface (HIPPI) and Fibre Channel are near-gigabit per second data communications interfaces being developed in ANSI standards Task Group X3T9.3. HIPPI is the current interface of choice in the high-end and supercomputer arena, and Fibre Channel is a follow-on effort. HIPPI came from a local area network background, and Fibre Channel came from a mainframe to peripheral interface background

  12. Hausa verbal compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McIntyre, Joseph Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Verbal compounds abound in Hausa (a Chadic language). A very broad definition of Hausa verbal compounds (henceforth: VC) is “a compound with a verb”. Four types of verbal compound are analysed: V[erb]+X compounds, PAC+V compounds (a PAC is a pronoun complex indicating TAM), VCs with a ma prefix

  13. Ion Channels in Leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    be fitted to a Hodgkin - conductance. K (1.0) > Rb (0.77) > NH4 (0.10) > Cs Huxley type n4j model (17, 38). However, the rate of K0 (0.02) > Na (ɘ.01...15, 25 activated) T- and B-cells, murine B-cells? SCG, single-channel conductance under physiological ionic gradient- tfor ructif~ y ig ehannel, largest...the channel induces a confor- kat T-cell line (52). Fina:! y , single-channel recordings of mational change that ina.-tix ates the channel rather human T

  14. A channel profile analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobbur, S.G.

    1983-01-01

    It is well understood that due to the wide band noise present in a nuclear analog-to-digital converter, events at the boundaries of adjacent channels are shared. It is a difficult and laborious process to exactly find out the shape of the channels at the boundaries. A simple scheme has been developed for the direct display of channel shape of any type of ADC on a cathode ray oscilliscope display. This has been accomplished by sequentially incrementing the reference voltage of a precision pulse generator by a fraction of a channel and storing ADC data in alternative memory locations of a multichannel pulse height analyser. Alternative channels are needed due to the sharing at the boundaries of channels. In the flat region of the profile alternate memory locations are channels with zero counts and channels with the full scale counts. At the boundaries all memory locations will have counts. The shape of this is a direct display of the channel boundaries. (orig.)

  15. Discharge estimation in compound channels with fixed and mobile ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3. School of Civil Engineering, University of Cukurova, Adana, Turkey; Civil Engineering Department, American University of Sharjah, PO Box 26666, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates; Arup, The Arup Campus, Blythe Gate, Blythe Valley Park, ...

  16. Discharge estimation in compound channels with fixed and mobile ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    flowdata.bham.ac.uk (university website). 2-D formulae generally account for bed shear, lateral shear, and secondary flow effects via 3 coefficients f, and . In this paper, the secondary flow term() used within the 2-D methods analysed here ...

  17. A linearization of quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Tanner

    2015-06-01

    Because the quantum channels form a compact, convex set, we can express any quantum channel as a convex combination of extremal channels. We give a Euclidean representation for the channels whose inverses are also valid channels; these are a subset of the extreme points. They form a compact, connected Lie group, and we calculate its Lie algebra. Lastly, we calculate a maximal torus for the group and provide a constructive approach to decomposing any invertible channel into a product of elementary channels.

  18. DESIGN OF PARABOLIC CHANNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Alibekov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of the apparent location of the hydraulic parameters of parabolic channels in earthen channel and volume of dredging required in their design and construction, on the basis of conditions to ensure the stability of the slope at the maximum water flow rate. 

  19. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium-channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this ... vary. However, the main ingredient is called a calcium-channel antagonist. It helps decrease the heart's pumping strength, which ...

  20. CHANNEL ESTIMATION TECHNIQUE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    the communication channel. The method further includes determining a sequence of second coefficient estimates of the communication channel based on a decomposition of the first coefficient estimates in a dictionary matrix and a sparse vector of the second coefficient estimates, the dictionary matrix including...

  1. Athermalized channeled spectropolarimeter enhancement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Julia Craven; Way, Brandyn Michael; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Hunt, Jeffery P.

    2013-09-01

    Channeled spectropolarimetry can measure the complete polarization state of light as a function of wavelength. Typically, a channeled spectropolarimeter uses high order retarders made of uniaxial crystal to amplitude modulate the measured spectrum with the spectrally-dependent Stokes polarization information. A primary limitation of conventional channeled spectropolarimeters is related to the thermal variability of the retarders. Thermal variation often forces frequent system recalibration, particularly for field deployed systems. However, implementing thermally stable retarders, made of biaxial crystal, results in an athermal channeled spectropolarimeter that relieves the need for frequent recalibration. This report presents experimental results for an anthermalized channeled spectropolarimeter prototype produced using potassium titanyl phosphate. The results of this prototype are compared to the current thermal stabilization state of the art. Finally, the application of the technique to the thermal infrared is studied, and the athermalization concept is applied to an infrared imaging spectropolarimeter design.

  2. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2014-01-01

    . The underlying posttranscriptional and posttranslational remodeling of the individual K(+) channels changes their activity and significance relative to each other, and they must be viewed together to understand their role in keeping a stable heart rhythm, also under menacing conditions like attacks of reentry......About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...... that they could constitute targets for new pharmacological treatment of atrial fibrillation. The interplay between the different K(+) channel subtypes in both atria and ventricle is dynamic, and a significant up- and downregulation occurs in disease states such as atrial fibrillation or heart failure...

  3. Muon cooling channels

    CERN Document Server

    Eberhard-K-Kei

    2003-01-01

    A procedure uses the equations that govern ionization cooling, and leads to the most important parameters of a muon cooling channel that achieves assumed performance parameters. First, purely transverse cooling is considered, followed by both transverse and longitudinal cooling in quadrupole and solenoid channels. Similarities and differences in the results are discussed in detail, and a common notation is developed. Procedure and notation are applied to a few published cooling channels. The parameters of the cooling channels are derived step by step, starting from assumed values of the initial, final and equilibrium emittances, both transverse and longitudinal, the length of the cooling channel, and the material properties of the absorber. The results obtained include cooling lengths and partition numbers, amplitude functions and limits on the dispersion at the absorber, length, aperture and spacing of the absorber, parameters of the RF system that achieve the longitudinal amplitude function and bucket area ...

  4. Coherifying quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzekwa, Kamil; Czachórski, Stanisław; Puchała, Zbigniew; Życzkowski, Karol

    2018-04-01

    Is it always possible to explain random stochastic transitions between states of a finite-dimensional system as arising from the deterministic quantum evolution of the system? If not, then what is the minimal amount of randomness required by quantum theory to explain a given stochastic process? Here, we address this problem by studying possible coherifications of a quantum channel Φ, i.e., we look for channels {{{Φ }}}{ \\mathcal C } that induce the same classical transitions T, but are ‘more coherent’. To quantify the coherence of a channel Φ we measure the coherence of the corresponding Jamiołkowski state J Φ. We show that the classical transition matrix T can be coherified to reversible unitary dynamics if and only if T is unistochastic. Otherwise the Jamiołkowski state {J}{{Φ }}{ \\mathcal C } of the optimally coherified channel is mixed, and the dynamics must necessarily be irreversible. To assess the extent to which an optimal process {{{Φ }}}{ \\mathcal C } is indeterministic we find explicit bounds on the entropy and purity of {J}{{Φ }}{ \\mathcal C }, and relate the latter to the unitarity of {{{Φ }}}{ \\mathcal C }. We also find optimal coherifications for several classes of channels, including all one-qubit channels. Finally, we provide a non-optimal coherification procedure that works for an arbitrary channel Φ and reduces its rank (the minimal number of required Kraus operators) from {d}2 to d.

  5. Evaluation channel performance in multichannel environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gensler, S.; Dekimpe, M.; Skiera, B.

    2007-01-01

    Evaluating channel performance is crucial for actively managing multiple sales channels, and requires understanding the customers' channel preferences. Two key components of channel performance are (i) the existing customers' intrinsic loyalty to a particular channel and (ii) the channel's ability

  6. Development of New Openers of ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channels of the Cell Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strutynskyi, R.B.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Two innovative libraries (413 cyclosulfamides and 709 orthopyridine sulfamides of potential new openers of ATP-sensitive potassium channels of cell membranes were developed. It is shown experimentally that at least ten new original compounds have properties of pharmacological openers of the channels. Seven compounds, namely Z851154982, Z56762024, Z1269122570, Z31153162, Z45679561, Z756371174 and Z649723638, open channels of both types — sarcoplasmic as well as mitochondrial membranes: Simultaneously, Z734043408 compound is a potent activator of aforementioned channels of sarcolemmal membrane only. Z31197374 and Z666664306 compounds show the affinity onlyto КATP-channels of mitochondrial type. The results of the work can be used by pharmaceutical companies and scientific research institutes.

  7. Fractional channel multichannel analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Anderson, G.A.

    1994-08-23

    A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynchronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board. 9 figs.

  8. Cl- channels in apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Sirianant, Lalida

    2016-01-01

    A remarkable feature of apoptosis is the initial massive cell shrinkage, which requires opening of ion channels to allow release of K(+), Cl(-), and organic osmolytes to drive osmotic water movement and cell shrinkage. This article focuses on the role of the Cl(-) channels LRRC8, TMEM16/anoctamin......, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in cellular apoptosis. LRRC8A-E has been identified as a volume-regulated anion channel expressed in many cell types. It was shown to be required for regulatory and apoptotic volume decrease (RVD, AVD) in cultured cell lines. Its presence also...

  9. Direct channel problems and phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutkosky, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Direct channel problems and phenomena are considered covering the need for precision hadron spectroscopy, the data base for precision hadron spectroscopy, some relations between direct-channel and cross-channel effects, and spin rotation phenomena

  10. Rubber compounding and processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This chapter presents an overview on the compounding and processing techniques of natural rubber compounds. The introductory portion deals with different types of rubbers and principles of rubber compounding. The primary and secondary fillers used...

  11. New Trends in Cancer Therapy: Targeting Ion Channels and Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annarosa Arcangeli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The expression and activity of different channel types mark and regulate specific stages of cancer establishment and progression. Blocking channel activity impairs the growth of some tumors, both in vitro and in vivo, which opens a new field for pharmaceutical research. However, ion channel blockers may produce serious side effects, such as cardiac arrhythmias. For instance, Kv11.1 (hERG1 channels are aberrantly expressed in several human cancers, in which they control different aspects of the neoplastic cell behaviour. hERG1 blockers tend to inhibit cancer growth. However they also retard the cardiac repolarization, thus lengthening the electrocardiographic QT interval, which can lead to life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Several possibilities exist to produce less harmful compounds, such as developing specific drugs that bind hERG1 channels in the open state or disassemble the ion channel/integrin complex which appears to be crucial in certain stages of neoplastic progression. The potential approaches to improve the efficacy and safety of ion channel targeting in oncology include: (1 targeting specific conformational channel states; (2 finding ever more specific inhibitors, including peptide toxins, for channel subtypes mainly expressed in well-identified tumors; (3 using specific ligands to convey traceable or cytotoxic compounds; (4 developing channel blocking antibodies; (5 designing new molecular tools to decrease channel expression in selected cancer types. Similar concepts apply to ion transporters such as the Na+/K+ pump and the Na+/H+ exchanger. Pharmacological targeting of these transporters is also currently being considered in anti-neoplastic therapy.

  12. Channel Choice: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Madsen, Christian; Kræmmergaard, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    The channel choice branch of e-government studies citizens’ and businesses’ choice of channels for interacting with government, and how government organizations can integrate channels and migrate users towards the most cost-efficient channels. In spite of the valuable contributions offered no sys...... no systematic overview exist of channel choice. We present a literature review of channel choice studies in government to citizen context identifying authors, countries, methods, concepts, units of analysis, and theories, and offer suggestionsfor future studies....

  13. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    , controlled cell death and cellular migration. Volume regulatory mechanisms has long been in focus for regulating cellular proliferation and my thesis work have been focusing on the role of Cl- channels in proliferation with specific emphasis on ICl, swell. Pharmacological blockage of the ubiquitously...... but are also essential for a number of physiological processes such as proliferation, controlled cell death, migration and endocrinology. The thesis have been focusing on two Channels, namely the swelling activated Cl- channel (ICl, swell) and the transient receptor potential Vanilloid (TRPV4) channel. I: Cl...... understood. Potential agonist binding sites have been proposed in transmembrane domains 3 and 4, in congruence with agonist binding sites of TRPV1. However, the functional relationship between TRPV4 and agonist binding is not yet understood. In this thesis is further elaborate the structure...

  14. Sensing with Ion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Martinac, Boris

    2008-01-01

    All living cells are able to detect and translate environmental stimuli into biologically meaningful signals. Sensations of touch, hearing, sight, taste, smell or pain are essential to the survival of all living organisms. The importance of sensory input for the existence of life thus justifies the effort made to understand its molecular origins. Sensing with Ion Channels focuses on ion channels as key molecules enabling biological systems to sense and process the physical and chemical stimuli that act upon cells in their living environment. Its aim is to serve as a reference to ion channel specialists and as a source of new information to non specialists who want to learn about the structural and functional diversity of ion channels and their role in sensory physiology.

  15. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  16. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  17. Tritium in the Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, M.; Fievet, B.; Bailly-Du-Bois, P.; Olivier, A.; Tenailleau, L.

    2009-01-01

    After having recalled that sea waters entering the Channel exhibit a natural concentration of tritium, the authors outline that spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants are now the main sources of tritium for marine ecosystems as some oceanographic campaigns showed it. If data about the presence of tritium in water are numerous, data concerning the presence of tritiated water and of organically bound tritium in organisms are much less frequent. However, some surveys have been performed along the Channel French coasts

  18. Channelling versus inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gale, A.S.; Surlyk, Finn; Anderskouv, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from regional stratigraphical patterns in Santonian−Campanian chalk is used to infer the presence of a very broad channel system (5 km across) with a depth of at least 50 m, running NNW−SSE across the eastern Isle of Wight; only the western part of the channel wall and fill is exposed. W......−Campanian chalks in the eastern Isle of Wight, involving penecontemporaneous tectonic inversion of the underlying basement structure, are rejected....

  19. Optogenetic techniques for the study of native potassium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Eric Sandoz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Optogenetic tools were originally designed to target specific neurons for remote control of their activity by light and have largely been built around opsin-based channels and pumps. These naturally photosensitive opsins are microbial in origin and are unable to mimic the properties of native neuronal receptors and channels. Over the last 8 years, photoswitchable-tethered ligands (PTLs have enabled fast and reversible control of mammalian ion channels, allowing optical control of neuronal activity. One such PTL, MAQ, contains a maleimide (M to tether the molecule to a genetically engineered cysteine, a photoisomerizable azobenzene (A linker and a pore-blocking quaternary ammonium group (Q. MAQ was originally used to photo-control SPARK, an engineered light-gated potassium channel derived from Shaker. Potassium channel photo-block by MAQ has recently been extended to a diverse set of mammalian potassium channels including channels in the voltage-gated and K2P families. Photoswitchable potassium channels, which maintain native properties, pave the way for the optical control of specific aspects of neuronal function and for high precision probing of a specific channel’s physiological functions. To extend optical control to natively expressed channels, without overexpression, one possibility is to develop a knock-in mouse in which the wild type channel gene is replaced by its light-gated version. Alternatively, the recently developed photoswitchable-conditional-subunit technique (PCS provides photocontrol of the channel of interest by molecular replacement of wild type complexes. Finally, photochromic ligands (PCLs also allow photocontrol of potassium channels without genetic manipulation using soluble compounds. In this review we discuss different techniques for optical control of native potassium channels and their associated advantages and disadvantages.

  20. Course on Ionic Channels

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    This book is based on a series of lectures for a course on ionic channels held in Santiago, Chile, on November 17-20, 1984. It is intended as a tutorial guide on the properties, function, modulation, and reconstitution of ionic channels, and it should be accessible to graduate students taking their first steps in this field. In the presentation there has been a deliberate emphasis on the spe­ cific methodologies used toward the understanding of the workings and function of channels. Thus, in the first section, we learn to "read" single­ channel records: how to interpret them in the theoretical frame of kinetic models, which information can be extracted from gating currents in re­ lation to the closing and opening processes, and how ion transport through an open channel can be explained in terms of fluctuating energy barriers. The importance of assessing unequivocally the origin and purity of mem­ brane preparations and the use of membrane vesicles and optical tech­ niques in the stUGY of ionic channels a...

  1. adequacy of drainage channels f drainage channels in a small

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    carried out and data obtain from drainage channels. The time of concentratio version of version of Kirpich equation (new equation of time new equation of time from the drainage channels were determined using results showed that most of the drainage channels h. All the drainage channels of basin A had velocities ra.

  2. Ion channelling in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derry, T.E.

    1978-06-01

    Diamond is one of the most extreme cases from a channelling point of view, having the smallest thermal vibration amplitude and the lowest atomic number of commonly-encountered crystals. These are the two parameters most important for determining channelling behaviour. It is of consiberable interest therefore to see how well the theories explaining and predicting the channeling properties of other substance, succeed with diamond. Natural diamond, although the best available form for these experiments, is rather variable in its physical properties. Part of the project was devoted to considering and solving the problem of obtaining reproducible results representative of the ideal crystal. Channelling studies were performed on several good crystals, using the Rutherford backscattering method. Critical angles for proton channelling were measured for incident energies from 0.6 to 4.5 MeV, in the three most open axes and three most open planes of the diamond structure, and for α-particle channelling at 0.7 and 1.0 MeV (He + ) in the same axes and planes. For 1.0 MeV protons, the crystal temperature was varied from 20 degrees Celsius to 700 degrees Celsius. The results are presented as curves of backscattered yield versus angle in the region of each axis or plane, and summarised in the form of tables and graphs. Generally the critical angles, axial minimum yields, and temperature dependence are well predicted by the accepted theories. The most valuable overall conclusion is that the mean thermal vibration amplitude of the atoms in a crytical determines the critical approach distance to the channel walls at which an ion can remain channelled, even when this distance is much smaller than the Thomas-Fermi screening distance of the atomic potential, as is the case in diamond. A brief study was made of the radiation damage caused by α-particle bombardment, via its effect on the channelling phenomenon. It was possible to hold damage down to negligible levels during the

  3. Chemical inhibitors of the calcium entry channel TRPV6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landowski, Christopher P; Bolanz, Katrin A; Suzuki, Yoshiro; Hediger, Matthias A

    2011-02-01

    Calcium entry channels in the plasma membrane are thought to play a major role in maintaining cellular Ca(2+) levels, crucial for growth and survival of normal and cancer cells. The calcium-selective channel TRPV6 is expressed in prostate, breast, and other cancer cells. Its expression coincides with cancer progression, suggesting that it drives cancer cell growth. However, no specific inhibitors for TRPV6 have been identified thus far. To develop specific TRPV6 inhibitors, we synthesized molecules based on the lead compound TH-1177, reported to inhibit calcium entry channels in prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We found that one of our compounds (#03) selectively inhibited TRPV6 over five times better than TRPV5, whereas TH-1177 and the other synthesized compounds preferentially inhibited TRPV5. The IC(50) value for growth inhibition by blocking endogenous Ca(2+) entry channels in the LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line was 0.44 ± 0.07 μM compared to TH-1177 (50 ± 0.4 μM). These results suggest that compound #03 is a relatively selective and potent inhibitor for TRPV6 and that it is an interesting lead compound for the treatment of prostate cancer and other cancers of epithelial origin.

  4. Sanskrit Compound Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Mittal, Vipul; Kulkarni, Amba

    Sanskrit is very rich in compound formation. Typically a compound does not code the relation between its components explicitly. To understand the meaning of a compound, it is necessary to identify its components, discover the relations between them and finally generate a paraphrase of the compound. In this paper, we discuss the automatic segmentation and type identification of a compound using simple statistics that results from the manually annotated data.

  5. Channel identification machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Aurel A; Slutskiy, Yevgeniy B

    2012-01-01

    We present a formal methodology for identifying a channel in a system consisting of a communication channel in cascade with an asynchronous sampler. The channel is modeled as a multidimensional filter, while models of asynchronous samplers are taken from neuroscience and communications and include integrate-and-fire neurons, asynchronous sigma/delta modulators and general oscillators in cascade with zero-crossing detectors. We devise channel identification algorithms that recover a projection of the filter(s) onto a space of input signals loss-free for both scalar and vector-valued test signals. The test signals are modeled as elements of a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) with a Dirichlet kernel. Under appropriate limiting conditions on the bandwidth and the order of the test signal space, the filter projection converges to the impulse response of the filter. We show that our results hold for a wide class of RKHSs, including the space of finite-energy bandlimited signals. We also extend our channel identification results to noisy circuits.

  6. Channel Identification Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel A. Lazar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a formal methodology for identifying a channel in a system consisting of a communication channel in cascade with an asynchronous sampler. The channel is modeled as a multidimensional filter, while models of asynchronous samplers are taken from neuroscience and communications and include integrate-and-fire neurons, asynchronous sigma/delta modulators and general oscillators in cascade with zero-crossing detectors. We devise channel identification algorithms that recover a projection of the filter(s onto a space of input signals loss-free for both scalar and vector-valued test signals. The test signals are modeled as elements of a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS with a Dirichlet kernel. Under appropriate limiting conditions on the bandwidth and the order of the test signal space, the filter projection converges to the impulse response of the filter. We show that our results hold for a wide class of RKHSs, including the space of finite-energy bandlimited signals. We also extend our channel identification results to noisy circuits.

  7. Channel plate for DNA sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douthart, Richard J.; Crowell, Shannon L.

    1998-01-01

    This invention is a channel plate that facilitates data compaction in DNA sequencing. The channel plate has a length, a width and a thickness, and further has a plurality of channels that are parallel. Each channel has a depth partially through the thickness of the channel plate. Additionally an interface edge permits electrical communication across an interface through a buffer to a deposition membrane surface.

  8. Nanoscale Vacuum Channel Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin-Woo; Moon, Dong-Il; Meyyappan, M

    2017-04-12

    Vacuum tubes that sparked the electronics era had given way to semiconductor transistors. Despite their faster operation and better immunity to noise and radiation compared to the transistors, the vacuum device technology became extinct due to the high power consumption, integration difficulties, and short lifetime of the vacuum tubes. We combine the best of vacuum tubes and modern silicon nanofabrication technology here. The surround gate nanoscale vacuum channel transistor consists of sharp source and drain electrodes separated by sub-50 nm vacuum channel with a source to gate distance of 10 nm. This transistor performs at a low voltage (3 microamperes). The nanoscale vacuum channel transistor can be a possible alternative to semiconductor transistors beyond Moore's law.

  9. Chaos in quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosur, Pavan; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Roberts, Daniel A.; Yoshida, Beni

    2016-02-01

    We study chaos and scrambling in unitary channels by considering their entanglement properties as states. Using out-of-time-order correlation functions to diagnose chaos, we characterize the ability of a channel to process quantum information. We show that the generic decay of such correlators implies that any input subsystem must have near vanishing mutual information with almost all partitions of the output. Additionally, we propose the negativity of the tripartite information of the channel as a general diagnostic of scrambling. This measures the delocalization of information and is closely related to the decay of out-of-time-order correlators. We back up our results with numerics in two non-integrable models and analytic results in a perfect tensor network model of chaotic time evolution. These results show that the butterfly effect in quantum systems implies the information-theoretic definition of scrambling.

  10. CANDU fuel channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.E.; Cheadle, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    The service life of CANDU fuel channels is determined by the component that has to withstand the most severe conditions, the Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube. The latest fuel channels are expected to have a lifetime of over 30 years. The properties that control service life are fracture and deformation. For fracture, a defence-in-depth approach is used - preventing crack initiation and invoking leak-before-break. Confidence in the serviceability of fuel channels is based on current knowledge of the state of health of the components evaluated by surveillance. Degradation of properties with service is slow, allowing sufficient time to judge and act when end-of-life is reached. Methods for improving the properties of components are outlined. (author)

  11. MITOCHONDRIAL BKCa CHANNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique eBalderas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its discovery in a glioma cell line 15 years ago, mitochondrial BKCa channel (mitoBKCa has been studied in brain cells and cardiomyocytes sharing general biophysical properties such as high K+ conductance (~300 pS, voltage-dependency and Ca2+-sensitivity. Main advances in deciphering the molecular composition of mitoBKCa have included establishing that it is encoded by the Kcnma1 gene, that a C-terminal splice insert confers mitoBKCa ability to be targeted to cardiac mitochondria, and evidence for its potential coassembly with β subunits. Notoriously, β1 subunit directly interacts with cytochrome c oxidase and mitoBKCa can be modulated by substrates of the respiratory chain. mitoBKCa channel has a central role in protecting the heart from ischemia, where pharmacological activation of the channel impacts the generation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial Ca2+ preventing cell death likely by impeding uncontrolled opening of the mitochondrial transition pore. Supporting this view, inhibition of mitoBKCa with Iberiotoxin, enhances cytochrome c release from glioma mitochondria. Many tantalizing questions remain. Some of them are: how is mitoBKCa coupled to the respiratory chain? Does mitoBKCa play non-conduction roles in mitochondria physiology? Which are the functional partners of mitoBKCa? What are the roles of mitoBKCa in other cell types? Answers to these questions are essential to define the impact of mitoBKCa channel in mitochondria biology and disease.

  12. Channels of Propaganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproule, J. Michael

    Defining propaganda as "efforts by special interests to win over the public covertly by infiltrating messages into various channels of public expression ordinarily viewed as politically neutral," this book argues that propaganda has become pervasive in American life. Pointing out that the 1990s society is inundated with propaganda from…

  13. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  14. Channeling through Bent Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, Stephanie; /Ottawa U. /SLAC

    2012-09-07

    Bent crystals have demonstrated potential for use in beam collimation. A process called channeling is when accelerated particle beams are trapped by the nuclear potentials in the atomic planes within a crystal lattice. If the crystal is bent then the particles can follow the bending angle of the crystal. There are several different effects that are observed when particles travel through a bent crystal including dechanneling, volume capture, volume reflection and channeling. With a crystal placed at the edge of a particle beam, part of the fringe of the beam can be deflected away towards a detector or beam dump, thus helping collimate the beam. There is currently FORTRAN code by Igor Yazynin that has been used to model the passage of particles through a bent crystal. Using this code, the effects mentioned were explored for beam energy that would be seen at the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) at a range of crystal orientations with respect to the incoming beam. After propagating 5 meters in vacuum space past the crystal the channeled particles were observed to separate from most of the beam with some noise due to dechanneled particles. Progressively smaller bending radii, with corresponding shorter crystal lengths, were compared and it was seen that multiple scattering decreases with the length of the crystal therefore allowing for cleaner detection of the channeled particles. The input beam was then modified and only a portion of the beam sent through the crystal. With the majority of the beam not affected by the crystal, most particles were not deflected and after propagation the channeled particles were seen to be deflected approximately 5mm. After a portion of the beam travels through the crystal, the entire beam was then sent through a quadrupole magnet, which increased the separation of the channeled particles from the remainder of the beam to a distance of around 20mm. A different code, which was developed at SLAC, was used to

  15. Controlling fungus on channel catfish eggs with peracetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is much interest in the use of peracetic acid (PAA) to treat pathogens in aquaculture. It is a relatively new compound and is approved for use in Europe, but not in the United States. This study determined the effectiveness of PAA for fungus control on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus egg...

  16. Binding of ArgTX-636 in the NMDA receptor ion channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette H; Andersen, Jacob; Christensen, Rune

    2015-01-01

    The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) constitute an important class of ligand-gated cation channels that are involved in the majority of excitatory neurotransmission in the human brain. Compounds that bind in the NMDAR ion channel and act as blockers are use- and voltage-dependent inhibitor...

  17. Paraffin molecule mobility in channel clathrates of urea on spectroscopic NMR relaxation data

    CERN Document Server

    Kriger, Y G; Chekhova, G N

    2001-01-01

    The temperature dependences of the protons spin-lattice relaxation time (T sub I) in the channel clathrates of urea with paraffins are measured. The data on the T sub I are interpreted within the frames of the model of the paraffins molecules and their fragments orientation in the clathrate channels. The dynamics peculiarities are connected with the disproportion effects of these compounds

  18. Sharp change-over from compound nuclear fission to quasifission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, T. K.; Banerjee, K.; Bhattacharya, C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Kundu, S.; Mali, P.; Meena, J. K.; Mukherjee, G.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Rana, T. K.; Bhattacharya, P.; Golda, K. S.

    2009-01-01

    Fission fragment mass distributions have been measured from the decay of the compound nucleus 246 Bk that has been populated via two entrance channels. These entrance channels have a slight difference in their mass asymmetries that puts them on either side of the Businaro Gallone mass asymmetry parameter. Both target nuclei were deformed. Near the Coulomb barrier, at similar excitation energies, the width of the fission fragment mass distribution was found to be drastically different for the 14 N+ 232 Th reaction compared to the 11 B+ 235 U reaction. The entrance channel mass asymmetry was found to affect the fusion process sharply.

  19. Learning Channels and Verbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fan-Yu; Kubina, Richard M., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the basics of learning channels and how specification of stimuli can help enhance verbal behavior. This article will define learning channels and the role of the ability matrix in training verbal behavior.

  20. ``Just Another Distribution Channel?''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemstra, Wolter; de Leeuw, Gerd-Jan; van de Kar, Els; Brand, Paul

    The telecommunications-centric business model of mobile operators is under attack due to technological convergence in the communication and content industries. This has resulted in a plethora of academic contributions on the design of new business models and service platform architectures. However, a discussion of the challenges that operators are facing in adopting these models is lacking. We assess these challenges by considering the mobile network as part of the value system of the content industry. We will argue that from the perspective of a content provider the mobile network is ‘just another’ distribution channel. Strategic options available for the mobile communication operators are to deliver an excellent distribution channel for content delivery or to move upwards in the value chain by becoming a content aggregator. To become a mobile content aggregator operators will have to develop or acquire complementary resources and capabilities. Whether this strategic option is sustainable remains open.

  1. Geysering in boiling channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Takemoto, Takatoshi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Chiang, Jing-Hsien [Japan NUS Corp. Ltd., Toyko (Japan)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    A concept of natural circulation BWRs such as the SBWR has been proposed and seems to be promising in that the primary cooling system can be simplified. The authors have been investigating thermo-hydraulic instabilities which may appear during the start-up in natural circulation BWRs. In our previous works, geysering was investigated in parallel boiling channels for both natural and forced circulations, and its driving mechanism and the effect of system pressure on geysering occurrence were made clear. In this paper, geysering is investigated in a vertical column and a U-shaped vertical column heated in the lower parts. It is clarified from the results that the occurrence mechanism of geysering and the dependence of system pressure on geysering occurrence coincide between parallel boiling channels in circulation systems and vertical columns in non-circulation systems.

  2. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  3. Nuclear reactor coolant channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macbeth, R.V.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear reactor coolant channel is described that is suitable for sub-cooled reactors as in pressurised water reactors as well as for bulk boiling, as in boiling water reactors and steam generating nuclear reactors. The arrangement aims to improve heat transfer between the fuel elements and the coolant. Full constructional details are given. See also other similar patents by the author. (U.K.)

  4. Channel box compression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamizo, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yuki.

    1996-01-01

    The device of the present invention reduces the volume of spent fuel channel boxes of power plant facilities to eliminate secondary wastes, suppress generation of radiation sources and improve storage space efficiency. The device has a box-like shape. A support frame is disposed on the lateral side of the box for supporting spent channel boxes. A horizontal transferring unit and a vertical transferring compression unit driven by a driving mechanism are disposed in the support frame. Further, the compression unit may have a rotational compression roller so as to move freely in the transferring unit. In addition, the transferring unit and the driving mechanism may be disposed outside of pool water. With such a constitution, since spent channel boxes are compressed and bent by horizontal movement of the transferring unit and the vertical movement of the compression unit, no cut pieces or cut powders are generated. Further, if the transferring unit and the driving mechanism are disposed outside of the pool water, it is not necessary to make them waterproof, which facilitates the maintenance. (I.S.)

  5. Ion channeling revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Barney Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Corona, Aldo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nguyen, Anh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A MS Excel program has been written that calculates accidental, or unintentional, ion channeling in cubic bcc, fcc and diamond lattice crystals or polycrystalline materials. This becomes an important issue when simulating the creation by energetic neutrons of point displacement damage and extended defects using beams of ions. All of the tables and graphs in the three Ion Beam Analysis Handbooks that previously had to be manually looked up and read from were programed into Excel in handy lookup tables, or parameterized, for the case of the graphs, using rather simple exponential functions with different powers of the argument. The program then offers an extremely convenient way to calculate axial and planar half-angles and minimum yield or dechanneling probabilities, effects on half-angles of amorphous overlayers, accidental channeling probabilities for randomly oriented crystals or crystallites, and finally a way to automatically generate stereographic projections of axial and planar channeling half-angles. The program can generate these projections and calculate these probabilities for axes and [hkl] planes up to (555).

  6. TRP channels in kidney disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, Y.J.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Mammalian TRP channel proteins form six-transmembrane cation-permeable channels that may be grouped into six subfamilies on the basis of amino acid sequence homology (TRPC, TRPV, TRPM, TRPA, TRPP, and TRPML). Recent studies of TRP channels indicate that they are involved in numerous fundamental cell

  7. Intracellular ion channels and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eLeanza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Several types of channels play a role in the maintenance of ion homeostasis in subcellular organelles including endoplasmatic reticulum, nucleus, lysosome, endosome and mitochondria. Here we give a brief overview of the contribution of various mitochondrial and other organellar channels to cancer cell proliferation or death. Much attention is focused on channels involved in intracellular calcium signaling and on ion fluxes in the ATP-producing organelle mitochondria. Mitochondrial K+ channels (Ca2+-dependent BKCa and IKCa, ATP-dependent KATP, Kv1.3, two-pore TWIK-related Acid-Sensitive K+ channel-3 (TASK-3, Ca2+ uniporter MCU, Mg2+-permeable Mrs2, anion channels (voltage-dependent chloride channel VDAC, intracellular chloride channel CLIC and the Permeability Transition Pore (MPTP contribute importantly to the regulation of function in this organelle. Since mitochondria play a central role in apoptosis, modulation of their ion channels by pharmacological means may lead to death of cancer cells. The nuclear potassium channel Kv10.1 and the nuclear chloride channel CLIC4 as well as the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER-located inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 receptor, the ER-located Ca2+ depletion sensor STIM1 (stromal interaction molecule 1, a component of the store-operated Ca2+ channel and the ER-resident TRPM8 are also mentioned. Furthermore, pharmacological tools affecting organellar channels and modulating cancer cell survival are discussed. The channels described in this review are summarized on Figure 1. Overall, the view is emerging that intracellular ion channels may represent a promising target for cancer treatment.

  8. Planar channeling observed by radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delsarte, Guy

    1970-06-01

    Radiographies of crystals by means of channeled particles exhibit channeling patterns. The origin of these patterns is studied, The role played by planar channeling is demonstrated. It is shown that these patterns are local amplifications of the process generating the images of a crystal on the radiography. It is deduced that planar channeling plays a determining role in the formation of these images. An orientation chamber using transmitted planar channels is described. The orientation of very small grains in a polycrystal can be very easily obtained, (author) [fr

  9. Rapid Discovery of Continuous-Performance Compounds and Powernap Compounds Through Large-Scale Mutagenesis in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-22

    REPORT Rapid Discovery of Continuous-Performance Compounds and Powernap Compounds Through Large-Scale Mutagenesis in Drosophila 14. ABSTRACT 16...sustained wakefulness” (R. Benca-PI, N. Rattenborg-CoPI). The goal of both projects was to find ways to postpone temporarily the need for sleep ...Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS drosophila short sleeping phenotype Kv potassium channel migration Giulio Tononi, Ruth

  10. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS INHIBIT HUMAN AND RAT NEURONAL NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS EXPRESSED IN XENOPUS OOCYTES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript provides evidence to indicate that rats and humans are equally sensitive at the pharmacodynamic level to effects of volatile organic compounds.? This manuscript also presents novel data that provides a plausible mechanism, disruption of ion channel functi...

  11. Docking Studies of Phthalimide Pharmacophore as a Sodium Channel Blocker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Iman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Recently, phthalimide derivatives were designed based on ameltolide and thalidomide as they possess a similar degree of anticonvulsant potency due to their phenytoin-like profile. The ability of phthalimide pharmacophore to interact with neuronal voltage-dependent sodium channels was studied in the batrachotoxin affinity assay. Therefore, in the present study, a series of 19 compounds of phthalimide pharmacophore possessing a variety of substituents (NO2, NH2 , Me, Cl, COOH, MeO at 2-, 3-, and 4- position of the N-phenyl ring and N-(3-amino-2-methylphenyl succinimide, were subjected to docking studies in order to inhibit voltage-gated sodium channels.   Materials and Methods : Chemical structures of all compounds were designed using HYPERCHEM program and Conformational studies were performed through semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations method followed by PM3 force field. Total energy gradient calculated as a root mean square (RMS value, until the RMS gradient was 0.01 kcal mol-1. Among all energy minima conformers, the global minimum of compounds was used in docking calculations. Using a model of the open pore of Na channels, docking study was performed by AUTODOCK4.2 program. Results : Docking studies have revealed that these types of ligands interacted mainly with II-S6 residues of NaV1.2 through making hydrogen bonds and have additional hydrophobic interactions with domain I, II, III and IV in the channel's inner pore. Conclusion   : These computational studies have displayed that these compounds are capable of inhibiting Na channel, efficiently.

