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Sample records for composition tissue origin

  1. COMPARISON OF SLAUGHTER YIELD AND CARCASS TISSUE COMPOSITION IN BROILER CHICKENS OF VARIOUS ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARIUSZ KOKOSZYŃSKI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Slaughter yield and carcass tissue composition were compared in three different broiler chicken production sets. The highest body weight (1892.5 g, eviscerated carcass weight with neck (1406.9 g and slaughter yield (74.5% were found in Ross 308 chickens, whilst the lowest values of these traits occurred in JV chickens (respectively: 1753.3; 1288.2 g; 73.3%. The highest muscle contents (45.4% breast muscles and leg muscles in carcass and the lowest fattiness (7.9% skin with subcutaneous fat and 1.5% abdominal fat were found in Hubbard Evolution chickens.

  2. Microsurgical Composite Tissue Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Donald; Georgiade, Nicholas G.

    1978-01-01

    Since 1974, 69 patients with extensive defects have undergone reconstruction by microsurgical composite tissue transplantation. Using this method, donor composite tissue is isolated on its blood supply, removed to a distant recipient site, and the continuity of blood flow re-established by microvascular anastomoses. In this series, 56 patients (81%) were completely successful. There have been eight (12%) failures, primarily in the extremities. There have been five (7%) partial successes, (i.e., a microvascular flap in which a portion was lost requiring a secondary procedure such as a split thickness graft). In those patients with a severely injured lower extremity, the failure rate was the greatest. Most of these were arterial (six of seven). These failures occurred early in the series and were thought to be related to a severely damaged recipient vasculature. This problem has been circumvented by an autogenous interpositional vein graft, permitting more mobility of flap placement. In the upper extremity, all but one case were successful. Early motion was permitted, preventing joint capsular contractures and loss of function. Twenty-three cases in the head and neck region were successful (one partial success). This included two composite rib grafts to the mandible. Prolonged delays in reconstruction following extirpation of a malignancy were avoided. A rapid return to society following complete reconstruction was ensured. Nine patients presented for reconstruction of the breast and thorax following radical mastectomy. All were successfully reconstructed with this new technique except one patient. Its many advantages include immediate reconstruction without delayed procedures and no secondary deformity of the donor site. Healthy, well vascularized tissue can now be transferred to a previously irradiated area with no tissue loss. This new method offers many advantages to older methods of reconstruction. Length of hospital stay and immobilization are reduced. The

  3. Hematopoietic stem cell origin of connective tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Makio; Larue, Amanda C; Watson, Patricia M; Watson, Dennis K

    2010-07-01

    Connective tissue consists of "connective tissue proper," which is further divided into loose and dense (fibrous) connective tissues and "specialized connective tissues." Specialized connective tissues consist of blood, adipose tissue, cartilage, and bone. In both loose and dense connective tissues, the principal cellular element is fibroblasts. It has been generally believed that all cellular elements of connective tissue, including fibroblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes, and bone cells, are generated solely by mesenchymal stem cells. Recently, a number of studies, including those from our laboratory based on transplantation of single hematopoietic stem cells, strongly suggested a hematopoietic stem cell origin of these adult mesenchymal tissues. This review summarizes the experimental evidence for this new paradigm and discusses its translational implications. Copyright 2010 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. All rights reserved.

  4. Composite scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering based on natural polymers of bacterial origin, thermoplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and micro-fibrillated bacterial cellulose

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Akaraonye, E.; Filip, J.; Šafaříková, Miroslava; Salih, V.; Keshavarz, T.; Knowles, J.C.; Roy, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 7 (2016), s. 780-791 ISSN 0959-8103 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : polyhydroxyalkanoates * poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) * bacterial cellulose * micro-fibrillated cellulose * tissue engineering scaffold * composite materials Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.070, year: 2016

  5. Natural Origin Materials for Osteochondral Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonani, Walter; Singhatanadgige, Weerasak; Pornanong, Aramwit; Motta, Antonella

    2018-01-01

    Materials selection is a critical aspect for the production of scaffolds for osteochondral tissue engineering. Synthetic materials are the result of man-made operations and have been investigated for a variety of tissue engineering applications. Instead, the products of physiological processes and the metabolic activity of living organisms are identified as natural materials. Over the recent decades, a number of natural materials, namely, biopolymers and bioceramics, have been proposed as the main constituent of osteochondral scaffolds, but also as cell carriers and signaling molecules. Overall, natural materials have been investigated both in the bone and in the cartilage compartment, sometimes alone, but often in combination with other biopolymers or synthetic materials. Biopolymers and bioceramics possess unique advantages over their synthetic counterparts due similarity with natural extracellular matrix, the presence of cell recognition sites and tunable chemistry. However, the characteristics of natural origin materials can vary considerably depending on the specific source and extraction process. A deeper understanding of the relationship between material variability and biological activity and the definition of standardized manufacturing procedures will be crucial for the future of natural materials in tissue engineering.

