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Sample records for composition-explicit distillation curve

  1. The composition-explicit distillation curve technique: Relating chemical analysis and physical properties of complex fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Thomas J; Ott, Lisa S; Lovestead, Tara M; Huber, Marcia L

    2010-04-16

    The analysis of complex fluids such as crude oils, fuels, vegetable oils and mixed waste streams poses significant challenges arising primarily from the multiplicity of components, the different properties of the components (polarity, polarizability, etc.) and matrix properties. We have recently introduced an analytical strategy that simplifies many of these analyses, and provides the added potential of linking compositional information with physical property information. This aspect can be used to facilitate equation of state development for the complex fluids. In addition to chemical characterization, the approach provides the ability to calculate thermodynamic properties for such complex heterogeneous streams. The technique is based on the advanced distillation curve (ADC) metrology, which separates a complex fluid by distillation into fractions that are sampled, and for which thermodynamically consistent temperatures are measured at atmospheric pressure. The collected sample fractions can be analyzed by any method that is appropriate. The analytical methods we have applied include gas chromatography (with flame ionization, mass spectrometric and sulfur chemiluminescence detection), thin layer chromatography, FTIR, corrosivity analysis, neutron activation analysis and cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis. By far, the most widely used analytical technique we have used with the ADC is gas chromatography. This has enabled us to study finished fuels (gasoline, diesel fuels, aviation fuels, rocket propellants), crude oils (including a crude oil made from swine manure) and waste oils streams (used automotive and transformer oils). In this special issue of the Journal of Chromatography, specifically dedicated to extraction technologies, we describe the essential features of the advanced distillation curve metrology as an analytical strategy for complex fluids. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Advanced distillation curve measurements for corrosive fluids: Application to two crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Starkey Ott; Beverly L. Smith; Thomas J. Bruno [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States). Physical and Chemical Properties Division

    2008-10-15

    We have recently introduced several important improvements in the measurement of distillation curves for complex fluids. The modifications include a composition-explicit data channel for each distillate fraction (for both qualitative and quantitative analysis) and corrosivity assessment of each distillate fraction. The composition-explicit information is achieved with a new sampling approach that allows precise qualitative as well as quantitative analyses of each fraction, on the fly. We have applied the new method to a variety of fluids, including simple n-alkanes, rocket propellant, gasoline, jet fuels, and a hydrocarbon fluid made corrosive with dissolved hydrogen sulfide. In the current contribution, we present the application of the advanced distillation curve method to two samples of crude oil. A primary motivation behind the work is to precisely measure the distillation curves of these oils using our advanced distillation apparatus; these low uncertainty measurements of true thermodynamic state points can be used for equation of state development and differentiation of crude oil samples. Then, the information content of each distillation was extended much further by use of the composition-explicit data channel: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), infrared spectrophotometry (IR), gas chromatography with sulfur chemiluminescence detection (GC-SCD), and the copper strip corrosion test (CSCT) were used for each distillate volume fraction sampled. Consequently, for each volume fraction of crude oil distillate sampled, we can address the composition, quantitate the total sulfur content, and measure the corrosivity. 39 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Weathering Patterns of Ignitable Liquids with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Thomas J; Allen, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    One can take advantage of the striking similarity of ignitable liquid vaporization (or weathering) patterns and the separation observed during distillation to predict the composition of residual compounds in fire debris. This is done with the advanced distillation curve (ADC) metrology, which separates a complex fluid by distillation into fractions that are sampled, and for which thermodynamically consistent temperatures are measured at atmospheric pressure. The collected sample fractions can be analyzed by any method that is appropriate. Analytical methods we have applied include gas chromatography (with flame ionization, mass spectrometric and sulfur chemiluminescence detection), thin layer chromatography, FTIR, Karl Fischer coulombic titrimetry, refractometry, corrosivity analysis, neutron activation analysis and cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis. We have applied this method on product streams such as finished fuels (gasoline, diesel fuels, aviation fuels, rocket propellants), crude oils (including a crude oil made from swine manure) and waste oils streams (used automotive and transformer oils). In this paper, we present results on a variety of ignitable liquids that are not commodity fuels, chosen from the Ignitable Liquids Reference Collection (ILRC). These measurements are assembled into a preliminary database. From this selection, we discuss the significance and forensic application of the temperature data grid and the composition explicit data channel of the ADC.

  4. Weathering Patterns of Ignitable Liquids with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Thomas J; Allen, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    One can take advantage of the striking similarity of ignitable liquid vaporization (or weathering) patterns and the separation observed during distillation to predict the composition of residual compounds in fire debris. This is done with the advanced distillation curve (ADC) metrology, which separates a complex fluid by distillation into fractions that are sampled, and for which thermodynamically consistent temperatures are measured at atmospheric pressure. The collected sample fractions can be analyzed by any method that is appropriate. Analytical methods we have applied include gas chromatography (with flame ionization, mass spectrometric and sulfur chemiluminescence detection), thin layer chromatography, FTIR, Karl Fischer coulombic titrimetry, refractometry, corrosivity analysis, neutron activation analysis and cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis. We have applied this method on product streams such as finished fuels (gasoline, diesel fuels, aviation fuels, rocket propellants), crude oils (including a crude oil made from swine manure) and waste oils streams (used automotive and transformer oils). In this paper, we present results on a variety of ignitable liquids that are not commodity fuels, chosen from the Ignitable Liquids Reference Collection (ILRC). These measurements are assembled into a preliminary database. From this selection, we discuss the significance and forensic application of the temperature data grid and the composition explicit data channel of the ADC. PMID:26401423

  5. Using commercial simulators for determining flash distillation curves for petroleum fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Eleonora Erdmann; Demetrio Humana; Samuel Franco Domínguez; Lorgio Mercado Fuentes

    2010-01-01

    This work describes a new method for estimating the equilibrium flash vaporisation (EFV) distillation curve for petro-leum fractions by using commercial simulators. A commercial simulator was used for implementing a stationary mo-del for flash distillation; this model was adjusted by using a distillation curve obtained from standard laboratory ana-lytical assays. Such curve can be one of many types (eg ASTM D86, D1160 or D2887) and involves an experimental procedure simpler than that required...

  6. Using commercial simulators for determining flash distillation curves for petroleum fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Erdmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a new method for estimating the equilibrium flash vaporisation (EFV distillation curve for petro-leum fractions by using commercial simulators. A commercial simulator was used for implementing a stationary mo-del for flash distillation; this model was adjusted by using a distillation curve obtained from standard laboratory ana-lytical assays. Such curve can be one of many types (eg ASTM D86, D1160 or D2887 and involves an experimental procedure simpler than that required for obtaining an EFV curve. Any commercial simulator able to model petroleum can be used for the simulation (HYSYS and CHEMCAD simulators were used here. Several types of petroleum and fractions were experimentally analysed for evaluating the proposed method; this data was then put into a process si-mulator (according to the proposed method to estimate the corresponding EFV curves. HYSYS- and CHEMCAD-estimated curves were compared to those produced by two traditional estimation methods (Edmister’s and Maswell’s methods. Simulation-estimated curves were close to average Edmister and Maxwell curves in all cases. The propo-sed method has several advantages; it avoids the need for experimentally obtaining an EFV curve, it does not de-pend on the type of experimental curve used to fit the model and it enables estimating several pressures by using just one experimental curve as data.

  7. Application of the Advanced Distillation Curve Method to Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engine Gasolines

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Jessica L.

    2015-07-16

    © This article not subject to U.S. Copyright. Published 2015 by the American Chemical Society. Incremental but fundamental changes are currently being made to fuel composition and combustion strategies to diversify energy feedstocks, decrease pollution, and increase engine efficiency. The increase in parameter space (by having many variables in play simultaneously) makes it difficult at best to propose strategic changes to engine and fuel design by use of conventional build-and-test methodology. To make changes in the most time- and cost-effective manner, it is imperative that new computational tools and surrogate fuels are developed. Currently, sets of fuels are being characterized by industry groups, such as the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) and other entities, so that researchers in different laboratories have access to fuels with consistent properties. In this work, six gasolines (FACE A, C, F, G, I, and J) are characterized by the advanced distillation curve (ADC) method to determine the composition and enthalpy of combustion in various distillate volume fractions. Tracking the composition and enthalpy of distillate fractions provides valuable information for determining structure property relationships, and moreover, it provides the basis for the development of equations of state that can describe the thermodynamic properties of these complex mixtures and lead to development of surrogate fuels composed of major hydrocarbon classes found in target fuels.

  8. Micro distillation of crude oil to obtain TBP (True Boiling Points) curve; Micro destilacao de petroleo para obtencao da curva PEV (Ponto de Ebulicao Verdadeiro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Maria de Lourdes S.P.; Mendes, Luana de Jesus [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Medina, Lilian Carmen [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    PETROBRAS and others petroleum companies adopt the ASTM norms as reference method for oil distillation, ASTM D2892 (2005) that uses columns with 14 to 18 theoretical plates and the ASTM D 5236 (2003) , that distills mixture of heavy hydrocarbons with boiling point over 150 deg C. The result of these two distillations is the TBP (True Boiling Point) curve that is the main tool to define the yield of oil derivatives, the 'royalties' payment, the oil price for commercialization and the logistic support of oil location or in new plants projects of distillation and optimization studies. This procedure has some limitations as the volume sample, at least 1L, and the time of distillation, 2 to 4 days. The objective of this work is to propose a new alternative to attain de PEV curve, developing a new methodology using micro scale distillation that uses a more efficient column than the conventional method. Graphics of both methods were created and the results between the conventional and the micro distillation received statistical treatment to prove the equivalence between them. (author)

  9. Application of the Advanced Distillation Curve Method to the Comparison of Diesel Fuel Oxygenates: 2,5,7,10-Tetraoxaundecane (TOU), 2,4,7,9-Tetraoxadecane (TOD), and Ethanol/Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Jessica L; Lovestead, Tara M; LaFollette, Mark; Bruno, Thomas J

    2017-08-17

    Although they are amongst the most efficient engine types, compression-ignition engines have difficulties achieving acceptable particulate emission and NO x formation. Indeed, catalytic after-treatment of diesel exhaust has become common and current efforts to reformulate diesel fuels have concentrated on the incorporation of oxygenates into the fuel. One of the best ways to characterize changes to a fuel upon the addition of oxygenates is to examine the volatility of the fuel mixture. In this paper, we present the volatility, as measured by the advanced distillation curve method, of a prototype diesel fuel with novel diesel fuel oxygenates: 2,5,7,10-tetraoxaundecane (TOU), 2,4,7,9-tetraoxadecane (TOD), and ethanol/fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) mixtures. We present the results for the initial boiling behavior, the distillation curve temperatures, and track the oxygenates throughout the distillations. These diesel fuel blends have several interesting thermodynamic properties that have not been seen in our previous oxygenate studies. Ethanol reduces the temperatures observed early in the distillation (near ethanol's boiling temperature). After these early distillation points (once the ethanol has distilled out), B100 has the greatest impact on the remaining distillation curve and shifts the curve to higher temperatures than what is seen for diesel fuel/ethanol blends. In fact, for the 15% B100 mixture most of the distillation curve reaches temperatures higher than those seen diesel fuel alone. In addition, blends with TOU and TOD also exhibited uncommon characteristics. These additives are unusual because they distill over most the distillation curve (up to 70%). The effects of this can be seen both in histograms of oxygenate concentration in the distillate cuts and in the distillation curves. Our purpose for studying these oxygenate blends is consistent with our vision for replacing fit-for-purpose properties with fundamental properties to enable the development of

  10. Improvement of a computational algorithm that calculates a simulated distillation curve of crude; Aprimoramento de algoritmo computacional para calculo de curva de destilacao simulada de petroleo bruto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Roux, Galo A.C.; Medeiros, Claudia Larini; Gatti, Anderson C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this work is the implementation of a software that calculates the Simulated Distillation (SimDis) curve of a crude oil, according to ASTM D5307 (Standard Test Method for the Determination of Boiling Range Distribution of Crude Petroleum by Gas Chromatography). The software is based on the principle that the area of a chromatogram is proportional to the mass percent of crude oil recovered at a given retention time. The boiling points and retention times are correlated by a calibration curve. In order to make the software friendly windows were implemented, that are organized in a menu. Therefore the software turned up more easy to use and practical for the computation of Simulated Distillation Analysis. (author)

  11. Distilling tar; distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brash, P; Young, W

    1866-09-17

    The tarry residue, which separates on treating crude shale oil with sulfuric acid, is redistilled, in the manner described in Specification No. 1278, A.D. 1866, together with shale. Previous to the distillation, the acid is neutralized with lime, or may be separated by blowing steam into the tar and adding salt. The purified tar thus obtained is absorbed by ashes, or is mixed with lime or other alkaline matter, or the shale may be mixed with lime and distilled with the tar, which is allowed to flow over and through the shale during the process. The tar obtained in the purification of natural paraffin may be similarly utilized.

  12. Distillation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konecny, C.

    1975-01-01

    Two main methods of separation using the distillation method are given and evaluated, namely evaporation and distillation in carrier gas flow. Two basic apparatus are described for illustrating the methods used. The use of the distillation method in radiochemistry is documented by a number of examples of the separation of elements in elemental state, volatile halogenides and oxides. Tables give a survey of distillation methods used for the separation of the individual elements and give conditions under which this separation takes place. The suitability of the use of distillation methods in radiochemistry is discussed with regard to other separation methods. (L.K.)

  13. Dry distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1939-11-30

    To heat rapidly, and prevent agglutination of carbonaceous material duriing distillation of shale, a furnace of the tunnel type has four compartments (the preheating chamber, the distillation chamber proper, and two cooling chambers). Waggons, which convey the material through the distilling chamber, have perforated bottoms. Above the waggons in the distilling chamber are three heating sections having pipes which pass through the sections and communicate with the distilling chamber. Fans cause the distillation gases to circulate through the material and the pipes. The heating gases from three fire boxes are introduced into the oven, and circulate around pipes and are drawn to the discharge apertures by the fans. The heating gases introduced at two points travel in the direction of the material being treated, while the gases introduced at a third point travel in counter flow thereto. Gas is discharged by two pipes. Trucks carrying treated material are passed to two cooling chambers.

  14. Shale distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanding, F H

    1946-08-29

    A continuous method of distilling shale to produce valuable hydrocarbon oils is described which comprises providing a fluidized mass of the shale in a distillation zone, withdrawing hydrocarbon vapors from the zone, mixing fresh cold shale with the hydrocarbon vapors to quench the same, whereby the fresh shale is preheated, recovering hydrocarbon vapors and product vapors from the mixture and withdrawing preheated shale from the mixture and charging it to a shale distillation zone.

  15. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-07-05

    A process and apparatus for the destructive distillation at low temperature of mineral or organic material particularly oil shale, is given in which the process comprises distilling the material in a horizontal gaseous stream, subjecting the hot residues to the action of a gaseous stream containing a predetermined amount of oxygen so as to burn, at least partly, the carbon-containing substances, and the process uses the gases from this combustion for the indirect heating of the gases serving for the distillation.

  16. Distilling shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyl, G E

    1917-02-06

    The yield of oil obtained by distilling shale is increased by first soaking the shale with about 10 percent of its volume of a liquid hydrocarbon for a period of 24 hours or longer. Distillation is carried on up to a temperature of about 220/sup 0/C., and a further 10 percent of hydrocarbon is then added and the distillation continued up to a temperature of about 400/sup 0/C.

  17. Shale distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanding, F H

    1948-08-03

    A continuous method of distilling shale to produce valuable hydrocarbon oils is described, which comprises providing a fluidized mass of the shale in a distillation zone, withdrawing hydrocarbon vapors containing shale fines from the zone, mixing sufficient fresh cold shale with the hydrocarbon vapors to quench the same and to cause condensation of the higher boiling constituents thereof, charging the mixture of vapors, condensate, and cold shale to a separation zone where the shale is maintained in a fluidized condition by the upward movement of the hydrocarbon vapors, withdrawing condensate from the separation zone and recycling a portion of the condensate to the top of the separation zone where it flows countercurrent to the vapors passing therethrough and causes shale fines to be removed from the vapors by the scrubbing action of the condensate, recovering hydrocarbon vapors and product vapors from the separation zone, withdrawing preheated shale from the separation zone and charging it to a shale distillation zone.

  18. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, T

    1863-09-14

    Shales and other bituminous minerals are distilled in horizontal retorts arranged side by side and with furnaces beneath their front ends. The furnace gases pass, preferably through a brickwork grating, into spaces between the retorts and beneath a horizontal partition towards the back ends. They return above the partition to the front of the retorts, and finally enter a horizontal flue leading to a chimney. The front end of each retort is fitted with a hopper for charging and with a door for discharging. The products of distillation pass through perforated partitions inside the retorts and are conveyed away by pipes at the back.

  19. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, R

    1884-04-04

    In obtaining paraffin by distillation of shales, etc., containing sulfur, the steam used for heating is charged with ammonia or ammonium carbonate in suspension. This prevents the sulfur from decomposing the paraffin. The ammonia, etc., may also be used alone or in solution in water.

  20. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, C A

    1906-05-22

    The invention relates to an apparatus in which the destructive distillation or coking of coal, peat, shale, etc., is carried out by means of a current of hot gases at a temperature of 700--800/sup 0/F., as described in Specification No. 11,925, A.D. 1906.

  1. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilson, A; Renfrewshire, I; Black, W

    1889-06-14

    The invention relates to a method of, and apparatus for, distilling shale, coal, or other oil or tar-yielding minerals, to obtain gases, liquids, or other products. The distillation is effected in vertical retorts by the combustion of the partially spent material in the lower part of the retorts, to which steam and air are admitted. The retorts are built of firebrick, and provided with iron casings. They are fed through hoppers and discharged through the openings. The discharging is facilitated by a cone, or its equivalent, in the base of each retort. Steam and air are admitted through the pipes. The interior may be viewed through holes. The products are taken off from the space around the hopper.

  2. Distilling shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armour, J; Armour, H

    1889-05-07

    The invention relates to retorts and accessory apparatus for distilling shale or other oil-yielding minerals. A series of long vertical retorts, composed of fire-brick or similar refractory material, are arranged in two rows in a bench, being divided into groups of four by transverse vertical partitions. The retorts are surmounted by metal casings or hoppers into which the fresh mineral is charged, and from which the distillate passes off through lateral pipes. Any uncondensed gases from the retorts may be passed into the flues surrounding them by the pipe and burned. The products of combustion from a furnace pass through a series of horizontal flues, being compelled to pass completely round each retort before entering the flue above. The products from two or more sets pass from the upper flues into flues running along the top of the bench, and return through a central flue to the chimney.

  3. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquhart, D

    1882-08-19

    Manufacture of ammonia and purification of shale oils are described. In the distillation of shales, increase of ammonia is obtained and the oils are less contaminated by sulfur, by mixing a small proportion, about two to three percent, of lime or slaked line with the shale. The same process is used with other carbonaceous substances containing nitrogen, such as peat, coal, or the like; but a smaller proportion of lime is used than in the former case, and the lime is slaked with caustic soda solution. When slack or waste coal or other carbonaceous substances are distilled by heated air or gases arising from imperfect combustion, as in furnaces on the gas producer principle, slaked lime is added to the slack or other material.

  4. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosden, S; Cosden, J S

    1937-09-08

    A means and process are described for the destructive distillation of solid carbonaceous materials in which the process comprises charging the material, in a finely divided condition into a stream of hot combustion gases, and allows the hot gases to act pyrolytically on the organic compounds contained in the material, separating the volatile liberated constituents from residuary constituents. Hot reaction gases are generated by fuel ignition means in a generator and are immediately intermingled with comminuted carbonaceous material from a hopper, in a narrow conduit. The mixture of material and reaction fluid is then passed through an elongated confined path, which is exteriorly heated by the combustion chamber of the furnace, where the destructive distillation is effected. Volatile and solid constituents are separated in the chamber, and the volatile constituents are fractionated and condensed.

  5. Distilling oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leffer, L G

    1912-01-29

    In a process for converting heavy hydrocarbons, such as petroleum or shale oil, into light hydrocarbons by distilling under the pressure of an inert gas, the operation is conducted at a temperature not exceeding 410/sup 0/C and under an accurately regulated pressure, the gas being circulated through the still and the condenser by means of a pump. The oil in the still may be agitated by stirring vanes or by blowing the gas through it. Hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, or gases generated in the distillation may be used as pressure media; the gas is heated before its admission to the still. A pressure of from 11 to 12 atmospheres is used in treating gas oil. Specification 10,277/89 is referred to.

  6. Distilling shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, L

    1922-07-21

    In the distillation of shale and similar materials the shale is ground and briquetted and the briquettes are placed in a retort so that air passages are left between them, after which they are uniformly and slowly heated to at least 700/sup 0/C, the air passages facilitating the escape of the oil vapors, and the slow heating preventing fusion of the flux forming constituents. After the bitumen has been driven off, air is passed into the retort and heating continued to about 1050/sup 0/C, the result being a porous product suitable for insulating purposes or as a substitute for kieselguhr. The ground shale may be mixed prior to distillation with peat, sawdust, or the like, and with substances which yield acids, such as chlorides, more particularly magnesium chloride, the acids acting on the bitumen.

  7. Distilling coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blythe, F C

    1914-09-14

    In the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, heavy hydrocarbon oil, such as petroleum, kerosine, shale oil, and heavy tar oil, obtained in some cases during the process, is added to the coal, which is then distilled under pressure and at a comparatively low temperature regulated so as to produce a large proportion of hydrocarbon oils and a small proportion of permanent gas. In one method, about 5 to 10 parts of hydrocarbon oil are mixed with 100 parts of crushed or ground coal, and the mixture is heated in a closed vessel, provided in some cases with an agitator, under a pressure of about 60 lb/in/sup 2/, and the temperature may be gradually raised to 350/sup 0/C and then to about 500/sup 0/C. The heating may be by means of superheated steam with or without external heat.

  8. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, J M

    1884-06-03

    The invention relates to retorts for the destructive distillation of shale, dross, and other carbonaceous or oleaginous materials, and for the distillation and carbonization of sawdust, shavings, tan bark, and the like. The material is fed from a trapped hopper on a series of trays or casings of cast iron or other material, separated by flue spaces and arranged in a tier round a vertical rotating shaft passing through tubular pieces cast on the casings. The shaft is fitted with arms which carry stirring-blades so disposed that the material is shifted from side to side and slowly fed towards the ducts through which it passes to the casing next below, and is finally withdrawn from the apparatus by a pipe, which may be trapped or otherwise. Furnace gases are admitted through openings in the enclosing brickwork having settings to support the casings, the lowermost of which may be fitted below the inlet for furnace gases and their contents cooled by the circulation of cold water round them. The gaseous or volatile products of distillation pass to a condenser by means of openings and the pipe, which may be formed in sections to obtain access to the casings, or doors may be provided for this purpose. The ducts may be arranged alternately at the edge and center of the casings, which may be jacketed, and heated air or steam may be employed instead of furnace gases. Means may also be provided for admitting superheated steam into one or more of the casings.

  9. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W

    1877-03-29

    The method consists in agitating or circulating the distillation products inside the retort by means of jets of gas, steam, or vapor, or by means of reciprocating pistons; condensing certain of the heavy hydrocarbons; sealing or luting the doors of retorts or distilling-vessels; and conducting the distillation for the manufacture of oil so that the charging or discharging doors may be fitted with self-sealing lids. Several arrangements are shown and described; a single horizontal retort is divided into two compartments by a perforated plate which supports the coal, shale, or other bituminous substance, beneath which a piston is reciprocated or a jet of steam, gas, or vapor injected; a vertical retort is fitted with a central tube into which steam, gas, or vapor is injected, or it may be divided into two compartments and the jet injected into one of these; a pair of vertical retorts are connected by a horizontal passage at the top and bottom, and into the upper one steam, gas, or vapor is injected, or the lower one is fitted with a piston.

  10. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, A V

    1856-04-22

    In order to obtain, at the first distillation, from coal, shale, and bituminous substances an oil sufficiently pure for illuminating and other purposes, the material broken into very small pieces and placed on the bottom of the retort, is evenly covered with common sand, about four times greater in weight than the weight of the coal. The coal and sand are then gradually raised to a temperature of 212/sup 0/F. Steam containing carbonaceous impurities first passes to the condenser, and subsequently oil, which rises to the surface of the water in the receiving-vessel. When some bituminous substances are employed, the temperature, after oil ceases to come over, may be gradually raised until the oil produced ceases to be pure. Most kinds of clay and earth, chalk, gypsum, black oxide of manganese, plumbago, or charcoal may be used separately, in combination, or with added chemicals, instead of sand as the medium for filtering the gas or vapor from which the oil is formed. Either the oil obtained by the first distillation or oils obtained by other means may be rectified by distilling with sand.

  11. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1915-07-03

    Oils are extracted from coal, lignite, shale, boghead, butumen, asphalt, tar, pitch, etc., by distillation at a low temperature, which may be 300 to 425/sup 0/CC, solvent oils or vapors being circulated during the heating which may be conducted with or without increased or reduced pressure. The solvent oils and the extracted oils are recovered in condensers, etc., last traces being expelled from the material by a current of water vapor. The uncondensed gases may be used for heating, and the solid residue may be used for the production of gas and coke, or may be briquetted.

  12. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dow, P

    1884-09-11

    The invention has for its object to regulate the temperature at any point of vertical retorts in which steam or steam and air are employed for the distillation of shale, coal, and other substances. Vertical steam pipes at the exterior of each retort and connected with main pipes have a series of branches at different levels and furnished with regulating-valves or cocks. The admission of air is similarly regulated and spy-holes with shutters blocked or sealed against the escape of such products by the fuel intake at one end of the conduit and the congested masses of coke discharged at the other.

  13. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennie, G

    1875-11-12

    For distilling shale, or other oil-yielding minerals, two or more, preferably four, vertical retorts are mounted in a brickwork oven and are heated in the first place by coal, coke or other fuel on a grate. The spent material from the retorts is discharged from one or more in turn on to the grate and is used, together with additional fuel if necessary, to maintain the heat of the retorts. The retorts are charged by means of hoppers and lids and are discharged by means of movable bottoms actuated by rods and levers acting in combination with outlet valves. The retorts are tapered from the bottom upwards.

  14. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W; Brash, P

    1866-05-04

    In the distillation of oil from coal, shale, etc., hydrocarbon vapors which are condensed only with difficulty, and are of small value, are reheated and sent back into the retorts. A jet of steam, or a forcing or exhausting apparatus, may be used for this purpose, and the vapors are passed under false bottoms with which the retorts are preferably provided. In the rectification of the oils, a producer known as still bottoms results which, when redistilled, gives rise to vapors condensable only with difficulty. These vapors may be passed back into the still, or may be mixed and heated, in a separate vessel, with the vapors coming from the still.

  15. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medlrum, E

    1869-02-06

    The invention relates to the decomposition of the liquids with high boiling points, and the solids with low melting points, left in the purification of paraffin oil obtained from coal or shale. The liquids or melted solids, or their vapors, are passed through a heated iron tube or retort and c., which may be packed with broken stones, spent shale, and c. The temperature is regulated between 700/sup 0/F and a low red heat. The condensed products consist of a mixture of light and heavy oils, which may be separated by distillation. The heavier residues may be again passed through the decomposing apparatus.

  16. Distilling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataafsche, N V; de Brey, J H.C.

    1918-10-30

    Hydrocarbons containing a very volatile constituent and less volatile constituents, such as casing-head gases, still gases from the distillation of crude petroleum and bituminous shale are separated into their constituents by rectification under pressure; a pressure of 20 atmospheres and limiting temperatures of 150/sup 0/C and 40/sup 0/C are mentioned as suitable. The mixture may be subjected to a preliminary treatment consisting in heating to a temperature below the maximum rectification temperature at a pressure greater than that proposed to be used in the rectification.

  17. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H; Laing, B

    1927-12-23

    Oil bearing solids such as coal, tar sands, oil shales, or the like, are distilled in a current of hot gas and are first preheated to a temperature above that at which the heaviest oil fractions in the vapors are liable to condense, for example 100 to 250/sup 0/C, according to the volume of gas passing through the retort, temperature being in inverse proportion to the quantity of oxygen containing constituents in the charge. When the distillation takes place in a controlled volume of hot inert gas of 45,000 cubic feet per ton and the volume of oil recovered is about 20 gallons per ton, the material is preheated to 200 to 250/sup 0/C, when the volume of gas used is 100,000 cubic feet the preheating temperature is 150/sup 0/C. The temperatures of the retort dust extractor etc. do not fall below 100 to 150/sup 0/C until actual condensation of the oil vapor is desired. Specification 287,381 is referred to, and Specification 287,037 also is referred to in the Provisional Specification.

  18. Shale distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacomini, V V

    1938-06-07

    To produce valuable oils from shale by continuous distillation it is preheated by a heated fluid and introduced into a distilling retort from which the oil vapours and spent material are separately removed and the vapours condensed to recover the oil. The shale is preheated to 400 to 500/sup 0/F in the hopper by combustion gases from a flue and is fed in measured quantities to a surge drum, a loading chamber and surge drum, the latter two being connected to a steam pipe which equalises the pressure thereon. The material passes by two screw conveyors to a retort with deflector bars to scatter the material so that lean hot cycling gas flowing through a pipe is spread out as it makes its way upwardly through the shale and heats the oil so that it is driven off as vapour, collected in the lean gas and carried off through an outlet pipe. A measuring valve is provided at the bottom of a retort and cutter knives cut the spent shale and distribute cooling water thereto. The gases travel through heat exchangers and a condenser to an accumulator where the cycling gas is separated from the vapours, passed to compression, and preheated in a gas exchanger and spiral coils before it is returned to the retort. The oil passes to a storage tank by way of a unit tank in which oil vapours are recovered. Water is collected by a pipe in the tank bottom and returned by shaft to a retort.

  19. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W

    1881-04-12

    Destructive distillation of shale for the manufacture of mineral oil and ammonia is described. The retorts are arranged in benches, each retort being placed over its own combustion chamber into which the spent shale is discharged and consumed in heating the next charge as described in Specification No. 1578, A. D. 1880. Two forms of retorts are shown, each consisting of two retorts placed above and communicating with one another, the upper being employed to distill the oil at a low red heat, and the lower to eliminate the nitrogen in the form of ammonia at a much higher temperature. The retorts are divided by a sliding damper and have an outlet for the passage of the products placed at the junction. The retorts have an outlet at the top for the escape of the products. Each retort has an opening closed by a cover for charging and a door for discharging. The products of combustion from the combustion chambers pass through ports to a chamber surrounding the lower retorts and thence through ports in the division wall controlled by dampers into the chamber surrounding the upper retorts, whence they pass through flues to the chimney. Around the bottom of each retort are openings communicating with a chamber to which steam is admitted through a valve from a pipe preferably placed in a coil in the flue.

  20. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrom, W A; Bennett, J A.B.

    1884-02-22

    Effecting the separation of the various products of the distillation of coal, shale, etc., by taking advantage of the graduated temperature of successive portions of the length of mechanical retorts is described. The substances entering from the hopper are gradually heated in their progress and give off a series of products in their order of volatilization, which pass from openings in the retort through a series of ascension pipes into collecting-vessels. The vessels are designed to contain different portions of the distillate and are sealed against the escape of uncondensed vapor or gas by the condensed liquid. Each of the ascension pipes communicates above its vessel with a common pipe to convey away permanent gases. The flues for heating the retort may be so arranged as to give the greatest heat at the end farthest from the point of entrance, or the stages of heat may be self-regulated by the time necessary for the material to acquire heat as it travels. If necessary the pipes may be fitted with refrigerating-appliances.

  1. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitting, E K

    1882-08-09

    The broken-up shale is placed in cast-iron retorts, heated externally, having exit tubes placed at a low level. Each retort is provided with a steam-pipe with a regulating-cock outside, the pipe being carried around the walls of the retort in a spiral or zig-zag way to ensure superheating of the steam, perforations being made in the pipe to allow exit for the steam into the retort. The steam, which may if desired be superheated before entrance, is passed into the retort when the latter has attained a temperature of from 210 to 250/sup 0/C and the passage is continued while the temperature rises, as long as distillation goes on. The exit pipe to the retort leads to a condenser of much condensing-surface, provided with a drag obtained by an exhausting steam jet or otherwise. The distilled products consist of tar, oils, wax, ammoniacal water (stated to be in greater proportion through the use of the process), and lighting and heating gas. The latter gas goes through a scrubber to a gasholder. The carbonaceous residue in the retort is discharged when cooled below a red heat, into sheet-iron cylinders, with tightly fitting lids, to avoid as far as possible contact with the atmosphere.

  2. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennent, R B

    1886-12-02

    The invention has reference to an improved construction or mode of building, arranging, and combining the parts of gas-heated retorts for the distillation of shale and other minerals, which by the improved mode and means comprised therein of heating the retorts by the gases, combined with highly heated air and the use of superheated steam in the retorts, and the utilization of the heat of the escaping waste gases for the superheating of the steam, and the raising of steam in boilers for motive power and other purposes. The retorts are erected in transverse pairs, each retort having its surrounding flame flues heating the air for each pair and with steam superheating chambers and pipes between for each pair heated by the escaping gases from the retorts.

  3. Destructive, distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, J

    1882-10-23

    The apparatus employed resembles a reverberatory furnace, having a brickwork chamber with pipes or passages leading from the bottom, through which gases and vapors, arising from destructive distillation or heating of the materials with which the chamber is charged to a certain depth, are drawn by suction produced by a fan or blower. The materials are heated from above by firegates admitted from a separate furnace or fireplace. When shale is thus treated, to obtain burning gas, oil, and ammonia, the suction may be so regulated as to give preponderance to whichever product is desired, the depth of material treated being also concerned in the result. The process is applicable also in the treatment of coal pit refuse, sawdust, peat, and other matters, to obtain volatile products; in burning limestone to obtain carbon dioxide; and in roasting ores. Reference is made to a former Specification for coking coal, No. 1947, A. D. 1882.

  4. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, A

    1863-11-12

    To obtain hydrocarbons, coal, shale, or other bituminous substance is distilled in an annular retort. The outer surface is heated by an arrangement of furnaces and flues, and the inner surface has a number of small openings through which the evolved hydrocarbons pass. The inner chamber is cooled by cold air or water pipes to condense the hydrocarbon which is then run off to purifying-apparatus. In a modification, the retort is heated from the inside, the hydrocarbon being condensed in an outer case. Another form of retort consists of a narrow flat chamber, heated from one side and with a cooled condensing-chamber on the other; or two retorts may be used, with one condensing-chamber between them.

  5. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinjes, J F

    1867-03-12

    The invention relates to means for conveying the material through rotary retorts for distilling shale or the like. The retort is fitted with longitudinal ribs which lift the material and allow it to fall again as the retort rotates. Inclined deflecting plates attached to a fixed shaft cause the material as it falls to be gradually fed towards the discharge end of the retort. By means of the handle, which can be fixed in angular position by a pin entering holes in a quadrant, the angle of the plates may be adjusted and the rate of feed may be thus regulated. Or the plates may be hinged on the shaft or to the inside of the retort, and the angle is then adjusted by a longitudinal rod moved by a handwheel and nut. A similar arrangement may be applied to retorts with an oscillating motion.

  6. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitken, H; McAlley, R

    1871-05-18

    Shale or clay is coked or carbonized by the action of heat in retorts in the same way that coal is coked or by any of the methods used for coking or carbonizing coal, ironstone, or wood. Clay or shale, which is poor in carbon, is mixed or ground with coal, moss, peat, or earth mold, oil, tar, or other carbonaceous matter, shale, or the coke of certain kinds of coal after having been used in the manufacture of gas or oil by distillation. The mixture is coked or carbonized or the coke may be used alone and submitted to further coking or carbonization. The volatile hydrocarbons may be used in carbonizing or assisting to carbonize the shale by being burned beneath the retorts or they may be condensed along with sulfur, ammonia, etc., and kept for after use.

  7. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenshields, J

    1870-01-13

    In distilling shale or other carbonaceous substances to obtain oil, paraffin, ammonium salts, etc., sulfuric or other acid is added to the material, in the still or before treatment. The shale is first reduced to a fine powder. Acid tar from the treatment of oils may be used instead of acid. Hydrogen is sometimes passed into the still, or iron or other metal is mixed with the shale to generate hydrogen in the still. A figure is included which shows the condenser for paraffin and heavy oils, consisting of an iron cylinder connected with the still by a short pipe and surmounted by a long pipe communicating with other condensers. The pipe projects into the cylinder and perforated plates or baffles are fixed across the central portion of the cylinder. The condensed oils are drawn off by a pipe.

  8. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, G

    1865-05-16

    A retort for the destructive distillation of coal, shale, whereby hydrocarbons are produced, is described. The vertical retort is provided with a charging door, a discharging door, an outlet leading to the condensing plant, an inclined bottom, and a perforated cage to facilitate the escape of the vapor and to regulate the amount of materials operated upon in the retort. The upper part of the cage is conical to deflect the materials fed in by the door and the lower part is also slightly conical to facilitate emptying the retort. The bottom may incline from both back and front, and also from the sides to the center. The apparatus is heated from below, and the flues pass all round the lower part of the retort.

  9. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W; Neilson, A; Young, A

    1876-10-09

    The invention relates to modifications of the retort apparatus, described in Specification No. 2487, A.D. 1872, for the destructive distillation of shale and other bituminous substances. The retorts instead of being worked continuously are completely filled and completely discharged in turn. They are made oblong in cross-section in order to present the material in thin layers and cause it to be acted upon more rapidly and economically. The retorts can thus be heated solely by the combustion of the carbonaceus matter contained in the discharged residues or with a small amount of coal in addition. Each retort is contracted at the bottom and is fitted with a box or chest having a hole in it corresponding to the opening in the retort and a sliding plate of iron, firebrick, or other suitable material, which can be operated by a rod passing through the front of the box, for opening or closing the retort. Underneath the box and over the combustion chamber are placed fireclay blocks leaving an opening, which can be closed by another plate of firebrick or the like. When distillation commences, the gases and vapors in the retort are drawn off through a pipe and a main by an exhauster. In order to prevent air from entering the retort or hydrocarbon vapor from being puffed back by the action of the wind, the gas which remains after the condensation of the oils is forced back into the box between the plates and part of it enters the retort and part the combustion chamber. In order to avoid the liability of the oil being carried past the condensers by the action of the gas, steam may be used as a substitute for the gas or mixed with it in large proportions, a steam jet being used to force the gas into the main supplying the boxes.

  10. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W

    1875-09-07

    The invention relates to apparatus for absorbing and recovering volatile hydrocarbons from gases resulting from the distillation of coal, shale, and the like for the production of mineral oil, or from the coking of coal, charring of wood, and like operations. The apparatus is adapted for the repeated use of the same quantity of absorbent. The gases are passed by pipes through a coke tower down which is allowed to flow a stream of mineral oil or a fatty oil such as rape, olive, lard, tallow, and fish oils. The oil is supplied by a pipe and distributed by a plate which is held up against the opening of the pipe by a spring. The oil absorbs the volatile hydrocarbons contained in the gas and is drawn off by a pipe and passed through a tubular heat-exchanging apparatus, and thence by a pipe to a still formed at the bottom of the coke tower and constructed with a number of trays on the principle of the coffey still. The still is heated by a fire or by admitting the exhaust steam from an engine driving a fan, which draws the gases through the coke tower. The stream is admitted by a pipe and distributed by a perforated disk. Live steam may also be admitted if necessary by a pipe. The volatile oils are distilled off through a pipe to a coil condenser, and flow thence into a tank for separating any condensed water. This tank is covered preferably by a glass plate to allow inspection. The oil remaining in the still flows by a pipe to the heat-exchanger, in which it gives up heat to the oil flowing from the coke tower. It then flows by a pipe through a tubular cooler, cooled by water circulation, and thence to a store tank from which it is again pumped to the top of the coke tower.

  11. Distilling shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justice, P M

    1917-09-19

    Light paraffin oils and other oils for motors are obtained from shale, and benzene, toluene, and solvent naphtha are obtained from coal by a process in which the coal or shale is preferably powered to pass through a mesh of 64 to the inch and is heated with a mixture of finely ground carbonate or the like which under the action of heat gives off carbonic acid, and with small iron scrap or its equivalent which is adapted to increase the volume of hydrocarbons evolved. The temperature of the retort is maintained between 175 and 800/sup 0/C., and after all the vapors are given off at the higher temperature a fine jet of water may be injected into the retort and the temperature increased. The produced oil is condensed and purified by fractional distillation, and the gas formed is stored after passing it through a tower packed with coke saturated with a non-volatile oil with recovery of an oil of light specific gravity which is condensed in the tower. The residuum from the still in which the produced oil is fractionated may be treated with carbonate and iron, as in the first stage of the process, and the distillate therefrom passed to a second retort containing manganese dioxide and iron scrap preferably in the proportion of one part or two. The mixture, e.g., one containing shale or oil with six to thirteen percent of oxygen, to which is added three to eight per cent of carbonate, and from one and a half to four per cent of scrap iron, is conveyed by belts and an overhead skip to a hopper of a retort in a furnace heated by burners supplied with producer gas. The retort is fitted with a detachable lid and the vapors formed are led by a pipe to a vertical water-cooled condenser with a drain-cock which leads the condensed oils to a tank, from which a pipe leads to a packed tower for removing light oils and from which the gas passes to a holder.

  12. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W; Fyfe, J

    1897-06-03

    Improvements in retorts of the class described in Specification No. 1377, A. D. 1882, for the destructive distillation of shale are disclosed. The retorts are provided with enlarged multiple hoppers for the reception of the fresh shale, and with enlarged chambers for the reception of the exhausted shale. The hoppers are built up of steel plates, and are bolted at the bottom to flanges on the upper ends of the retorts so as to permit of differential expansion. The shale is fed continuously into the retorts by rods or chains carried by a rocking shaft, or by a slit tube attached to a rocking shaft, and in connection with the hydraulic main. The spent shale is discharged into the receiving chambers by means of a series of prongs extending through a grating and carried by a rocking shaft actuated by levers engaging with reciprocating bars. In an alternative arrangement, the pronged rocking shafts are replaced by worms or screws formed into one half with a right-hand thread and the other half with a left-hand thread.

  13. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, T

    1862-03-03

    Apparatus for the primary distillation of shale or other bituminous minerals in large quantity is constructed as follows:--An annular retort chamber is heated by two or more furnaces, one of which communicates with a central or internal vertical flue, and the others with external or encircling flues preferably disposed in zig-zag, helical or other tortuous course; or the gases pass up the external flues and down the internal flue or flues. The retort chamber may be divided by partitions, or there may be two or more separate chambers disposed concentrically or otherwise with intermediate flues. A pipe or pipes are provided to carry away volatile matters, and valved hoppers are arranged at the top of the retort chamber. The refuse or waste passes off by discharge tubes between the furnaces, and the mouths of these tubes dip into water tanks. The bottom of the retort chamber is funnel-shaped at the discharging points. The apparatus is preferably cylindrical, but may be triangular, square, or polygonal, and may be inclined or horizontal instead of vertical.