  12. Channels in tokamak reactor shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchipakin, O.L.

    1981-01-01

    The results of calculations of neutron transport through the channels in the tokamak reactor radiation shields, obtained by the Monte Carlo method and by the method of discrete ordinates, are considered. The given data show that the structural materials of the channel and that of the blanket and shields in the regions close to it are subjected to almost the same irradiation as the first wall and therefore they should satisfy the technical requirements. The radiation energy release in the injector channel wall, caused by neutron shooting, substantially depends on the channel dimensions. At the channel large diameter (0.7-10 m) this dependence noticeably decreases. The investigation of the effect of the injector channel cross section form on the neutron flux density through the channel, testifies to weak dependence of shooting radiation intensity on the form of the channel cross section. It is concluded that measures to decrease unfavourable effect of the channels on the safety of the power tokamak reactor operation and maintenance cause substantial changes in reactor design due to which the channel protection must be developed at first stages. The Monte Carlo method is recommended to be used for variant calculations and when calculating the neutron flux functionals in specific points of the system the discrete ordinate method is preferred [ru

  13. Channel Wall Landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The multiple landslides in this VIS image occur along a steep channel wall. Note the large impact crater in the context image. The formation of the crater may have initially weakened that area of the surface prior to channel formation. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.7, Longitude 324.8 East (35.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. Mathematical expression of discharge capacity of compound open ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, analytical methods, artificial neural network (ANN) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) techniques were utilised to estimate the discharge capacity of compound open channels (COC). To this end, related datasets were collected from literature. The results showed that the dividedchannel ...

  15. Mathematical expression of discharge capacity of compound open ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    splines (MARS) techniques were utilised to estimate the discharge capacity of compound open channels ... attempted to utilise these methods to estimate flow ..... After definition of model structure, training algorithm should be considered. Training here implies adjusting the values of weights and biases. This operation is ...

  16. A Micromechanical RF Channelizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul, Mehmet

    The power consumption of a radio generally goes as the number and strength of the RF signals it must process. In particular, a radio receiver would consume much less power if the signal presented to its electronics contained only the desired signal in a tiny percent bandwidth frequency channel, rather than the typical mix of signals containing unwanted energy outside the desired channel. Unfortunately, a lack of filters capable of selecting single channel bandwidths at RF forces the front-ends of contemporary receivers to accept unwanted signals, and thus, to operate with sub-optimal efficiency. This dissertation focuses on the degree to which capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators can achieve the aforementioned RF channel-selecting filters. It aims to first show theoretically that with appropriate scaling capacitive-gap transducers are strong enough to meet the needed coupling requirements; and second, to fully detail an architecture and design procedure needed to realize said filters. Finally, this dissertation provides an actual experimentally demonstrated RF channel-select filter designed using the developed procedures and confirming theoretical predictions. Specifically, this dissertation introduces four methods that make possible the design and fabrication of RF channel-select filters. The first of these introduces a small-signal equivalent circuit for parallel-plate capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators that employs negative capacitance to model the dependence of resonance frequency on electrical stiffness in a way that facilitates the analysis of micromechanical circuits loaded with arbitrary electrical impedances. The new circuit model not only correctly predicts the dependence of electrical stiffness on the impedances loading the input and output electrodes of parallel-plate capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical device, but does so in a visually intuitive way that identifies current drive as most appropriate for

  17. Coordination Compounds in Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 6. Coordination Compounds in Biology - The Chemistry of Vitamin B12 and Model Compounds. K Hussian Reddy. General Article Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 67-77 ...

  18. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  19. Block of neuronal chloride channels by tetraethylammonium ion derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, D Y; Blatz, A L

    1995-11-01

    The block by the symmetric tetraethylammonium (TEA) ion derivatives tetrapropylammonium (TPrA), tetrabutylammonium (TBA), and tetrapentylammonium (TPeA) ions of fast chloride channels in acutely dissociated rat cortical neurons was studied with the excised inside-out configuration of the patch-clamp technique. When applied to the intracellular membrane surface, all three of the quaternary ammonium compounds (QAs) induced the appearance of short-lived closed states in a manner consistent with a blocking mechanism where the blocker preferentially binds to the open kinetic state and completely blocks ion current through the channel. The drug must leave the channel before the channel can return to a closed state. The mechanism of block was studied using one-dimensional dwell-time analysis. Kinetic models were fit to distributions of open and closed interval durations using the Q-matrix approach. The blocking rate constants for all three of the QAs were similar with values of approximately 12-20 x 10(6) M-1s-1. The unblocking rates were dependent on the size or hydrophobicity of the QA with the smallest derivative, TPrA, inducing a blocked state with a mean lifetime of approximately 90 microseconds, while the most hydrophobic derivative, TPeA, induced a blocked state with a mean lifetime of approximately 1 ms. Thus, it appears as though quaternary ammonium ion block of these chloride channels is nearly identical to the block of many potassium channels by these compounds. This suggests that there must be structural similarities in the conduction pathway between anion and cation permeable channels.

  20. Growth inhibition of human cancer cells in vitro by T-type calcium channel blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Yeol; Park, Seong Jun; Park, Sung Jun; Lee, Min Joo; Rhim, Hyewhon; Seo, Seon Hee; Kim, Ki-Sun

    2006-10-01

    This paper describes the preliminary biological results that novel T-type calcium channel blockers inhibit the growth of human cancer cells by blocking calcium influx into the cell, based on unknown mechanism on the cell cycle responsible for cellular proliferation. Among the selected compounds from compound library, compound 9c (KYS05041) was identified to be nearly equipotent with Cisplatin against some human cancers in the micromolar range.

  1. The Channel Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Channel Tunnel is a 50.5 km-long rail tunnel beneath the English Channel at the Straits of Dover. It connects Dover, Kent in England with Calais, northern France. The undersea section of the tunnel is unsurpassed in length in the world. A proposal for a Channel tunnel was first put forward by a French engineer in 1802. In 1881, a first attempt was made at boring a tunnel from the English side; the work was halted after 800 m. Again in 1922, English workers started boring a tunnel, and advanced 120 m before it too was halted for political reasons. The most recent attempt was begun in 1987, and the tunnel was officially opened in 1994. At completion it was estimated that the project cost around $18 billion. It has been operating at a significant loss since its opening, despite trips by over 7 million passengers per year on the Eurostar train, and over 3 million vehicles per year. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The

  2. UPSO three channel fast photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S. K.; Sagar, R.; Joshi, S.; Ashoka, B. N.; Babu, V. C.; Seetha, S.; Girish, V.

    2001-09-01

    The design and performance of a modular portable three channel fast photometer is described. It can be disassembled as single individual channels such that the system can also be used as a single channel photometer. The instrument is put into operation since November 1999 on the 1-m UPSO telescope at Nainital. Since then, it is used extensively for the survey of roAp stars in the northern sky at UPSO. The discoveries made using this new photometer are also mentioned.

  3. Upgrading a marketing channels role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tišma-Borota Ankica

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the marketing mix instruments, marketing channels were usually behind other instruments (product, price and promotion. Many companies regarded marketing channels as something that was 'left' after more important strategies of price, product and promotion were created. In recent past, things have changed and marketing channels became more interesting for research. This change came as a result of change in global market functioning especially in competitive advantage, distributors' strength and increasing technology.

  4. Pull Promotions and Channel Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Eitan Gerstner; James D. Hess

    1995-01-01

    This paper recommends that manufacturers consider a pull price promotion as a coordination device in an independent channel of distribution. Uncoordinated decisions of both manufacturer and retailer to charge high prices can break down the effort to expand the market, resulting in losses to the channel as a whole. We show that manufacturers can enhance channel price coordination by designing pull price discounts that target price-conscious consumers. The increased price coordination improves ...

  5. Single-channel kinetics of BK (Slo1 channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan eGeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-channel kinetics has proven a powerful tool to reveal information about the gating mechanisms that control the opening and closing of ion channels. This introductory review focuses on the gating of large conductance Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK or Slo1 channels at the single-channel level. It starts with single-channel current records and progresses to presentation and analysis of single-channel data and the development of gating mechanisms in terms of discrete state Markov (DSM models. The DSM models are formulated in terms of the tetrameric modular structure of BK channels, consisting of a central transmembrane pore-gate domain (PGD attached to four surrounding transmembrane voltage sensing domains (VSD and a large intracellular cytosolic domain (CTD, also referred to as the gating ring. The modular structure and data analysis shows that the Ca2+ and voltage dependent gating considered separately can each be approximated by 10-state two-tiered models with 5 closed states on the upper tier and 5 open states on the lower tier. The modular structure and joint Ca2+ and voltage dependent gating are consistent with a 50 state two-tiered model with 25 closed states on the upper tier and 25 open states on the lower tier. Adding an additional tier of brief closed (flicker states to the 10-state or 50-state models improved the description of the gating. For fixed experimental conditions a channel would gate in only a subset of the potential number of states. The detected number of states and the correlations between adjacent interval durations are consistent with the tiered models. The examined models can account for the single-channel kinetics and the bursting behavior of gating. Ca2+ and voltage activate BK channels by predominantly increasing the effective opening rate of the channel with a smaller decrease in the effective closing rate. Ca2+ and depolarization thus activate by mainly destabilizing the closed states.

  6. Entrance channel effect in the incomplete fusion reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh B.P.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the effect of various entrance channel parameters on incomplete fusion strength and the reaction dynamics in 12C+159Tb system at energies ≈ 4-7MeV/A have been investigated by measuring the excitation functions of individual reaction channels. Experimental excitation functions have been analyzed in the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/pxn-channels via complete fusion of 12C with 159Tb, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of α-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones. This enhancement has been attributed due to incomplete fusion. For better insight into the underlying dynamics, fraction of incomplete fusion to the total fusion has been deduced and compared with 16O+159Tb and other nearby systems as a function of various entrance channel parameters. The fraction of incomplete fusion has been found to be sensitive to the projectile type, energy and entrance-channel mass-asymmetry.

  7. UMTS Common Channel Sensitivity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Rodrigues, António; Santos, Frederico

    2006-01-01

    and as such it is necessary that both channels be available across the cell radius. This requirement makes the choice of the transmission parameters a fundamental one. This paper presents a sensitivity analysis regarding the transmission parameters of two UMTS common channels: RACH and FACH. Optimization of these channels...... is performed and values for the key transmission parameters in both common channels are obtained. On RACH these parameters are the message to preamble offset, the initial SIR target and the preamble power step while on FACH it is the transmission power offset....

  8. Negative particle planar and axial channeling and channeling collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    While information exists on high energy negative particle channeling there has been little study of the challenges of negative particle bending and channeling collimation. Partly this is because negative dechanneling lengths are relatively much shorter. Electrons are not particularly useful for investigating negative particle channeling effects because their material interactions are dominated by channeling radiation. Another important factor is that the current central challenge in channeling collimation is the proton-proton Large Hadron Collider (LHC) where both beams are positive. On the other hand in the future the collimation question might reemerge for electon-positron or muon colliders. Dechanneling lengths increase at higher energies so that part of the negative particle experimental challenge diminishes. In the article different approaches to determining negative dechanneling lengths are reviewed. The more complicated case for axial channeling is also discussed. Muon channeling as a tool to investigate dechanneling is also discussed. While it is now possible to study muon channeling it will probably not illuminate the study of negative dechanneling.

  9. Compounding around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounding is universal in its prevalence. Variations in disease patterns, culture, and tradition; the role of government in health care; and the availability of essential equipment and required agents shape a compounding profile unique to each country worldwide. In the following reflections, pharmacists form Argentina, Belgium, Colombia, Germany, Puerto Rico, Spain, and the United States describe their experiences in the compounding setting unique to their practice and their nation. The unifying theme in their comments is the dedication of each contributor to enabling recovery and ensuring the good health of his or her clients.

  10. ZnO-channel thin-film transistors: Channel mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    ZnO-channel thin-film transistor (TFT) test structures are fabricated using a bottom-gate structure on thermally oxidized Si; ZnO is deposited via RF sputtering from an oxide target, with an unheated substrate. Electrical characteristics are evaluated, with particular attention given to the extraction and interpretation of transistor channel mobility. ZnO-channel TFT mobility exhibits severe deviation from that assumed by ideal TFT models; mobility extraction methodology must accordingly be recast so as to provide useful insight into device operation. Two mobility metrics, μ avg and μ inc , are developed and proposed as relevant tools in the characterization of nonideal TFTs. These mobility metrics are employed to characterize the ZnO-channel TFTs reported herein; values for μ inc as high as 25 cm2/V s are measured, comprising a substantial increase in ZnO-channel TFT mobility as compared to previously reported performance for such devices

  11. One-sided asymptotically mean stationary channels

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Francois

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an analysis of asymptotically mean stationary (AMS) communication channels. A hierarchy based on stability properties (stationarity, quasi-stationarity, recurrence and asymptotically mean stationarity) of channels is identified. Stationary channels are a subclass of quasi-stationary channels which are a subclass of recurrent AMS channels which are a subclass of AMS channels. These classes are proved to be stable under Markovian composition of channels (e.g., the cascade of...

  12. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

  13. MEA 86 Compound data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data file contains the full raw parameter data for the 86 compounds tested in the developmental MEA assay, as well as Area Under the Curve (AUC) calculations...

  14. Hexavalent Chromium Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about chromium, exposure to which can increase your risk of lung cancer and cancer of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. Hexavalent chromium compounds have been used as corrosion inhibitors in a wide variety of products and processes.

  15. Compound composite odontoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, G; Bavle, Radhika M; Singh, Manish Kumar; Prasad, Sahana N

    2016-01-01

    The term odontoma has been used as a descriptor for any tumor of odontogenic origin. It is a growth in which both epithelial and mesenchymal cells exhibits complete differentiation. Odontomas are considered as hamartomas rather than true neoplasm. They are usually discovered on routine radiographic examination. Odontomas, according to the World Health Organization, are classified into complex odontoma and compound odontomas. The present paper reports a case of compound composite odontomas.

  16. Endocrine disrupting compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, I B; Christensen, P; Dantzer, V

    2001-01-01

    processes, and exposure during critical periods of prenatal development might affect reproductive performance over several generations. Alkylphenols and their metabolites are lipophilic substances exerting apparent estrogenic action in in vitro and in vivo testing systems. With the widespread industrial use...... or embryo models for the evaluation of possible consequences of human exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds is discussed. Furthermore, possible consequences of exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds for the embryo transfer industry are addressed....

  17. Phenolic compounds in flaxseed

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsson, Pernilla

    2004-01-01

    The dietary lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), present in high concentrations in flaxseed, and its metabolites enterolactone and enterodiol are thought to decrease the risk of hormone dependent cancers, cardiovascular disease and other “welfare” diseases. Flaxseed also contains other biologically active phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids. The understanding of the nature of these compounds is crucial for their possible exploitation in drugs and functional foods. Until the m...

  18. An improved channel assessment scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    A source node in a multihop network determines whether to transmit in a channel based on whether the channel is occupied by a packet transmission with a large number of relays; whether the source node is in the data tones back-off zone; and the source node is in the busy tone back-off zone.

  19. Perceived quality of channel zapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, R.E.; Ahmed, K.; Brunnström, K.

    2006-01-01

    The end user experience of service quality is critical to the success of a service provider's IPTV deployment program. A key element involved in validating IPTV quality of experience (QoE) is how quickly and reliably users can change TV channels, often referred to as channel zapping. Currently there

  20. Channel Communication and Reconfigurable Hardware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Karelse, F.

    2000-01-01

    Many applications can be structured as a set of processes or threads that communicate via channels. These threads can be executed on various platforms (e.g. general purpose CPU, DSP, FPGA, etc). In our research we apply channels as a basic communication mechanism between threads in a reconfigurable

  1. Hydraulic jumps in a channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonn, D.; Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of hydraulic jumps with flow predominantly in one direction, created either by confining the flow to a narrow channel with parallel walls or by providing an inflow in the form of a narrow sheet. In the channel flow, we find a linear height profile upstream of the jump as expected...

  2. Defect Distributions in Channeling Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Henrik; Sigmund, P.

    1965-01-01

    A simple collision model allows to calculate energy losses of perfectly channeled particles. The maximum energy loss is related in a simple way to the displacement energy of lattice atoms perpendicular to the channel. From that, one obtains rather definite predictions on the possibility...

  3. Voltage-gated Proton Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoursey, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels, HV1, have vaulted from the realm of the esoteric into the forefront of a central question facing ion channel biophysicists, namely the mechanism by which voltage-dependent gating occurs. This transformation is the result of several factors. Identification of the gene in 2006 revealed that proton channels are homologues of the voltage-sensing domain of most other voltage-gated ion channels. Unique, or at least eccentric, properties of proton channels include dimeric architecture with dual conduction pathways, perfect proton selectivity, a single-channel conductance ~103 smaller than most ion channels, voltage-dependent gating that is strongly modulated by the pH gradient, ΔpH, and potent inhibition by Zn2+ (in many species) but an absence of other potent inhibitors. The recent identification of HV1 in three unicellular marine plankton species has dramatically expanded the phylogenetic family tree. Interest in proton channels in their own right has increased as important physiological roles have been identified in many cells. Proton channels trigger the bioluminescent flash of dinoflagellates, facilitate calcification by coccolithophores, regulate pH-dependent processes in eggs and sperm during fertilization, secrete acid to control the pH of airway fluids, facilitate histamine secretion by basophils, and play a signaling role in facilitating B-cell receptor mediated responses in B lymphocytes. The most elaborate and best-established functions occur in phagocytes, where proton channels optimize the activity of NADPH oxidase, an important producer of reactive oxygen species. Proton efflux mediated by HV1 balances the charge translocated across the membrane by electrons through NADPH oxidase, minimizes changes in cytoplasmic and phagosomal pH, limits osmotic swelling of the phagosome, and provides substrate H+ for the production of H2O2 and HOCl, reactive oxygen species crucial to killing pathogens. PMID:23798303

  4. Effect of beta-adrenoceptor blockers on human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Delphine S; Klaerke, Dan A; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2005-01-01

    -1H-inden-4-yl)oxy]-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]-2-butanol hydrochloride) blocked the HERG channel with similar affinity, whereas the beta1-receptor antagonists metoprolol and atenolol showed weak effects. Further, the four compounds blocked HERG channels expressed in a mammalian HEK293 cell line...

  5. Amazon floodplain channels regulate channel-floodplain water exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, P. D.; Baugh, C.; Trigg, M.

    2017-12-01

    We examine the role of floodplain channels in regulating the exchange of water between the Amazon main stem and its extensive floodplains using a combination of field survey, remote sensing and numerical modelling for a 30,000 km2 area around the confluence of the Solimões and Purus rivers. From Landsat imagery we identified 1762 individual floodplain channel reaches with total length of nearly 9300 line km that range in width from 900m to 20m. Using a boat survey we measured width and depth along 509 line km of floodplain channels in 45 separate reaches and used these data to develop geomorphic relationships between width and depth. This enabled reconstruction of the depth of all other channels in the Landsat survey to an RMSE of 2.5m. We then constructed a 2D hydraulic model of this site which included all 9300km of floodplain channels as sub-grid scale features using a recently developed version of the LISFLOOD-FP code. The DEM for the model was derived from a version of the SRTM Digital Elevation Model that was processed to remove vegetation artefacts. The model was run at 270m resolution over the entire 30,000 km2 domain for the period from 2002-2009. Simulations were run with and without floodplain channels to examine the impact of these features on floodplain flow dynamics and storage. Simulated floodplain channel hydraulics were validated against a combination of in-situ and remotely sensed data. Our results show that approximately 100 km3 of water is exchanged between the channel and the floodplain during a typical annual cycle, and 8.5±2.1% of mainstem flows is routed through the floodplain. The overall effect of floodplains channels was to increase the duration of connections between the Amazon River and the floodplain. Inclusion of floodplain channels in the model increased inundation volume by 7.3% - 11.3% at high water, and decreased it at low water by 4.0% - 16.6%, with the range in these estimates due to potential errors in floodplain channel

  6. NALCN ion channels have alternative selectivity filters resembling calcium channels or sodium channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senatore, A.; Monteil, A.; van Minnen, J.; Smit, A.B.; Spafford, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    NALCN is a member of the family of ion channels with four homologous, repeat domains that include voltage-gated calcium and sodium channels. NALCN is a highly conserved gene from simple, extant multicellular organisms without nervous systems such as sponges and placozoans and mostly remains a single

  7. Potential Antifreeze Compounds in Present-Day Martian Seepage Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiin-Shuh Jean

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Is the recently found seepage groundwater on Mars pure H2O, or mixed with salts and other antifreeze compounds? Given the surface conditions of Mars, it is unlikely that pure water could either exist in its liquid state or have shaped Mars¡¦ fluid erosional landforms (gullies, channels, and valley networks. More likely is that Mars¡¦ seepage groundwater contains antifreeze and salt compounds that resist freezing and suppress evaporation. This model better accounts for Mars¡¦ enigmatic surface erosion. This paper suggests 17 antifreeze compounds potentially present in Martian seepage groundwater. Given their liquid state and physical properties, triethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol, and 1,3-propylene glycol are advanced as the most likely candidate compounds. This paper also explores how a mixing of glycol or glycerol with salts in the Martian seepage groundwater may have lowered water¡¦s freezing point and raised its boiling point, with consequences that created fluid gully and channel erosion. Ethylene glycol and related hydrocarbon compounds have been identified in Martian and other interstellar meteorites. We suggest that these compounds and their proportions to water be included for detection in future explorations.

  8. Evolutionary conservation and changes in insect TRP channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tominaga Makoto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TRP (Transient Receptor Potential channels respond to diverse stimuli and thus function as the primary integrators of varied sensory information. They are also activated by various compounds and secondary messengers to mediate cell-cell interactions as well as to detect changes in the local environment. Their physiological roles have been primarily characterized only in mice and fruit flies, and evolutionary studies are limited. To understand the evolution of insect TRP channels and the mechanisms of integrating sensory inputs in insects, we have identified and compared TRP channel genes in Drosophila melanogaster, Bombyx mori, Tribolium castaneum, Apis mellifera, Nasonia vitripennis, and Pediculus humanus genomes as part of genome sequencing efforts. Results All the insects examined have 2 TRPV, 1 TRPN, 1 TRPM, 3 TRPC, and 1 TRPML subfamily members, demonstrating that these channels have the ancient origins in insects. The common pattern also suggests that the mechanisms for detecting mechanical and visual stimuli and maintaining lysosomal functions may be evolutionarily well conserved in insects. However, a TRPP channel, the most ancient TRP channel, is missing in B. mori, A. mellifera, and N. vitripennis. Although P. humanus and D. melanogaster contain 4 TRPA subfamily members, the other insects have 5 TRPA subfamily members. T. castaneum, A. mellifera, and N. vitripennis contain TRPA5 channels, which have been specifically retained or gained in Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. Furthermore, TRPA1, which functions for thermotaxis in Drosophila, is missing in A. mellifera and N. vitripennis; however, they have other Hymenoptera-specific TRPA channels (AmHsTRPA and NvHsTRPA. NvHsTRPA expressed in HEK293 cells is activated by temperature increase, demonstrating that HsTRPAs function as novel thermal sensors in Hymenoptera. Conclusion The total number of insect TRP family members is 13-14, approximately half that of mammalian TRP

  9. Substrate channeling in proline metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arentson, Benjamin W.; Sanyal, Nikhilesh; Becker, Donald F.

    2012-01-01

    Proline metabolism is an important pathway that has relevance in several cellular functions such as redox balance, apoptosis, and cell survival. Results from different groups have indicated that substrate channeling of proline metabolic intermediates may be a critical mechanism. One intermediate is pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C), which upon hydrolysis opens to glutamic semialdehyde (GSA). Recent structural and kinetic evidence indicate substrate channeling of P5C/GSA occurs in the proline catabolic pathway between the proline dehydrogenase and P5C dehydrogenase active sites of bifunctional proline utilization A (PutA). Substrate channeling in PutA is proposed to facilitate the hydrolysis of P5C to GSA which is unfavorable at physiological pH. The second intermediate, gamma-glutamyl phosphate, is part of the proline biosynthetic pathway and is extremely labile. Substrate channeling of gamma-glutamyl phosphate is thought to be necessary to protect it from bulk solvent. Because of the unfavorable equilibrium of P5C/GSA and the reactivity of gamma-glutamyl phosphate, substrate channeling likely improves the efficiency of proline metabolism. Here, we outline general strategies for testing substrate channeling and review the evidence for channeling in proline metabolism. PMID:22201749

  10. Melt Channel Formation in Paraffin With Applications to Lava Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, J. A.; Mills, C. J.

    2005-12-01

    We present the results from laboratory experiments designed to explore channel formation caused by instabilities in fluid flow, and to provide a simple experimental basis to facilitate the extension of lava channel theory. Kelemen et. al. [1995] reported on a series of experiments that explored channel formation resulting from fluid instabilities caused by the ``reactive infiltration instability'' (RII). However, the material used in portions of their experiments was undesirable because of a poorly suited rheology. Therefore, our experiments were initiated as an extension of those earlier experiments, using instead a material with more robust rheological properties. The material chosen for this series of experiments is a paraffin with a freezing temperature of 4°C, which is transparent when liquid and opaque-white when frozen. The paraffin is pumped at a constant and controlled rate into a narrow gap between two circular plates, both with a diameter of ~51cm. The gap is open along the circumference of the plates, allowing the paraffin to flow out of the gap once it reaches the edge of the plate. The upper plate is constructed of Plexiglas to allow observation of the wax below, and it has a hole in the center through which the paraffin is pumped. The lower plate is constructed of aluminum, painted black, and kept at -5°C by circulating coolant through a reservoir below the it. As the paraffin, which is kept at 20°C before being pumped into the gap, flows over the cold lower plate, it begins to freeze and eventually fills up the gap between the plates. A single channel then forms, surrounded by solid paraffin, and the liquid being pumped in is transported via this channel to the edge of the plate. This is a stable state for all but the lowest flow rates attempted and verifies the results from the earlier work exploring the RII. We conducted experiments at different flows rates from 270mL/min to <30mL/min, and recorded the dimensions of the steady state channel

  11. ACE Strategy with Virtual Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tichy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implant is an electronic device, which can mediate hearing sensations to profoundly deaf people. Contemporary cochlear implants are sophisticated electronic devices; however, their performance could still be improved. This paper describes an experiment we made in that direction: additional 21 virtual channels were implemented by sequential stimulation of adjacent intracochlear electrodes, and the ACE strategy with virtual channels (ACEv, Advanced Combination Encoder strategy with virtual channels for the Nucleus® 24 Cochlear Implant System was created and verified in a clinical test with four patients.

  12. Change over from compound nuclear fission to quasi-fission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya P.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Fission fragment mass distribution has been measured in two reactions to populate compound nucleus 246Bk. Both the target nuclei were deformed. However, entrance channel mass asymmetry of the two systems was on the either side of the Businaro Gallone mass asymmetry parameter. Near the Coulomb barrier, at similar excitation energies, the width of the fission fragment mass distribution was found to be significantly different for the 14N+232Th reaction compared to the 11B+235U reaction. The entrance channel mass asymmetry was found to play a significant role in deciding the fusion process.

  13. Computer simulations of channel meandering and the formation of point bars: Linking channel dynamics to the preserved stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, T.; Covault, J. A.; Pyrcz, M.; Sullivan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Meandering rivers are probably one of the most recognizable geomorphic features on earth. As they meander across alluvial and delta plains, channels migrate laterally and develop point bars, splays, levees and other geomorphic and sedimentary features that compose substantial portions of the fill within many sedimentary basins. These basins can include hydrocarbon producing fields. Therefore, a good understanding of the processes of meandering channels and their associated deposits is critical for exploiting these reservoirs in the subsurface. In the past couple of decades, significant progress has been made in our understanding of the morphodynamics of channel meandering. Basic fluid dynamics and sediment transport (Ikeda and Parker, 1981; Howard, 1992) has shown that many characteristic features of meandering rivers, such as the meandering wavelength, growth rate and downstream migration rate, can be predicted quantitatively. As a result, a number of variations and improvement of the theory have emerged (e.g., Blondeaux and Seminara, 1985; Parker and Andrews, 1985, 1986; and Sun et al., 2001a, b).The main improvements include the recognition of so called "bar-bend" interactions, where the development of bars on the channel bed and their interactions with the channel bend is recognized as a primary cause for meandering channels to develop greater complexity than the classic goose-neck meander bend shapes, such as compound bend. Recently, Sun and others have shown that the spatial patterns of width variations in meandering channels can be explained by an extrinsic periodic flow variations coupled with the intrinsic bend instability dynamics. In contrast to the significant improvement of our understanding of channel meandering, little work has been done to link the geomorphic features of meandering channels to the geometry and heterogeneity of the deposits they form and ultimately preserves. A computer simulation model based on the work of Sun and others (1996, 2001

  14. Fluorine-18 labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleijn, J.P. de

    1978-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis deals with the problems involved in the adaption of reactor-produced fluorine-18 to the synthesis of 18 F-labelled organic fluorine compounds. Several 18 F-labelling reagents were prepared and successfully applied. The limitations to the synthetic possibilities of reactor-produced fluoride- 18 become manifest in the last part of the thesis. An application to the synthesis of labelled aliphatic fluoro amino acids has appeared to be unsuccessful as yet, although some other synthetic approaches can be indicated. Seven journal articles (for which see the availability note) are used to compose the four chapters and three appendices. The connecting text gives a survey of known 18 F-compounds and methods for preparing such compounds. (Auth.)

  15. Interactions of local anesthetics with voltage-gated Na+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, C; Wang, G K

    2004-09-01

    Voltage-gated Na+ channels are dynamic transmembrane proteins responsible for the rising phase of the action potential in excitable membranes. Local anesthetics (LAs) and structurally related antiarrhythmic and anticonvulsant compounds target specific sites in voltage-gated Na+ channels to block Na+ currents, thus reducing excitability in neuronal, cardiac, or central nervous tissue. A high-affinity LA block is produced by binding to open and inactivated states of Na+ channels rather than to resting states and suggests a binding site that converts from a low- to a high-affinity conformation during gating. Recent findings using site-directed mutagenesis suggest that multiple S6 segments together form an LA binding site within the Na+ channel. While the selectivity filter may form the more extracellular-located part of this binding site, the role of the fast inactivation gate in LA binding has not yet been resolved. The receptor of the neurotoxin batrachotoxin (BTX) is adjacent to or even overlaps with the LA binding site. The close proximity of the LA and BTX binding sites to residues critical for inactivation, together with gating transitions through S6 segments, might explain the strong impact of LAs and BTX on inactivation of voltage-gated Na+ channels and might help elucidate the mechanisms underlying voltage- and frequency-dependent LA block.

  16. Medicinal gold compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parish, R.V.; Cottrill, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    A major use of gold compounds in the pharmaceutical industry is for anti-arthritic agents. The disease itself is not understood and little is known about the way in which the drugs act, but detailed pictures of the distribution of gold in the body are available, and some of the relevant biochemistry is beginning to emerge. The purpose of this article is to give a survey of the types of compounds presently employed in medicine, of the distribution of gold in the body which results from their use, and of some relevant chemistry. Emphasis is placed on results obtained in the last few years

  17. Compound semiconductor device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    This book provides one of the most rigorous treatments of compound semiconductor device physics yet published. A complete understanding of modern devices requires a working knowledge of low-dimensional physics, the use of statistical methods, and the use of one-, two-, and three-dimensional analytical and numerical analysis techniques. With its systematic and detailed**discussion of these topics, this book is ideal for both the researcher and the student. Although the emphasis of this text is on compound semiconductor devices, many of the principles discussed will also be useful to those inter

  18. Sodium channels in planar lipid bilayers. Channel gating kinetics of purified sodium channels modified by batrachotoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Single channel currents of sodium channels purified from rat brain and reconstituted into planar lipid bilayers were recorded. The kinetics of channel gating were investigated in the presence of batrachotoxin to eliminate inactivation and an analysis was conducted on membranes with a single active channel at any given time. Channel opening is favored by depolarization and is strongly voltage dependent. Probability density analysis of dwell times in the closed and open states of the channel indicates the occurrence of one open state and several distinct closed states in the voltage (V) range-120 mV less than or equal to V less than or equal to +120 mV. For V less than or equal to 0, the transition rates between stages are exponentially dependent on the applied voltage, as described in mouse neuroblastoma cells (Huang, L. M., N. Moran, and G. Ehrenstein. 1984. Biophysical Journal. 45:313- 322). In contrast, for V greater than or equal to 0, the transition rates are virtually voltage independent. Autocorrelation analysis (Labarca, P., J. Rice, D. Fredkin, and M. Montal. 1985. Biophysical Journal. 47:469-478) shows that there is no correlation in the durations of successive open or closing events. Several kinetic schemes that are consistent with the experimental data are considered. This approach may provide information about the mechanism underlying the voltage dependence of channel activation. PMID:2426388

  19. Diterpene Lipo-Alkaloids with Selective Activities on Cardiac K+ Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Tivadar; Borcsa, Botond; Orvos, Péter; Tálosi, László; Hohmann, Judit; Csupor, Dezső

    2017-11-01

    Aconitum diterpene alkaloids are known for their remarkable toxicity, which is due to their effect on ion channels. Activation of voltage-gated Na + channels is the major cause of their cardiotoxicity, however, influence on K + channels may also play a role in the overall effect.Here we report the synthesis of a series of lipo-alkaloids, including four new compounds, based on the 14-benzoylaconine structure, which is the core of a vast number of diterpene alkaloids naturally occurring in Aconitum species. The activities of these compounds were measured in vitro on K + ion channels using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Structure-activity analysis was carried out based on the data of 51 compounds (32 genuine diterpene alkaloids, 5 fatty acids, and 14 lipo-alkaloids). Depending on their substitution, these compounds exert different activities on GIRK (G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channel) and hERG (human ether-à-go-go-related gene) channels. Fatty acids and diterpene alkaloids show lower activity on the GIRK channel than lipo-alkaloids. Lipo-alkaloids also have less pronounced hERG inhibitory activity compared to the cardiotoxic aconitine. Considering the GIRK/hERG selectivity as an indicator of perspective therapeutic applicability, lipo-alkaloids are significantly more selective than the genuine diterpene alkaloids. 14-Benzoyl-8- O -eicosa-8 Z ,11 Z ,14 Z -trienoate and 14-benzoyl-8- O -eicosa-11 Z ,14 Z ,17 Z -trienoate are strong and selective inhibitors of GIRK channels, thus, they are promising subjects for further studies to develop diterpene alkaloid-based antiarrhythmic pharmacons. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Reporting sodium channel activity using calcium flux: pharmacological promiscuity of cardiac Nav1.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongkang; Zou, Beiyan; Du, Fang; Xu, Kaiping; Li, Min

    2015-02-01

    Voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels are essential for membrane excitability and represent therapeutic targets for treating human diseases. Recent reports suggest that these channels, e.g., Nav1.3 and Nav1.5, are inhibited by multiple structurally distinctive small molecule drugs. These studies give reason to wonder whether these drugs collectively target a single site or multiple sites in manifesting such pharmacological promiscuity. We thus investigate the pharmacological profile of Nav1.5 through systemic analysis of its sensitivity to diverse compound collections. Here, we report a dual-color fluorescent method that exploits a customized Nav1.5 [calcium permeable Nav channel, subtype 5 (SoCal5)] with engineered-enhanced calcium permeability. SoCal5 retains wild-type (WT) Nav1.5 pharmacological profiles. WT SoCal5 and SoCal5 with the local anesthetics binding site mutated (F1760A) could be expressed in separate cells, each with a different-colored genetically encoded calcium sensor, which allows a simultaneous report of compound activity and site dependence. The pharmacological profile of SoCal5 reveals a hit rate (>50% inhibition) of around 13% at 10 μM, comparable to that of hERG. The channel activity is susceptible to blockage by known drugs and structurally diverse compounds. The broad inhibition profile is highly dependent on the F1760 residue in the inner cavity, which is a residue conserved among all nine subtypes of Nav channels. Both promiscuity and dependence on F1760 seen in Nav1.5 were replicated in Nav1.4. Our evidence of a broad inhibition profile of Nav channels suggests a need to consider off-target effects on Nav channels. The site-dependent promiscuity forms a foundation to better understand Nav channels and compound interactions. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  1. Multi-channel Kondo necklace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazekas, P.; Kee Haeyoung.