  6. Origin and composition of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The predictions of the expected range of composition of Mercury at the time of its formation made on the basis of a suite of condensation-accretion models of Mercury spanning a range of condensation temperature and accretion sampling functions appropriate to Mercury are examined. It is concluded that these compositonal models can, if modified to take into account the nonselective loss of most of the silicate component of the planet during accretion, provide compositional predictions for the Weidenschilling (1978, 1980) mechanism for the accretion of a metal-rich Mercury. The silicate portion would, in this case, contain 3.6 to 4.5 percent alumina, roughly 1 percent of alkali oxides, and between 0.5 and 6 percent FeO

  7. Origin of the subepidermal tissue in Piper L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, A T; Simão, E; Silva, L; Torres, G A

    2015-05-01

    Studies on the anatomy of Piper leaves demonstrate the presence of a subepidermal tissue distinct from the adjacent epidermis, which cells show thin walls and hyaline contents. Some authors consider such cells a hypodermal tissue, while others refer to them as components of a multiple epidermis. In this study, the nature of this subepidermal tissue was investigated through the analysis of leaf ontogeny in three Piper species. The analysis showed that the referred tissue originates from the ground meristem and, thus, should be considered a hypodermis. The studied species suggests that the role of the hypodermis would be to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from excess light, regulating the intensity of light reaching the chlorophyll parenchyma.

  8. Origin and chemical composition of evaporite deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, George William

    1960-01-01

    A comparative study of marine evaporite deposits forming at the present time along the pacific coast of central Mexico and evaporite formations of Permian age in West Texas Basin was made in order to determine if the modern sediments provide a basis for understanding environmental conditions that existed during deposition of the older deposits. The field work was supplemented by investigations of artificial evaporite minerals precipitated in the laboratory and by study of the chemical composition of halite rock of different geologic ages. The environment of deposition of contemporaneous marine salt deposits in Mexico is acidic, is strongly reducing a few centimeters below the surface, and teems with microscopic life. Deposition of salt, unlike that of many other sediments, is not wholly a constructional phenomenon. Permanent deposits result only if a favorable balance exists between deposition in the dry season and dissolution in the wet season. Evaporite formations chosen for special study in the West Texas Basin are, in ascending order, the Castile, Salado, and Rustler formations, which have a combined thickness of 1200 meters. The Castile formation is largely composed of gypsum rock, the Salado, halite rock, and the Rustler, quartz and carbonate sandstone. The lower part of the Castile formation is bituminous and contains limestone laminae. The Castile and Rustler formations thicken to the south at the expense of salt of the intervening Salado formation. The clastic rocks of the Rustler formation are interpreted as the deposits of a series of barrier islands north of which halite rock of the Salado was deposited. The salt is believed to have formed in shallow water of uniform density that was mixed by the wind. Where water depth exceeded the depth of the wind mixing, density stratification developed, and gypsum was deposited. Dense water of high salinity below the density discontinuity was overlain by less dense, more normally saline water which was derived from

  9. Advancing biomaterials of human origin for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa-Ming; Liu, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterials have played an increasingly prominent role in the success of biomedical devices and in the development of tissue engineering, which seeks to unlock the regenerative potential innate to human tissues/organs in a state of deterioration and to restore or reestablish normal bodily function. Advances in our understanding of regenerative biomaterials and their roles in new tissue formation can potentially open a new frontier in the fast-growing field of regenerative medicine. Taking inspiration from the role and multi-component construction of native extracellular matrices (ECMs) for cell accommodation, the synthetic biomaterials produced today routinely incorporate biologically active components to define an artificial in vivo milieu with complex and dynamic interactions that foster and regulate stem cells, similar to the events occurring in a natural cellular microenvironment. The range and degree of biomaterial sophistication have also dramatically increased as more knowledge has accumulated through materials science, matrix biology and tissue engineering. However, achieving clinical translation and commercial success requires regenerative biomaterials to be not only efficacious and safe but also cost-effective and convenient for use and production. Utilizing biomaterials of human origin as building blocks for therapeutic purposes has provided a facilitated approach that closely mimics the critical aspects of natural tissue with regard to its physical and chemical properties for the orchestration of wound healing and tissue regeneration. In addition to directly using tissue transfers and transplants for repair, new applications of human-derived biomaterials are now focusing on the use of naturally occurring biomacromolecules, decellularized ECM scaffolds and autologous preparations rich in growth factors/non-expanded stem cells to either target acceleration/magnification of the body's own repair capacity or use nature's paradigms to create new tissues for

  10. Mandibular reconstruction with composite microvascular tissue transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.J. III; Wooden, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Microvascular free tissue transfer has provided a variety of methods of restoring vascularized bone and soft tissue to difficult defects created by tumor resection and trauma. Over 7 years, 26 patients have undergone 28 free flaps for mandibular reconstruction, 15 for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth or tongue, 7 for recurrent tumor, and 6 for other reasons [lymphangioma (1), infection (1), gunshot wound (1), and osteoradionecrosis (3)]. Primary reconstruction was performed in 19 cases and secondary in 9. All repairs were composite flaps including 12 scapula, 5 radial forearm, 3 fibula, 2 serratus, and 6 deep circumflex iliac artery. Mandibular defects included the symphysis alone (7), symphysis and body (5), symphysis-body-ramus condyle (2), body or ramus (13), and bilateral body (1). Fourteen patients had received prior radiotherapy to adjuvant or curative doses. Eight received postoperative radiotherapy. All patients had initially successful vascularized reconstruction by clinical examination (28) and positive radionuclide scan (22 of 22). Bony stability was achieved in 25 of 26 patients and oral continence in 24 of 26. One complete flap loss occurred at 14 days. Complications of some degree developed in 22 patients including partial skin necrosis (3), orocutaneous fistula (3), plate exposure (1), donor site infection (3), fracture of reconstruction (1), and fracture of the radius (1). Microvascular transfer of bone and soft tissue allows a reliable reconstruction--despite previous radiotherapy, infection, foreign body, or surgery--in almost every situation in which mandible and soft tissue are absent. Bony union, a healed wound, and reasonable function and appearance are likely despite early fistula, skin loss, or metal plate or bone exposure