  14. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinjes, J F

    1866-03-13

    Continuous distillation of shale, boghead coal, or other noncaking bituminous material is effected in one or more rotating or oscillating horizontal retorts constructed to advance the charge. In the former case, internal spiral ribs or projections are provided. In the latter case, the retort is subdivided by annular flanges provided each with an opening, and a series of double inclined projections is disposed opposite the openings. An apparatus is shown in which the material is fed continuously from a hopper, and is advanced through upper and lower oscillating retorts, provided with annular flanges, double inclined projections, and longitudinal ribs or ledges. The retorts are supported on antifriction rollers. The retort is oscillated by means of a mangle wheel and a pinion on a shaft connected by a universal joint to a driving-shaft. The retort is oscillated from the retort by means of a chain connection. The retort is situated in a chamber separated by perforated brickwork from the actual furnace chamber, so that it is subjected to a lower temperature than the retort. The hopper delivers to crushing-rollers in a lower hopper which delivers to a shoot controlled by a sliding door. A hook on the retort is connected by a pipe to the retort, and a pipe leads from the hood to a condenser. A hood at the delivery end of the retort is connected by a pipe to an airtight cooler for the residue, which is discharged through doors into a truck of other receiver.

  15. Distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, A

    1865-10-04

    To prevent oil distilled from coal, shale, or other minerals from being condensed and burnt in the retort, the oil is drawn off from the bottom of the retort. In order that the oil may be drawn off free from dirt and dust, the vertical retort is made of greater diameter at the bottom than at the top, and a vessel containing water is placed at the bottom. Within the retort is a cylinder built up of spaced rings, between which the oil percolates to the interior of the cylinder, whence it is drawn off through a pipe near its lower end. Externally, the rings present a smooth surface which offers no obstruction to the descent of the coal, and the passing of dust and dirt to the interior of the cylinder is prevented by making the lower edge of each ring overlap the upper edge of the ring below it. The cylinder may be replaced by a square, or other casing, and may be cast in one piece.

  16. Destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hislop, G R

    1882-11-03

    Relates to apparatus for the treatment of cannel or common coal, shale, dross, peat, wood, and similar carbonaceous materials and ironstones for the purpose of obtaining gas, ammonia, and oil. A series of horizontal retorts are built into an arched chamber, and are supported by open arches. A series of vertical retorts in a chamber are situated beneath and in front of the retorts, so that the contents of the latter may easily be discharged into them. The carbonaceous material is first subjected to distillation in the retorts, the products passing by pipes to a hydraulic main where the coal tar and mineral oil are collected in the usual way. The gas is passed through oxide of iron and of lime if to be used for illuminating purposes, and through the former only, if to be used solely for heating purposes. The lower ends of the retorts are closed by doors, or may be sealed by water. They are preferably oblong in section and are surrounded by heating-flues, and each preferably contains the spent material from two of the primary retorts. They discharge their contents into a chamber at the bottom, from which they are withdrawn through a door. When the coke has been transferred from the horizontal to the vertical retorts the latter are closed by suitable covers, and the former are recharged with raw material. Superheated steam is introduced into the lower ends of the vertical retorts in order to facilitate the production of ammonia, which, together with the gases generated pass by a pipe to a main.

  17. Retorts; distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, A C

    1869-11-09

    Relates to retorts for distilling shale or other purposes. Each retort has a mouthpiece, which projects into a water trough, having a curved bottom, and sides rising up to ridges, from which extend shoots. Attached to links is the reciprocating discharge bar, actuated from a steam engine, etc., which, through worm-wheel gearing and a shaft, imparts an intermittent motion to a pawl which propels a ratchet-wheel, which is prevented from turning backward by a catch, and drives a rotary shaft, the motion being transmitted to a bar through a crank and rod. The bar, in rising, pushes the residue from the retort out of the trough, over the ridges, and down the shoots into the truck, etc. The vertical retort is made in two lengths, at the joint between which is held the flange of the shell, joined to, or cast with, the part of the retort and forming a jacket into which steam or other vapor or gas is introduced by a pipe. The steam, etc., circulates through an external spiral rib of the shell and issues from the bottom of the shale among the shale, etc., being distilled.

  18. Comprehensive Assessment of Composition and Thermochemical Variability by High Resolution GC/QToF-MS and the Advanced Distillation-Curve Method as a Basis of Comparison for Reference Fuel Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovestead, Tara M; Burger, Jessica L; Schneider, Nico; Bruno, Thomas J

    2016-12-15

    Commercial and military aviation is faced with challenges that include high fuel costs, undesirable emissions, and supply chain insecurity that result from the reliance on petroleum-based feedstocks. The development of alternative gas turbine fuels from renewable resources will likely be part of addressing these issues. The United States has established a target for one billion gallons of renewable fuels to enter the supply chain by 2018. These alternative fuels will have to be very similar in properties, chemistry, and composition to existing fuels. To further this goal, the National Jet Fuel Combustion Program (a collaboration of multiple U.S. agencies under the auspices of the Federal Aviation Administration, FAA) is coordinating measurements on three reference gas turbine fuels to be used as a basis of comparison. These fuels are reference fuels with certain properties that are at the limits of experience. These fuels include a low viscosity, low flash point, high hydrogen content "best case" JP-8 (POSF 10264) fuel, a relatively high viscosity, high flash point, low hydrogen content "worst case" JP-5 (POSF 10259) fuel, and a Jet-A (POSF 10325) fuel with relatively average properties. A comprehensive speciation of these fuels is provided in this paper by use of high resolution gas chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight - mass spectrometry (GC/QToF-MS), which affords unprecedented resolution and exact molecular formula capabilities. The volatility information as derived from the measurement of the advanced distillation curve temperatures, T k and T h , provides an approximation of the vapor liquid equilibrium and examination of the composition channels provides detailed insight into thermochemical data. A comprehensive understanding of the compositional and thermophysical data of gas turbine fuels is required not only for comparison but also for modeling of such complex mixtures, which will, in turn, aid in the development of new fuels with the goals of

  19. Comprehensive Assessment of Composition and Thermochemical Variability by High Resolution GC/QToF-MS and the Advanced Distillation-Curve Method as a Basis of Comparison for Reference Fuel Development*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovestead, Tara M.; Burger, Jessica L.; Schneider, Nico; Bruno, Thomas J.

    2018-01-01

    Commercial and military aviation is faced with challenges that include high fuel costs, undesirable emissions, and supply chain insecurity that result from the reliance on petroleum-based feedstocks. The development of alternative gas turbine fuels from renewable resources will likely be part of addressing these issues. The United States has established a target for one billion gallons of renewable fuels to enter the supply chain by 2018. These alternative fuels will have to be very similar in properties, chemistry, and composition to existing fuels. To further this goal, the National Jet Fuel Combustion Program (a collaboration of multiple U.S. agencies under the auspices of the Federal Aviation Administration, FAA) is coordinating measurements on three reference gas turbine fuels to be used as a basis of comparison. These fuels are reference fuels with certain properties that are at the limits of experience. These fuels include a low viscosity, low flash point, high hydrogen content “best case” JP-8 (POSF 10264) fuel, a relatively high viscosity, high flash point, low hydrogen content “worst case” JP-5 (POSF 10259) fuel, and a Jet-A (POSF 10325) fuel with relatively average properties. A comprehensive speciation of these fuels is provided in this paper by use of high resolution gas chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight – mass spectrometry (GC/QToF-MS), which affords unprecedented resolution and exact molecular formula capabilities. The volatility information as derived from the measurement of the advanced distillation curve temperatures, Tk and Th, provides an approximation of the vapor liquid equilibrium and examination of the composition channels provides detailed insight into thermochemical data. A comprehensive understanding of the compositional and thermophysical data of gas turbine fuels is required not only for comparison but also for modeling of such complex mixtures, which will, in turn, aid in the development of new fuels with the goals of

  20. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tausz, J

    1924-07-16

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, shale oils, lignite or coal tar oils are purified by distilling them and collecting the distillate in fractions within narrow limits so that all the impurities are contained in one or more of the narrow fractions. In distilling ligroin obtained by destructive distillation of brown coal, it is found that the coloring and resin-forming constituents are contained in the fractions distilling over at 62 to 86/sup 0/C and 108/sup 0/C. The ligroin is purified, therefore, by distillating in an apparatus provided with an efficient dephlegmotor and removing these two fractions. The distillation may be carried out wholly or in part under reduced pressure, and fractions separated under ordinary pressure may be subsequently distilled under reduced pressure. The hydrocarbons may be first separated into fractions over wider limits and the separate fractions be subjected to a further fractional distillation.

  1. Catalytic distillation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  2. Distilling hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, J E

    1923-03-19

    In distilling mineral oils such as petroleum, shale oil, distillates and topped or residual oils, particularly to obtain lubricating oils, the distillation is carried out under reduced pressures below an absolute pressure of 25 mm. of mercury and preferably below about 5 mm. of mercury, and the distillate is collected in fractions determined by the physical characteristics, such as viscosity, flash point, fire point, etc. Superheated steam may be passed through the liquid during distillation. A horizontal cylindrical still provided with cross braces and peripheral ribs interrupted at the base is connected through a condensing coil immersed in a steam chest and a baffled chamber with distillate receiver and is evacuated by a pump. Steam from a boiler and superheater is injected into the still through a perforated pipe. Steam and light oil vapors passing from the chamber are condensed in a coil.

  3. Sodium distiller II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, A.C.; Castro, P.M. e; Torres, A.R.; Correa, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    A sodium distiller allows the evaluation of the sodium purity, contained in plants and circuits of Fast Reactors. The sodium distillers of the IEN Reactor's Department was developed initially as a prototype, for the testing of the distillation process and in a second step, as a equipment dedicated to attendance the operation of these circuits. This last one was build in stainless steel, with external heat, rotating crucible of nickel for four samples, purge system for pipe cleaning and a sight glass that permits the observation of the distillation during all the operation. The major advantage of this equipment is the short time to do a distillation operation, which permits its routine utilization. As a consequence of the development of the distillers and its auxiliary systems an important amount of new information was gathered concerning components and systems behaviour under high temperature, vacuum and sodium. (author)

  4. Multipartite nonlocality distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Li-Yi; Wu, Keng-Shuo

    2010-01-01

    The stronger nonlocality than that allowed in quantum theory can provide an advantage in information processing and computation. Since quantum entanglement is distillable, can nonlocality be distilled in the nonsignalling condition? The answer is positive in the bipartite case. In this article the distillability of the multipartite nonlocality is investigated. We propose a distillation protocol solely exploiting xor operations on output bits. The probability-distribution vectors and matrix are introduced to tackle the correlators. It is shown that only the correlators with extreme values can survive the distillation process. As the main result, the amplified nonlocality cannot maximally violate any Bell-type inequality. Accordingly, a distillability criterion in the postquantum region is proposed.

  5. PARAFFIN SEPARATION VACUUM DISTILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid A. Abdulrahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Simulated column performance curves were constructed for existing paraffin separation vacuum distillation column in LAB plant (Arab Detergent Company/Baiji-Iraq. The variables considered in this study are the thermodynamic model option, top vacuum pressure, top and bottom temperatures, feed temperature, feed composition & reflux ratio. Also simulated columns profiles for the temperature, vapor & liquid flow rates composition were constructed. Four different thermodynamic model options (SRK, TSRK, PR, and ESSO were used, affecting the results within 1-25% variation for the most cases.The simulated results show that about 2% to 8 % of paraffin (C10, C11, C12, & C13 present at the bottom stream which may cause a problem in the LAB plant. The major variations were noticed for the top temperature & the  paraffin weight fractions at bottom section with top vacuum pressure. The bottom temperature above 240 oC is not recommended because the total bottom flow rate decreases sharply, where as  the weight fraction of paraffins decrease slightly. The study gives evidence about a successful simulation with CHEMCAD

  6. Fouling in Membrane Distillation, Osmotic Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Laqbaqbi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Various membrane separation processes are being used for seawater desalination and treatment of wastewaters in order to deal with the worldwide water shortage problem. Different types of membranes of distinct morphologies, structures and physico-chemical characteristics are employed. Among the considered membrane technologies, membrane distillation (MD, osmotic distillation (OD and osmotic membrane distillation (OMD use porous and hydrophobic membranes for production of distilled water and/or concentration of wastewaters for recovery and recycling of valuable compounds. However, the efficiency of these technologies is hampered by fouling phenomena. This refers to the accumulation of organic/inorganic deposits including biological matter on the membrane surface and/or in the membrane pores. Fouling in MD, OD and OMD differs from that observed in electric and pressure-driven membrane processes such electrodialysis (ED, membrane capacitive deionization (MCD, reverse osmosis (RO, nanofiltration (NF, ultrafiltration (UF, microfiltration (MF, etc. Other than pore blockage, fouling in MD, OD and OMD increases the risk of membrane pores wetting and reduces therefore the quantity and quality of the produced water or the concentration efficiency of the process. This review deals with the observed fouling phenomena in MD, OD and OMD. It highlights different detected fouling types (organic fouling, inorganic fouling and biofouling, fouling characterization techniques as well as various methods of fouling reduction including pretreatment, membrane modification, membrane cleaning and antiscalants application.

  7. Distillation of bituminous shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seguin, M

    1875-02-16

    The retort with its accessories constitutes a distillation apparatus for shale composed of a cylindrical, vertical, fixed, tubular, and of ring form metal retort. Also it is comprised of a special hearth of large dimensions in the form of a circular pocket receiving from the retort as heating agent the distilled shale and emitting by radiation the heat that makes the distillation apparatus for the shale act.

  8. Regenerative adsorption distillation system

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2013-12-26

    There is provided a regenerative adsorption distillation system comprising a train of distillation effects in fluid communication with each other. The train of distillation effects comprises at least one intermediate effect between the first and last distillation effects of the train, each effect comprising a vessel and a condensing tube for flow of a fluid therein. The system further comprises a pair of adsorption-desorption beds in vapour communication with the last effect and at least one intermediate effect, wherein the beds contain an adsorbent that adsorbs vapour from the last effect and transmits desorbed vapour into at least one of the intermediate effect.

  9. Regenerative adsorption distillation system

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon; Thu, Kyaw; Amy, Gary; Chunggaze, Mohammed; Al-Ghasham, Tawfiq

    2013-01-01

    There is provided a regenerative adsorption distillation system comprising a train of distillation effects in fluid communication with each other. The train of distillation effects comprises at least one intermediate effect between the first and last distillation effects of the train, each effect comprising a vessel and a condensing tube for flow of a fluid therein. The system further comprises a pair of adsorption-desorption beds in vapour communication with the last effect and at least one intermediate effect, wherein the beds contain an adsorbent that adsorbs vapour from the last effect and transmits desorbed vapour into at least one of the intermediate effect.

  10. Catalytic distillation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  11. Low temperature destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-07-05

    A process is given and apparatus is described for the destructive distillation at low temperature of coal, oil shale, and the like by subjection to the action of a stream of hot gases or superhearted steam, flowing in a closed circuit. Subsequent treatment of the distillation residues with a gas stream containing oxygen results in combustion of the carbon-containing material therein brings to a high temperature the solid residue, in which the process comprises subsequently contacting the hot solid residue with the fluid stream effecting the distillation.

  12. Distilling shale and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, H; Young, G

    1923-01-09

    In a process of recovering oil from shale or coal the material is ground and may be subjected to a cleaning or concentrating process of the kind described in Specification 153,663 after which it is distilled in a furnace as described in Specification 13,625/09 the sections of the furnace forming different temperature zones, and the rate of the passage of the material is regulated so that distillation is complete with respect to the temperature of each zone, the whole distillation being accomplished in successive stages. The vapors are taken off at each zone and superheated steam may be passed into the furnace at suitable points and the distillation terminated at any stage of the process.

  13. Low temperature distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-07-21

    To distil mineral or organic material, the material is heated by means of a hot gas entering into contact with and traversing the material in a horizontal direction. The vertical retort is charged with material from the hopper and hot gases from the furnace after traversing the boiler enter the preheating zone, pass through the slots and charge therein and are educted through connection by the blower. The charge passes downwardly to the distillation zone wherein hot gases from the heater are passed via pipe and slots through the chambers and to the pipe controlled by the dampers. These gases are recycled by the fan through the heater and chamber, that portion of the gases corresponding to the amount of vapours evolved from the distillation being evacuated via the pipe to the condensing plant not shown. Steam and/or a limited quantity of water may be admitted to the distillation zone.

  14. Destructive distillation under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1932-09-08

    A process of destructive distillation of distillable carbonaceous material under pressure is described, consisting of regulating the temperature by introducing the carbonaceous materials to a point where the reaction of hydrogenation has begun but has not stopped, by placing it in indirect heat-exchange with a cooling agent at a critical temperature below the reaction temperature, the agent being under pressure and introduced in the liquid state. Water is used as the cooling agent.

  15. Destructive distillation: oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J; Glover, S

    1918-01-31

    Canned and other coals are destructively distilled in continuously operated vertical retorts which at their upper portions are maintained at temperatures suitable for low temperature oil distillation such as about 700/sup 0/C, and at their lower portions the temperature is higher and such as to be suitable for the production of gas, e.g., about 1400/sup 0/C. Superheated steam is introduced into the lower portion of the retort, preferably by means of the arrangement described in Specification 120,458, and this is converted into blue water gas which assists the distillation in the center of the coal charge. The retorts are preferably such as are described in Specifications 2663/07 and 7757/14.

  16. Distilling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C

    1917-11-23

    In the fractional or destructive distillation of hydrocarbon oils or other liquids, the pressure in the still is raised and lowered alternately. The still is closed to raise the pressure, and is opened to lower the pressure rapidly solely by expansion of the vapors. The operation is effected without intermittent cooling, except such as may occur during the lowering of the pressure. In distilling hydrocarbon oil, pressure steam is blown into the oil until the pressure reaches 5 lb/in./sup 2/. The vapor outlet is then opened until the pressure falls to 2 lb/in./sup 2/, whereupon the vapor outlet is closed and steam is again admitted. The operation is continued until the steam, which is of 20 lb pressure, no longer effects distillation; after this stage, superheated steam is used.

  17. Fractional distillation of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L D

    1931-10-31

    A method of dividing oil into lubricating oil fractions without substantial cracking by introducing the oil in a heated state into a fractionating column from which oil fractions having different boiling points are withdrawn at different levels, while reflux liquid is supplied to the top of the column, and additional heat is introduced into the column by contacting with the oil therein a heated fluid of higher monlecular weight than water and less susceptible to thermal decomposition than is the highest boiling oil fraction resulting from the distillation, or of which any products produced by thermal decomposition will not occur in the highest boiling distillate withdrawn from the column.

  18. Distilling carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumble, M J

    1925-06-29

    Carbonaceous materials such as coal, oil shale, peat, or wood are destructively distilled while being subjected to the action of superheated steam and hydrogen, the latter being provided by dissociating a part of the superheated steam. The materials are charged into a retort heated by a burner and superheated steam and hydrogen are passed in by a pipe and nozzles. The distillates enter a dust extractor through openings and escape through openings shielded by cones into an outlet pipe leading to condensers. The dust which settles in the bottom of the apparatus is periodically removed.

  19. Distilling coal, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, J

    1917-12-21

    Coals of various kinds such as shales, bitumens, and oil sand, peat, etc. are distilled at 350 to 450/sup 0/C and in the presence of vapors and gases obtained by cracking hydrocarbon oils, or the gases obtained by separating the condensable hydrocarbons therefrom, and, if desired, with the addition of superheated steam. The hydrocarbons are properly cracked by passing through molten lead as described in Specification 116,304. According to the Provisional Specification, superheated steam alone may be used to effect the distillation.

  20. Vacuum distilling vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reik, H

    1928-12-27

    Vacuum distilling vessel for mineral oil and the like, characterized by the ring-form or polyconal stiffeners arranged inside, suitably eccentric to the casing, being held at a distance from the casing by connecting members of such a height that in the resulting space if necessary can be arranged vapor-distributing pipes and a complete removal of the residue is possible.

  1. Distilling bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, C N; Hayden, H P

    1926-12-28

    Bituminous materials such as heavy asphaltic residues from petroleum distillation or natural bitumens such as gilsonite, grahamite, etc. are distilled in presence of a carrier consisting of pieces of inert refractory material and by the heat generated by combustion of the coke which remains on the carrier after distillation. A vertical cylindrical retort, in which a wood and coal fire is first made, is charged with an inert refractory substance such as pumice stone, broken firebrick, burnt fire clay, carborundum, ash, etc. mixed with a bituminous substance, which, if fusible, may be melted and added in a rotary drum. The mixture passes downwards through the retort, first through regions in which the hydrocarbons are distilled and cracked and then through a region in which the remaining carbon is burnt by a limited supply of air and steam admitted through a grate. The inert material is discharged through a water seal and used again. Vapors, withdrawn from the retort though an outlet, pass through a heat intercharger and separator and are treated with a spray of sulfuric acid to separate ammonia in a scrubber, with water sprays to condense oil in scrubbers, and with oil in a scrubber.

  2. Membrane distillation for milk concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moejes, S.N.; Romero Guzman, Maria; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Barrera, K.H.; Feenstra, L.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane distillation is an emerging technology to concentrate liquid products while producing high quality water as permeate. Application for desalination has been studied extensively the past years, but membrane distillation has also potential to produce concentrated food products like

  3. Distilling shale and the like

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, H T.P.

    1922-02-23

    In distilling shale or like bituminous fuels by internal heating with hot gas obtained by the gasifying of the shale residues with air or steam or a mixture of these, the amount and temperature of the gaseous distilling medium is regulated between the gasifying and the distilling chambers, by the introduction of cold gas or air.

  4. Distillation with labelled transition systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, Geoffrey William; Jones, Neil

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an improved basis for the " distillation" program transformation. It is known that superlinear speedups can be obtained using distillation, but cannot be obtained by other earlier automatic program transformation techniques such as deforestation, positive supercompilation...... and partial evaluation. We give distillation an improved semantic basis, and explain how superlinear speedups can occur....

  5. Renormalizing Entanglement Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waeldchen, Stephan; Gertis, Janina; Campbell, Earl T.; Eisert, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement distillation refers to the task of transforming a collection of weakly entangled pairs into fewer highly entangled ones. It is a core ingredient in quantum repeater protocols, which are needed to transmit entanglement over arbitrary distances in order to realize quantum key distribution schemes. Usually, it is assumed that the initial entangled pairs are identically and independently distributed and are uncorrelated with each other, an assumption that might not be reasonable at all in any entanglement generation process involving memory channels. Here, we introduce a framework that captures entanglement distillation in the presence of natural correlations arising from memory channels. Conceptually, we bring together ideas from condensed-matter physics—ideas from renormalization and matrix-product states and operators—with those of local entanglement manipulation, Markov chain mixing, and quantum error correction. We identify meaningful parameter regions for which we prove convergence to maximally entangled states, arising as the fixed points of a matrix-product operator renormalization flow.

  6. Hoizontal retort for distilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, F; Papineau, W

    1854-12-15

    Improvements are disclosed in distilling peaty, schistose, bituminous and vegetable matters. These are arranging a retort in a horizontal position or so little inclined as not to permit matters charged at one end of the retort to fall readily to the other by gravity. The retort is heated externally by a fire at one end, near which end the spent products are discharged without opening the retort, which is done by the aid of two valves or slides, one being at all times closed when discharging products. The other end of the retort is provided with a divided hopper with two valves or slides, one of which is kept closed when the other is open, in order to charge the retort. Within is an endless chain carrying rakes so as to move the matters from the feeding to the discharging end. There are outlets for the distilled products furnished with condensers.

  7. Distillation apparatus for solid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lurmann, F

    1860-06-26

    The distillation room is continuously charged by the charging mechanism with the material to be distilled. The distillation products pass into the chamber, where they are drawn out through the tube for purifying. The distillation residue is finally pushed out by the fresh material from the room and falls in the common room, from which it is removed through the air-tight door. In the canals enclosing the room heating gas circulates, which carries to the room the heat necessary for the distillation.

  8. Distillation, destructive: gas retorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, G; Buchanan, J

    1872-06-12

    Retorts used in the distillation of coal, cannel, shale, or other minerals are discharged by means of a joint metal bar or a chain inserted prior to or with the charge, and fitted with a plate or series of plates preferably with the back plate the largest. The rod or chain is formed with a hook, loop, or coupling for withdrawal, preferably by a steam windlass running on rails.

  9. Distilling carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, C A

    1924-04-15

    In apparatus of the kind set forth for distilling solid carbonaceous materials, a rotary retort in the form of a tubular, hollow cylindrical, or other similar hollow body, of small diameter, having a thin wall is provided to which the heat is applied externally, with means operative within it adapted, not only for cleaning the internal wall of the retort but also for distributing the heat throughout the mass of materials under treatment, substantially as described.

  10. Distilling solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H; Laing, B

    1926-12-04

    In the distillation of solid carbonaceous materials with by-product recovery by direct heating with a gas such as water gas, producer gas, or combustion gas which is passed in counter-flow to the materials, the volume of the gas used is such as to lower the vapor tension of the volatiles to enable the oil vapor to be liberated at temperatures not exceeding 450 to 500/sup 0/C and so that the gaseous mixture may be cooled to from 80 to 100/sup 0/C without causing the highest boiling oil fraction to condense. Coking coals may be subjected to a preliminary heat treatment with gases containing an oxygen content of from 2 to 8 percent to reduce their coking properties, and oxygen may be added to the heating gases to assist the polymerization of resinous bodies. Lubricating oil may be obtained by treating the primary oil with caustic soda to remove tar acids, refining the residue with sulfuric acid, distilling off 25 percent of the refined oil and passing the remainder through a filter press at -5/sup 0/C to extract the paraffin wax. The residue of wax-free oil is distilled to yield a lubricating oil which at normal temperatures has a static coefficient of friction of from .1 to .185. Other specifications are referred to.

  11. Distillation of bituminous substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    du Buisson, M A.B.B.

    1845-06-23

    New and improved methods are described for the distillation of bituminous schistus and other bituminous substances, as well as for the purification, rectification, and preparation necessary for the employment of the productions obtained by such distillation for various useful purposes. This invention consists, first, in the arrangement and construction of furnace or apparatus for the distillation of schistus, and (any) other bituminous rocks. This furnace is made of circular brick-work, and is provided with the requisite number of fires placed round the circumference. The retort is of a conical or funnel shape, and when ready for use, has the appearance of one inverted cone being placed within a larger cone, in such a manner as to leave a space between the two cones for the reception of the schistus. Both cones are capable of being closed at their apexes, and their mouths, which are placed upwards, are connected together, and hermetically closed by a flat ring. The flame draft is caused to impinge against the lower portion of the outer cone and ascending, turns over the upper edge and descends within the inner cone to the mouth of the chimney, which is placed in the interior, and as low as may be convenient. A third cone is so placed within the inner cone as to cause the flame draft, in its descent, to bind against the surface of the retort.

  12. Distilling coal, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, W P

    1906-01-11

    Substances containing hydrocarbons, such as cannel coal, lignite, and shale, are destructively distilled by dividing the charge into small bodies confined in an air-tight chamber through which the products of combustion from a contiguous furnace are passed, the furnace serving also to heat the chamber. The temperature is kept below red heat so that the initial products, such as vapors of heavy oils, paraffin, waxes, naphthas, phenols, and cresols, are not decomposed and there is no formation of gaseous products such as naphthalene and benzol. The operation is of short duration, and large amounts of good coke are produced.

  13. Apparatus for the distillation of bituminous shales, peats, and brown-coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malo, M

    1856-11-28

    The distillation retort, of iron, is vertical and arranged in a brick furnace. It is closed by a hydraulic seal. The distillation products escape at different levels by pipes where they condense. In an addition (Sept. 7, 1858) condensers of curved spirals are described.

  14. Distillation with Sublogarithmic Overhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Matthew B.; Haah, Jeongwan

    2018-02-01

    It has been conjectured that, for any distillation protocol for magic states for the T gate, the number of noisy input magic states required per output magic state at output error rate ɛ is Ω [log (1 /ɛ )] . We show that this conjecture is false. We find a family of quantum error correcting codes of parameters ⟦ ∑ i =w +1 m (m i ),∑ i =0 w (m i ),∑ i =w +1 r +1 (r +1 i )⟧ for any integers m >2 r , r >w ≥0 , by puncturing quantum Reed-Muller codes. When m >ν r , our code admits a transversal logical gate at the ν th level of Clifford hierarchy. In a distillation protocol for magic states at the level ν =3 (T gate), the ratio of input to output magic states is O (logγ(1 /ɛ )) , where γ =log (n /k )/log (d )<0.678 for some m , r , w . The smallest code in our family for which γ <1 is on ≈258 qubits.

  15. Distilling solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H; Laing, B

    1926-12-04

    In a process of distilling solid carbonaceous materials with by-product recovery, the time factor and the temperature gradient during the distillation period are so controlled that a temperature difference exceeding 150/sup 0/C is avoided between the temperatures at the center and periphery of any suitable size of material or thickness of fuel bed. The material is heated by direct contact with an inert gas, such as water gas, producer gas, or combustion gases, which is passed in counterflow to the material and whose volume is such as to lower the vapor tension or partial pressure of the volatilizable oils and to withdraw the oils without cracking of the oil vapors. The material may be subjected to a preliminary heat treatment by gases containing 2 to 3 percent of free oxygen to reduce its coking properties, and free oxygen may be added either to the heating gases during the heat treatment, or to the retort and heating gases and vapors to polymerize resinous bodies prior to condensation or during condensation and while the oils are still wholly or partially in the vapor state.

  16. Distilling carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrow, J R

    1921-04-16

    To obtain an increased yield of by-products such as oils, ammonia, and gas from coal, oil shale, wood, peat, and the like by low and medium temperature processes, the requisite quantity of hot producer gas from a gas producer, is caused to travel, without ignition, through the material as it passes in a continuous manner through the retort so that the sensible heat of the producer gas is utilized to produce distillation of the carbonaceous material, the gases passing to a condenser, absorption apparatus, and an ammonia absorber respectively. In a two-stage method of treatment of materials such as peat or the like, separate supplies of producer gas are utilized for a preliminary drying operation and for the distillation of the material, the drying receptacle and the retort being joined together to render the process continuous. The gas from the drying receptacle may be mixed with the combined producer and retort gas from the retort, after the hydrocarbon oils have deen removed therefrom.

  17. Distilling carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ironside, T G

    1921-09-01

    In the distillation of carbonaceous material such as shale, coal, lignite, wood or liquid hydrocarbons, the material is mixed with a heated granular substance such as sand which supplies the necessary heat. The shale or the like, which may be preheated, is fed from a hopper by a worm conveyer to a tube leading into a retort, and the heated granular material such as sand is supplied from a jacketed container through a tube. On the lower end of a rotary shaft are radial arms to which are fixed angularly disposed blades which serve to mix the shale and hot sand and deliver the residue to a central discharge pipe closed at the bottom by a conical valve which opens when the weight of the superimposed material is sufficient. The distillates are taken off by an outlet. Steam vapor or gas may be supplied to the retort, preferably through a hollow shaft leading to hollow stirrers perforated to permit of the gas passing into the material. The retort may be externally heated by hot gases in the space surrounding the retort, and the latter may be divided by horizontal floors so that the material is caused to funnel from the periphery to the center of the floor, then through a central opening on to the floor next below, and from the center to the periphery of this floor, and so on.

  18. Qutrit magic state distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, Hussain; Browne, Dan E; Campbell, Earl T

    2012-01-01

    Magic state distillation (MSD) is a purification protocol that plays an important role in fault-tolerant quantum computation. Repeated iteration of the steps of an MSD protocol generates pure single non-stabilizer states, or magic states, from multiple copies of a mixed resource state using stabilizer operations only. Thus mixed resource states promote the stabilizer operations to full universality. MSD was introduced for qubit-based quantum computation, but little has been known concerning MSD in higher-dimensional qudit-based computation. Here, we describe a general approach for studying MSD in higher dimensions. We use it to investigate the features of a qutrit MSD protocol based on the five-qutrit stabilizer code. We show that this protocol distils non-stabilizer magic states, and identify two types of states that are attractors of this iteration map. Finally, we show how these states may be converted, via stabilizer circuits alone, into a state suitable for state-injected implementation of a non-Clifford phase gate, enabling non-Clifford unitary computation. (paper)

  19. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on all... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits. 27.40...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Starter distillate. 184.1848 Section 184.1848 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1848 Starter distillate. (a) Starter distillate (butter starter distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on...

  1. Distilling oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, W G

    1913-08-13

    Oils and other products are distilled continuously from materials containing or charged with hydrocarbons, such as coal, shale, absorbent materials containing oil, or metal turnings covered with oil, in a vertical or inclined combustion chamber supplied continuously or intermittently with a small quantity of air, and continuously with a large quantity of gases from the condenser admitted below the combustion zone. If desired, steam may also be supplied to the combustion chamber. In the apparatus shown are the combustion chamber, the air inlet, the gas-inlet pipe, the gas-outlet pipe, the condenser, and a mechanical separator which preferably also acts as a fan. A pair of slides is provided at the bottom of the combustion chamber to discharge the residue without admitting air, or a water seal may be used.

  2. Distilling oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crozier, R H

    1923-04-18

    In the fractional distillation of oils from oil shale and similar materials the charge is passed continuously through a vertical retort heated externally by hot combustion gases in flues and internally by the passage of these gases through flues passing through the retort so that zones of increasing temperature are maintained. A vapor trap is provided in each zone having an exit pipe leading through a dust trap to a condenser. The bottoms of the conical vapor traps are provided with annular passages perforated to permit of steam being sprayed into the charge to form screens which prevent the vapors in different zones from mingling, and steam may also be introduced through perforations in an annular steam box. Dampers are provided to control the passage of the heating gases through the flues independently.

  3. Coal distillation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overton, P C

    1937-05-20

    To fractionally condense the vapours derived from the distillation of coal or shale, an apparatus comprises a low temperature carbonisation retort having a plurality of differently heating zones therein which connect with a manifold in which said gas oil vapours can expand. A dephlegmator, cold water jacketted and centrally air heated, causes the heavier matters of the vapours to settle out and the lighter oil gas vapours are conveyed to the bottom of an electrically operated fractionating apparatus comprising a column furnished with a plurality of compartments each heated by electrical elements connected to source of current by lead wires. Annular launders in the compartments collect the derived liquids at the various levels and deliver same by pipes to separate sump while pipe at head of column draws off incondensible gases for return to retort.

  4. Alkali cyanides; destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clancy, J C

    1925-12-02

    The destructive distillation of carbonaceous substances can be accomplished by heating them in a bath of molten alkali and cyanide. Liquid hydrocarbons are produced. The separation of the cyanide from the coke or carbonaceous residues by filtration leaves a substantial quantity of cyanide absorbed by the carbon. A feasible method for removal has been developed by mixing the mixture of cyanide and coke with sodium carbonate or other alkali in the molten state, then treating this substance with nitrogen with or without ammonia to convert most of the carbon to cyanide. The carbonaceous material may be mixed with a liquid hydrocarbon such as petroleum, shale oil, or heavy tar oil, heated, and introduced below the surface of the liquid cyanide which partially decomposes and hydrogenates the coal to increase the yield of hydrocarbons. Dry ammonia may be bubbled through the reaction mixture to effect agitation and to form more cyanide.

  5. The evaporation of oil spills: prediction of equations using distillation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.

    1997-01-01

    The evaporative characteristics of 19 different crude oils and petroleum products were studied . Best-fit equation parameters were determined for percentage loss by time and absolute weight loss. Except in three cases, all oils were found to fit logarithmic curves. The equation constants were correlated with oil distillation data. Relationships enabling calculation of evaporation equations directly from distillation data have been developed. The high correlation of distillation data and evaporation data suggests that the two processes are analogous and that evaporation, like distillation, is largely governed by intrinsic oil properties rather than environmental properties such as boundary-layer factors

  6. Cyclic distillation technology - A mini-review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bîldea, Costin Sorin; Pătruţ, Cătălin; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2016-01-01

    Process intensification in distillation systems has received much attention during the pastdecades, with the aim of increasing both energy and separation efficiency. Varioustechniques, such as internal heat-integrated distillation, membrane distillation, rotating packedbed, dividing-wall columns...

  7. Residue Curve Maps for Multicomponent Reactive Distillation Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Granados, Salvador; Díaz, Antonio F

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo plantea un modelo teórico novedoso que permite visualizar la evolución de las reacciones químicas involucradas en procesos de destilación reactiva que involucran sistemas multicomponentes. La matemática proporciona herramientas que posibilitan la representación de segmentos de la realidad con fines de análisis y con elementos básicos del álgebra lineal, los compuestos químicos son combinaciones lineales de los elementos naturales y las reacciones químicas que los involucra...

  8. Distillation of oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronder, G A

    1926-03-22

    To distill oil shales, cannel coals, and other carbonaceous materials for the extraction therefrom of hydrocarbons and volatile nitrogenous compounds, hard non-condensable gases from the condensers and scrubbers are withdrawn by blowers and admixed with burnt gases, obtained through conduits from the flues of heaters, and forced downwardly through horizontal chambers, connected by vertical conduits, of the heaters and delivered into the retort beneath the grate. Passing upwardly through the charge they vaporize the volatile substances in the shale, and a suction pump removes the vapors from the top of the retort. Immediately they are produced and at substantially the same temperature as that at which they emanate, thus preventing cracking of the oil vapors and condensation of the oil at the top of the retort. The amount of burnt flue gas admixed with the hard gases is regulated by two valves until a required uniform temperature is obtained. A generator supplies producer gas to a heater at the commencement of the retorting operation for circulation through the shale charge to initially produce oil vapors. The generator is connected by a pipe to the gas conduit leading to blowers.

  9. Low temperature distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandegrift, J N; Postel, C

    1929-04-09

    To recover gas, oil tars, and coked residues by low temperature distillation from bituminous coals, lignites, oil shales, and the like, the raw material is fed from a hopper into a rotary retort which is zonally heated, the temperature being greatest at the discharge end. The material is heated first to a relatively low temperature, thereby removing the moisture and lighter volatiles which are withdrawn through a pipe by the suction of a pump, while the higher boiling point volatiles and fixed gases are withdrawn by suction through an outlet from the higher temperature zone. The vapors withdrawn from the opposite ends of the retort pass through separate vapor lines and condensers, and the suction in each end of the retort, caused by the pumps, is controlled by valves, which also control the location of the neutral point in the retort formed by said suction. Air and inert gas may be introduced into the retort from pipe and stack respectively through a pipe, and steam may be admitted into the high temperature zone through a pipe.

  10. Distillation of carbonaceous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainscow, J W.H.

    1936-10-03

    To recover hydrocarbon products by distillation of carbonaceous material in a plurality of horizontal zones maintained at different temperatures, a retort has a plurality of superimposed (3) retort chambers, the uppermost being in communication at one end with a hopper and at the other end through coupled junction not shown with one end of the next lower chamber, whose opposite end communicates with lowermost chamber, the other end of which has a sealed discharge passage, tank, and conveyor not shown. Each retort chamber has stirring and conveying means consisting of helical blades (2) attached to radial arms on shaft mounted in water cooled bearings and driven through suitably mounted sprocket wheels and chains not shown. Each retort chamber has a gas dome, with pyrometer tube, and off-take connected to a common main opening into a dust eliminator which in turn connects with a plurality of vertical condensation towers of known construction, maintained at different temperatures by means of steam from a superheater not shown situated in one retort chamber. The retort heating gases pass from the furnace via zig-zag, (three) baffles under and around each retort chamber to a flue not shown.

  11. Destructive distillation; retorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beilby, G T

    1881-10-03

    For distilling shale and other oil-yielding minerals. Relates to apparatus described in Specification No. 2169 (1881) in which retorts arranged in sets, and mounted loosely in brickwork to allow expansion, are formed preferably of upper iron tubes, fixed by socket rings, to lower fireclay tubes formed with belts which, together with ledges in the sides of the oven, support fireclay slabs. In some cases the lower parts of the retorts may be formed of iron tubes. Each set of four upper tubes is supplied with a four-way hopper, suspended by means of a pair of counter-weighted levers, centered on bearing plates and connected with the hopper by links. A single pipe connected to the hopper serves for leading off the vapors from the four retorts. The retorts are heated by a furnace, the hot gases from which after acting on the retorts are led to ovens in which are placed steam generators and superheaters, from which steam is conveyed to the interior of the retorts to assist the decomposition.

  12. Furnaces for destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, A

    1897-12-04

    Shale or other material is dropped from a hopper F into an annular retort or kiln A/sup 3/, the walls of which enclose annular flues C, C/sup 1/ in which gas is burnt to heat it. Radial flues also extend across the kiln. The kiln is supported above the ground level by pillars B. The material rests at the bottom on an annular plate H, having a flat middle portion with inclined sides. This is supported within an annular hopper I, provided with counterweighted discharging doors I/sup 1/, held by latches and sealed by placing water on them; or a large conical hopper may be used, provided with a conveyer screw, and containing water. Four long scrapers J are reciprocated radially on the flat part of the plate H by rods J/sup 1/, passed through stuffing-boxes in the hopper, and engaged with eccentric K which are rotated by worm gearing. Doors M in the hopper I, and holes in the plate H, permit stirring-tools to be introduced. The upper part of the kiln consists of iron rings a, a/sup 1/; the products of combustion from the flues pass through openings a/sup 5/ into a central chimney a/sup 3/. The products of distillation are delivered through tubes G.

  13. Destructive distillation of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollason, A

    1918-08-23

    To obtain light oils and ammonia from coals having volatile and oxygen contents, the crushed material is mixed with 5 percent of ground amorphous calcium carbonate and distilled slowly in a cast iron retort to remove the water and light oils, the ammonia being synthesized at a later stage. The crushed residue is gasified in a producer by a blast of air and superheated steam at about 950/sup 0/C. The steam and air are passed very slowly at low pressure through the fuel to cause the dissociation of the atmospheric nitrogen molecules into atoms. The gases are then passed to a heater, having a temperature of 500/sup 0/C, and thence to a continuously working externally-heated retort charged with fuel, such as the hard retort residues, maintained below 850/sup 0/C. The water vapor in the gases is dissociated by the incandescent fuel, the oxygen combining with the carbon, and the lime present in the fuel causes the hydrogen to combine with the free nitrogen atoms, thus forming ammonia. The gases after leaving the retort are cooled down to 85 to 95/sup 0/C and the ammonia may be recovered by conversion into ammonium sulphate. The resultant cooled gases may again be charged with superheated steam and utilized again in the heater and retort.