    1993-06-01

    A multi-channel generalization of Doniach's Kondo necklace model is formulated, and its phase diagram studied in the mean-field approximation. Our intention is to introduce the possible simplest model which displays some of the features expected from the overscreened Kondo lattice. The N conduction electron channels are represented by N sets of pseudospins τ J , j = 1 1,..., N which are all antiferromagnetically coupled to a periodic array of modul S = 1/2 spins. Exploiting permutation symmetry in the channel index j allows us to write down the self-consistency equation for general N. For N > 2, we find that the critical temperature is rising with increasing Kondo interaction; we interpret this effect by pointing out that the Kondo coupling creates the composite pseudospin objects which undergo an ordering transition. The relevance of our findings to the underlying fermionic multi-channel problem is discussed. (author). 33 refs, 1 fig

  2. FMCG companies specific distribution channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Barin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution includes all activities undertaken by the producer, alone or in cooperation, since the end of the final finished products or services until they are in possession of consumers. The distribution consists of the following major components: distribution channels or marketing channels, which together form a distribution network; logistics o rphysical distribution. In order to effective achieve, distribution of goods requires an amount of activities and operational processes related to transit of goods from producer to consumer, the best conditions, using existing distribution channels and logistics system. One of the essential functions of a distribution is performing acts of sale, through which, with the actual movement of goods, their change of ownership takes place, that the successive transfer of ownership from producer to consumer. This is an itinerary in the economic cycle of goods, called the distribution channel.

  3. Potassium Channels in Neurofbromatosis-1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Mingkui

    2006-01-01

    .... We were the first to investigate potential mechanisms of cognitive impairment in NF-1 at the molecular level involving potassium channels, and demonstrated a possible mechanism for the learning deficits seen in NF1...

  4. Compound Radar Approach for Breast Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Dallan; Sarafianou, Mantalena; Craddock, Ian J

    2017-01-01

    Multistatic radar apertures record scattering at a number of receivers when the target is illuminated by a single transmitter, providing more scattering information than its monostatic counterpart per transmission angle. This paper considers the well-known problem of detecting tumor targets within breast phantoms using multistatic radar. To accurately image potentially cancerous targets size within the breast, a significant number of multistatic channels are required in order to adequately calibrate-out unwanted skin reflections, increase the immunity to clutter, and increase the dynamic range of a breast radar imaging system. However, increasing the density of antennas within a physical array is inevitably limited by the geometry of the antenna elements designed to operate with biological tissues at microwave frequencies. A novel compound imaging approach is presented to overcome these physical constraints and improve the imaging capabilities of a multistatic radar imaging modality for breast scanning applications. The number of transmit-receive (TX-RX) paths available for imaging are increased by performing a number of breast scans with varying array positions. A skin calibration method is presented to reduce the influence of skin reflections from each channel. Calibrated signals are applied to receive a beamforming method, compounding the data from each scan to produce a microwave radar breast profile. The proposed imaging method is evaluated with experimental data obtained from constructed phantoms of varying complexity, skin contour asymmetries, and challenging tumor positions and sizes. For each imaging scenario outlined in this study, the proposed compound imaging technique improves skin calibration, clearly detects small targets, and substantially reduces the level of undesirable clutter within the profile.

  5. Mini-review: Molecular mechanisms of antifouling compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2013-04-01

    Various antifouling (AF) coatings have been developed to protect submerged surfaces by deterring the settlement of the colonizing stages of fouling organisms. A review of the literature shows that effective AF compounds with specific targets are ones often considered non-toxic. Such compounds act variously on ion channels, quorum sensing systems, neurotransmitters, production/release of adhesive, and specific enzymes that regulate energy production or primary metabolism. In contrast, AF compounds with general targets may or may not act through toxic mechanisms. These compounds affect a variety of biological activities including algal photosynthesis, energy production, stress responses, genotoxic damage, immunosuppressed protein expression, oxidation, neurotransmission, surface chemistry, the formation of biofilms, and adhesive production/release. Among all the targets, adhesive production/release is the most common, possibly due to a more extensive research effort in this area. Overall, the specific molecular targets and the molecular mechanisms of most AF compounds have not been identified. Thus, the information available is insufficient to draw firm conclusions about the types of molecular targets to be used as sensitive biomarkers for future design and screening of compounds with AF potential. In this review, the relevant advantages and disadvantages of the molecular tools available for studying the molecular targets of AF compounds are highlighted briefly and the molecular mechanisms of the AF compounds, which are largely a source of speculation in the literature, are discussed. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  6. Marketing channel behaviour and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Margarida

    2000-01-01

    Thesis submitted to University of Manchester for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Faculty of Business Administration. A major aim of this study is to offer a relatively comprehensive picture of marketing channel behaviour and performance. Given the statistical difficulties in testing a very large, comprehensive model to achieve this aim, two separate but overlapping models are proposed. One model specifically addresses behaviour in marketing channels, while the other integrates k...

  7. Learning the MMSE Channel Estimator

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, David; Wiese, Thomas; Utschick, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    We present a method for estimating conditionally Gaussian random vectors with random covariance matrices, which uses techniques from the field of machine learning. Such models are typical in communication systems, where the covariance matrix of the channel vector depends on random parameters, e.g., angles of propagation paths. If the covariance matrices exhibit certain Toeplitz and shift-invariance structures, the complexity of the MMSE channel estimator can be reduced to O(M log M) floating ...

  8. Eight channel telephone telemetry system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    A portable, indirectly coupled telephone system is reported which transmits/to a central receiving site eight channels of EEG data of sufficient fidelity for screening and/or limited diagnostic use. The system requires no electrical connection to the telephone at the transmitter or at the receiver and is compatible with common EEG recording practice for real-time recording. It accepts 8 input channels simultaneously with one telephone transmitter and one telephone receiver operates from standard power sources.

  9. Coordination Compounds in Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coordination Compounds in Biology equatorial ligand, there are two axial ligands in most B. 12 derivatives. Derivatives of B12. The various derivatives of B. 12 result most commonly from changes in the axial ligands bound to cobalt. Often it is convenient to draw a greatly abbreviated structure for a B. 12 molecule using a ...

  10. Polymeric coordination compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Metal coordination polymers with one- and two-dimensional structures are of current interest due to their possible relevance to material science 1. In continuation of our previous studies 2,3, several new polymeric compounds are reported here. Among the complexes of silver with aminomethyl pyridine (amp) ...

  11. NATURAL POLYACETYLENE COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Nasukhova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the review of the initial stage of researches of natural polyacetylene compounds is resulted. The high reactionary ability leading to fast oxidation and degradation of these compounds, especially at influence of Uf-light, oxygen of air, pH and other factors, has caused the serious difficulties connected with an establishment of structure and studying of their physical and chemical properties. Therefore the greatest quantity of works of this stage is connected with studying of essential oils of plants from families Apiaceae, Araliaceae, Asteraceae, Campanulaceae, Olacaceae, Pittosporaceae and Santalaceae where have been found out, basically, diacetylene compounds. About development of physical and chemical methods of the analysis of possibility of similar researches have considerably extended. More than 2000 polyacetylenes are known today, from them more than 1100 are found out in plants fam. Asteraceae. Revolution in the field of molecular biology has allowed to study processes of biosynthesis of these compounds intensively.

  12. Phosphorus-nitrogen compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 120; Issue 4. Phosphorus-nitrogen compounds: Part 15. Synthesis, anisochronism and the relationship between crystallographic and spectral data of monotopic spiro-crypta phosphazenes. Nuran Asmafi̇li̇z Eli̇f Ece İl Ter Zeynel Kiliç Tuncer Hökelek Ertan Şahin.

  13. Toxicology of perfluorinated compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Thorsten [Hessian State Laboratory, Wiesbaden (Germany); Mattern, Daniela; Brunn, Hubertus [Hessian State Laboratory, Giessen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Perfluorinated compounds [PFCs] have found a wide use in industrial products and processes and in a vast array of consumer products. PFCs are molecules made up of carbon chains to which fluorine atoms are bound. Due to the strength of the carbon/fluorine bond, the molecules are chemically very stable and are highly resistant to biological degradation; therefore, they belong to a class of compounds that tend to persist in the environment. These compounds can bioaccumulate and also undergo biomagnification. Within the class of PFC chemicals, perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorosulphonic acid are generally considered reference substances. Meanwhile, PFCs can be detected almost ubiquitously, e.g., in water, plants, different kinds of foodstuffs, in animals such as fish, birds, in mammals, as well as in human breast milk and blood. PFCs are proposed as a new class of 'persistent organic pollutants'. Numerous publications allude to the negative effects of PFCs on human health. The following review describes both external and internal exposures to PFCs, the toxicokinetics (uptake, distribution, metabolism, excretion), and the toxicodynamics (acute toxicity, subacute and subchronic toxicities, chronic toxicity including carcinogenesis, genotoxicity and epigenetic effects, reproductive and developmental toxicities, neurotoxicity, effects on the endocrine system, immunotoxicity and potential modes of action, combinational effects, and epidemiological studies on perfluorinated compounds). (orig.)

  14. Selenium-75-labelled foliate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A saturation method to analyze a foliate is presented; it uses competitive reaction of the compound to be measured and of a radioactive-labelled version of this compound with a reagent specific to this compound present in insufficient quantity to combine with the whole of the compound and its labelled version, separation of the bound compound from its non-bound homologue and measurement of the radioactivity concentration in the bound compound, the non-bound compound or both. The radioactive isotope used in the labelled foliate is selenium 75 [fr

  15. NALCN ion channels have alternative selectivity filters resembling calcium channels or sodium channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Senatore

    Full Text Available NALCN is a member of the family of ion channels with four homologous, repeat domains that include voltage-gated calcium and sodium channels. NALCN is a highly conserved gene from simple, extant multicellular organisms without nervous systems such as sponges and placozoans and mostly remains a single gene compared to the calcium and sodium channels which diversified into twenty genes in humans. The single NALCN gene has alternatively-spliced exons at exons 15 or exon 31 that splices in novel selectivity filter residues that resemble calcium channels (EEEE or sodium channels (EKEE or EEKE. NALCN channels with alternative calcium, (EEEE and sodium, (EKEE or EEKE -selective pores are conserved in simple bilaterally symmetrical animals like flatworms to non-chordate deuterostomes. The single NALCN gene is limited as a sodium channel with a lysine (K-containing pore in vertebrates, but originally NALCN was a calcium-like channel, and evolved to operate as both a calcium channel and sodium channel for different roles in many invertebrates. Expression patterns of NALCN-EKEE in pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis suggest roles for NALCN in secretion, with an abundant expression in brain, and an up-regulation in secretory organs of sexually-mature adults such as albumen gland and prostate. NALCN-EEEE is equally abundant as NALCN-EKEE in snails, but is greater expressed in heart and other muscle tissue, and 50% less expressed in the brain than NALCN-EKEE. Transfected snail NALCN-EEEE and NALCN-EKEE channel isoforms express in HEK-293T cells. We were not able to distinguish potential NALCN currents from background, non-selective leak conductances in HEK293T cells. Native leak currents without expressing NALCN genes in HEK-293T cells are NMDG(+ impermeant and blockable with 10 µM Gd(3+ ions and are indistinguishable from the hallmark currents ascribed to mammalian NALCN currents expressed in vitro by Lu et al. in Cell. 2007 Apr 20;129(2:371-83.

  16. Targeting nociceptive transient receptor potential channels to treat chronic pain: current state of the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Magdalene M; Szallasi, Arpad

    2017-09-19

    Control of chronic pain is frequently inadequate and/or associated with intolerable adverse effects, prompting a frantic search for new therapeutics and new therapeutic targets. Nearly two decades of preclinical and clinical research supports the involvement of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in temperature perception, nociception and sensitization. Although there has been considerable excitement around the therapeutic potential of this channel family since the cloning and identification of TRPV1 cation channels as the capsaicin receptor more than 20 years ago, only modulators of a few channels have been tested clinically. TRPV1 channel antagonists have suffered from side effects related to the channel's role in temperature sensation; however, high dose formulations of capsaicin have reached the market and shown therapeutic utility. A number of potent, small molecule antagonists of TRPA1 channels have recently advanced into clinical trials for the treatment of inflammatory and neuropathic pain, and TRPM8 antagonists are following closely behind for cold allodynia. TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPM2 and TRPM3 channels have also been of significant interest. This review discusses the preclinical promise and status of novel analgesic agents that target TRP channels and the challenges that these compounds may face in development and clinical practice. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Planar channeling in superlattices: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, J.A.; Picraux, S.T.; Allen, W.R.; Chu, W.K.

    1988-01-01

    The well-known continuum model theory for planar channeled energetic particles in perfect crystals is extended to layered crystalline structures and applied to superlattices. In a strained-layer structure, the planar channels with normals which are not perpendicular to the growth direction change their direction at each interface, and this dramatically influences the channeling behavior. The governing equation of motion for a planar channeled ion in a strained-layer superlattice with equal layer thicknesses is a one degree of freedom nonlinear oscillator which is periodically forced with a sequence of δ functions. These δ functions, which are of equal spacing and amplitude with alternating sign, represent the tilts at each of the interfaces. Thus upon matching an effective channeled particle wavelength, corresponding to a natural period of the nonlinear oscillator, to the period of the strained-layer superlattice, corresponding to the periodic forcing, strong resonance effects are expected. The condition of one effective wavelength per period corresponds to a rapid dechanneling at a well-defined depth (catastrophic dechanneling), whereas two wavelengths per period corresponds to no enhanced dechanneling after the first one or two layers (resonance channeling). A phase plane analysis is used to characterize the channeled particle motion. Detailed calculations using the Moliere continuum potential are compared with our previously described modified harmonic model, and new results are presented for the phase plane evolution, as well as the dechanneling as a function of depth, incident angle, energy, and layer thickness. General scaling laws are developed and nearly universal curves are obtained for the dechanneling versus depth under catastrophic dechanneling

  18. The Natural Plant Product Rottlerin Activates Kv7.1/KCNE1 Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Matschke

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Acquired as well as inherited channelopathies are disorders that are caused by altered ion channel function. A family of channels whose malfunction is associated with different channelopathies is the Kv7 K+ channel family; and restoration of normal Kv7 channel function by small molecule modulators is a promising approach for treatment of these often fatal diseases. Methods: Here, we show the modulation of Kv7 channels by the natural compound Rottlerin heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and on iPSC cardiomyocytes overexpressing Kv7.1 channels. Results: We show that currents carried by Kv7.1 (EC50 = 1.48 μM, Kv7.1/KCNE1 (EC50 = 4.9 μM, and Kv7.4 (EC50 = 0.148 μM are strongly enhanced by the compound, whereas Kv7.2, Kv7.2/Kv7.3, and Kv7.5 are not sensitive to Rottlerin. Studies on Kv7.1/KCNE1 mutants and in silico modelling indicate that Rottlerin binds to the R-L3-activator site. Rottlerin mediated activation of Kv7.1/KCNE1 channels might be a promising approach in long QT syndrome. As a proof of concept, we show that Rottlerin shortens cardiac repolarisation in iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes expressing Kv7.1.Conclusion: Rottlerin or an optimized derivative holds a potential as QT interval correcting drug.

  19. Volume of the space of qubit-qubit channels and state transformations under random quantum channels

    OpenAIRE

    Lovas, Attila; Andai, Attila

    2017-01-01

    The simplest building blocks for quantum computations are the qubit-qubit quantum channels. In this paper, we analyze the structure of these channels via their Choi representation. The restriction of a quantum channel to the space of classical states (i.e. probability distributions) is called the underlying classical channel. The structure of quantum channels over a fixed classical channel is studied, the volume of general and unital qubit channels with respect to the Lebesgue measure is comp...

  20. Synthetic Aperture Compound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk

    Medical ultrasound imaging is used for many purposes, e.g. for localizing and classifying cysts, lesions, and other processes. Almost any mass is first observed using B-mode imaging and later classified using e.g. color flow, strain, or attenuation imaging. It is therefore important that the B......, it is demonstrated through theoretical considerations that the compound effect achieved is close to a theoretical maximum for the amount of compounding attainable and using a -pitch convex array transducer, the first in-vivo images are created. The computational demands for an implementation are massive...... and the limiting factor is the amount of memory IO resources available. An equally high demand for memory throughput is found in the computer gaming industry, where a large part of the processing takes place on the graphics processing unit (GPU). Using the GPU, a framework for synthetic aperture imaging...

  1. Compound semiconductor device modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Compound semiconductor devices form the foundation of solid-state microwave and optoelectronic technologies used in many modern communication systems. In common with their low frequency counterparts, these devices are often represented using equivalent circuit models, but it is often necessary to resort to physical models in order to gain insight into the detailed operation of compound semiconductor devices. Many of the earliest physical models were indeed developed to understand the 'unusual' phenomena which occur at high frequencies. Such was the case with the Gunn and IMPATI diodes, which led to an increased interest in using numerical simulation methods. Contemporary devices often have feature sizes so small that they no longer operate within the familiar traditional framework, and hot electron or even quantum­ mechanical models are required. The need for accurate and efficient models suitable for computer aided design has increased with the demand for a wider range of integrated devices for operation at...

  2. Hydrogen in compound semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, E.E.

    1993-05-01

    Progress in the understanding of hydrogen and its interactions in III/V and II/VI compound semiconductors is reviewed. Donor, acceptor and deep level passivation is well established in III/V compounds based on electrical measurements and on spectroscopic studies. The hydrogen donor levels in GaAs and GaP are estimated to lie near E{sub v}+0.5 eV and E{sub v}+0.3 eV, respectively. Arsenic acceptors have been passivated by hydrogen in CdTe and the very first nitrogen-hydrogen local vibrational model spectra in ZnSe have been reported. This long awaited result may lead to an explanation for the poor activation of nitrogen acceptors in ZnSe grown by techniques which involve high concentrations of hydrogen.

  3. Pharmacological consequences of the coexpression of BK channel α and auxiliary β subunits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Yolima P.; Granados, Sara T.; Latorre, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Coded by a single gene (Slo1, KCM) and activated by depolarizing potentials and by a rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration, the large conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ channel (BK) is unique among the superfamily of K+ channels. BK channels are tetramers characterized by a pore-forming α subunit containing seven transmembrane segments (instead of the six found in voltage-dependent K+ channels) and a large C terminus composed of two regulators of K+ conductance domains (RCK domains), where the Ca2+-binding sites reside. BK channels can be associated with accessory β subunits and, although different BK modulatory mechanisms have been described, greater interest has recently been placed on the role that the β subunits may play in the modulation of BK channel gating due to its physiological importance. Four β subunits have currently been identified (i.e., β1, β2, β3, and β4) and despite the fact that they all share the same topology, it has been shown that every β subunit has a specific tissue distribution and that they modify channel kinetics as well as their pharmacological properties and the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity of the α subunit in different ways. Additionally, different studies have shown that natural, endogenous, and synthetic compounds can modulate BK channels through β subunits. Considering the importance of these channels in different pathological conditions, such as hypertension and neurological disorders, this review focuses on the mechanisms by which these compounds modulate the biophysical properties of BK channels through the regulation of β subunits, as well as their potential therapeutic uses for diseases such as those mentioned above. PMID:25346693

  4. Antagonism of Lidocaine Inhibition by Open-Channel Blockers That Generate Resurgent Na Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bant, Jason S.; Aman, Teresa K.; Raman, Indira M.

    2013-01-01

    Na channels that generate resurgent current express an intracellular endogenous open-channel blocking protein, whose rapid binding upon depolarization and unbinding upon repolarization minimizes fast and slow inactivation. Na channels also bind exogenous compounds, such as lidocaine, which functionally stabilize inactivation. Like the endogenous blocking protein, these use-dependent inhibitors bind most effectively at depolarized potentials, raising the question of how lidocaine-like compounds affect neurons with resurgent Na current. We therefore recorded lidocaine inhibition of voltage-clamped, tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na currents in mouse Purkinje neurons, which express a native blocking protein, and in mouse hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons with and without a peptide from the cytoplasmic tail of NaVβ4 (the β4 peptide), which mimics endogenous open-channel block. To control channel states during drug exposure, lidocaine was applied with rapid-solution exchange techniques during steps to specific voltages. Inhibition of Na currents by lidocaine was diminished by either the β4 peptide or the native blocking protein. In peptide-free CA3 cells, prolonging channel opening with a site-3 toxin, anemone toxin II, reduced lidocaine inhibition; this effect was largely occluded by open-channel blockers, suggesting that lidocaine binding is favored by inactivation but prevented by open-channel block. In constant 100 μM lidocaine, current-clamped Purkinje cells continued to fire spontaneously. Similarly, the β4 peptide reduced lidocaine-dependent suppression of spiking in CA3 neurons in slices. Thus, the open-channel blocking protein responsible for resurgent current acts as a natural antagonist of lidocaine. Neurons with resurgent current may therefore be less susceptible to use-dependent Na channel inhibitors used as local anesthetic, antiarrhythmic, and anticonvulsant drugs. PMID:23486968

  5. Process for compound transformation

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-12-29

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of using a catalytic system to chemically transform a compound (e.g., a hydrocarbon). In an embodiment, the method does not employ grafting the catalyst prior to catalysis. In particular, embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a process of hydrocarbon (e.g., C1 to C20 hydrocarbon) metathesis (e.g., alkane, olefin, or alkyne metathesis) transformation, where the process can be conducted without employing grafting prior to catalysis.

  6. Polymeric coordination compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Ce(dipic)3Sr(dipicH2)(OH2)3·5H2O (4) (dipicH2 – dipicolinic acid) exhibits 1-D polymeric chain structure, built up of alternating nine coordinate Ce and eight coordinate. Sr polyhedra. The analogous Ce–Ba compound (5) exhibits a polymeric chain built up of nine coordinate Ba units only, arranged in a hexagonal lattice.

  7. Bronzes and relative compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehlls, A.

    1987-01-01

    Preparation and the crystal structure of bronzes based on complex oxides of transition (Ti, V, Nb, Ta, Mo, W, Re, Ru and etc.) and alkali metals, as well as oxides of some other elements (Sr, In, La and etc.) are described. Peculiarities of formation of the structure of tetragonal, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium bronzes and their analogs depending on the chemical composition of these compounds are considered

  8. 47 CFR 76.57 - Channel positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channel positioning. 76.57 Section 76.57... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.57 Channel positioning. (a) At... choice of channel position when it requests carriage. Channel positioning requests from local commercial...

  9. Lithofacies characterization and channel development in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and multistory channel complex. The different stages of channel development can be considered in terms of low efficiency and high efficiency flows, which are related to slope equilibrium. Keywords: Outcrop, slope, channel development, channel architecture, process model, lowstand. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol.

  10. Information transfer through quantum channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmann, D.

    2007-01-01

    This PhD thesis represents work done between Aug. 2003 and Dec. 2006 in Reinhard F. Werner's quantum information theory group at Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, and Artur Ekert's Centre for Quantum Computation at the University of Cambridge. My thesis falls into the field of abstract quantum information theory. This work investigates both fundamental properties of quantum channels and their asymptotic capacities for classical as well as quantum information transfer. Stinespring's theorem is the basic structure theorem for quantum channels. It implies that every quantum channel can be represented as a unitary evolution on an enlarged system. In Ch. 3 we present a continuity theorem for Stinespring's representation: two quantum channels are similar if and only if it is possible to find unitary implementations that are likewise similar, with dimension-independent norm bounds. The continuity theorem allows to derive a formulation of the information-disturbance tradeoff in terms of quantum channels, and a continuity estimate for the no-broadcasting principle. In Ch. 4 we then apply the continuity theorem to give a strengthened no-go proof for quantum bit commitment, an important cryptographic primitive. This result also provides a natural characterization of those protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unconditional security, and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present a new such protocol whose security relies on decoherence in the receiver's lab. Ch. 5 reviews the capacities of quantum channels for the transfer of both classical and quantum information, and investigates several variations in the notion of channel capacity. Memory effects are then investigated in detail in Ch. 6. We advertise a model which is sufficiently general to encompass all causal automata: every quantum process in which the outputs up to any given time t do not depend on the inputs at times t'>t can be represented as a concatenated memory channel. We then explain how

  11. Information transfer through quantum channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretschmann, D.

    2007-03-12

    This PhD thesis represents work done between Aug. 2003 and Dec. 2006 in Reinhard F. Werner's quantum information theory group at Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, and Artur Ekert's Centre for Quantum Computation at the University of Cambridge. My thesis falls into the field of abstract quantum information theory. This work investigates both fundamental properties of quantum channels and their asymptotic capacities for classical as well as quantum information transfer. Stinespring's theorem is the basic structure theorem for quantum channels. It implies that every quantum channel can be represented as a unitary evolution on an enlarged system. In Ch. 3 we present a continuity theorem for Stinespring's representation: two quantum channels are similar if and only if it is possible to find unitary implementations that are likewise similar, with dimension-independent norm bounds. The continuity theorem allows to derive a formulation of the information-disturbance tradeoff in terms of quantum channels, and a continuity estimate for the no-broadcasting principle. In Ch. 4 we then apply the continuity theorem to give a strengthened no-go proof for quantum bit commitment, an important cryptographic primitive. This result also provides a natural characterization of those protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unconditional security, and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present a new such protocol whose security relies on decoherence in the receiver's lab. Ch. 5 reviews the capacities of quantum channels for the transfer of both classical and quantum information, and investigates several variations in the notion of channel capacity. Memory effects are then investigated in detail in Ch. 6. We advertise a model which is sufficiently general to encompass all causal automata: every quantum process in which the outputs up to any given time t do not depend on the inputs at times t'>t can be represented as a concatenated memory

  12. Antifungal compounds from cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishido, Tânia K; Humisto, Anu; Jokela, Jouni; Liu, Liwei; Wahlsten, Matti; Tamrakar, Anisha; Fewer, David P; Permi, Perttu; Andreote, Ana P D; Fiore, Marli F; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2015-04-13

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders.

  13. Optimality of private quantum channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouda, Jan; Ziman, Mario

    2007-01-01

    We addressed the question of optimality of private quantum channels. We have shown that the Shannon entropy of the classical key necessary to securely transfer the quantum information is lower bounded by the entropy exchange of the private quantum channel E and the von Neumann entropy of the ciphertext state ρ (0) . Based on these bounds we have shown that decomposition of private quantum channels into orthogonal unitaries (if they exist) optimizes the entropy. For non-ancillary single-qubit PQC we have derived the optimal entropy for the arbitrary set of plaintexts. In particular, we have shown that except when the (closure of the) set of plaintexts contains all states, one bit key is sufficient. We characterized and analysed all the possible single-qubit private quantum channels for an arbitrary set of plaintexts. For the set of plaintexts consisting of all qubit states we have characterized all possible approximate private quantum channels and we have derived the relation between the security parameter and the corresponding minimal entropy

  14. The minimum yield in channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uguzzoni, A.; Gaertner, K.; Lulli, G.; Andersen, J.U.

    2000-01-01

    A first estimate of the minimum yield was obtained from Lindhard's theory, with the assumption of a statistical equilibrium in the transverse phase-space of channeled particles guided by a continuum axial potential. However, computer simulations have shown that this estimate should be corrected by a fairly large factor, C (approximately equal to 2.5), called the Barrett factor. We have shown earlier that the concept of a statistical equilibrium can be applied to understand this result, with the introduction of a constraint in phase-space due to planar channeling of axially channeled particles. Here we present an extended test of these ideas on the basis of computer simulation of the trajectories of 2 MeV α particles in Si. In particular, the gradual trend towards a full statistical equilibrium is studied. We also discuss the introduction of this modification of standard channeling theory into descriptions of the multiple scattering of channeled particles (dechanneling) by a master equation and show that the calculated minimum yields are in very good agreement with the results of a full computer simulation

  15. Identification and characterization of a bacterial hydrosulphide ion channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czyzewski, Bryan K.; Wang, Da-Neng (NYUSM)

    2012-10-26

    The hydrosulphide ion (HS{sup -}) and its undissociated form, hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S), which are believed to have been critical to the origin of life on Earth, remain important in physiology and cellular signalling. As a major metabolite in anaerobic bacterial growth, hydrogen sulphide is a product of both assimilatory and dissimilatory sulphate reduction. These pathways can reduce various oxidized sulphur compounds including sulphate, sulphite and thiosulphate. The dissimilatory sulphate reduction pathway uses this molecule as the terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration, in which process it produces excess amounts of H{sub 2}S. The reduction of sulphite is a key intermediate step in all sulphate reduction pathways. In Clostridium and Salmonella, an inducible sulphite reductase is directly linked to the regeneration of NAD{sup +}, which has been suggested to have a role in energy production and growth, as well as in the detoxification of sulphite. Above a certain concentration threshold, both H{sub 2}S and HS{sup -} inhibit cell growth by binding the metal centres of enzymes and cytochrome oxidase, necessitating a release mechanism for the export of this toxic metabolite from the cell. Here we report the identification of a hydrosulphide ion channel in the pathogen Clostridium difficile through a combination of genetic, biochemical and functional approaches. The HS{sup -} channel is a member of the formate/nitrite transport family, in which about 50 hydrosulphide ion channels form a third subfamily alongside those for formate (FocA) and for nitrite (NirC). The hydrosulphide ion channel is permeable to formate and nitrite as well as to HS{sup -} ions. Such polyspecificity can be explained by the conserved ion selectivity filter observed in the channel's crystal structure. The channel has a low open probability and is tightly regulated, to avoid decoupling of the membrane proton gradient.

  16. Channels of Monetary Transmission in the CIS

    OpenAIRE

    Jamilov, Rustam

    2012-01-01

    Twenty years have passed since the breakdown of the Soviet Union, and it is time to draw a concluding line for monetary policy efficiency in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). We propose a comprehensive treatment of the subject for nine members of the CIS for the period of 2000-2009. Four transmission channels are investigated: interest rate channel, exchange rate channel, bank lending channel, and monetary channel. First, we design a VAR framework for each CIS member-state and inv...

  17. Modification of single Na+ channels by batrachotoxin.

    OpenAIRE

    Quandt, F N; Narahashi, T

    1982-01-01

    The modifications in the properties of voltage-gated Na+ channels caused by batrachotoxin were studied by using the patch clamp method for measuring single channel currents from excised membranes of N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells. The toxin-modified open state of the Na+ channel has a decreased conductance in comparison to that of normal Na+ channels. The lifetime of the modified open state is drastically prolonged, and channels now continue to open during a maintained depolarization so that the...

  18. Insect sodium channels and insecticide resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Ke

    2007-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials (i.e., electrical impulses) in excitable cells. Although most of our knowledge about sodium channels is derived from decades of studies of mammalian isoforms, research on insect sodium channels is revealing both common and unique aspects of sodium channel biology. In particular, our understanding of the molecular dynamics and pharmacology of insect sodium channels has advanced greatly in recent...

  19. Pharmacological modulation of SK3 channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, M; Jespersen, Thomas; Angelo, K

    2001-01-01

    Small-conductance, calcium-activated K+ channels (SK channels) are voltage-insensitive channels that have been identified molecularly within the last few years. As SK channels play a fundamental role in most excitable cells and participate in afterhyperpolarization (AHP) and spike-frequency adapt...... at concentrations of 3 microM and above. Amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressive widely used clinically, inhibits SK3 channels with an IC50 of 39.1 +/- 10 microM (n=6)....

  20. Axial channeling of uttrarelativistic electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telegin, V.I.; Khokonov, M.Kh. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1982-07-01

    The dynamics of motion of ultrarelativistic electrons under axial channeling conditions is investigated. The analysis is based on the solution of the kinetic equation obtained recently by Beloshitsky and Kumakhov. The particle dechanneling function is investigated as depending on the type of a crystal, particle energy and angle of entrance into the single crystal. It is found that for most of the beam the major diffusion mechanism is scattering by electrons. It is shown that an optimal depth range exists for which the fraction of channeled particles sharply increases at the expense of the quasi-channeled particles. In a number of cases the dechanneling length for crystals with high atomic numbers may be greater than that of light elements.

  1. Axial channeling of uttrarelativistic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegin, V.I.; Khokonov, M.Kh.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamics of motion of ultrarelativistic electrons under axial channeling conditions is investigated. The analysis is based on the solution of the kinetic equation obtained recently by Beloshitsky and Kumakhov. The particle dechanneling function is investigated as depending on the type of a crystal, particle energy and angle of entrance into the single crystal. It is found that for most of the beam the major diffusion mechanism is scattering by electrons. It is shown that an optimal depth range exists for which the fraction of channeled particles sharply increases at the expense of the quasi-channeled particles. In a number of cases the dechanneling length for crystals with high atomic numbers may be greater than that of light elements

  2. Evaluate interference in digital channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarian, F.; Sumida, J.

    1985-01-01

    Any future mobile satellite service (MSS) which is to provide simultaneous mobile communications for a large number of users will have to make very efficient use of the spectrum. As the spectrum available for an MSS is limited, the system's channels should be packed as closely together as possible, with minimum-width guard bands. In addition the employment of frequency reuse schemes is an important factor. Difficulties regarding these solutions are related to the introduction of interference in the link. A balance must be achieved between the competing aims of spectrum conservation and low interference. While the interference phenomenon in narrowband FM voice channels is reasonably well understood, very little effort, however, has been devoted to the problem in digital radios. Attention is given to work, which illuminates the effects of cochannel and adjacent channel interference on digital FM (FSK) radios.

  3. Pannexin-1 channels in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, Mark S; Whyte-Fagundes, Paige; Zoidl, Georg; Carlen, Peter L

    2017-09-05

    Pannexin-1 (Panx1) expression is raised in several animal seizure models and in resected human epileptic brain tissue, suggesting relevance to epilepsy. Multiple factors that are characteristic of seizures are thought to regulate Panx1 channel opening, including elevated levels of extracellular K + . Panx1, when open, 1) releases ATP, glutamate, and other metabolites into the extracellular medium, and 2) may depolarize the membrane due to a channel reversal potential around 0mV. Resultant ATP release from stimulated Panx1 can activate purinergic receptors, including P2X7 receptors. Glutamate and other signaling molecules released by Panx1 opening may have both excitatory and inhibitory actions on seizure generation. This review examines the critical and complex roles of Panx1 channels in epilepsy, which could provide a basis for future therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Antenna for Ultrawideband Channel Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhekov, Stanislav Stefanov; Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    A novel compact antenna for ultrawideband channel sounding is presented. The antenna is composed of a symmetrical biconical antenna modified by adding a cylinder and a ring to each cone. A feeding coaxial cable is employed during the simulations in order to evaluate and reduce its impact on the a......A novel compact antenna for ultrawideband channel sounding is presented. The antenna is composed of a symmetrical biconical antenna modified by adding a cylinder and a ring to each cone. A feeding coaxial cable is employed during the simulations in order to evaluate and reduce its impact...

  5. The Orange Juice Distribution Channels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the agents in the European marketing channels of the FCOJ, focusing on the final juice consumers, retailing, food ... Marketing channels are defined as “a set of interdependent organisations involved in the process of making a .... Mexico - 8.0 8.0 8.3 8.0 8.0 - -. Venezuela - 7.9 8.0 7.5 7.3 7.1 - -. Taiwan - 4.4 4.9 6.2 6.6 7.0 - -.

  6. The inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir1.1: development of functional assays to identify and characterize channel inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, John P; Priest, Birgit T; Solly, Kelli; Bailey, Timothy; Brochu, Richard M; Liu, Chou J; Kohler, Martin G; Kiss, Laszlo; Alonso-Galicia, Magdalena; Tang, Haifeng; Pasternak, Alexander; Kaczorowski, Gregory J; Garcia, Maria L

    2012-10-01

    The renal outer medullary potassium (ROMK) channel is a member of the inwardly rectifying family of potassium (Kir) channels. ROMK (Kir1.1) is predominantly expressed in kidney where it plays a major role in the salt reabsorption process. Loss-of-function mutations in the human Kir1.1 channel are associated with antenatal Bartter's syndrome type II, a life-threatening salt and water balance disorder. Heterozygous carriers of Kir1.1 mutations associated with antenatal Bartter's syndrome have reduced blood pressure and a decreased risk of developing hypertension by age 60. These data suggest that Kir1.1 inhibitors could represent novel diuretics for the treatment of hypertension. Because little is known about the molecular pharmacology of Kir1.1 channels, assays that provide a robust, reliable readout of channel activity-while operating in high-capacity mode-are needed. In the present study, we describe high-capacity, 384- and 1,536-well plate, functional thallium flux, and IonWorks electrophysiology assays for the Kir1.1 channel that fulfill these criteria. In addition, 96-well (86)Rb(+) flux assays were established that can operate in the presence of 100% serum, and can provide an indication of the effect of a serum shift on compound potencies. The ability to grow Madin-Darby canine kidney cells expressing Kir1.1 in Transwell supports provides a polarized cell system that can be used to study the mechanism of Kir1.1 inhibition by different agents. All these functional Kir1.1 assays together can play an important role in supporting different aspects of drug development efforts during lead identification and/or optimization.