  11. Mandibular reconstruction with composite microvascular tissue transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, J.J. III; Wooden, W.A. (Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Microvascular free tissue transfer has provided a variety of methods of restoring vascularized bone and soft tissue to difficult defects created by tumor resection and trauma. Over 7 years, 26 patients have undergone 28 free flaps for mandibular reconstruction, 15 for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth or tongue, 7 for recurrent tumor, and 6 for other reasons (lymphangioma (1), infection (1), gunshot wound (1), and osteoradionecrosis (3)). Primary reconstruction was performed in 19 cases and secondary in 9. All repairs were composite flaps including 12 scapula, 5 radial forearm, 3 fibula, 2 serratus, and 6 deep circumflex iliac artery. Mandibular defects included the symphysis alone (7), symphysis and body (5), symphysis-body-ramus condyle (2), body or ramus (13), and bilateral body (1). Fourteen patients had received prior radiotherapy to adjuvant or curative doses. Eight received postoperative radiotherapy. All patients had initially successful vascularized reconstruction by clinical examination (28) and positive radionuclide scan (22 of 22). Bony stability was achieved in 25 of 26 patients and oral continence in 24 of 26. One complete flap loss occurred at 14 days. Complications of some degree developed in 22 patients including partial skin necrosis (3), orocutaneous fistula (3), plate exposure (1), donor site infection (3), fracture of reconstruction (1), and fracture of the radius (1). Microvascular transfer of bone and soft tissue allows a reliable reconstruction--despite previous radiotherapy, infection, foreign body, or surgery--in almost every situation in which mandible and soft tissue are absent. Bony union, a healed wound, and reasonable function and appearance are likely despite early fistula, skin loss, or metal plate or bone exposure.

  12. Development and Tissue Origins of the Mammalian Cranial Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseki, S.; Bamforth, S. D.; Olsen, B. R.; Morriss-Kay, G. M.

    2008-01-01

    The vertebrate cranial base is a complex structure composed of bone, cartilage and other connective tissues underlying the brain; it is intimately connected with development of the face and cranial vault. Despite its central importance in craniofacial development, morphogenesis and tissue origins of the cranial base have not been studied in detail in the mouse, an important model organism. We describe here the location and time of appearance of the cartilages of the chondrocranium. We also examine the tissue origins of the mouse cranial base using a neural crest cell lineage cell marker, Wnt1-Cre/R26R, and a mesoderm lineage cell marker, Mesp1-Cre/R26R. The chondrocranium develops between E11 and E16 in the mouse, beginning with development of the caudal (occipital) chondrocranium, followed by chondrogenesis rostrally to form the nasal capsule, and finally fusion of these two parts via the midline central stem and the lateral struts of the vault cartilages. X-Gal staining of transgenic mice from E8.0 to 10 days post-natal showed that neural crest cells contribute to all of the cartilages that form the ethmoid, presphenoid, and basisphenoid bones with the exception of the hypochiasmatic cartilages. The basioccipital bone and non-squamous parts of the temporal bones are mesoderm derived. Therefore the prechordal head is mostly composed of neural crest-derived tissues, as predicted by the New Head Hypothesis. However, the anterior location of the mesoderm-derived hypochiasmatic cartilages, which are closely linked with the extra-ocular muscles, suggests that some tissues associated with the visual apparatus may have evolved independently of the rest of the “New Head”. PMID:18680740

  13. A study of muscular tissue of animal origin by reflection-spectroscopy methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, L. V.; Nechiporenko, A. P.; Orekhova, S. M.; Plotnikov, P. P.; Ishevskii, A. L.

    2017-06-01

    A comparative analysis of the spectral characteristics of the surface of muscular tissue of animal origin (pork) and its main components has been performed by the methods of diffuse reflection electronic spectroscopy (DRES) and frustrated total internal reflection IR spectroscopy. The experiments have shown that the application of the DRES method makes it possible to detect more pronounced changes in the surface optical characteristics of muscular tissue and obtain electronic spectra containing information about the component composition of its main parts under successive extraction of sarcoplasmic materials, myofibrillar proteins of the actomyosin complex, and stroma mucopolysaccharides.

  14. Composites structures for bone tissue reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, W.; Santos, João; Avérous, L.; Schlatter, G.; Bretas, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    The search for new biomaterials in the bone reconstitution field is growing continuously as humane life expectation and bone fractures increase. For this purpose, composite materials with biodegradable polymers and hydroxyapatite (HA) have been used. A composite material formed by a film, nanofibers and HA has been made. Both, the films and the non-woven mats of nanofibers were formed by nanocomposites made of butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) and HA. The techniques used to produce the films and nanofibers were spin coating and electrospinning, respectively. The composite production and morphology were evaluated. The composite showed an adequate morphology and fibers size to be used as scaffold for cell growth

  15. Composites structures for bone tissue reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, W.; Santos, João.; Avérous, L.; Schlatter, G.; Bretas, Rosario.