  14. Method of distilling organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, E G.T.

    1921-11-11

    In the distillation of organic materials, by means of coursing heated gases through the distillation chamber, that can be heated by other means also, a method is given by which the hot gases coming from the distillation chamber are cooled in one or more heat-absorbent devices (for example, in spray coolers, condensers and/or water). The greater part of the products or constituents condensable at ordinary temperature are separated from the vapors and gases, and thereafter the gases should be passed through the distillation chamber after the necessary additional heating in special heaters, as one or more heat producers, suitably of the same construction as the heat absorbers, for heating and saturation with steam by means of warm condensate and/or water obtained fully or partly from the heat absorbers, possibly after separation of tar or oil from them. The patent has 11 other claims.

  15. Process of distilling heavy hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1929-12-03

    This invention has for its object the distillation of heavy liquid hydrocarbons for the purpose of obtaining lighter hydrocarbons stable and immediately salable for fuels in combustion motors. The process is distinguished by the fact that the heavy hydrocarbon is distilled by means of heating to a temperature in keeping with the nature of the material to be treated up to 350/sup 0/C under pressure or without pressure the distillation being carried out on catalysts containing successively nickel, copper, and iron (3 parts of nickel, 1 part of copper, and 1 part of iron), the vapors produced by this distillation being exposed in turn to the action of catalysts of the same nature and in the same proportion.

  16. Retorts for distilling carbonaceous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, H E

    1921-09-12

    A retort for distilling carbonaceous material is described in which a mass of such material is retained in a pocket formed between an outer wall and an internal wall which is perforated to permit the free escape of distilled products, the retorts having heating means that directly heat the retort but are so related to the pocket that the material therein is heated indirectly and simultaneously from all sides entirely by heat conducted thereto by the walls.

  17. Distillation process using microchannel technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee [Dublin, OH; Simmons, Wayne W [Dublin, OH; Silva, Laura J [Dublin, OH; Qiu, Dongming [Carbondale, IL; Perry, Steven T [Galloway, OH; Yuschak, Thomas [Dublin, OH; Hickey, Thomas P [Dublin, OH; Arora, Ravi [Dublin, OH; Smith, Amanda [Galloway, OH; Litt, Robert Dwayne [Westerville, OH; Neagle, Paul [Westerville, OH

    2009-11-03

    The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

  18. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  19. Distilling carbonaceous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karrick, L C

    1926-11-02

    Coal, shale and the like are distilled in a current of superheated steam which is passed into a retort at about midway between its ends a further supply being if necessary introduced at the bottom to generate water-gas, and the coke being dry quenched in a hopper below the retort. Combustion products may also be introduced and the temperature may be varied from 950 to 1725/sup 0/F, oil, gas, resin and a residual coke having good adsorbent value, being obtained. The charge from hoppers and auxiliary hoppers is fed to retorts situated between gas and steam preheaters, the rate of downward movement being controlled by discharge rollers having arms, counterweighted rocking arms allowing the residue to be fed downwards into hoppers. Steam from a pipe is superheated in horizontal passages, and admitted through ports into the retort. Preheated fuel gas is burnt in combustion flues and passes down through vertical flues, across horizontal flues and up flues adjacent the retorts, from which by ports and flues it passes down a chamber having an air or gas preheater each having two independent systems, one discharging into the combustion chamber beneath it and the other into an adjacent chamber. Air or gas enters by pipes and after being heated in pipes is fed by ports to the chamber. The volatiles pass off through outlets leading to a main air cooled condenser and a water-cooled condenser delivering to a separating tank connecting with pipes for quenching the residues and with pipes to preheat the charge in the hoppers and maintain a gas barrier the rein. Superheated steam may also be admitted through ports to generate water-gas and increase the total volume of gases and combustion products may be introduced through ports. The upper part of the retort is made of cast iron, the high temperature parts of silica or carborundum brick, and the lower part of chrome iron or other metal.

  20. Zone distillation: a new purification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    The features of zone distillation (with zone melting of refined material and with pulling of condensate) as a new purification method are shown. The method is based on similarity of equations of distillation and crystallization refining. The analogy between some distillation and condensation methods (particularly between zone distillation and zone recrystallization) is should up

  1. Efficiency of fermionic quantum distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbrych, Jacek W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Feiguin, Adrian E. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Dagotto, Elbio R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Heidrich-Meisner, F. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Munchen, Munchen (Germany)

    2017-09-13

    Here, we present a time-dependent density-matrix renormalization group investigation of the quantum distillation process within the Fermi-Hubbard model on a quasi-one-dimensional ladder geometry. The term distillation refers to the dynamical, spatial separation of singlons and doublons in the sudden expansion of interacting particles in an optical lattice, i.e., the release of a cloud of atoms from a trapping potential. Remarkably, quantum distillation can lead to a contraction of the doublon cloud, resulting in an increased density of the doublons in the core region compared to the initial state. As a main result, we show that this phenomenon is not limited to chains that were previously studied. Interestingly, there are additional dynamical processes on the two-leg ladder such as density oscillations and self-trapping of defects that lead to a less efficient distillation process. An investigation of the time evolution starting from product states provides an explanation for this behavior. Initial product states are also considered since in optical lattice experiments, such states are often used as the initial setup. We propose configurations that lead to a fast and efficient quantum distillation.

  2. Three-phase fluidized distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravagnani, T.M.K.; Pereira, J.A.F.R.

    2001-01-01

    Separation efficiency in distillation operations can be improved by modifying the characteristics of the dispersions formed on the trays. The present work reports on the hydrodynamic and mass transfer characteristics of liquid-solid-vapour dispersions formed on sieve trays without downcomers of a distillation column operating under total reflux conditions. Murphree efficiency and the operating limits of distillation using the ethanol-n-butanol system are analyzed for a large range of vapour velocities and liquid mixture compositions, utilising wettable PVC particles and non-wettable silicone, PE, and Teflon((R)) particles. It was verified that wettable particles show a drastic reduction in the upper operating limit of vapour velocity, but this does not occur for non-wettable particles. Tray efficiency can be increased when non-wettable particles are used, mainly for high vapour velocity operations. (author)

  3. Continuous fractional distillation of petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-11-05

    This invention has for its object a process of distillation, fractional, and continuous, of shale oil, tar, etc., characterized by the vapors leaving the evaporation chamber being forced, before condensation, to go over a continuous circuit. The vapors traverse first a preheater then return to the vaporization chamber in which they are passed along large surfaces and by application of the counter-current principle in contact with the liquid to be distilled. They stream through the chamber in a continuous manner (the quantity of vapor emitted in the circuit being determined in a manner to advance the distillation just to completion); the excess of vapor formed being removed from the circuit and sent to a condensing apparatus for fractionation.

  4. Refining shale-oil distillates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altpeter, J

    1952-03-17

    A process is described for refining distillates from shale oil, brown coal, tar, and other tar products by extraction with selective solvents, such as lower alcohols, halogen-hydrins, dichlorodiethyl ether, liquid sulfur dioxide, and so forth, as well as treating with alkali solution, characterized in that the distillate is first treated with completely or almost completely recovered phenol or cresotate solution, the oil is separated from the phenolate with solvent, for example concentrated or adjusted to a determined water content of lower alcohol, furfural, halogen-hydrin, dichlorodiethyl ether, liquid sulfur dioxide, or the like, extracted, and the raffinate separated from the extract layer, if necessary after distillation or washing out of solvent, and freeing with alkali solution from residual phenol or creosol.

  5. Performance indicators of bioethanol distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marriaga, Nilson

    2009-01-01

    The increase of biofuels demand accelerates the construction of new production plants and technological improvements in the process so the development of versatile tools for evaluating alternatives becomes an undeniable challenge. It was established through heuristic rules, thermodynamic analysis and simulation computer the energy consumption and performance indicators that govern, from fermented mash (ethanol 8.5 % v/v), the distillation of various capacities for bioethanol production: 20, 60, 100 and 150 KLD (kiloliters / day) through Aspen PlusTM simulator. It was found that the distillation demand nearly 30% of heat that would be obtained by burning alcohol fuel produced thus it is necessary the use of raw materials that generate enough biomass to produce the steam required. In addition, correlations were found to allow for easy diameters of distillation columns in terms of production capacity.

  6. Solar power water distillation unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, Kamran; Khan, Muhammad Muzammil; Ateeq, Ijlal Shahrukh; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

  7. Distillation of oil-bearing minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-05-21

    In the process of distilling oil-bearing minerals such as oil shale which disintegrates during distillation, wherein the subdivided minerals are subjected to a distillation temperature in the form of a highly turbulent dense mass fluidized by an upwardly flowing gasiform medium in a distillation zone and the heat required by the distillation is supplied by burning solid distillation residue with a combustion-supporting gas in the form of a fluidized mass of solids in a separate combustion zone at a temperature substantially higher than the distillation temperature and returning solid combustion residue substantially at the higher temperature to the distillation zone. The steps of starting up the process which consists of maintaining in the distillation and combustion zones dense turbulent fluidized beds of non-disintegrating solids, circulating the non-disintegrating solids between said beds, heating the circulating solids by an auxiliary heat supply until the bed in the distillation zone has reached at least the distillation temperature, thereafter charging fresh oil-bearing minerals to the bed in the distillation zone, continuing the circulation, withdrawing solids which have passed through the combustion zone at a rate adequate to maintain a solids balance, supplying the combustion-supporting gas to the combustion zone to cause the combustion of the residue, and discontinuing the auxilary heating when sufficient heat for the distillation is being generated in the combustion zone.

  8. Konference Distillation and Absorption 2010

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bendová, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 10 (2009), s. 862 ISSN 0009-2770 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA320 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : conference * announcement * distillation and absorption Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  9. Distilling oils and bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutz, H

    1925-08-25

    In the distillation of bituminous materials such as coal, brown coal, peat, or mineral and tar oils or tar, in the presence of hot neutral gases such as hydrogen, illuminating gas, or water-gas, sulfur dioxide is also fed into the above-mentioned materials or into the vapors evolved therefrom. By this treatment better products are obtained.

  10. Distillation of shale in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Ganahl, C F

    1922-07-04

    To distill buried shale or other carbon containing compounds in situ, a portion of the shale bed is rendered permeable to gases, and the temperature is raised to the point of distillation. An area in a shale bed is shattered by explosives, so that it is in a relatively finely divided form, and the tunnel is then blocked by a wall, and fuel and air are admitted through pipes until the temperature of the shale is raised to such a point that a portion of the released hydrocarbons will burn. When distillation of the shattered area takes place and the lighter products pass upwardly through uptakes to condensers and scrubbers, liquid oil passes to a tank and gas to a gasometer while heavy unvaporized products in the distillation zone collect in a drain, flow into a sump, and are drawn off through a pipe to a storage tank. In two modifications, methods of working are set out in cases where the shale lies beneath a substantially level surface.

  11. Distillation of oil-bearing minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-12-03

    A process of distilling oil-bearing minerals of the type of oil shale which disintegrate during distillation consists of subjecting the subdivided minerals to a distillation temperature in the form of a highly turbulent dense mass fluidized by an upwardly flowing gasiform medium in a distillation zone and supplying the heat required for the distillation by burning solid distillation residue with a combustion-supporting gas in the form of a fluidized mass of solids in a separate combustion zone at a combustion temperature and returning solid combustion residue substantially at the combustion temperature to the distillation zone. Combustion temperature is positively maintained at a figure not exceeding 1,200/sup 0/F and at a figure which is not substantially more than 50/sup 0/F higher than the distillation temperature.

  12. Cyclic distillation technology - A mini-review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bîldea, Costin Sorin; Pătruţ, Cătălin; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Abildskov, Jens; Kiss, Anton A.

    2016-01-01

    Process intensification in distillation systems has received much attention during past decades, with the aim of increasing both energy and separation efficiency. Various techniques, such as internal heat-integrated distillation, membrane distillation, rotating packed bed, dividing-wall columns and

  13. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Progress Toward a Distillation Comparison Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, M. R.; Lubman, A.; Pickering, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    Recovery of potable water from wastewater is essential for the success of long-duration manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Honeywell International and a team from NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing a wastewater processing subsystem that is based on centrifugal vacuum distillation. The wastewater processor, referred to as the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS), utilizes an innovative and efficient multistage thermodynamic process to produce purified water. The rotary centrifugal design of the system also provides gas/liquid phase separation and liquid transport under microgravity conditions. A five-stage subsystem unit has been designed, built, delivered and integrated into the NASA JSC Advanced Water Recovery Systems Development Facility for performance testing. A major test objective of the project is to demonstrate the advancement of the CDS technology from the breadboard level to a subsystem level unit. An initial round of CDS performance testing was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2008. Based on FY08 testing, the system is now in development to support an Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project distillation comparison test expected to begin in early 2009. As part of the project objectives planned for FY09, the system will be reconfigured to support the ELS comparison test. The CDS will then be challenged with a series of human-gene-rated waste streams representative of those anticipated for a lunar outpost. This paper provides a description of the CDS technology, a status of the current project activities, and data on the system s performance to date.

  14. Key distillation in quantum cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutsky, Boris Aron

    1998-11-01

    Quantum cryptography is a technique which permits two parties to communicate over an open channel and establish a shared sequence of bits known only to themselves. This task, provably impossible in classical cryptography, is accomplished by encoding the data on quantum particles and harnessing their unique properties. It is believed that no eavesdropping attack consistent with the laws of quantum theory can compromise the secret data unknowingly to the legitimate users of the channel. Any attempt by a hostile actor to monitor the data carrying particles while in transit reveals itself through transmission errors it must inevitably introduce. Unfortunately, in practice a communication is not free of errors even when no eavesdropping is present. Key distillation is a technique that permits the parties to overcome this difficulty and establish a secret key despite channel defects, under the assumption that every particle is handled independently from other particles by the enemy. In the present work, key distillation is described and its various aspects are studied. A relationship is derived between the average error rate resulting from an eavesdropping attack and the amount of information obtained by the attacker. Formal definition is developed of the security of the final key. The net throughput of secret bits in a quantum cryptosystem employing key distillation is assessed. An overview of quantum cryptographic protocols and related information theoretical results is also given.

  15. [Distiller Yeasts Producing Antibacterial Peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyachko, E V; Morozkina, E V; Zaitchik, B Ts; Benevolensky, S V

    2015-01-01

    A new method of controlling lactic acid bacteria contamination was developed with the use of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides. Genes encoding the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin with codons preferable for S. cerevisiae were synthesized, and a system was constructed for their secretory expression. Recombinant S. cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides effectively inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Pediacoccus pentasaceus, Pediacoccus acidilactici, etc. The application of distiller yeasts producing antibacterial peptides enhances the ethanol yield in cases of bacterial contamination. Recombinant yeasts producing the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin can successfully substitute the available industrial yeast strains upon ethanol production.

  16. Low temperature distillation of coal, shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1938-08-12

    A process is disclosed for the low temperature distillation of solid carbonaceous fuels, such as coal, lignite, shale or the like, which comprises feeding or supplying the comminuted fuel in the form of a layer of shallow depth to drying and distilling zones in succession moving the fuel forward through the zones, submitting it to progressively increasing nonuniform heating therein by combustion gases supplied to the distillation zone and traveling thence to the drying zone, the gases heating the distillation zone indirectly and the drying zone both indirectly and then directly such that the fuel retains its solid discrete form during substantially the whole of its travel through the drying and distillation zones, subjecting the fuel for a portion of its travel to a zigzag ploughing and propelling movement on a heated sole, and increasing the heating so as to cause fusion of the fuel immediately prior to its discharge from the distillation zone.

  17. Evaluation of chemical composition of defect wine distillates

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaljević Žulj, Marin; Posavec, Barbara; Škvorc, Melanija; Tupajić, Pavica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of the distillate obtained from wine with off-flavour. The chemical composition of wine distillates obtained by distillation of Chardonnay wine with oxidation off-flavour was investigated. Distillation of wine was carried out using a simple distillation pot still by double distillation and separation the different portion of the first fraction. Volatile compounds of wine and wine distillates (acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol ...

  18. Method and arrangement of distillation of shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, S V

    1920-03-29

    A method is given of distilling shale and other bituminous materials utilizing the heat from the combustion of the residue, possibly with additional heat from other fuels. It is characterized by the shale, which is arranged in layers, being first submitted to a process of distillation utilizing the heat mentioned, and at the same time recovering the products of distillation, and second the shale being burned without disturbing the layers to any appreciable extent. The patent has 16 more claims.

  19. Hybrid wind-power-distillation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninić Neven

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports and elaborates on the idea of a solar distiller and an offshore wind power plant operating together. The subject under discussion is a single-stage solar distillation plant with vaporization, using adiabatic expansion in the gravitational field inside a wind power plant supporting column. This scheme divides investment costs for electric power and distillate production. In the region of the Adriatic Sea, all electric power produced could be “converted” to hydrogen using less than 10% of the distillate produced.

  20. Determination of methanol in Iranian herbal distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Kobra; Hassani, Faezeh Vahdati; Azar-Khiavi, Kamal Razavi; Moghaddam, Zohreh Samie; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2016-06-01

    Herbal distillates have been used as beverages, for flavoring, or as phytomedicines in many countries for a long time. Recently, the occurrence of blindness after drinking herbal distillates has created concerns in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of methanol in herbal distillates produced in Iran. Eighty-four most commonly used herbal distillates purchased from herbal distillate factories were analyzed for methanol contents by gas chromatography and flame ionization detection, with ethanol as internal standard. In 15 herbal distillates, the methanol concentration was below the limit of quantitation. The methanol concentrations in all samples ranged from 43 to 277 mg/L. Forty-five samples contained methanol in excess of the Iranian standard. The maximum concentration was found in an herbal distillate of Mentha piperita (factory E) (277±12), and the minimum in a distillate of Carum carvi (factory B) (42.6 ± 0.5). Since the 45 Iranian herbal distillates containing methanol levels were beyond the legal limits according to the Iranian standard, it seems necessary to monitor the amount of methanol and give a warning to watch out for the latent risk problem of methanol uptake, and establish a definitive relationship between the degree of intoxication observed and the accumulation of methanol in the blood.

  1. Dynamic effects of diabatization in distillation columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic effects of diabatization in distillation columns are investigated in simulation emphasizing the heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A generic, dynamic, first-principle model has been formulated, which is flexible enough to describe various diabatic distillation configurations....... Dynamic Relative Gain Array and Singular Value Analysis have been applied in a comparative study of a conventional distillation column and a HIDiC. The study showed increased input-output coupling due to diabatization. Feasible SISO control structures for the HIDiC were also found and control...

  2. Dynamic Effects of Diabatization in Distillation Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic eects of diabatization in distillation columns are investigated in simulation with primary focus on the heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A generic, dynamic, rst-principle model has been formulated, which is exible to describe various diabatic distillation congurations....... Dynamic Relative Gain Array and Singular Value Analysis have been applied in a comparative study of a conventional distillation column and a HIDiC. The study showed increased input-output coupling due to diabatization. Feasible SISO control structures for the HIDiC were also found. Control...

  3. Conceptual design of heterogeneous azeotropic distillation process for ethanol dehydration using 1-butanol as entrainer

    OpenAIRE

    Paritta Prayoonyong

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of a heterogeneous azeotropic distillation process for ethanol dehydration using 1-butanol as entrainer is presented. The residue curve map of the ethanol/water/1-butanol mixture is computationally generated using non-random twoliquid thermodynamic model. It is found that 1-butanol leads to a residue curve map topological structure different from that generated by typical entrainers used in ethanol dehydration. Synthesis...

  4. Retrofit of distillation columns in biodiesel production plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Nghi; Demirel, Yasar

    2010-01-01

    Column grand composite curves and the exergy loss profiles produced by the Column-Targeting Tool of the Aspen Plus simulator are used to assess the performance of the existing distillation columns, and reduce the costs of operation by appropriate retrofits in a biodiesel production plant. Effectiveness of the retrofits is assessed by means of thermodynamics and economic improvements. We have considered a biodiesel plant utilizing three distillation columns to purify biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester) and byproduct glycerol as well as reduce the waste. The assessments of the base case simulation have indicated the need for modifications for the distillation columns. For column T202, the retrofits consisting of a feed preheating and reflux ratio modification have reduced the total exergy loss by 47%, while T301 and T302 columns exergy losses decreased by 61% and 52%, respectively. After the retrofits, the overall exergy loss for the three columns has decreased from 7491.86 kW to 3627.97 kW. The retrofits required a fixed capital cost of approximately $239,900 and saved approximately $1,900,000/year worth of electricity. The retrofits have reduced the consumption of energy considerably, and leaded to a more environmentally friendly operation for the biodiesel plant considered.

  5. Conceptual analysis of single-feed heterogeneous distillation columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Martinez Riascos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Separation in heterogeneous distillation columns is attained by interaction of two liquid and one vapor phases, interaction of three phases involves complexities due to the determination of vapor-liquid-liquid equilibrium and hence, in the design of separation units. Nevertheless, the liquid-liquid equilibrium allows developing separations that may be unfeasible by vapor-liquid equilibrium. In this way, heterogeneous azeotropic distillation is a useful operation for the separation of azeotropic and close-boiling mixtures. In this work, a new methodology for evaluating the feasibility of this process is developed. This methodology is an extension of that proposed by Castillo et al. (1998 for homogeneous systems. Operation leaves for heterogeneous systems are calculated using the concept of pinch point curves in order to establish the process feasibility. Heterogeneous columns with external decanter are considered as the only heterogeneous stage (OHED: only heterogeneous external decanter. The initialization process for the column calculation requires the selection of the distillate composition using thermodynamic criteria in order to guarantee homogeneous phases within the column. A system with industrial and academic relevance was considered as case study: water-acetic acid-amyl acetate. Results show that the developed shortcut method allows evaluating process feasibility and estimating design parameters, without the use of trial and error procedures implemented, with the aid of simulation tools.

  6. 27 CFR 19.322 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distillates containing... Distillates containing extraneous substances. (a) Use in production. Distillates containing substantial... produced. Distillates removed from the distilling system under the provisions of this paragraph shall be...

  7. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of distillates... distillates containing aldehydes. Distillates containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were...

  8. Recycling of acetone by distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, D.L.; Campbell, B.A.; Phelan, J.E.; Harper, M.

    1992-09-01

    The Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) identifies spent acetone solvent as a listed hazardous waste. At Fernald, acetone has been spent that has been contaminated with radionuclides and therefore is identified as a mixed hazardous waste. At the time of this publication there is no available approved method of recycling or disposal of radioactively contaminated spent acetone solvent. The Consent Decree with the Ohio EPA and the Consent Agreement with the United States EPA was agreed upon for the long-term compliant storage of hazardous waste materials. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility for safely decontaminating spent acetone to background levels of radioactivity for reuse. It was postulated that through heat distillation, radionuclides could be isolated from the spent acetone

  9. Retort for distilling coal oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbon, J

    1865-12-20

    The construction of a retort for extracting or distilling coal oil or other products from cannel coal, shale, or schist, and more particularly of small coal or dust technically called slack, consists in applying self-acting feed and discharge apparatus to a revolving cylindrical wrought or cast iron retort, and constructing the inner surface of the cylindrical retort with a projecting ridge which encircles the interior of the retort in a spiral manner, the same as the interior of a female screw, and the ridge may be either cast upon or riveted on the internal surface, and is so arranged to cause the material to be operated upon to advance from one end of the retort to the other, as the retort revolves by following the course of the spiral screw or worm formed by the projecting ridge.

  10. Distillation of solid carbonaceous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burney, C D

    1918-08-31

    A method of distilling carbonaceous material at low or moderate temperatures is described in which the main supply of gases for heating the material under treatment is generated in a combustion chamber located externally of the retort chamber from which combustion chamber the gases are withdrawn and passed under control through hollow elements located within the retort chamber in such manner as to insure the production of the desired temperature gradient along the length of the retort, the said elements being so constructed that they serve to bring the heating gases into indirect contact with the material undergoing treatment while also moving the material progressively through the retort in the opposite direction to that in which the heating gases flow.

  11. Driving Force Based Design of Cyclic Distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Fjordbak; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2017-01-01

    with mixed phase feeds. A range of binary test cases, benzene toluene, methanol water, and ethanol water, are evaluated. The advantage of the design approach in cyclic distillation is shown to be analogous to the advantages obtained in conventional continuous distillation, including a minimal utility...

  12. Apparatus for distillation of bituminous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carthaus, E; von Rittersberg, K; Abraham, A

    1917-05-03

    Apparatus for dry distillation of bituminous material, such as oil shale and brown coal with simultaneous fractional separation of the distillate, consists in the fact, that the domed water-cooled condenser, arranged above the conveyer carrying it, is divided by double vertical partitions in the chamber.

  13. Method of distillation of sulfurous bituminous shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallback, A J.S.; Bergh, S V

    1918-04-22

    A method of distillation of sulfur-containing bituminous shales is characterized by passing the hot sulfur-containing and oil-containing gases and vapors formed during the distillation through burned shale containing iron oxide, so that when these gases and vapors are thereafter cooled they will be, as far as possible, free from sulfur compounds. The patent contains six more claims.

  14. Membrane distillation against a pressure difference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, L.; van der Ham, LV; Kuipers, N.J.M.; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Vlugt, T.J.H.; Kjelstrup, S

    2017-01-01

    Membrane distillation is an attractive technology for production of fresh water from seawater. The MemPower®MemPower® concept, studied in this work, uses available heat (86 °C) to produce pressurized water (2.2 bar and 46 °C) by membrane distillation, which again can be used to power a turbine for

  15. Process of distillation of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxton, A L

    1968-08-16

    In an oil-shale distillation apparatus with a single retort, in which separate zones of preheating, distillation, combustion, and cooling are maintained, the operation is conducted at a presssure higher than the atmospheric pressure, preferably at a gage pressure between about 0.35 and 7.0 bars. This permits increasing the capacity of the installation.

  16. Recycling of Waste Acetone by Fractional Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weires, Nicholas A.; Johnston, Aubrey; Warner, Don L.; McCormick, Michael M.; Hammond, Karen; McDougal, Owen M.

    2011-01-01

    Distillation is a ubiquitous technique in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum; the technique dates back to ca. 3500 B.C.E. With the emergence of green chemistry in the 1990s, the importance of emphasizing responsible waste management practices for future scientists is paramount. Combining the practice of distillation with the message…

  17. 7 CFR 58.331 - Starter distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Starter distillate. 58.331 Section 58.331 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.331 Starter distillate. The refined flavor components when used to flavor butter and related...

  18. Membrane distillation against a pressure difference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, L.; Ham, L.V. van der; Kuipers, N.J.M.; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Vlugt, T.J.H.; Kjelstrup, S.

    2017-01-01

    Membrane distillation is an attractive technology for production of fresh water from seawater. The MemPower® concept, studied in this work, uses available heat (86 °C) to produce pressurized water (2.2 bar and 46 °C) by membrane distillation, which again can be used to power a turbine for

  19. Method of distillation of alum shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hultman, G H

    1920-02-03

    A method is given of distilling alum shale by means of preheated gases obtained from the process of distillation in which the gases are circulating within a system consisting of the retort, the condensation apparatus, and generator, each separate. It is characterized by leading the gases produced during the distillation through a condensation apparatus for separation of the condensable products, such as oil, benzene, ammonia, and sulfur, and the noncondensable gases are conveyed through one or more heated generators that have been charged with residue from the process of distillation (any superfluous amount of gas formed during the process being released). The heated gases are thereupon passed to the retort for completion of the distillation process.

  20. Operation and Design of Diabatic Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas

    Diabatic operation of a distillation column implies that heat is exchanged in one or more stages in the column. The most common way of realising diabatic operation is by internal heat integration resulting in a heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). When operating the rectifying section...... at a higher pressure, a driving forcefor transferring heat from the rectifying section to the stripping section is achieved. As a result, the condenser and reboiler duties can be significantly reduced. For two-product distillation, the HIDiC is a favourable alternative to the conventional distillation column....... Energy savings up to 83% are reported for the HIDiC compared to the CDiC, while the reported economical savings are as high as 40%. However, a simpler heat-integrated distillation column configuration exists, which employs compression in order to obtain a direct heat integration between the top vapour...

  1. Thermodynamic Behavior of Lead-Antimony Alloy in Vacuum Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of metals in Pb-Sb ailoy during vacuum distillation was calculated.The composition curve of vapor-liquid phases determined by this work is different from those of. other researchers.The curve intersects the diagonal at C.The compositions of vapor and liquid at C are identical.The antimony content of vapor on the left of C is less than that of liquid,and the vapor on the right-side of C contains more antimony.These characteristics can be applied to the elimination of antimony from crude lead or the elimination of lead from crude antimony.The position of C moves rightwards with temperature increment.The discrepency among the compositions of C suggested by diffrent authors was explained.

  2. Structural Decoupling and Disturbance Rejection in a Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahar, Mehrdad; Jantzen, Jan; Commault, C.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction, distillation column model, input-output decoupling, disturbance rejection, concluding remarks, references.......Introduction, distillation column model, input-output decoupling, disturbance rejection, concluding remarks, references....

  3. Conceptual design of heterogeneous azeotropic distillation process for ethanol dehydration using 1-butanol as entrainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paritta Prayoonyong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of a heterogeneous azeotropic distillation process for ethanol dehydration using 1-butanol as entrainer is presented. The residue curve map of the ethanol/water/1-butanol mixture is computationally generated using non-random twoliquid thermodynamic model. It is found that 1-butanol leads to a residue curve map topological structure different from that generated by typical entrainers used in ethanol dehydration. Synthesised by residue curve map analysis, the distillation flowsheet for ethanol dehydration by 1-butanol comprises a double-feed column integrated with an overhead decanter and a simple column. The double-feed column is used to recover water as the top product, whereas the simple column is used for recovering ethanol and 1-butanol. The separation feasibility and the economically near-optimal designs of distillation columns in the flowsheet are evaluated and identified by using the boundary value design method. The distillation flowsheet using 1-butanol is compared with the conventional process using benzene as entrainer. Based on their total annualised costs, the ethanol dehydration process using 1-butanol is less economically attractive than the process using benzene. However, 1-butanol is less toxic than benzene.

  4. Method of distillation of bituminous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, E G.T.

    1919-11-12

    A method is described of dry distillation of bituminous materials by leading warm combustible gases, mixed or not mixed with steam, through the distillation chamber in direct contact with the materials, during which process the distillation chamber may be heated by other means. It is characterized by the mixture of distillation products (formed by the vapors produced by heating the raw materials) and the gas (circulating gas) used for heating in the process, being led through coolers or similar contrivances, in order to separate through condensation the greater part of the content of the products or materials condensable at ordinary temperatures, and also to recover as much as possible of the highly volatile oils in the gas. Thereafter the gas is split, one part is, without further cleaning, and led through the distillation chamber, after this gas has been reheated in suitable apparatus. The other part (surplus gas), which in volume corresponds approximately to the new-formed distillation gases, is treated according to known methods for the extraction of the remaining products of the distillation, such as volatile oils, ammonia, methyl alcohol, sulfuretted hydrogen, and others. The patent contains three other claims.

  5. Microbubble Distillation for Ethanol-Water Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atheer Al-yaqoobi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, a novel approach for separating ethanol-water mixture by microbubble distillation technology was investigated. Traditional distillation processes require large amounts of energy to raise the liquid to its boiling point to effect removal of volatile components. The concept of microbubble distillation by comparison is to heat the gas phase rather than the liquid phase to achieve separation. The removal of ethanol from the thermally sensitive fermentation broths was taken as a case of study. Consequently the results were then compared with those which could be obtained under equilibrium conditions expected in an “ideal” distillation unit. Microbubble distillation has achieved vapour compositions higher than that which could be obtained under traditional equilibrium conditions. The separation was achieved at liquid temperature significantly less than the boiling point of the mixture. In addition, it was observed that the separation efficiency of the microbubble distillation could be increased by raising the injected air temperature, while the temperature of the liquid mixture increased only moderately. The separation efficiency of microbubble distillation was compared with that of pervaporation for the recovery of bioethanol from the thermally sensitive fermentation broths. The technology could be controlled to give high separation and energy efficiency. This could contribute to improving commercial viability of biofuel production and other coproducts of biorefinery processing.

  6. Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2014-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. Based upon the results of the 2009 distillation comparison test (DCT) and recommendations of the expert panel, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) project advanced the technology by increasing reliability of the system through redesign of bearing assemblies and improved rotor dynamics. In addition, the project improved the CDS power efficiency by optimizing the thermoelectric heat pump (TeHP) and heat exchanger design. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell d International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades as compared to previous system performance. The system was challenged with Solution 1 from the NASA Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison testing performed in 2009. Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. A secondary objective of this testing is to evaluate the performance of the CDS as compared to the state of the art Distillation Assembly (DA) used in the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This was done by challenging the system with ISS analog waste streams. This paper details the results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  7. Energy consumption maps for quaternary distillation sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez-Castro, F.I.; Ramírez-Vallejo, N.E.; Segovia-Hernandez, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    Thermally coupled distillation columns represent a very interesting option for the intensification of distillation systems in order to reduce the energy consumption, and, as a consequence, the environmental impact of the separation process. Several thermally coupled distillation schemes can......, for a given mixture, depends on the nature of the mixture, usually quantified for ternary mixtures through the ease of separation index (ESI), and also on the feed composition. As can be noticed, the size of the design and optimization problem increases when these variables are considered in the generation...

  8. Vacuum distillation of plutonium pyrochemical salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourges, Gilles; Faure, S.; Fiers, B.; Saintignon, S.; Lemoine, O.; Cardona-Barrau, D.; Devillard, D.

    2012-01-01

    A pyrochemical process is developed to upgrade the safety of plutonium spent salts interim storage. The feed material, consisting of alkali or alkali-earth chlorides containing various Pu and Am species, is first oxidized to convert the actinides into oxides. Then the chlorides are removed by vacuum distillation which requires temperature from 750 degrees C to 1100 degrees C. After a comprehensive R and D program, full-scale equipment was built to test the distillation of active salts. Tests with NaCl/KCl oxidized spent salt give decontamination factor of chlorides higher than 20000. The distilled salt meets the radiologic requirements to be discarded as low level waste. (authors)

  9. Process modeling and control applied to real-time monitoring of distillation processes by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rodrigo R; Pedroza, Ricardo H P; Sousa, A O; Lima, Kássio M G; de Juan, Anna

    2017-09-08

    A distillation device that acquires continuous and synchronized measurements of temperature, percentage of distilled fraction and NIR spectra has been designed for real-time monitoring of distillation processes. As a process model, synthetic commercial gasoline batches produced in Brazil, which contain mixtures of pure gasoline blended with ethanol have been analyzed. The information provided by this device, i.e., distillation curves and NIR spectra, has served as initial information for the proposal of new strategies of process modeling and multivariate statistical process control (MSPC). Process modeling based on PCA batch analysis provided global distillation trajectories, whereas multiset MCR-ALS analysis is proposed to obtain a component-wise characterization of the distillation evolution and distilled fractions. Distillation curves, NIR spectra or compressed NIR information under the form of PCA scores and MCR-ALS concentration profiles were tested as the seed information to build MSPC models. New on-line PCA-based MSPC approaches, some inspired on local rank exploratory methods for process analysis, are proposed and work as follows: a) MSPC based on individual process observation models, where multiple local PCA models are built considering the sole information in each observation point; b) Fixed Size Moving Window - MSPC, in which local PCA models are built considering a moving window of the current and few past observation points; and c) Evolving MSPC, where local PCA models are built with an increasing window of observations covering all points since the beginning of the process until the current observation. Performance of different approaches has been assessed in terms of sensitivity to fault detection and number of false alarms. The outcome of this work will be of general use to define strategies for on-line process monitoring and control and, in a more specific way, to improve quality control of petroleum derived fuels and other substances submitted

  10. Validation of Agent Based Distillation Movement Algorithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gill, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Agent based distillations (ABD) are low-resolution abstract models, which can be used to explore questions associated with land combat operations in a short period of time Movement of agents within the EINSTein and MANA ABDs...

  11. Distillation modeling for a uranium refining process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westphal, B.R.

    1996-03-01

    As part of the spent fuel treatment program at Argonne National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of uranium following an electrorefining process. Distillation of a salt electrolyte, containing a eutectic mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides, from uranium is achieved by a simple batch operation and is termed {open_quotes}cathode processing{close_quotes}. The incremental distillation of electrolyte salt will be modeled by an equilibrium expression and on a molecular basis since the operation is conducted under moderate vacuum conditions. As processing continues, the two models will be compared and analyzed for correlation with actual operating results. Possible factors that may contribute to aberrations from the models include impurities at the vapor-liquid boundary, distillate reflux, anomalous pressure gradients, and mass transport phenomena at the evaporating surface. Ultimately, the purpose of either process model is to enable the parametric optimization of the process.

  12. Distillation modeling for a uranium refining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the spent fuel treatment program at Argonne National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of uranium following an electrorefining process. Distillation of a salt electrolyte, containing a eutectic mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides, from uranium is achieved by a simple batch operation and is termed open-quotes cathode processingclose quotes. The incremental distillation of electrolyte salt will be modeled by an equilibrium expression and on a molecular basis since the operation is conducted under moderate vacuum conditions. As processing continues, the two models will be compared and analyzed for correlation with actual operating results. Possible factors that may contribute to aberrations from the models include impurities at the vapor-liquid boundary, distillate reflux, anomalous pressure gradients, and mass transport phenomena at the evaporating surface. Ultimately, the purpose of either process model is to enable the parametric optimization of the process

  13. Rotary drum for distilling bituminous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-11-02

    A rotary drum with insert tubes for distilling bituminous materials, like mineral coal, brown coal, wood, peat, and oil-shale, is characterized in that the insert tube is heated also by superheated steam introduced into the drum.

  14. Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel

    2009-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

  15. Furnaces for the distillation of coal, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, F A; Deacon, M; Brady, N P.W.

    1918-08-14

    A tunnel or other furnace for the distillation of coal of the kind provided with inverted pockets in its roof to collect diverse distillates in the manner described, characterized by one or more of the pockets being provided with a sloping roof whose gradient from the higher end downwards is in the direction of the forward travel of the fuel beneath it for the purposes described.

  16. Active solar distillation - A detailed review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampathkumar, K.; Pitchandi, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tamilnadu College of Engineering, Coimbatore 641659, Tamilnadu (India); Arjunan, T.V. [Department of Automobile Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641004, Tamilnadu (India); Senthilkumar, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, KSR College of Engineering, Tiruchengode 637215, Tamilnadu (India)

    2010-08-15

    All over the world, access to potable water to the people are narrowing down day by day. Most of the human diseases are due to polluted or non-purified water resources. Even today, under developed countries and developing countries face a huge water scarcity because of unplanned mechanism and pollution created by manmade activities. Water purification without affecting the ecosystem is the need of the hour. In this context, many conventional and non-conventional techniques have been developed for purification of saline water. Among these, solar distillation proves to be both economical and eco-friendly technique particularly in rural areas. Many active distillation systems have been developed to overcome the problem of lower distillate output in passive solar stills. This article provides a detailed review of different studies on active solar distillation system over the years. Thermal modelling was done for various types of active single slope solar distillation system. This review would also throw light on the scope for further research and recommendations in active solar distillation system. (author)

  17. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation from...

  18. 40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distillate diesel fuel. 1065.703... Standards § 1065.703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing must be clean and... distillate diesel fuels: (1) Cetane improver. (2) Metal deactivator. (3) Antioxidant, dehazer. (4) Rust...

  19. Three methods to distill multipartite entanglement over bipartite noisy channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soojoon; Park, Jungjoon

    2008-01-01

    We first assume that there are only bipartite noisy qubit channels in a given multipartite system, and present three methods to distill the general Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. By investigating the methods, we show that multipartite entanglement distillation by bipartite entanglement distillation has higher yield than ones in the previous multipartite entanglement distillations

  20. Lagrangian Curves on Spectral Curves of Monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilfoyle, Brendan; Khalid, Madeeha; Ramon Mari, Jose J.

    2010-01-01

    We study Lagrangian points on smooth holomorphic curves in TP 1 equipped with a natural neutral Kaehler structure, and prove that they must form real curves. By virtue of the identification of TP 1 with the space LE 3 of oriented affine lines in Euclidean 3-space, these Lagrangian curves give rise to ruled surfaces in E 3 , which we prove have zero Gauss curvature. Each ruled surface is shown to be the tangent lines to a curve in E 3 , called the edge of regression of the ruled surface. We give an alternative characterization of these curves as the points in E 3 where the number of oriented lines in the complex curve Σ that pass through the point is less than the degree of Σ. We then apply these results to the spectral curves of certain monopoles and construct the ruled surfaces and edges of regression generated by the Lagrangian curves.

  1. Process for distilling shales, peats, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felizat, G

    1922-01-09

    The invention has for its object: a process for the distillation of shales, peats, and analogous products characterized by injecting across the substance a very rapid stream of superheated steam under pressure in order to effect a rapid removal of the products of distillation, to lower also the temperature at which it distills, to equalize the temperature throughout the mass, to hydrogenate the heavy hydrocarbons. An apparatus is put into operation characterized by the combination of a retort receiving the material to be distilled with a superheater for the steam, the combustion products which escape from the hearth of the superheater going to encircle the retort while the steam which comes off the superheater traverses this retort, the pressure of the steam being regulated by a convenient regulator; the products of the distillation result from the simultaneous action of the hot gases and steam on the contents of the retort being, on the other hand, separated at the outlet of this retort by means of cooling in a gas separator, a condenser, and part of the gas after being separated serving to heat the mentioned superheater.

  2. Solvent distillations studies for a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginisty, C.; Guillaume, B.

    1989-01-01

    The substantial amounts of solvent used in large reprocessing plants are such that considerable care must be paid to solvent management to limit the production of organic wastes. The installation of intensive treatment by chemical regeneration serves to increase the service life of the solvent. General solvent management, combined with a distillation unit under reduced pressure also helps to recycle the two components of the solvent at a low activity level. Distillation also serves to remove the heavy degradation products that are generally responsible for poor hydraulic behavior and for the holdup of radioactive products such as plutonium, zirconium and ruthenium. From the safety standpoint, the flashpoint of the distilled diluent tends to rise. It can therefore be recycled without risk

  3. Entanglement distillation protocols and number theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombin, H.; Martin-Delgado, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension D benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set Z D n associated with Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of Z D n into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analytically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension D. When D is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively

  4. Low temperature distillation of powdered materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1929-04-11

    In the low temperature distillation of powdered material such as coal, brown coal, or oil shale, dust carried by the gases and vapors is precipitated by supplying liquid hydrocarbons to the effluent gases, for example, to a dust remover through which the distillates pass. The material is supplied through a hopper and moved through a retort by a worm feed, and is discharged into a sump. Scavenging gases such as steam may be introduced through a pipe. Two conveyor worms moving in opposite directions are provided in an outlet conduit which may be surrounded by a cooling jacket. Heavy hydrocarbons condense on the walls of the conduit and on the conveyor worms and serve as dust catchers for the distillates, the lighted volatiles escaping through an outlet. The high boiling point oils flow back to and are cracked in the retort. Oils such as tar oils may be sprayed into the conduit or directly adjacent the entry of the material from feeding hopper.