  7. Antiarrhythmic effect of either negative modulation or blockade of small conductance Ca2+ activated K+ channels on ventricular fibrillation in guinea pig Langendorff perfused heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Jonas Goldin; Kirchhoff, Jeppe Egedal; Sheykhzade, Majid

    2015-01-01

    channels are predominantly coming into play during arrhythmogenic events where intracellular concentration of Ca is increased. During ventricular fibrillation a surge of [Ca]i has the potential to bind to and open SK channels. To obtain mechanistic insight into possible roles of SK channels during...... ventricular fibrillation we conducted experiments with a SK channel pore blocker (ICA) and a negatively allosteric modulator (NS8395) in a Langendorff perfused heart model. Both compounds increased the action potential duration (APD), effective refractory period (ERP) and Wenckebach cycle length (WCL......) to comparable extents. Despite these similarities, the SK channel modulator was found to revert and prevent ventricular fibrillation (VF) more efficiently than the SK channel pore blocker. In conclusion, either negative allosteric modulation of the SK channel with NS8593 is more favorable than pure channel...

  8. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  9. Toxicology of alkylmercury compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschner, Michael; Onishchenko, Natalia; Ceccatelli, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Methylmercury is a global pollutant and potent neurotoxin whose abundance in the food chain mandates additional studies on the consequences and mechanisms of its toxicity to the central nervous system. Formulation of our new hypotheses was predicated on our appreciation for (a) the remarkable affinity of mercurials for the anionic form of sulfhydryl (-SH) groups, and (b) the essential role of thiols in protein biochemistry. The present chapter addresses pathways to human exposure of various mercury compounds, highlighting their neurotoxicity and potential involvement in neurotoxic injury and neurodegenerative changes, both in the developing and senescent brain. Mechanisms that trigger these effects are discussed in detail.

  10. Flavour Compounds in Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravasio, Davide Antonio

    from the catabolism of amino acids. These compounds are produced by the Ehrlich pathway. The conversion of amino acids into aroma alcohols is accomplished by three enzymatic steps: i) a transamination, ii) a decarboxylation and iii) a dehydration reaction. The transaminase and decarboxylase enzymes...... and 2-phenylacetate. The last part of this thesis presents the initial characterization of twenty non-conventional yeasts (NCY) and their potential application in fermentative processes. These strains have been selected as they have been previously isolated from various fermented food sources...

  11. A transient receptor potential channel expressed in taste receptor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Cristian A; Huang, Liquan; Rong, Minqing; Kozak, J Ashot; Preuss, Axel K; Zhang, Hailin; Max, Marianna; Margolskee, Robert F

    2002-11-01

    We used differential screening of cDNAs from individual taste receptor cells to identify candidate taste transduction elements in mice. Among the differentially expressed clones, one encoded Trpm5, a member of the mammalian family of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. We found Trpm5 to be expressed in a restricted manner, with particularly high levels in taste tissue. In taste cells, Trpm5 was coexpressed with taste-signaling molecules such as alpha-gustducin, Ggamma13, phospholipase C-beta2 (PLC-beta2) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type III (IP3R3). Our heterologous expression studies of Trpm5 indicate that it functions as a cationic channel that is gated when internal calcium stores are depleted. Trpm5 may be responsible for capacitative calcium entry in taste receptor cells that respond to bitter and/or sweet compounds.

  12. Chemistry of nitrogen oxide compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, A.

    1987-01-01

    The structure of nitrogen oxide compounds including: nitrates and nitrites, nitrosyl compounds of transition metals, rare earth, transition metal and actinide complexes, where nitrite- and nitrate ions are presented as ligands, is considered. Oxonitrate compounds, e.g. RbUO 2 (NO 3 ) 3 are also considered. The values of lengths and angles of bonds for some of these compounds are presented, volatility of Cd, Be and other metal nitrates are also discussed

  13. Making sense with TRP channels: store-operated calcium entry and the ion channel Trpm5 in taste receptor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Cristian A; Margolskee, Robert F; Kinnamon, Sue C; Ogura, Tatsuya

    2003-01-01

    The sense of taste plays a critical role in the life and nutritional status of organisms. During the last decade, several molecules involved in taste detection and transduction have been identified, providing a better understanding of the molecular physiology of taste receptor cells. However, a comprehensive catalogue of the taste receptor cell signaling machinery is still unavailable. We have recently described the occurrence of calcium signaling mechanisms in taste receptor cells via apparent store-operated channels and identified Trpm5, a novel candidate taste transduction element belonging to the mammalian family of transient receptor potential channels. Trpm5 is expressed in a tissue-restricted manner, with high levels in gustatory tissue. In taste cells, Trpm5 is co-expressed with taste-signaling molecules such as alpha-gustducin, Ggamma(13), phospholipase C beta(2) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type III. Biophysical studies of Trpm5 heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes and mammalian CHO-K1 cells indicate that it functions as a store-operated channel that mediates capacitative calcium entry. The role of store-operated channels and Trpm5 in capacitative calcium entry in taste receptor cells in response to bitter compounds is discussed.

  14. Cell-based potassium ion channel screening using the FluxOR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beacham, Daniel W; Blackmer, Trillium; O' Grady, Michael; Hanson, George T

    2010-04-01

    FluxOR technology is a cell-based assay used for high-throughput screening measurements of potassium channel activity. Using thallium influx as a surrogate indicator of potassium ion channel activity, the FluxOR Potassium Ion Channel Assay is based on the activation of a novel fluorescent dye. This indicator reports channel activity with a large fluorogenic response and is proportional to the number of open potassium channels on the cell, making it extremely useful for studying K(+) channel targets. In contrast to BTC-AM ester, FluxOR dye is roughly 10-fold more thallium sensitive, requiring much lower thallium for a larger signal window. This also means that the assay is carried out in a physiological, normal-chloride saline. In this article, the authors describe how they used BacMam gene delivery to express Kv7.2 and 7.3 (KCNQ), Kir2.1, or Kv11.1 (hERG) potassium ion channels in U2-OS cells. Using these cells, they ran the FluxOR assay to identify and characterize channel-specific inhibitory compounds discovered within the library (Tocriscreen Mini 1200 and Sigma Sodium/Potassium Modulators Ligand set). The FluxOR assay was able to identify several known specific inhibitors of Kv7.2/7.3 or hERG, highlighting its potential to identify novel and more efficacious small-molecule modulators.

  15. Activity of Palythoa caribaeorum Venom on Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Mammalian Superior Cervical Ganglion Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano-Pérez, Fernando; Castro, Héctor; Arenas, Isabel; García, David E; González-Muñoz, Ricardo; Arreguín-Espinosa, Roberto

    2016-05-05

    The Zoanthids are an order of cnidarians whose venoms and toxins have been poorly studied. Palythoa caribaeorum is a zoanthid commonly found around the Mexican coastline. In this study, we tested the activity of P. caribaeorum venom on voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV1.7), voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV2.2), the A-type transient outward (IA) and delayed rectifier (IDR) currents of KV channels of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons of the rat. These results showed that the venom reversibly delays the inactivation process of voltage-gated sodium channels and inhibits voltage-gated calcium and potassium channels in this mammalian model. The compounds responsible for these effects seem to be low molecular weight peptides. Together, these results provide evidence for the potential use of zoanthids as a novel source of cnidarian toxins active on voltage-gated ion channels.

  16. Activity of Palythoa caribaeorum Venom on Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Mammalian Superior Cervical Ganglion Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lazcano-Pérez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Zoanthids are an order of cnidarians whose venoms and toxins have been poorly studied. Palythoa caribaeorum is a zoanthid commonly found around the Mexican coastline. In this study, we tested the activity of P. caribaeorum venom on voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV1.7, voltage-gated calcium channel (CaV2.2, the A-type transient outward (IA and delayed rectifier (IDR currents of KV channels of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG neurons of the rat. These results showed that the venom reversibly delays the inactivation process of voltage-gated sodium channels and inhibits voltage-gated calcium and potassium channels in this mammalian model. The compounds responsible for these effects seem to be low molecular weight peptides. Together, these results provide evidence for the potential use of zoanthids as a novel source of cnidarian toxins active on voltage-gated ion channels.

  17. Visualizing multi-channel networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antemijczuk, Paweł; Magiera, Marta; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a visualization to illustrate social interactions, built from multiple distinct channels of communication. The visualization displays a summary of dense personal information in a compact graphical notation. The starting point is an abstract drawing of a spider’s web. Below...

  18. Sorting out river channel patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Rivers self-organize their pattern/planform through feedbacks between bars, channels, floodplain and vegetation, which emerge as a result of the basic spatial sorting process of wash load sediment and bed sediment. The balance between floodplain formation and destruction determines the width and

  19. Sales promotion and channel coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, B.; Soethoudt, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Consumer sales promotions are usually the result of the decisions of two marketing channel parties, the manufacturer and the retailer. In making these decisions, each party normally follows its own interest: i.e. maximizes its own profit. Unfortunately, this results in a suboptimal outcome for the

  20. Single top t-channel

    CERN Document Server

    Faltermann, Nils

    2017-01-01

    The production of single top quarks allows to study the interplay of top quark physics and the electroweak sector of the standard model. Deviations from predictions can be a hint for physics beyond the standard model. The t-channel is the dominant production mode for single top quarks at the LHC. This talk presents the latest measurements from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations.

  1. Improved Ion-Channel Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Jay; White, Victor; Dougherty, Dennis; Maurer, Joshua

    2004-01-01

    An effort is underway to develop improved biosensors of a type based on ion channels in biomimetic membranes. These sensors are microfabricated from silicon and other materials compatible with silicon. As described, these sensors offer a number of advantages over prior sensors of this type.

  2. Frequency effects in compound production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bien, H.; Levelt, W.J.M.; Baayen, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments investigated the role of frequency information in compound production by independently varying the frequencies of the first and second constituent as well as the frequency of the compound itself. Pairs of Dutch noun-noun compounds were selected such that there was a maximal contrast

  3. Molecular modeling of inorganic compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Comba, Peter; Hambley, Trevor W; Martin, Bodo

    2009-01-01

    ... mechanics to inorganic and coordination compounds. Initially, simple metal complexes were modeled, but recently the field has been extended to include organometallic compounds, catalysis and the interaction of metal ions with biological macromolecules. The application of molecular mechanics to coordination compounds is complicated by the numbe...

  4. Catalytic properties of niobium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, K.; Iizuka, T.

    1983-04-01

    The catalytic activity and selectivity of niobium compounds including oxides, salts, organometallic compounds and others are outlined. The application of these compounds as catalysts to diversified reactions is reported. The nature and action of niobium catalysts are characteristic and sometimes anomalous, suggesting the necessity of basic research and the potential use as catalysts for important processes in the chemical industry. (Author) [pt

  5. Organometallic compounds in the environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Craig, P. J

    2003-01-01

    ... of Organometallic Species in the Environment 20 1.10 Stability of Organometallic Compounds in Biological Systems 1.11 G eneral Comments on the Toxicities of Organometallic Compounds 22 1.12 General Considerations on Environmental R eactivity of Organometallic Compounds 24 1.13 Microbial Biotransformation of Metals and M etalloids 25 1.13.1 Introduction 25 1...

  6. Orthocomplementation and Compound Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ischi, Boris

    2005-12-01

    In their 1936 founding paper on quantum logic, Birkhoff and von Neumann postulated that the lattice describing the experimental propositions concerning a quantum system is orthocomplemented. We prove that this postulate fails for the lattice mathcal{L} sep describing a compound system consisting of so called separated quantum systems. By separated we mean two systems prepared in different “rooms” of the lab, and before any interaction takes place. In that case, the state of the compound system is necessarily a product state. As a consequence, Dirac’s superposition principle fails, and therefore mathcal{L} sep cannot satisfy all Piron’s axioms. In previous works, assuming that mathcal{L} sep is orthocomplemented, it was argued that mathcal{L} sep is not orthomodular and fails to have the covering property. Here we prove that mathcal{L} sep cannot admit an orthocomplementation. Moreover, we propose a natural model for mathcal{L} sep which has the covering property.

  7. Goldenphilicity: Luminescent gold compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansores, L.E.

    2002-01-01

    In the solids and molecules different types of bonds are presented depending on the involved atoms, covalent bonds are common among elements of open shell, where more bond orbitals are filled than anti bond orbitals. It is expected that ionic bonds among closed shell atoms which have charges of opposite sign. Bonds type Van der Waals are presented among molecules which have a bipolar moment. It would not be expected bonds among zero charge species, or more generally with the same nominal charge and in any case the attractive forces would be very small. In fact it is expected that two metallic cations to be repelled each other. There recently is evidence that in organic or organometallic compounds could exist attractive interactions between two cations of the d 8 -d 10 -s 2 families. These bonds are weak but stronger than those of Van der Waals. They are compared with the hydrogen bonds. In this work it was reviewed some examples in which the goldenphilicity plays an important role in the luminescence that the gold complexes present. Examples of mono, bi and trinuclear and the structures that these organometallic compounds could take are examined. (Author)

  8. CONDUCTIVE CHANNEL FOR ENERGY TRANSMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Apollonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser spark obtained by using a conical optics is much more appropriate to form conducting channels in atmosphere. Only two types of lasers are actively considered to be used in forming high-conductivity channels in atmosphere, controlled by laser spark: pulsed sub-microsecond gas and chemical lasers (CO2, DF and short pulse solid-state and UV lasers. Main advantage of short pulse lasers is their ability in forming of super long ionized channels with a characteristic diameter of ~100  µ  in atmosphere along the  beam propagation direction. At estimated electron densities below  10 ⋅ 16 cm–3 in these filaments and laser wavelengths in the range of 0,5–1,0 mm, the plasma barely absorbs laser radiation.  In this case, the length of the track composed of many filaments is determined by the laser intensity and may reach many kilometers at a femtosecond pulse energy of ~100 mJ. However, these lasers could not be used to form high-conductivity long channels in atmosphere. The ohmic resistance of this type a conducting channels turned out to be very high, and the gas in the channels could not be strongly heated (< 1 J. An electric breakdown controlled by radiation of femtosecond solid-state laser was implemented in only at a length of 3 m with a voltage of 2 MV across the discharge gap (670 kV/m.Not so long ago scientific group from P. N. Lebedev has improved that result, the discharge gap – 1 m had been broken under KrF laser irradiation when switching high-voltage (up to 390 kV/m electric discharge by 100-ns UV pulses. Our previous result  –  16 m long conducting channel controlled by a  laser spark at the voltage  –  3 MV  – was obtained more than 20 years ago in Russia and Japan by using pulsed CO2  laser with energy  –  0,5 kJ. An average electric field strength  was < 190 kV/m. It is still too much for efficient applications.

  9. The acrylamide (S)-1 differentially affects Kv7 (KCNQ) potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Schmitt, Nicole; Calloe, Kirstine

    2006-01-01

    .g., retigabine) for treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain. We investigated the effect of a Bristol-Myers Squibb compound (S)-N-[1-(3-morpholin-4-yl-phenyl)-ethyl]-3-phenyl-acrylamide [(S)-1] on cloned human Kv7.1-5 potassium channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Using two-electrode voltage...

  10. Effect of tyrphostin AG879 on Kv 4.2 and Kv 4.3 potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Zou, Beiyan; Wang, Xiaoliang; Li, Min

    2015-07-01

    A-type potassium channels (IA) are important proteins for modulating neuronal membrane excitability. The expression and activity of Kv 4.2 channels are critical for neurological functions and pharmacological inhibitors of Kv 4.2 channels may have therapeutic potential for Fragile X syndrome. While screening various compounds, we identified tyrphostin AG879, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as a Kv 4.2 inhibitor from. In the present study we characterized the effect of AG879 on cloned Kv 4.2/Kv channel-interacting protein 2 (KChIP2) channels. To screen the library of pharmacologically active compounds, the thallium flux assay was performed on HEK-293 cells transiently-transfected with Kv 4.2 cDNA using the Maxcyte transfection system. The effects of AG879 were further examined on CHO-K1 cells expressing Kv 4.2/KChIP2 channels using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Tyrphostin AG879 selectively and dose-dependently inhibited Kv 4.2 and Kv 4.3 channels. In Kv 4.2/KChIP2 channels, AG879 induced prominent acceleration of the inactivation rate, use-dependent block and slowed the recovery from inactivation. AG879 induced a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage-dependence of the steady-state inactivation of Kv 4.2 channels without apparent effect on the V1/2 of the voltage-dependent activation. The blocking effect of AG879 was enhanced as channel inactivation increased. Furthermore, AG879 significantly inhibited the A-type potassium currents in the cultured hippocampus neurons. AG879 was identified as a selective and potent inhibitor the Kv 4.2 channel. AG879 inhibited Kv 4.2 channels by preferentially interacting with the open state and further accelerating their inactivation. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Interior point decoding for linear vector channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadayama, T

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a novel decoding algorithm for low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes based on convex optimization is presented. The decoding algorithm, called interior point decoding, is designed for linear vector channels. The linear vector channels include many practically important channels such as inter-symbol interference channels and partial response channels. It is shown that the maximum likelihood decoding (MLD) rule for a linear vector channel can be relaxed to a convex optimization problem, which is called a relaxed MLD problem

  12. Structural Changes Fundamental to Gating of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Anion Channel Pore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsdell, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an epithelial cell anion channel. Potentiator drugs used in the treatment of cystic fibrosis act on the channel to increase overall channel function, by increasing the stability of its open state and/or decreasing the stability of its closed state. The structure of the channel in either the open state or the closed state is not currently known. However, changes in the conformation of the protein as it transitions between these two states have been studied using functional investigation and molecular modeling techniques. This review summarizes our current understanding of the architecture of the transmembrane channel pore that controls the movement of chloride and other small anions, both in the open state and in the closed state. Evidence for different kinds of changes in the conformation of the pore as it transitions between open and closed states is described, as well as the mechanisms by which these conformational changes might be controlled to regulate normal channel gating. The ways that key conformational changes might be targeted by small compounds to influence overall CFTR activity are also discussed. Understanding the changes in pore structure that might be manipulated by such small compounds is key to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cystic fibrosis.

  13. Entrance channel dependence of back angle yields: orbiting in 24Mg+16O reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, A.; Gil, S.; Khandaker, M.; Leach, D.D.; Lock, D.K.; Vandenbosch, R.

    1982-01-01

    The back-angle yields of the oxygen and carbon particles from the 24 Mg+ 16 O reaction have been measured at E/sub Lab/( 24 Mg) = 79.5 MeV by using reverse kinematics. Comparison with data for the 28 Si+ 12 C reaction forming the same compound nucleus at the same excitation energy and with very similar spin distribution, demonstrates a strong entrance channel effect which is favoring the break-up into the entrance channel with large excitation energy. This result qualitatively supports the picture of the formation of a long-lived orbiting complex whose structure and decay are dependent on the entrance channel. The compound nucleus contribution has been inferred to be less than 15% of the measured oxygen cross-section. 9 references

  14. Semiconducting III-V compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hilsum, C; Henisch, Heinz R

    1961-01-01

    Semiconducting III-V Compounds deals with the properties of III-V compounds as a family of semiconducting crystals and relates these compounds to the monatomic semiconductors silicon and germanium. Emphasis is placed on physical processes that are peculiar to III-V compounds, particularly those that combine boron, aluminum, gallium, and indium with phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony (for example, indium antimonide, indium arsenide, gallium antimonide, and gallium arsenide).Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an assessment of the crystal structure and binding of III-V compounds, f

  15. Synthesis of carbon-11 labelled calcium channel antagonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holschbach, M.; Roden, W.; Hamkens, W. (Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizin)

    1991-04-01

    A useful synthetic approach to carbon-11 labelled 1,4-dihydropyridines is described. Carbon-11 labelled calcium channel antagonists {sup 11}C-Nifedipine, {sup 11}C-Nisoldipine, {sup 11}C-nitrendipine and {sup 11}C-CF{sub 3}-Nifedipine were synthesized by a modified Hantzsch method using protected carboxy functions. Deprotection of the carboxylic acids by alkaline hydrolysis followed by conversion into the corresponding potassium salts and subsequent methylation with {sup 11}CH{sub 3}I produced the labelled compounds in very good chemical and radiochemical yields (94%). (author).

  16. An Effective Channel Allocation Scheme to Reduce Co-Channel and Adjacent Channel Interference for WMN Backhaul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.; Ismaili, I.A.; Khuhawar, F.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Two folded work presents channel allocation scheme sustaining channel orthogonality and channel spacing to reduce CCI (Co-Channel Interference) and ACI (Adjacent Channel Interference) for inter flow of an intra-flow link. Proposed scheme as a part of radio resource allocation is applied on infrastructure based backhaul of wireless mesh network using directional antennas. The proposed approach is applied separately on 2.4 and 5GHz bands. Interference of connectivity graph is modelled by strongly connected directed graph and greedy algorithms are used for channel allocation. We have used OPNET Modeller suite to simulate network models for this research. The proposed arrangement reduces the channel interference and increases system throughput. In this research, the influence of channel is computed in terms of network throughput and delay. (author)

  17. Leptin Suppresses Mouse Taste Cell Responses to Sweet Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ryusuke; Noguchi, Kenshi; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Takahashi, Ichiro; Margolskee, Robert F; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2015-11-01

    Leptin is known to selectively suppress neural and behavioral responses to sweet-tasting compounds. However, the molecular basis for the effect of leptin on sweet taste is not known. Here, we report that leptin suppresses sweet taste via leptin receptors (Ob-Rb) and KATP channels expressed selectively in sweet-sensitive taste cells. Ob-Rb was more often expressed in taste cells that expressed T1R3 (a sweet receptor component) than in those that expressed glutamate-aspartate transporter (a marker for Type I taste cells) or GAD67 (a marker for Type III taste cells). Systemically administered leptin suppressed taste cell responses to sweet but not to bitter or sour compounds. This effect was blocked by a leptin antagonist and was absent in leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice and mice with diet-induced obesity. Blocking the KATP channel subunit sulfonylurea receptor 1, which was frequently coexpressed with Ob-Rb in T1R3-expressing taste cells, eliminated the effect of leptin on sweet taste. In contrast, activating the KATP channel with diazoxide mimicked the sweet-suppressing effect of leptin. These results indicate that leptin acts via Ob-Rb and KATP channels that are present in T1R3-expressing taste cells to selectively suppress their responses to sweet compounds. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  18. Synthesis of labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, T.W.

    1977-01-01

    Intermediate compounds labeled with 13 C included methane, sodium cyanide, methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile. A new method for synthesizing 15 N-labeled 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide was developed. Studies were conducted on pathways to oleic-1- 13 C acid and a second pathway investigated was based on carbonation of 8-heptadecynylmagnesium bromide with CO 2 to prepare sterolic acid. Biosynthetic preparations included glucose- 13 C from starch isolated from tobacco leaves following photosynthetic incubation with 13 CO 2 and galactose- 13 C from galactosylglycerol- 13 C from kelp. Research on growth of organisms emphasized photosynthetic growth of algae in which all cellular carbon is labeled. Preliminary experiments were performed to optimize the growth of Escherichia coli on sodium acetate- 13 C

  19. Volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silseth, May Liss

    1998-01-01

    The goal is: Not more emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) than necessary. The items discussed in this presentation are the VOCs, how to calculate emission of VOCs, how to reduce or avoid them, and different recovery processes. The largest source of Norwegian emissions of non methane VOCs (NMVOCs) is offshore loading of raw petroleum. Emissions of VOCs should be reduced mainly for two reasons: (1) on sunny days NMVOCs may react with NOx to form ozon and smog close to the surface, (2) ozone and smog close to the surface may be harmful to plants and animals, and they are hazardous to human health. As for the calculation of VOC emissions, the VOCON project will release the calculation program HCGASS in 1999. This project is a cooperative project headed by SINTEF/Marintek

  20. In vitro cytotoxicity on human ovarian cancer cells by T-type calcium channel blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sun Jeong; Choi, Heung Woo; Choi, Doo Li; Cho, Sehyeon; Rim, Hong-Kun; Choi, Hye-Eun; Kim, Ki-Sun; Huang, Minghua; Rhim, Hyewhon; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Jae Yeol

    2013-12-15

    The growth inhibition of human cancer cells via T-type Ca(2+) channel blockade has been well known. Herein, a series of new 3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivatives were synthesized via a brief SAR study on KYS05090 template and evaluated for both T-type Ca(2+) channel (Cav3.1) blockade and cytotoxicity on three human ovarian cancer cells (SK-OV-3, A2780 and A2780-T). Most of compounds except 6i generally exhibited more potent cytotoxicity on SK-OV-3 than mibefradil as a positive control regardless of the degree of T-type channel blockade. In particular, eight compounds (KYS05090, 6a and 6c-6h) showing strong channel blockade exhibited almost equal and more potent cytotoxicity on A2780 when compared to mibefradil. On A2780-T paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian carcinoma, two compounds (KYS05090 and 6d) were 20-fold more active than mibefradil. With respect to cell cycle arrest effect on A2780 and A2780-T cells, KYS05090 induced large proportion of sub-G1 phase in the cell cycle progression of A2780 and A2780-T, meaning the induction of cancer cell death instead of cell cycle arrest via blocking T-type Ca(2+) channel. Among new analogues, compounds 6g and 6h induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase of A2780 and A2780-T cells in dose-dependent manner and exhibited strong anti-proliferation effects of ovarian cancer cells by blocking T-type Ca(2+) channel. Furthermore, 6g and 6h possessing strong cytotoxic effects could induce apoptosis of A2780 cells, which was detected by confocal micrographs using DAPI staining. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Selectivity problems with drugs acting on cardiac Na⁺ and Ca²⁺ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegyi, Bence; Komáromi, István; Nánási, Péter P; Szentandrássy, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    With the increase of our knowledge on cardioactive agents it comes more and more clear that practically none of the currently used compounds shows absolute selectivity to one or another ion channel type. This is particularly true for Na(+) and Ca(2+) channel modulators, which are widely applied in the clinical practice and biomedical research. The best example might be probably the marine guanidine poison tetrodotoxin, which has long been considered as a selective Na(+) channel blocker, while recently it turned out to effectively inhibit cardiac Ca(2+) currents as well. In the present study the cross actions observed between the effects of various blockers of Na(+) channels (such as toxin inhibitors, class I antiarrhythmics and local anesthetics) and Ca(2+) channels (like phenylalkylamines, dihydropyridine compounds, diltiazem and mibefradil) are overviewed in light of the known details of the respective channel structures. Similarly, activators of Na(+) channels, including veratridine and batrachotoxin, are also compared. The binding of tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin to Cav1.2 and Nav1.5 channel proteins is presented by construction of theoretical models to reveal common structures in their pore forming regions to explain cross reactions. Since these four domain channels can be traced back to a common ancestor, a close similarity in their structure can well be demonstrated. Thus, the poor selectivity of agents acting on cardiac Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels is a consequence of evolution. As a conclusion, since the limited selectivity is an intrinsic property of drug receptors, it has to be taken into account when designing new cardioactive compounds for either medical therapy or experimental research in the future.

  2. Mechanisms underlying probucol-induced hERG-channel deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi YQ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Yuan-Qi Shi,1,* Cai-Chuan Yan,1,* Xiao Zhang,1 Meng Yan,1 Li-Rong Liu,1 Huai-Ze Geng,1 Lin Lv,1 Bao-Xin Li1,21Department of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University, 2State-Province Key Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Engineering, Harbin, Heilongjiang, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The hERG gene encodes the pore-forming α-subunit of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium channel (IKr, which is important for cardiac repolarization. Reduction of IhERG due to genetic mutations or drug interferences causes long QT syndrome, leading to life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias (torsades de pointes or sudden death. Probucol is a cholesterol-lowering drug that could reduce hERG current by decreasing plasma membrane hERG protein expression and eventually cause long QT syndrome. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of probucol effects on IhERG and hERG-channel expression. Our data demonstrated that probucol reduces SGK1 expression, known as SGK isoform, in a concentration-dependent manner, resulting in downregulation of phosphorylated E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-2 expression, but not the total level of Nedd4-2. As a result, the hERG protein reduces, due to the enhanced ubiquitination level. On the contrary, carbachol could enhance the phosphorylation level of Nedd4-2 as an alternative to SGK1, and thus rescue the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of hERG channels caused by probucol. These discoveries provide a novel mechanism of probucol-induced hERG-channel deficiency, and imply that carbachol or its analog may serve as potential therapeutic compounds for the handling of probucol cardiotoxicity.Keywords: long QT, hERG potassium channels, probucol, SGK1, Nedd4-2

  3. The KATP channel in migraine pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Karagholi, Mohammad Al-Mahdi; Hansen, Jakob Møller; Severinsen, Johanne

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To review the distribution and function of KATP channels, describe the use of KATP channels openers in clinical trials and make the case that these channels may play a role in headache and migraine. DISCUSSION: KATP channels are widely present in the trigeminovascular system and play...... an important role in the regulation of tone in cerebral and meningeal arteries. Clinical trials using synthetic KATP channel openers report headache as a prevalent-side effect in non-migraine sufferers, indicating that KATP channel opening may cause headache, possibly due to vascular mechanisms. Whether KATP...... channel openers can provoke migraine in migraine sufferers is not known. CONCLUSION: We suggest that KATP channels may play an important role in migraine pathogenesis and could be a potential novel therapeutic anti-migraine target....

  4. Channel Estimation in DCT-Based OFDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulin; Zhang, Gengxin; Xie, Zhidong; Hu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    This paper derives the channel estimation of a discrete cosine transform- (DCT-) based orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) system over a frequency-selective multipath fading channel. Channel estimation has been proved to improve system throughput and performance by allowing for coherent demodulation. Pilot-aided methods are traditionally used to learn the channel response. Least square (LS) and mean square error estimators (MMSE) are investigated. We also study a compressed sensing (CS) based channel estimation, which takes the sparse property of wireless channel into account. Simulation results have shown that the CS based channel estimation is expected to have better performance than LS. However MMSE can achieve optimal performance because of prior knowledge of the channel statistic. PMID:24757439

  5. Matagorda Ship Channel, Texas: Jetty Stability Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kraus, Nicholas C; Lin, Lihwa; Batten, Brian K; Brown, Gary L

    2006-01-01

    .... The current has produced a large area of scour on the bay side of the inlet adjacent to the west jetty, and vessels encountering a strong along-channel and cross-channel current at the entrance...

  6. Coastal Maintained Channels in US waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer shows coastal channels and waterways that are maintained and surveyed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). These channels are necessary...

  7. Modification of single Na+ channels by batrachotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandt, F N; Narahashi, T

    1982-11-01

    The modifications in the properties of voltage-gated Na+ channels caused by batrachotoxin were studied by using the patch clamp method for measuring single channel currents from excised membranes of N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells. The toxin-modified open state of the Na+ channel has a decreased conductance in comparison to that of normal Na+ channels. The lifetime of the modified open state is drastically prolonged, and channels now continue to open during a maintained depolarization so that the probability of a channel being open becomes constant. Modified and normal open states of Na+ channels coexist in batrachotoxin-exposed membrane patches. Unlike the normal condition, Na+ channels exposed to batrachotoxin open spontaneously at large negative potentials. These spontaneous openings apparently cause the toxin-induced increase in Na+ permeability which, in turn, causes membrane depolarization.

  8. Targeting sodium channels in cardiac arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, Carol Ann; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for proper electrical conduction in the heart. During acquired pathological conditions and inherited sodium channelopathies, altered sodium channel function causes conduction disturbances and ventricular arrhythmias. Although the clinical,

  9. Quantum Correlations Evolution Asymmetry in Quantum Channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Meng; Huang Yun-Feng; Guo Guang-Can

    2017-01-01

    It was demonstrated that the entanglement evolution of a specially designed quantum state in the bistochastic channel is asymmetric. In this work, we generalize the study of the quantum correlations, including entanglement and quantum discord, evolution asymmetry to various quantum channels. We found that the asymmetry of entanglement and quantum discord only occurs in some special quantum channels, and the behavior of the entanglement evolution may be quite different from the behavior of the quantum discord evolution. To quantum entanglement, in some channels it decreases monotonously with the increase of the quantum channel intensity. In some other channels, when we increase the intensity of the quantum channel, it decreases at first, then keeps zero for some time, and then rises up. To quantum discord, the evolution becomes more complex and you may find that it evolutes unsmoothly at some points. These results illustrate the strong dependence of the quantum correlations evolution on the property of the quantum channels. (paper)

  10. Channel CAT: A Tactical Link Analysis Tool

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coleman, Michael

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis produced an analysis tool, the Channel Capacity Analysis Tool (Channel CAT), designed to provide an automated tool for the analysis of design decisions in developing client-server software...

  11. BK channel modulators: a comprehensive overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nardi, Antonio; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2008-01-01

    The large Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (BK channel) reflects per excellence the dilemma of the molecular target driven drug discovery process. Significant experimental evidence suggests that the BK channels play a pivotal and specific role in many pathophysiological conditions supporting...... the notion that the channel represents an innovative and promising drug target. However, after more than ten years of intense research effort both in academia and industry, scientists have yet to witness the approval of a single BK channel modulator for clinical use. On the contrary, three BK openers...... and blockers 4) Marketed and/or investigational drugs with BK-modulating side properties and structural analogues 5) Naturally-occurring BK channel openers and structural analogues 6) Synthetic BK channel openers. This review is intended to provide readers with current opinion on the BK channel as a drug...

  12. Thermoelectricity in Heterogeneous Nanofluidic Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Wang, Qinggong

    2018-04-19

    Ionic fluids are essential to energy conversion, water desalination, drug delivery, and lab-on-a-chip devices. Ionic transport in nanoscale confinements and complex physical fields still remain elusive. Here, a nanofluidic system is developed using nanochannels of heterogeneous surface properties to investigate transport properties of ions under different temperatures. Steady ionic currents are observed under symmetric temperature gradients, which is equivalent to generating electricity using waste heat (e.g., electronic chips and solar panels). The currents increase linearly with temperature gradient and nonlinearly with channel size. Contributions to ion motion from temperatures and channel properties are evaluated for this phenomenon. The findings provide insights into the study of confined ionic fluids in multiphysical fields, and suggest applications in thermal energy conversion, temperature sensors, and chip-level thermal management. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Reaction channels of 6,7Li+28Si at near-barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakou, A; Rusek, K; Nicolis, N G; Alamanos, N; Doukelis, G; Gillibert, A; Kalyva, G; Kokkoris, M; Lagoyannis, A; Musumarra, A; Papachristodoulou, C; Perdikakis, G; Pierroutsakou, D; Pollacco, E C; Spyrou, A; Zarkadas, Ch

    2005-01-01

    The production of α-particles in the reactions 6,7 Li+ 28 Si was studied as a means to disentangle the various reaction channels at near-barrier energies. The competition between compound and direct reactions was determined by using the shape of angular distributions and statistical model calculations. DWBA calculations were also performed to probe the various direct channels. It was found that, approaching barrier, transfer channels are the most dominant for both reactions. For 7 Li+ 28 Si d-transfer is one of the contributing channels without excluding t-transfer, while for 6 Li+ 28 Si, n-transfer and p-transfer have substantial contribution but without excluding d-transfer

  14. Radio propagation measurement and channel modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Salous, Sana

    2013-01-01

    While there are numerous books describing modern wireless communication systems that contain overviews of radio propagation and radio channel modelling, there are none that contain detailed information on the design, implementation and calibration of radio channel measurement equipment, the planning of experiments and the in depth analysis of measured data. The book would begin with an explanation of the fundamentals of radio wave propagation and progress through a series of topics, including the measurement of radio channel characteristics, radio channel sounders, measurement strategies

  15. Degenerate RFID Channel Modeling for Positioning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Povalac

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the theory of channel modeling for positioning applications in UHF RFID. It explains basic parameters for channel characterization from both the narrowband and wideband point of view. More details are given about ranging and direction finding. Finally, several positioning scenarios are analyzed with developed channel models. All the described models use a degenerate channel, i.e. combined signal propagation from the transmitter to the tag and from the tag to the receiver.

  16. Improving Channel Coordination Through Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv Lal

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the role of franchising arrangements in improving coordination between channel members. In particular we focus on two elements of the franchising contract, namely, the royalty structure and the monitoring technology. We begin with a simple analysis where a manufacturer distributes its product through a retailer and the retail demand is affected by the retail price and the service provided by the retailer. In this context we show that neither royalty payments nor moni...

  17. Digital Multi Channel Analyzer Enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonen, E.; Marcus, E.; Wengrowicz, U.; Beck, A.; Nir, J.; Sheinfeld, M.; Broide, A.; Tirosh, D.