    2015-05-01

    The search for new biomaterials in the bone reconstitution field is growing continuously as humane life expectation and bone fractures increase. For this purpose, composite materials with biodegradable polymers and hydroxyapatite (HA) have been used. A composite material formed by a film, nanofibers and HA has been made. Both, the films and the non-woven mats of nanofibers were formed by nanocomposites made of butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) and HA. The techniques used to produce the films and nanofibers were spin coating and electrospinning, respectively. The composite production and morphology were evaluated. The composite showed an adequate morphology and fibers size to be used as scaffold for cell growth.

  16. Earth-approaching asteroids: Populations, origin, and compositional types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, E. M.; Helin, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    Origin, physical properties, and discovery history of smaller asteroids are reviewed. They appear to link the main belt objects, namely the comets and meteorites. Physical observations suggest that a wide variety of compositional types are represented among the near-earth asteroids; the apparent rarity of carbonaceous objects is stated.

  17. Difference in volatile composition between the pericarp tissue and inner tissue of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous studies have reported the volatile profiles in the whole fruit or pericarp tissue of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit; however, information is limited on the volatile composition in the inner tissue and its contribution to tomato aroma. For this, the pericarps and inner tissues of “Money...

  18. Biochemical composition of muscle tissue of penaeid prawns

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Biochemical composition of muscle tissue of females belonging to four species of penaeid prawns, viz. Metapenaeus affinis, M. dobsoni, Penaeus merguiensis and Parapenaeopsis stylifera, inhabiting the coastal waters of Goa, India, was estimated...

  19. Alfalfa stem tissues: Cell wall deposition, composition, and degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, H.G.; Engels, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Declining cell wall degradability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stems with maturation limits the nutritional value of alfalfa for ruminants. This study characterized changes in cell wall concentration, composition, and degradability by rumen microbes resulting from alfalfa stem tissue

  20. Composite tissue allotransplantation : functional, immunological and ethical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, M.; Brouha, P.C.R.

    2007-01-01

    Composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA) is a new therapeutic modality to reconstruct large tissue defects of the face, larynx, and extremities. The research in this thesis focuses on various aspects of CTA, i.e. 1) immunosuppression regimens and their influence on bone quality, 2) induction of

  1. Advancing biomaterials of human origin for tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fa-Ming; Liu, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    Biomaterials have played an increasingly prominent role in the success of biomedical devices and in the development of tissue engineering, which seeks to unlock the regenerative potential innate to human tissues/organs in a state of deterioration and to restore or reestablish normal bodily function. Advances in our understanding of regenerative biomaterials and their roles in new tissue formation can potentially open a new frontier in the fast-growing field of regenerative medicine. Taking in...

  2. STEM CELL ORIGIN DIFFERENTLY AFFECTS BONE TISSUE ENGINEERING STRATEGIES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eMattioli-Belmonte

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bone tissue engineering is a promising research area for the improvement of traditional bone grafting procedure drawbacks. Thanks to the capability of self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation, stem cells are one of the major actors in tissue engineering approaches, and adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are considered to be appropriate for regenerative medicine strategies. Bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs are the earliest- discovered and well-known stem cell population used in bone tissue engineering. However, several factors hamper BM-MSC clinical application and subsequently, new stem cell sources have been investigated for these purposes. The successful identification and combination of tissue engineering, scaffold, progenitor cells, and physiologic signalling molecules enabled the surgeon to design, recreate the missing tissue in its near natural form. On the basis of these considerations, we analysed the capability of two different scaffolds, planned for osteochondral tissue regeneration, to modulate differentiation of adult stem cells of dissimilar local sources (i.e. periodontal ligament, maxillary periosteum as well as adipose-derived stem cells, in view of possible craniofacial tissue engineering strategies. We demonstrated that cells are differently committed toward the osteoblastic phenotype and therefore, considering their peculiar features, they may alternatively represent interesting cell sources in different stem cell-based bone/periodontal tissue regeneration approaches.

  3. Hard tissue compatibility of natural hydroxyapatite/chitosan composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaojun; Gui Lai; Lue Xiaoying

    2008-01-01

    The natural hydroxyapatite/chitosan (NHC) composite is a new synthesized material. The aim of this experiment was to assess the bone tissue compatibility of this NHC composite in vivo. Twenty-four healthy New Zealand rabbits were included in this study. Of those, 20 were used as the experimental group and four as the control group. In the experimental group, animals receive a cranium defect procedure and NHC composite repair. In the control group, animals underwent the cranium defect procedure without NHC composite repair. At 1, 4, 12, 24, and 40 weeks after surgery, the animals were sacrificed and samples were taken and assessed by gross observation, three-dimensional (3D) computerized tomographic (CT) reconstruction, histology and scanning electron microscope. Our results showed that at 1 week after repairing the bone defect with the NHC composite in the experimental group, new bone appeared around the composite and matured gradually. At 24 weeks after surgery, there were little collagenous tissues present between the material and surrounding bones. At 40 weeks after surgery, new bone had grown into the mature bone and total osseointegration had occurred. In the control group, however, no bone defect healing was observed at 40 weeks after surgery. All these results of the present in vivo work suggest that the NHC composite has a good hard tissue biocompatibility and an excellent osteoconductivity. It is suitable for artificial bone implants and frame materials of tissue engineering.