  5. Superadditivity of distillable entanglement from quantum teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Roychowdhury, Vwani

    2005-12-01

    We show that the phenomenon of superadditivity of distillable entanglement observed in multipartite quantum systems results from the consideration of states created during the execution of the standard end-to-end quantum teleportation protocol [and a few additional local operations and classical communication (LOCC) steps] on a linear chain of singlets. Some of these intermediate states are tensor products of bound entangled (BE) states, and hence, by construction possess distillable entanglement, which can be unlocked by simply completing the rest of the LOCC operations required by the underlying teleportation protocol. We use this systematic approach to construct both new and known examples of superactivation of bound entanglement, and examples of activation of BE states using other BE states. A surprising outcome is the construction of noiseless quantum relay channels with no distillable entanglement between any two parties, except for that between the two end nodes.

  6. Superadditivity of distillable entanglement from quantum teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Roychowdhury, Vwani

    2005-01-01

    We show that the phenomenon of superadditivity of distillable entanglement observed in multipartite quantum systems results from the consideration of states created during the execution of the standard end-to-end quantum teleportation protocol [and a few additional local operations and classical communication (LOCC) steps] on a linear chain of singlets. Some of these intermediate states are tensor products of bound entangled (BE) states, and hence, by construction possess distillable entanglement, which can be unlocked by simply completing the rest of the LOCC operations required by the underlying teleportation protocol. We use this systematic approach to construct both new and known examples of superactivation of bound entanglement, and examples of activation of BE states using other BE states. A surprising outcome is the construction of noiseless quantum relay channels with no distillable entanglement between any two parties, except for that between the two end nodes

  7. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

  8. Process and apparatus for distilling bituminous minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veyrier, J A

    1922-03-27

    This process of distillation of bituminous minerals and particularly bituminous limestone is characterized by the fact that the minerals are introduced into the retort where they stand only the temperature necessary to distill the water and lighter oils that they contain and then are drawn out into the hearth and serve for heating the retort. The apparatus is characterized by the fact that the retort has a screw conveyor, placed in the flue of the hearth, supplied with a chamber for evacuation below this hearth.

  9. Process and apparatus for destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalin, D; Hedbaeck, T J

    1951-01-10

    A process of distilling wood, coal, shale, and like materials in an externally heated retort, consists of heating the retort by burning fuel in a combustion chamber completely or partly surrounding the retort and passing a heat-absorbing medium through ducts which are mounted in or adjacent the greater part of the length of the retort walls which are so arranged as to effect a greater degree of heat extraction at one part of the retort than at another part of the retort. The zones of different heat extraction being related to the heat developed in the combustion chamber maintains the most favourable distillation temperature in all parts of the retort.

  10. Membrane distillation against a pressure difference

    OpenAIRE

    Keulen, L.; van der Ham, L.V.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Vlugt, T.J.H.; Kjelstrup, S.

    2017-01-01

    Membrane distillation is an attractive technology for production of fresh water from seawater. The MemPower®MemPower® concept, studied in this work, uses available heat (86 °C) to produce pressurized water (2.2 bar and 46 °C) by membrane distillation, which again can be used to power a turbine for co-production of electricity. We develop a non-equilibrium thermodynamic model to accurately describe the transfer at the liquid-membrane interfaces, as well as through the hydrophobic membrane. The...

  11. Experimental entanglement distillation of mesoscopic quantum states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Ruifang; Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Heersink, Joel

    2008-01-01

    channel, the distribution of loss-intolerant entangled states is inevitably afflicted by decoherence, which causes a degradation of the transmitted entanglement. To combat the decoherence, entanglement distillation, a process of extracting a small set of highly entangled states from a large set of less...... entangled states, can be used(4-14). Here we report on the distillation of deterministically prepared light pulses entangled in continuous variables that have undergone non-Gaussian noise. The entangled light pulses(15-17) are sent through a lossy channel, where the transmission is varying in time similarly...

  12. Static multiplicities in heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Klavs; Andersen, Torben Ravn; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the results of a bifurcation analysis on heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences are given. Two sequences suitable for ethanol dehydration are compared: The 'direct' and the 'indirect' sequence. It is shown, that the two sequences, despite their similarities, exhibit very...... different static behavior. The method of Petlyuk and Avet'yan (1971), Bekiaris et al. (1993), which assumes infinite reflux and infinite number of stages, is extended to and applied on heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences. The predictions are substantiated through simulations. The static sequence...

  13. Refreshment topics II: Design of distillation columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Svetomir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For distillation column design it is necessary to define all the variable parameters such as component concentrations in different streams temperatures, pressures, mass and energy flow, which are used to represent the separation process of some specific system. They are related to each other according to specific laws, and if the number of such parameters exceeds the number of their relationships, in order to solve a problem some of them must be specified in advance or some constraints assumed for the mass balance, the balance of energy, phase equilibria or chemical equilibria. Knowledge of specific elements which are the constituents of a distillation unit must be known to define the number of design parameters as well as some additional apparati also necessary to realize the distilation. Each separate apparatus might be designed and constructed only if all the necessary and variable parameters for such a unit are defined. This is the right route to solve a distilation unit in many different cases. The construction of some distillation unit requires very good knowledge of mass, heat and momentum transfer phenomena. Moreover, the designer needs to know which kind of apparatus will be used in the distillation unit to realize a specific production process. The most complicated apparatus in a rectification unit is the distillation column. Depending on the complexity of the separation process one, two or more columns are often used. Additional equipment are heat exchangers (reboilers, condensers, cooling systems, heaters, separators, tanks for reflux distribution, tanks and pumps for feed transportation, etc. Such equipment is connected by pipes and valves, and for the normal operation of a distillation unit other instruments for measuring the flow rate, temperature and pressure are also required. Problems which might arise during the determination and selection of such apparati and their number requires knowledge of the specific systems which must

  14. Batch extractive distillation for high purity methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weijiang; Ma Sisi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the application in chemical industry and microelectronic industry, market status and the present situation of production of high purity methanol at home and abroad were introduced firstly. Purification of industrial methanol for high purity methanol is feasible in china. Batch extractive distillation is the best separation technique for purification of industrial methanol. Dimethyl sulfoxide was better as an extractant. (authors)

  15. Non-equilibrium modelling of distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, J.A

    This is a lecture on the way that we engineers model distillation. How we have done such modelling, how we would like to do it, and how far we have come at this moment. The ideas that I will be bringing forward are not my own. I owe them mostly to R. Krishna, R. Taylor, H. Kooijman and A. Gorak.

  16. Vertical retorts for distilling, carbonizing, roasting, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, H R.L.; Bates, W R

    1917-11-17

    In a continuously operated vertical retort for destructive distillation or roasting the combination of an annular internally and externally heated construction with an annular plunger adapted to compress and assist the travel of the charge and to aid in discharging material substantially is described.

  17. Obtaining shale distillate free from sulphur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyl, G E

    1917-09-14

    A process whereby, from sulfur-containing shale, products free from sulfur may be obtained, consisting of mixing with the finely ground shale a portion of iron salts containing sufficient metal to unite with all the sulfur in the shale and form sulfide therewith, grinding the mixture to a fine state of subdivision and subsequently subjecting it to destructive distillation.

  18. Holoprosencephaly: A mythologic and teratologic distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-02-15

    This review of holoprosencephaly provides a mythologic and teratologic distillate of the subject under the following headings: Babylonian tablets; Greek mythology; pictures from the 16th through the 20th Centuries; 19th Century teratology; history of more modern concepts and their terminologies; and ocean-going ships named "Cyclops." 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Designing reactive distillation processes with improved efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida-Rivera, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    In this dissertation a life-span inspired perspective is taken on the conceptual design of grassroots reactive distillation processes. Attention was paid to the economic performance of the process and to potential losses of valuable resources over the process life span. The research was cast in a

  20. Robust Geometric Control of a Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kymmel, Mogens; Andersen, Henrik Weisberg

    1987-01-01

    A frequency domain method, which makes it possible to adjust multivariable controllers with respect to both nominal performance and robustness, is presented. The basic idea in the approach is that the designer assigns objectives such as steady-state tracking, maximum resonance peaks, bandwidth, m...... is used to examine and improve geometric control of a binary distillation column....

  1. Lubricity characteristics of marine distillate fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crutchley, Ian [Innospec Fuel Specialties, Ellesmere Port (United Kingdom); Green, Michael [Intertek Lintec ShipCare Services, Darlington (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    This article from Innospec Fuel Specialties, Ellesmere Port, UK, and Intertek Lintec ShipCare Services, Darlington, UK, examines the lubricity characteristics of marine distillate fuels available today in relation to the requirements and limits imposed in ISO8217:2010. It will estimate expected failure rates and also asses the perceived relationship between lubricity, sulphur content and viscosity. (orig.)

  2. Non-equilibrium modelling of distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, JA; Darton, R

    1997-01-01

    There are nasty conceptual problems in the classical way of describing distillation columns via equilibrium stages, and efficiencies or HETP's. We can nowadays avoid these problems by simulating the behaviour of a complete column in one go using a non-equilibrium model. Such a model has phase

  3. ECM using Edwards curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Daniel J.; Birkner, Peter; Lange, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    -arithmetic level are as follows: (1) use Edwards curves instead of Montgomery curves; (2) use extended Edwards coordinates; (3) use signed-sliding-window addition-subtraction chains; (4) batch primes to increase the window size; (5) choose curves with small parameters and base points; (6) choose curves with large...

  4. Distilled water nasal provocation in hyperreactive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudoin, T; Anzic, S A; Kalogjera, L

    1999-01-01

    Nonisotonic aerosol may act as a provocation agent in the upper and lower airways of hyperreactive individuals. The purpose of the study was to compare the results of nasal challenge with distilled water in patients with allergic rhinitis to those with noninfective nonallergic rhinitis (NINAR), with respect to the potential clinical use of the obtained data. A group of 68 ambulatory patients with allergic rhinitis or NINAR (39 perennial allergic, 6 seasonal, 23 NINAR) were challenged with 10 mL of distilled water aerosol after the baseline active anterior rhinomanometry. Patients with nasal polyposis at endoscopy, significant unilateral septal deviation, positive bacteriologic swab, recent nasal surgery, and uncertain anamnestic data about the medication taken 6 weeks before the provocation were excluded from the study. After 10 minutes of nasal provocation, rhinomanometry was repeated to assess the response. In 15 patients of the perennial allergic group, the same measurements were performed after a 2-week oral antihistamine and topical steroid therapy. Nasal resistance was significantly increased on the more patent side of the nose after nasal provocation with distilled water aerosol in allergic patients in comparison to the nasal resistance before provocation. In the patients with NINAR, the provocation resulted in a significant rise on the more patent side, but the total nasal airway resistance (NAR) levels were also significantly increased. The systemic antihistamine and topical steroid 2-week therapy in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis significantly reduced the response to nasal distilled water provocation. Nasal provocation with distilled water aerosol is a cheap, simple, and acceptable method that provides useful clinical data on the level of nonspecific nasal hyperreactivity and the therapy success.

  5. Recovery of distillation, gasification, and if necessary redistilled products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stier, H

    1885-05-17

    Collection chambers are operated in pairs. In one of a pair of chambers there is alternately gasification (heating gas generation or complete combustion), in the other distillation, and continually the products from combustion carry on the distillation.

  6. Control of distributed heat transfer mechanisms in membrane distillation plants

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Eleiwi, Fadi; Karam, Ayman M.

    2017-01-01

    Various examples are provided that are related to boundary control in membrane distillation (MD) processes. In one example, a system includes a membrane distillation (MD) process comprising a feed side and a permeate side separated by a membrane

  7. The Design and Manufacturing of Essential oil Distillation Plant for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Design and Manufacturing of Essential oil Distillation Plant for rural poverty ... The adaptation of oil distillation technology for essential oil production is ... based on local resources and the first prototype has been manufactured and tested.

  8. Improvement of solar ethanol distillation using ultrasonic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruwat Jareanjit

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a study on the use of ultrasonic waves in solar ethanol distillation to investigate the performance of ultrasonic waves at a frequency of 30 kHz and at 100 Watts that were installed in the inlet area of a 10-litre distillation tank. Based on the non-continuous distillation process (batch distillation, the experiment demonstrated that using ultrasonic waves in solar ethanol distillation caused the average concentration of hourly distilled ethanol to be higher than that of a normal system (solar ethanol distillation without ultrasonic wave at the same or higher distillation rate and hourly distillation volume. The ultrasonic wave was able to enhance the separation of ethanol from the solution (water-ethanol mixture through solar distillation. The amount of pure ethanol product from each distilled batch was clearly larger than the amount of product obtained from a normal system when the initial concentration of ethanol was lower than 50%v/v (% by volume, where an average of approximately 40% and 20% are obtained for an initial ethanol concentration of 10%v/v and 30%v/v, respectively. Furthermore, the distillation rate varied based on the solar radiation value.

  9. A Modeling Framework for Conventional and Heat Integrated Distillation Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a generic, modular model framework for describing fluid separation by distillation is presented. At present, the framework is able to describe a conventional distillation column and a heat-integrated distillation column, but due to a modular structure the database can be further...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9635 - Terpene residue distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terpene residue distillates. 721.9635... Substances § 721.9635 Terpene residue distillates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as terpene residue distillates (PMN P-96-897...

  11. 27 CFR 26.40 - Marking containers of distilled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits. The distiller, rectifier, or bottler shall serially number each case, barrel, cask, or similar... the container, the distiller, rectifier, or bottler shall plainly print, stamp, or stencil with... barrel, cask or similar container or on one side of each case, as follows: (a) The name of the distiller...

  12. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine...

  13. Mathematical modeling of alcohol distillation columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ones Osney Pérez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available New evaluation modules are proposed to extend the scope of a modular simulator oriented to the sugar cane industry, called STA 4.0, in a way that it can be used to carry out x calculation and analysis in ethanol distilleries. Calculation modules were developed for the simulation of the columns that are combined in the distillation area. Mathematical models were supported on materials and energy balances, equilibrium relations and thermodynamic properties of the ethanol-water system. Ponchon-Savarit method was used for the evaluation of the theoretical stages in the columns. A comparison between the results using Ponchon- Savarit method and those obtained applying McCabe-Thiele method was done for a distillation column. These calculation modules for ethanol distilleries were applied to a real case for validation.

  14. Companded total condensation loxboil air distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a dual pressure cryogenic distillation process for producing gaseous oxygen from a supply of compressed and cleaned air, comprising: a. cooling a major fraction of the compressed and cleaned air; b. rectifying the major fraction in a high pressure rectifier to liquid nitrogen overhead product and kettle liquid bottom product; c. distilling the kettle liquid in a low pressure column to liquid oxygen bottom product and gaseous nitrogen overhead product; d. working expanding a compensating vapor comprised of at least 77% N/sub 2/ thereby producing refrigeration; and e. further compressing the remaining minor fraction comprising no more than about 30% of the compressed, cleaned warm air in a compressor powered by the expansion

  15. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1984-03-27

    A method is described for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor, contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

  16. Innovative Vacuum Distillation for Magnesium Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tianbai; Li, Naiyi; Mei, Xiaoming; Yu, Alfred; Shang, Shixiang

    Magnesium recycling now becomes a very important subject as magnesium consumption increases fast around the world. All commonly used magnesium die-casting alloys can be recycled and recovered to the primary metal quality. The recycled materials may be comprised of biscuits, sprues, runners, flash, overflows, dross, sludge, scrap parts, and old parts that are returned from service, An innovative magnesium recycle method, vacuum distillation, is developed and proved out to be able to recycle magnesium scraps, especially machining chips, oily magnesium, smelting sludge, dross or the mixture. With this process at a specific temperature and environment condition, magnesium in scraps can be gasified and then solidified to become crystal magnesium crown. This `recycled' magnesium crown is collected and used as the raw material of magnesium alloys. The experimental results show the vacuum distillation is a feasible and plausible method to recycle magnesium. Further, the cost analysis will be addressed in this paper.

  17. Solar desalination by freezing and distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvajic, G.

    It is noted that among seawater desalination processes the absorption-freeze vapor compression processes based on the thermal heat pump, although untested commercially and still in the development stage, appears technically and economically an attractive application of low-grade (exergy) solar heat. The distillation processes proposed here may be conveniently powered by low-grade solar heat (from flat plate solar collectors). It is expected that the scaling problem will be insignificant in comparison with that encountered in the conventional multistage flash process. The novel feature here is the use of enlarged capacity for heat exchange between distillate and brine via latent heat of solid-liquid phase change of a suitable hydrophobic intermediate heat transfer material.

  18. Hydrogen isotope separation by cryogenic distillation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Nobuo; Mitsui, Jin

    1987-01-01

    Hydrogen isotope separation in fusion fuel cycle and tritium recovery from heavy water reactor are very important, and therefore the early establishment of these separation techniques are desired. The cryogenic distillation method in particular is promising for the separation of hydrogen isotope and the recovery of high concentrated tritium. The studies of hydrogen isotope separation by cryogenic distillation method have been carried out by using the experimental apparatus made for the first time in Japan. The separation of three components (H 2 -HD-D 2 ) under total reflux conditions was got by using the packing tower of 500 mm height. It was confirmed that the Height Equivalent Theoretical Plate (HETP) was 20 - 30 mm for the vapor's line velocity of 20 - 80 mm/s. (author)

  19. Surface active agents from Egyptian petroleum distillates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, T.M.

    Kerosene and solar distillates from local crude petroleum 'Morgan' were fractionated. These fractions were refined with oleum and then distilled. The normal paraffins were separated from the refined fractions by the urea adduction technique. These paraffin cuts were subjected to 50% chlorination and the obtained monochlorinated paraffins were used in the synthesis of alkylbenzenes and alkyldiphenyls which were converted to anionic surfactants by sulphonation with 95% sulphuric acid. The sulphonyl chlorides of alkylbenzenes and of alkyldiphenyls were prepared and then converted to the corresponding sulphonamides. The prepared sulphonamides were then processed to nonionic surfactants through condensation with ethylene oxide. The ethoxylates were sulphated with chlorosulphonic acid and phosphated with phosphorus pentoxide to anionic surfactants. The surface active properties and the biodegradability of all the prepared surfactants were determined.

  20. Some remarks on the carrier distillation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avni, R.; Chaput, M.

    1961-01-01

    The method described by SCRIBNER and MULLIN makes possible the spectrographic analysis of the refractory oxides of uranium and plutonium. It uses a distillation of the elements which is more or less selective. The influence of the carrier is the subject of as many hypotheses as there are parameters involved in the process. The measurements of the arc temperature carried out on the leading edges of the vibration bands and of certain copper lines have made it possible to show the influence of the nature of the carrier and to establish a relationship between the values of the excitation potentials of the atoms and the temperatures produced. Further, this result makes it possible to explain certain contradictions between the principle of a fractional distillation in the arc which is incompatible with the refractory properties of certain elements and their spectrographic sensitivity. (author) [fr

  1. 136 Xe enrichment through cryogenic distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, Henning O.; Bottenus, Daniel R.; Clayton, Christopher K.; Stephenson, David E.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2017-09-01

    The next generation of 136Xe neutrinoless double beta decay experiments will require on the order of 5 tons of enriched 136Xe. By estimating the relative volatilities of the xenon isotopes and using standard chemical engineering techniques we explore the feasibility of using cryogenic distillation to produce 5 tons of 80% enriched 136Xe in 5-6 years. With current state-of-the-art distillation column packing materials we can estimate the total height of a traditional cryogenic distillation column. We also, report on how Micro Channel Distillation may reduce the overall size of a distillation system for 136Xe production.

  2. Heating oil, distillates and residuals outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    M.J. Ervin and Associates offers strategic planning support to the downstream petroleum industry in terms of price market monitoring, market analysis, media commentary and benchmarking of marketing operations. This presentation included graphs depicting supply and demand for heating oil distillates and residuals from the mid 1990s to 2004. It was noted that the long-term decline in residuals demand in the United States and Canada are due to environmental issues, the use of natural gas as an alternative, and the increasing complexity of refineries. Graphs depicting market impacts of refinery utilization and inventory trends showed that middle distillate production will increase at the expense of gasoline production. Middle distillates and gasoline markets will be more sensitive to supply disruptions, resulting in more frequent price spikes. Inventory trends indicate a greater reliance on product imports. The demand for heating fuel has stabilized due to the continued penetration of natural gas in eastern states and provinces. The demand for diesel fuel has growth 1.5 to 2 per cent while the demand for jet fuel has remained relatively flat and depends greatly on the growth of the gross national product (GNP). tabs., figs

  3. A More Efficient Contextuality Distillation Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hui-xian; Cao, Huai-xin; Wang, Wen-hua; Fan, Ya-jing; Chen, Liang

    2018-03-01

    Based on the fact that both nonlocality and contextuality are resource theories, it is natural to ask how to amplify them more efficiently. In this paper, we present a contextuality distillation protocol which produces an n-cycle box B ∗ B ' from two given n-cycle boxes B and B '. It works efficiently for a class of contextual n-cycle ( n ≥ 4) boxes which we termed as "the generalized correlated contextual n-cycle boxes". For any two generalized correlated contextual n-cycle boxes B and B ', B ∗ B ' is more contextual than both B and B '. Moreover, they can be distilled toward to the maximally contextual box C H n as the times of iteration goes to infinity. Among the known protocols, our protocol has the strongest approximate ability and is optimal in terms of its distillation rate. What is worth noting is that our protocol can witness a larger set of nonlocal boxes that make communication complexity trivial than the protocol in Brunner and Skrzypczyk (Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 160403 2009), this might be helpful for exploring the problem that why quantum nonlocality is limited.

  4. Sulfur and selenium isotope separation by distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, T. R.; McInteer, B. B.; Montoya, J. G.

    1988-01-01

    Sulfur and selenium isotopes are used for labeled compounds and as precursors for radioisotope production; however, both limited availability and high costs are problems. A new method is needed for large-scale separation of these isotopes. Experimental distillation columns were used to measure isotopic separations for sulfur and selenium compounds. The maximum total isotope separation of 32 S vs. 34 S were 1.127 for H 2 S, 1.048 for COS, 0.838 for SF 4 , and 1.058 for CH 3 SH. Relative volatilities of 32 S vs. 34 S are 1.0006 for COS and 0.9976 for SF 4 . There is a reverse isotope effect for carbon in COS. No isotopic separation was observed for dimethyl selenide. The lower mass selenium isotopes in H 2 Se are more volatile. Distillation is a promising method for separating sulfur isotopes on a production scale. Existing distillation technology produced separated isotopes with an effect similar to that found for sulfur in SF 4 . 8 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Sulfur and selenium isotope separation by distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, T.R.; McInteer, B.B.; Montoya, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Sulfur and selenium isotopes are used for labeled compounds and as precursors for radioisotope production; however, both limited availability and high costs are problems. A new method is needed for large-scale separation of theses isotopes. Experimental distillation columns were used to measure isotopic separations for sulfur and selenium compounds. The maximum total isotope separations of 32 S vs. 34 S were 1.127 for H 2 S, 1.048 for COS, 0.838 for SF 4 , and 1.058 for CH 3 SH. Relative volatilities of 32 S and 34 S are 1.0006 for COS and 0.9976 for SF 4 . There is a reverse isotope effect for carbon in COS. No isotopic separation was observed for dimethyl selenide. The lower mass selenium isotopes in H 2 Se are more volatile. Distillation is a promising method for separating sulfur isotopes on a production scale. Existing distillation technology produces separated isotopes with an effect similar to that found for sulfur in SF 4 . (author). 8 refs.; 2 tabs

  6. Biocatalytic desulfurization of petroleum and middle distillates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monticello, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Biocatalytic Desulfurization (BDS) represents an alternative approach to the reduction of sulfur in fossil fuels. The objective is to use bacteria to selectively remove sulfur from petroleum and middle distillate fractions, without the concomitant release of carbon. Recently, bacteria have been developed which have the ability to desulfurize dibenzothiophene (DBT) and other organosulfur molecules. These bacteria are being developed for use in a biocatalyst-based desulfurization process. Analysis of preliminary conceptual engineering designs has shown that this process has the potential to complement conventional technology as a method to temper the sulfur levels in crude oil, or remove the recalcitrant sulfur in middle distillates to achieve the deep desulfurization mandated by State and Federal regulations. This paper describes the results of initial feasibility studies, sensitivity analyses and conceptual design work. Feasibility studies with various crude oils and middle distillates achieved unoptimized desulfurization levels of 40-80%. Sensitivity analyses indicate that total desulfurization costs of about $3.00 per barrel for crude oil and less than $2.00 per barrel for diesel are possible. Key criteria for commercial success of the process include the cost and half-life of the biocatalyst, residence time in the reactor, oil/water ratios required to extract the sulfur and the disposition of the separated sulfur products. 9 refs., 3 figs

  7. Attractor mechanism as a distillation procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levay, Peter; Szalay, Szilard

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper it was shown that for double extremal static spherical symmetric BPS black hole solutions in the STU model the well-known process of moduli stabilization at the horizon can be recast in a form of a distillation procedure of a three-qubit entangled state of a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger type. By studying the full flow in moduli space in this paper we investigate this distillation procedure in more detail. We introduce a three-qubit state with amplitudes depending on the conserved charges, the warp factor, and the moduli. We show that for the recently discovered non-BPS solutions it is possible to see how the distillation procedure unfolds itself as we approach the horizon. For the non-BPS seed solutions at the asymptotically Minkowski region we are starting with a three-qubit state having seven nonequal nonvanishing amplitudes and finally at the horizon we get a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with merely four nonvanishing ones with equal magnitudes. The magnitude of the surviving nonvanishing amplitudes is proportional to the macroscopic black hole entropy. A systematic study of such attractor states shows that their properties reflect the structure of the fake superpotential. We also demonstrate that when starting with the very special values for the moduli corresponding to flat directions the uniform structure at the horizon deteriorates due to errors generalizing the usual bit flips acting on the qubits of the attractor states.

  8. Distillation Designs for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange,Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    Gravity-based distillation methods may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be more advantageous than many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams.

  9. Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Joonwoo

    2010-01-01

    The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

  10. Contractibility of curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Charatonik

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Results concerning contractibility of curves (equivalently: of dendroids are collected and discussed in the paper. Interrelations tetween various conditions which are either sufficient or necessary for a curve to be contractible are studied.

  11. A Novel Method for Detecting and Computing Univolatility Curves in Ternary Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shcherbakov, Nataliya; Rodriguez-Donis, Ivonne; Abildskov, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Residue curve maps (RCMs) and univolatility curves are crucial tools for analysis and design of distillation processes. Even in the case of ternary mixtures, the topology of these maps is highly non-trivial. We propose a novel method allowing detection and computation of univolatility curves...... of the generalized univolatility and unidistribution curves in the three dimensional composition – temperature state space lead to a simple and efficient algorithm of computation of the univolatility curves. Two peculiar ternary systems, namely diethylamine – chloroform – methanol and hexane – benzene...

  12. Herbal distillates: A new era of grape marc distillates with enriched antioxidant profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Vasiliki; Strati, Irini F; Fotakis, Charalambos; Liouni, Maria; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Sinanoglou, Vassilia J

    2018-07-01

    Grape marc distillates are traditional alcoholic beverages, produced mostly in the Mediterranean countries. The present study proposes the enrichment of a Greek traditional grape marc distillate (tsikoudia) with selected herbs to enhance its natural antioxidants and functional properties. Total phenolic content, the antiradical and antioxidant activities, as well as the phenolic and sugar profiles using NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy were evaluated. The enrichment of distillates with Syzygium aromaticum L., Jasminum officinale L. and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. exhibited the highest total phenolic content as well as the highest antioxidant and antiradical activities, whereas the lowest values were observed with Hippophae rhamnoides L. and Lycium Barbarum Mill. The implementation of NMR and FT-IR spectroscopies attested to the presence of phenolic compounds and of specific carbohydrates in herbal distillates, postulating their migration from selected herbal species to tsikoudia and probably contributing to their organoleptic characteristics. The target of this approach leads to new added-value distillates with enhanced characteristics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. HETP evaluation of structured packing distillation column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Orlando Jr.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Several tests with a hydrocarbon mixture of known composition (C8-C14, obtained from DETEN Chemistry S.A., have been performed in a laboratory distillation column, having 40mm of nominal diameter and 2.2m high, with internals of Sulzer DX gauze stainless steel structured packing. The main purpose of this work was to evaluate HETP of a structured packing laboratory scale distillation column, operating continuously. Six HETP correlations available in the literature were compared in order to find out which is the most appropriate for structured packing columns working with medium distillates. Prior to the experimental tests, simulation studies using commercial software PRO/II® were performed in order to establish the optimum operational conditions for the distillation, especially concerning operating pressure, top and bottom temperatures, feed location and reflux ratio. The results of PRO/II® were very similar to the analysis of the products obtained during continuous operation, therefore permitting the use of the properties calculated by that software on the theoretical models investigated. The theoretical models chosen for HETP evaluation were: Bravo, Rocha and Fair (1985; Rocha, Bravo and Fair (1993, 1996; Brunazzi and Pagliant (1997; Carlo, Olujić and Pagliant (2006; Olujić et al., (2004. Modifications concerning calculation of specific areas were performed on the correlations in order to fit them for gauze packing HETP evaluation. As the laboratory distillation column was operated continuously, different HETP values were found by the models investigated for each section of the column. The low liquid flow rates in the top section of the column are a source of error for HETP evaluation by the models; therefore, more reliable HETP values were found in the bottom section, in which liquid flow rates were much greater. Among the theoretical models, Olujić et al. (2004 has shown good results relative to the experimental tests. In addition, the

  14. Toxicity of middle distillates from dermal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschier, F J

    1999-02-01

    This report focuses on recent studies that investigated the effects of kerosine dermal exposure on neurotoxicity and reproductive/developmental toxicity. Background toxicity information will also be reviewed for kerosine range mid distillates. The kerosine range mid distillates have a carbon range of C9-C16 and have a boiling range of 302-554 degrees F (150-290 degrees C). This category includes kerosine, aviation fuels (e.g., Jet A, JP-5 and JP-8), no. 1 fuel oil and diesel fuel oil. In general, the kerosine range mid distillates demonstrate relatively low acute toxicity by any route of exposure. High inhalation exposures can induce central nervous system depression characterized by ataxia, hypoactivity and prostration. Kerosines are known to cause skin irritation and inflammation under conditions of acute and repeated exposure in animals and humans, but are only slightly irritating to the eye and are not skin sensitizers. In addition, the absorption of kerosine range mid distillates through the skin has been demonstrated to be fairly rapid, but limited to approximately 10-15% of the applied dose after 24 hours. The kerosine range mid distillates are generally inactive in genetic toxicity tests although positive studies have been reported. Positive results, while at times equivocal, have been reported for straight run kerosine and jet fuel A in the mouse lymphoma assay with metabolic activation, and hydrodesulfurized kerosine (mouse) and jet fuel A (rat) in the bone marrow cytogenetic assay. Effects on the nervous and reproductive systems have been reported in humans and experimental animals under conditions where inhalation and dermal exposure to specific kerosine type fuels are sometimes difficult to separate. Recent laboratory studies have addressed this point and examined the effects of dermal exposure. In these studies, rats were exposed to hydrodesulfurized kerosine by skin application to determine the potential of dermal contact to cause reproductive

  15. Investigation of the toxicokinetics of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates with the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Janet; Stephenson, Gladys; Birkholz, Detlef; Dixon, D George

    2013-04-01

    The Canada-wide standards for petroleum hydrocarbons in soils regulate petroleum hydrocarbons based on four distillate ranges: F1 (C6-C10), F2 (>C10-C16), F3 (>C16-C34), and F4 (>C34). Previous toxicity tests with earthworms and F2, as well as two subfractions of F3, F3a (>C16-C23) and F3a (>C23-C34), indicate that test durations might not be sufficiently long to reach threshold effect concentrations, likely because of the differing toxicokinetics for each distillate. A study was conducted to determine the toxicokinetics of both aliphatic and aromatic fractions of F2, F3a, and F3b with the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Peak accumulation curves were observed for F2 aliphatics and aromatics and F3a aromatics, likely as a result of changes in exposure concentration over the test duration via loss or a decrease in the bioavailable fraction. Biota-soil accumulation factors were >1 for total F2 aliphatics and aromatics and F3a aromatics as well as for several individual polyaromatic hydrocarbons for each distillate. Aromatics were disproportionately accumulated over aliphatics and were the main contributors to toxicity; therefore, aromatics and aliphatics should be regulated separately. The toxicokinetics were used to interpret previous toxicity data. Higher molecular weight distillates need longer-than-standard test durations to determine toxicity, so toxicity test results from fixed, standard-duration tests are not strictly comparable for these petroleum distillates. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  16. Elementary Analysis of Petroleum Distillates by Gc-Aed: Validation and Application to the Calculation of Distillation Profile Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baco F.

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of elementary analysis in the distillation profile of petroleum cuts by gas phase chromatography-atomic emission detection (GC-AED coupling and shows the application perspectives to characterisation of middle distillates of a piece of information unheard of until now on a routine basis. The performances of the analytical assembly used have been studied for carbon, hydrogen, sulphur and nitrogen analysis. Simulated distillation, a gas phase chromatography analysis which enables determining the weight percentage of distilled matter in relation to the boiling point of petroleum cuts, has been adapted to GC-AED coupling. We have developed a method giving access to three types of information: global elementary composition, simulated distillation and elementary composition in distillation profile, i. e. by fraction (% of the distilled product. The analysis of the atmospheric distillates has been assessed in terms of precision and bias for these various types of information. The validation was carried out notably by comparison with the results obtained using reference analytical methods, on preparative distillation cuts of representative samples. The application of GC-AED to characterisation of distillates is discussed, in particular for classification purposes and for predicting petroleum properties in the distillation profile. The cetane number of gas oils was taken as an example to illustrate the latter application.

  17. Design of Unconstrained DMC to Improve the Distillate Product Purity of the Distillation Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhat Vinayambika S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the use of unconstrained Dynamic Matrix Control (DMC to control the process transfer function with time delay. The selection of tuning parameter is challenging task in predictive control algorithm. The DMC scheme is designed and it is used here to control the process transfer function, First Order Plant with Dead Time (FOPDT model. Here, one manipulated variable (reflux and one controlled variable (distillate is considered for the implementation. The algorithm significantly controls the reflux to improve the distillate product purity. The simulation is done using MATLAB m-file. Both servo and regulatory responses were obtained. The simulation result validates the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  18. Economic Analysis in Series-Distillation Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Rahmah Lubis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to produce potable water economically is the primary purpose of seawater desalination research. Reverse osmosis (RO and multi-stage flash (MSF cost more than potable water produced from fresh water resources. Therefore, this research investigates a high-efficiency mechanical vapor-compression distillation system that employs an improved water flow arrangement. The incoming salt concentration was 0.15% salt for brackish water and 3.5% salt for seawater, whereas the outgoing salt concentration was 1.5% and 7%, respectively. Distillation was performed at 439 K and 722 kPa for both brackish water feed and seawater feed. Water costs of the various conditions were calculated for brackish water and seawater feeds using optimum conditions considered as 25 and 20 stages, respectively. For brackish water at a temperature difference of 0.96 K, the energy requirement is 2.0 kWh/m3. At this condition, the estimated water cost is $0.39/m3 achieved with 10,000,000 gal/day distillate, 30-year bond, 5% interest rate, and $0.05/kWh electricity. For seawater at a temperature difference of 0.44 K, the energy requirement is 3.97 kWh/m3 and the estimated water cost is $0.61/m3. Greater efficiency of the vapor compression system is achieved by connecting multiple evaporators in series, rather than the traditional parallel arrangement. The efficiency results from the gradual increase of salinity in each stage of the series arrangement in comparison to parallel. Calculations using various temperature differences between boiling brine and condensing steam show the series arrangement has the greatest improvement at lower temperature differences. Keywords: desalination, dropwise condensation, mechanical-vapor compression

  19. Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, KeShun

    2011-03-09

    In recent years, increasing demand for ethanol as a fuel additive and decreasing dependency on fossil fuels have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amount of grains used for ethanol production. Dry-grind is the major process, resulting in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a major coproduct. Like fuel ethanol, DDGS has quickly become a global commodity. However, high compositional variation has been the main problem hindering its use as a feed ingredient. This review provides updated information on the chemical composition of distillers grains in terms of nutrient levels, changes during dry-grind processing, and causes for large variation. The occurrence in grain feedstock and the fate of mycotoxins during processing are also covered. During processing, starch is converted to glucose and then to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Most other components are relatively unchanged but concentrated in DDGS about 3-fold over the original feedstock. Mycotoxins, if present in the original feedstock, are also concentrated. Higher fold of increases in S, Na, and Ca are mostly due to exogenous addition during processing, whereas unusual changes in inorganic phosphorus (P) and phytate P indicate phytate hydrolysis by yeast phytase. Fermentation causes major changes, but other processing steps are also responsible. The causes for varying DDGS composition are multiple, including differences in feedstock species and composition, process methods and parameters, the amount of condensed solubles added to distiller wet grains, the effect of fermentation yeast, and analytical methodology. Most of them can be attributed to the complexity of the dry-grind process itself. It is hoped that information provided in this review will improve the understanding of the dry-grind process and aid in the development of strategies to control the compositional variation in DDGS.

  20. Application of the Advanced Distillation Curve Method to Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engine Gasolines

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Jessica L.; Schneider, Nico; Bruno, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    . To make changes in the most time- and cost-effective manner, it is imperative that new computational tools and surrogate fuels are developed. Currently, sets of fuels are being characterized by industry groups, such as the Coordinating Research Council

  1. Ocean thermocline driven membrane distillation process

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2017-07-20

    Systems and methods using membrane distillation are provided for desalinating water, for example for the production of potable water, to address freshwater requirements. In an aspect the systems and methods do not require applying an external heat source, or the energy cost of the heating source, to heat the feed stream to the membrane. In an aspect, the sensible heat present in surface seawater is used for the heat energy for the warm stream fed to the membrane, and deep seawater is used as the cold/coolant feed to the membrane to provide the needed temperature gradient or differential across the membrane.

  2. Destructive distillation of shale, torbanite, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lensvelt, M W

    1931-09-21

    In the production of oil by the distillation of coal, shale, torbanite, or the like below 600/sup 0/C the occurrence of tarry matters, free carbon, ammonia, or sulfur compounds in the oils is prevented by the addition of an alkali such as caustic soda, or an alkaline earth as lime, to which sodium carbonate may be added. The carbonaceous material is ground to pass through a 20 mesh screen, and is treated for example with a slurry of quicklime having an addition of sodium carbonate, the adherent water being evaporated before the material is passed into the retort.

  3. Distillation columns inspection through gamma scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Marco

    1999-09-01

    The application of nuclear energy is very wide and it allows the saving of economic resources since the investigation of a certain process is carried out without stop the plant. The gamma scanning of oil c racking c olumns are practical examples, they allow to determine the hydraulic operation of the inspected columns. A source of Co-60 22mCi and a detector with a crystal of INa(TI) are used. This paper shows the results got from a profile carried out in a column distillation

  4. Gas manufacture, materials for; distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, G

    1866-03-15

    A A mixture of bituminous coal and shale oil, petroleum, or other mineral oil is distilled in a retort in order to obtain illuminating gas and oil according to the temperature, and a residue of good coke is also obtained. Preferably the coal is pulverized, and the mixture is made in a heated state. The oil may be treated for the removal of volatile oils and water before mixture with the coal. With the oil may be used the residues or bottoms from shale-oil stills.

  5. Distillation of coal, wood, peat, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhrer, J; Price, A P

    1867-02-01

    The production of permanent gas for the purposes of illumination or for heating purposes, and also to the production of oils and other distillatory products from coal, shale, wood, peat, and other bituminous or carbonaceous substances, consists in subjecting the before-mentioned materials, previously reduced to a fine state, to a process of distillation causing the same to pass or fall through the interior of a heated vertical tube, chamber, or retort, or series of the same, in such a manner that the particles in their descent or passage shall be subjected to the action of heat in order that the desired products may be obtained.

  6. Dynamic simulation of hydrogen isotope distillation unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Lann, J.M.; Latge, C.; Joulia, X.; Sere-Peyrigain, P.

    1995-01-01

    Dynamic simulation of hydrogen isotope distillation unit involved in the complex environment of a fusion power plant can be a powerful technique in view to analyze the tritium hazard potential. In this paper, issues related to the development of such a dynamic simulator with model formulation and the numerical treatment of the resulting Differential-Algebraic equation (DAE) system are properly adressed. The typical dynamic characteristics of such columns are quantitatively and qualitatively enlighted on case study with very large disturbances. The developed system has proven to be beneficial for understanding the dynamic behaviour and further for developing control schemes. (orig.)

  7. Dynamic simulation of hydrogen isotope distillation unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Lann, J.M.; Joulia, X.; Sere-Peyrigain, P.

    1994-01-01

    Dynamic simulation of hydrogen isotope distillation unit involved in the complex environment of a fusion power plant can be a powerful technique in view to analyze the tritium hazard potential. Issues related to the development of such a dynamic simulator with model formulation and the numerical treatment of the resulting Differential-Algebraic equation (DAE) system are properly addressed. The typical dynamic characteristics of such columns are quantitatively and qualitatively enlightened on case study with very large disturbances. The developed system has proven to be beneficial for understanding the dynamic behaviour and further for developing control schemes. (author) 12 refs.; 4 figs

  8. A Modelling Framework for Conventional and Heat Integrated Distillation Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2013-01-01

    of hydrocarbons such as separations of equimolar mixtures of benzene/toluene or propane/propene described by simple models, a generic, modular, model framework is presented in this work. At present, the framework is able to describe a conventional distillation column, a mechanical vapor recompression column......Diabatic operation of distillation columns can lead to signicant reductions in energy utilization and operation cost compared to conventional (adiabatic) distillation columns, at an expense of an increased complexity of design and operation. The earliest diabatic distillation conguration dates back...... to the late 70s, and various dierent congurations have appeared since. However, at present, no full-scale diabatic distillation columns are currently operating in the industry. Current studies related to alternative distillation congurations report very dierent gures for potential energy savings which...