    2002-01-01

    A cement analyzing system based on radiation spectroscopy had been developed [1], using novel digital approach for real-time, high-throughput and low-cost Multi Channel Analyzer. The performance of the developed system had a severe problem: the resulted spectrum suffered from lack of smoothness, it was very noisy and full of spikes and surges, therefore it was impossible to use this spectrum for analyzing the cement substance. This paper describes the work carried out to improve the system performance

  18. Trafficking of neuronal calcium channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weiss, Norbert; Zamponi, G. W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2017), č. článku NS20160003. ISSN 2059-6553 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13556S; GA MŠk 7AMB15FR015 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : calcium channel * neuron * trafficing Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Physiology (including cytology) http://www. neuron alsignaling.org/content/1/1/NS20160003

  19. Muon decay channeling in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosshard, A.; Patterson, B.D.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P.; Wichert, Th.

    1984-01-01

    This experiment employs the channeling effect of the host lattice on the trajectories of decay positrons in order to determine the position of positive muons implanted into silicon crystals. Low-momentum ( 0 ). In order to achieve sufficient angular resolution, the Si wafer is bent to a spherical shape, thereby focussing a particular crystal axis to a point at the center of the MWPC (located 3.4 m from the wafer). (Auth.)

  20. Local Transfer Coefficient, Smooth Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Kukreja

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Naphthalene sublimation technique and the heat/mass transfer analogy are used to determine the detailed local heat/mass transfer distributions on the leading and trailing walls of a twopass square channel with smooth walls that rotates about a perpendicular axis. Since the variation of density is small in the flow through the channel, buoyancy effect is negligible. Results show that, in both the stationary and rotating channel cases, very large spanwise variations of the mass transfer exist in he turn and in the region immediately downstream of the turn in the second straight pass. In the first straight pass, the rotation-induced Coriolis forces reduce the mass transfer on the leading wall and increase the mass transfer on the trailing wall. In the turn, rotation significantly increases the mass transfer on the leading wall, especially in the upstream half of the turn. Rotation also increases the mass transfer on the trailing wall, more in the downstream half of the turn than in the upstream half of the turn. Immediately downstream of the turn, rotation causes the mass transfer to be much higher on the trailing wall near the downstream corner of the tip of the inner wall than on the opposite leading wall. The mass transfer in the second pass is higher on the leading wall than on the trailing wall. A slower flow causes higher mass transfer enhancement in the turn on both the leading and trailing walls.

  1. 47 CFR 95.29 - Channels available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... no more than 5 watts ERP. (g) Fixed stations in GMRS systems authorized before March 18, 1968... transmission of another GMRS station on a different channel or channels), the licensee of the GMRS system must... GMRS system from the following 462 MHz channels: 462.5500, 462.5750, 462.6000, 462.6250, 462.6500, 462...

  2. Modulation of ERG channels by XE991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmedyb, Pernille; Calloe, Kirstine; Schmitt, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    In neuronal tissue, KCNQ2-5 channels conduct the physiologically important M-current. In some neurones, the M-current may in addition be conducted partly by ERG potassium channels, which have widely overlapping expression with the KCNQ channel subunits. XE991 and linopiridine are known to be stan...

  3. Electronic Commerce and Retail Channel Substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); R. van der Noll

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze a market where firms compete in a conventional and an electronic retail channel. Consumers easily compare prices online, but some incur purchase uncertainties on the online channel. We investigate the market shares of the two retail channels and the prices that are charged. We

  4. Molecular determinants in TRPV5 channel assembly.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Q.; Gyftogianni, E.; Graaf, K.F.J. van de; Hoefs, S.J.G.; Weidema, A.F.; Bindels, R.J.M.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    The epithelial Ca(2+) channels TRPV5 and TRPV6 mediate the Ca(2+) influx in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)-responsive epithelia and are therefore essential in the maintenance of the body Ca(2+) balance. These Ca(2+) channels assemble in (hetero)tetrameric channel complexes with different functional

  5. Molecular determinants in TRPV5 channel assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Qing; Gyftogianni, Emmanouela; van de Graaf, Stan F. J.; Hoefs, Susan; Weidema, Freek A.; Bindels, René J. M.; Hoenderop, Joost G. J.

    2004-01-01

    The epithelial Ca(2+) channels TRPV5 and TRPV6 mediate the Ca(2+) influx in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)-responsive epithelia and are therefore essential in the maintenance of the body Ca(2+) balance. These Ca(2+) channels assemble in (hetero)tetrameric channel complexes with different functional

  6. Pluto's Nonvolatile Chemical Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, William M.; Binzel, Richard; Cook, Jason C.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Dalle Ore, Cristina M.; Earle, Alissa M.; Ennico, Kimberly; Jennings, Donald; Howett, Carly; Kaiser, Ralf-Ingo; Linscott, Ivan; Lunsford, A. W.; Olkin, Catherine B.; Parker, Alex Harrison; Parker, Joel Wm.; Philippe, Sylvain; Protopapa, Silvia; Quirico, Eric; Reuter, D. C.; Schmitt, Bernard; Singer, Kelsi N.; Spencer, John R.; Stansberry, John A.; Stern, S. Alan; Tsang, Constantine; Verbiscer, Anne J.; Weaver, Harold A.; Weigle, G. E.; Young, Leslie

    2016-10-01

    Despite the migration of Pluto's volatile ices (N2, CO, and CH4) around the surface on seasonal timescales, the planet's non-volatile materials are not completely hidden from view. They occur in a variety of provinces formed over a wide range of timescales, including rugged mountains and chasms, the floors of mid-latitude craters, and an equatorial belt of especially dark and reddish material typified by the informally named Cthulhu Regio. NASA's New Horizons probe observed several of these regions at spatial resolutions as fine as 3 km/pixel with its LEISA imaging spectrometer, covering wavelengths from 1.25 to 2.5 microns. Various compounds that are much lighter than the tholin-like macromolecules responsible for the reddish coloration, but that are not volatile at Pluto surface temperatures such as methanol (CH3OH) and ethane (C2H6) have characteristic absorption bands within LEISA's wavelength range. This presentation will describe their geographic distributions and attempt to constrain their origins. Possibilities include an inheritance from Pluto's primordial composition (the likely source of H2O ice seen on Pluto's surface) or ongoing production from volatile precursors through photochemistry in Pluto's atmosphere or through radiolysis on Pluto's surface. New laboratory data inform the analysis.This work was supported by NASA's New Horizons project.

  7. Cardiac Strain Imaging With Coherent Compounding of Diverging Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondin, Julien; Sayseng, Vincent; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2017-08-01

    Current methods of cardiac strain imaging at high frame rate suffer from motion matching artifacts or poor lateral resolution. Coherent compounding has been shown to improve echocardiographic image quality while maintaining a high frame rate, but has never been used to image cardiac strain. However, myocardial velocity can have an impact on coherent compounding due to displacements between frames. The objective of this paper was to investigate the feasibility and performance of coherent compounding for cardiac strain imaging at a low and a high myocardial velocity. Left-ventricular contraction in short-axis view was modeled as an annulus with radial thickening and circumferential rotation. Simulated radio-frequency channel data with a cardiac phased array were obtained using three different beamforming methods: single diverging wave, coherent compounding of diverging waves, and conventional focusing. Axial and lateral displacements and strains as well as radial strains were estimated and compared to their true value. In vivo feasibility of cardiac strain imaging with coherent compounding was performed and compared to single diverging wave imaging. At low myocardial velocities, the axial, lateral, and radial strain relative error for nine compounded waves (16.3%, 40.4%, and 18.9%) were significantly lower than those obtained with single diverging wave imaging (19.9%, 80.3%, and 30.6%) and closer to that obtained with conventional focusing (16.7%, 43.7%, and 16%). In vivo left-ventricular radial strains exhibited higher quality with nine compounded waves than with single diverging wave imaging. These results indicate that cardiac strain can be imaged using coherent compounding of diverging waves with a better performance than with single diverging wave imaging while maintaining a high frame rate, and therefore, has the potential to improve diagnosis of myocardial strain-based cardiac diseases.

  8. The use of service channels by citizens in the Netherlands: implications for multi-channel management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterson, Willem Jan; Ebbers, Wolfgang E.

    2008-01-01

    Many governmental organizations are changing their service channel management strategies to multi-channel management. However, very few empirical studies exist that explore how these multi-channel strategies should be shaped. In this article we test a number of hypotheses on citizens' channel use

  9. Method of preparing metallocene compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblum, M.; Matchett, S.A.

    1992-06-23

    This invention describes a novel method of preparing metallocene compounds. The invention is based on synthesis of novel bis cyclopentadienides that, under appropriate conditions, will either encapsulate a transition metal to produce a metallocene such as ferrocene, or ferrocene derivative, or will yield a polymeric metallocene. Compounds produced by this process are useful as catalysts in propulsion systems, or as anti-knock compounds in gasolines. 2 figs.

  10. Method of preparing metallocene compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Myron; Matchett, Stephen A.

    1992-01-01

    This invention describes a novel method of preparing metallocene compounds. The invention is based on synthesis of novel bis cyclopentadienides that, under appropriate conditions, will either encapsulate a transition metal to produce a metallocene such as ferrocene, or ferrocene derivative, or will yield a polymeric metallocene. Compounds produced by this process are useful as catalysts in propulsion systems, or as anti-knock compounds in gasolines.

  11. Phenolic compounds in Ecuadorian fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Vasco, Catalina

    2009-01-01

    A group of eighteen fruits cultivated in Ecuador were evaluated for their total soluble phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity and attempts were made to identify the group and content of phenolic compounds responsible for the antioxidant activity. In terms of total phenolic content, three groups (with 1000 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g FW) were clearly distinguishable. RP-HPLC-DAD and/or LC-MS/MS were used to study the phenolic compounds in four Rosaceae fruits (Andean blackberry, str...

  12. From pan-reactive KV7 channel opener to subtype selective opener/inhibitor by addition of a methyl group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Marie Blom

    Full Text Available The voltage-gated potassium channels of the KV7 family (KV7.1-5 play important roles in controlling neuronal excitability and are therefore attractive targets for treatment of CNS disorders linked to hyperexcitability. One of the main challenges in developing KV7 channel active drugs has been to identify compounds capable of discriminating between the neuronally expressed subtypes (KV7.2-5, aiding the identification of the subunit composition of KV7 currents in various tissues, and possessing better therapeutic potential for particular indications. By taking advantage of the structure-activity relationship of acrylamide KV7 channel openers and the effects of these compounds on mutant KV7 channels, we have designed and synthesized a novel KV7 channel modulator with a unique profile. The compound, named SMB-1, is an inhibitor of KV7.2 and an activator of KV7.4. SMB-1 inhibits KV7.2 by reducing the current amplitude and increasing the time constant for the slow component of the activation kinetics. The activation of KV7.4 is seen as an increase in the current amplitude and a slowing of the deactivation kinetics. Experiments studying mutant channels with a compromised binding site for the KV7.2-5 opener retigabine indicate that SMB-1 binds within the same pocket as retigabine for both inhibition of KV7.2 and activation of KV7.4. SMB-1 may serve as a valuable tool for KV7 channel research and may be used as a template for further design of better subtype selective KV7 channel modulators. A compound with this profile could hold novel therapeutic potential such as the treatment of both positive and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia.

  13. Transition Metal Compounds Towards Holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Dieckmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We have successfully proposed the application of transition metal compounds in holographic recording media. Such compounds feature an ultra-fast light-induced linkage isomerization of the transition-metal–ligand bond with switching times in the sub-picosecond regime and lifetimes from microseconds up to hours at room temperature. This article highlights the photofunctionality of two of the most promising transition metal compounds and the photophysical mechanisms that are underlying the hologram recording. We present the latest progress with respect to the key measures of holographic media assembled from transition metal compounds, the molecular embedding in a dielectric matrix and their impressive potential for modern holographic applications.

  14. Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Grorge

    2001-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites are relatively enriched in soluble organic compounds. To date, these compounds provide the only record available to study a range of organic chemical processes in the early Solar System chemistry. The Murchison meteorite is the best-characterized carbonaceous meteorite with respect to organic chemistry. The study of its organic compounds has related principally to aqueous meteorite parent body chemistry and compounds of potential importance for the origin of life. Among the classes of organic compounds found in Murchison are amino acids, amides, carboxylic acids, hydroxy acids, sulfonic acids, phosphonic acids, purines and pyrimidines (Table 1). Compounds such as these were quite likely delivered to the early Earth in asteroids and comets. Until now, polyhydroxylated compounds (polyols), including sugars (polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones), sugar alcohols, sugar acids, etc., had not been identified in Murchison. Ribose and deoxyribose, five-carbon sugars, are central to the role of contemporary nucleic acids, DNA and RNA. Glycerol, a three-carbon sugar alcohol, is a constituent of all known biological membranes. Due to the relative lability of sugars, some researchers have questioned the lifetime of sugars under the presumed conditions on the early Earth and postulated other (more stable) compounds as constituents of the first replicating molecules. The identification of potential sources and/or formation mechanisms of pre-biotic polyols would add to the understanding of what organic compounds were available, and for what length of time, on the ancient Earth.

  15. Natural compounds with herbicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Montemurro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Research about phytotoxic activity of natural compounds could lead both to find new herbicidal active ingredients and to plan environmental friendly weed control strategies. Particularly, living organisms could be a source of compounds that are impossible, for their complexity, to synthesize artificially. More over, they could have alternative sites of action respect to the known chemical herbicides and, due to their origin, they should be more environmental safe. Many living organism, such as bacteria, fungi, insects, lichens and plants, are able to produce bioactive compounds. They generally are secondary metabolites or simply waste molecules. In this paper we make a review about these compounds, highlighting potential and constraints.

  16. Channel discrimination power of bipartite quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiaffa, Matteo; Piani, Marco

    2018-03-01

    We quantify the usefulness of a bipartite quantum state in the ancilla-assisted channel discrimination of arbitrary quantum channels, formally defining a worst-case-scenario channel discrimination power for bipartite quantum states. We show that such a quantifier is deeply connected with the operator Schmidt decomposition of the state. We compute the channel discrimination power exactly for pure states, and provide upper and lower bounds for general mixed states. We show that highly entangled states can outperform any state that passes the realignment criterion for separability and that the channel discrimination power of a state is bounded by its quantum discord.

  17. Privacy: An Overview of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-03

    selling, or otherwise dealing in narcotic drugs, marihuana , or other dangerous drugs, punishable under any law of the United States; (f) any offense...or dealing in narcotic drugs, marihuana or other dangerous drugs, or other crime dangerous to life, limb, or property, and punishable by

  18. Privacy: An Abbreviated Outline of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stevens, Gina M; Doyle, Charles

    2006-01-01

    ... the parties to the conversation. The federal crimes are punishable by imprisonment for up to five years and expose offenders to civil liability for damages, attorneys' fees, and possibly punitive damages...

  19. BKCa-Channel Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel H.

    Among ion channels, the large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel (BKCa channel) is in many ways unique. It has a very large single-channel conductance—ten times that of most vertebrate K+ channels—and yet it maintains strict K+ selectivity. It senses as little as 200 nM Ca2+, but it contains no consensus Ca2+-binding motifs, and it is the only channel to be activated by both intracellular Ca2+ and membrane voltage. In fact, there is a synergy between these stimuli such that the higher the internal Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]), the smaller the depolarization needed to activate the channel. Furthermore, the BKCa channel has its own brand of auxiliary subunits that profoundly affect gating. In this chapter, I will discuss what is understood about the origins of these properties in terms of allosteric models and channel structure. At the outset, however, I should say that there is not yet a crystal structure of the BKCa channel or any of its components, so much of the current thinking about BKCa-channel structure relies on analogy to other channels.

  20. Ladder-Shaped Ion Channel Ligands: Current State of Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri B. Shmukler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatoxins (CTX and brevetoxins (BTX are polycyclic ethereal compounds biosynthesized by the worldwide distributed planktonic and epibenthic dinoflagellates of Gambierdiscus and Karenia genera, correspondingly. Ciguatera, evoked by CTXs, is a type of ichthyosarcotoxism, which involves a variety of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms, while BTXs cause so-called neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. Both types of toxins are reviewed together because of similar mechanisms of their action. These are the only molecules known to activate voltage-sensitive Na+-channels in mammals through a specific interaction with site 5 of its α-subunit and may compete for it, which results in an increase in neuronal excitability, neurotransmitter release and impairment of synaptic vesicle recycling. Most marine ciguatoxins potentiate Nav channels, but a considerable number of them, such as gambierol and maitotoxin, have been shown to affect another ion channel. Although the extrinsic function of these toxins is probably associated with the function of a feeding deterrent, it was suggested that their intrinsic function is coupled with the regulation of photosynthesis via light-harvesting complex II and thioredoxin. Antagonistic effects of BTXs and brevenal may provide evidence of their participation as positive and negative regulators of this mechanism.

  1. Slo1 is the principal potassium channel of human spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannowetz, Nadja; Naidoo, Natasha M; Choo, Seung-A Sara; Smith, James F; Lishko, Polina V

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa gain competence to fertilize an oocyte as they travel through the female reproductive tract. This process is accompanied by an elevation of sperm intracellular calcium and a membrane hyperpolarization. The latter is evoked by K+ efflux; however, the molecular identity of the potassium channel of human spermatozoa (hKSper) is unknown. Here, we characterize hKSper, reporting that it is regulated by intracellular calcium but is insensitive to intracellular alkalinization. We also show that human KSper is inhibited by charybdotoxin, iberiotoxin, and paxilline, while mouse KSper is insensitive to these compounds. Such unique properties suggest that the Slo1 ion channel is the molecular determinant for hKSper. We show that Slo1 is localized to the sperm flagellum and is inhibited by progesterone. Inhibition of hKSper by progesterone may depolarize the spermatozoon to open the calcium channel CatSper, thus raising [Ca2+] to produce hyperactivation and allowing sperm to fertilize an oocyte. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01009.001 PMID:24137539

  2. Stretch-activated cation channel from larval bullfrog skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillyard, Stanley D; Willumsen, Niels J; Marrero, Mario B

    2010-01-01

    Cell-attached patches from isolated epithelial cells from larval bullfrog skin revealed a cation channel that was activated by applying suction (-1 kPa to -4.5 kPa) to the pipette. Activation was characterized by an initial large current spike that rapidly attenuated to a stable value and showed...... was markedly reduced with N-methyl-D-glucamide (NMDG)-Cl Ringer's solution in the pipette. Neither amiloride nor ATP, which are known to stimulate an apical cation channel in Ussing chamber preparations of larval frog skin, produced channel activation nor did these compounds affect the response to suction....... Stretch activation was not affected by varying the pipette concentrations of Ca(2+) between 0 mmol l(-1) and 4 mmol l(-1) or by varying pH between 6.8 and 8.0. However, conductance was reduced with 4 mmol l(-1) Ca(2+). Western blot analysis of membrane homogenates from larval bullfrog and larval toad skin...

  3. Research variations the channel of gallbladder in relation to gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević Goran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Channel of the gallbladder (DC shows the different anatomical variations, the knowledge is important in the diagnosis and particularly abdominal surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate possible gender differences in the morphology of the gallbladder channel (DC. A total sample consists of 50 anatomical liver taken from autopsy cases of both sexes (32 men and 18 women. Samples of liver were fixed in 4% formalin for 4 weeks, and then studied microdissected under scrutiny. We were working length measurement channels of the gallbladder (DC and typing of junction of the cystic (DC with the common hepatic duct (DHC. We classify anatomical junction variations DC with DHC into three types: angular, parallel and spiral type, and then performed statistical analysis of the data with respect to gender. Results: The angular type compound we found approximately at 2/3 or 64% of the samples (men-60% of women-72%, the parallel type combination of a total of 22% of the sample (men-31% of women-6% and spiral type of 14% of the samples (males-9%, women 22%. Parallel and spiral type together make up about 1/3 of the cases. The average length of DC is 3.1 cm and the variation interval of 1.7 to 6.2 cm. We found that the difference circuit between DC and DHC the angular variable (parallel junction and spiral with respect to gender there but the difference was not statistically significant (p> 0.05.

  4. Performance Analysis of Iterative Channel Estimation and Multiuser Detection in Multipath DS-CDMA Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Husheng; Betz, Sharon M.; Poor, H. Vincent

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of decision feedback based iterative channel estimation and multiuser detection in channel coded aperiodic DS-CDMA systems operating over multipath fading channels. First, explicit expressions describing the performance of channel estimation and parallel interference cancellation based multiuser detection are developed. These results are then combined to characterize the evolution of the performance of a system that iterates among channel estimation, multiu...

  5. On luminescence bleaching of tidal channel sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Mikkel; Pejrup, Morten; Murray, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the processes responsible for bleaching of the quartz OSL signal from tidal channel sediment. Tidal dynamics are expected to play an important role for complete bleaching of tidal sediments. However, no studies have examined the amount of reworking occurring in tidal channels...... and on tidal flats due to the mixing caused by currents and waves. We apply bed level data to evaluate the amount of vertical sediment reworking in modern tidal channels and at a tidal flat. Cycles of deposition and erosion are measured with a bed level sensor, and the results show that gross sedimentation...... was several times higher than net sedimentation. We propose that tidal channel sediment is bleached either on the tidal flat before it is transported to the tidal channels and incorporated in channel-fill successions or, alternatively, on the shallow intertidal part of the channel banks. Based...

  6. Post-Translational Modifications of TRP Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Voolstra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential (TRP channels constitute an ancient family of cation channels that have been found in many eukaryotic organisms from yeast to human. TRP channels exert a multitude of physiological functions ranging from Ca2+ homeostasis in the kidney to pain reception and vision. These channels are activated by a wide range of stimuli and undergo covalent post-translational modifications that affect and modulate their subcellular targeting, their biophysical properties, or channel gating. These modifications include N-linked glycosylation, protein phosphorylation, and covalent attachment of chemicals that reversibly bind to specific cysteine residues. The latter modification represents an unusual activation mechanism of ligand-gated ion channels that is in contrast to the lock-and-key paradigm of receptor activation by its agonists. In this review, we summarize the post-translational modifications identified on TRP channels and, when available, explain their physiological role.

  7. Clay mineral variations near Pennsylvanian sandstone channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, N.R.; Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN; Murray, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    Large linear sandstone bodies in the Illinois Basin have been interpreted as representing fresh water river channels that flowed through generally marine to brackish Pennsylvanian deltaic environments; fresh water from such channels could have affected deposition of adjacent coal-bearing rocks. Low-sulfur coals are commonly associated with the sandstone bodies, which may also host petroleum, uranium, fresh water, or other resources. Thus techniques to locate such channels would be economically useful. Previous studies have shown that clay mineral distributions and bulk chemistries of clay-rich sediments are affected when fresh waters mix with sea water. Such changes associated laterally with freshwater channels might have caused distinctive clay mineral or chemical patterns to develop around the channels. Mineralogies and chemical compositions of more than 500 mudrock samples taken immediately above the springfield Coal Member of the Petersburg Formation from 52 sections located from channel margins to 63 miles distant were determined to discern patterns that could aid in finding channels

  8. A BWR fuel channel tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    A relational database management system with a query language, Reference 1, has been used to develop a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel channel tracking system on a microcomputer. The software system developed implements channel vendor and Nuclear Regulatory Commission recommendations for in-core channel movements between reactor operating cycles. A BWR Fuel channel encloses the fuel bundle and is typically fabricated using Ziracoly-4. The channel serves three functions: (1) it provides a barrier to separate two parallel flow paths, one inside the fuel assembly and the other in the bypass region outside the fuel assembly and between channels; (2) it guides the control rod as it moves between fuel assemblies and provides a bearing surface for the blades; and (3) it provides rigidity for the fuel bundle. All of these functions are necessary in typical BWR core designs. Fuel channels are not part of typical Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) core designs

  9. BK channel modulators: a comprehensive overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nardi, Antonio; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2008-01-01

    channels as a potentially attractive target, the design and synthesis of potent and selective BK modulators continue based on novel chemical ideas. A comprehensive overview of BK channel modulators is therefore timely and important to the current medicinal chemist for review, summary, and classification......The large Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (BK channel) reflects per excellence the dilemma of the molecular target driven drug discovery process. Significant experimental evidence suggests that the BK channels play a pivotal and specific role in many pathophysiological conditions supporting...... the notion that the channel represents an innovative and promising drug target. However, after more than ten years of intense research effort both in academia and industry, scientists have yet to witness the approval of a single BK channel modulator for clinical use. On the contrary, three BK openers...

  10. Fluctuations of nuclear cross sections in the region of strong overlapping resonances and at large number of open channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kun, S.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of the symmetrized Simonius representation of the S matrix statistical properties of its fluctuating component in the presence of direct reactions are investigated. The case is considered where the resonance levels are strongly overlapping and there is a lot of open channels, assuming that compound-nucleus cross sections which couple different channels are equal. It is shown that using the averaged unitarity condition on the real energy axis one can eliminate both resonance-resonance and channel-channel correlations from partial r transition amplitudes. As a result, we derive the basic points of the Epicson fluctuation theory of nuclear cross sections, independently of the relation between the resonance overlapping and the number of open channels, and the validity of the Hauser-Feshbach model is established. If the number of open channels is large, the time of uniform population of compound-nucleus configurations, for an open excited nuclear system, is much smaller than the Poincare time. The life time of compound nucleus is discussed

  11. Multicarrier chaotic communications in multipath fading channels without channel estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shilian, E-mail: wangsl@nudt.edu.cn; Zhang, Zhili [College of Electrical Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, 410073, P R China (China)

    2015-01-15

    A multi-carrier chaotic shift keying(MC-CSK) communication scheme with low probability of interception(LPI) is proposed in this article. We apply chaotic spreading sequences in the frequency domain, mapping a different chip of a chaotic sequence to an individual orthogonal frequency division multiplexing(OFDM) subcarrier. In each block size of $M$ OFDM symbols, we use one pilot OFDM symbol inserted time-spaced in all-frequency to transmit the reference chaotic signal and use the other M-1 OFDM symbols to transmit the information-bearing signals each spreaded by the reference chaotic signal. At the receiver, we construct a differential detector after DFT and recover the information bits from the correlations between the pilot OFDM symbol and the other M-1 OFDM symbols in each block size of M. Performance analysis and computer simulations show that the MC-CSK outperforms differential chaos shift keying(DCSK) in AWGN channels with high bandwidth efficiency for the block size of M=2 and that the MC-CSK exploits effectively the frequent diversity of the multipath channel.

  12. Multicarrier chaotic communications in multipath fading channels without channel estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shilian; Zhang, Zhili

    2015-01-01

    A multi-carrier chaotic shift keying(MC-CSK) communication scheme with low probability of interception(LPI) is proposed in this article. We apply chaotic spreading sequences in the frequency domain, mapping a different chip of a chaotic sequence to an individual orthogonal frequency division multiplexing(OFDM) subcarrier. In each block size of $M$ OFDM symbols, we use one pilot OFDM symbol inserted time-spaced in all-frequency to transmit the reference chaotic signal and use the other M-1 OFDM symbols to transmit the information-bearing signals each spreaded by the reference chaotic signal. At the receiver, we construct a differential detector after DFT and recover the information bits from the correlations between the pilot OFDM symbol and the other M-1 OFDM symbols in each block size of M. Performance analysis and computer simulations show that the MC-CSK outperforms differential chaos shift keying(DCSK) in AWGN channels with high bandwidth efficiency for the block size of M=2 and that the MC-CSK exploits effectively the frequent diversity of the multipath channel

  13. Lignan from Thyme Possesses Inhibitory Effect on ASIC3 Channel Current*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinnyi, Maxim A.; Osmakov, Dmitry I.; Koshelev, Sergey G.; Kozlov, Sergey A.; Andreev, Yaroslav A.; Zakaryan, Naira A.; Dyachenko, Igor A.; Bondarenko, Dmitry A.; Arseniev, Alexander S.; Grishin, Eugene V.

    2012-01-01

    A novel compound was identified in the acidic extract of Thymus armeniacus collected in the Lake Sevan region of Armenia. This compound, named “sevanol,” to our knowledge is the first low molecular weight natural molecule that has a reversible inhibition effect on both the transient and the sustained current of human ASIC3 channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Sevanol completely blocked the transient component (IC50 353 ± 23 μm) and partially (∼45%) inhibited the amplitude of the sustained component (IC50 of 234 ± 53 μm). Other types of acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) channels were intact to sevanol application, except ASIC1a, which showed more than six times less affinity to it as compared with the inhibitory action on the ASIC3 channel. To elucidate the structure of sevanol, the set of NMR spectra in two solvents (d6-DMSO and D2O) was collected, and the complete chemical structure was confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (LC-ESI+-MS) fragmentation. This compound is a new lignan built up of epiphyllic acid and two isocitryl esters in positions 9 and 10. In vivo administration of sevanol (1–10 mg/kg) significantly reversed thermal hyperalgesia induced by complete Freund's adjuvant injection and reduced response to acid in a writhing test. Thus, we assume the probable considerable role of sevanol in known analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of thyme. PMID:22854960

  14. Dependency plots suggest the kinetic structure of ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magleby, K L; Song, L

    1992-08-22

    Ion channels are integral membrane proteins that regulate ionic flux through cell membranes by opening and closing (gating) their pores. The gating can be monitored by observing step changes in the current flowing through single channels, and analysis of the observed open and closed interval durations has provided a window to develop kinetic models for the gating process. One difficulty in developing such models has been to determine the connections (transition pathways) among the various kinetic states involved in the gating. To help overcome this difficulty we present a transform (dependency plot) of the single-channel data that can give immediate insight into the connections. A dependency plot is derived by calculating a contingency table from a two-dimensional (joint density) dwell-time distribution of adjacent open and closed intervals by assuming that the two classified criteria are the open and closed durations of each pair of adjacent intervals. A three-dimensional surface plot of the fractional difference between the numbers of observed interval pairs and the numbers expected if the durations of adjacent intervals are independent then gives the dependency plot. An excess of interval pairs in the dependency plot suggests that the open and closed states (or compound states) that give rise to the interval pairs in excess are directly connected. A deficit of interval pairs suggests that the open and closed states (or compound states) that give rise to the interval pairs in deficit are either not directly connected or that there are additional open-closed transition pathways arising from the directly connected states.

  15. Hydraulics of combining flow in a right-angled compound open ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydraulics of combining flow in a right-angled compound open channel junction. SUSHANT K BISWAL1,∗, PRANAB MOHAPATRA2 and. K MURALIDHAR3. 1Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Agartala,. Agartala 799046, India. 2Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology ...

  16. Equation of state for neutron matter in the Quark Compound Bag model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoruchenko, M. I.

    2017-11-01

    The equation of state for neutron matter is derived in the framework of the Quark Compound Bag model, in which the nucleon-nucleon interaction is generated by the s-channel exchange of six-quark Jaffe-Low primitives.

  17. Hydraulics of combining flow in a right-angled compound open ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Secondary current and turbulent stresses are reproduced well by the hydraulic model and found greater in the interface region as relative flow ratio decreases. Velocity fields in combining flow region arising from varying discharge ratios are presented. A zone of depression in surface elevation in compound channel junction ...

  18. Hydraulics of combining flow in a right-angled compound open ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Definition sketch of combining flows in compound open channel. fluvial regimes, considering junction angles of 45◦ and 135◦ in an asymmetrical planform. He proposed a 1D approach based on the momentum and mass conservation equations to calculate the ratio between the upstream and the down- stream water depths ...

  19. Conductive Channel for Energy Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonov, Victor V.

    2011-11-01

    For many years the attempts to create conductive channels of big length were taken in order to study the upper atmosphere and to settle special tasks, related to energy transmission. There upon the program of creation of "Impulsar" represents a great interest, as this program in a combination with high-voltage high repetition rate electrical source can be useful to solve the above mentioned problems (N. Tesla ideas for the days of high power lasers). The principle of conductive channel production can be shortly described as follows. The "Impulsar"—laser jet engine vehicle—propulsion take place under the influence of powerful high repetition rate pulse-periodic laser radiation. In the experiments the CO2—laser and solid state Nd:YAG laser systems had been used. Active impulse appears thanks to air breakdown (30 km), placed in the vicinity of the focusing mirror-acceptor of the breakdown waves. With each pulse of powerful laser the device rises up, leaving a bright and dense trace of products with high degree of ionization and metallization by conductive nano-particles due to ablation. Conductive dust plasma properties investigation in our experiments was produced by two very effective approaches: high power laser controlled ablation and by explosion of wire. Experimental and theoretical results of conductive canal modeling will be presented. The estimations show that with already experimentally demonstrated figures of specific thrust impulse the lower layers of the Ionosphere can be reached in several ten seconds that is enough to keep the high level of channel conductivity and stability with the help of high repetition rate high voltage generator. Some possible applications for new technology are highlighted.

  20. Precipitation patterns during channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamtveit, B.; Hawkins, C.; Benning, L. G.; Meier, D.; Hammer, O.; Angheluta, L.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral precipitation during channelized fluid flow is widespread in a wide variety of geological systems. It is also a common and costly phenomenon in many industrial processes that involve fluid flow in pipelines. It is often referred to as scale formation and encountered in a large number of industries, including paper production, chemical manufacturing, cement operations, food processing, as well as non-renewable (i.e. oil and gas) and renewable (i.e. geothermal) energy production. We have studied the incipient stages of growth of amorphous silica on steel plates emplaced into the central areas of the ca. 1 meter in diameter sized pipelines used at the hydrothermal power plant at Hellisheidi, Iceland (with a capacity of ca 300 MW electricity and 100 MW hot water). Silica precipitation takes place over a period of ca. 2 months at approximately 120°C and a flow rate around 1 m/s. The growth produces asymmetric ca. 1mm high dendritic structures ';leaning' towards the incoming fluid flow. A novel phase-field model combined with the lattice Boltzmann method is introduced to study how the growth morphologies vary under different hydrodynamic conditions, including non-laminar systems with turbulent mixing. The model accurately predicts the observed morphologies and is directly relevant for understanding the more general problem of precipitation influenced by turbulent mixing during flow in channels with rough walls and even for porous flow. Reference: Hawkins, C., Angheluta, L., Hammer, Ø., and Jamtveit, B., Precipitation dendrites in channel flow. Europhysics Letters, 102, 54001

  1. Propagation Characterization and MIMO Channel-Modelling for 3G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Laurent; Berger, Lars Torsten; Ramiro-Moreno, Juan

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of MIMO channel models, distinguishing between determinsistic and stochastic channel models.......This paper presents a survey of MIMO channel models, distinguishing between determinsistic and stochastic channel models....

  2. The Effect of Pungent and Tingling Compounds from Piper nigrum L. on Background K+ Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo R. Beltrán

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Black peppercorns (Piper nigrum L. elicit a pungent and tingling oral impression. Their pungency is partially explained by the agonist activity of some of their active principles, especially piperine, on TRP channels. However, we recently showed that piperine, as well as other pungent compounds, also possess a marked effect on two-pore domain (KCNK, K2P K+ channels. Members of this family play a key role in maintaining the resting membrane potential of excitable cells. Interestingly, tingling compounds have been shown to induce neuronal excitation by inhibiting KCNK channels. We addressed the question of whether it was plausible that KCNK channels could constitute a physiologically relevant target for the sensory active compounds present in black peppercorns. Because previous studies have demonstrated that mouse trigeminal neurons respond to several pungent compounds, to which humans are also sensitive, we used a primary culture of mouse trigeminal neurons to investigate whether the effect of piperine on these cell types could also be mediated by KCNK channels. We observed that even in the presence of classical TRP-antagonists, piperine was still able to activate a fraction of trigeminal neurons. Furthermore, our results showed that piperine is capable of inducing neuronal depolarization by a mechanism that does not require extracellular Na+ or Ca2+. This depolarization was mediated by the inhibition of a background K+ conductance, most likely corresponding to the KCNK channels of the TASK subfamily. We then performed a screening with 12 other pungent and/or tingling chemosensates isolated from black peppercorns. These compounds were evaluated on Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the human orthologues of KCNK3, KNCK9 and KCNK18, which we previously showed to be inhibited by piperine. Remarkably, almost all of the isolated chemosensates inhibited the basal activity of hKCNK3, with 1-(octadeca-2E,4E,13/12Z-trienoylpyrrolidine acting as one of the

  3. The Effect of Pungent and Tingling Compounds from Piper nigrum L. on Background K+ Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Leopoldo R.; Dawid, Corinna; Beltrán, Madeline; Levermann, Janina; Titt, Sascha; Thomas, Sini; Pürschel, Viktoria; Satalik, Miriam; Gisselmann, Günter; Hofmann, Thomas; Hatt, Hanns

    2017-01-01

    Black peppercorns (Piper nigrum L.) elicit a pungent and tingling oral impression. Their pungency is partially explained by the agonist activity of some of their active principles, especially piperine, on TRP channels. However, we recently showed that piperine, as well as other pungent compounds, also possess a marked effect on two-pore domain (KCNK, K2P) K+ channels. Members of this family play a key role in maintaining the resting membrane potential of excitable cells. Interestingly, tingling compounds have been shown to induce neuronal excitation by inhibiting KCNK channels. We addressed the question of whether it was plausible that KCNK channels could constitute a physiologically relevant target for the sensory active compounds present in black peppercorns. Because previous studies have demonstrated that mouse trigeminal neurons respond to several pungent compounds, to which humans are also sensitive, we used a primary culture of mouse trigeminal neurons to investigate whether the effect of piperine on these cell types could also be mediated by KCNK channels. We observed that even in the presence of classical TRP-antagonists, piperine was still able to activate a fraction of trigeminal neurons. Furthermore, our results showed that piperine is capable of inducing neuronal depolarization by a mechanism that does not require extracellular Na+ or Ca2+. This depolarization was mediated by the inhibition of a background K+ conductance, most likely corresponding to the KCNK channels of the TASK subfamily. We then performed a screening with 12 other pungent and/or tingling chemosensates isolated from black peppercorns. These compounds were evaluated on Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the human orthologues of KCNK3, KNCK9 and KCNK18, which we previously showed to be inhibited by piperine. Remarkably, almost all of the isolated chemosensates inhibited the basal activity of hKCNK3, with 1-(octadeca-2E,4E,13/12Z-trienoyl)pyrrolidine acting as one of the most potent

  4. Flexible linings for drainage channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowhurst, A.D.

    1984-12-01

    Watercourses formed in fill areas present special problems. Since soils may not be fully compacted erosion may occur to a greater degree than would otherwise be the case. Rigid structures built under these conditions may well fail due to settlement or to scour from flows passing under the structure. Concrete may well also be more obtrusive in rural landscapes. An alternative exists in the form of thin layers of wire enclosed rip-rap which have several advantages when used for channel linings. This method gives both strength and economy coupled with a natural appearance.