  4. Hard tissue compatibility of natural hydroxyapatite/chitosan composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Xiaojun; Gui Lai [Department of Cranio-maxillofacial Surgery, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 33 Ba-Da-Chu Road, Beijing, 100144 (China); Lue Xiaoying [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096 (China)], E-mail: laiguiplastic@tom.com, E-mail: luxy@seu.edu.cn

    2008-12-15

    The natural hydroxyapatite/chitosan (NHC) composite is a new synthesized material. The aim of this experiment was to assess the bone tissue compatibility of this NHC composite in vivo. Twenty-four healthy New Zealand rabbits were included in this study. Of those, 20 were used as the experimental group and four as the control group. In the experimental group, animals receive a cranium defect procedure and NHC composite repair. In the control group, animals underwent the cranium defect procedure without NHC composite repair. At 1, 4, 12, 24, and 40 weeks after surgery, the animals were sacrificed and samples were taken and assessed by gross observation, three-dimensional (3D) computerized tomographic (CT) reconstruction, histology and scanning electron microscope. Our results showed that at 1 week after repairing the bone defect with the NHC composite in the experimental group, new bone appeared around the composite and matured gradually. At 24 weeks after surgery, there were little collagenous tissues present between the material and surrounding bones. At 40 weeks after surgery, new bone had grown into the mature bone and total osseointegration had occurred. In the control group, however, no bone defect healing was observed at 40 weeks after surgery. All these results of the present in vivo work suggest that the NHC composite has a good hard tissue biocompatibility and an excellent osteoconductivity. It is suitable for artificial bone implants and frame materials of tissue engineering.

  5. Alveolar bone tissue engineering using composite scaffolds for drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Matsuno

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available For many years, bone graft substitutes have been used to reconstruct bone defects in orthopedic and dental fields. However, synthetic bone substitutes such as hydroxyapatite or β-tricalcium phosphate have no osteoinductive or osteogenic abilities. Bone tissue engineering has also been promoted as an alternative approach to regenerating bone tissue. To succeed in bone tissue engineering, osteoconductive scaffolding biomaterials should provide a suitable environment for osteogenic cells and provide local controlled release of osteogenic growth factors. In addition, the scaffold for the bone graft substitute should biodegrade to replace the newly formed bone. Recent advances in bone tissue engineering have allowed the creation of composite scaffolds with tailored functional properties. This review focuses on composite scaffolds that consist of synthetic ceramics and natural polymers as drug delivery carriers for alveolar bone tissue engineering.

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft-tissue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (MRSA) has become a key pathogen in skin and soft-tissue infections. (SSTIs). The emergence of ..... SSTI isolates; (iii) improved hospital infection control guidelines and practices to prevent .... So exposed in the field. And he'll never run off ...

  7. Demineralized dentin matrix composite collagen material for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianan; Yang, Juan; Zhong, Xiaozhong; He, Fengrong; Wu, Xiongwen; Shen, Guanxin

    2013-01-01

    Demineralized dentin matrix (DDM) had been successfully used in clinics as bone repair biomaterial for many years. However, particle morphology of DDM limited it further applications. In this study, DDM and collagen were prepared to DDM composite collagen material. The surface morphology of the material was studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). MC3T3-E1 cells responses in vitro and tissue responses in vivo by implantation of DDM composite collagen material in bone defect of rabbits were also investigated. SEM analysis showed that DDM composite collagen material evenly distributed and formed a porous scaffold. Cell culture and animal models results indicated that DDM composite collagen material was biocompatible and could support cell proliferation and differentiation. Histological evaluation showed that DDM composite collagen material exhibited good biocompatibility, biodegradability and osteoconductivity with host bone in vivo. The results suggested that DDM composite collagen material might have a significant clinical advantage and potential to be applied in bone and orthopedic surgery.

  8. Skin-associated lymphoid tissues (SALT): origins and functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streilein, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The skin has an unusual set of immunologic requirements. It is confronted by a specialized set of pathogenic organisms and environmental chemicals that represent a distinctive spectrum of antigenic specificities. Skin is subjected to physicochemical stresses such as irradiation with ultraviolet light that alter dramatically its immunologic properties. It is proposed that nature has provided skin with a unique collection of lymphoid cells, reticular cells, and organized lymphoid organs to deal with these special demands. Evidence in favor of the existence of skin-associated lymphoid tissues (SALT) includes (1) the cutaneous microenvironment is capable on its own of accepting, processing, and presenting nominal antigen; (2) strategically located peripheral lymph nodes are able to accept immunogenic signals derived from skin; (3) subsets of T lymphocytes display differential affinity for skin and its associated peripheral nodes; and (4) acquisition of this affinity by T cells is determined at least in part by differentiation signals received in situ from resident cutaneous cells. Responsibility for the establishment and integration of SALT rests with keratinocytes, Langerhans cells, and immunocompetent lymphocytes, each of which contributes uniquely to the synthesis. Together they provide skin with immune surveillance that effectively prejudices against the development of cutaneous neoplasms and persistent infection with intracellular pathogens. In patients who have been under long-term immunosuppressive therapy, the large majority of nonlymphoid malignancies arise within the skin, rather than other types of tissues. These data suggest that immune surveillance, once thought to be an immune defense operative in all somatic tissues, is a specialized immune function dedicated to the skin and mediated by SALT

  9. Method of tissue repair using a composite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchens, Stacy A.; Woodward, Jonathan; Evans, Barbara R.; O' Neill, Hugh M.