  9. A comparative evaluation of nitrogen compounds in petroleum distillates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dheer; Chopra, Anju; Patel, Mitra Bhanu; Sarpal, Amarjit Singh [Indian Oil Corporation Limited, Faridabad (India). Research and Development Centre

    2011-07-15

    Although the concentration of nitrogen compounds in crude oil is relatively low, they can become more concentrated in petroleum distillates and poison the catalysts used in refining processes. They cause undesirable deposits, color formation and odor in products; they also contribute to air pollution and some are highly carcinogenic. The poisoned catalyst becomes deactivated for hydrodesulfurization and unable to remove sulfur from middle distillates. In order to understand the effect on catalytic processes, it is desirable to identify the nitrogen compounds in various petroleum distillates. This paper compares the nitrogen species profiles in different petroleum distillates using a nitrogen chemiluminescence detector. In addition, four different petroleum distillate samples from different refineries were analyzed to find the variation in their nitrogen profiles. The nitrogen compounds in petroleum distillate samples were identified as anilines, quinolines, indoles, and carbazoles and their alkyl derivatives. Quantitation was carried out against known reference standards. The quantitative data were compared to the total nitrogen content determined by elemental analysis. (orig.)

  10. Tritium Isotope Separation Using Adsorption-Distillation Column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukada, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    In order to miniaturize the height of a distillation tower for the detritiation of waste water from fusion reactors, two experiments were conducted: (1) liquid frontal chromatography of tritium water eluting through an adsorption column and (2) water distillation using a column packed with adsorbent particles. The height of the distillation tower depends on the height equivalent to a theoretical plate, HETP, and the equilibrium isotope separation factor, α H-T equi . The adsorption action improved not only HETP but also α H-T equi . Since the adsorption-distillation method proposed here can shorten the tower height with keeping advantages of the distillation, it may bring an excellent way for miniaturizing the distillation tower to detritiate a large amount of waste water from fusion reactors

  11. Solar distillation between a simple and double-glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahmane KHECHEKHOUCHE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The south-east region of Algeria suffers from a great socio-economic problem that affects a large population. Faced with the unavailability of drinking water, solar distillation; which appears to be a suitable and inexpensive solution; was adopted by local researchers. Improving the productivity of a solar greenhouse distiller is the subject of several researches in the world. As it is well known, distiller with simple glazing is wildly studied but unfortunately has feeble efficiency. Double glazing is a method that increases the efficiency of a flat solar collector. The idea is to use the same technique on a single-slope solar distiller (50 x 50 cm. Two glass plates separated by 1 cm between them air is trapped. Experience shows that this technique has a negative effect on the productivity of the distiller with a rate of 88.63%; it means 9 times. So double glazing is not recommended in the single slope solar distiller.

  12. Entrainer-based reactive distillation versus conventional reactive distillation for the synthesis of fatty acid esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de M.C.; Dimian, A.C.; Haan, de A.B.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper different reactive distillation configurations for the synthesis of isopropyl myristate were compared with the use of process models made in Aspen Plus. It can be concluded that the configurations in which an entrainer is added are more capable to reach the required conversion of

  13. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results from the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, California) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was intended to be processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5 percent. The average specific energy of the system during testing was calculated to be less than 120 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

  14. Asymptotic speedups, bisimulation and distillation (Work in progress)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Neil; Hamilton, G. W.

    2015-01-01

    Distillation is a fully automatic program transformation that can yield superlinear program speedups. Bisimulation is a key to the proof that distillation is correct, i.e., preserves semantics. However the proof, based on observational equivalence, is insensitive to program running times....... This paper shows how distillation can give superlinear speedups on some “old chestnut” programs well-known from the early program transformation literature: naive reverse, factorial sum, and Fibonacci....

  15. Analytical determination of distillation boundaries for ternary azeotropic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Marcilla Gomis, Antonio; Reyes Labarta, Juan Antonio; Velasco, Raúl; Serrano Cayuelas, María Dolores; Olaya López, María del Mar

    2009-01-01

    A new straight forward algorithm to calculate distillation boundaries in ternary azeotropic systems has been developed. The proposed method allows, using cubic splines, the calculation of distillation trajectories and the calculation of that corresponding to the searched distillation boundaries. The algorithm is applied to 4 ternary liquid-vapour systems to test its validity. Vicepresidency of Research (University of Alicante) and Generalitat Valenciana (GV/2007/125)

  16. Design and Implementation of Temperature Controller for a Vacuum Distiller

    OpenAIRE

    Muslim, M. Aziz; N., Goegoes Dwi; F., Ahmad Salmi; R., Akhbar Prachaessardhi

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposed design and implementation of temperature controller for a vacuum distiller. The distiller is aimed to provide distillation process of bioethanol in nearly vacuum condition. Due to varying vacuum pressure, temperature have to be controlled by manipulating AC voltage to heating elements. Two arduino based control strategies have been implemented, PID control and Fuzzy Logic control. Control command from the controller was translated to AC drive using TRIAC based dimmer circu...

  17. JUMPING THE CURVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pellissier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the notion ofjump ing the curve,following from Handy 's S-curve onto a new curve with new rules policies and procedures. . It claims that the curve does not generally lie in wait but has to be invented by leadership. The focus of this paper is the identification (mathematically and inferentially ofthat point in time, known as the cusp in catastrophe theory, when it is time to change - pro-actively, pre-actively or reactively. These three scenarios are addressed separately and discussed in terms ofthe relevance ofeach.

  18. Evolution of Volatile Compounds during the Distillation of Cognac Spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Pierre; Athès, Violaine; Decloux, Martine Esteban; Ferrari, Gérald; Snakkers, Guillaume; Raguenaud, Patrick; Giampaoli, Pierre

    2017-09-06

    Cognac wine spirit has a complex composition in volatile compounds which contributes to its organoleptic profile. This work focused on the batch distillation process and, in particular, on volatile compounds specifically produced by chemical reactions during the distillation of Cognac wine spirit, traditionally conducted in two steps with charentais pot stills. The aim of this study was to characterize these volatile compounds formed during distillation. Sampling has been performed on the distillates and inside the boiler during a typical Cognac distillation. The analysis of these samples allowed us to perform a mass balance and to point out several types of volatile compounds whose quantities strongly increased during the distillation process. These compounds were distinguished by their chemical family. It has been found that the first distillation step was decisive for the formation of volatile compounds. Moreover, 2 esters, 3 aldehydes, 12 norisoprenoids, and 3 terpenes were shown to be generated during the process. These results suggest that some volatile compounds found in Cognac spirit are formed during distillation due to chemical reactions induced by high temperature. These findings give important indications to professional distillers in order to enhance the product's quality.

  19. Advances in Membrane Distillation for Water Desalination and Purification Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gomez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane distillation is a process that utilizes differences in vapor pressure to permeate water through a macro-porous membrane and reject other non-volatile constituents present in the influent water. This review considers the fundamental heat and mass transfer processes in membrane distillation, recent advances in membrane technology, module configurations, and the applications and economics of membrane distillation, and identifies areas that may lead to technological improvements in membrane distillation as well as the application characteristics required for commercial deployment.

  20. Evaluation of Controller Tuning Methods Applied to Distillation Column Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim; W. Andersen, Henrik; Kümmel, Professor Mogens

    A frequency domain approach is used to compare the nominal performance and robustness of dual composition distillation column control tuned according to Ziegler-Nichols (ZN) and Biggest Log Modulus Tuning (BLT) for three binary distillation columns, WOBE, LUVI and TOFA. The scope of this is to ex......A frequency domain approach is used to compare the nominal performance and robustness of dual composition distillation column control tuned according to Ziegler-Nichols (ZN) and Biggest Log Modulus Tuning (BLT) for three binary distillation columns, WOBE, LUVI and TOFA. The scope...

  1. Vapor compression distiller and membrane technology for water revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, A.; Mitani, K.; Ebara, K.; Kurokawa, H.; Sawada, I.; Kashiwagi, H.; Tsuji, T.; Hayashi, S.; Otsubo, K.; Nitta, K.

    1987-01-01

    Water revitalization for a space station can consist of membrane filtration processes and a distillation process. Water recycling equipment using membrane filtration processes was manufactured for ground testing. It was assembled using commercially available components. Two systems for the distillation are studied: one is absorption type thermopervaporation cell and the other is a vapor compression distiller. Absorption type thermopervaporation, able to easily produce condensed water under zero gravity, was investigated experimentally and through simulated calculation. The vapor compression distiller was studied experimentally and it offers significant energy savings for evaporation of water.

  2. Tornado-Shaped Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Sol Sáez; de la Rosa, Félix Martínez; Rojas, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    In Advanced Calculus, our students wonder if it is possible to graphically represent a tornado by means of a three-dimensional curve. In this paper, we show it is possible by providing the parametric equations of such tornado-shaped curves.

  3. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even, Wesley Paul; Dolence, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth's atmosphere.

  4. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Even, Wesley Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dolence, Joshua C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-05

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth’s atmosphere.

  5. Image scaling curve generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of generating an image scaling curve, where local saliency is detected in a received image. The detected local saliency is then accumulated in the first direction. A final scaling curve is derived from the detected local saliency and the image is then

  6. Image scaling curve generation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of generating an image scaling curve, where local saliency is detected in a received image. The detected local saliency is then accumulated in the first direction. A final scaling curve is derived from the detected local saliency and the image is then

  7. Tempo curves considered harmful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desain, P.; Honing, H.

    1993-01-01

    In the literature of musicology, computer music research and the psychology of music, timing or tempo measurements are mostly presented in the form of continuous curves. The notion of these tempo curves is dangerous, despite its widespread use, because it lulls its users into the false impression

  8. The curve shortening problem

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Kai-Seng

    2001-01-01

    Although research in curve shortening flow has been very active for nearly 20 years, the results of those efforts have remained scattered throughout the literature. For the first time, The Curve Shortening Problem collects and illuminates those results in a comprehensive, rigorous, and self-contained account of the fundamental results.The authors present a complete treatment of the Gage-Hamilton theorem, a clear, detailed exposition of Grayson''s convexity theorem, a systematic discussion of invariant solutions, applications to the existence of simple closed geodesics on a surface, and a new, almost convexity theorem for the generalized curve shortening problem.Many questions regarding curve shortening remain outstanding. With its careful exposition and complete guide to the literature, The Curve Shortening Problem provides not only an outstanding starting point for graduate students and new investigations, but a superb reference that presents intriguing new results for those already active in the field.

  9. Process and apparatus to distil petroleum. Verfahren und Vorrichtung zur Erdoel-Destillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchenau, R.; Fauser, F.; Fischer, W.

    1982-12-23

    In a process to distil petroleum the raw petroleum is distilled in the first instance at atmospheric pressure to separate the low-boiling components and subsequently under vacuum to separate the remaining components. The vacuum distillation is carried out as a flash distillation using a shortway distiller.

  10. Improvements in the distillation of shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noad, J

    1912-09-20

    A process for treating shale and other bituminous substances containing sulfur and obtaining desulfurized products of distillation consisting in the consecutive steps of crushing the shale, mixing a suitable liquid with the shale granules, mixing slaked lime with the liquid coated shale granules, and gradually feeding the lime coated shale granules into a retort presenting a series of ledges or the like and working the shale granules down from ledge to ledge so that they are continuously agitated while being heated, the volatile constituents escaping through the lime coating and being conducted away from the upper part of the retort to suitable condensing apparatus, and the sulfur being arrested by the lime coating and together with the exhausted shale and other impurities being discharged from the lower part of the retort.

  11. Continuous distillation of oil-bearing rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1923-11-14

    A continuous process of distilling petroleum-bearing, asphaltic, or bituminous rocks to free bitumen is characterized by vaporizing hydrocarbons solid, pasty, or liquid from petroleum-containing asphaltic or bituminous rocks to free bitumen without ever reaching the temperatures at which they can produce decomposition, the necessary heat being furnished by combustion of part of the hydrocarbons of the treated rocks. A furnace for carrying out the process of claim 1 is characterized by consisting of a cavity lined inside with reflector, of variable section and with a throat at the upper part for charging the material to be treated and means for blowing the lower part of the furnace with the air necessary for combustion and inert gas for regulating the combustion and removal of the hydrocarbons.

  12. Distillation of combustibles at temperatures below fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalin, D

    1946-09-26

    A process is described for combustion and distillation for dry fuels, such as bituminous shales, below the temperature of fusion of the ash, for the production of heat, in which the temperature in the charge of fuel forming a vertical column is maintained beneath the temperature of fusion of the ash by a withdrawal of the heat from the combustible charge by means of a fluid absorbing this heat. This fluid being constituted, for example, by water in a suitable form, so that it can be circulated through a convenient cooling system, extending through the different parts of the charge. The fluid circulating also through the desired parts of the charge and absorbing the heat, the quantity of fluid or the surface of absorption increasing with the intensity of the combustion in the part of the combustible charge traversed by the fluid.

  13. Design of Microporosity in Membrane Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tom; Patankar, Neelesh

    2017-11-01

    Membrane Distillation (MD) is a desalination method where only vapor can pass through pores in a hydrophobic membrane. Unlike reverse osmosis, MD is insensitive to feed salinity (osmotic pressure) and demonstrates near 100% salt rejection in processing wastewater with a high concentration of nonvolatile impurities. To maximize vapor flux and maintain salt rejection, we demonstrate using molecular dynamics the critical pore radius below which the liquid feed will not intrude or nucleate inside the pores for cylindrical, re-entrant and conical pore geometries. We note that re-entrant structures not only can process low surface-tension wastewater due to its inherent oleophobicity, but can also be optimized to achieve maximum vapor transport compared to all other pore geometries as a function of the material hydrophobicity.

  14. Asymptotic adaptive bipartite entanglement-distillation protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostens, Erik; Dehaene, Jeroen; De Moor, Bart

    2006-01-01

    We present an asymptotic bipartite entanglement-distillation protocol that outperforms all existing asymptotic schemes. This protocol is based on the breeding protocol with the incorporation of two-way classical communication. Like breeding, the protocol starts with an infinite number of copies of a Bell-diagonal mixed state. Breeding can be carried out as successive stages of partial information extraction, yielding the same result: one bit of information is gained at the cost (measurement) of one pure Bell state pair (ebit). The basic principle of our protocol is at every stage to replace measurements on ebits by measurements on a finite number of copies, whenever there are two equiprobable outcomes. In that case, the entropy of the global state is reduced by more than one bit. Therefore, every such replacement results in an improvement of the protocol. We explain how our protocol is organized as to have as many replacements as possible. The yield is then calculated for Werner states

  15. Distilling peat and other carbonaceous matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stones, W B

    1850-03-07

    Improvements in treating peat and other carbonaceous and ligneous matters, so as to obtain products therefrom are disclosed. These improvements consist, first, of a machine for compressing and partially drying peat. The unpressed peat is put into boxes and these into frames which are passed through between the bowls of a machine resembling a pair of squeezers. Secondly, consists in distilling, at a temperature of, say 700/sup 0/F, the compressed peat, with or without the addition of tar or fatty matter in retorts, and condensing the vapors in a series of vessels, arranged after the manner of Wolfe's bottles. The resulting charcoal may be extinguished by passing carbonic acid through it while in an air-tight box or chamber, and it may then be compressed into bricks, and used for locomotives and other purposes.

  16. Determination of lithium in rocks by distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, M.H.

    1949-01-01

    A method for the quantitative extraction and recovery of lithium from rocks is based on a high temperature volatilization procedure. The sample is sintered with a calcium carbonate-calcium chloride mixture at 1200?? C. for 30 minutes in a platinum ignition tube, and the volatilization product is collected in a plug of Pyrex glass wool in a connecting Pyrex tube. The distillate, which consists of the alkali chlorides with a maximum of 5 to 20 mg. of calcium oxide and traces of a few other elements, is removed from the apparatus by dissolving in dilute hydrochloric acid and subjected to standard analytiaal procedures. The sinter residues contained less than 0.0005% lithium oxide. Lithium oxide was recovered from synthetic samples with an average error of 1.1%.

  17. Learning Curve? Which One?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Prochno

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning curves have been studied for a long time. These studies provided strong support to the hypothesis that, as organizations produce more of a product, unit costs of production decrease at a decreasing rate (see Argote, 1999 for a comprehensive review of learning curve studies. But the organizational mechanisms that lead to these results are still underexplored. We know some drivers of learning curves (ADLER; CLARK, 1991; LAPRE et al., 2000, but we still lack a more detailed view of the organizational processes behind those curves. Through an ethnographic study, I bring a comprehensive account of the first year of operations of a new automotive plant, describing what was taking place on in the assembly area during the most relevant shifts of the learning curve. The emphasis is then on how learning occurs in that setting. My analysis suggests that the overall learning curve is in fact the result of an integration process that puts together several individual ongoing learning curves in different areas throughout the organization. In the end, I propose a model to understand the evolution of these learning processes and their supporting organizational mechanisms.

  18. Simulators of tray distillation columns as tools for interpreting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... at 0.05 m intervals were determined from top to the bottom of simulators of tray distillation columns exposed to 20 mCi of 137 Cs. Signals generated from the simulators were identical with the experimental signals obtained from the Stabilizer Column of the crude oil distillation unit at the Tema Oil Refinery Ghana Limited.

  19. 27 CFR 19.65 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plants. 19.65 Section 19.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Activities Not Subject to This Part § 19.65 Experimental distilled spirits plants. The...

  20. Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential o...

  1. Process for obtaining a distillation product free from sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyl, G E

    1920-06-12

    A process is described of obtaining from shale a hydrocarbon product free from sulfur, by distillation, consisting in mixing with the shale a portion of mineral oil and metallic debris, such as turnings and drillings, heating the mixture in a rotary drum and recovering and condensing the vapors distilled.

  2. The Design and Manufacturing of Essential oil Distillation Plant for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    industry in the country do not have the capacity to manufacture the complete distillation plant system with the required precision for standard quality of oil at affordable cost. Thus, the design and the experiment in the use of a prototype small size distillation unit showed that the technology is appropriate for essential oil ...

  3. Towards energy efficient distillation technologies - Making the right choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, A.A.; Landaeta, S.J. Flores; Ferreira, C.A.I.

    2012-01-01

    In spite of claiming around half of the operational costs of chemical plants, distillation is still the most popular separation technology. Distillation has low thermodynamic efficiency, requiring the input of high quality energy in the reboiler – while rejecting a similar amount of heat at lower

  4. Desalination and water recycling by air gap membrane distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Guijt, C.M.; Haan, de A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for desalination. Membrane distillation differs from other membrane technologies in that the driving force for desalination is the difference in vapour pressure of water across the membrane, rather than total pressure. The membranes for MD are

  5. Graph Modelling Approach: Application to a Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovelaque, V.; Commault, C.; Bahar, Mehrdad

    1997-01-01

    Introduction, structured systems and digraphs, distillation column model, generic input-output decoupling problem, generic disturbance rejection problem, concluding remarks.......Introduction, structured systems and digraphs, distillation column model, generic input-output decoupling problem, generic disturbance rejection problem, concluding remarks....

  6. Desalination and Water Recycling by Air Gap Membrane Distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Guijt, C.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for desalination. Membrane distillation differs from other membrane technologies in that the driving force for desalination is the difference in vapour pressure of water across the membrane, rather than total pressure. The membranes for MD are

  7. Distillation plant for tritium enrichment in metallic lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, E.; Butzek, D.; Cordewiner, J.; Heinrichs, E.

    1984-06-01

    To close the external fuel cycle of fusion reactors, the tritium obtained from lithium must be separated off. One way of doing this is by high-temperature distillation and subsequent permeation. The construction of high-temperature distillation plant is described. For the time being, deuterium is processed instead of tritium. (orig.) [de

  8. 27 CFR 19.830 - Application of distilled spirits tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of distilled spirits tax. 19.830 Section 19.830 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the...

  9. Submerged membrane distillation for seawater desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Amy, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    A submerged membrane distillation (SMD) process for fresh water production from Red Sea water using commercially available hollow fiber membranes has been successfully employed and compared with the conventional direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. The hollow fiber membranes have been characterized for its morphology using field effect scanning electron microscope. In SMD process, a bunch of hollow fiber membranes are glued together at both ends to get a simplified open membrane module assembly submerged into the coolant tank equipped with a mechanical stirrer. Hot feed stream is allowed to pass through the lumen side of the membrane using a feed pump. Continuous stirring at the coolant side will reduce the temperature and concentration polarization. During the conventional DCMD process, using feed-coolant streams with co-current and counter-current flows has been tested and the results are compared in this study. In SMD process, a water vapor flux of 10.2 kg m-2 h-1 is achieved when using a feed inlet temperature of 80°C and coolant temperature of 20°C. Under the same conditions, during conventional DCMD process, a water vapor flux of 11.6 and 10.1 kg m-2 h-1 were observed during counter-current and co-current flow streams, respectively. Results show that the water production in the SMD process is comparable with the conventional DCMD process, while the feed-coolant flow streams are in the co-current direction. During conventional DCMD operation, a 15% increase in the water production is observed when feed-coolant streams are in the counter-current direction compared to the co-current direction. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  10. Submerged membrane distillation for seawater desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2014-08-11

    A submerged membrane distillation (SMD) process for fresh water production from Red Sea water using commercially available hollow fiber membranes has been successfully employed and compared with the conventional direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. The hollow fiber membranes have been characterized for its morphology using field effect scanning electron microscope. In SMD process, a bunch of hollow fiber membranes are glued together at both ends to get a simplified open membrane module assembly submerged into the coolant tank equipped with a mechanical stirrer. Hot feed stream is allowed to pass through the lumen side of the membrane using a feed pump. Continuous stirring at the coolant side will reduce the temperature and concentration polarization. During the conventional DCMD process, using feed-coolant streams with co-current and counter-current flows has been tested and the results are compared in this study. In SMD process, a water vapor flux of 10.2 kg m-2 h-1 is achieved when using a feed inlet temperature of 80°C and coolant temperature of 20°C. Under the same conditions, during conventional DCMD process, a water vapor flux of 11.6 and 10.1 kg m-2 h-1 were observed during counter-current and co-current flow streams, respectively. Results show that the water production in the SMD process is comparable with the conventional DCMD process, while the feed-coolant flow streams are in the co-current direction. During conventional DCMD operation, a 15% increase in the water production is observed when feed-coolant streams are in the counter-current direction compared to the co-current direction. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  11. The crime kuznets curve

    OpenAIRE

    Buonanno, Paolo; Fergusson, Leopoldo; Vargas, Juan Fernando

    2014-01-01

    We document the existence of a Crime Kuznets Curve in US states since the 1970s. As income levels have risen, crime has followed an inverted U-shaped pattern, first increasing and then dropping. The Crime Kuznets Curve is not explained by income inequality. In fact, we show that during the sample period inequality has risen monotonically with income, ruling out the traditional Kuznets Curve. Our finding is robust to adding a large set of controls that are used in the literature to explain the...

  12. Impact of Grape Varieties on Wine Distillates Flavour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Banović

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aroma is a phenomenon that occurrs when food and live organism mutually react during the process of consumption. Many factors influence the making of aroma of wine distillates (e.g. cognac during the technological process of distillation. It is extremely difficult to bring an objective judgement on the influence of individual factors since aroma is very subjective in its nature. The possibility of objective assessment of the influence of grape varieties on wine distillate was performed in this work using a computer in processing the results of cromatographic analyses of aroma substances. The given results were verified by sensor analyses. The achieved results have shown that mathematical model for calculating aroma chromatogram similarity can be successfully used for objective assessment of the influence of individual factors on aroma of wine distillates and that grape varieties have significant impact on aroma and the quality of wine distillates.

  13. Purification of simple substances by distillation with impurity hydrothermal oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnik, O.N.; Nisel'son, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    A possibility of applying distillation method in water vapours for purification of simple substances from impurities is studied. Based on thermodynamic analysis of interaction processes in E-H 2 O system, conducted using a computer, it is as certained that SS, Se, Te, As, Cd, Hg can be purified from the majority of the impurities analysed by distillation in a water vapour flow. Behaviour of Zn, C, Ge, Al, Sb characteristic impurities under cadmium, arsenic and tellurium distillation is studied. Experiments on cadmium, arsenic and tellurium purification have confirmed, that distillation with hydrothermal oxidation of Zn, C, Ge impurities sometimes appears to be a more effective method as compared to distillation in a hydrogen flow

  14. Some remarks on the carrier distillation method; Quelques remarques sur la methode 'carrier distillation'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avni, R; Chaput, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The method described by SCRIBNER and MULLIN makes possible the spectrographic analysis of the refractory oxides of uranium and plutonium. It uses a distillation of the elements which is more or less selective. The influence of the carrier is the subject of as many hypotheses as there are parameters involved in the process. The measurements of the arc temperature carried out on the leading edges of the vibration bands and of certain copper lines have made it possible to show the influence of the nature of the carrier and to establish a relationship between the values of the excitation potentials of the atoms and the temperatures produced. Further, this result makes it possible to explain certain contradictions between the principle of a fractional distillation in the arc which is incompatible with the refractory properties of certain elements and their spectrographic sensitivity. (author) [French] La methode decrite par SCRIBNER et MULLIN permet l'analyse spectrographique des oxydes refractaires d'uranium et de plutonium. Elle fait appel a une distillation plus ou moins selective des elements. L'influence de l'entraineur est l'objet d'aussi nombreuses hypotheses que les parametres lies au phenomene. Les mesures de la temperature de l'arc, effectuees sur les tetes de bandes de vibration du cyanogene et certaines raies du cuivre ont permis de montrer l'influence de la nature de l'entraineur et de trouver une relation entre les valeurs des potentiels d'excitation des atomes et les temperatures produites. En outre, ce resultat permet d'expliquer certaines contradictions entre le principe d'une distillation fractionnee dans l'arc incompatible avec les proprietes refractaires de certains elements et leur sensibilite spectrographique. (auteur)

  15. Biodiesel of distilled hydrogenated fat and biodiesel of distilled residual oil: fuel consumption in agricultural tractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camara, Felipe Thomaz da; Lopes, Afonso; Silva, Rouverson Pereira da; Oliveira, Melina Cais Jejcic; Furlani, Carlos Eduardo Angeli [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil); Dabdoub, Miguel Joaquim [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Great part of the world-wide oil production is used in fry process; however, after using, such product becomes an undesirable residue, and the usual methods of discarding of these residues, generally contaminate the environment, mainly the rivers. In function of this, using oil and residual fat for manufacturing biodiesel, besides preventing ambient contamination, turning up an undesirable residue in to fuel. The present work had as objective to evaluate the fuel consumption of a Valtra BM100 4x2 TDA tractor functioning with methylic biodiesel from distilled hydrogenated fat and methylic biodiesel from distilled residual oil, in seven blends into diesel. The work was conducted at the Department of Agricultural Engineering, at UNESP - Jaboticabal, in an entirely randomized block statistical design, factorial array of 2 x 7, with three repetitions. The factors combinations were two types of methylic distilled biodiesel (residual oil and hydrogenated fat) and seven blends (B{sub 0}, B{sub 5}, B{sub 1}5, B{sub 2}5, B{sub 5}0, B{sub 7}5 and B{sub 1}00). The results had evidenced that additioning 15% of biodiesel into diesel, the specific consumption was similar, and biodiesel of residual oil provided less consumption than biodiesel from hydrogenated fat. (author)

  16. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  17. SRHA calibration curve

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — an UV calibration curve for SRHA quantitation. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Chang, X., and D. Bouchard. Surfactant-Wrapped Multiwalled...

  18. Bragg Curve Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, C.R.

    1981-05-01

    An alternative utilization is presented for the gaseous ionization chamber in the detection of energetic heavy ions, which is called Bragg Curve Spectroscopy (BCS). Conceptually, BCS involves using the maximum data available from the Bragg curve of the stopping heavy ion (HI) for purposes of identifying the particle and measuring its energy. A detector has been designed that measures the Bragg curve with high precision. From the Bragg curve the range from the length of the track, the total energy from the integral of the specific ionization over the track, the dE/dx from the specific ionization at the beginning of the track, and the Bragg peak from the maximum of the specific ionization of the HI are determined. This last signal measures the atomic number, Z, of the HI unambiguously

  19. ROBUST DECLINE CURVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutawanir Darwis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Empirical decline curve analysis of oil production data gives reasonable answer in hyperbolic type curves situations; however the methodology has limitations in fitting real historical production data in present of unusual observations due to the effect of the treatment to the well in order to increase production capacity. The development ofrobust least squares offers new possibilities in better fitting production data using declinecurve analysis by down weighting the unusual observations. This paper proposes a robustleast squares fitting lmRobMM approach to estimate the decline rate of daily production data and compares the results with reservoir simulation results. For case study, we usethe oil production data at TBA Field West Java. The results demonstrated that theapproach is suitable for decline curve fitting and offers a new insight in decline curve analysis in the present of unusual observations.

  20. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Federici, Paolo

    This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2.......This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2....

  1. Curves and Abelian varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeev, Valery; Clemens, C Herbert; Beauville, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    This book is devoted to recent progress in the study of curves and abelian varieties. It discusses both classical aspects of this deep and beautiful subject as well as two important new developments, tropical geometry and the theory of log schemes. In addition to original research articles, this book contains three surveys devoted to singularities of theta divisors, of compactified Jacobians of singular curves, and of "strange duality" among moduli spaces of vector bundles on algebraic varieties.

  2. Input-Output Decoupling of a Distillation Column LV-Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdi, H.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Bahar (fratrådt), Mehrdad

    1996-01-01

    Introduction, digraph approach, distillation column, digraph analysis, solution analysis, discussion and conclusion, references.......Introduction, digraph approach, distillation column, digraph analysis, solution analysis, discussion and conclusion, references....

  3. The forms of azeotropic rule for multidimensional diagrams of equilibrium distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarenko, Yu. A.; Usol'tseva, O. O.; Cardona, C. A.; Gerard, O. T.

    2013-09-01

    Linear independent forms of the azeotropy rule applicable to diagrams of distillation (reaction distillation) and their fragments are established and presented as simple polyhedra of arbitrary dimensions.

  4. Pathway Distiller - multisource biological pathway consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doderer, Mark S; Anguiano, Zachry; Suresh, Uthra; Dashnamoorthy, Ravi; Bishop, Alexander J R; Chen, Yidong

    2012-01-01

    One method to understand and evaluate an experiment that produces a large set of genes, such as a gene expression microarray analysis, is to identify overrepresentation or enrichment for biological pathways. Because pathways are able to functionally describe the set of genes, much effort has been made to collect curated biological pathways into publicly accessible databases. When combining disparate databases, highly related or redundant pathways exist, making their consolidation into pathway concepts essential. This will facilitate unbiased, comprehensive yet streamlined analysis of experiments that result in large gene sets. After gene set enrichment finds representative pathways for large gene sets, pathways are consolidated into representative pathway concepts. Three complementary, but different methods of pathway consolidation are explored. Enrichment Consolidation combines the set of the pathways enriched for the signature gene list through iterative combining of enriched pathways with other pathways with similar signature gene sets; Weighted Consolidation utilizes a Protein-Protein Interaction network based gene-weighting approach that finds clusters of both enriched and non-enriched pathways limited to the experiments' resultant gene list; and finally the de novo Consolidation method uses several measurements of pathway similarity, that finds static pathway clusters independent of any given experiment. We demonstrate that the three consolidation methods provide unified yet different functional insights of a resultant gene set derived from a genome-wide profiling experiment. Results from the methods are presented, demonstrating their applications in biological studies and comparing with a pathway web-based framework that also combines several pathway databases. Additionally a web-based consolidation framework that encompasses all three methods discussed in this paper, Pathway Distiller (http://cbbiweb.uthscsa.edu/PathwayDistiller), is established to allow

  5. Recovery of acetic acid from waste streams by extractive distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiral, H; Yildirim, M Ercengiz

    2003-01-01

    Wastes have been considered to be a serious worldwide environmental problem in recent years. Because of increasing pollution, these wastes should be treated. However, industrial wastes can contain a number of valuable organic components. Recovery of these components is important economically. Using conventional distillation techniques, the separation of acetic acid and water is both impractical and uneconomical, because it often requires large number of trays and a high reflux ratio. In practice special techniques are used depending on the concentration of acetic acid. Between 30 and 70% (w/w) acetic acid contents, extractive distillation was suggested. Extractive distillation is a multicomponent-rectification method similar in purpose to azeotropic distillation. In extractive distillation, to a binary mixture which is difficult or impossible to separate by ordinary means, a third component termed an entrainer is added which alters the relative volatility of the original constituents, thus permitting the separation. In our department acetic acid is used as a solvent during the obtaining of cobalt(III) acetate from cobalt(II) acetate by an electrochemical method. After the operation, the remaining waste contains acetic acid. In thiswork, acetic acid which has been found in this waste was recovered by extractive distillation. Adiponitrile and sulfolane were used as high boiling solvents and the effects of solvent feed rate/solution feed rate ratio and type were investigated. According to the experimental results, it was seem that the recovery of acetic acid from waste streams is possible by extractive distillation.

  6. Towards energy efficient distillation technologies – Making the right choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, Anton A.; Flores Landaeta, Servando J.; Infante Ferreira, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    In spite of claiming around half of the operational costs of chemical plants, distillation is still the most popular separation technology. Distillation has low thermodynamic efficiency, requiring the input of high quality energy in the reboiler – while rejecting a similar amount of heat at lower temperature, in the condenser. Several heat pump concepts have been proposed to upgrade that thermal energy and reduce the consumption of valuable utilities. Under certain conditions, the energy savings of heat pump assisted distillation is usually around 20–50%. This study proposes a novel selection scheme of energy efficient distillation technologies, with a special focus on heat pumps. The most promising technologies selected are vapor compression, mechanical or thermal vapor recompression, absorption, compression–resorption and thermo-acoustic heat pumps, multi-effect distillation, heat integrated distillation column, cyclic distillation, Kaibel and dividing-wall column. The scheme considers as the main selection criteria the type of separation tasks, product flow and specifications, operating pressure, difference in boiling points, reboiler duty and its temperature level. Moreover, this scheme is very practical, allowing major time and resources savings in the design of eco-efficient processes. -- Highlights: ► Heat pump assisted distillation with energy savings of 20–50%. ► Novel and practical selection scheme of energy efficient distillation technologies. ► Evaluation of promising technologies: VC, MVR, TVR, AHP, CHRP, TAHP, HIDiC, DWC, CyDist. ► Selection criteria include: ΔT b , ΔT lift , P, T reb , Q reb , volatility. ► Design of eco-efficient processes with high COP, and lower TIC and TAC.

  7. Approximation by planar elastic curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge

    2016-01-01

    We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient......-driven optimization is then used to find the approximating elastic curve....

  8. Generalized Choi states and 2-distillability of quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Tang, Wai-Shing; Yang, Yu

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the distillability of bipartite quantum states in terms of positive and completely positive maps. We construct the so-called generalized Choi states and show that it is distillable when it has negative partial transpose. We convert the distillability problem of 2-copy n× n Werner states into the determination of the positivity of an Hermitian matrix. We obtain several sufficient conditions by which the positivity holds. Further, we investigate the case n=3 by the classification of 2× 3× 3 pure states.

  9. Distillability Sudden Birth of Entanglement for Qutrit-Qutrit Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jiang; Ali Mazhar

    2014-01-01

    We report the sudden appearance of distillability between two statistically independent reservoirs modelled as qutrit-qutrit systems. This feature of bipartite quantum systems is different from the previously observed phenomenon of entanglement sudden birth. It is found that the states of reservoirs first become bound entangled, thus exhibiting entanglement sudden birth, consequently followed by the sudden birth of distillability, and it is shown that whenever distillability is lost abruptly from principal system, it also necessarily appears abruptly among reservoirs' degrees of freedom. This surprising observation reflects yet another peculiarity of dynamical aspects of quantum entanglement

  10. Evaluation of sulfonated carbon as catalyst in reactive distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orjuela, Alvaro; Civetta, Nicolas; Rivera, Jairo; Boyaca, Alejandro; Diaz, Jesus

    2004-01-01

    A packed bed using sulfonated coal catalytic pellets was prepared using a Colombian anthracitic coal. Such pellets were introduced in a semi batch distillation column to which acetic acid and ethanol were fed in order to determine experimentally the feasibility of obtaining ethyl acetate by reactive distillation operation. The carbonaceous catalytic packing was characterized by total exchange capacity, potentiometric titration and BET area. Experimental tests were carried out using three acid/alcohol ratios. Results of such process are shown by reaction conversion and concentration in distillate and bottom products. The sulfonated coal showed catalytic activity in this esterification reaction, with conversions between 29-45%

  11. Integrated Process Design and Control of Reactive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2015-01-01

    on the element concept, which is used to translate a system of compounds into elements. The operation of the reactive distillation column at the highest driving force and other candidate points is analyzed through analytical solution as well as rigorous open-loop and closed-loop simulations. By application...... of this approach, it is shown that designing the reactive distillation process at the maximum driving force results in an optimal design in terms of controllability and operability. It is verified that the reactive distillation design option is less sensitive to the disturbances in the feed at the highest driving...

  12. Improved waste water vapor compression distillation technology. [for Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. L.; Nuccio, P. P.; Reveley, W. F.

    1977-01-01

    The vapor compression distillation process is a method of recovering potable water from crewman urine in a manned spacecraft or space station. A description is presented of the research and development approach to the solution of the various problems encountered with previous vapor compression distillation units. The design solutions considered are incorporated in the preliminary design of a vapor compression distillation subsystem. The new design concepts are available for integration in the next generation of support systems and, particularly, the regenerative life support evaluation intended for project Spacelab.

  13. Exergy analysis of a MSF distillation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahraman, Nafiz; Cengel, Yunus A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a large MSF distillation plant in the gulf area is analyzed thermodynamically using actual plant operation data. Exergy flow rates are evaluated throughout the plant, and the exergy flow diagram is prepared. The rates of exergy destruction and their percentages are indicated on the diagram so that the locations of highest exergy destruction can easily be identified. The highest exergy destruction (77.7%) occurs within the MSF unit, as expected, and this can be reduced by increasing the number of flashing stages. The exergy destruction in the pumps and motors account for 5.3% of the total, and this also can be reduced by using high efficiency motors and pumps. The plant is determined to have a second law efficiency of just 4.2%, which is very low. This indicates that there are major opportunities in the plant to reduce exergy destruction and, thus, the amount of electric and thermal energy supplied, making the operation of the plant more cost effective

  14. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere......This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here......, the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  15. Ekstraksi Minyak Atsiri Dari Akar Wangi Menggunakan Metode Steam - Hydro distillation dan Hydro distilation dengan Pemanas Microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulana M Al Hanief

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh minyak atsiri dari akar wangi dengan modifikasi metode steam-hydro distillation dan hydro distillation yaitu menggunakan pemanasan microwave kemudian membandingkan hasilnya dengan penelitian sebelumnya. Modifikasi ini diharapkan lebih efisien dalam masalah lama penyulingan dan kualitas serta kuantitas rendemen minyak yang lebih baik dan banyak. Penelitian ini menggunakan dua metode yaitu steam-hydro distillation dan hydro distillation dengan pemanfaatan gelombang mikro. Bahan baku yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah akar wangi jenis pulus wangi yang tumbuh di Kabupaten Garut, Jawa Barat. Variabel yang digunakan adalah bahan baku yang dicacah dan bahan baku utuh dengan variasi massa bahan 50 gr, 60, gr, 70 gr, 80 gr, dan 90 gr dengan pelarut air sebanyak 450 ml dalam labau distiller berukuran 1000 ml. Lama penyulingan adalah lima jam dengan pengamatan tiap 30 menit serta daya yang digunakan adalah 400 Watt. Analisa terhadap hasil minyak atsiri yang diperoleh antara lain analisa GC-MS, spesific gravity, indeks bias, dan bilangan asam. Hasil dari penelitian ini dibandingkan dengan hasil penelitian terdahulu yang tidak memanfaatkan gelombang mikro. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh % rendemen kumulatif, sifat fisik, sifat kimia, dan kandungan komponen minyak dari metode steam-hydro distillation lebih baik dibandingkan metode hydro distillation ditandai dengan kuantitas dan kualitas yang sesuai dengan SNI.  Sementara itu jika dibandingkan dengan metode terdahulu dapat disimpulkan bahwa penggunaan gelombang mikro lebih efisien dalam waktu dan kuantitas serta kualitas minyak yang lebih baik dibandingkan tanpa penggunaan gelombang mikro

  16. Aromatically enhanced pear distillates from blanquilla and conference varieties using a packed column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta-Garay, Yanine; García-Llobodanin, Laura; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; López-Vázquez, Cristina; Orriols, Ignacio; López, Francisco

    2013-05-22

    Pear distillates are generally produced from the Bartlett variety because of its rich aroma. In this study, a chemical and sensorial comparative examination of pear distillates from the three main varieties grown in Spain (Bartlett, Blanquilla, and Conference) using two distillation systems (copper Charentais alembic and packed column) was undertaken. Volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography to differentiate the spirits according to pear variety and distillation method. The Bartlett distillates from both distillation systems possessed higher ethyl ester and acetate and lower cis-3-hexen-1-ol and 1-hexanol concentrations. Despite these differences, a sensory analysis panel could distinguish only the Bartlett alembic distillate from the alembic distillates of the other varieties. In contrast, the panel rated the packed-column distillates equally. Therefore, less aromatic pear varieties can be used to produce distillates with aromatic characteristics similar to those of the Bartlett variety if a suitable distillation process is used.

  17. Curved electromagnetic missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.M.; Shen, H.M.; Wu, T.T.

    1989-01-01

    Transient electromagnetic fields can exhibit interesting behavior in the limit of great distances from their sources. In situations of finite total radiated energy, the energy reaching a distant receiver can decrease with distance much more slowly than the usual r - 2 . Cases of such slow decrease have been referred to as electromagnetic missiles. All of the wide variety of known missiles propagate in essentially straight lines. A sketch is presented here of a missile that can follow a path that is strongly curved. An example of a curved electromagnetic missile is explicitly constructed and some of its properties are discussed. References to details available elsewhere are given

  18. Algebraic curves and cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, V Kumar

    2010-01-01

    It is by now a well-known paradigm that public-key cryptosystems can be built using finite Abelian groups and that algebraic geometry provides a supply of such groups through Abelian varieties over finite fields. Of special interest are the Abelian varieties that are Jacobians of algebraic curves. All of the articles in this volume are centered on the theme of point counting and explicit arithmetic on the Jacobians of curves over finite fields. The topics covered include Schoof's \\ell-adic point counting algorithm, the p-adic algorithms of Kedlaya and Denef-Vercauteren, explicit arithmetic on

  19. IGMtransmission: Transmission curve computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Christopher M.; Meiksin, Avery; Stock, David

    2015-04-01

    IGMtransmission is a Java graphical user interface that implements Monte Carlo simulations to compute the corrections to colors of high-redshift galaxies due to intergalactic attenuation based on current models of the Intergalactic Medium. The effects of absorption due to neutral hydrogen are considered, with particular attention to the stochastic effects of Lyman Limit Systems. Attenuation curves are produced, as well as colors for a wide range of filter responses and model galaxy spectra. Photometric filters are included for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Keck telescope, the Mt. Palomar 200-inch, the SUBARU telescope and UKIRT; alternative filter response curves and spectra may be readily uploaded.