  5. Mechanosensitive gating of Kv channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Morris

    Full Text Available K-selective voltage-gated channels (Kv are multi-conformation bilayer-embedded proteins whose mechanosensitive (MS Popen(V implies that at least one conformational transition requires the restructuring of the channel-bilayer interface. Unlike Morris and colleagues, who attributed MS-Kv responses to a cooperative V-dependent closed-closed expansion↔compaction transition near the open state, Mackinnon and colleagues invoke expansion during a V-independent closed↔open transition. With increasing membrane tension, they suggest, the closed↔open equilibrium constant, L, can increase >100-fold, thereby taking steady-state Popen from 0→1; "exquisite sensitivity to small…mechanical perturbations", they state, makes a Kv "as much a mechanosensitive…as…a voltage-dependent channel". Devised to explain successive gK(V curves in excised patches where tension spontaneously increased until lysis, their L-based model falters in part because of an overlooked IK feature; with recovery from slow inactivation factored in, their g(V datasets are fully explained by the earlier model (a MS V-dependent closed-closed transition, invariant L≥4. An L-based MS-Kv predicts neither known Kv time courses nor the distinctive MS responses of Kv-ILT. It predicts Kv densities (hence gating charge per V-sensor several-fold different from established values. If opening depended on elevated tension (L-based model, standard gK(V operation would be compromised by animal cells' membrane flaccidity. A MS V-dependent transition is, by contrast, unproblematic on all counts. Since these issues bear directly on recent findings that mechanically-modulated Kv channels subtly tune pain-related excitability in peripheral mechanoreceptor neurons we undertook excitability modeling (evoked action potentials. Kvs with MS V-dependent closed-closed transitions produce nuanced mechanically-modulated excitability whereas an L-based MS-Kv yields extreme, possibly excessive

  6. Functional and Molecular Evidence for Kv7 Channel Subtypes in Human Detrusor from Patients with and without Bladder Outflow Obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalø, Julie; Sheykhzade, Majid; Nordling, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether Kv7 channels and their ancillary β-subunits, KCNE, are functionally expressed in the human urinary bladder. Kv7 channels were examined at the molecular level and by functional studies using RT-qPCR and myography, respectively. We found mRNA expressi...... between Kv7 channels and β-adrenoceptors in the human urinary bladder. The performed gene expression analysis combined with the organ bath studies imply that compounds that activate Kv7 channels could be useful for treatment of overactive bladder syndrome.......The aim of the study was to investigate whether Kv7 channels and their ancillary β-subunits, KCNE, are functionally expressed in the human urinary bladder. Kv7 channels were examined at the molecular level and by functional studies using RT-qPCR and myography, respectively. We found mRNA expression...... (activator of Kv7.1 channels, 10 μM) and ML213 (activator of Kv7.2, Kv7.4, Kv7.4/7.5 and Kv7.5 channels, 10 μM), reduced the tone of 1 μM carbachol pre-constricted bladder strips. XE991 (blocker of Kv7.1-7.5 channels, 10 μM) had opposing effects as it increased contractions achieved with 20 mM KPSS...

  7. Comparison of Channel Estimation Protocols for Coherent AF Relaying Networks in the Presence of Additive Noise and LO Phase Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Berger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Channel estimation protocols for wireless two-hop networks with amplify-and-forward (AF relays are compared. We consider multiuser relaying networks, where the gain factors are chosen such that the signals from all relays add up coherently at the destinations. While the destinations require channel knowledge in order to decode, our focus lies on the channel estimates that are used to calculate the relay gains. Since knowledge of the compound two-hop channels is generally not sufficient to do this, the protocols considered here measure all single-hop coefficients in the network. We start from the observation that the direction in which the channels are measured determines (1 the number of channel uses required to estimate all coefficient and (2 the need for global carrier phase reference. Four protocols are identified that differ in the direction in which the first-hop and the second-hop channels are measured. We derive a sensible measure for the accuracy of the channel estimates in the presence of additive noise and phase noise and compare the protocols based on this measure. Finally, we provide a quantitative performance comparison for a simple single-user application example. It is important to note that the results can be used to compare the channel estimation protocols for any two-hop network configuration and gain allocation scheme.

  8. Xenobiotic organic compounds in wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Baun, Anders; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    hundred of XOCs, among them mainly originating from hygiene products: chlorophenols, detergents and phthalates. Several compounds not deriving from hygiene products were also identified e.g. flame-retardants and drugs. A environmental hazard identification showed that a large number of compounds with high...

  9. Compound-heterozygous Marfan syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, F. S.; Hamel, B. C.; Hilhorst-Hofstee, Y.; Mulder, B. J. M.; Timmermans, J.; Pals, G.; Cobben, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    We report two families in which the probands have compound-heterozygous Marfan syndrome (MFS). The proband of family I has the R2726W FBN1 mutation associated with isolated skeletal features on one allele and a pathogenic FBN1 mutation on the other allele. The phenotype of the compound-heterozygous

  10. II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For condensed matter physicists and electronic engineers, this volume deals with aspects of II-VI semiconductor compounds. Areas covered include devices and applications of II-VI compounds; Co-based II-IV semi-magnetic semiconductors; and electronic structure of strained II-VI superlattices.

  11. 2. Intermetallic compounds with lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemans, J.B.A.A.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical considerations are given concerning the structures of intermetallic compounds of the lanthanides and thorium (R) on the one hand, and with Fe, Co or Ni (M) on the other. They all derive from the parent composition RM 5 with the CaCu 5 hexagonal structure. This consists of alternate layers in which the M atoms are distinguished as M 1 and M 2 . The other compounds whose structures are studied are obtained by systematic replacement of R by M, or vice versa. In the first type, every third R is replaced by two M's yielding R 2 M 17 compounds. The substitution may be truly random or structured in two ways: so that either the hexagonal structure is maintained or that it is converted into a rhombihedral one. In the second type, one M (in a M 1 position) out of every five is replaced by one R, giving rise to RM 2 compounds which form Laves phases. In the third type, the M 1 's are replaced by R's, resulting in compounds RM 3 . In the fourth type, every third M is replaced by R, yielding R 2 M 7 compounds. With M = Co and R a light lanthanide, the compounds are ferromagnets; with R yttrium, thorium, or a heavy lanthanide, they are ferrimagnets. The preparation of the compounds in an arc-melting apparatus under an Ar-atmosphere followed by annealing is described

  12. The demise of compound houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jørgen; Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    The compound house has long provided the accomodation required by low income households in West African cities. In Kumasi, Ghana, evidence suggests that no new compounds are being built. Instead, the city is being ringed by relatively affluent villa-style development while neighbourhoods dominated...

  13. METHOD OF REDUCING PLUTONIUM COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, I.B.

    1958-06-01

    A method is described for reducing plutonium compounds in aqueous solution from a higher to a lower valence state. This reduction of valence is achieved by treating the aqueous solution of higher valence plutonium compounds with hydrogen in contact with an activated platinum catalyst.

  14. Synthesis and characterisation of NS13558: a new important tool for addressing KCa1.1 channel function ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Andersen, Rune Wederkinck; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacological activation of the large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (KCa1.1) in the cardiac inner mitochondrial membrane has been found to protect the heart against ischemia reperfusion injuries. However, there are concerns about the selectivity of the pharmacological tools used...... to modulate the channel. Here, we address this issue by synthesising a methylated analogue of the tool KCa1.1 channel activator NS11021. The compound (NS13558) is designed as a structurally closely related and biologically inactive analogue of NS11021. NS13558 did not elicit any significant opening of cloned...... human KCa1.1 channels, but maintained comparable biological activity towards other cardiac ion channels as compared to NS11021. In isolated perfused rat hearts subjected to ischemia-reperfusion, infarct size was reduced from 29% in control to 7% in NS11021 treated hearts. In comparison, the inactive...

  15. Use of navigation channels by Lake Sturgeon: Does channelization increase vulnerability of fish to ship strikes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl W Hondorp

    Full Text Available Channelization for navigation and flood control has altered the hydrology and bathymetry of many large rivers with unknown consequences for fish species that undergo riverine migrations. In this study, we investigated whether altered flow distributions and bathymetry associated with channelization attracted migrating Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens into commercial navigation channels, potentially increasing their exposure to ship strikes. To address this question, we quantified and compared Lake Sturgeon selection for navigation channels vs. alternative pathways in two multi-channel rivers differentially affected by channelization, but free of barriers to sturgeon movement. Acoustic telemetry was used to quantify Lake Sturgeon movements. Under the assumption that Lake Sturgeon navigate by following primary flow paths, acoustic-tagged Lake Sturgeon in the more-channelized lower Detroit River were expected to choose navigation channels over alternative pathways and to exhibit greater selection for navigation channels than conspecifics in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River. Consistent with these predictions, acoustic-tagged Lake Sturgeon in the more-channelized lower Detroit River selected the higher-flow and deeper navigation channels over alternative migration pathways, whereas in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River, individuals primarily used pathways alternative to navigation channels. Lake Sturgeon selection for navigation channels as migratory pathways also was significantly higher in the more-channelized lower Detroit River than in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River. We speculated that use of navigation channels over alternative pathways would increase the spatial overlap of commercial vessels and migrating Lake Sturgeon, potentially enhancing their vulnerability to ship strikes. Results of our study thus demonstrated an association between channelization and the path use of migrating Lake Sturgeon that could prove

  16. Complex chemistry with complex compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichler Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years gas-phase chemical studies assisted by physical pre-separation allowed for the investigation of fragile single molecular species by gas-phase chromatography. The latest success with the heaviest group 6 transactinide seaborgium is highlighted. The formation of a very volatile hexacarbonyl compound Sg(CO6 was observed similarly to its lighter homologues molybdenum and tungsten. The interactions of these gaseous carbonyl complex compounds with quartz surfaces were investigated by thermochromatography. Second-generation experiments are under way to investigate the intramolecular bond between the central metal atom of the complexes and the ligands addressing the influence of relativistic effects in the heaviest compounds. Our contribution comprises some aspects of the ongoing challenging experiments as well as an outlook towards other interesting compounds related to volatile complex compounds in the gas phase.

  17. First flush of dissolved compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, P.; Holzer, P.; Huisman, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    In a crude conceptual approach it is commonly assumed that in a combined sewer system the concentration of dissolved compounds is diluted by an increasing flow rate due to rainwater inflow. However, theory of hydraulics suggests that these compounds are influenced by hydrodynamic effects. It is k......In a crude conceptual approach it is commonly assumed that in a combined sewer system the concentration of dissolved compounds is diluted by an increasing flow rate due to rainwater inflow. However, theory of hydraulics suggests that these compounds are influenced by hydrodynamic effects....... It is known that since the wave celerity is higher than the flow velocity of the water, the increase of flow rate induced through rain runoff is recognised earlier at a certain downstream section of the combined sewer than the concentration increase of typical rain-water compounds originating from surface...

  18. Pauli diagonal channels constant on axes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathanson, Michael [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, St. Mary' s College of California, Moraga, CA 94575 (United States); Ruskai, Mary Beth [Department of Mathematics, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2007-07-13

    We define and study the properties of channels which are analogous to unital qubit channels in several ways. A full treatment can be given only when the dimension d = p{sup m} a prime power, in which case each of the d + 1 mutually unbiased bases (MUB) defines an axis. Along each axis the channel looks like a depolarizing channel, but the degree of depolarization depends on the axis. When d is not a prime power, some of our results still hold, particularly in the case of channels with one symmetry axis. We describe the convex structure of this class of channels and the subclass of entanglement breaking channels. We find new bound entangled states for d = 3. For these channels, we show that the multiplicativity conjecture for maximal output p-norm holds for p = 2. We also find channels with behaviour not exhibited by unital qubit channels, including two pairs of orthogonal bases with equal output entropy in the absence of symmetry. This provides new numerical evidence for the additivity of minimal output entropy.

  19. VKCDB: Voltage-gated potassium channel database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallin Warren J

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family of voltage-gated potassium channels comprises a functionally diverse group of membrane proteins. They help maintain and regulate the potassium ion-based component of the membrane potential and are thus central to many critical physiological processes. VKCDB (Voltage-gated potassium [K] Channel DataBase is a database of structural and functional data on these channels. It is designed as a resource for research on the molecular basis of voltage-gated potassium channel function. Description Voltage-gated potassium channel sequences were identified by using BLASTP to search GENBANK and SWISSPROT. Annotations for all voltage-gated potassium channels were selectively parsed and integrated into VKCDB. Electrophysiological and pharmacological data for the channels were collected from published journal articles. Transmembrane domain predictions by TMHMM and PHD are included for each VKCDB entry. Multiple sequence alignments of conserved domains of channels of the four Kv families and the KCNQ family are also included. Currently VKCDB contains 346 channel entries. It can be browsed and searched using a set of functionally relevant categories. Protein sequences can also be searched using a local BLAST engine. Conclusions VKCDB is a resource for comparative studies of voltage-gated potassium channels. The methods used to construct VKCDB are general; they can be used to create specialized databases for other protein families. VKCDB is accessible at http://vkcdb.biology.ualberta.ca.

  20. Quantum circuits for quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iten, Raban; Colbeck, Roger; Christandl, Matthias

    2017-05-01

    We study the implementation of quantum channels with quantum computers while minimizing the experimental cost, measured in terms of the number of controlled-not (cnot) gates required (single-qubit gates are free). We consider three different models. In the first, the quantum circuit model (QCM), we consider sequences of single-qubit and cnot gates and allow qubits to be traced out at the end of the gate sequence. In the second (RandomQCM), we also allow external classical randomness. In the third (MeasuredQCM) we also allow measurements followed by operations that are classically controlled on the outcomes. We prove lower bounds on the number of cnot gates required and give near-optimal decompositions in almost all cases. Our main result is a MeasuredQCM circuit for any channel from m qubits to n qubits that uses at most one ancilla and has a low cnot count. We give explicit examples for small numbers of qubits that provide the lowest known cnot counts.

  1. Activation of human ether-a-go-go-related gene potassium channels by the diphenylurea 1,3-bis-(2-hydroxy-5-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-urea (NS1643)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rie Schultz; Diness, Thomas Goldin; Christ, Torsten

    2005-01-01

    increased both steady-state and tail current at all voltages tested. The EC(50) value for HERG channel activation was 10.5 microM. These results were reproduced on HERG channels expressed in mammalian human embryonic kidney 293 cells. In guinea pig cardiomyocytes, studied by patch clamp, application of 10......-a-go-go-related gene (ERG) potassium channels. We have developed the diphenylurea compound 1,3-bis-(2-hydroxy-5-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-urea (NS1643) and tested whether this small organic molecule could increase the activity of human ERG (HERG) channels expressed heterologously. In Xenopus laevis oocytes, NS1643...

  2. Comparative effects of sodium channel blockers in short term rat whole embryo culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Mats F, E-mail: Mats.Nilsson@farmbio.uu.se [Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University (Sweden); Sköld, Anna-Carin; Ericson, Ann-Christin; Annas, Anita; Villar, Rodrigo Palma [AstraZeneca R and D Södertälje (Sweden); Cebers, Gvido [AstraZeneca R and D, iMed, 141 Portland Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hellmold, Heike; Gustafson, Anne-Lee [AstraZeneca R and D Södertälje (Sweden); Webster, William S [Department of Anatomy and Histology, University of Sydney (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    This study was undertaken to examine the effect on the rat embryonic heart of two experimental drugs (AZA and AZB) which are known to block the sodium channel Nav1.5, the hERG potassium channel and the L-type calcium channel. The sodium channel blockers bupivacaine, lidocaine, and the L-type calcium channel blocker nifedipine were used as reference substances. The experimental model was the gestational day (GD) 13 rat embryo cultured in vitro. In this model the embryonic heart activity can be directly observed, recorded and analyzed using computer assisted image analysis as it responds to the addition of test drugs. The effect on the heart was studied for a range of concentrations and for a duration up to 3 h. The results showed that AZA and AZB caused a concentration-dependent bradycardia of the embryonic heart and at high concentrations heart block. These effects were reversible on washout. In terms of potency to cause bradycardia the compounds were ranked AZB > bupivacaine > AZA > lidocaine > nifedipine. Comparison with results from previous studies with more specific ion channel blockers suggests that the primary effect of AZA and AZB was sodium channel blockage. The study shows that the short-term rat whole embryo culture (WEC) is a suitable system to detect substances hazardous to the embryonic heart. - Highlights: • Study of the effect of sodium channel blocking drugs on embryonic heart function • We used a modified method rat whole embryo culture with image analysis. • The drugs tested caused a concentration dependent bradycardia and heart block. • The effect of drugs acting on multiple ion channels is difficult to predict. • This method may be used to detect cardiotoxicity in prenatal development.

  3. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel blockers: Pharmacological, biophysical and physiological relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsdell, Paul

    2014-02-26

    Dysfunction of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel causes cystic fibrosis, while inappropriate activity of this channel occurs in secretory diarrhea and polycystic kidney disease. Drugs that interact directly with CFTR are therefore of interest in the treatment of a number of disease states. This review focuses on one class of small molecules that interacts directly with CFTR, namely inhibitors that act by directly blocking chloride movement through the open channel pore. In theory such compounds could be of use in the treatment of diarrhea and polycystic kidney disease, however in practice all known substances acting by this mechanism to inhibit CFTR function lack either the potency or specificity for in vivo use. Nevertheless, this theoretical pharmacological usefulness set the scene for the development of more potent, specific CFTR inhibitors. Biophysically, open channel blockers have proven most useful as experimental probes of the structure and function of the CFTR chloride channel pore. Most importantly, the use of these blockers has been fundamental in developing a functional model of the pore that includes a wide inner vestibule that uses positively charged amino acid side chains to attract both permeant and blocking anions from the cell cytoplasm. CFTR channels are also subject to this kind of blocking action by endogenous anions present in the cell cytoplasm, and recently this blocking effect has been suggested to play a role in the physiological control of CFTR channel function, in particular as a novel mechanism linking CFTR function dynamically to the composition of epithelial cell secretions. It has also been suggested that future drugs could target this same pathway as a way of pharmacologically increasing CFTR activity in cystic fibrosis. Studying open channel blockers and their mechanisms of action has resulted in significant advances in our understanding of CFTR as a pharmacological target in disease

  4. Binding of benzocaine in batrachotoxin-modified Na+ channels. State-dependent interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G K; Wang, S Y

    1994-03-01

    Hille (1977. Journal of General Physiology. 69:497-515) first proposed a modulated receptor hypothesis (MRH) to explain the action of benzocaine in voltage-gated Na+ channels. Using the MRH as a framework, we examined benzocaine binding in batrachotoxin (BTX)-modified Na+ channels under voltage-clamp conditions using either step or ramp command signals. We found that benzocaine binding is strongly voltage dependent. At -70 mV, the concentration of benzocaine that inhibits 50% of BTX-modified Na+ currents in GH3 cells (IC50) is 0.2 mM, whereas at +50 mV, the IC50 is 1.3 mM. Dose-response curves indicate that only one molecule of benzocaine is required to bind with one BTX-modified Na+ channel at -70 mV, whereas approximately two molecules are needed at +50 mV. Upon treatment with the inactivation modifier chloramine-T, the binding affinity of benzocaine is reduced significantly at -70 mV, probably as a result of the removal of the inactivated state of BTX-modified Na+ channels. The same treatment, however, enhances the binding affinity of cocaine near this voltage. External Na+ ions appear to have little effect on benzocaine binding, although they do affect cocaine binding. We conclude that two mechanisms underlie the action of local anesthetics in BTX-modified Na+ channels. Unlike open-channel blockers such as cocaine and bupivacaine, neutral benzocaine binds preferentially with BTX-modified Na+ channels in a closed state. Furthermore, benzocaine can be modified chemically so that it behaves like an open-channel blocker. This compound also elicits a use-dependent block in unmodified Na+ channels after repetitive depolarizations, whereas benzocaine does not. The implications of these findings for the MRH theory will be discussed.

  5. Stable channel of reclaimed tidal lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syarifudin, Achmad; Imanuddin, Momon S.; Moerwanto, Arie S.; Suryadi, F. X.

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to develop models of the Operation and Maintenance in the reclaimed tidal marsh area to get a stable channel. The research location is reclaimed tidal delta area Telang I Primary 8 representing land typology A/B and a survey conducted in 13 South Secondary Schemes following existing tertiary Telang I. MIKE - 11 computer models used used to analyze the movement of sediment in the channel in both the Primary channel 8, SPD, SDU and tertiary channels in block 13 South. Calibration model with multiple channels in the field of physical parameters has been performed to obtain results close to the results of measurement modeling sediment movement in the channel. The integration models of MIKE - 11 models with various scenarios are used to model the operation and maintenance of the channel in the tidal marsh area to get a stable channel. According to the scheme P8 - 13S, OM models obtained 75 percent, in which the secondary channel (SPD/SDU) and built flap gate in tertiary channel, get a well prototype model of the stable channel (equilibriums), where the average erosion on P8 at a distance of 3,200 m in the amount of 4,472,049 m3 and the mean sedimentation in the SPD of 963,836 m3 and mean of sedimentation in the tertiary channel of 3,508,213 m3. Similarly, on average erosion P8 by 4,135,649 m3 and the mean sedimentation in the SDU of 681,304 m3 and the mean sedimentation in the tertiary channel of 3,454,345 m3.

  6. Disappearance of entrance channel dependence of fission fragment anisotropies at well-above-barrier energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenbosch, R.; Bierman, J.D.; Lestone, J.P.; Liang, J.F.; Prindle, D.J.; Sonzogni, A.A. [University of Washington, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Kailas, S.; Nadkarni, D.M.; Kapoor, S.S. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay-400085 (India)

    1996-09-01

    Fission fragment anisotropies have been measured to energies extending well above the barrier for three entrance channels leading to the same compound nucleus {sup 248}Cf. For the {sup 12}C + {sup 236}U and {sup 16}O + {sup 232}Th systems, lying on either side of the Businaro-Gallone critical asymmetry, the mean square angular momentum is matched at an excitation energy of 62 MeV. The anisotropies, although different at lower energies, are in agreement within experimental errors at this excitation energy and thus show no entrance channel dependence. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  7. Effect of Trimethyltin Chloride on Slow Vacuolar (SV) Channels in Vacuoles from Red Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Taproots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trela, Zenon; Burdach, Zbigniew; Siemieniuk, Agnieszka; Przestalski, Stanisław; Karcz, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, patch-clamp techniques have been used to investigate the effect of trimethyltin chloride (Met3SnCl) on the slow vacuolar (SV) channels in vacuoles from red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproots. Activity of SV channels has been measured in whole-vacuole and cytosolic side-out patch configurations. It was found that addition of trimethyltin chloride to the bath solution suppressed, in a concentration-dependent manner, SV currents in red beet vacuoles. The time constant, τ, increased significantly in the presence of the organotin. When single channel activity was analyzed, only little channel activity could be recorded at 100 μM Met3SnCl. Trimethyltin chloride added to the bath medium significantly decreased (by ca. threefold at 100 μM Met3SnCl and at 100 mV voltage, as compared to the control medium) the open probability of single channels. Single channel recordings obtained in the presence and absence of trimethyltin chloride showed that the organotin only slightly (by <10%) decreased the unitary conductance of single channels. It was also found that Met3SnCl significantly diminished the number of SV channel openings, whereas it did not change the opening times of the channels. Taking into account the above and the fact that under the here applied experimental conditions (pH = 7.5) Met3SnCl is a non-dissociated (more lipophilic) compound, we suggest that the suppression of SV currents observed in the presence of the organotin results probably from its hydrophobic properties allowing this compound to translocate near the selectivity filter of the channel.

  8. Allosteric modulators of the hERG K{sup +} channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhiyi, E-mail: z.yu@lacdr.leidenuniv.nl; Klaasse, Elisabeth, E-mail: elisabethklaasse@hotmail.com; Heitman, Laura H., E-mail: l.h.heitman@lacdr.leidenuniv.nl; IJzerman, Adriaan P., E-mail: ijzerman@lacdr.leidenuniv.nl

    2014-01-01

    Drugs that block the cardiac K{sup +} channel encoded by the human ether-à-go-go gene (hERG) have been associated with QT interval prolongation leading to proarrhythmia, and in some cases, sudden cardiac death. Because of special structural features of the hERG K{sup +} channel, it has become a promiscuous target that interacts with pharmaceuticals of widely varying chemical structures and a reason for concern in the pharmaceutical industry. The structural diversity suggests that multiple binding sites are available on the channel with possible allosteric interactions between them. In the present study, three reference compounds and nine compounds of a previously disclosed series were evaluated for their allosteric effects on the binding of [{sup 3}H]astemizole and [{sup 3}H]dofetilide to the hERG K{sup +} channel. LUF6200 was identified as an allosteric inhibitor in dissociation assays with both radioligands, yielding similar EC{sub 50} values in the low micromolar range. However, potassium ions increased the binding of the two radioligands in a concentration-dependent manner, and their EC{sub 50} values were not significantly different, indicating that potassium ions behaved as allosteric enhancers. Furthermore, addition of potassium ions resulted in a concentration-dependent leftward shift of the LUF6200 response curve, suggesting positive cooperativity and distinct allosteric sites for them. In conclusion, our investigations provide evidence for allosteric modulation of the hERG K{sup +} channel, which is discussed in the light of findings on other ion channels. - Highlights: • Allosteric modulators on the hERG K{sup +} channel were evaluated in binding assays. • LUF6200 was identified as a potent allosteric inhibitor. • Potassium ions were found to behave as allosteric enhancers. • Positive cooperativity and distinct allosteric sites for them were proposed.

  9. High-throughput electrophysiological assays for voltage gated ion channels using SyncroPatch 768PE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianbo Li

    Full Text Available Ion channels regulate a variety of physiological processes and represent an important class of drug target. Among the many methods of studying ion channel function, patch clamp electrophysiology is considered the gold standard by providing the ultimate precision and flexibility. However, its utility in ion channel drug discovery is impeded by low throughput. Additionally, characterization of endogenous ion channels in primary cells remains technical challenging. In recent years, many automated patch clamp (APC platforms have been developed to overcome these challenges, albeit with varying throughput, data quality and success rate. In this study, we utilized SyncroPatch 768PE, one of the latest generation APC platforms which conducts parallel recording from two-384 modules with giga-seal data quality, to push these 2 boundaries. By optimizing various cell patching parameters and a two-step voltage protocol, we developed a high throughput APC assay for the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7. By testing a group of Nav1.7 reference compounds' IC50, this assay was proved to be highly consistent with manual patch clamp (R > 0.9. In a pilot screening of 10,000 compounds, the success rate, defined by > 500 MΩ seal resistance and >500 pA peak current, was 79%. The assay was robust with daily throughput ~ 6,000 data points and Z' factor 0.72. Using the same platform, we also successfully recorded endogenous voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 in primary T cells. Together, our data suggest that SyncroPatch 768PE provides a powerful platform for ion channel research and drug discovery.

  10. Automated Electrophysiology Makes the Pace for Cardiac Ion Channel Safety Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens eMoeller

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The field of automated patch-clamp electrophysiology has emerged from the tension between the pharmaceutical industry’s need for high-throughput compound screening versus its need to be conservative due to regulatory requirements. On the one hand, hERG channel screening was increasingly requested for new chemical entities, as the correlation between blockade of the ion channel coded by hERG and Torsades de Pointes cardiac arrhythmia gained increasing attention. On the other hand, manual patch-clamping, typically quoted as the gold-standard for understanding ion channel function and modulation, was far too slow (and, consequently, too expensive for keeping pace with the numbers of compounds submitted for hERG channel investigations from pharmaceutical R&D departments. In consequence it became more common for some pharmaceutical companies to outsource safety pharmacological investigations, with a focus on hERG channel interactions. This outsourcing has allowed those pharmaceutical companies to build up operational flexibility and greater independence from internal resources, and allowed them to obtain access to the latest technological developments that emerged in automated patch-clamp electrophysiology – much of which arose in specialized biotech companies. Assays for nearly all major cardiac ion channels are now available by automated patch-clamping using heterologous expression systems, and recently, automated action potential recordings from stem-cell derived cardiomyocytes have been demonstrated. Today, most of the large pharmaceutical companies have acquired automated electrophysiology robots and have established various automated cardiac ion channel safety screening assays on these, in addition to outsourcing parts of their needs for safety screening.

  11. Integrating Carbon Nanotubes into Microfluidic Chip for Separating Biochemical Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Miaoxiang Max; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Bøggild, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present a new type of device to separate biochemical compounds wherein carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are integrated as chromatographic stationary phase. The CNTs were directly grown on the bottom of microfluidic channels on Si/SiO2 substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Acetylene was used...... as carbon source and Ni was employed as catalyst. For electrokinetic separations, higher electrical field strength is usually required; therefore, the CNTs were constructed in pillar-array-form by patterning the catalyst layer. Electrical field strength of 2.0 kV/cm has been realized, which is more than one...

  12. Bupivacaine inhibits large conductance, voltage- and Ca2+- activated K+ channels in human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Pedro; Enrique, Nicolás; Palomo, Ana R. Roldán; Rebolledo, Alejandro; Milesi, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    Bupivacaine is a local anesthetic compound belonging to the amino amide group. Its anesthetic effect is commonly related to its inhibitory effect on voltage-gated sodium channels. However, several studies have shown that this drug can also inhibit voltage-operated K+ channels by a different blocking mechanism. This could explain the observed contractile effects of bupivacaine on blood vessels. Up to now, there were no previous reports in the literature about bupivacaine effects on large conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ channels (BKCa). Using the patch-clamp technique, it is shown that bupivacaine inhibits single-channel and whole-cell K+ currents carried by BKCa channels in smooth muscle cells isolated from human umbilical artery (HUA). At the single-channel level bupivacaine produced, in a concentration- and voltage-dependent manner (IC50 324 µM at +80 mV), a reduction of single-channel current amplitude and induced a flickery mode of the open channel state. Bupivacaine (300 µM) can also block whole-cell K+ currents (~45% blockage) in which, under our working conditions, BKCa is the main component. This study presents a new inhibitory effect of bupivacaine on an ion channel involved in different cell functions. Hence, the inhibitory effect of bupivacaine on BKCa channel activity could affect different physiological functions where these channels are involved. Since bupivacaine is commonly used during labor and delivery, its effects on umbilical arteries, where this channel is highly expressed, should be taken into account. PMID:22688134

  13. What controls sediment flux in dryland channels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelides, K.; Singer, M. B.

    2010-12-01

    Theories for the development of longitudinal and grain size profiles in perennial fluvial systems are well developed, allowing for generalization of sediment flux and sorting in these fluvial systems over decadal to millennial time scales under different forcings (e.g., sediment supply, climate changes, etc). However, such theoretical frameworks are inadequate for understanding sediment flux in dryland channels subject to spatially and temporally discontinuous streamflow, where transport capacity is usually much lower than sediment supply. In such fluvial systems, channel beds are poorly sorted with weak vertical layering, poorly defined bar forms, minimal downstream fining, and straight longitudinal profiles. Previous work in dryland channels has documented sediment flux at higher rates than their humid counterparts once significant channel flow develops, pulsations in bed material transport under constant discharge, and oscillations in dryland channel width that govern longitudinal patterns in erosion and deposition. These factors point to less well appreciated controls on sediment flux in dryland valley floors that invite further study. This paper investigates the relative roles of hydrology, bed material grain size, and channel width on sediment flux rates in the Rambla de Nogalte in southeastern Spain. Topographic valley cross sections and hillslope and channel particle sizes were collected from an ephemeral-river reach. Longitudinal grain-size variation on the hillslopes and on the channel bed were analysed in order to determine the relationship between hillslope supply characteristics and channel grain-size distribution and longitudinal changes. Local fractional estimates of bed-material transport in the channel were calculated using a range of channel discharge scenarios in order to examine the effect of channel hydrology on sediment transport. Numerical modelling was conducted to investigate runoff connectivity from hillslopes to channel and to examine the

  14. Pore size matters for potassium channel conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldenhauer, Hans; Pincuntureo, Matías

    2016-01-01

    Ion channels are membrane proteins that mediate efficient ion transport across the hydrophobic core of cell membranes, an unlikely process in their absence. K+ channels discriminate K+ over cations with similar radii with extraordinary selectivity and display a wide diversity of ion transport rates, covering differences of two orders of magnitude in unitary conductance. The pore domains of large- and small-conductance K+ channels share a general architectural design comprising a conserved narrow selectivity filter, which forms intimate interactions with permeant ions, flanked by two wider vestibules toward the internal and external openings. In large-conductance K+ channels, the inner vestibule is wide, whereas in small-conductance channels it is narrow. Here we raise the idea that the physical dimensions of the hydrophobic internal vestibule limit ion transport in K+ channels, accounting for their diversity in unitary conductance. PMID:27619418

  15. Roughness coefficients for stream channels in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, B.N.; Garrett, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    When water flows in an open channel, energy is lost through friction along the banks and bed of the channel and through turbulence within the channel. The amount of energy lost is governed by channel roughness, which is expressed in terms of a roughness coefficient. An evaluation of the roughness coefficient is necessary in many hydraulic computations that involve flow in an open channel. Owing to the lack of satisfactory quantitative procedure, the ability of evaluate roughness coefficients can be developed only through experience; however, a basic knowledge of the methods used to assign the coefficients and the factors affecting them will be a great help. One of the most commonly used equations in open-channel hydraulics is that of Manning. The Manning equation is       1.486

  16. US U-25 channel performance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doss, E.; Pan, Y. C.

    1980-07-01

    The results of an ANL computational analysis of the performance of the US U-25 MHD channel are presented. This channel has gone through several revisions. The major revision occurred after it had been decided by the DOE Office of MHD to operate the channel with platinum-clad copper electrodes (cold), rather than with ceramic electrodes (hot), as originally planned. This work has been performed at the request of the DOE Office of MHD and the US U-25 generator design Review Committee. The channel specifications and operating conditions are presented. The combustor temperature and thermodynamic and electrical properties of the plasma are computed, and the results are discussed. The MHD channel performance has been predicted for different operating conditions. Sensitivity studies have also been performed on the effects of mass flow rate, surface roughness, combustor temperatures, and loading on the channel performance.

  17. Analytical Prediction Of Meandering Channel Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D.; Duan, J. G.

    2003-12-01

    The evolution of meandering channels, as a complex phenomenon, has been the research subject challenging river engineers for decades. The evolution of meandering channels is a complex morph-dynamic process resulted from the interaction among flow, sediment, and bank material. The rate of bank erosion was conventionally assumed to be proportional to the magnitude of near-bank excessive velocity or shear stress. A number of laboratory experiments on mild curved channels of flat beds indicated that the high velocity zone crosses the channel centerline at the neighborhood of the downstream inflection point instead of immediately downstream of the apex. If bank erosion only occurs at the places of high shear stress, the erosion of convex banks should be observed in these laboratory flumes, and the bends tend to subside. However, numerous experiments proved that a moderately or highly sinuous channel was initiated from a straight or mildly curved channel of no transverse slope by eroding the concave banks. Obviously

  18. Effects of Compound K-Distributed Sea Clutter on Angle Measurement of Wideband Monopulse Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of compound K-distributed sea clutter on angle measurement of wideband monopulse radar are investigated in this paper. We apply the conditional probability density function (pdf of monopulse ratio (MR error to analyze these effects. Based on the angle measurement procedure of the wideband monopulse radar, this conditional pdf is first deduced in detail for the case of compound K-distributed sea clutter plus noise. Herein, the spatial correlation of the texture components for each channel clutter and the correlation of the texture components between the sum and difference channel clutters are considered, and two extreme situations for each of them are tackled. Referring to the measured sea clutter data, angle measurement performances in various K-distributed sea clutter plus noise circumstances are simulated, and the effects of compound K-distributed sea clutter on angle measurement are discussed.