    2016-03-01

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  10. Method of tissue repair using a composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Stacy A; Woodward, Jonathan; Evans, Barbara R; O'Neill, Hugh M

    2014-03-18

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  11. Adipose tissue expandability and the early origins of PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zegher, Francis; Lopez-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2009-11-01

    The most prevalent phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are characterized by insulin resistance and androgen excess. The adipose tissue (AT) expandability hypothesis explains the development of insulin resistance in obesity and in cases of AT deficit. In line with this hypothesis, we propose that hyperinsulinemic androgen excess in PCOS is often underpinned by exhaustion of the capacity to expand subcutaneous AT in a metabolically safe way. Such exhaustion might occur when a positive energy imbalance meets a normal fat-storage capacity and/or when a normal energy balance faces a low fat storage capacity. This concept thus explains how PCOS phenotypes might result from obesity, prenatal growth restraint or a genetic lipodystrophy, or, experimentally, from prenatal androgen excess.

  12. Stable isotope composition of cocoa beans of different geographical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Matteo; Bontempo, Luana; Ziller, Luca; Barbero, Alice; Caligiani, Augusta; Camin, Federica

    2016-09-01

    The isotopic profile (δ(13) C, δ(15) N, δ(18) O, δ(2) H, δ(34) S) was used to characterise a wide selection of cocoa beans from different renowned production areas (Africa, Asia, Central and South America). The factors most influencing the isotopic signatures of cocoa beans were climate and altitude for δ(13) C and the isotopic composition of precipitation water for δ(18) O and δ(2) H, whereas δ(15) N and δ(34) S were primarily affected by geology and fertilisation practises. Multi-isotopic analysis was shown to be sufficiently effective in determining the geographical origin of cocoa beans, and combining it with Canonical Discriminant Analysis led to more than 80% of samples being correctly reclassified. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Gene expression profiles help identify the Tissue of Origin for metastatic brain cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VandenBerg Scott R

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastatic brain cancers are the most common intracranial tumor and occur in about 15% of all cancer patients. In up to 10% of these patients, the primary tumor tissue remains unknown, even after a time consuming and costly workup. The Pathwork® Tissue of Origin Test (Pathwork Diagnostics, Redwood City, CA, USA is a gene expression test to aid in the diagnosis of metastatic, poorly differentiated and undifferentiated tumors. It measures the expression pattern of 1,550 genes in these tumors and compares it to the expression pattern of a panel of 15 known tumor types. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Tissue of Origin Test in the diagnosis of primary sites for metastatic brain cancer patients. Methods Fifteen fresh-frozen metastatic brain tumor specimens of known origins met specimen requirements. These specimens were entered into the study and processed using the Tissue of Origin Test. Results were compared to the known primary site and the agreement between the two results was assessed. Results Fourteen of the fifteen specimens produced microarray data files that passed all quality metrics. One originated from a tissue type that was off-panel. Among the remaining 13 cases, the Tissue of Origin Test accurately predicted the available diagnosis in 12/13 (92.3% cases. Discussion This study demonstrates the accuracy of the Tissue of Origin Test when applied to predict the tissue of origin of metastatic brain tumors. This test could be a very useful tool for pathologists as they classify metastatic brain cancers.

  14. The origin and composition of cucurbit "phloem" exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cankui; Yu, Xiyan; Ayre, Brian G; Turgeon, Robert

    2012-04-01

    Cucurbits exude profusely when stems or petioles are cut. We conducted studies on pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) to determine the origin and composition of the exudate. Morphometric analysis indicated that the exudate is too voluminous to derive exclusively from the phloem. Cold, which inhibits phloem transport, did not interfere with exudation. However, ice water applied to the roots, which reduces root pressure, rapidly diminished exudation rate. Sap was seen by microscopic examination to flow primarily from the fascicular phloem in cucumber, and several other cucurbit species, but primarily from the extrafascicular phloem in pumpkin. Following exposure of leaves to 14CO2, radiolabeled stachyose and other sugars were detected in the exudate in proportions expected of authentic phloem sap. Most of this radiolabel was released during the first 20 s. Sugars in exudate were dilute. The sugar composition of exudate from extrafascicular phloem near the edge of the stem differed from that of other sources in that it was high in hexose and low in stachyose. We conclude that sap is released from cucurbit phloem upon wounding but contributes negligibly to total exudate volume. The sap is diluted by water from cut cells, the apoplast, and the xylem. Small amounts of dilute, mobile sap from sieve elements can be obtained, although there is evidence that it is contaminated by the contents of other cell types. The function of P-proteins may be to prevent water loss from the xylem as well as nutrient loss from the phloem.

  15. Chitosan composite three dimensional macrospheric scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Veena; Kaur, Tejinder; Thirugnanam, Arunachalam