  20. Method of distilling solid materials, such as shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramen, A

    1917-09-04

    A method of distilling compact materials, such as shales, containing volatile matter, is characterized by heating the material in an oven or other apparatus or in a section or zone of same in the presence of some condensable gas (such as steam) which is indifferent to the vapors distillated during the heating of the material. The gas together with these products is conducted through a condensation apparatus, containing water or some other liquid, where the volatile matters are condensed. The steam which is produced in the gas regenerator is, after preheating, forced through the hot remaining residue from the distillation either in the same retort or in another retort in order to heat further this residue for the purpose of making it possible for the steam, by being forced through freshly charged material in the first oven or apparatus to bring about its distillation. The patent contains ten additional claims.

  1. Separation of H-D mixtures by cryogenic distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yangming; Gu Mei; Wang Heyi; Liu Jun; Fu Zhonghua; Xia Xiulong; Liu Yunnu; Weng Kuiping; Xie Bo; Ren Xingbi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, separation of hydrogen-deuterium mixtures were performed on a cryogenic distillation apparatus. The results show that the D/H ratio in the reboiler reduced to 1.27x10 -2 at 120h with a flow flux of 5mol/h of the gas mixture in D/H ratio of 1.4xl0 -4 . The enrichment effect increased apparently with D/H ratio of the feeding gas. However, the deuterium content in the top of distillation column increased with the deuterium content in the reboiler, and the de-deuterium efficiencies decreased. In the full reflux experiment, the de-deuterium efficiency increased with heating power of the reboiler, and the inside pressure in the distillation column increased, too. It was necessary that suitable heating power should be chosen in order to control operation pressure in the cryogenic distillation process. (authors)

  2. 27 CFR 30.1 - Gauging of distilled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... correcting hydrometer indications at temperatures between 0 and 100 degrees Fahrenheit to true proof. If distilled spirits contain dissolved solids, temperature correction of the hydrometer reading by the use of...

  3. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... departure of the aircraft, and the brand, kind, and quantity of distilled spirits or wines. Where the... shall be retained by the airline. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number...

  4. The Design and Manufacturing of Essential oil Distillation Plant for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    distillation technology for essential oil production is proposed for small scale industrial entrepreneur. ... economic transition like Japan china, India,. Korea is a case in .... foreign currency. ... cost of investment and the quality have a direct.

  5. Molten salt extractive distillation process for zirconium-hafnium separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Stoltz, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes an improvement in a process for zirconium-hafnium separation. It utilizes an extractive distillation column with a mixture of zirconium and hafnium tetrachlorides introduced into a distillation column having a top and bottom with hafnium enriched overheads taken from the top of the column and a molten salt solvent circulated through the column to provide a liquid phase, and with molten salt solvent containing zirconium chloride being taken from the bottom of the distillation column. The improvements comprising: utilizing a molten salt solvent consisting principally of lithium chloride and at least one of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium chlorides; stripping of the zirconium chloride taken from the bottom of the distillation column by electrochemically reducing zirconium from the molten salt solvent; and utilizing a pressurized reflux condenser on the top of the column to add the hafnium chloride enriched overheads to the molten salt solvent previously stripped of zirconium chloride

  6. Irreversibility of entanglement distillation for a class of symmetric states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H.; Wolf, Michael M.; Werner, Reinhard F.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the irreversibility of entanglement distillation for a symmetric (d+1)-parameter family of mixed bipartite quantum states acting on Hilbert spaces of arbitrary dimension dxd. We prove that in this family the entanglement cost is generically strictly larger than the distillable entanglement, so that the set of states for which the distillation process is asymptotically reversible is of measure zero. This remains true even if the distillation process is catalytically assisted by pure-state entanglement and every operation is allowed, which preserves the positivity of the partial transpose. It is shown that reversibility occurs only in cases where the state is a tagged mixture. The reversible cases are shown to be completely characterized by minimal uncertainty vectors for entropic uncertainty relations

  7. Anaesthetic effects of Adenia gummifera distillates on Apis mellifera (Honeybee).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngarivhume, T; Dzomba, P; Gwizangwe, I; Zendera, C H; Katsvanga, C A T; Jimu, L; Moyo, M; Chagonda, T

    2008-01-01

    The anaesthetic activities of steam distillates of Adenia gummifera stem on Apis mellifera were evaluated by a diffusion method. Live, direct and fractional (61-80 degrees C fraction) distillates had greater anaesthetic effect while vacuum distillates were mild. The anaesthetic activity significantly increased with concentration up to 6% (v/v), and then it levelled off, while excessive exposure was lethal. The number of bees in a given volume had no significant effect on anaesthetic activity but container volume (F(cal) = 66.4; F(3,8) = 4.07) and bee-distillate distance (F(cal) = 31.0; F(2,6) = 5.14) did, suggesting the rate of diffusion of active component could be the determining factor. The active component is likely to contain amines and the rest halogenated alkane.

  8. Energy savings in distillation via identification of useful configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vishesh Hemanshu

    Recent market and environmental forces require the rapid development of better and cheaper separation process solutions. Especially for multicomponent mixtures, there are several feasible separation process solutions differing significantly in cost and energy consumption in spite of carrying out the same overall process. Therefore a systematic method to identify and design optimal multicomponent separation sequences is needed instead of relying on the inventive activity of a few experienced engineers. Even for a commonly perceived "mature" technology such as distillation, until recently there has been an absence of systematic methods to (i) elucidate all possible separation configurations and to (ii) identify energy efficient candidates. This research aims to address these needs. In this work, we focus on the continuous distillation of non-azeotropic mixtures into n distinct composition final product streams. We develop a computationally efficient and easy-to-use mathematical framework to generate all the basic distillation configurations that use exactly (n-1) distillation columns to carry out this n-component separation. We extend the framework to generate all the additional distillation configurations with thermal coupling. We observe that the search space of distillation configurations grows very rapidly as the number of product streams increases. For instance, for a mixture to be separated into 4 product streams, we can choose from 18 basic configurations and 134 additional configurations with thermal coupling; while for a mixture to be separated into 8 product streams, we can choose from 15,767,207 basic configurations and 29,006,926,681 additional configurations with thermal coupling. The next challenge for a process engineer is to be able to quickly prune the search space to a handful of attractive energy efficient candidates that can be studied in greater detail. To this effect, we develop a quick screening optimization tool that identifies configurations

  9. Distiller's Grains for Dairy Cattle and Potential Environmental Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Stallings, Charles C.

    2009-01-01

    Describes how distiller's grain's with solubles (DDGS) are produced, covers their protein, fat or oil and phosphorous quantity and quality, provides recommendations for use as feed for dairy cattle, as well as recommendations to minimize environmental impacts.

  10. EVALUATION OF A VACUUM DISTILLER FOR PERFORMING METHOD 8261 ANALYSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacuum distillation uses a specialized apparatus. This apparatus has been developed and patented by the EPA. Through the Federal Technology Transfer Act this invention has been made available for commercialization. Available vendors for this instrumentation are being evaluated. ...

  11. Learning from uncertain curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallasto, Anton; Feragen, Aasa

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a novel framework for statistical analysis of populations of nondegenerate Gaussian processes (GPs), which are natural representations of uncertain curves. This allows inherent variation or uncertainty in function-valued data to be properly incorporated in the population analysis. Us...

  12. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  13. Power Curve Measurements, FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  14. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  15. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  16. Carbon Lorenz Curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, L.F.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073642398

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across

  17. The Axial Curve Rotator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Walter M.

    This document contains detailed directions for constructing a device that mechanically produces the three-dimensional shape resulting from the rotation of any algebraic line or curve around either axis on the coordinate plant. The device was developed in response to student difficulty in visualizing, and thus grasping the mathematical principles…

  18. Nacelle lidar power curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Wagner, Rozenn

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  19. Power curve report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...

  20. Textbook Factor Demand Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joe C.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that teachers and textbook graphics follow the same basic pattern in illustrating changes in demand curves when product prices increase. Asserts that the use of computer graphics will enable teachers to be more precise in their graphic presentation of price elasticity. (CFR)

  1. ECM using Edwards curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernstein, D.J.; Birkner, P.; Lange, T.; Peters, C.P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces EECM-MPFQ, a fast implementation of the elliptic-curve method of factoring integers. EECM-MPFQ uses fewer modular multiplications than the well-known GMP-ECM software, takes less time than GMP-ECM, and finds more primes than GMP-ECM. The main improvements above the

  2. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  3. Logic hybrid simulation-optimization algorithm for distillation design

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero Suárez, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for the rigorous design of distillation columns that integrates a process simulator in a generalized disjunctive programming formulation. The optimal distillation column, or column sequence, is obtained by selecting, for each column section, among a set of column sections with different number of theoretical trays. The selection of thermodynamic models, properties estimation etc., are all in the simulation environment. All the numerical issues relat...

  4. DYNAMIC SIMULATION AND FUZZY CONTROL OF A CONTINUOUS DISTILLATION COLUMN

    OpenAIRE

    Arbildo López, A.; Lombira Echevarría, J.; Osario López, l.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is the study of the dinamic simulation and fuzzy control of a multicomponent continuous distillation column. In this work, the mathematical model of the distillation column and the computing program for the simulation are described. Also, the structure and implementation of the fuzzy controller are presentad. Finally, the results obtained using this programare compared with those reported in the scientific literature for different mixtures. El objetivo de nuestra...

  5. Quality Evaluation of Agricultural Distillates Using an Electronic Nose

    OpenAIRE

    Dymerski, Tomasz; Gębicki, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the application of an electronic nose instrument to fast evaluation of agricultural distillates differing in quality. The investigations were carried out using a prototype of electronic nose equipped with a set of six semiconductor sensors by FIGARO Co., an electronic circuit converting signal into digital form and a set of thermostats able to provide gradient temperature characteristics to a gas mixture. A volatile fraction of the agricultural distillate samples differing ...

  6. Solvent distillation studies for a purex reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginisty, C.; Guillaume, B.

    1990-01-01

    A distillation system has been developed for regeneration of Purex solvent and will be implemented for the first time in a reprocessing plant. The results are described and analyzed, with emphasis on laboratory experiments which were made with a radioactive plant solvent. Particularly the distillation provides a good separation of solvent degradation products, which was verified by measurements of interfacial tension and plutonium or ruthenium retention. 16 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Exergy Rate Profile of Multicomponent Distillation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Adewale Adesina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Exergy rate profiles, exergetic efficiency and irreversibility were used to examine the driving forces in multicomponent distillation system with the view to identifying feasible and efficient operating parameters. The mixture used comprised of 5% propane, 15% iso-butane, 25% nbutane, 20% iso-pentane and 35% n-pentane. Operating variables were feed temperature (-30 oC and -80 oC, pressure (800 kPa and 1200 kPa, and reflux-ratio (2 and 6. Stage-by-stage system exergy analysis was estimated. Column profiles of base case -30 oC, -80 oC, -30 oC-reflus ratio 6, -80 oC reflux ratio 6 and base case reflux ratio 6 did not crossed thus are thermodynamically feasible. Base case -30 oC-reflux ratio 2, -80 oC-reflux ratio 2, and base case-reflux ratio 2 were crossed and constricted and are infeasible. Base case results gave efficiency of 81.7% at depropanizer and 65.2% at debutanizer. Base cases sensitivity results with -30 oC, -80 oC and reflux ratio 6, efficiency range 57.40 – 70% and 65.20% - 54.90% for depropanizer and debutanizer respectively. Spitted cases gave 81.7% and 62.20% with more scatter profiles. Splitted feed base case -30 oC design gave the lowest overall system exergy loss rate of 1.12E+6 and efficiency of 95.70%. Design feasible parameters, system efficiency and irreversibility which form basis

  8. Distillation principes de calcul et de contrôle Distillation. Engineering and Control Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trambouze P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente les principes de base utilisés lors de la conception et de la conduite des colonnes à distiller continues ou discontinues. Dans cet exposé d'initiation le cas des mélanges binaires est seul considéré de manière à ne pas compliquer inutilement la présentation. Par contre pour conserver à cette étude un aspect pratique, la dernière partie est consacrée aux problèmes technologiques et aux principales solutions mises en oeuvre. This article describes the basic principles used in designing and operating columns for continuous or batch distillation. The case of binary mixtures is the only one considered so as not to uselessly complicate the description. However, so as to mointain the practical nature of this study, the last part is devoted to technological problems and to the main solutions applied to them.

  9. Design and construction of a Fresnel linear distiller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saettone, E.

    2014-01-01

    It was designed a Fresnel linear distiller based on optical calculations obtained from taking into account Lima's latitude value, Earth inclination angle and heat absorber cavity's dimensions. The 5.6 m 2 reflective surface concentrator of the distiller was constructed with 32 plane rectangular mirrors; the heat absorber cavity was made with a rectangular blackened aluminum tube 1 m long and installed 2.5 m over the plane of mirrors. The Fresnel linear distiller was installed at the University of Lima and experimental tests were performed during no cloudy summer days. There were measured ambient temperature, heat absorber cavity temperature, radiant flux and fresh water volume. From this, it was obtained a production of 0.89 liters/hour and 0.79 L/m 2 , and it was calculated a total performance of 34.5% in desalting sea water. Finally, it is presented a comparison between Fresnel linear distiller (FLD) and parabolic trough distiller (PTD) with similar dimensions and characteristics. It is obtained that the last one produced almost 32% more fresh water than the former, but at the same time, the FLD is almost 20% cheaper than PTD. However, water cost production with both distillers using is almost the same. (author)

  10. A review of the FT distillate pathway in GHGenius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (FT) distillates products are now used throughout the world as a commercial fuel. However, lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from FT distillates fuels are higher than diesel fuel produced from crude oil. This paper provided details of a lifecycle analysis of FT distillates pathways created for GHGenius, a model used to analyze emissions from a variety of combustion sources. The study examined values reported in tests conducted by major oil and gas operators and described the conversion technologies typically used at FT distillates production facilities. Summaries of reports on FT distillates emissions were also provided. Three primary factors were identified that contributed to different results reported for FT distillates emissions: (1) the efficiency of the conversion process; (2) the allocation procedure used in the conventional oil refinery for the emissions of individual products; and (3) the emissions associated with natural gas production. The GHGenius model was used to quantify the impact of the 3 main factors. An alternative system expansion methodology was used to compare crude oil diesel pathways with a high efficiency, low gas leak scenario in order to achieve high values reported by some oil and gas operators. 5 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs

  11. Thermo-economic performance of inclined solar water distillation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agboola Phillips O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the thermo-economic performance of different configurations of inclined solar water desalination for parameters such as daily production, efficiency, system cost and distilled water production cost. The four different configurations considered for this study are as follows; 1. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (IISWD with daily production of 5.46 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 48.3%. 2. Inclined solar water distillation with wick on absorber plate (IISWDW with daily production of 6.41kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 50.3%. 3. Inclined solar water distillation with wire mesh on absorber plate (IISWDWM with daily production n of 3.03 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 32.6%. 4. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (ISWD. (Control System with daily production of 3.25 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 40.1%. The systems potable water cost price ranges from 0.03 $/L for IISWDW to 0.06$/L for IISWDWM System. All the systems are economically and technically feasible as a solar distillation system for potable water in Northern Cyprus. The price of potable water from water vendors/hawkers ranges from 0.11-0.16 $/L. It is more economically viable to have the rooftop inclined solar water desalination system than procuring potable water from vendors.`

  12. Toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates to soil organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Janet H; Stephenson, Gladys L; Birkholz, Detlef; Wang, Zhendi; Dixon, D George

    2010-12-01

    Canadian standards for petroleum hydrocarbons in soil are based on four distillate ranges (F1, C6-C10; F2, >C10-C16; F3, >C16-C34; and F4, >C34). Concerns have arisen that the ecological soil contact standards for F3 may be overly conservative. Oil distillates were prepared and characterized, and the toxicity of F3 and two subfractions, F3a (>C16-C23) and F3b (>C23-C34), to earthworms (Eisenia andrei), springtails (Orthonychiurus folsomi), and northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus), as well as the toxicity of F2 to earthworms, was determined. Clean soil was spiked with individual distillates and measured concentrations were determined for select tests. Results agree with previous studies with these distillates. Reported toxicities of crude and petroleum products to invertebrates were generally comparable to that of F3 and F3a. The decreasing order of toxicity was F3a > F3 > F3b with invertebrates, and F3a > F3b > F3 with plants. The toxicities of F3a and F3b were not sufficiently different to recommend regulating hydrocarbons based on these distillate ranges. The results also suggest that test durations may be insufficient for determining toxicity of higher distillate ranges, and that the selection of species and endpoints may significantly affect interpretation of toxicity test results. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  13. Wine distillates: practical operating recipe formulation for stills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Daniel; Pérez-Correa, J Ricardo; Biegler, Lorenz T; Agosin, Eduardo

    2005-08-10

    Consumer perceptions of flavors are associated with the chemical composition of foods. However, consumer preferences change; therefore, it is necessary for food manufacturers to be able to adapt their products. Unlike in aged spirits, the chemical composition of young spirits is determined during distillation; therefore, this is where distillers must tailor their operating recipes to the new trends. Even for an experienced distiller, the complexity of the process makes adapting the operating recipe far from straightforward. In this study, we developed a methodology for generating practical recipes that makes use of computer simulations and optimization techniques. We used Pisco Brandy, a young Muscat wine distillate from Chile and Peru as our case study. Even so, because our methodology is independent of the chemical composition of the broth, it can be applied throughout the industry. Drawing on the experience and preferences of industry enologists, we designed a preferred distillate and used our methodology to obtain the appropriate recipe. This recipe was validated in lab scale experiments, and we obtained a much closer distillate to the desired prescription than commercial products.

  14. Teaching and learning distillation in chemistry laboratory courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Keulen, Hanno; Mulder, Theo H. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.; Verdonk, Adri H.

    This study investigates the problems chemistry majors have with learning distillation in traditional chemistry laboratory courses. Using an interpretive cyclic research design, we collected and interpreted data, mainly in the form of observation notes and transcriptions of the discourse that takes place during laboratory courses. It was found that students experience numerous problems; these are described and interpreted. We summarize students' problems in four categories: (a) students use an independent component conception; (b) they have insufficient understanding of the properties of vapor; (c) they regard distillation from a physical point of view; and (d) they do not have a practical understanding of thermodynamics. The main origin of these problems was found to lie with the traditional curriculum structure. Lecture courses and textbooks treat distillation in a generalized and decontextualized way, whereas decisions in actual distillations are always based on contextual features. It was found that textbooks and teachers often do not discriminate carefully and explicitly among five different contexts for distillation: organic synthesis, chemical analysis, analytical chemistry, physical chemistry, and preparation of products. Students take the generalized concepts at face value and apply them to all distillations regardless of context. They cannot interpret their observations or make reasoned decisions based on the theoretical framework of a specific context.Received: 2 May 1994; Revised: 14 December 1994;

  15. Honeywell Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, distillation systems have been actively pursued as one of the technologies for water recovery. The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a vacuum rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. The CDS was previously under development through Honeywell and NASA. In 2009, an assessment was performed to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. Based on the results of this testing, an expert panel concluded that the CDS showed adequate development maturity, TRL-4, together with the best product water quality and competitive weight and power estimates to warrant further development. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) worked to address weaknesses identified by The Panel; namely bearing design and heat pump power efficiency. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades. The CDS will also have been challenged with ISS analog waste streams and a subset of those being considered for Exploration architectures. This paper details interim results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  16. Codes and curves

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Judy L

    2000-01-01

    When information is transmitted, errors are likely to occur. Coding theory examines efficient ways of packaging data so that these errors can be detected, or even corrected. The traditional tools of coding theory have come from combinatorics and group theory. Lately, however, coding theorists have added techniques from algebraic geometry to their toolboxes. In particular, by re-interpreting the Reed-Solomon codes, one can see how to define new codes based on divisors on algebraic curves. For instance, using modular curves over finite fields, Tsfasman, Vladut, and Zink showed that one can define a sequence of codes with asymptotically better parameters than any previously known codes. This monograph is based on a series of lectures the author gave as part of the IAS/PCMI program on arithmetic algebraic geometry. Here, the reader is introduced to the exciting field of algebraic geometric coding theory. Presenting the material in the same conversational tone of the lectures, the author covers linear codes, inclu...

  17. Carbon Lorenz Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, L. [Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics, Janskerkhof 12, 3512 BL Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across countries. These tools allow policy-makers and the general public to grasp at a single glance the impact of conventional distribution rules such as equal caps or grandfathering, or more sophisticated ones, on the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions. Second, using the Samuelson rule for the optimal provision of a public good, the Pareto-optimal distribution of carbon emissions is compared with the distribution that follows if countries follow Nash-Cournot abatement strategies. It is shown that the Pareto-optimal distribution under the Samuelson rule can be approximated by the equal cap division, represented by the diagonal in the Lorenz curve diagram.

  18. THE EFFECT OF DISTILLATE STORING DISTILLED FROM FRUCTOSE SYRUPS TOWARD ITS ACETALDEHYDE CONCENTRATION MEASURED BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Monica Sianita Basukiwardojo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Acetaldehyde is a compound of aldehyde group that is very volatile and toxic. This compound can be found in fructose syrups used in carbonate beverages. The syrups had been distilled then analysed using gas chromatography. The concentration of acetaldehyde was 289.78 g/g in the distillates kept for one week, 295.30 g/g in those kept for two weeks, 429.45 g/g in those kept for three weeks, and 449.38 g/g in those kept for four weeks. The optimum column temperature was programmed with initial temperature of 40 oC held on for four minutes, then increasing by 40 oC/minute to 200 oC. It can be concluded that the longer the distillates have been kept, the greater the concentration of acetaldehyde in the distillates. A further research to investigate the present of microbe in the distillates and the effect of pH should be conducted   Keywords: acetaldehyde, fructose syrup, distillates, gas chromatography.

  19. Dynamics of curved fronts

    CERN Document Server

    Pelce, Pierre

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, much progress has been made in the understanding of interface dynamics of various systems: hydrodynamics, crystal growth, chemical reactions, and combustion. Dynamics of Curved Fronts is an important contribution to this field and will be an indispensable reference work for researchers and graduate students in physics, applied mathematics, and chemical engineering. The book consist of a 100 page introduction by the editor and 33 seminal articles from various disciplines.

  20. International Wage Curves

    OpenAIRE

    David G. Blanchflower; Andrew J. Oswald

    1992-01-01

    The paper provides evidence for the existence of a negatively sloped locus linking the level of pay to the rate of regional (or industry) unemployment. This "wage curve" is estimated using microeconomic data for Britain, the US, Canada, Korea, Austria, Italy, Holland, Switzerland, Norway, and Germany, The average unemployment elasticity of pay is approximately -0.1. The paper sets out a multi-region efficiency wage model and argues that its predictions are consistent with the data.

  1. Anatomical curve identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Adrian W.; Katina, Stanislav; Smith, Joanna; Brown, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Methods for capturing images in three dimensions are now widely available, with stereo-photogrammetry and laser scanning being two common approaches. In anatomical studies, a number of landmarks are usually identified manually from each of these images and these form the basis of subsequent statistical analysis. However, landmarks express only a very small proportion of the information available from the images. Anatomically defined curves have the advantage of providing a much richer expression of shape. This is explored in the context of identifying the boundary of breasts from an image of the female torso and the boundary of the lips from a facial image. The curves of interest are characterised by ridges or valleys. Key issues in estimation are the ability to navigate across the anatomical surface in three-dimensions, the ability to recognise the relevant boundary and the need to assess the evidence for the presence of the surface feature of interest. The first issue is addressed by the use of principal curves, as an extension of principal components, the second by suitable assessment of curvature and the third by change-point detection. P-spline smoothing is used as an integral part of the methods but adaptations are made to the specific anatomical features of interest. After estimation of the boundary curves, the intermediate surfaces of the anatomical feature of interest can be characterised by surface interpolation. This allows shape variation to be explored using standard methods such as principal components. These tools are applied to a collection of images of women where one breast has been reconstructed after mastectomy and where interest lies in shape differences between the reconstructed and unreconstructed breasts. They are also applied to a collection of lip images where possible differences in shape between males and females are of interest. PMID:26041943

  2. Estimating Corporate Yield Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Antionio Diaz; Frank Skinner

    2001-01-01

    This paper represents the first study of retail deposit spreads of UK financial institutions using stochastic interest rate modelling and the market comparable approach. By replicating quoted fixed deposit rates using the Black Derman and Toy (1990) stochastic interest rate model, we find that the spread between fixed and variable rates of interest can be modeled (and priced) using an interest rate swap analogy. We also find that we can estimate an individual bank deposit yield curve as a spr...

  3. LCC: Light Curves Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Light Curves Classifier uses data mining and machine learning to obtain and classify desired objects. This task can be accomplished by attributes of light curves or any time series, including shapes, histograms, or variograms, or by other available information about the inspected objects, such as color indices, temperatures, and abundances. After specifying features which describe the objects to be searched, the software trains on a given training sample, and can then be used for unsupervised clustering for visualizing the natural separation of the sample. The package can be also used for automatic tuning parameters of used methods (for example, number of hidden neurons or binning ratio). Trained classifiers can be used for filtering outputs from astronomical databases or data stored locally. The Light Curve Classifier can also be used for simple downloading of light curves and all available information of queried stars. It natively can connect to OgleII, OgleIII, ASAS, CoRoT, Kepler, Catalina and MACHO, and new connectors or descriptors can be implemented. In addition to direct usage of the package and command line UI, the program can be used through a web interface. Users can create jobs for ”training” methods on given objects, querying databases and filtering outputs by trained filters. Preimplemented descriptors, classifier and connectors can be picked by simple clicks and their parameters can be tuned by giving ranges of these values. All combinations are then calculated and the best one is used for creating the filter. Natural separation of the data can be visualized by unsupervised clustering.

  4. Characteristics analysis of salt vacuum distillation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Hun Suk; Oh, Seung Chul; Hong, Sun Seok; Hur, Jin Mok; Lee, Hyo Jik

    2016-01-01

    A new technique for pyroprocessing was designed by adding an oxide reduction process to the previous one. It is regarded as a promising process to treat and recycle oxide spent fuels owing to its enhanced nuclear proliferation resistance and the simplified process equipment and the low process costing. Spent oxide fuel is reduced into a metal by an electrochemical method while using a high-temperature molten salt as the reaction medium. After being subjected to electrorefining and electrowinning processes, the reduced metal fuel can be used in sodium-cooled fast reactors. The salt vacuum distillation process termed cathode processing follows the oxide reduction stage and has been developed to remove the residual salt, allowing for clear fuel metal to be supplied to the next step, which is electrorefining. KAERI has manufactured this apparatus in several sizes and has been able to achieve a fuel recovery rate of 95%. However it is very difficult to scale up the equipment. Because all transport phenomena, including heat transfer and fluid flow, depend on the size and structure of the apparatus used. The ideal method for overcoming this issue is nondimensionalization, which allows one to determine the characteristic properties of a system. A comparison of the dimensionless variables corresponding to the M-type and P-type apparatuses performed on the basis of phase-transition phenomena as well as the results of the above-mentioned analysis elucidated the differences between the two apparatuses. It also means that the structure of the nozzle throat can be the one of the several causes for the recovery performance. First, the standard model (i.e., the M-type apparatus) was analyzed using dimensionless parameters. The characteristics of this apparatus were the following: 1) the diameter of the outlet of the nozzle throat was twice that of the inlet, 2) the ratio of the length to the diameter (L/D) was 8, and 3) the modified heat-transfer factor was 220-270. It indicates

  5. Characteristics analysis of salt vacuum distillation equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Hun Suk; Oh, Seung Chul; Hong, Sun Seok; Hur, Jin Mok; Lee, Hyo Jik [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    A new technique for pyroprocessing was designed by adding an oxide reduction process to the previous one. It is regarded as a promising process to treat and recycle oxide spent fuels owing to its enhanced nuclear proliferation resistance and the simplified process equipment and the low process costing. Spent oxide fuel is reduced into a metal by an electrochemical method while using a high-temperature molten salt as the reaction medium. After being subjected to electrorefining and electrowinning processes, the reduced metal fuel can be used in sodium-cooled fast reactors. The salt vacuum distillation process termed cathode processing follows the oxide reduction stage and has been developed to remove the residual salt, allowing for clear fuel metal to be supplied to the next step, which is electrorefining. KAERI has manufactured this apparatus in several sizes and has been able to achieve a fuel recovery rate of 95%. However it is very difficult to scale up the equipment. Because all transport phenomena, including heat transfer and fluid flow, depend on the size and structure of the apparatus used. The ideal method for overcoming this issue is nondimensionalization, which allows one to determine the characteristic properties of a system. A comparison of the dimensionless variables corresponding to the M-type and P-type apparatuses performed on the basis of phase-transition phenomena as well as the results of the above-mentioned analysis elucidated the differences between the two apparatuses. It also means that the structure of the nozzle throat can be the one of the several causes for the recovery performance. First, the standard model (i.e., the M-type apparatus) was analyzed using dimensionless parameters. The characteristics of this apparatus were the following: 1) the diameter of the outlet of the nozzle throat was twice that of the inlet, 2) the ratio of the length to the diameter (L/D) was 8, and 3) the modified heat-transfer factor was 220-270. It indicates

  6. Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Ivar J.

    2001-07-01

    Distillation is the most widely used industrial separation technology and distillation units are responsible for a significant part of the total heat consumption in the world's process industry. In this work we focus on directly (fully thermally) coupled column arrangements for separation of multicomponent mixtures. These systems are also denoted Petlyuk arrangements, where a particular implementation is the dividing wall column. Energy savings in the range of 20-40% have been reported with ternary feed mixtures. In addition to energy savings, such integrated units have also a potential for reduced capital cost, making them extra attractive. However, the industrial use has been limited, and difficulties in design and control have been reported as the main reasons. Minimum energy results have only been available for ternary feed mixtures and sharp product splits. This motivates further research in this area, and this thesis will hopefully give some contributions to better understanding of complex column systems. In the first part we derive the general analytic solution for minimum energy consumption in directly coupled columns for a multicomponent feed and any number of products. To our knowledge, this is a new contribution in the field. The basic assumptions are constant relative volatility, constant pressure and constant molar flows and the derivation is based on Underwood's classical methods. An important conclusion is that the minimum energy consumption in a complex directly integrated multi-product arrangement is the same as for the most difficult split between any pair of the specified products when we consider the performance of a conventional two-product column. We also present the Vmin-diagram, which is a simple graphical tool for visualisation of minimum energy related to feed distribution. The Vmin-diagram provides a simple mean to assess the detailed flow requirements for all parts of a complex directly coupled arrangement. The main purpose in

  7. Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Ivar J

    2001-07-01

    Distillation is the most widely used industrial separation technology and distillation units are responsible for a significant part of the total heat consumption in the world's process industry. In this work we focus on directly (fully thermally) coupled column arrangements for separation of multicomponent mixtures. These systems are also denoted Petlyuk arrangements, where a particular implementation is the dividing wall column. Energy savings in the range of 20-40% have been reported with ternary feed mixtures. In addition to energy savings, such integrated units have also a potential for reduced capital cost, making them extra attractive. However, the industrial use has been limited, and difficulties in design and control have been reported as the main reasons. Minimum energy results have only been available for ternary feed mixtures and sharp product splits. This motivates further research in this area, and this thesis will hopefully give some contributions to better understanding of complex column systems. In the first part we derive the general analytic solution for minimum energy consumption in directly coupled columns for a multicomponent feed and any number of products. To our knowledge, this is a new contribution in the field. The basic assumptions are constant relative volatility, constant pressure and constant molar flows and the derivation is based on Underwood's classical methods. An important conclusion is that the minimum energy consumption in a complex directly integrated multi-product arrangement is the same as for the most difficult split between any pair of the specified products when we consider the performance of a conventional two-product column. We also present the Vmin-diagram, which is a simple graphical tool for visualisation of minimum energy related to feed distribution. The Vmin-diagram provides a simple mean to assess the detailed flow requirements for all parts of a complex directly coupled arrangement. The main purpose in the first

  8. Description of saturation curves and boiling process of dry air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestfálová Magda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Air is a mixture of gases forming the gas wrap of Earth. It is formed by dry air, moisture and other pollutants. Dry air is a substance whose thermodynamic properties in gaseous state, as well as the thermodynamic properties of its main constituents in gaseous state, are generally known and described in detail in the literature. The liquid air is a bluish liquid and is industrially used to produce oxygen, nitrogen, argon and helium by distillation. The transition between the gaseous and liquid state (the condensation process, resp. boiling process, is usually displayed in the basic thermodynamic diagrams using the saturation curves. The saturation curves of all pure substances are of a similar shape. However, since the dry air is a mixture, the shapes of its saturation curves are modified relative to the shapes corresponding to the pure substances. This paper deals with the description of the dry air saturation curves as a mixture, i.e. with a description of the process of phase change of dry air (boiling process. The dry air saturation curves are constructed in the basic thermodynamic charts based on the values obtained from the literature. On the basis of diagrams, data appearing in various publications are interpreted and put into context with boiling process of dry air.

  9. ETBP (Extended True Boiling Point) curve extension of extra heavy crudes; Extensao da curva PEV (Ponto de Ebulicao Verdadeiro) de petroleos extrapesados por destilacao molecular e ampliacao da caracterizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Rodrigo S.; Batistella, Cesar B.; Maciel, Maria Regina W.; Maciel Filho, Rubens [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Medina, Lilian C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    For the determination of the TBP (True Boiling Point) Curve, which defines the yield of petroleum products, the ASTM D2892 method for petroleum distillation and ASTM D5236 method for vacuum distillation of heavy hydrocarbons were applied. Furthermore, from these distillations, cuts that are submitted to several analyses to determine its physical-chemical properties are obtained, and all this information generates the evaluation of petroleum. For heavy petroleum, these conventional methods have been limited, since the total distilled percentage determined for temperatures up to 565 deg C (maximum reached with ASTM D5236 method) is lower for these oils, reducing the points of the curve, limiting its information. To improve this data set for heavy oils, a methodology for the extension of TBP curve through molecular distillation was established. It was possible to reach values up to 700 deg C, representing a considerable progress for the extension of TBP curve. The objective of this work is to present the results of Extended TBP curve for a heavy petroleum and characterization carried out through the cuts and residues obtained in molecular distillation of the residue 'Zeta' 400 deg C+ (fancy name), made by ASTM D2892 method. (author)

  10. Economical investigation of solar water distillation in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakr, I A; Khalil, M A; Delyannis, A; Delyannis, E [eds.

    1976-01-01

    Many ways of solar water distillation have been suggested but most of them are either too expensive or only a practical solution to different processes under investigation. Solar heat distillation has a bright future because the greatest potential needs appear to be in those sections where the availability of solar energy is high and the availability of potable water is low as in our Egyptian deserts where the solar intensity has a yearly mean value of about 6000 kcal/(m/sup 2/day). The solar distillation method has a number of economic characteristics which are different from other sea water conversion methods, including: The processing equipment is very simple and results in low equipment costs. No special skills are required for both erection and operation. It can be used with saline water of wide range of salt concentration. The still design is essentially modular, and can be made to meet any desired capacity. Scale formation and corrosion are minor problems as compared with other methods. Power requirements are negligible. The cost of unit construction is not markedly influenced by the size of the still. The lack of quantitative and operative data of solar water distillation techniques with respect to their cost needs in investigation from the economical standpoint of view in Egypt. The subject of this work is to find the order of magnitude of the fresh water cost by solar distillation.

  11. Dry-distillation of experimental animal wastes containing radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, Hideo; Saito, Kazumi; Kurihara, Norio

    1988-01-01

    Mice were dry-distilled at 800deg C for 10 min, after [ 32 P]orthophosphate or L-[4,5- 3 H]leucine was intraperitoneally administered. Phosphorus-32 was quantitatively recovered in the residual solid, whereas 95% of 3 H was found in the distillate (condensed water). When 14 C (L-[U- 14 C]malic acid or L-[U- 14 C]leucine) was administered to mice and they were dry-distilled, 14 C-radioactivity was distributed into two fractions; residual solid and exhaust gas. In these cases, the recovery percentage of 14 C in residual solid was not very high but increased as the treating temperature decreased. It reached about 40% of the administered 14 C at 400deg C for 120 min. By the dry-distillation of animals, their weight was reduced to about 10% in every animal tested (mice, rats and rabbits). The volume was reduced to about 20% in cases of mice and rats, and about 30% in case of rabbits. It was concluded that the dry-distillation can be useful as a pre-treatment for disposal of animal wastes containing radioisotopes. (author)

  12. Improvement of Egyptian vacuum distillates by urea dewaxing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehssan M.R. Nassef

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dewaxing of paraffinic lube stocks is an essential step in the production of lubricants to improve the operability of machines especially in winter. The present work deals with study of the urea dewaxing process of two types of Egyptian vacuum distillates. The effect of different compositions of methanol to water saturated with urea and yield of the oil, percent of wax, pour point, refractive index, viscosity, viscosity index and specific gravity of the oil produced from the two types of distillates (I and II were evaluated. The operating conditions of the urea adduct formation with n-paraffins using methanol to water mixture achieved the best pour point at −3.88 °C from an initial temperature of 4.4 °C for distillate I at (25/75 methanol to water. At the same ratio of methanol to water the best specific gravity of oil produced changed from 0.865 to 0.867, with viscosity index of 80. Percent yield of 50% for oil and percent wax of 50% were obtained. Results for distillate II, of higher specific gravity, are comparatively higher than those for distillate I. Experiments were carried out at room temperature.

  13. Removal of salt from rare earth precipitates by vacuum distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hee-Chul; Eun, Hee-Chul; Cho, Yong-Zun; Park, Hwan-Seo; Kim, In-Tae

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the distillation rates of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt from the rare earth (RE) precipitates originating from the oxygen-sparging RE precipitation process. The first part study investigated distillation rates of eutectic salt under different vacuums at high temperatures by using thermo-gravimetric furnace system. The second part study tested the removal efficiency of eutectic salt from RE precipitates by using the laboratory vacuum distillation furnace system. Investigated variables were the temperature, the degree of vacuum and the time. Salt distillation operation with a moderated distillation rate of 10 -4 - 10 -5 mole sec -1 cm -2 is possible at temperature less than 1300 K and vacuums of 5-50 Torr, by minimizing the potentials of the RE particle entrainment. An increase in the vaporizing surface area is relatively effective for removing the residual salt in pores of bulk of the precipitated RE particles, when compared to that for the vaporizing time. Over 99.9% of the salt removal from the salt-RE precipitate mixture could be achieved by increasing the vaporizing surface area under moderate vacuum conditions of 50 Torr at 1200 K. (author)

  14. Uniformization of elliptic curves

    OpenAIRE

    Ülkem, Özge; Ulkem, Ozge

    2015-01-01

    Every elliptic curve E defined over C is analytically isomorphic to C*=qZ for some q ∊ C*. Similarly, Tate has shown that if E is defined over a p-adic field K, then E is analytically isomorphic to K*=qZ for some q ∊ K . Further the isomorphism E(K) ≅ K*/qZ respects the action of the Galois group GK/K, where K is the algebraic closure of K. I will explain the construction of this isomorphism.

  15. Roc curves for continuous data

    CERN Document Server

    Krzanowski, Wojtek J

    2009-01-01

    Since ROC curves have become ubiquitous in many application areas, the various advances have been scattered across disparate articles and texts. ROC Curves for Continuous Data is the first book solely devoted to the subject, bringing together all the relevant material to provide a clear understanding of how to analyze ROC curves.The fundamental theory of ROC curvesThe book first discusses the relationship between the ROC curve and numerous performance measures and then extends the theory into practice by describing how ROC curves are estimated. Further building on the theory, the authors prese

  16. Mise au point d'un nouvel appareil de "distillation isotherme" Disterm Development of Distherm, a New Isothermal Distillation Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouton M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les études analytiques de distillats pétroliers d'intervalles d'ébullition élevés doivent être réalisées sur des produits préparés dans des conditions de distillation extrêmement douces, de manière à conserver intactes toutes les espèces chimiques initialement contenues dans le pétrole brut en l'état. Pour répondre à cet objectif, le Comité de Distillation du GEC (Groupe d'Études Concertées sur l'analyse des fractions lourdes du pétrole, réunissant Compagnie Francaise de Raffinage (CFR, Société Nationale Elf Aquitaine (SNEA et Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP a mis au point un schéma de préparation spécial de ces distillats, faisant appel à des techniques de distillation continue, de type « isotherme» et « moléculaire ». Dans ce cadre, le Comité de Distillation du GEC a été amené à développer un nouvel appareillage de distillation x isotherme », permettant de réduire, sans craquage, tout pétrole brut jusqu'à une température maximale comprise entre 350 et 380 °C. On décrit dans cet article ce nouvel ensemble de distillation, ainsi que ses conditions opératoires de fonctionnement. On y donne aussi un aperçu de la précision de la méthode de distillation réalisable avec cet appareil, ainsi que de la qualité de fractionnement obtenu.Enfin, à l'aide de quelques exemples particuliers, on montre que le domaine d'application de l'appareil peut être étendu à des produits autres que des pétroles bruts. Analytical examinations of high-boiling-range petroleum distillates must be made with products prepared under extremely mild distillation conditions so as ta maintain intact all the chemical species initially present in the original crude oil.

  17. Control of distributed heat transfer mechanisms in membrane distillation plants

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-01-05

    Various examples are provided that are related to boundary control in membrane distillation (MD) processes. In one example, a system includes a membrane distillation (MD) process comprising a feed side and a permeate side separated by a membrane boundary layer; and processing circuitry configured to control a water production rate of the MD process based at least in part upon a distributed heat transfer across the membrane boundary layer. In another example, a method includes determining a plurality of estimated temperature states of a membrane boundary layer separating a feed side and a permeate side of a membrane distillation (MD) process; and adjusting inlet flow rate or inlet temperature of at least one of the feed side or the permeate side to maintain a difference temperature along the membrane boundary layer about a defined reference temperature based at least in part upon the plurality of estimated temperature states.