  19. Flood routing in an ephemeral channel with compound cross-section

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Natural phenomenon of surface and subsurface flow interaction is an intrinsic component of the hydrological processes in any watershed. ... The proposed mathematical model couples the numerical solution for complete Saint-Venant equations for surfaceflow with the numerical solution for one-dimensional Richards ...

  20. Investigating the Lateral Mixing Coefficient in a Compound Channel with Emergent Vegetation over the Floodplain

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein hamidifar; Mohammad hossein Ommid; Mehdi Bahrami; Mohammad javad Amiri

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Water quality control is very important for people, animals and plants. Predicting the spread of contaminants is important for managing and protecting rivers and streams to the balance of the ecosystem. Pollutants are introduced into waterways, though a variety of sources such as point and non-point sources. Under steady state conditions, where longitudinal mixing is not significant, studying the lateral mixing is essential in evaluating the influence of pollutants on water qual...

  1. EPR investigations on technetium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abram, U.; Munze, R.; Kirmse, R.; Stach, J.

    1986-01-01

    Stimulated by the widespread use of the isotope /sup 99m/Tc in the field of nuclear medicine, there has been a substantial growth of interest in the chemistry of this man-made element. A particular need emerges for analytical methods allowing solution investigations of coordination compounds of technetium with low substance use. Considering these facts, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (EPR) appears to be a very suitable method because only very small amounts of the compounds are needed (lower than 1 mg). The resulting spectra give information regarding the valence state, symmetry and bonding properties of the compounds under study

  2. Pharmaceutical Distribution Market Channels in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Woś

    2009-01-01

    Distribution on the pharmaceutical market in Poland is interesting and the most difficult sphere to manage. Numerous varied and specialized companies operating on the market cause that the processes of choosing middlemen in distribution channels are very complex. The hereby article presents the role and location of the companies operating within distribution channels on the pharmaceutical market. It draws attention to the development of non-pharmacy and non-wholesale sales channels.

  3. Monetary Policy and the Redistribution Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Adrien Auclert

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates the role of redistribution in the transmission mechanism of monetary policy to consumption. Using consumer theory, I show that redistribution has aggregate effects whenever marginal propensities to consume (MPCs) covary, across households, with balance-sheet exposures to aggregate shocks. Unexpected inflation gives rise to a Fisher channel and real interest rate shocks to an interest rate exposure channel; both channels are likely to contribute to the expansionary effects...

  4. Quantum privacy and Schur product channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levick, Jeremy; Kribs, David W.; Pereira, Rajesh

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the quantum privacy properties of an important class of quantum channels, by making use of a connection with Schur product matrix operations and associated correlation matrix structures. For channels implemented by mutually commuting unitaries, which cannot privatise qubits encoded directly into subspaces, we nevertheless identify private algebras and subsystems that can be privatised by the channels. We also obtain further results by combining our analysis with tools from the theory of quasi-orthogonal operator algebras and graph theory.

  5. Stability analysis for downflow in heated channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio, P.A.B. de.

    1985-01-01

    Stability and flow distribution are analysed for downflow in heated channels. It is shown that at low flow rates instabilities associated with the buoyancy forces may appear. A computer code in FORTRAN language to determine downflow distribution among n heated channels is presented. The model used to calculate downflow distribution and the onset of instability is compared with experiments performed in a test section with two parallel channels. (Author) [pt

  6. Multi-Channel Capacitive Sensor Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bingnan; Long, Jiang; Teo, Koon Hoo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, multi-channel capacitive sensor arrays based on microstrip band-stop filters are studied. The sensor arrays can be used to detect the proximity of objects at different positions and directions. Each capacitive sensing structure in the array is connected to an inductive element to form resonance at different frequencies. The resonances are designed to be isolated in the frequency spectrum, such that the change in one channel does not affect resonances at other channels. The indu...

  7. Universal communication part II: channels with memory

    OpenAIRE

    Lomnitz, Yuval; Feder, Meir

    2012-01-01

    Consider communication over a channel whose probabilistic model is completely unknown vector-wise and is not assumed to be stationary. Communication over such channels is challenging because knowing the past does not indicate anything about the future. The existence of reliable feedback and common randomness is assumed. In a previous paper it was shown that the Shannon capacity cannot be attained, in general, if the channel is not known. An alternative notion of "capacity" was defined, as the...

  8. Nonlinear Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Natural Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeev, Victor V.; Shirshin, Evgeny A.

    Principles of nonlinear laser fluorescence spectroscopy of complicated organic compounds and of the method capable of determining photophysical parameters are considered in this chapter. Special attention is paid to the peculiarities of the method connected with specific photophysical processes in natural organic compounds, especially in proteins, and to the major role of intramolecular energy transfer and presence of localized donor-acceptor pairs (LDAP) of fluorophores within single macromolecules. These facts stimulated the development of models based on the collective states formalism describing fluorescent response of LDAP to pulsed laser excitation. Unique features of the method are illustrated by the example of proteins (proteins with intrinsic fluorescence (HSA, BSA) and fluorescent protein mRFP1) that can be used as fluorescent tags of intracellular processes while their photophysical parameters can be used as the information channel.

  9. [Synopsis about the hypothesis of "information channel" of channel-collateral system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xi-Lang

    2008-10-01

    The author of the present paper founded a theorem about the "incompleteness of single channel structure" (nerve, blood vessel, lymphatic, interspace, aperture, etc.) through quantitative and qualitative analysis about the economic information channel in the human body, which eliminates the probability of single channel structure in the information channel of channel (meridian)-collateral system. After comprehensive analysis on the current researches, the author puts forward a neodoxy, i.e., the body "information channel" structure of the channel-collateral system, mainly follows the distribution regularity of systemic statistics, and is not a single specific entity; various layers of the information channel in the main stems of the channel-collaterals are composed of optimized structure tissues. Hence, the structure of this information channel of channel-collateral system is an overall-optimized, sequential and compatible systemic structure. From this neodoxy, the author brings forward a working principle of channel-collaterals, which is supported theoretically by bio-auxology. The longitudinal distribution of the main stems of meridian-collaterals is considered to result from that in the process of the animal evolution, in the animals moving forward, the microscopic complicated movement of intracorporeal information and energy molecules is related to the forward macroscopic and non-uniform movement of organism in trans-measure. Its impulse and kinetic momentum forms a main vector in the longitudinal direction of the body (the direction of the main stem of channel-collaterals). In order to adapt to and utilize natural regularities, the main stems of the channel-collaterals gradually differentiate and evolve in the living organism, forming a whole system. The "hypothesis of biological origin of channel-collateral system" and "that of information channel of the channel-collaterals in the body" constitute a relatively complete theoretical system framework.

  10. Thigmotropism and stretch-activated channels in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, H J; Véry, A A; Perera, T H; Davies, J M; Gow, N A

    1998-03-01

    The direction of growth of hyphae of the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans responds thigmotropically to surface contours by following scratches, ridges and grooves and by penetrating pores. Here it is shown that the thigmotropic response to ridges is attenuated by GdCl3 and verapamil [blockers of stretch-activated (SA) ion channels and L-type calcium channels, respectively]. At low concentrations, both compounds reduced the percentage of hyphae reorienting on contact with a ridge without markedly affecting hyphal extension rate, suggesting a possible role for SA or other calcium channels in the transduction of the thigmotropic response. In addition, patch-clamp recordings demonstrated SA channel activity in the plasma membrane of both yeast and hyphal cells of C. albicans. Two distinct SA channels with conductances of 54 pS and 20-25 pS in 200 mM KCl were observed in protoplasts from yeast cells and one channel of 51 pS was found in protoplasts from hyphal cells.

  11. Four-mode gating model of fast inactivation of sodium channel Nav1.2a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Tobias; Schmidtmayer, Johann; Alzheimer, Christian; Hansen, Ulf-Peter

    2008-10-01

    Basic principles of the gating mechanisms of neuronal sodium channels, especially the fast inactivation process, were revealed by a quantitative analysis of the effects of the chemically irreversible modifying agent chloramine T. The compound is known to enhance the open probability of sodium channels by interfering with the inactivation process. The key for the deduction of structure-function relationships was obtained from the analysis of single-channel patch-clamp data, especially the finding that chloramine T-induced modification of inactivation occurred in four steps. These steps were termed modes 1-4 (four-mode gating model), and their temporal sequence was always the same. The kinetic analysis of single-channel traces with an improved two-dimensional dwell-time fit revealed the possible mechanism related to each mode. Similarities to the kinetics of the sodium channel mutant F1489Q led to the assignment of modes 1 and 2 to transient defects in the locking of the inactivation particle (hinged lid). In the third mode, the hinged lid was unable to lock permanently. Finally, in mode 4, the apparent single-channel current was reduced, which could be explained by fast gating, presumably related to the selectivity filter.

  12. n-Channel semiconductor materials design for organic complementary circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Hakan; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J

    2011-07-19

    Organic semiconductors have unique properties compared to traditional inorganic materials such as amorphous or crystalline silicon. Some important advantages include their adaptability to low-temperature processing on flexible substrates, low cost, amenability to high-speed fabrication, and tunable electronic properties. These features are essential for a variety of next-generation electronic products, including low-power flexible displays, inexpensive radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, and printable sensors, among many other applications. Accordingly, the preparation of new materials based on π-conjugated organic molecules or polymers has been a central scientific and technological research focus over the past decade. Currently, p-channel (hole-transporting) materials are the leading class of organic semiconductors. In contrast, high-performance n-channel (electron-transporting) semiconductors are relatively rare, but they are of great significance for the development of plastic electronic devices such as organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). In this Account, we highlight the advances our team has made toward realizing moderately and highly electron-deficient n-channel oligomers and polymers based on oligothiophene, arylenediimide, and (bis)indenofluorene skeletons. We have synthesized and characterized a "library" of structurally related semiconductors, and we have investigated detailed structure-property relationships through optical, electrochemical, thermal, microstructural (both single-crystal and thin-film), and electrical measurements. Our results reveal highly informative correlations between structural parameters at various length scales and charge transport properties. We first discuss oligothiophenes functionalized with perfluoroalkyl and perfluoroarene substituents, which represent the initial examples of high-performance n-channel semiconductors developed in this project. The OFET characteristics of these compounds are presented with an

  13. Channel Restoration Design for Meandering Rivers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soar, Philip

    2001-01-01

    A framework for channel restoration design is presented that attempts to bridge the divide between reconnaissance level geomorphological designs at one extreme and numerical modeling of hydrodynamics...

  14. Achromatic Cooling Channel with Li Lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbekov, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2002-04-29

    A linear cooling channel with Li lenses, solenoids, and 201 MHz RF cavities is considered. A special lattice design is used to minimize chromatic aberrations by suppression of several betatron resonances. Transverse emittance of muon beam decreases from 2 mm to 0.5 mm at the channel of about 110 m length. Longitudinal heating is modest, therefore transmission of the channel is rather high: 96% without decay and 90% with decay. Minimal beam emittance achievable by similar channel estimated as about 0.25 mm at surface field of Li lenses 10 T.

  15. Flow and sediment transport across oblique channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Madsen, Erik Østergaard; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    A 3D numerical investigation of flow across channels aligned obliquely to the main flow direction has been conducted. The applied numerical model solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations using the k-ε model for turbulence closure on a curvilinear grid. Three momentum equations...... are solved, but the computational domain is 2D due to a uniformity along the channel alignment. Two important flow features arise when the flow crosses the channel: (i) the flow will be refracted in the direction of the channel alignment. This may be described by a depth-averaged model. (ii) due to shear...

  16. Calcium channel blockers and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, Kevin R

    2014-07-01

    The relationship between calcium channel blockers and prostate cancer has been an area of increased interest to investigators. Calcium channel blockers have been shown to influence cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Clinically, the association between calcium channel blockers and the development of prostate cancer has been controversial. However, on a basic science level, there is evidence that calcium channel blockers induce cytotoxicity in androgen receptor positive cell lines and may offer an innovative strategy for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Measuring Balance Across Multiple Radar Receiver Channels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Bickel, Douglas L.

    2018-03-01

    When radar receivers employ multiple channels, the general intent is for the receive channels to be as alike as possible, if not as ideal as possible. This is usually done via prudent hardware design, supplemented by system calibration. Towards this end, we require a quality metric for ascertaining the goodness of a radar channel, and the degree of match to sibling channels. We propose a relevant and useable metric to do just that. Acknowledgements This report was the result of an unfunded research and development activity.

  18. The Origins of Transmembrane Ion Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Even though membrane proteins that mediate transport of ions and small molecules across cell walls are among the largest and least understood biopolymers in contemporary cells, it is still possible to shed light on their origins and early evolution. The central observation is that transmembrane portions of most ion channels are simply bundles of -helices. By combining results of experimental and computer simulation studies on synthetic models and natural channels, mostly of non-genomic origin, we show that the emergence of -helical channels was protobiologically plausible, and did not require highly specific amino acid sequences. Despite their simple structure, such channels could possess properties that, at the first sight, appear to require markedly larger complexity. Specifically, we explain how the antiamoebin channels, which are made of identical helices, 16 amino acids in length, achieve efficiency comparable to that of highly evolved channels. We further show that antiamoebin channels are extremely flexible, compared to modern, genetically coded channels. On the basis of our results, we propose that channels evolved further towards high structural complexity because they needed to acquire stable rigid structures and mechanisms for precise regulation rather than improve efficiency. In general, even though architectures of membrane proteins are not nearly as diverse as those of water-soluble proteins, they are sufficiently flexible to adapt readily to the functional demands arising during evolution.

  19. Customer Engagement Tool (Multi Channel Communication)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Add new infrastructure within SSA's Enterprise Architecture to allow interactions over multiple, yet to be defined, channels. Possibilities include: Provide a portal...

  20. Fuel channel closure and adapter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashen, W.S.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides a mechanical closure/actuating ram combination particularly suited for use in sealing the ends of the pressure tubes when a CANDU-type reactor is refueled. It provides a cluster that may be inserted into a fuel channel end fitting to provide at least partial closing off of a pressure tube while permitting the disengagement of the fueling machine and its withdrawal from the closure for other purposes. The invention also provides a ram/closure combination wherein the application of loading force to a deformable sealing disk is regulated by a massive load bar component forming part of the fueling machine and being therefore accessible for maintenance or replacement

  1. Channeling and related crystal effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uggerhoj, Erik

    1995-01-01

    Channeling, the interaction of particles with oriented crystals, has been applied in a wide variety of scientific and technological areas. A workshop at Aarhus, Denmark, this summer highlighted progress and future directions. Radiation emission has been explored and linked to coherent bremsstrahlung and other oriented crystal radiations. Dramatic effects have been found for ultra-relativistic electrons with Lorentz factors of 105 6. Single crystals are unique for investigations of quantum electrodynamics in strong external fields because probabilities for processes in axial/ planar fields are determined by the magnitude of these fields in the particle rest frame. Erik Uggerhoj of Aarhus reported on an extensive series of experiments concerning radiation emission, pair production, and shower formation carried out at CERN by the NA43 collaboration. As Vladimir Baier of Novosibirsk and Yuri Kononets of Kurchatov noted, theoretical treatment of these interconnected radiation distributions is challenging and much work needs to be done. In general, the agreement with the CERN experiments is good, but many areas like polarization phenomena and particle production need investigation. Prominent among high energy applications is extraction from accelerators. At the workshop, Alexei Asseev reported on beam extraction using a bent crystal at Serpukhov. Konrad Elsener and Jukka Klem reviewed recent CERN SPS studies driven by the possibility of using crystals for extraction of LHC beams. Thornton Murphy of Fermilab announced a step in that direction, with a demonstration this summer of extraction from the Tevatron at 900 GeV. Bent crystal channeling is also used for handling extracted high energy beams. Niels Doble presented a beautiful example of a beam for the CERN NA48 CP-violation experiment. Yuri Chesnokov reported that beams had been deflected through angles up to 150 milliradians at Serpukhov

  2. EPICS channel access using websocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, A.; Furukawa, K.; Higurashi, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Web technology is useful as a means of widely disseminating accelerator and beam status information. For this purpose, WebOPI was implemented by SNS as a web-based system using Ajax (asynchronous JavaScript and XML) with EPICS. On the other hand, it is often necessary to control the accelerator from different locations as well as the central control room during beam operation and maintenance. However, it is not realistic to replace the GUI-based operator interface (OPI) with a Web-based system using Ajax technology because of interactive performance issue. Therefore, as a next generation OPI over the web using EPICS Channel Access (CA), we developed a client system based on WebSocket, which is a new protocol provided by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) for Web-based systems. WebSocket is a web technology that provides bidirectional, full-duplex communication channels over a single TCP connection. By utilizing Node.js and the WebSocket access library called Socket.IO, a WebSocket server was implemented. Node.js is a server-side JavaScript language built on the Google V8 JavaScript Engine. In order to construct the WebSocket server as an EPICS CA client, an add-on for Node.js was developed in C/C++ using the EPICS CA library, which is included in the EPICS base. As a result, for accelerator operation, Web-based client systems became available not only in the central control room but also with various types of equipment. (author)

  3. The demise of compound houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jørgen; Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    of compound housing and analyses the advantages and disadvantages of life within such housing in Kumasi. Issues of privacy, image and communal life are usually cited by occupants dissatiesfied with life in compound houses, and the difficulty of extending them without spoiling the open spaces...... perceptions of what is acceptable urban life to the growing cohort of young African households. In addition, there is a need to explore innovative forms of tenure in order to secure the majority of Kumasi's population access to land for housing.......The compound house has long provided the accomodation required by low income households in West African cities. In Kumasi, Ghana, evidence suggests that no new compounds are being built. Instead, the city is being ringed by relatively affluent villa-style development while neighbourhoods dominated...

  4. Phenolic Compounds in Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Velasco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The Brassicaceae family includes a wide range of horticultural crops, some of them with economic significance and extensively used in the diet throughout the world. The phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables has been recently investigated and, nowadays, the profile of different Brassica species is well established. Here, we review the significance of phenolic compounds as a source of beneficial compounds for human health and the influence of environmental conditions and processing mechanisms on the phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables.

  5. Fourth symposium on macrocyclic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, J.J.; Izatt, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Both theoretical and experimental aspects of the properties and behavior of synthetic and naturally occurring macrocyclic compounds are covered in this symposium. This document contains abstracts of the papers

  6. Enzymatic synthesis of organophosphorus compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodiazhnyi, Oleg I

    2011-01-01

    Data on biocatalytic methods for the preparation of chiral organophosphorus compounds are generalized and described systematically. Various examples of enzymatic and microbiological synthesis of hydroxyphosphonates, aminophosphonates, phosphinites, phosphine oxides and tertiary phosphines are discussed. The bibliography includes 154 references.

  7. Radiation curable hydantoin diacrylate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seltzer, R.; DiPrima, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    The diacrylate compounds are liquid at room temperature, easily processable as adhesives, casting and laminating resins and when cured possess excellent resistance to water. These compositions are easily cured exposure to ionizing radiations

  8. Third Symposium on Macrocyclic Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    At the Third Symposium on Macrocyclic Compounds there were sessions on facilitated transport, analytical applications, organic synthesis and reactions, phase transfer catalysis, and metal complexation. Abstracts of the individual presentations are included

  9. Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA's fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

  10. Quality control of labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matucha, M.

    1979-01-01

    Some advantages and disadvantages of methods used for quality control of organic labelled compounds (1 31 I, 14 C) are shortly discussed. The methods used are electrophoresis, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometry, radiogas and thin-layer chromatography. (author)

  11. The precipitation of vanadium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, A.H.; Cassa, J.C.S.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a study on the chemistry of the precipitation process of vanadium compounds in sulfuric media are presented, in order to recover the vanadium contained in the ore from Campo Alegre de Lourdes (Bahia-Brazil). (Author) [pt

  12. Enzymatic synthesis of organophosphorus compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodiazhnyi, Oleg I.

    2011-09-01

    Data on biocatalytic methods for the preparation of chiral organophosphorus compounds are generalized and described systematically. Various examples of enzymatic and microbiological synthesis of hydroxyphosphonates, aminophosphonates, phosphinites, phosphine oxides and tertiary phosphines are discussed. The bibliography includes 154 references.

  13. Compounding in synthetic aperture imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. M.; Jensen, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    from multiple spherical emissions to synthesize multiple transmit and receive apertures, corresponding to imaging the tissue from multiple directions. The many images are added incoherently, to produce a single compound image. Using a 192-element, 3.5-MHz, λ-pitch transducer, it is demonstrated from...... tissue-phantom measurements that the speckle is reduced and the contrast resolution improved when applying synthetic aperture compound imaging. At a depth of 4 cm, the size of the synthesized apertures is optimized for lesion detection based on the speckle information density. This is a performance...... measure for tissue contrast resolution which quantifies the tradeoff between resolution loss and speckle reduction. The speckle information density is improved by 25% when comparing synthetic aperture compounding to a similar setup for compounding using dynamic receive focusing. The cystic resolution...

  14. Phenolic Compounds in Brassica Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Cartea González, María Elena; Francisco Candeira, Marta; Soengas Fernández, María del Pilar; Velasco Pazos, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The...

  15. The Censor Compound Design Pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Top, Søren; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Angelov, Christo K.

    2002-01-01

    "Censor compound design pattern" er et system af design mønstre, som tilsammen giver en løsning på at håndtere ikke funktionelle hensyn i programkoden......"Censor compound design pattern" er et system af design mønstre, som tilsammen giver en løsning på at håndtere ikke funktionelle hensyn i programkoden...

  16. An information-guided channel-hopping scheme for block-fading channels with estimation errors

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli

    2010-12-01

    Information-guided channel-hopping technique employing multiple transmit antennas was previously proposed for supporting high data rate transmission over fading channels. This scheme achieves higher data rates than some mature schemes, such as the well-known cyclic transmit antenna selection and space-time block coding, by exploiting the independence character of multiple channels, which effectively results in having an additional information transmitting channel. Moreover, maximum likelihood decoding may be performed by simply decoupling the signals conveyed by the different mapping methods. In this paper, we investigate the achievable spectral efficiency of this scheme in the case of having channel estimation errors, with optimum pilot overhead for minimum meansquare error channel estimation, when transmitting over blockfading channels. Our numerical results further substantiate the robustness of the presented scheme, even with imperfect channel state information. ©2010 IEEE.

  17. Differential Effects of TRPA and TRPV Channels on Behaviors of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Thies

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TRPA and TRPV ion channels are members of the transient receptor potential (TRP cation channel superfamily, which mediates various sensory transductions. In Caenorhabditis elegans , the TRPV channels are known to affect chemosensation, while the TRPA-1 channel is associated with thermosensation and mechanosensation. We examined thermosensation, chemosensation, and osmosensation in strains lacking TRPA-1 or TRPV channels. We found that TRPV channel knockout worms exhibited similar behavioral deficits associated with thermotaxis as the TRPA-1 channel knockout, suggesting a dual role for TRPV channels. In contrast, chemosensation responses, assessed by both avoidance reversal behavior and NaCl osmosensation, were dependent on TRPV channels but seemed independent of TRPA-1 channel. Our findings suggest that, in addition to TRPA-1 channel, TRPV channels are necessary for thermotaxis and may activate, or modulate, the function of TRPA-1 channels. In contrast, TRPA-1 channels do not have a dual responsibility, as they have no functional role in odorant avoidance or osmosensation.

  18. Compound Odontoma in young girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurwahida Nurwahida

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Odontomas are the most common type of odontogenic tumors and generally they are asymptomatic. These tumors are formed from enamel and dentin, and can have variable amounts of cement and pulp tissues. According to radiographic, microscopic, and clinical features, two types of odontomas are recognized: Complex and compound odontomas. Complex odontomas occur mostly in the posterior part of the mandible and compound odontomas in the anterior maxilla. Case Report. A young girl patient, 9 years old came to Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery with a slow growing and asymptomatic swelling in her left posterior mandible for 5 years in his history taking. The panoramic radiograph show  a radioopacity and radiolucent lesion at the lower second molar region, with well-corticated limits. An insisional biopsi   confirmed  as compound odontoma. The surgery  performed with simple enucleation and curettage under general anaesthesia. Discussion. Compound odontomas are usually located in the anterior maxilla, over the crowns of unerupted teeth, or between the roots of erupted teeth. In this case report, Compound odontomas are found in the posterior mandible. Conclusion. Compound odontomas in the posterior mandible is a rare. The treatment of odontomas depends on the size of the lesion. The early diagnosis, the treatment of choice is conservative surgical enucleation and curettage and prognosis is excellent.

  19. XPM-induced degradation of multilevel phase modulated channel caused by neighboring NRZ modulated channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Schiellerup, G.; Peucheret, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    The impact of XPM from NRZ modulated channels on an 8-level phase modulated channel in a WDM system was investigated. Requirements on launch power are found. 400 km transmission was achieved with negligible penalty.......The impact of XPM from NRZ modulated channels on an 8-level phase modulated channel in a WDM system was investigated. Requirements on launch power are found. 400 km transmission was achieved with negligible penalty....

  20. Advanced applications of ion channeling for the study of imperfections in crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, M.L. [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1997-03-01

    A review will be given of the applications of medium energy ion channeling for the studies of imperfections in the near-surface regions of crystals. The following topics will be discussed: (1.) epitaxial layers, including elemental depositions of a few monolayers, strained-layer superlattices, and compound layers; (2.) lattice defects, including ion damage in diamond, dislocation networks in Si, and anomalous lattice vibrations in high temperature superconductors; (3.) lattice sites of solute atoms, including substitutional sites in compounds (LiNbO{sub 3} and GaP), and interstitial sites produced by association with point defects. (author)

  1. Cyanated diazatetracene diimides with ultrahigh electron affinity for n-channel field effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Ye, Qun

    2013-03-15

    Several diazatetracene diimides with high electron affinity (up to 4.66 eV!) were prepared and well characterized. The LUMO energy level of these electron-deficient molecules was found to be closely related to their material stability. Compound 7 with ultrahigh electron affinity suffered from reduction and hydrolysis in the presence of silica gel or water. The stable compounds 3 and 6 showed n-channel FET behavior with an average electron mobility of 0.002 and 0.005 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively, using a solution processing method. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  2. Innate immune response of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) mannose-binding lectin to channel catfish virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The channel catfish virus (CCV) is a pathogenic herpesvirus that infects channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in pond aquaculture in the Southeast USA. The innate immune protein mannose-binding lectin (MBL) could play an important role in the innate response of channel catfish by binding to the CC...

  3. Highlights for the 6th International Ion Channel Conference: ion channel structure, function, disease and therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To foster communication and interactions amongst international scholars and scientists in the field of ion channel research, the 6th International Ion Channel Conference (IICC-2017 was held between June 23–27, 2017 in the eastern coastal city of Qingdao, China. The meeting consisted of 450 attendees and 130 speakers and poster presenters. The program consisted of research progress, new findings and ongoing studies that were focused on (1 Ion channel structure and function; (2 Ion channel physiology and human diseases; (3 Ion channels as targets for drug discovery; (4 Technological advances in ion channel research. An insightful overview was presented on the structure and function of the mechanotransduction channel Drosophila NOMPC (No mechanoreceptor potential C, a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP channel family. Recent studies on Transmembrane protein 16 or Anoctamin-1 (TMEM16A, a member of the calcium-activated chloride channel [CaCC] family were summarized as well. In addition, topics for ion channel regulation, homeostatic feedback and brain disorders were thoroughly discussed. The presentations at the IICC-2017 offer new insights into our understanding of ion channel structures and functions, and ion channels as targets for drug discovery.

  4. Multi-reaction-channel fitting calculations in a coupled-channel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gx; 13.75.Jz; 14.20.Gk; 25.80.-e. 1. Introduction. To describe channel coupling effects we adopt the K-matrix formalism. ... Also for some of the strangeness production channels the effect of including the ρ-channel clearly affects the .... The range multiplier for the values is given on top, the name of the parameter below. 220.

  5. Optimising the Quality of Experience during Channel Zapping : The Impact of Advertisements during Channel Zapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, R.E.; Klos, V.B.; Godana, B.E.; Nicolai, F.P.; Ahmed, O.K.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays various digital television services are available. However, the user of these services experiences longer delays than the traditional analog TV while switching from channel to channel. The digital TV operator usually displays a black screen with the channel number during zapping. However,

  6. Inhibition of human Na(v)1.5 sodium channels by strychnine and its analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chunhua; Sun, Lirong; Zhang, Meng; Li, Shuji; Wang, Xuemin; Gao, Tianming; Zhu, Xinhong

    2011-08-15

    Strychnine and brucine from the seeds of the plant Strychnos nux vomica have been shown to have interesting pharmacological effects on several neurotransmitter receptors. In this study, we have characterized the pharmacological properties of strychnine and its analogs on human Na(v)1.5 channels to assess their potential therapeutic advantage in certain arrhythmias. Among the eight alkaloids, only strychnine and icajine exhibited inhibition potency on the Na(v)1.5 channel with the half-maximum inhibition (IC(50)) values of 83.1μM and 104.6μM, respectively. Structure-function analysis indicated that the increased bulky methoxy groups on the phenyl ring or the negatively charged oxygen atom may account for this lack of inhibition on the Na(v)1.5 channel. Strychnine and icajine may bind to the channel by cation-π interactions. The substitution with a large side chain on the phenyl ring or the increased molecular volume may alter the optimized position for the compound close to the binding sites of the channel. Strychnine and icajine bind to the Na(v)1.5 channel with a new mechanism that is different from TTX and local anesthetics. They bind to the outer vestibule of the channel pore with fast association and dissociation rates at resting state. Strychnine and icajine had little effect on steady-state fast inactivation but markedly shifted the slow inactivation of Na(v)1.5 currents toward more hyperpolarized potentials. The property of icajine influencing slow-inactivated state of Na(v)1.5 channel would be potential therapeutic advantages in certain arrhythmias. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mefloquine inhibits voltage dependent Nav1.4 channel by overlapping the local anaesthetic binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiz-Candia, Bertin; Islas, Angel A; Sánchez-Solano, Alfredo; Mancilla-Simbro, Claudia; Scior, Thomas; Millan-PerezPeña, Lourdes; Salinas-Stefanon, Eduardo M

    2017-02-05

    Mefloquine constitutes a multitarget antimalaric that inhibits cation currents. However, the effect and the binding site of this compound on Na + channels is unknown. To address the mechanism of action of mefloquine, we employed two-electrode voltage clamp recordings on Xenopus laevis oocytes, site-directed mutagenesis of the rat Na + channel, and a combined in silico approach using Molecular Dynamics and docking protocols. We found that mefloquine: i) inhibited Na v 1.4 currents (IC 50 =60μM), ii) significantly delayed fast inactivation but did not affect recovery from inactivation, iii) markedly the shifted steady-state inactivation curve to more hyperpolarized potentials. The presence of the β1 subunit significantly reduced mefloquine potency, but the drug induced a significant frequency-independent rundown upon repetitive depolarisations. Computational and experimental results indicate that mefloquine overlaps the local anaesthetic binding site by docking at a hydrophobic cavity between domains DIII and DIV that communicates the local anaesthetic binding site with the selectivity filter. This is supported by the fact that mefloquine potency significantly decreased on mutant Na v 1.4 channel F1579A and significantly increased on K1237S channels. In silico this compound docked above F1579 forming stable π-π interactions with this residue. We provide structure-activity insights into how cationic amphiphilic compounds may exert inhibitory effects by docking between the local anaesthetic binding site and the selectivity filter of a mammalian Na + channel. Our proposed synergistic cycle of experimental and computational studies may be useful for elucidating binding sites of other drugs, thereby saving in vitro and in silico resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Adrenaline-induced colonic K+ secretion is mediated by KCa1.1 (BK) channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Vaarby; Sausbier, Matthias; Ruth, Peter

    2010-01-01

    secretory K(+) channel in the apical membrane of the murine distal colon. The BK channel is responsible for both resting and Ca(2+)-activated colonic K(+) secretion and is up-regulated by aldosterone. Agonists (e.g. adrenaline) that elevate cAMP are potent activators of distal colonic K(+) secretion....... However, the secretory K(+) channel responsible for cAMP-induced K(+) secretion remains to be defined. In this study we used the Ussing chamber to identify adrenaline-induced electrogenic K(+) secretion. We found that the adrenaline-induced electrogenic ion secretion is a compound effect dominated...... by anion secretion and a smaller electrically opposing K(+) secretion. Using tissue from (i) BK wildtype (BK(+/+)) and knockout (BK(/)) and (ii) cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) wildtype (CFTR(+/+)) and knockout (CFTR(/)) mice we were able to isolate the adrenaline-induced K(+) secretion. We...

  9. Stability and Hydrocarbon/Fluorocarbon Sorption of a Metal-Organic Framework with Fluorinated Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijiang Xie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The stabilities and hydrocarbon/fluorocarbon sorption properties of a zeolite-like metal-organic framework (MOF Zn(hfipbb with fluorinated channels has been studied. By the combination of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD measurements, we confirm that Zn(hfipbb has exceptionally high hydrothermal and thermal stabilities. The adsorption behaviors of water and methanol by Zn(hfipbb indicate that it is highly hydrophobic but with high adsorption of alcohols. Hexane and perfluorohexane adsorption measurements show that the fluorinated channels in Zn(hfipbb have high affinity with hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon. The high fluorophilic nature of the channels and the high stability of the compound suggest its potential utility in practical separation applications.

  10. Supramolecular ion channels from a transmembrane bischolic acid derivative showing two discrete conductances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Mami; Yamamura, Mika; Satake, Akiharu; Kobuke, Yoshiaki

    2004-09-21

    Bischolic acid derivative 1 linked by m-xylylene dicarbamate at the 3,3'-position was synthesized and the single ion channel properties were examined. Compound 1 showed two clearly distinct conductances, 9.5 (type A) and 25.3 pS (type B), under 500 mM KCl symmetric salt conditions, whereas various conductances, ranging from 5-20 pS, were observed in the tetramethylether analogue reported previously. Results indicate that the replacement of four methylether groups with hydroxyls at the 7, 7', 12, and 12' positions in the bischolic acid framework influences the stability of aggregated (supramolecular) ion channel structures. Ion permeability ratios (potassium/chloride and potassium/sodium) for each type of channel were also determined.

  11. Theoretical postulation of PLC channel model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Ionuţ Chiuţă

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this document is to supply atheoretical basis for modelling the communicationlinks over powerlines. A comprehensive summary oftransmission properties and the noise scenario onpublic mains supply when used for data transmissionare given.Different PLC models - PLC channel, noise inPLC channel, coupling units, filters and conditioningdevices – will be created and they will be used tosimulate the PLC channel.PLC applications will have to work at veryunusual channels, solely designed for optimalelectrical power transportation, completelydisregarding signal transmission at high frequencies.It is shown that the typical properties aredescribed by transfer functions and noise scenariostypical for access and inhouse networks. The generaltransfer function for different channel types is derivedand, since an emulation system should reproducetypical classes of channels rather than singlemeasurements, the transfer function is concretisedwith reference channels. These are later serving asbasis for development of channel simulators andchannel emulators. Special attention is paid tomodelling of aperiodic impulsive noise since PLCsystems are reacting very sensitive to them and thisclass of noise has been insufficiently considered so far.

  12. Channel One Online: Advertising Not Educating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasnik, Shelley

    Rather than viewing Channel One's World Wide Web site as an authentic news bureau, as the organization claims, it is better understood as an advertising delivery system. The web site is an attempt to expand Channel One's reach into schools, taking advantage of unsuspecting teachers and students who might fall prey to spurious claims. This paper…

  13. Energy detector performance in Rician fading channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brkić Srđan S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed the problem of detection of unknown signals in the Rician fading channel. A closed-form expression for the probability of detection is derived, followed by the numerical results. The analysis was extended to the case of cooperative sensor network in which the environment can be modelled by independent Rician fading channels.