    2017-11-01

    The present work deals with the fabrication of chitosan composite scaffolds with controllable and predictable internal architecture for bone tissue engineering. Chitosan (CS) based composites were developed by varying montmorillonite (MMT) and hydroxyapatite (HA) combinations to fabricate macrospheric three dimensional (3D) scaffolds by direct agglomeration of the sintered macrospheres. The fabricated CS, CS/MMT, CS/HA and CS/MMT/HA 3D scaffolds were characterized for their physicochemical, biological and mechanical properties. The XRD and ATR-FTIR studies confirmed the presence of the individual constituents and the molecular interaction between them, respectively. The reinforcement with HA and MMT showed reduced swelling and degradation rate. It was found that in comparison to pure CS, the CS/HA/MMT composites exhibited improved hemocompatibility and protein adsorption. The sintering of the macrospheres controlled the swelling ability of the scaffolds which played an important role in maintaining the mechanical strength of the 3D scaffolds. The CS/HA/MMT composite scaffold showed 14 folds increase in the compressive strength when compared to pure CS scaffolds. The fabricated scaffolds were also found to encourage the MG 63 cell proliferation. Hence, from the above studies it can be concluded that the CS/HA/MMT composite 3D macrospheric scaffolds have wider and more practical application in bone tissue regeneration applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors affecting the tissues composition of pork belly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duziński, K; Knecht, D; Lisiak, D; Janiszewski, P

    2015-11-01

    Bellies derived from the commercial population of pig carcasses are diverse in terms of tissue composition. Knowledge of the factors influencing it and the expected results, permits quick and easy evaluation of raw material. The study was designed to determine the factors affecting the tissues composition of pork bellies and to estimate their lean meat content. The research population (n=140 pig carcasses) was divided into groups according to sex (gilts, barrows), half-carcass mass (meat content class: S (⩾60%), E (55% to 60%), U (50% to 55%), R (meat content affected the growth of the fat and skin mass in a linear way. No differences were observed between class S and E in terms of belly muscle mass. A 0.37% higher share of belly in the half-carcass was found for barrows (Pmeat content in bellies, suggesting they may be used directly in the production line.

  17. Single walled carbon nanotube composites for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashim; Woods, Mia D; Illingworth, Kenneth David; Niemeier, Ryan; Schafer, Isaac; Cady, Craig; Filip, Peter; El-Amin, Saadiq F

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLAGA) composites for orthopedic applications and to evaluate the interaction of human stem cells (hBMSCs) and osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1 cells) via cell growth, proliferation, gene expression, extracellular matrix production and mineralization. PLAGA and SWCNT/PLAGA composites were fabricated with various amounts of SWCNT (5, 10, 20, 40, and 100 mg), characterized and degradation studies were performed. Cells were seeded and cell adhesion/morphology, growth/survival, proliferation and gene expression analysis were performed to evaluate biocompatibility. Imaging studies demonstrated uniform incorporation of SWCNT into the PLAGA matrix and addition of SWCNT did not affect the degradation rate. Imaging studies revealed that MC3T3-E1 and hBMSCs cells exhibited normal, non-stressed morphology on the composites and all were biocompatible. Composites with 10 mg SWCNT resulted in highest rate of cell proliferation (p PLAGA composites imparted beneficial cellular growth capabilities and gene expression, and mineralization abilities were well established. These results demonstrate the potential of SWCNT/PLAGA composites for musculoskeletal regeneration and bone tissue engineering (BTE) and are promising for orthopedic applications. Copyright © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  18. Cellularized cylindrical fiber/hydrogel composites for ligament tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Patrick S; Dimling, Anna F; Plessl, Daniel S; Hahn, Mariah R; Guelcher, Scott A; Dahlgren, Linda A; Goldstein, Aaron S

    2014-01-13

    Electrospun meshes suffer from poor cell infiltration and limited thickness, which restrict their use to thin tissue applications. Herein, we demonstrate two complementary processes to overcome these limitations and achieve elastomeric composites that may be suitable for ligament repair. First, C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells were incorporated into electrospun meshes using a hybrid electrospinning/electrospraying process. Second, electrospun meshes were rolled and formed into composites with an interpenetrating polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel network. Stiffer composites were formed from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) meshes, while softer and more elastic composites were formed from poly(ester-urethane urea) (PEUUR) meshes. As-spun PLGA and PEUUR rolled meshes had tensile moduli of 19.2 ± 1.9 and 0.86 ± 0.34 MPa, respectively, which changed to 11.6 ± 4.8 and 1.05 ± 0.39 MPa with the incorporation of a PEG hydrogel phase. In addition, cyclic tensile testing indicated that PEUUR-based composites deformed elastically to at least 10%. Finally, C3H10T1/2 cells incorporated into electrospun meshes survived the addition of the PEG phase and remained viable for up to 5 days. These results indicate that the fabricated cellularized composites are support cyclic mechanical conditioning, and have potential application in ligament repair.

  19. Tracing the evolutionary origin of vertebrate skeletal tissues: insights from cephalochordate amphioxus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Luok Wen; Yu, Jr-Kai

    2016-08-01

    Vertebrate mineralized skeletal tissues are widely considered as an evolutionary novelty. Despite the importance of these tissues to the adaptation and radiation of vertebrate animals, the evolutionary origin of vertebrate skeletal tissues remains largely unclear. Cephalochordates (Amphioxus) occupy a key phylogenetic position and can serve as a valuable model for studying the evolution of vertebrate skeletal tissues. Here we summarize recent advances in amphioxus developmental biology and comparative genomics that can help to elucidate the evolutionary origins of the vertebrate skeletal tissues and their underlying developmental gene regulatory networks (GRN). By making comparisons to the developmental studies in vertebrate models and recent discoveries in paleontology and genomics, it becomes evident that the collagen matrix-based connective tissues secreted by the somite-derived cells in amphioxus likely represent the rudimentary skeletal tissues in chordates. We propose that upon the foundation of this collagenous precursor, novel tissue mineralization genes that arose from gene duplications were incorporated into an ancestral mesodermal GRN that makes connective and supporting tissues, leading to the emergence of highly-mineralized skeletal tissues in early vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Isotopic composition and origin of the precipitation in Northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravena, R.; Suzuki, O.; Pena, H.; Pollastri, A.; Fuenzalida, H.; Grilli, A.