  18. Membrane distillation of industrial cooling tower blowdown water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.E. Koeman-Stein

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential of membrane distillation for desalination of cooling tower blowdown water (CTBD is investigated. Technical feasibility is tested on laboratory and pilot scale using real cooling tower blowdown water from Dow Benelux in Terneuzen (Netherlands. Two types of membranes, polytetrafluorethylene and polyethylene showed good performance regarding distillate quality and fouling behavior. Concentrating CTBD by a factor 4.5 while maintaining a flux of around 2 l/m2*h was possible with a water recovery of 78% available for reuse. Higher concentration factors lead to severe decrease in flux which was caused by scaling. Membrane distillation could use the thermal energy that would otherwise be discharged of in a cooling tower and function as a heat exchanger. This reduces the need for cooling capacity and could lead to a total reduction of 37% water intake for make-up water, as well as reduced energy and chemicals demands and greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. Dynamic behavior of the intensified alternative configurations for quaternary distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez-Marquez, Cesar; Cabrera-Ruiz, Julián; Juan Gabriel Segovia-Hernandez, Juan Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Process intensification emerges as an important tool in the synthesis of multicomponent distillation configurations aimed at the reduction of the energy use and capital costs. Operational and fixed costs savings coupled with simplicity and controllability design configurations appear as an essent......Process intensification emerges as an important tool in the synthesis of multicomponent distillation configurations aimed at the reduction of the energy use and capital costs. Operational and fixed costs savings coupled with simplicity and controllability design configurations appear...... value decomposition technique in all frequency domain. In order to complete the control study, the distillation schemes were subjected to closed-loop dynamic simulations. The results show that there are cases in which the intensified sequences do not only provide energy savings, but also may offer...

  20. Quality Evaluation of Agricultural Distillates Using an Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Dymerski

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of an electronic nose instrument to fast evaluation of agricultural distillates differing in quality. The investigations were carried out using a prototype of electronic nose equipped with a set of six semiconductor sensors by FIGARO Co., an electronic circuit converting signal into digital form and a set of thermostats able to provide gradient temperature characteristics to a gas mixture. A volatile fraction of the agricultural distillate samples differing in quality was obtained by barbotage. Interpretation of the results involved three data analysis techniques: principal component analysis, single-linkage cluster analysis and cluster analysis with spheres method. The investigations prove the usefulness of the presented technique in the quality control of agricultural distillates. Optimum measurements conditions were also defined, including volumetric flow rate of carrier gas (15 L/h, thermostat temperature during the barbotage process (15 °C and time of sensor signal acquisition from the onset of the barbotage process (60 s.

  1. Quality evaluation of agricultural distillates using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymerski, Tomasz; Gębicki, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-11-25

    The paper presents the application of an electronic nose instrument to fast evaluation of agricultural distillates differing in quality. The investigations were carried out using a prototype of electronic nose equipped with a set of six semiconductor sensors by FIGARO Co., an electronic circuit converting signal into digital form and a set of thermostats able to provide gradient temperature characteristics to a gas mixture. A volatile fraction of the agricultural distillate samples differing in quality was obtained by barbotage. Interpretation of the results involved three data analysis techniques: principal component analysis, single-linkage cluster analysis and cluster analysis with spheres method. The investigations prove the usefulness of the presented technique in the quality control of agricultural distillates. Optimum measurements conditions were also defined, including volumetric flow rate of carrier gas (15 L/h), thermostat temperature during the barbotage process (15 °C) and time of sensor signal acquisition from the onset of the barbotage process (60 s).

  2. Improvement of Batch Distillation Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Hegely, Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    La distillation est le procédé de séparation le plus répandu dans l'industrie chimique. Pour la séparation des mélanges azéotropiques, une méthode spéciale de distillation doit être appliquée. Le but de mon travail était d'améliorer la séparation des mélanges azéotropiques par distillation discontinue (DD). Un nouvel algorithme a été présenté pour la détermination de la séquence des produits de DD pour des mélanges multicomposants azéotropiques. Contrairement aux méthodes publiées précédemmen...

  3. Computer simulation of heat pump application in distillation towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedram, B.; Kharrat, R.

    2000-01-01

    Distillation columns rank among the largest industrial energy users today. Almost 30-60% of the total energy demand in the chemical and petrochemical industry is needed to heat distillation columns. Hence, researchers decided to optimize energy consumption to make its application more efficient. One of the recommended way is to use heat pumps. Several works have been reported in the literature in which comparisons of energy consumption between conventional and heat pump distillation for two or three component systems have been investigated. However, the concluded results are not sufficient. In this work, a case study was considered in which different heat pump configurations were applied and the optimum configuration was selected. The cost of each configuration was found to be depending on the cold temperature approach of the heat pump. Therefore, an optimum value was found for each configuration. In addition, the cost of the heat pump was found to be sensitive to the compression and condensation of the process fluid

  4. A catalytic distillation process for light gas oil hydrodesulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas-Villamil, F.D.; Marroquin, J.O.; Paz, C. de la; Rodriguez, E. [Prog. de Matematicas Aplicadas y Computacion, Prog. de Tratamiento de Crudo Maya, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City, DF (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    A light gas oil hydrodesulfurization process via catalytic distillation is developed and compared to a conventional process. By integrating the separation and reaction into a single unit, the catalytic distillation may produce a diesel with low concentration of sulfur compounds at a lower cost than the traditional reaction/separation process. The process proposed in this work is compared to an optimised conventional hydrodesulfurization unit which represents fairly well a plant that belongs to the National System of Refineries. During the optimisation of the conventional process, a compromise is established among the production of diesel and naphtha and the operating costs. The results show that the light gas oil hydrodesulfurization via catalytic distillation is as or more efficient than the conventional process. However, the removal of the sulfur compounds is carried out under less rigorous conditions. This design reduces the fix and operational costs. (author)

  5. A totally heat-integrated distillation column (THIDiC) - the effect of feed pre-heating by distillate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Kejin [School of Information Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)], E-mail: huangkj@mail.buct.edu.cn; Shan Lan; Zhu Qunxiong [School of Information Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Qian Jixin [School of Information Science and Technology, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang 300027 (China)

    2008-06-15

    An ideal heat-integrated distillation column (ideal HIDiC) is characterized by external zero-reflux and zero-reboil ratio operation. Since the distillate is a high-pressure vapor phase flow, it can be used to pre-heat the feed to be separated, thereby giving rise to a totally heat-integrated distillation column (THIDiC). Although the THIDiC is more thermodynamically efficient than the ideal HIDiC, it is found that the heat integration between the distillate and feed turns it into an open-loop integrating process and poses additional difficulties to process operation. Therefore, a careful decision must be made on the selection between the ideal HIDiC and the THIDiC during process development. In this paper, separation of a binary equimolar mixture of benzene and toluene is selected as an illustrative example. Both process design and operability analysis are conducted, with special emphasis focused on the characteristics of feed pre-heating with distillate. The results obtained show deep insight into the design and operation of the THIDiC.

  6. A totally heat-integrated distillation column (THIDiC) - the effect of feed pre-heating by distillate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Kejin; Shan Lan; Zhu Qunxiong; Qian Jixin

    2008-01-01

    An ideal heat-integrated distillation column (ideal HIDiC) is characterized by external zero-reflux and zero-reboil ratio operation. Since the distillate is a high-pressure vapor phase flow, it can be used to pre-heat the feed to be separated, thereby giving rise to a totally heat-integrated distillation column (THIDiC). Although the THIDiC is more thermodynamically efficient than the ideal HIDiC, it is found that the heat integration between the distillate and feed turns it into an open-loop integrating process and poses additional difficulties to process operation. Therefore, a careful decision must be made on the selection between the ideal HIDiC and the THIDiC during process development. In this paper, separation of a binary equimolar mixture of benzene and toluene is selected as an illustrative example. Both process design and operability analysis are conducted, with special emphasis focused on the characteristics of feed pre-heating with distillate. The results obtained show deep insight into the design and operation of the THIDiC

  7. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support

  8. Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, T., E-mail: takeshi@rcnp.osaka-u.ac.jp [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 10-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Bouchigny, S. [IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, F-91406 Orsay (France); CEA LIST, BP6-92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses, CEDEX (France); Didelez, J.-P. [IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, F-91406 Orsay (France); Fujiwara, M. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 10-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Fukuda, K. [Kansai University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Shizuki Awaji 656-2131 (Japan); Kohri, H.; Kunimatsu, T.; Morisaki, C.; Ono, S. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 10-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Rouille, G. [IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, F-91406 Orsay (France); Tanaka, M. [Kobe Tokiwa University, Ohtani-cho 2-6-2, Nagata, Kobe 653-0838 (Japan); Ueda, K.; Uraki, M.; Utsuro, M. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 10-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Wang, S.Y. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 824, Taiwan (China); Yosoi, M. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 10-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    We have developed a new cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for polarized HD targets in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H{sub 2} ({approx}0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1-5% impurities of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} in commercially available HD gases, it is necessary to purify the HD gas up to {approx}99.99%. The distillation system is equipped with a cryogenic distillation unit filled with many small stainless steel cells called 'Heli-pack'. The distillation unit consists of a condenser part, a rectification part, and a reboiler part. The unit is kept at the temperature of 17-21 K. The Heli-pack has a large surface area that makes a good contact between gases and liquids. An amount of 5.2 mol of commercial HD gas is fed into the distillation unit. Three trials were carried out to purify the HD gas by changing temperatures (17.5 K and 20.5 K) and gas extraction speeds (1.3 ml/min and 5.2 ml/min). The extracted gas was analyzed using a gas analyzer system combining a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a gas chromatograph. One mol of HD gas with a purity better than 99.99% has been successfully obtained for the first time. The effective NTP (Number of Theoretical Plates), which is an indication of the distillation performances, is obtained to be 37.2{+-}0.6. This value is in good agreement with a designed value of 37.9. The HD target is expected to be efficiently polarized under a well-controlled condition by adding an optimal amount of ortho-H{sub 2} to the purified HD gas.

  9. Tissue free water tritium separation from foodstuffs by azeotropic distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, F.; Ciubotaru, A.; Popa, D.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the tritium separation from tissue free water in foodstuffs by azeotropic distillation is described. Tritium in tissue water is assayed by liquid scintillation counting using well-established quenched correction method. The mean value of the tritium concentration in tissue water from foodstuffs is about 6-12 Bq/l very similar to the tritium mean concentration measured in the surface waters of the area where the samples have been collected (about 12 Bq/l. Therefore, the tritium content in the water fraction of the food samples can be considered in equilibrium with the local environmental water sources. The azeotropic distillation it is an accessible separation method which does not need a sophisticated and expansive distillation apparatus. It is a fast method of separation tissue free water from foodstuffs being very important in the surveillance activity of the environmental within nuclear electric plant. It is suitable for processing a small quantity of samples and for a production type facility when a large number of samples must be processed because the solvent can be purified and reused. The azeotropic distillation has some limits being used to separate water from samples with high content of water (85-90%) and simple a simple chemical structures as: vegetables, fruits, cereal, soil, vegetation. According to the results obtained, the organic substituents of milk, wine, meat (casein, lactose, milk fat, alcohol, esters) may enhance the chemisorption of tritium on through exchange organic hydrogen as -OH, -SH, -NH, -COOH with tritium. Also, the tissue water separation by azeotropic distillation is not complete and can not guarantee the absence of the vaporization isotope effect of the HTO/H 2 O system., However, the azeotropic distillation is the preferred method of the water extraction from food samples, which makes it useful for the tritium transfer from soil to foodstuffs. (authors)

  10. Tissue free water tritium separation from foodstuffs by azeotropic distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, F; Ciubotaru, A; Popa, D [Inspectorate of Public Health of Bucharest (Romania)

    1999-12-31

    In this paper the tritium separation from tissue free water in foodstuffs by azeotropic distillation is described. Tritium in tissue water is assayed by liquid scintillation counting using well-established quenched correction method. The mean value of the tritium concentration in tissue water from foodstuffs is about 6-12 Bq/l very similar to the tritium mean concentration measured in the surface waters of the area where the samples have been collected (about 12 Bq/l. Therefore, the tritium content in the water fraction of the food samples can be considered in equilibrium with the local environmental water sources. The azeotropic distillation it is an accessible separation method which does not need a sophisticated and expansive distillation apparatus. It is a fast method of separation tissue free water from foodstuffs being very important in the surveillance activity of the environmental within nuclear electric plant. It is suitable for processing a small quantity of samples and for a production type facility when a large number of samples must be processed because the solvent can be purified and reused. The azeotropic distillation has some limits being used to separate water from samples with high content of water (85-90%) and simple a simple chemical structures as: vegetables, fruits, cereal, soil, vegetation. According to the results obtained, the organic substituents of milk, wine, meat (casein, lactose, milk fat, alcohol, esters) may enhance the chemisorption of tritium on through exchange organic hydrogen as -OH, -SH, -NH, -COOH with tritium. Also, the tissue water separation by azeotropic distillation is not complete and can not guarantee the absence of the vaporization isotope effect of the HTO/H{sub 2}O system., However, the azeotropic distillation is the preferred method of the water extraction from food samples, which makes it useful for the tritium transfer from soil to foodstuffs. (authors) 2 tabs.

  11. Retort for distilling oil from shales and other fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E C

    1931-04-17

    A retort is constructed in the form of a flat shallow covered conduit through which the fuel in a pulverized form is continuously conveyed on a train of pans so loaded as to completely fill the conduit, heat being applied to an adequate central portion of the conduit to effect the distillation of the fuel. The roof or cover is sufficiently higher for the extent of such heated portion to afford space for and thereby facilitate the offtake of the distillation products while the ends of the conduit remain sealed against the escape of such products.

  12. Active Disturbance Rejection Control of a Heat Integrated Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Kalbani, Fahad; Zhang, Jie; Bisgaard, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    pressure. However, the control of some HiDC processesis generally difficult due to the strong control loop interaction, high purity of the components and undesired disturbances. Active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) is used in this paperto control a simulated HiDC for separating benzene-toluene......Heat integrated distillation column (HiDC) is the most energy efficient distillation approach making efficient utilization of internal heat integration through heat pump. The rectifying section acts as a heat source with high pressure, while the stripping section operates as a heat sink with low...

  13. Pressure Control in Distillation Columns: A Model-Based Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Bisgaard, Thomas; Kristensen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of pressure control in distillation columns is presented, including the consequences for composition control and energy consumption. Two types of representative control structures are modeled, analyzed, and benchmarked. A detailed simulation test, based on a real...... industrial distillation column, is used to assess the differences between the two control structures and to demonstrate the benefits of pressure control in the operation. In the second part of the article, a thermodynamic analysis is carried out to establish the influence of pressure on relative volatility...

  14. Exploring the interaction between flows and composition in reactive distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estrada-Villagrana, A.D.; Bogle, I. David L.; Cisneros, Eduardo Salvador P.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a new equilibrium approach is used to simulate the closed loop behaviour of the MTBE production process to study the interactions between flows and composition. This will facilitate the application of the existing methods for analysis of distillation systems. Results show that the o......In this paper a new equilibrium approach is used to simulate the closed loop behaviour of the MTBE production process to study the interactions between flows and composition. This will facilitate the application of the existing methods for analysis of distillation systems. Results show...

  15. Control structure selection for energy integrated distillation column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J.E.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1998-01-01

    This paper treats a case study on control structure selection for an almost binary distillation column. The column is energy integrated with a heat pump in order to transfer heat from the condenser to the reboiler. This integrated plant configuration renders the possible control structures somewhat...... different from what is usual for binary distillation columns. Further the heat pump enables disturbances to propagate faster through the system. The plant has six possible actuators of which three must be used to stabilize the system. Hereby three actuators are left for product purity control. An MILP...

  16. The features of ultrapurification of cadium by distillation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozin, L.F.; Berezhnoj, E.O.; Kozin, K.L.

    1996-01-01

    The linear dependence of the coefficients of interphase distribution of liquid-vapour is found in the systems cadmium-accompanying impurities upon the evaporation enthalpy. The values of α are calculated for 52 accompanying impurities. The vacuum distillation of cadmium at different experimental conditions. It is shown that during distillation of cadmium at the optimum conditions the content of 14 accompanying impurities is 1.78x10 -7 mass. %, and the assumed content of the main metal is 8N8 of cadmium. The total separation coefficient is 2.1x10 4

  17. Curved Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrowolski, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    The constant curvature one and quasi-one dimensional Josephson junction is considered. On the base of Maxwell equations, the sine–Gordon equation that describes an influence of curvature on the kink motion was obtained. It is showed that the method of geometrical reduction of the sine–Gordon model from three to lower dimensional manifold leads to an identical form of the sine–Gordon equation. - Highlights: ► The research on dynamics of the phase in a curved Josephson junction is performed. ► The geometrical reduction is applied to the sine–Gordon model. ► The results of geometrical reduction and the fundamental research are compared.

  18. Curved-Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hyun Baekt

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study is conducted on the fully-developed laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a square duct rotating about a perpendicular axis to the axial direction of the duct. At the straight duct, the rotation produces vortices due to the Coriolis force. Generally two vortex cells are formed and the axial velocity distribution is distorted by the effect of this Coriolis force. When a convective force is weak, two counter-rotating vortices are shown with a quasi-parabolic axial velocity profile for weak rotation rates. As the rotation rate increases, the axial velocity on the vertical centreline of the duct begins to flatten and the location of vorticity center is moved near to wall by the effect of the Coriolis force. When the convective inertia force is strong, a double-vortex secondary flow appears in the transverse planes of the duct for weak rotation rates but as the speed of rotation increases the secondary flow is shown to split into an asymmetric configuration of four counter-rotating vortices. If the rotation rates are increased further, the secondary flow restabilizes to a slightly asymmetric double-vortex configuration. Also, a numerical study is conducted on the laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a 90°-bend square duct that rotates about axis parallel to the axial direction of the inlet. At a 90°-bend square duct, the feature of flow by the effect of a Coriolis force and a centrifugal force, namely a secondary flow by the centrifugal force in the curved region and the Coriolis force in the downstream region, is shown since the centrifugal force in curved region and the Coriolis force in downstream region are dominant respectively.

  19. Elliptic curves for applications (Tutorial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, T.; Bernstein, D.J.; Chatterjee, S.

    2011-01-01

    More than 25 years ago, elliptic curves over finite fields were suggested as a group in which the Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP) can be hard. Since then many researchers have scrutinized the security of the DLP on elliptic curves with the result that for suitably chosen curves only exponential

  20. Titration Curves: Fact and Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, John

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ways in which datalogging equipment can enable titration curves to be measured accurately and how computing power can be used to predict the shape of curves. Highlights include sources of error, use of spreadsheets to generate titration curves, titration of a weak acid with a strong alkali, dibasic acids, weak acid and weak base, and…

  1. Transient behavior of enrichment of tritium water in adsorption-distillation column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukada, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    Enrichment of tritium in an adsorption-distillation column was experimentally investigated under the two processes of simple distillation and total-reflux distillation. Adsorption of water on silica-gel pellets enhanced the total isotope separation factor in the water distillation column. The transient behavior of tritium enrichment was analyzed using material balance equations of tritium and water in each cell with a height corresponding to HETP. The experimental transient behavior was well simulated by the material balance equations with additional assumptions on vapor and liquid flow rates regardless of the different processes of simple distillation and total-reflux distillation. (author)

  2. A Journey Between Two Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Cherkis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A typical solution of an integrable system is described in terms of a holomorphic curve and a line bundle over it. The curve provides the action variables while the time evolution is a linear flow on the curve's Jacobian. Even though the system of Nahm equations is closely related to the Hitchin system, the curves appearing in these two cases have very different nature. The former can be described in terms of some classical scattering problem while the latter provides a solution to some Seiberg-Witten gauge theory. This note identifies the setup in which one can formulate the question of relating the two curves.

  3. Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS): Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn-based ethanol in the U.S. has dramatically increased in recent years; so has the quantity of associated coproducts. Nonfermentable components are removed from the process as whole stillage, centrifuged to remove water – which is then evaporated to produce condensed distillers solubles (CDS), a...

  4. Novel configurations of solar distillation system for potable water production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, A.; Yusof, K. W.; Sapari, N.; Singh, B. S.; Hashim, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    More and more surface water are polluted with toxic chemicals. Alternatively brackish and saline water are used as feed water to water treatment plants. Expensive desalination process via reverse osmosis or distillation is used in the plants. Thus, this conventional desalination is not suitable for low and medium income countries. A cheaper method is by solar distillation. However the rate of water production by this method is generally considered low. This research attempts to enhance water production of solar distillation by optimizing solar capture, evaporation and condensation processes. Solar radiation data was captured in several days in Perak, Malaysia. Three kinds of experiments were done by fabricating triangular solar distillation systems. First type was conventional solar still, second type was combined with 50 Watt solar photovoltaic panel and 40 Watt Dc heater, while third type was integrated with 12 Volt Solar battery and 40 Watt Dc heater. The present investigation showed that the productivity of second and third systems were 150% and 480% of the conventional still type, respectively. The finding of this research can be expected to have wide application in water supply particularly in areas where fresh surface water is limited.

  5. Novel configurations of solar distillation system for potable water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riahi, A; Yusof, K W; Sapari, N; Hashim, A M; Singh, B S

    2013-01-01

    More and more surface water are polluted with toxic chemicals. Alternatively brackish and saline water are used as feed water to water treatment plants. Expensive desalination process via reverse osmosis or distillation is used in the plants. Thus, this conventional desalination is not suitable for low and medium income countries. A cheaper method is by solar distillation. However the rate of water production by this method is generally considered low. This research attempts to enhance water production of solar distillation by optimizing solar capture, evaporation and condensation processes. Solar radiation data was captured in several days in Perak, Malaysia. Three kinds of experiments were done by fabricating triangular solar distillation systems. First type was conventional solar still, second type was combined with 50 Watt solar photovoltaic panel and 40 Watt Dc heater, while third type was integrated with 12 Volt Solar battery and 40 Watt Dc heater. The present investigation showed that the productivity of second and third systems were 150% and 480% of the conventional still type, respectively. The finding of this research can be expected to have wide application in water supply particularly in areas where fresh surface water is limited.

  6. Batch distillation column modeling for quality control program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Betlem, Bernardus H.L.

    2000-01-01

    For batch distillation, the dynamic composition behaviour can be described by the dominant time constant and the bottom exhaustion. Its magnitude is determined by the change of the composition distribution and is maximal when the inflection point of the molar fraction profile is located in the

  7. Method of dry distillation of low-grade fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsing, G H; Wengstrom, R O.A.

    1920-05-20

    A method of dry distillation of low-grade fuels is characterized by having the process take place in a furnace that is charged alternately by partly cooled, red-hot, and fresh raw materials. The patent has one more claim.

  8. Vacuum membrane distillation of liquid desiccants Utilizing Hollow Fiber Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Lefers, Ryan; Srivatsa Bettahalli, N.M.; Fedoroff, Nina V.; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Leiknes, TorOve

    2018-01-01

    This paper documents the testing of a vacuum membrane distillation system intended for use with liquid desiccants. Liquid desiccants offer the possibility for low-energy, ambient temperature dehumidification. Effective desalination and purification of diluted desiccants outputs two important products: a concentrated desiccant for reuse in dehumidification and fresh water. In this study, vacuum membrane distillation was used in the laboratory to purify diluted liquid desiccants. Calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were the desiccants selected for testing. Desiccant solutions were pumped through the lumens of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fiber membranes at varying feed inlet temperatures, solution velocity rates and vacuum set points during membrane distillation. An average flux of 8 kg m-2 h-1 was obtained using 30 wt% magnesium chloride solution at a temperature of 50 °C while applying vacuum to achieve 25 mbar absolute pressure on the air side of the membrane. The results are promising for the development of a full-scale vacuum membrane distillation process for desiccant solution regeneration and fresh water recovery. In addition, the recovered condensate was of sufficient quality for use in agricultural irrigation or drinking water.

  9. A High Rated Solar Water Distillation Unit for Solar Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Saxena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available India is presently focusing on complete utilization of solar energy and saving fossil fuels, which are limited. Various solar energy systems like solar cookers, solar water heaters, solar lanterns, solar PV lights, and solar lamps are continuously availing by the people of India at a low cost and on good subsidies. Apart from this, India is a solar energy promising country with a good number of solar homes (carrying solar energy systems in its various locations. The present paper focuses on a unique combination of solar dish cooker (SDC and solar water heater (SWH to produce distilled water with a high distillate and a high daily productivity. The procedure has been discussed on the basis of experimental testing to produce distilled water by combining an evacuated type SWH and a SDC. Experimentation has been carried out in MIT, Moradabad (longitude, 28.83°N, and latitude, 78.78°E by developing the same experimental setup on behalf of solar homes. The daily productivity of distilled water was found around 3.66 litres per day in full sunshine hours for an approximated pH value of 7.7 and a ppm value of 21. The payback period (PBP has been estimated around 1.16 years of the present system.

  10. Model predictive control of a crude oil distillation column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Hovd

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The project of designing and implementing model based predictive control on the vacuum distillation column at the Nynäshamn Refinery of Nynäs AB is described in this paper. The paper describes in detail the modeling for the model based control, covers the controller implementation, and documents the benefits gained from the model based controller.

  11. Studies on optimal design and operation of integrated distillation arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, Atle Christer

    1997-12-31

    During the last decades, there has been growing concern in the chemical engineering environment over the task of developing more cost- and energy efficient process equipment. This thesis discusses measures for improving the end-use energy efficiency of separation systems. It emphasises a certain class of integrated distillation arrangements, in particular it considers means for direct coupling of distillation columns so as to use the underlying physics to facilitate more energy efficient separations. The numerical methods discussed are well suited to solve models of distillation columns. A tear and grid method is proposed that to some extent exploits the sparsity, since the number of tear variables required for solving a distillation model usually is rather small. The parameter continuation method described is well suited for ill-conditioned problems. The analysis of integrated columns is extended beyond the scope of numerical simulations by means of analytical results that applies in certain limiting cases. The consept of preferred separation, which is important for prefractionator arrangements, is considered. From this analysis is derived information that is important for the practical operation of such columns. Finally, the proposed numerical methods are used to optimize Petlyuk arrangements for separating ternary and quaternary mixtures. 166 refs., 130 figs., 20 tabs.

  12. Vacuum membrane distillation of liquid desiccants Utilizing Hollow Fiber Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Lefers, Ryan

    2018-01-31

    This paper documents the testing of a vacuum membrane distillation system intended for use with liquid desiccants. Liquid desiccants offer the possibility for low-energy, ambient temperature dehumidification. Effective desalination and purification of diluted desiccants outputs two important products: a concentrated desiccant for reuse in dehumidification and fresh water. In this study, vacuum membrane distillation was used in the laboratory to purify diluted liquid desiccants. Calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were the desiccants selected for testing. Desiccant solutions were pumped through the lumens of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fiber membranes at varying feed inlet temperatures, solution velocity rates and vacuum set points during membrane distillation. An average flux of 8 kg m-2 h-1 was obtained using 30 wt% magnesium chloride solution at a temperature of 50 °C while applying vacuum to achieve 25 mbar absolute pressure on the air side of the membrane. The results are promising for the development of a full-scale vacuum membrane distillation process for desiccant solution regeneration and fresh water recovery. In addition, the recovered condensate was of sufficient quality for use in agricultural irrigation or drinking water.

  13. Tritium separation factors in distillation and chemical exchange processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, S.M.; Ghosh, S.K.; Sadhukhan, H.K.

    1982-01-01

    The vapour pressures of different isotopic hydrogen, water and ammonia molecules have been calculated. These vapour pressures can be used to evaluate relative volatilities of different species for separation of tritium isotopes by distillation. The equilibrium constants for various exchange reactions involving different deuterated and tritiated species of hydrogen, water and ammonia molecules have also been calculated for different temperatures. (author)

  14. Comparative Energy Values Of Sorghum Distillers Waste, Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A balance trial aimed at determining the energy values of Sorghum Distiller's Wastes (SDW), Maize cob (MC) and Shea butter Waste (SBW) for barrows was conducted using a 4 x 4 Latin square cross- over experimental design. While feed intake was influenced (P < 0.05) by the test feed ingredients, the weight gained was ...

  15. Biodiesel by catalytic reactive distillation powered by metal oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, A.A.; Dimian, A.C.; Rothenberg, G.

    2008-01-01

    The properties and use of biodiesel as a renewable fuel as well as the problems associated with its current production processes are outlined. A novel sustainable esterification process based on catalytic reactive distillation is proposed. The pros and cons of manufacturing biodiesel via fatty acid

  16. Distilling hydrocarbons from coal, shale, and other carbonaceous matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imray, J

    1880-08-06

    The coal, etc., is placed in a moderately heated retort, and the distillates are conducted by a pipe to coolers, where they are partially condensed. The condensed matters are collected into suitable vessels, and the uncondensed portions are again passed through by means of a pump or fan until the material in the retort is exhausted.

  17. Soft sensing of system parameters in membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-01-01

    Various examples of methods and systems are provided for soft sensing of system parameters in membrane distillation (MD). In one example, a system includes a MD module comprising a feed side and a permeate side separated by a membrane boundary layer

  18. The nutritive value of condensed wheat distillers solubles for cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boever, De J.L.; Blok, M.C.; Millet, S.; Vanacker, J.; Campeneere, De S.

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition and the energy and protein value of five batches of condensed distillers solubles (CDS) originating from wheat were determined. The net energy for lactation (NEL) was derived from digestion coefficients obtained with sheep. The true protein digested in the small intestine

  19. Treatment of grain distillation wastewaters in an upflow anaerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In operation of the full-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) system at the Stellenbosch Farmers' Winery (SFW) Wellington distillery, a problem encountered in the treatment of grain distillation wastewater was the accumulation of a floating scum layer. On occasion this was so severe that it forced shutdown of the UASB ...

  20. Extraction of siphonochilus aethiopicus essential oil by steam distillation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malaka, MS

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available was to optimize the process parameters of steam distillation for the extraction of oil from African ginger rhizomes. This technology is the oldest and well known for extracting essential oils due to its economic viability and the higher final oil purity...

  1. Estimating the effect of fermentation yeast on distillers grains protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is the key co-product of bio-ethanol production from grains. Major factors affecting its quality and market values include protein quantity (concentration) and quality (amino acid composition). Yet, the effect of fermentation yeast on DDGS quality has no...

  2. Fouling mechanisms of dairy streams during membrane distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausmann, A.; Sanciolo, P.; Vasiljevic, T.; Weeks, M.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Gray, S.; Duke, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on fouling mechanisms of skim milk and whey during membrane distillation (MD) using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes. Structural and elemental changes along the fouling layer from the anchorpoint at the membrane to the topsurface of the fouling layer have been investigated

  3. Distillable entanglement in d circle times d dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamieh, S; Zaraket, H

    2003-01-01

    Distillable entanglement (E-d) is one of the acceptable measures of entanglement of mixed states. On the basis of discrimination through local operation and classical communication, this letter gives E-d for two classes of orthogonal multipartite maximally entangled states.

  4. Water recycling and desalination by air gap membrane distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Guijt, C.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Because salt and other small components are the most common compounds in wastewater from the process industry, desalination techniques are likely to be suitable as treatment processes in many cases. Although membrane distillation (MD) is a well-known technology for desalination and water treatment,

  5. Comparing pervaporation and vapor permeation hybrid distillation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontalvo, J.; Cuellar, P.; Timmer, J.M.K.; Vorstman, M.A.G.; Wijers, J.G.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that hybrid distillation processes using either pervaporation or vapor permeation can be very attractive for the separation of mixtures. In this paper, a comparison between these two hybrid processes has been made. A tool has been presented that can assist designers and

  6. Dynamics and Control of Distillation Columns - A Critical Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigurd Skogestad

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Distillation column dynamics and control have been viewed by many as a very mature or even dead field. However, as is discussed in this paper significant new results have appeared over the last 5-10 years. These results include multiple steady states and instability in simple columns with ideal thermodynamics (which was believed to be impossible, the understanding of the difference between various control configurations and the systematic transformation between these, the feasibility of using the distillate-bottom structure, for control (which was believed to be impossible, the importance of flow dynamics for control studies, the fundamental problems in identifying models from open-loops responses, the use of simple regression estimators to estimate composition from temperatures, and an improved general understanding of the dynamic behavior of distillation columns which includes a better understanding of the fundamental difference between internal and external flow, simple formulas for estimating the dominant time constant, and a derivation of the linearizing effect of logarithmic transformations. These issues apply to all columns, even for ideal mixtures and simple columns with only two products. In addition, there have been significant advances for cases with complex thermodynamics and complex column configurations. These include the behavior and control of azeotropic distillation columns, and the possible complex dynamics of nonideal mixtures and of interlinked columns. However, both for the simple and more complex cases there are still a number of areas where further research is needed.

  7. Separation of Process Wastewater with Extractive Heterogeneous-Azeotropic Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth András József

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of vapour-liquid equilibria-based separation alternatives can be extraordinarily complicated for the treatment of process wastewaters containing heterogeneous-azeotropic. Despite dissimilar successfully tested methods for separation, there is possibility to get better distillation method by enabling the separation of more and more specific process wastewater. Extractive heterogeneous-azeotropic distillation (EHAD is a new advance in treatment of fine chemical wastewater showing special features to cope with the treatment of highly non-ideal mixtures. This method combines the worth of heterogeneous-azeotropic and extractive distillations in one apparatus without addition of any extra materials. The study of the separations of ternary component process wastewater from the fine chemical industry shows both in the modelled and experimental results that EHAD can be successfully applied. The measured and modelled compositions at extreme purities, that is, close to 0% or 100%, can be different because of the inaccuracies of the modelling. This highlights the paramount importance of the experiments if special extra-fine chemicals with almost no impurities, e.g. of pharmacopoeial quality are to be produced by special distillation technique. This study expands the application of EHAD technique, this new field is the separation of process wastewaters.

  8. Optimizing design parameter for light isotopes separation by distillation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, M.

    1999-01-01

    More than methods are suggested in the world for producing heavy water, where between them chemical isotopic methods, distillation and electro lys are used widely in industrial scale. To select suitable method for heavy water production in Iran, taking into consideration, domestic technology an facilities, combination of hydrogen sulphide-water dual temperature process (Gs) and distillation (D W) may be proposed. Natural water, is firstly enriched up to 15 a% by G S process and then by distillation unit is enriched up to the grade necessary for Candu type reactors (99.8 a%). The aim of present thesis, is to achieve know-how, optimization of design parameters, and executing basic design for water isotopes separation using distillation process in a plant having minimum scale possible. In distillation, vapour phase resulted from liquid phase heating, is evidently composed of the same constituents as liquid phase. In isotopic distillation, the difference in composition of constituents is not considerable. In fact alteration of constituents composition is so small that makes the separation process impossible, however, direct separation and production of pure products without further processing which becomes possible by distillation, makes this process as one of the most important separation processes. Profiting distillation process to produce heavy water is based on difference existing between boiling point of heavy and light water. The trends of boiling points differences (heavy and light water) is adversely dependant with pressure. As the whole system pressure decreases, difference in boiling points increases. On the other hand according to the definition, separation factor is equal to the ratio of pure light water vapour pressure to that of heavy water, or we can say that the trend of whole system pressure decrease results in separation factor increase, which accordingly separation factor equation to pressure variable should be computed firstly. According to the

  9. A Systematic Synthesis Framework for Extractive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kossack, S.; Kraemer, K.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2008-01-01

    An effective extractive distillation process depends on the choice of the extractive agent. in this contribution, heuristic rules for entrainer selection and the design of entrainers through computer-aided molecular design are reviewed. The potential of the generated alternatives is then evaluated...

  10. Continuous variable entanglement distillation of non-Gaussian states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Dong, Ruifang; Heersink, Joel

    2009-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate distillation of continuous variable entangled light that has undergone non-Gaussian attenuation loss. The continuous variable entanglement is generated with optical fibers and sent through a lossy channel, where the transmission is varying in time. By employing simple...

  11. Purification and deodorization of structured lipids by short path distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2002-01-01

    Purification of structured lipids (SL), produced from lipase- catalyzed acidolysis of rapeseed oil and capric acid, and deodorization of randomized SL, produced from chemical randomization of fish oil and tricaprin, were studied in a bench-scale short path distillation (SPD). SL obtained from...

  12. Energy Efficient Bioethanol Purification by Heat Pump Assisted Extractive Distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, Anton A.; Luo, Hao; Bildea, Costin Sorin

    2015-01-01

    The purification of bioethanol fuel requires an energy demanding separation process to concentrate the diluted streams obtained in the fermentation stage and to overcome the azeotropic behaviour of ethanol-water mixture. The classic separation sequence consists of three distillation columns that

  13. Novel heat-pump-assisted extractive distillation for bioethanol purification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Hao; Bildea, Costin Sorin; Kiss, Anton A.

    2015-01-01

    The purification of bioethanol fuel involves an energy-intensive separation process to concentrate the diluted streams obtained in the fermentation stage and to overcome the azeotropic behavior of the ethanol-water mixture. The conventional separation sequence employs three distillation columns that

  14. Isolation of high purity americium metal via distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Leah N.; King, James A.; Fielding, Randall S.; Lessing, Paul

    2018-03-01

    Pure americium metal is a crucial component for the fabrication of transmutation fuels. Unfortunately, americium in pure metal form is not available; however, a number of mixed metals and mixed oxides that include americium are available. In this manuscript a method is described to obtain high purity americium metal from a mixture of americium and neptunium metals with lead impurity via distillation.

  15. Description of an apparatus for distillation of essential oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H

    1973-01-01

    A newly developed apparatus for the distillation of essential oils from vegetable material has been described. In the main the yields of the steamdistillation of some Mentha strains with this still were higher than the yields obtained by the method of the waterdistillation according to the Dutch

  16. Soil Water Retention Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.; Kim, J.; Cifelli, R.; Chandra, C. V.

    2016-12-01

    Potential water retention, S, is one of parameters commonly used in hydrologic modeling for soil moisture accounting. Physically, S indicates total amount of water which can be stored in soil and is expressed in units of depth. S can be represented as a change of soil moisture content and in this context is commonly used to estimate direct runoff, especially in the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number (CN) method. Generally, the lumped and the distributed hydrologic models can easily use the SCS-CN method to estimate direct runoff. Changes in potential water retention have been used in previous SCS-CN studies; however, these studies have focused on long-term hydrologic simulations where S is allowed to vary at the daily time scale. While useful for hydrologic events that span multiple days, the resolution is too coarse for short-term applications such as flash flood events where S may not recover its full potential. In this study, a new method for estimating a time-variable potential water retention at hourly time-scales is presented. The methodology is applied for the Napa River basin, California. The streamflow gage at St Helena, located in the upper reaches of the basin, is used as the control gage site to evaluate the model performance as it is has minimal influences by reservoirs and diversions. Rainfall events from 2011 to 2012 are used for estimating the event-based SCS CN to transfer to S. As a result, we have derived the potential water retention curve and it is classified into three sections depending on the relative change in S. The first is a negative slope section arising from the difference in the rate of moving water through the soil column, the second is a zero change section representing the initial recovery the potential water retention, and the third is a positive change section representing the full recovery of the potential water retention. Also, we found that the soil water moving has traffic jam within 24 hours after finished first

  17. Fermions in curved spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippoldt, Stefan

    2016-01-21

    In this thesis we study a formulation of Dirac fermions in curved spacetime that respects general coordinate invariance as well as invariance under local spin base transformations. We emphasize the advantages of the spin base invariant formalism both from a conceptual as well as from a practical viewpoint. This suggests that local spin base invariance should be added to the list of (effective) properties of (quantum) gravity theories. We find support for this viewpoint by the explicit construction of a global realization of the Clifford algebra on a 2-sphere which is impossible in the spin-base non-invariant vielbein formalism. The natural variables for this formulation are spacetime-dependent Dirac matrices subject to the Clifford-algebra constraint. In particular, a coframe, i.e. vielbein field is not required. We disclose the hidden spin base invariance of the vielbein formalism. Explicit formulas for the spin connection as a function of the Dirac matrices are found. This connection consists of a canonical part that is completely fixed in terms of the Dirac matrices and a free part that can be interpreted as spin torsion. The common Lorentz symmetric gauge for the vielbein is constructed for the Dirac matrices, even for metrics which are not linearly connected. Under certain criteria, it constitutes the simplest possible gauge, demonstrating why this gauge is so useful. Using the spin base formulation for building a field theory of quantized gravity and matter fields, we show that it suffices to quantize the metric and the matter fields. This observation is of particular relevance for field theory approaches to quantum gravity, as it can serve for a purely metric-based quantization scheme for gravity even in the presence of fermions. Hence, in the second part of this thesis we critically examine the gauge, and the field-parametrization dependence of renormalization group flows in the vicinity of non-Gaussian fixed points in quantum gravity. While physical

  18. The applicability of radiotracers for the investigation of the distillation of hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graczyk, J.; Iller, E.

    1976-01-01

    The use of radioactive tracers provide valuable methods for the investigation of distillation processes and have been applied to determine the characteristics of material streams, the dynamics of flowing phases and the composition in various parts of the distillation equipment. A method is proposed for testing individual radiotracers emplozemployed for the investigation of the distillation of hydrocarbons. The method consists in laboratory-scale distillation of a tracer together with a multicomponent hydrocarbon mixture, namely a gasoline fraction. The purification efficiency, distillation characteristics, and effective radiochemical purity of several tracers (reactor activated bromobenzene and synthesized C 3 H 7 82 Br, C 4 H 9 82 Br, C 5 H 11 82 Br) have been investigated. The distillation characteristics of bromohydrocarbons labelled with 82 Br and selected hydrocarbons tagged with 14 C (benzene and cumene) have been compared. The radiotracers investigated were employed for the determination of the hydrodynamic parameters of hydrocarbon distillation in laboratory packed columns and a commercial distillation tower. (author)

  19. Material gap membrane distillation: A new design for water vapor flux enhancement

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Amy, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    A new module design for membrane distillation, namely material gap membrane distillation (MGMD), for seawater desalination has been proposed and successfully tested. It has been observed that employing appropriate materials between the membrane

  20. 27 CFR 27.61 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BEER General Requirements Closures for Containers of Distilled Spirits § 27.61 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. No person shall transport, buy, possess, or sell, or transfer any imported...

  1. REGSOLexpert: Entrainer Selection Tool for waste solvent recovery by batch distillation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Donis, Ivonne; Gerbaud, Vincent; Baudouin, Olivier; Joulia, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    A general procedure to systematize the search of several alternatives enabling the separation of non-ideal binary mixtures such as pressure-swing distillation, azeotropic and extractive distillation is presented. The use of heterogeneous entrainers is specially highlighted.

  2. Simulation of ethanol extractive distillation with mixed glycols as separating agent

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, I. D.; García, L. C.; Rodríguez, G.