  14. The sedimentary record of submarine channel morphodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, J.

    2017-01-01

    Submarine channels are ubiquitous on the ocean floor and are considered to be the equivalent of rivers on land. These channels are created by turbidity currents, which originate from the continental margins and which can transport sediment for thousands of kilometres into the oceans. The aim of this

  15. Polyps in continent catheterizable bladder channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Travis W; Mitchell, Michael E; Balcom, Anthony H

    2013-02-01

    We describe our experience with polyps encountered in bladder continent catheterizable channels. An IRB-approved retrospective study was conducted on all patients at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin with continent catheterizable channels managed by a single physician over a 16-year time period. Fifty-five patients were identified with bladder channels. During a median follow-up of 7 years (range 3-16 years), 20% (11/55) of bladder channels developed polyps. The time to diagnosis of a polyp in bladder channels from initial surgery ranged from 3 months to 8 years (median of 29 months). Fifty-five percent (6/11) of patients who developed bladder polyps were symptomatic. All patients' symptoms resolved after treatment by endoscopic resection. Forty-five percent (5/11) of polyps recurred after resection. The time of recurrence ranged from 4 months to 7 years (median of 19 months). Polyps were universally benign inflammatory granulomatous tissue. This is the first series reporting the incidence of polyps in bladder catheterizable channels. Patients with continent catheterizable bladder channels can develop symptomatic polyps in their channels, of unknown long-term significance and risk. Copyright © 2011 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Measuring vibrations in fuel channels CNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín Ghiselli, A.; Fiori, J.; Sacchi, M.; Villabrille, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper present a description of implementation and execution of vibration measurements made at the request of NUCLEOELECTRICA ARGENTINA S.A. on the ends of the reactor fuel channels of Embalse Nuclear Power Plant to explore possible differences between the dynamic behavior of empty fuel channel and with full charge of fuel elements inside. (author)

  17. Hydrodynamic blood plasma separation in microfluidic channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouvet, Lionel

    2010-01-01

    The separation of red blood cells from plasma flowing in microchannels is possible by biophysical effects such as the Zweifach–Fung bifurcation law. In the present study, daughter channels are placed alongside a main channel such that cells and plasma are collected separately. The device is aimed...

  18. Steady turbulent flow in curved rectangular channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vriend, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    After the study of fully developed and developing steady laminar flow in curved channels of shallow rectangular wet cross-section (see earlier reports in this series), steady turbulent flow in such channels is investigated as a next step towards a mathematical model of the flow in shallow river

  19. Developing laminar flow in curved rectangular channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vriend, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    As an intermediate step between earlier investigations on fully developed laminar flow in curved channels of shallow rectancular wet cross-section and the mathematical modeling of turbulent flow in river bends, a mathematical model of developing laminar flow in such channels is investigated. The

  20. On the dynamics of the Zanzibar Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-Garay, J.; Theiss, J.; Moulton, M.; Walsh, C.; van Woesik, R.; Mayorga-Adame, C. G.; García-Reyes, M.; Mukaka, D. S.; Whilden, K.; Shaghude, Y. W.

    2015-09-01

    The Zanzibar Channel lies between the mainland of Tanzania and Zanzibar Island in the tropical western Indian Ocean, is about 100 km long, 40 km wide, and 40 m deep, and is essential to local socioeconomic activities. This paper presents a model of the seasonal and tidal dynamics of the Zanzibar Channel based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) and a comparison of the model and observations. The seasonal dynamics of the channel is forced by remote processes and the local wind. Remote forcing creates the East African Coastal Current, a portion of which flows through the channel northward with a seasonally varying magnitude. The local wind enhances this seasonality in the surface Ekman layer, resulting in a stronger northward flow during the southwest monsoon season and a weak northward or occasionally southward flow during the northeast monsoon season. The tidal flows converge and diverge in the center of the channel and reduce the transport in the channel. The remotely forced, wind-forced, and tidal dynamics contain 5%, 3%, and 92% of the total kinetic energy, respectively. Despite their low kinetic energy, the remotely forced and wind-forced flows are most relevant in advecting channel water to the open ocean, which occurs in 19 days at the peak of the southwest monsoon season. The channel is well mixed, except during brief periods in the two rainy seasons, and temporarily cools between December and February. The dispersion of passive tracers is presented as an example of potential model applications.

  1. Forbidden Channels and SIMP Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Choi Soo-Min; Kang Yoo-Jin; Lee Hyun Min

    2018-01-01

    In this review, we focus on dark matter production from thermal freeze-out with forbidden channels and SIMP processes. We show that forbidden channels can be dominant to produce dark matter depending on the dark photon and / or dark Higgs mass compared to SIMP.

  2. Laboratory Experiments on Meandering Meltwater Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, R.; Berens, J.; Parker, G.; Stark, C. P.

    2017-12-01

    Meandering channels of all scales and flowing over a wide variety of media have common planform patterns. Although the analogy in planform suggests there is a common underlying framework, the constitutive relations driving planform evolution through vertical incision/deposition and lateral migration differ from medium to medium. The driving processes in alluvial and mixed bedrock-alluvial meandering channels have been studied substantially over the last decades. However, this is not the case for meandering channels in other media such as ice or soluble rock. Here we present results from experiments conducted at the Ven Te Chow Hydrosystems Laboratory of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on meltwater meandering channels. A rivulet is carved into an ice block and water is allowed to flow at a constant discharge. Planform evolution is analyzed with time lapse imaging and complemented with rubber molds of the channel once the experiment is over. These molds give us the full 3D structure of the meandering, including incisional overhang. Vertical incision rates are measured throughout the run by taking elevations along the channel, and these measurements are complemented with analysis from the molds. We show examples of meandering of intense amplitude with deep overhangs. Features resembling scroll bars document cyclically punctuated melting. We report on lateral migration rates, incision rates, sinuosity, channel depths, channel widths, reach averaged velocities, bend wavelengths and amplitudes and compare them to values reported in the literature for alluvial rivers.

  3. Adaptive RAC codes employing statistical channel evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An adaptive encoding technique using row and column array (RAC) codes employing a different number of parity columns that depends on the channel state is proposed in this paper. The trellises of the proposed adaptive codes and a statistical channel evaluation technique employing these trellises are designed and ...

  4. Mixed convection in a baffled grooved channel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present numerical work, flow structure and heat transfer characteristics are investigated in a baffled grooved channel, differentially heated from the sides. The baffle is placed vertically downward from the top wall of grooved channel geometry, with the motive of diverting outside forced flow towards the inside of the ...

  5. Pharmacological modulation of SK3 channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, M; Jespersen, Thomas; Angelo, K

    2001-01-01

    -frequency adaptation, pharmacological modulation of SK channels may be of significant clinical importance. Here we report the functional expression of SK3 in HEK293 and demonstrate a broad pharmacological profile for these channels. Brain slice studies commonly employ 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) to block voltage...

  6. Ion channel model development and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter Hugo

    2010-03-01

    The structure of the KcsA ion channel selectivity filter is used to develop three simple models of ion channel permeation. The quantitative predictions of the knock-on model are tested by comparison with experimental data from single-channel recordings of the KcsA channel. By comparison with experiment, students discover that the knock-on model can't explain saturation of ion channel current as the concentrations of the bathing solutions are increased. By inverting the energy diagram, students derive the association-dissociation model of ion channel permeation. This model predicts non-linear Michaelis-Menten saturating behavior that requires students to perform non-linear least-squares fits to the experimental data. This is done using Excel's solver feature. Students discover that this simple model does an excellent job of explaining the qualitative features of ion channel permeation but cannot account for changes in voltage sensitivity. The model is then extended to include an electrical dissociation distance. This rapid translocation model is then compared with experimental data from a wide variety of ion channels and students discover that this model also has its limitations. Support from NSF DUE 0836833 is gratefully acknowledged.

  7. Hydraulics of free overfall in -shaped channels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    MS received 15 October 2001; revised 13 February 2002. Abstract. In this paper, two methods are presented to analyse the free overfall in. -shaped (equilateral triangle-shaped) channels. First, the flow upstream of a free overfall from smooth horizontal or mildly sloping -shaped channels is analysed theoretically to ...

  8. Channel selection for automatic seizure detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duun-Henriksen, Jonas; Kjaer, Troels Wesenberg; Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the performance of epileptic seizure detection using only a few of the recorded EEG channels and the ability of software to select these channels compared with a neurophysiologist. Methods: Fifty-nine seizures and 1419 h of interictal EEG are used for training and testing...

  9. Functional architecture of the CFTR chloride channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsdell, Paul

    2014-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of membrane transport proteins. CFTR is unique among ABC proteins in that it functions not as an active transporter but as an ATP-gated Cl(-) channel. As an ion channel, the function of the CFTR transmembrane channel pore that mediates Cl(-) movement has been studied in great detail. On the other hand, only low resolution structural data is available on the transmembrane parts of the protein. The structure of the channel pore has, however, been modeled on the known structure of active transporter ABC proteins. Currently, significant barriers exist to building a unified view of CFTR pore structure and function. Reconciling functional data on the channel with indirect structural data based on other proteins with very different transport functions and substrates has proven problematic. This review summarizes current structural and functional models of the CFTR Cl(-) channel pore, including a comprehensive review of previous electrophysiological investigations of channel structure and function. In addition, functional data on the three-dimensional arrangement of pore-lining helices, as well as contemporary hypotheses concerning conformational changes in the pore that occur during channel opening and closing, are discussed. Important similarities and differences between different models of the pore highlight current gaps in our knowledge of CFTR structure and function. In order to fill these gaps, structural and functional models of the membrane-spanning pore need to become better integrated.

  10. REVIEW OF WIRELESS MIMO CHANNEL MODELS | Anioke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to increase spectral efficiency has led to the design of multiple antenna systems for both transmit and receive sides otherwise known as MIMO. Channel modeling forms an integral part of this design. Therefore it is very important to investigate and understand existing MIMO channel models. This paper provides a ...

  11. Voltage-gated lipid ion channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blicher, Andreas; Heimburg, Thomas Rainer

    2013-01-01

    probability as a function of voltage. The voltage-dependence of the lipid pores is found comparable to that of protein channels. Lifetime distributions of open and closed events indicate that the channel open distribution does not follow exponential statistics but rather power law behavior for long open times...

  12. REVIEW OF WIRELESS MIMO CHANNEL MODELS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The need to increase spectral efficiency has led to the design of multiple antenna systems for both transmit and receive sides otherwise known as MIMO. Channel modeling forms an integral part of this design. Therefore it is very important to investigate and understand existing MIMO channel models. This paper provides a ...

  13. Privacy of a lossy bosonic memory channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggeri, Giovanna; Mancini, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    We study the security of the information transmission between two honest parties realized through a lossy bosonic memory channel when losses are captured by a dishonest party. We then show that entangled inputs can enhance the private information of such a channel, which however does never overcome that of unentangled inputs in absence of memory

  14. Radio Channel Modeling in Body Area Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    An, L.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Meijerink, Arjan; Scanlon, W.G.

    2009-01-01

    A body area network (BAN) is a network of bodyworn or implanted electronic devices, including wireless sensors which can monitor body parameters or to de- tect movements. One of the big challenges in BANs is the propagation channel modeling. Channel models can be used to understand wave propagation

  15. Radio channel modeling in body area networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    An, L.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Meijerink, Arjan; Scanlon, W.G.

    2010-01-01

    A body area network (BAN) is a network of bodyworn or implanted electronic devices, including wireless sensors which can monitor body parameters or to detect movements. One of the big challenges in BANs is the propagation channel modeling. Channel models can be used to understand wave propagation in

  16. Micromachining of buried micro channels in silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Meint J.; Tjerkstra, R.W.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Burger, G.J.; Burger, G.J.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; van den Berg, Albert

    A new method for the fabrication of micro structures for fluidic applications, such as channels, cavities, and connector holes in the bulk of silicon wafers, called buried channel technology (BCT), is presented in this paper. The micro structures are constructed by trench etching, coating of the

  17. Channel agnostic healthcare for resource constrained environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Alberts, Ronell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available . In order to reach as many end users as possible through the devices that they already own and are comfortable with, channel agnostic access is needed that would support the different mobile access channels using a variety of communications protocols...

  18. Atlantic water flow through the Faroese Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hansen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Through the Faroese Channels – the collective name for a system of channels linking the Faroe–Shetland Channel, Wyville Thomson Basin, and Faroe Bank Channel – there is a deep flow of cold waters from Arctic regions that exit the system as overflow through the Faroe Bank Channel and across the Wyville Thomson Ridge. The upper layers, in contrast, are dominated by warm, saline water masses from the southwest, termed Atlantic water. In spite of intensive research over more than a century, there are still open questions on the passage of these waters through the system with conflicting views in recent literature. Of special note is the suggestion that there is a flow of Atlantic water from the Faroe–Shetland Channel through the Faroe Bank Channel, which circles the Faroes over the slope region in a clockwise direction. Here, we combine the observational evidence from ship-borne hydrography, moored current measurements, surface drifter tracks, and satellite altimetry to address these questions and propose a general scheme for the Atlantic water flow through this channel system. We find no evidence for a continuous flow of Atlantic water from the Faroe–Shetland Channel to the Faroe Bank Channel over the Faroese slope. Rather, the southwestward-flowing water over the Faroese slope of the Faroe–Shetland Channel is totally recirculated within the combined area of the Faroe–Shetland Channel and Wyville Thomson Basin, except possibly for a small release in the form of eddies. This does not exclude a possible westward flow over the southern tip of the Faroe Shelf, but even including that, we estimate that the average volume transport of a Circum-Faroe Current does not exceed 0.5 Sv (1 Sv  =  106 m3 s−1. Also, there seems to be a persistent flow of Atlantic water from the western part of the Faroe Bank Channel into the Faroe–Shetland Channel that joins the Slope Current over the Scottish slope. These conclusions will affect

  19. Atlantic water flow through the Faroese Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bogi; Poulsen, Turið; Margretha Húsgarð Larsen, Karin; Hátún, Hjálmar; Østerhus, Svein; Darelius, Elin; Berx, Barbara; Quadfasel, Detlef; Jochumsen, Kerstin

    2017-11-01

    Through the Faroese Channels - the collective name for a system of channels linking the Faroe-Shetland Channel, Wyville Thomson Basin, and Faroe Bank Channel - there is a deep flow of cold waters from Arctic regions that exit the system as overflow through the Faroe Bank Channel and across the Wyville Thomson Ridge. The upper layers, in contrast, are dominated by warm, saline water masses from the southwest, termed Atlantic water. In spite of intensive research over more than a century, there are still open questions on the passage of these waters through the system with conflicting views in recent literature. Of special note is the suggestion that there is a flow of Atlantic water from the Faroe-Shetland Channel through the Faroe Bank Channel, which circles the Faroes over the slope region in a clockwise direction. Here, we combine the observational evidence from ship-borne hydrography, moored current measurements, surface drifter tracks, and satellite altimetry to address these questions and propose a general scheme for the Atlantic water flow through this channel system. We find no evidence for a continuous flow of Atlantic water from the Faroe-Shetland Channel to the Faroe Bank Channel over the Faroese slope. Rather, the southwestward-flowing water over the Faroese slope of the Faroe-Shetland Channel is totally recirculated within the combined area of the Faroe-Shetland Channel and Wyville Thomson Basin, except possibly for a small release in the form of eddies. This does not exclude a possible westward flow over the southern tip of the Faroe Shelf, but even including that, we estimate that the average volume transport of a Circum-Faroe Current does not exceed 0.5 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1). Also, there seems to be a persistent flow of Atlantic water from the western part of the Faroe Bank Channel into the Faroe-Shetland Channel that joins the Slope Current over the Scottish slope. These conclusions will affect potential impacts from offshore activities in the

  20. Fusion-Fission like studies from medium heavy to light compound systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusch, B.

    1991-01-01

    It has been shown that for systems as light as A CN = 47 up to systems just above the Businaro Gallone point in the mass region of 100 to 110 the probability for a system to deexcite by the fission channel, is not negligible. As predicted, the asymmetrical separation becomes dominant when the A CN mass is decreasing but the symmetrical mode remains measurable. The ambiguities in the measured outgoing fragment distributions arise from the competition with IMF emissions as well as dynamical fission processes which depend strongly on the studied system. Fully relaxed DIC has also be used to interpret the results. I tried to show that precise checks on the behavior of two neighbouring systems as well as search for entrance channel effect and/or energy dependence bring evidence enough that the deexcitation of the compound nucleus can account for the symmetric and asymmetric fission channels as well as IMF emissions. This is strongly supported by different recent calculations all done in this frame. These all conclusions indicate also that the RLDM fails in the data interpretation. The strength of the fission channel depends strongly on the possibilities a system has to deexcite. For very light systems especially the number of open channels available determines directly the flux repartition between direct or compound processes and therefore very large differences in the general behaviour of two neighbouring systems can be observed. 15 figs

  1. Neurogenic contraction induced by the antiarrhythmic compound, AVE 0118, in rat small mesenteric arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, Attila; Seprényi, György; Varró, András; Papp, Julius Gy; Pataricza, János

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the vasoactivity of two inhibitors of potassium ion (K(+) ) channels, a potential antiarrhythmic compound, AVE 0118, and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). Basal and stimulated tones of rat small mesenteric arteries as well as the possible involvement of KV 1.5 ion channel in the mechanism of vascular effect induced by the compounds were analysed. The standard organ bath technique for vascular tone and immunohistochemistry for the localization of ion channels in the arterial tissue were performed. Third- or fourth-order branch of arterial segments was mounted in myographs for recording the isometric tension. AVE 0118 (10(-5) M) and 4-AP (10(-5) M) modulated neither the basal tone nor the contraction induced by noradrenaline but increased the contraction evoked by electrical field stimulation, sensitive to the block of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. KV 1.5 ion channel-specific immunostaining demonstrated the presence of immunoreactive nerves, and Schwann-cell-specific (S100) immunostaining confirmed the presence of myelin sheath in rat small mesenteric arteries. The study supports an indirect, sympathetic effect of AVE 0118 similar to that of 4-AP, which is mediated, at least in part, by blocking neuronal KV 1.5 type potassium ion channels in the medio-adventitial layer of rat small mesenteric artery. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  2. Host compounds for red phosphorescent OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Chuanjun; Cheon, Kwang -Ohk

    2015-08-25

    Novel compounds containing a triphenylene moiety linked to an .alpha..beta. connected binaphthyl ring system are provided. These compounds have surprisingly good solubility in organic solvents and are useful as host compounds in red phosphorescent OLEDs.

  3. Complex Simulation Model of Mobile Fading Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Marek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the mobile communication environment the mobile channel is the main limiting obstacle to reach the best performance of wireless system. Modeling of the radio channel consists of two basic fading mechanisms - Long-term fading and Short-term fading. The contribution deals with simulation of complex mobile radio channel, which is the channel with all fading components. Simulation model is based on Clarke-Gans theoretical model for fading channel and is developed in MATLAB environment. Simulation results have shown very good coincidence with theory. This model was developed for hybrid adaptation 3G uplink simulator (described in this issue during the research project VEGA - 1/0140/03.

  4. Indoor MIMO Channel Measurement and Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Andersen, Jørgen Bach

    2005-01-01

    Forming accurate models of the multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channel is essential both for simulation as well as understanding of the basic properties of the channel. This paper investigates different known models using measurements obtained with a 16x32 MIMO channel sounder for the 5.8GHz...... band. The measurements were carried out in various indoor scenarios including both temporal and spatial aspects of channel changes. The models considered include the so-called Kronecker model, a model proposed by Weichselberger et. al., and a model involving the full covariance matrix, the most...... accurate model for Gaussian channels. For each of the environments different sizes of both the transmitter and receiver antenna arrays are investigated, 2x2 up to 16x32. Generally it was found that in terms of capacity cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) all models fit well for small array sizes...

  5. Customers’ Perception regarding Assurance of Bancassurance Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury Mousumi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bancassurance has evolved as a strong distribution channel in India. Bancassurance means that the insurance company and the bank come together to offer insurance products from the counter of the banks to the bank’s customer. The present study attempts to analyse customers’ perception regarding assurance of bancassurance channel in providing insurance-related services. The study also tries to find out the impact of various demographic variables on customers’ perception regarding assurance of bancassurance channel. The study finds that customers consider bancassurance channel having high assurance in providing insurance services. It is also found in the study that there is no significant association between the demographic variables considered in the study and customers’ perception regarding assurance of bancassurance channel.

  6. An intracellular anion channel critical for pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Escobar, Iliana E; Lefkovith, Ariel J; Marks, Michael S; Oancea, Elena

    2014-12-16

    Intracellular ion channels are essential regulators of organellar and cellular function, yet the molecular identity and physiological role of many of these channels remains elusive. In particular, no ion channel has been characterized in melanosomes, organelles that produce and store the major mammalian pigment melanin. Defects in melanosome function cause albinism, characterized by vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired retinal development, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. The most common form of albinism is caused by mutations in oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2), a melanosome-specific transmembrane protein with unknown function. Here we used direct patch-clamp of skin and eye melanosomes to identify a novel chloride-selective anion conductance mediated by OCA2 and required for melanin production. Expression of OCA2 increases organelle pH, suggesting that the chloride channel might regulate melanin synthesis by modulating melanosome pH. Thus, a melanosomal anion channel that requires OCA2 is essential for skin and eye pigmentation.

  7. A computer program for analyzing channel geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, R.S.; Schaffranek, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Channel Geometry Analysis Program (CGAP) provides the capability to process, analyze, and format cross-sectional data for input to flow/transport simulation models or other computational programs. CGAP allows for a variety of cross-sectional data input formats through use of variable format specification. The program accepts data from various computer media and provides for modification of machine-stored parameter values. CGAP has been devised to provide a rapid and efficient means of computing and analyzing the physical properties of an open-channel reach defined by a sequence of cross sections. CGAP 's 16 options provide a wide range of methods by which to analyze and depict a channel reach and its individual cross-sectional properties. The primary function of the program is to compute the area, width, wetted perimeter, and hydraulic radius of cross sections at successive increments of water surface elevation (stage) from data that consist of coordinate pairs of cross-channel distances and land surface or channel bottom elevations. Longitudinal rates-of-change of cross-sectional properties are also computed, as are the mean properties of a channel reach. Output products include tabular lists of cross-sectional area, channel width, wetted perimeter, hydraulic radius, average depth, and cross-sectional symmetry computed as functions of stage; plots of cross sections; plots of cross-sectional area and (or) channel width as functions of stage; tabular lists of cross-sectional area and channel width computed as functions of stage for subdivisions of a cross section; plots of cross sections in isometric projection; and plots of cross-sectional area at a fixed stage as a function of longitudinal distance along an open-channel reach. A Command Procedure Language program and Job Control Language procedure exist to facilitate program execution on the U.S. Geological Survey Prime and Amdahl computer systems respectively. (Lantz-PTT)

  8. Promiscuity progression of bioactive compounds over time

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Ye; Jasial, Swarit; Bajorath, J?rgen

    2015-01-01

    In the context of polypharmacology, compound promiscuity is rationalized as the ability of small molecules to specifically interact with multiple targets. To study promiscuity progression of bioactive compounds in detail, nearly 1 million compounds and more than 5.2 million activity records were analyzed. Compound sets were assembled by applying different data confidence criteria and selecting compounds with activity histories over many years. On the basis of release dates, compounds and acti...

  9. Vanadium Compounds as PTP Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Irving

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphotyrosine signaling is regulated by the opposing actions of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs. Here we discuss the potential of vanadium derivatives as PTP enzyme inhibitors and metallotherapeutics. We describe how vanadate in the V oxidized state is thought to inhibit PTPs, thus acting as a pan-inhibitor of this enzyme superfamily. We discuss recent developments in the biological and biochemical actions of more complex vanadium derivatives, including decavanadate and in particular the growing number of oxidovanadium compounds with organic ligands. Pre-clinical studies involving these compounds are discussed in the anti-diabetic and anti-cancer contexts. Although in many cases PTP inhibition has been implicated, it is also clear that many such compounds have further biochemical effects in cells. There also remain concerns surrounding off-target toxicities and long-term use of vanadium compounds in vivo in humans, hindering their progress through clinical trials. Despite these current misgivings, interest in these chemicals continues and many believe they could still have therapeutic potential. If so, we argue that this field would benefit from greater focus on improving the delivery and tissue targeting of vanadium compounds in order to minimize off-target toxicities. This may then harness their full therapeutic potential.

  10. Cytotoxic Compounds from Brucea mollis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Hung Thanh TUNG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ten compounds, including soulameanone (1, isobruceine B (2, 9-methoxy-canthin-6-one (3, bruceolline F (4, niloticine (5, octatriacontan-1-ol (6, bombiprenone (7, α-tocopherol (8, inosine (9, and apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10, were isolated from the leaves, stems, and roots of Brucea mollis Wall. ex Kurz. Their structures were determined using one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against KB (human carcinoma of the mouth, LU-1 (human lung adenocarcinoma, LNCaP (human prostate adeno-carcinoma, and HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia cancer cell lines. Compound 2 showed significant cytotoxic activity against KB, LU-1, LNCaP, and HL-60 cancer cells with IC50 values of 0.39, 0.40, 0.34, and 0.23 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, compounds 3 and 5 showed significant cytotoxic activity against KB, LU-1, LNCaP, and HL-60 cancer cells with IC50 values around 1–4 μg/mL. Compounds 9-methoxycanthin-6-one (3 and niloticine (5 have been discovered for the first time from the Brucea genus.

  11. Extraterrestrial Organic Compounds in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Oliver; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Many organic compounds or their precursors found in meteorites originated in the interstellar or circumstellar medium and were later incorporated into planetesimals during the formation of the solar system. There they either survived intact or underwent further processing to synthesize secondary products on the meteorite parent body. The most distinct feature of CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites, two types of stony meteorites, is their high carbon content (up to 3% of weight), either in the form of carbonates or of organic compounds. The bulk of the organic carbon consists of an insoluble macromolecular material with a complex structure. Also present is a soluble organic fraction, which has been analyzed by several separation and analytical procedures. Low detection limits can be achieved by derivatization of the organic molecules with reagents that allow for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. The CM meteorite Murchison has been found to contain more than 70 extraterrestrial amino acids and several other classes of compounds including carboxylic acids, hydroxy carboxylic acids, sulphonic and phosphonic acids, aliphatic, aromatic and polar hydrocarbons, fullerenes, heterocycles as well as carbonyl compounds, alcohols, amines and amides. The organic matter was found to be enriched in deuterium, and distinct organic compounds show isotopic enrichments of carbon and nitrogen relative to terrestrial matter.

  12. Ligands of histamine receptors modulate acid-sensing ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shteinikov, V Y; Korosteleva, A S; Tikhonova, T B; Potapieva, N N; Tikhonov, D B

    2017-09-02

    Recently we found that synthetic compounds containing amino group linked to hydrophobic or aromatic moiety are potent modulators of the proton-gated channels (ASICs). These structures have clear similarity with ligands of histamine receptors. We have also demonstrated that histamine potentiates homomeric ASIC1a by shifting its activation dependence to less acidic conditions. In the present work the action of a series of histamine receptors ligands on recombinant ASIC1a and ASIC2a was characterized. Two types of action were found for ASIC1a. 1-methylhistamine, N-alpha-methylhistamine, dimaprit and thioperamide caused significant potentiation, which was pH-dependent and voltage-independent. The H4R antagonist A943931 caused inhibition, which is likely due to voltage-dependent pore block. ASIC2a were virtually insensitive to the drugs tested. We conclude that ligands of histamine receptors should also be considered as ASIC modulators. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Modulation of T-type Ca2+ channels by Lavender and Rosemary extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaymae El Alaoui

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants represent a significant reservoir of unexplored substances for early-stage drug discovery. Of interest, two flowering Mediterranean plants have been used for thousands of years for their beneficial effects on nervous disorders, including anxiety and mood. However, the therapeutic potential of these plants regarding their ability to target ion channels and neuronal excitability remains largely unknown. Towards this goal, we have investigated the ability of Lavender and Rosemary to modulate T-type calcium channels (TTCCs. TTCCs play important roles in neuronal excitability, neuroprotection, sensory processes and sleep. These channels are also involved in epilepsy and pain. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we have characterized how Lavender and Rosemary extracts, as well as their major active compounds Linalool and Rosmarinic acid, modulate the electrophysiological properties of recombinant TTCCs (CaV3.2 expressed in HEK-293T cells. Both the methanolic and essential oil extracts as well as the active compounds of these plants inhibit Cav3.2 current in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, these products also induce a negative shift of the steady-state inactivation of CaV3.2 current with no change in the activation properties. Taken together, our findings reveal that TTCCs are a molecular target of the Lavender and Rosemary compounds, suggesting that inhibition of TTCCs could contribute to the anxiolytic and the neuroprotective effects of these plants.

  14. The Zambezi Channel: A new perspective on submarine channel evolution at low latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, E.; Green, A.; Watkeys, M.; Jokat, W.

    2017-06-01

    Submarine channels are not stand-alone systems. They are long-lived systems modified by imperceptibly slow processes and rapid gravity flows, in some part controlled by hinterland dynamics. The submarine Zambezi Channel, within the Mozambique Channel, receives sediment from the Zambezi River catchment which has a dynamic tectonic and morphological history. Using recently collected multibeam bathymetry and PARASOUND data we discuss the geomorphology of the Zambezi Channel. Results show this system to be distinct in geomorphologic character when compared to other low-latitude submarine channels, sharing similarities with high-latitude systems. We propose a new, source-to-sink, hypothesis for the evolution of the Zambezi Channel, taking in to consideration hinterland tectonics, palaeo-lake development, river capture and rapid gravity flows. This hypothesis accounts for the unique present-day anatomy of the Zambezi Channel within the dynamic framework of the systems regional setting.

  15. Compound Words In Dawan Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Budiarta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find out the structure of compound words and the types of compound words in Dawan language. This study belongs to qualitative research as it aimed to describe qualitatively the structure and the types of compound words in Dawan language. The data are taken from language consultants (informants of Dawan language speaker. In collecting the data, the researcher prepares questionnaire and applied interview method. The result of analysis showed that compound words in Dawan language are structured by combining two different words whether the words in the same category or different category. The structure of compound words are built by combining noun (N with noun (N, for instance mais-oni ‘sugar’ which is built by the noun mais ‘salt’ and the noun oni ‘sweet’; noun (N with verb (V, for instnace bife-anaot ‘prostitute’ which is built by the noun bife ‘woman’ and the verb anaot ‘work’; verb (V with noun (N, for instance poni-haano ‘propose’ which is built by the verb poni ‘hang’ and the noun hauno ‘leaf’; verb (V with verb (V, for instance fua-tulu ‘worship’ which is built by the verb fua ‘see’ and the verb tulu ‘give’; and noun (N with adjective (Adj, for instance ume-kbubu ‘kitchen’ which is built by the noun ume ‘house’ and the adjective kbubu ‘circle’. Further analysis on the compound words showed that they can also be classified into noun head word, verb head word, and adjective head word.

  16. A review of radio channel models for body centric communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Simon L; D'Errico, Raffaele; Oestges, Claude

    2014-06-01

    The human body is an extremely challenging environment for the operation of wireless communications systems, not least because of the complex antenna-body electromagnetic interaction effects which can occur. This is further compounded by the impact of movement and the propagation characteristics of the local environment which all have an effect upon body centric communications channels. As the successful design of body area networks (BANs) and other types of body centric system is inextricably linked to a thorough understanding of these factors, the aim of this paper is to conduct a survey of the current state of the art in relation to propagation and channel models primarily for BANs but also considering other types of body centric communications. We initially discuss some of the standardization efforts performed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 802.15.6 task group before focusing on the two most popular types of technologies currently being considered for BANs, namely narrowband and Ultrawideband (UWB) communications. For narrowband communications the applicability of a generic path loss model is contended, before presenting some of the scenario specific models which have proven successful. The impacts of human body shadowing and small-scale fading are also presented alongside some of the most recent research into the Doppler and time dependencies of BANs. For UWB BAN communications, we again consider the path loss as well as empirical tap delay line models developed from a number of extensive channel measurement campaigns conducted by research institutions around the world. Ongoing efforts within collaborative projects such as Committee on Science and Technology Action IC1004 are also described. Finally, recent years have also seen significant developments in other areas of body centric communications such as off-body and body-to-body communications. We highlight some of the newest relevant research in these areas as well as discussing

  17. A review of radio channel models for body centric communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Simon L; D'Errico, Raffaele; Oestges, Claude

    2014-01-01

    The human body is an extremely challenging environment for the operation of wireless communications systems, not least because of the complex antenna-body electromagnetic interaction effects which can occur. This is further compounded by the impact of movement and the propagation characteristics of the local environment which all have an effect upon body centric communications channels. As the successful design of body area networks (BANs) and other types of body centric system is inextricably linked to a thorough understanding of these factors, the aim of this paper is to conduct a survey of the current state of the art in relation to propagation and channel models primarily for BANs but also considering other types of body centric communications. We initially discuss some of the standardization efforts performed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 802.15.6 task group before focusing on the two most popular types of technologies currently being considered for BANs, namely narrowband and Ultrawideband (UWB) communications. For narrowband communications the applicability of a generic path loss model is contended, before presenting some of the scenario specific models which have proven successful. The impacts of human body shadowing and small-scale fading are also presented alongside some of the most recent research into the Doppler and time dependencies of BANs. For UWB BAN communications, we again consider the path loss as well as empirical tap delay line models developed from a number of extensive channel measurement campaigns conducted by research institutions around the world. Ongoing efforts within collaborative projects such as Committee on Science and Technology Action IC1004 are also described. Finally, recent years have also seen significant developments in other areas of body centric communications such as off-body and body-to-body communications. We highlight some of the newest relevant research in these areas as well as discussing

  18. A review of radio channel models for body centric communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Simon L.; D'Errico, Raffaele; Oestges, Claude

    2014-06-01

    The human body is an extremely challenging environment for the operation of wireless communications systems, not least because of the complex antenna-body electromagnetic interaction effects which can occur. This is further compounded by the impact of movement and the propagation characteristics of the local environment which all have an effect upon body centric communications channels. As the successful design of body area networks (BANs) and other types of body centric system is inextricably linked to a thorough understanding of these factors, the aim of this paper is to conduct a survey of the current state of the art in relation to propagation and channel models primarily for BANs but also considering other types of body centric communications. We initially discuss some of the standardization efforts performed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 802.15.6 task group before focusing on the two most popular types of technologies currently being considered for BANs, namely narrowband and Ultrawideband (UWB) communications. For narrowband communications the applicability of a generic path loss model is contended, before presenting some of the scenario specific models which have proven successful. The impacts of human body shadowing and small-scale fading are also presented alongside some of the most recent research into the Doppler and time dependencies of BANs. For UWB BAN communications, we again consider the path loss as well as empirical tap delay line models developed from a number of extensive channel measurement campaigns conducted by research institutions around the world. Ongoing efforts within collaborative projects such as Committee on Science and Technology Action IC1004 are also described. Finally, recent years have also seen significant developments in other areas of body centric communications such as off-body and body-to-body communications. We highlight some of the newest relevant research in these areas as well as discussing

  19. Transient receptor potential (TRP gene superfamily encoding cation channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Zan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transient receptor potential (TRP non-selective cation channels constitute a superfamily, which contains 28 different genes. In mammals, this superfamily is divided into six subfamilies based on differences in amino acid sequence homology between the different gene products. Proteins within a subfamily aggregate to form heteromeric or homomeric tetrameric configurations. These different groupings have very variable permeability ratios for calcium versus sodium ions. TRP expression is widely distributed in neuronal tissues, as well as a host of other tissues, including epithelial and endothelial cells. They are activated by environmental stresses that include tissue injury, changes in temperature, pH and osmolarity, as well as volatile chemicals, cytokines and plant compounds. Their activation induces, via intracellular calcium signalling, a host of responses, including stimulation of cell proliferation, migration, regulatory volume behaviour and the release of a host of cytokines. Their activation is greatly potentiated by phospholipase C (PLC activation mediated by coupled GTP-binding proteins and tyrosine receptors. In addition to their importance in maintaining tissue homeostasis, some of these responses may involve various underlying diseases. Given the wealth of literature describing the multiple roles of TRP in physiology in a very wide range of different mammalian tissues, this review limits itself to the literature describing the multiple roles of TRP channels in different ocular tissues. Accordingly, their importance to the corneal, trabecular meshwork, lens, ciliary muscle, retinal, microglial and retinal pigment epithelial physiology and pathology is reviewed.

  20. Antiprotozoal compounds from Asparagus africanus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oketch-Rabah, H A; Dossaji, S F; Christensen, S B

    1997-01-01

    Two antiprotozoal compounds have been isolated from the roots of Asparagus africanus Lam. (Liliaceae), a new sapogenin, 2 beta, 12 alpha-dihydroxy-(25R)-spirosta-4,7-dien-3-one (1), which was named muzanzagenin, and the lignan (+)-nyasol (2), (Z)-(+)-4,4'-(3-ethenyl-1-propene-1,3-diyl)-bisphenol.......Two antiprotozoal compounds have been isolated from the roots of Asparagus africanus Lam. (Liliaceae), a new sapogenin, 2 beta, 12 alpha-dihydroxy-(25R)-spirosta-4,7-dien-3-one (1), which was named muzanzagenin, and the lignan (+)-nyasol (2), (Z)-(+)-4,4'-(3-ethenyl-1-propene-1,3-diyl...