    2014-01-01

    Extractive distillation is an alternative for ethanol dehydration processes that has been shown to be more effective than azeotropic distillation and, in close proximity, to be very competitive against the process that uses adsorption with molecular sieves. Glycols have been shown to be the most effective solvents in extractive distillation, mainly ethylene glycol and glycerol. In this work, an extractive distillation column was simulated with the Aspen Plus software platform, using the RadFr...

  3. Simulation of distillation in structured packing column to o obtain lube oils; Simulacao de uma coluna de destilacao com recheio estruturado para a obtencao de oleos lubrificantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Rodrigo S.; Nicolaiewsky, Elioni M.A.; Mendes, Marisa F. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present work aims for the simulation of a laboratorial distillation column, operating continuously at vacuum conditions, in order to obtain basic lubricating oils. The feed is a mixture of light neutral, medium distillate and bright stock, aiming to produce light neutral as the top product, the medium distillate in the side stream and bright stock in the bottom. The simulation was performed using PRO II software in order to establish the best operating conditions. This work was based in a previous simulation using the same column with 20 theoretical trays, in order to obtain the medium distillate and bright stock at the top and bottom respectively, without the side stream. The simulations were performed varying the feed flow of 1 and 3 Kg/h, entering in the middle or at the bottom of the column, the operational pressure of 7 and 10mbar and the reflux ratio of 3 and 5, using the true boiling point curve - TBP of the feed, with an initial boiling point of 378.9 deg C and end boiling point of 598.3 deg C. (author)

  4. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in containers...

  5. 27 CFR 28.301 - Loss of distilled spirits in transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loss of distilled spirits in transit. 28.301 Section 28.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND....301 Loss of distilled spirits in transit. The tax on distilled spirits withdrawn without payment of...

  6. Development of a model for the synthesis of unsaturated polyester by reactive distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, M.R.; Zondervan, E.; Oudshoorn, M.L.; Haan, de A.B.; Haan, de A.B.; Kooijman, H.; Górak, A.

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally polyester production is done in a batch reactor equipped with a separation column for batch distillation. A promising alternative for the intensification of this process is reactive distillation. In this paper, a reactive distillation model is developed for the synthesis of an

  7. 27 CFR 28.281 - Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits and wines. 28.281 Section 28.281 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Ports of Export Lading for Use on Aircraft § 28.281 Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines. When all of the distilled spirits or wines represented by a single application, notice, or claim, TTB...

  8. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.6 Distilled spirits, wines... conveying imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 467. (b) Marks...

  9. 27 CFR 24.290 - Removal of wine as distilling material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or the distilled spirits plant. (b) Special natural wine. Unmarketable special natural wine may be removed to a distilled spirits plant for use as distilling material in the production of wine spirits (but... removal. If wine spirits produced from special natural wine contain any flavor characteristics of the...

  10. 27 CFR 26.230 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.230 Section 26.230 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... distilled spirits to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters) or less of distilled spirits, upon...

  11. 27 CFR 1.83 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. 1.83 Section 1.83 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... UNDER THE FEDERAL ALCOHOL ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK... Bottling § 1.83 Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. Persons holding...

  12. Multi-saline sample distillation apparatus for hydrogen isotope analyses : design and accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Afifa Afifi

    1981-01-01

    A distillation apparatus for saline water samples was designed and tested. Six samples may be distilled simultaneously. The temperature was maintained at 400 C to ensure complete dehydration of the precipitating salts. Consequently, the error in the measured ratio of stable hydrogen isotopes resulting from incomplete dehydration of hydrated salts during distillation was eliminated. (USGS)

  13. Entrainer selection for the synthesis of fatty acid esters by entrainer-based reactive distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de M.C.; Zondervan, E.; Dimian, A.C.; Haan, de A.B.

    2010-01-01

    In this research it is demonstrated that, due to the similarities between Entrainer-based Reactive Distillation and azeotropic distillation, the same selection rules can be applied to select a suitable entrainer. From a list of suitable entrainers for the azeotropic distillation of isopropanol and

  14. Chemical profile of sugarcane spirits produced by double distillation methodologies in rectifying still

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ricardo Alcarde

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the chemical profile of sugarcane spirits produced by different double distillation methodologies in rectifying still. Fermented sugarcane juice was distilled in rectifying still according to three double distillation methodologies: the methodology used for cognac production; the methodology used for whisky production; and the 10-80-10 percentage composition methodology, referring to the volumes of head, heart and tail of the distillate fractions from the second distillation. For comparison purposes, a simple distilled spirit was also produced. The distillates were analyzed for concentrations of ethanol, copper, volatile acidity, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural, aldehydes, esters, methanol and higher alcohols. The spirits were also evaluated on the sensory attributes of aroma, taste and preference. Compared to simple distillation, double distillation improved the chemical quality of the spirits, since it has reduced the concentrations of acids, aldehydes, esters, methanol, higher alcohols and, consequently, their coefficient of congeners. Regardless of the methodology employed, the double distillation improved the sensory quality of the spirits since they obtained higher sensory acceptance in relation to spirits produced by simple distillation. Among double distilled spirits, the one produced according to whisky methodology obtained the best scores from appraisers on the aroma and flavor parameters and it was also the most preferred.

  15. 77 FR 25382 - Proposed Amendment to the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... set forth in Sec. 5.22(f) as follows: Class 6; rum. ``Rum'' is an alcoholic distillate from the..., produced at less than 190[deg] proof in such manner that the distillate possesses the taste, aroma and... mixtures solely of such distillates. The above standard does not currently provide for any subcategories or...

  16. 27 CFR 28.40 - Evidence of exportation: distilled spirits and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: distilled spirits and wine. 28.40 Section 28.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Provisions Evidence of Exportation and Use § 28.40 Evidence of exportation: distilled spirits and wine. The exportation of any shipment of distilled spirits or wine may be evidenced by: (a) A copy of the export bill of...

  17. Models of genus one curves

    OpenAIRE

    Sadek, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we give insight into the minimisation problem of genus one curves defined by equations other than Weierstrass equations. We are interested in genus one curves given as double covers of P1, plane cubics, or complete intersections of two quadrics in P3. By minimising such a curve we mean making the invariants associated to its defining equations as small as possible using a suitable change of coordinates. We study the non-uniqueness of minimisations of the genus one curves des...

  18. Thermodynamic study of a regenerative atmospheric water distiller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Gustavo Koury

    1998-06-01

    The need of water for human consumption in our region where there is a great storage of non saline sources has motivated the study of new desalination technologies. The present work introduces a water distiller whose main characteristic, in relation to other units, is the high production allied to a good efficiency. This equipment that promotes the reuse of the water condensation heat is then called Regenerative Distiller. A theoretical study of the thermodynamic process involved is made, resulting in a numeric model for the project of new units accordingly to the required demands. The theoretical results are also compared with experimental data obtained through the testing of prototype, built and put into operation by the FAE/DEN group of the Federal University of Pernambuco. (author)

  19. Electron-beam mediated dry distillation of lignin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chulkov, V.N.; Bludenko, A.V.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation heating was studied for its application in dry distillation of lignin under high absorbed-dose irradiation with no supplementary heating device used. Commercial preparation Polyphepan containing lignin (90 wt.%) and cellulose (10 wt.%), dried at 102 deg C, was used. The test samples were exposed to 8 MeV electron beams on U-003 linear accelerator under atmospheric pressure, with dose rates of 3.6 and 4.8 kGy/s. It is demonstrated that an increased yield of liquid products of dry lignin distillation is observed under conditions studied with a two-fold decrease in energy consumption due to more favorable heating conditions and intensification of free-radical reactions [ru

  20. Magic state parity-checker with pre-distilled components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earl T. Campbell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Magic states are eigenstates of non-Pauli operators. One way of suppressing errors present in magic states is to perform parity measurements in their non-Pauli eigenbasis and postselect on even parity. Here we develop new protocols based on non-Pauli parity checking, where the measurements are implemented with the aid of pre-distilled multiqubit resource states. This leads to a two step process: pre-distillation of multiqubit resource states, followed by implementation of the parity check. These protocols can prepare single-qubit magic states that enable direct injection of single-qubit axial rotations without subsequent gate-synthesis and its associated overhead. We show our protocols are more efficient than all previous comparable protocols with quadratic error reduction, including the protocols of Bravyi and Haah.

  1. Conceptual design of distillation-based hybrid separation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiborowski, Mirko; Harwardt, Andreas; Marquardt, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid separation processes combine different separation principles and constitute a promising design option for the separation of complex mixtures. Particularly, the integration of distillation with other unit operations can significantly improve the separation of close-boiling or azeotropic mixtures. Although the design of single-unit operations is well understood and supported by computational methods, the optimal design of flowsheets of hybrid separation processes is still a challenging task. The large number of operational and design degrees of freedom requires a systematic and optimization-based design approach. To this end, a structured approach, the so-called process synthesis framework, is proposed. This article reviews available computational methods for the conceptual design of distillation-based hybrid processes for the separation of liquid mixtures. Open problems are identified that must be addressed to finally establish a structured process synthesis framework for such processes.

  2. Method of controlling a distillatory coulumn in a liquefaction and distillation device for radioactive rare gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Shigeru; Awata, Yoshihisa.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To automatically and securely perform controlling purity of column bottom liquid, which is most difficult in the liquefaction and distillation device. Structure: In a liquefaction and distillation device for liquefying and separating rare gas krypton in fuel reprocessing gases, a difference in temperature between the column bottom liquid (column top) and the distillation portion is detected so as to maintain temperature in the distillation portion of the distilling column constant, and the vaporization amount of column bottom liquid is varied with the difference in temperature to control purity of the column bottom liquid. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. Quantum fields in curved space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birrell, N.D.; Davies, P.C.W.

    1982-01-01

    The book presents a comprehensive review of the subject of gravitational effects in quantum field theory. Quantum field theory in Minkowski space, quantum field theory in curved spacetime, flat spacetime examples, curved spacetime examples, stress-tensor renormalization, applications of renormalization techniques, quantum black holes and interacting fields are all discussed in detail. (U.K.)

  4. Distillation as a pretreatment process of waste scintillation solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellamano, J.C.

    1988-05-01

    A process to pretreat scintillation solutions composed basically of PPO, POPOP, TOLUENE and ANTAROX, utilized by radioimmunoassay laboratories, is described. The technique employed is distillation which permits a waste reduction to about 40% of the initial volume with the recovery of the solvent (toluene). The recovered toluene can be resued for the same purpose, since it is free of radioactive material as assured by quality control procedures. (author) [pt

  5. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

    2008-09-23

    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential

  6. Process of distilling, heating, and condensing bituminous shales, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayle, M

    1892-04-26

    The distillation apparatus is composed of a vertical cylinder, whose walls are formed of metal, cast iron, sheet iron, cast or welded steel, refractory clay or other convenient material. The cylinder is fixed. Along its axis passes a shaft, receiving a rotary motion from an endless screw, engaging with a helicoidal toothed wheel. The shaft carries a series of plates, moving with it, over which circulates successively the mineral, pushed from one plate to a lower one by a small scraper.

  7. Gas retorts: gas manufacture, process for distillation, destructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J

    1874-05-23

    In apparatus for distilling shale, coal, etc. for making oil and gas, tubular retorts are supported horizontally in a chamber by plates from a brick setting and are heated partly by jets of gas from a pipe supplied through a cock from a gas holder, and partly by the waste gases from a furnace, which heats gas retorts placed in a chamber, air being supplied beneath the grate by a fan.

  8. Polyurethane Nanofiber Membranes for Waste Water Treatment by Membrane Distillation

    OpenAIRE

    Jiříček, T.; Komárek, M.; Lederer, T.

    2017-01-01

    Self-sustained electrospun polyurethane nanofiber membranes were manufactured and tested on a direct-contact membrane distillation unit in an effort to find the optimum membrane thickness to maximize flux rate and minimize heat losses across the membrane. Also salt retention and flux at high salinities up to 100 g kg−1 were evaluated. Even though the complex structure of nanofiber layers has extreme specific surface and porosity, membrane performance was surprisingly predictable; the highest ...

  9. Separation of tritium from heavy water by vacuum distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, M.I.; Cabrera, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    In this report the feasibility of using vacuum distillation to detriate the moderator of a HWR nuclear power plant is studied. It is intended to use, for this purpose, the Atucha I nuclear power plant present facilities. The physical-chemistry of the system is described and the most appropriate range of operating conditions is examined. The availability of data to make use of the present equipment is also analyzed. (author). 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. Extended analysis of cooling curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurdjevic, M.B.; Kierkus, W.T.; Liliac, R.E.; Sokolowski, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal Analysis (TA) is the measurement of changes in a physical property of a material that is heated through a phase transformation temperature range. The temperature changes in the material are recorded as a function of the heating or cooling time in such a manner that allows for the detection of phase transformations. In order to increase accuracy, characteristic points on the cooling curve have been identified using the first derivative curve plotted versus time. In this paper, an alternative approach to the analysis of the cooling curve has been proposed. The first derivative curve has been plotted versus temperature and all characteristic points have been identified with the same accuracy achieved using the traditional method. The new cooling curve analysis also enables the Dendrite Coherency Point (DCP) to be detected using only one thermocouple. (author)

  11. Design of a thermally integrated bioethanol-fueled solid oxide fuel cell system integrated with a distillation column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamsak, W.; Douglas, P. L.; Croiset, E.; Suwanwarangkul, R.; Laosiripojana, N.; Charojrochkul, S.; Assabumrungrat, S.

    Solid oxide fuel cell systems integrated with a distillation column (SOFC-DIS) have been investigated in this study. The MER (maximum energy recovery) network for SOFC-DIS system under the base conditions (C EtOH = 25%, EtOH recovery = 80%, V = 0.7 V, fuel utilization = 80%, T SOFC = 1200 K) yields Q Cmin = 73.4 and Q Hmin = 0 kW. To enhance the performance of SOFC-DIS, utilization of internal useful heat sources from within the system (e.g. condenser duty and hot water from the bottom of the distillation column) and a cathode recirculation have been considered in this study. The utilization of condenser duty for preheating the incoming bioethanol and cathode recirculation for SOFC-DIS system were chosen and implemented to the SOFC-DIS (CondBio-CathRec). Different MER designs were investigated. The obtained MER network of CondBio-CathRec configuration shows the lower minimum cold utility (Q Cmin) of 55.9 kW and total cost index than that of the base case. A heat exchanger loop and utility path were also investigated. It was found that eliminate the high temperature distillate heat exchanger can lower the total cost index. The recommended network is that the hot effluent gas is heat exchanged with the anode heat exchanger, the external reformer, the air heat exchanger, the distillate heat exchanger and the reboiler, respectively. The corresponding performances of this design are 40.8%, 54.3%, 0.221 W cm -2 for overall electrical efficiency, Combine Heat and Power (CHP) efficiency and power density, respectively. The effect of operating conditions on composite curves on the design of heat exchanger network was investigated. The obtained composite curves can be divided into two groups: the threshold case and the pinch case. It was found that the pinch case which T SOFC = 1173 K yields higher total cost index than the CondBio-CathRec at the base conditions. It was also found that the pinch case can become a threshold case by adjusting split fraction or operating at

  12. Integrated Multiscale Latent Variable Regression and Application to Distillation Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muddu Madakyaru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper control of distillation columns requires estimating some key variables that are challenging to measure online (such as compositions, which are usually estimated using inferential models. Commonly used inferential models include latent variable regression (LVR techniques, such as principal component regression (PCR, partial least squares (PLS, and regularized canonical correlation analysis (RCCA. Unfortunately, measured practical data are usually contaminated with errors, which degrade the prediction abilities of inferential models. Therefore, noisy measurements need to be filtered to enhance the prediction accuracy of these models. Multiscale filtering has been shown to be a powerful feature extraction tool. In this work, the advantages of multiscale filtering are utilized to enhance the prediction accuracy of LVR models by developing an integrated multiscale LVR (IMSLVR modeling algorithm that integrates modeling and feature extraction. The idea behind the IMSLVR modeling algorithm is to filter the process data at different decomposition levels, model the filtered data from each level, and then select the LVR model that optimizes a model selection criterion. The performance of the developed IMSLVR algorithm is illustrated using three examples, one using synthetic data, one using simulated distillation column data, and one using experimental packed bed distillation column data. All examples clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of the IMSLVR algorithm over the conventional methods.

  13. Dry Distillation of Radioiodine from TeO2 Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Koziorowski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As medical cyclotrons are becoming more abundant, 123I and 124I are getting more attention as alternatives to 131I for diagnostics of thyroid disease. Both 123I and 124I provide better diagnostics, deliver less dose to patients and both reduce the risk of thyroid stunning, facilitating subsequent therapy. Dry distillation of radioiodine from tellurium dioxide targets has become the standard approach to producing these radioiodines. Setting up such a production of radioiodine is associated with a lengthy optimization of the process and for this purpose natural tellurium is often used for economical reasons. In this paper, the distillation parameters are scrutinized to ensure optimal distillation temperature, in order to minimize time spent and prevent loss of expensive target material. It is further demonstrated how the individual iodine isotopes, produced from proton bombardment of natTe, will diffuse out of the target in a time dependent ratio. We believe the effect is due to the isotopes having their maximum cross section at different energies. The individual isotopes produced will thus have their highest concentration at different depths in the target. This results in individual mean diffusion lengths and diffusion times for the different isotopes.

  14. Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Greenberg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf and woody plant tissue (Pinus ponderosa, Eucalyptus saligna, Quercus gambelli, Saccharum officinarum and Oriza sativa were heated from 30 to 300°C and volatile organic compound (VOC emissions were identified and quantified. Major VOC emissions were mostly oxygenated and included acetic acid, furylaldehyde, acetol, pyrazine, terpenes, 2,3-butadione, phenol and methanol, as well as smaller emissions of furan, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and benzaldehyde. Total VOC emissions from distillation and pyrolysis were on the order of 10 gC/kgC dry weight of vegetation, as much as 33% and 44% of CO2 emissions (gC(VOC/gC(CO2 measured during the same experiments, in air and nitrogen atmospheres, respectively. The emissions are similar in identity and quantity to those from smoldering combustion of woody tissue and of different character than those evolved during flaming combustion. VOC emissions from the distillation of pools and endothermic pyrolysis under low turbulence conditions may produce flammable concentrations near leaves and may facilitate the propagation of wildfires. VOC emissions from charcoal production are also related to distillation and pyrolysis; the emissions of the highly reactive VOCs from production are as large as the carbon monoxide emissions.

  15. Does osmotic distillation change the isotopic relation of wines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently partial alcohol reduction of wine is in the focus of research worldwide. There are several technologies available to achieve this target. These techniques are either based on distilling or membrane processes. Osmotic distillation, one of the possibilities, is a quite modern membrane process that can be used. During that process, wine is pumped in counter flow to water along a micro porous, hydrophobic membrane. The volatile components of the wine can permeate that membrane and are dissolved in water. The driving force of that process is the vapor pressure difference between the volatiles on the wine and water side of the membrane. The aim of this work was to determine if the alcohol reduction by osmotic distillation can change the isotopic relation in a wine. Can this enological practice change the composition of a wine in a way that an illegal water addition is simulated? Different wines were reduced by 2% alcohol v/v with varying process parameters. The isotopic analysis of the O 16/18 ratio in the wine were performed according to the OIV methods (353/2009 These analyses showed that the isotopic ratio is modified by an alcohol reduction of 2% v/v in a way that corresponds to an addition of 4–5% of external water.

  16. Flux Enhancement in Membrane Distillation Using Nanofiber Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jiříček

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane distillation (MD is an emerging separation technology, whose largest application potential lies in the desalination of highly concentrated solutions, which are out of the scope of reverse osmosis. Despite many attractive features, this technology is still awaiting large industrial application. The main reason is the lack of commercially available membranes with fluxes comparable to reverse osmosis. MD is a thermal separation process driven by a partial vapour pressure difference. Flux, distillate purity, and thermal efficiency are always in conflict, all three being strictly connected with pore size, membrane hydrophobicity, and thickness. The world has not seen the ideal membrane yet, but nanofibers may offer a solution to these contradictory requirements. Membranes of electrospun PVDF were tested under various conditions on a direct contact (DCMD unit, in order to determine the optimum conditions for maximum flux. In addition, their performance was compared to commonly available PTFE, PE, and PES membranes. It was confirmed that thinner membranes have higher fluxes and a lower distillate purity and also higher energy losses via conduction across the membrane. As both mass and heat transfer are connected, it is best to develop new membranes with a target application in mind, for the specific membrane module and operational conditions.

  17. Tocopherol composition of deodorization distillates and their antioxidative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogala-Kalucka, Malgorzata; Korczak, Jozef; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2004-02-01

    During the last stage of plant oil refining, deodorization distillates containing very important biological substances such as tocopherols, sterols, terpenoids or hydrocarbons are formed as a by-products. This study aimed at evaluating the content and antioxidant capacity of tocopherol concentrates from deodorization distillates obtained after the refining of rapeseed, soybean and sunflower oil. The majority of the matrix substances were eliminated from deodorization distillates by freezing with an acetone solution at -70 degrees C. The tocopherol concentrates obtained in this way contained approximately fivefold more tocopherols than the quantity in condensates after deodorization. Antioxidant activity was investigated by observing the peroxide value at 25 degrees C and using the Oxidograph test. The test medium was lard enriched with the tocopherol concentrates of the three plant oils versus single, synthetic alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols (-T), which served for comparison. In these model systems, all investigated tocopherol concentrates exhibited antioxidant capacity. Their antioxidant effect was significantly lower than that of single delta-T and gamma-T, but significantly higher than alpha-T. The results prove that natural tocopherol concentrates obtained from plant oils are valuable food antioxidants and they also increase the biological and nutritional value of food especially when administered to animal fats or food of animal origin. Tocopherol concentrates can fully replace synthetic antioxidants that have been used thus far.

  18. Mutagenicity and chemical characterization of two petroleum distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, J H; MacGregor, J A; King, R W

    1984-08-01

    To investigate if the Salmonella/microsome assay could reliably screen complex petroleum samples for their carcinogenic potential, two high boiling (700-1070 degrees F) petroleum distillates with known activity in a dermal carcinogenesis bioassay were fully characterized with respect to their hydrocarbon composition and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PNA) content and assayed for mutagenic activity. Mutagenicity assays were also carried out on the aromatic hydrocarbon aggregates separated from these oils by adsorption chromatography. The composition of the distillates differed substantially, and reflected the fact that they were derived from crude oils that were extremely divergent in hydrocarbon character. Both the distillate and aromatic samples consistently induced a very slight increase in revertant TA98 and TA100 colonies; however, an increase of 2-4-fold over background was observed when the S-9 concentration was increased 5-10 times that of the standard assay. The maximal response was less than that expected from the samples' known PNA content and observed potency in the dermal carcinogenesis bioassay. In the Salmonella/microsome assay, all samples inhibited the mutagenic activity of added benzo[a]pyrene. Discordance between the magnitude of the samples' mutagenic activity and their known PNA content may be related to direct or indirect inhibition of sample PNAs by other components of the complex petroleum fractions. Observed inhibitory effects support the use of elevated S-9 concentration in the in vitro assays assessing the carcinogenic potential of petroleum-derived materials.

  19. Comparative acute toxicity of shale and petroleum derived distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C R; Ferguson, P W; Katchen, M A; Dennis, M W; Craig, D K

    1989-12-01

    In anticipation of the commercialization of its shale oil retorting and upgrading process, Unocal Corp. conducted a testing program aimed at better defining potential health impacts of a shale industry. Acute toxicity studies using rats and rabbits compared the effects of naphtha, Jet-A, JP-4, diesel and "residual" distillate fractions of both petroleum derived crude oils and hydrotreated shale oil. No differences in the acute oral (greater than 5 g/kg LD50) and dermal (greater than 2 g/kg LD50) toxicities were noted between the shale and petroleum derived distillates and none of the samples were more than mildly irritating to the eyes. Shale and petroleum products caused similar degrees of mild to moderate skin irritation. None of the materials produced sensitization reactions. The LC50 after acute inhalation exposure to Jet-A, shale naphtha, (greater than 5 mg/L) and JP-4 distillate fractions of petroleum and shale oils was greater than 5 mg/L. The LC50 of petroleum naphtha (greater than 4.8 mg/L) and raw shale oil (greater than 3.95 mg/L) also indicated low toxicity. Results demonstrate that shale oil products are of low acute toxicity, mild to moderately irritating and similar to their petroleum counterparts. The results further demonstrate that hydrotreatment reduces the irritancy of raw shale oil.

  20. Hetero-azeotropic distillation: combining fungal dehydration and lipid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tough, A J; Isabella, B L; Beattie, J E; Herbert, R A

    2000-01-01

    A low-cost single-stage laboratory process combining fungal dehydration and lipid extraction was compared with a traditional two-stage method employing freeze-drying and subsequent mechanical disruption in the presence of solvent. The ability of a number of organic solvents to form hetero-azeotropes with water was exploited. Chloroform, cyclohexane and hexane were assessed in their abilities to both dry and extract lipid from the oleaginous phycomycete Mortierella alpina (ATCC 32222). Drying rate and lipid extraction were maximised under conditions that prevented fungal agglomeration. The total processing time was limited by the rate of dehydration rather than by the rate of lipid extraction. In all cases azeotropic distillation facilitated a greater rate of dehydration than was possible with freeze-drying. A consequent reduction in overall processing time was observed. Uniquely, both the solvent used and the mode of mixing employed controlled the morphology of the aggregates formed during distillation. In combination with mild mixing chloroform discouraged agglomeration whereas cyclohexane and hexane promoted aggregation. Successful lipid extraction was dependent on the use of dry biomass rather than on the application of heat to effect distillation. Neither the application of heat nor the solvent employed had any significant effect on the lipid composition of the extracted oil.

  1. On the heat transfer correlation for membrane distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chi-Chuan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Heat transfer coefficients applicable for membrane distillation. → Data reduction for heat transfer coefficient for membrane distillation method. → Uncertainty of permeate side due to large magnitude of membrane resistance. → Increase accuracy of heat transfer coefficient by modified Wilson plot technique. -- Abstract: The present study examines the heat transfer coefficients applicable for membrane distillation. In the available literatures, researchers often adopt some existing correlations and claim the suitability of these correlations to their test data or models. Unfortunately this approach is quite limited and questionable. This is subject to the influences of boundary conditions, geometrical configurations, entry flow conditions, as well as some influences from spacer or support. The simple way is to obtain the heat transfer coefficients from experimentation. However there is no direct experimental data for heat transfer coefficients being reported directly from the measurements. The main reasons are from the uncertainty of permeate side and of the comparatively large magnitude of membrane resistance. Additional minor influence is the effect of mass transfer on the heat transfer performance. In practice, the mass transfer effect is negligible provided the feed side temperature is low. To increase the accuracy of the measured feed side heat transfer coefficient, it is proposed in this study to exploit a modified Wilson plot technique. Through this approach, one can eliminate the uncertainty from permeate side and reduce the uncertainty in membrane to obtain a more reliable heat transfer coefficients at feed side from the experimentation.

  2. Treatment of waste salts by oxygen sparging and vacuum distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.J.; Yang, H.C.; Kim, E.H.; Kin, I.T.; Eun, H.C.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. During the electrorefining process of the oxide spent fuel from LWR, amounts of waste salts containing some metal chloride species such as rare earths and actinide chlorides are generated, where the reuse of the waste salts is very important from the standpoint of an economical as well as an environmental aspect. In order to reuse the waste salts, a salt vacuum distillation method can be used. For the best separation by a vacuum distillation, the metal chloride species involved in the waste salts must be converted into their oxide(or oxychloride) forms due to the their low volatility compared to that of LiCl-KCl. In this study, an oxygen sparging process was adopted for the oxidation (or precipitation) of rare earth chlorides. The effects of oxygen flow rate and molten salt temperature on the conversion of rare earth chlorides to the precipitate phase (i.e. oxide or oxychloride) were investigated. In addition, distillation characteristics of LiCl-KCl molten salt with system pressure and temperature were studied. (authors)

  3. Nonlinear control of a multicomponent distillation process coupled with a binary distillation model as an EKF predictor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Amiya Kumar; Ganguly, Saibal; Samanta, Amar Nath

    2006-10-01

    The work is devoted to design the globally linearizing control (GLC) strategy for a multicomponent distillation process. The control system is comprised with a nonlinear transformer, a nonlinear closed-loop state estimator [extended Kalman filter (EKF)], and a linear external controller [conventional proportional integral (PI) controller]. The model of a binary distillation column has been used as a state predictor to avoid huge design complexity of the EKF estimator. The binary components are the light key and the heavy key of the multicomponent system. The proposed GLC-EKF (GLC in conjunction with EKF) control algorithm has been compared with the GLC-ROOLE [GLC coupled with reduced-order open-loop estimator (ROOLE)] and the dual-loop PI controller based on set point tracking and disturbance rejection performance. Despite huge process/predictor mismatch, the superiority of the GLC-EKF has been inspected over the GLC-ROOLE control structure.

  4. Thermodynamic evaluation of distillation columns using exergy loss profiles: a case study on the crude oil atmospheric distillation column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarighaleslami, Amir Hossein [Mahshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Chemical Engineering Faculty, Mahshar, Khouzestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Omidkhah, Mohammad Reza [Tarbiat Modares University, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghannadzadeh, Ali [University of Toulouse, Department of Process and System Engineering, Chemical Engineering Laboratory, Toulouse (France); Hoseinzadeh Hesas, Roozbeh [University of Malaya, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2012-06-15

    This paper presents a case study on the crude oil atmospheric distillation column of Tabriz refinery plant to show the applicability of exergy loss profiles in thermodynamic examination of the different retrofit options. The atmospheric distillation column of Tabriz refinery has been revamped as a consequence of increase of the plant capacity to 100,000 bpd. To cover the deficit of feedstock of the revamped unit, a blend of the existing feedstock with imported crude oil is used as a feedstock. However, to investigate how the blend of these two different types of crudes as a feedstock has an influence on the operating conditions, the examination of the column is needed. Exergy as a comprehensive thermodynamic property which translates the temperature, pressure and composition change into a common unit has been chosen to evaluate the distillation column thermodynamically. Furthermore, the exergy loss profile of the base case serves as a scoping tool to pinpoint the source of inefficiencies. Then, the exergy loss profile as a screening tool has found the retrofit options which are likely to yield greatest energy saving from a list of retrofit options proposed by the industrial partner. In the presented case study, the exergy loss profile identifies the best retrofit option with 17.16% reduction in exergy losses, which finally lead to 3.6% reduction of primary fuel demand. (orig.)

  5. Computational aspects of algebraic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Shaska, Tanush

    2005-01-01

    The development of new computational techniques and better computing power has made it possible to attack some classical problems of algebraic geometry. The main goal of this book is to highlight such computational techniques related to algebraic curves. The area of research in algebraic curves is receiving more interest not only from the mathematics community, but also from engineers and computer scientists, because of the importance of algebraic curves in applications including cryptography, coding theory, error-correcting codes, digital imaging, computer vision, and many more.This book cove

  6. 51Cr - erythrocyte survival curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva Costa, J. de.

    1982-07-01

    Sixteen patients were studied, being fifteen patients in hemolytic state, and a normal individual as a witness. The aim was to obtain better techniques for the analysis of the erythrocytes, survival curves, according to the recommendations of the International Committee of Hematology. It was used the radiochromatic method as a tracer. Previously a revisional study of the International Literature was made in its aspects inherent to the work in execution, rendering possible to establish comparisons and clarify phonomena observed in cur investigation. Several parameters were considered in this study, hindering both the exponential and the linear curves. The analysis of the survival curves of the erythrocytes in the studied group, revealed that the elution factor did not present a homogeneous answer quantitatively to all, though, the result of the analysis of these curves have been established, through listed programs in the electronic calculator. (Author) [pt

  7. Melting curves of gammairradiated DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, H.; Altmann, H.; Kehrer, M.

    1978-08-01

    Melting curves of gammairradiated DNA and data derived of them, are reported. The diminished stability is explained by basedestruction. DNA denatures completely at room temperature, if at least every fifth basepair is broken or weakened by irradiation. (author)

  8. Management of the learning curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter-Christian; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – This paper focuses on the management of the learning curve in overseas capacity expansions. The purpose of this paper is to unravel the direct as well as indirect influences on the learning curve and to advance the understanding of how these affect its management. Design...... the dimensions of the learning process involved in a capacity expansion project and identified the direct and indirect labour influences on the production learning curve. On this basis, the study proposes solutions to managing learning curves in overseas capacity expansions. Furthermore, the paper concludes...... with measures that have the potential to significantly reduce the non-value-added time when establishing new capacities overseas. Originality/value – The paper uses a longitudinal in-depth case study of a Danish wind turbine manufacturer and goes beyond a simplistic treatment of the lead time and learning...

  9. Use of solar distillation for olive mill wastewater drying and recovery of polyphenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklavos, Sotirios; Gatidou, Georgia; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Haralambopoulos, Dias

    2015-10-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is characterized by its high organic load and the presence of phenolic compounds. For first time, a solar distillator was used to investigate the simultaneous solar drying of OMW and the recovery of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties in the distillate. Two experiments were conducted and the role of thermal insulation on the performance of the distiller was studied. The use of insulation resulted to higher temperatures in the distillator (up to 84.3 °C and 78.5 °C at the air and sludge, respectively), shorter period for OMW dewatering (14 days), while it increased the performance of distillator by 26.1%. Chemical characterization of the distillate showed that pH and COD concentration gradually decreased during the experiments, whereas an opposite trend was noticed for conductivity and total phenols concentration. Almost 4% of the total phenols found initially in OMW were transferred to the distillate when an insulated solar distillator was used. Gas chromatographic analysis of collected distillates confirmed the presence of tyrosol in all samples; whereas hydroxytyrosol was found only in fresh collected distillate samples. Further experiments should be conducted to optimize the process and quantify the concentrations of recovered phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Growth curves for Laron syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B

    1993-01-01

    Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls co...

  11. Flow over riblet curved surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, J B R; Freire, A P Silva, E-mail: atila@mecanica.ufrj.br [Mechanical Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), C.P. 68503, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-12-22

    The present work studies the mechanics of turbulent drag reduction over curved surfaces by riblets. The effects of surface modification on flow separation over steep and smooth curved surfaces are investigated. Four types of two-dimensional surfaces are studied based on the morphometric parameters that describe the body of a blue whale. Local measurements of mean velocity and turbulence profiles are obtained through laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV).

  12. Intersection numbers of spectral curves

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, B.

    2011-01-01

    We compute the symplectic invariants of an arbitrary spectral curve with only 1 branchpoint in terms of integrals of characteristic classes in the moduli space of curves. Our formula associates to any spectral curve, a characteristic class, which is determined by the laplace transform of the spectral curve. This is a hint to the key role of Laplace transform in mirror symmetry. When the spectral curve is y=\\sqrt{x}, the formula gives Kontsevich--Witten intersection numbers, when the spectral curve is chosen to be the Lambert function \\exp{x}=y\\exp{-y}, the formula gives the ELSV formula for Hurwitz numbers, and when one chooses the mirror of C^3 with framing f, i.e. \\exp{-x}=\\exp{-yf}(1-\\exp{-y}), the formula gives the Marino-Vafa formula, i.e. the generating function of Gromov-Witten invariants of C^3. In some sense this formula generalizes ELSV, Marino-Vafa formula, and Mumford formula.

  13. Dissolution glow curve in LLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haverkamp, U.; Wiezorek, C.; Poetter, R.

    1990-01-01

    Lyoluminescence dosimetry is based upon light emission during dissolution of previously irradiated dosimetric materials. The lyoluminescence signal is expressed in the dissolution glow curve. These curves begin, depending on the dissolution system, with a high peak followed by an exponentially decreasing intensity. System parameters that influence the graph of the dissolution glow curve, are, for example, injection speed, temperature and pH value of the solution and the design of the dissolution cell. The initial peak does not significantly correlate with the absorbed dose, it is mainly an effect of the injection. The decay of the curve consists of two exponential components: one fast and one slow. The components depend on the absorbed dose and the dosimetric materials used. In particular, the slow component correlates with the absorbed dose. In contrast to the fast component the argument of the exponential function of the slow component is independent of the dosimetric materials investigated: trehalose, glucose and mannitol. The maximum value, following the peak of the curve, and the integral light output are a measure of the absorbed dose. The reason for the different light outputs of various dosimetric materials after irradiation with the same dose is the differing solubility. The character of the dissolution glow curves is the same following irradiation with photons, electrons or neutrons. (author)

  14. Curve Boxplot: Generalization of Boxplot for Ensembles of Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzargar, Mahsa; Whitaker, Ross T; Kirby, Robert M

    2014-12-01

    In simulation science, computational scientists often study the behavior of their simulations by repeated solutions with variations in parameters and/or boundary values or initial conditions. Through such simulation ensembles, one can try to understand or quantify the variability or uncertainty in a solution as a function of the various inputs or model assumptions. In response to a growing interest in simulation ensembles, the visualization community has developed a suite of methods for allowing users to observe and understand the properties of these ensembles in an efficient and effective manner. An important aspect of visualizing simulations is the analysis of derived features, often represented as points, surfaces, or curves. In this paper, we present a novel, nonparametric method for summarizing ensembles of 2D and 3D curves. We propose an extension of a method from descriptive statistics, data depth, to curves. We also demonstrate a set of rendering and visualization strategies for showing rank statistics of an ensemble of curves, which is a generalization of traditional whisker plots or boxplots to multidimensional curves. Results are presented for applications in neuroimaging, hurricane forecasting and fluid dynamics.

  15. Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential oil yield and composition when extracted from dried flowers. Therefore, the following distillation times (DT) were tested in this experiment: 1.5 min, 3 min, 3.75 min, 7.5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min, 150 min, 180 min, and 240 min. The essential oil yield (range 0.5-6.8%) reached a maximum at 60 min DT. The concentrations of cineole (range 6.4-35%) and fenchol (range 1.7-2.9%) were highest at the 1.5 min DT and decreased with increasing length of the DT. The concentration of camphor (range 6.6-9.2%) reached a maximum at 7.5-15 min DT, while the concentration of linalool acetate (range 15-38%) reached a maximum at 30 min DT. Results suggest that lavender essential oil yield may not increase after 60 min DT. The change in essential oil yield, and the concentrations of cineole, fenchol and linalool acetate as DT changes were modeled very well by the asymptotic nonlinear regression model. DT may be used to modify the chemical profile of lavender oil and to obtain oils with differential chemical profiles from the same lavender flowers. DT must be taken into consideration when citing or comparing reports on lavender essential oil yield and composition.

  16. Renewable water: Direct contact membrane distillation coupled with solar ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suárez, Francisco; Ruskowitz, Jeffrey A.; Tyler, Scott W.; Childress, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental investigation of direct contact membrane distillation driven by solar ponds. • The DCMD/SGSP system treats ∼6 times the water flow treated by an AGMD/SGSP system. • Half of the energy extracted from the SGSP was used to transport water across the membrane. • Reducing heat losses through the DCMD/SGSP system would yield higher water fluxes. - Abstract: Desalination powered by renewable energy sources is an attractive solution to address the worldwide water-shortage problem without contributing significant to greenhouse gas emissions. A promising system for renewable energy desalination is the utilization of low-temperature direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) driven by a thermal solar energy system, such as a salt-gradient solar pond (SGSP). This investigation presents the first experimental study of fresh water production in a coupled DCMD/SGSP system. The objectives of this work are to determine the experimental fresh water production rates and the energetic requirements of the different components of the system. From the laboratory results, it was found that the coupled DCMD/SGSP system treats approximately six times the water flow treated by a similar system that consisted of an air–gap membrane distillation unit driven by an SGSP. In terms of the energetic requirements, approximately 70% of the heat extracted from the SGSP was utilized to drive thermal desalination and the rest was lost in different locations of the system. In the membrane module, only half of the useful heat was actually used to transport water across the membrane and the remainder was lost by conduction in the membrane. It was also found that by reducing heat losses throughout the system would yield higher water fluxes, pointing out the need to improve the efficiency throughout the DCMD/SGSP coupled system. Therefore, further investigation of membrane properties, insulation of the system, or optimal design of the solar pond must be addressed in

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of multicomponent distillation columns: identifying optimal feed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L.O. Maia

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology for the optimisation of feed conditions as well as the calculation of minimum reflux ratio of distillation columns is presented. The reversible profile approach used for saturated liquid feeds is extended to consider other feed conditions. For flashed feed, the liquid fraction of the feed stream is used to compute the column pinch conditions and the minimum reflux ratio. The modifications required for subcooled liquid and superheated vapor feed are discussed, and a procedure to estimate the minimum reflux for those conditions is proposed. The methodology presented allows the identification of the optimal feed condition, without having to resort to a full stage-by-stage procedure.

  18. Structural characterization of asphaltenes from vacuum residue distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Ronaldo C.; Seidl, Peter R.; Menezes, Sonia M.C. de; Teixeira, Marco A.G.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work was to do structural characterization of asphaltenes from different vacuum residues distillation. Several average molecular parameters using some analytical techniques were obtained and these techniques were: nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H and 13 C NMR), elemental analysis (C,H,N,O and S content), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), vapor pressure osmometry and gel permeation chromatography. Particularly from NMR, some important molecular parameters were obtained, such as aromatic carbon fraction, aliphatic carbons fraction, alkyl substituted aromatic carbons, unsubstituted aromatic carbons, etc. Molecular modeling will be employed to build the structure of asphaltenes using the experimental data. (author)

  19. High-temperature vacuum distillation separation of plutonium waste salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this task, high-temperature vacuum distillation separation is being developed for residue sodium chloride-potassium chloride salts resulting from past pyrochemical processing of plutonium. This process has the potential of providing clean separation of the salt and the actinides with minimal amounts of secondary waste generation. The process could produce chloride salt that could be discarded as low-level waste (LLW) or low actinide content transuranic (TRU) waste, and a concentrated actinide oxide powder that would meet long-term storage standards (DOE-DTD-3013-94) until a final disposition option for all surplus plutonium is chosen

  20. Quantum Entanglement: Separability, Measure, Fidelity of Teleportation, and Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum entanglement plays crucial roles in quantum information processing. Quantum entangled states have become the key ingredient in the rapidly expanding field of quantum information science. Although the nonclassical nature of entanglement has been recognized for many years, considerable efforts have been taken to understand and characterize its properties recently. In this review, we introduce some recent results in the theory of quantum entanglement. In particular separability criteria based on the Bloch representation, covariance matrix, normal form and entanglement witness, lower bounds, subadditivity property of concurrence and tangle, fully entangled fraction related to the optimal fidelity of quantum teleportation, and entanglement distillation will be discussed in detail.