    1999-01-01

    A 3 a data set of isotopes in precipitation from northern Chile show a very distinct pattern, with δ 18 O values ranging between -18 and -15per thousand at high altitude stations, compared to δ 18 O values between -10 and -6per thousand at the lower altitude areas. The 18 O-depleted values observed in the high altitude area, the Altiplano, are related to processes that affect the air masses that originated over the Atlantic, cross the Amazon Basin (continental effect), ascend the Andes (altitude effect) and precipitated (convective effect) in the Altiplano. It is postulated that a second source of moisture, associated with air masses from the Pacific, may contribute to the 18 O-enriched values observed in the lower altitude areas. Similar isotopic patterns are documented in springs and groundwater indicating that the data presented in this paper are an accurate representation of the long term behavior isotopic composition of rain in northern Chile. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. Isotopic composition and origin of the precipitation in Northern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravena, R. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo (Canada); Suzuki, O. [Exploracion y Desarrollo de Recursos Hidricos, Santiago (Chile); Pena, H. [Direccion General de Aguas, Ministerio de Obras Publicas, Santiago (Chile); Pollastri, A. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Fuenzalida, H. [Departamento de Geofisica, Universidad of Chile, Santiago (Chile); Grilli, A. [Empresa Metropolitana de Obras Sanitarias, Santiago (Chile)

    1999-06-01

    A 3 a data set of isotopes in precipitation from northern Chile show a very distinct pattern, with {delta}{sup 18}O values ranging between -18 and -15per thousand at high altitude stations, compared to {delta}{sup 18}O values between -10 and -6per thousand at the lower altitude areas. The {sup 18}O-depleted values observed in the high altitude area, the Altiplano, are related to processes that affect the air masses that originated over the Atlantic, cross the Amazon Basin (continental effect), ascend the Andes (altitude effect) and precipitated (convective effect) in the Altiplano. It is postulated that a second source of moisture, associated with air masses from the Pacific, may contribute to the {sup 18}O-enriched values observed in the lower altitude areas. Similar isotopic patterns are documented in springs and groundwater indicating that the data presented in this paper are an accurate representation of the long term behavior isotopic composition of rain in northern Chile. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cells of Dental Origin for Inducing Tissue Regeneration in Periodontitis: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Hernández-Monjaraz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a chronic disease that begins with a period of inflammation of the supporting tissues of the teeth table and then progresses, destroying the tissues until loss of the teeth occurs. The restoration of the damaged dental support apparatus is an extremely complex process due to the regeneration of the cementum, the periodontal ligament, and the alveolar bone. Conventional treatment relies on synthetic materials that fill defects and replace lost dental tissue, but these approaches are not substitutes for a real regeneration of tissue. To address this, there are several approaches to tissue engineering for regenerative dentistry, among them, the use of stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC can be obtained from various sources of adult tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, skin, and tissues of the orofacial area. MSC of dental origin, such as those found in the bone marrow, have immunosuppressive and immunotolerant properties, multipotency, high proliferation rates, and the capacity for tissue repair. However, they are poorly used as sources of tissue for therapeutic purposes. Their accessibility makes them an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells, so this review describes the field of dental stem cell research and proposes a potential mechanism involved in periodontal tissue regeneration induced by dental MSC.

  3. Direct spectrometry: a new alternative for measuring the fluorescence of composite resins and dental tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Tm; de Oliveira, Hpm; Severino, D; Balducci, I; Huhtala, Mfrl; Gonçalves, Sep

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fluorescence intensity of different composite resins and compare those values with the fluorescence intensity of dental tissues. Different composite resins were used to make 10 discs (2 mm in depth and 4 mm in diameter) of each brand, divided into groups: 1) Z (Filtek Z350, 3M ESPE), 2) ES (Esthet-X, Dentsply), 3) A (Amelogen Plus, Ultradent), 4) DVS (Durafill-VS, Heraeus Kulzer) with 2 mm composite resin for enamel (A2), 5) OES ([Esthet-X] opaque-OA [1 mm] + enamel-A2 [1 mm]); 6) ODVSI ([Charisma-Opal/Durafill-VSI], opaque-OM (1 mm) + translucent [1mm]), and 7) DVSI ([Durafill- VSI] translucent [2 mm]). Dental tissue specimens were obtained from human anterior teeth cut in a mesiodistal direction to obtain enamel, dentin, and enamel/dentin samples (2 mm). The fluorescence intensity of specimens was directly measured using an optic fiber associated with a spectrometer (Ocean Optics USB 4000) and recorded in graphic form (Origin 8.0 program). Data were submitted to statistical analysis using Dunnet, Tukey, and Kruskall-Wallis tests. Light absorption of the composite resins was obtained in a spectral range from 250 to 450 nm, and that of dental tissues was between 250 and 300 nm. All composite resins were excited at 398 nm and exhibited maximum emissions of around 485 nm. Fluorescence intensity values for all of the resins showed statistically significant differences (measured in arbitrary units [AUs]), with the exception of groups Z and DVS. Group DVSI had the highest fluorescence intensity values (13539 AU), followed by ODVS (10440 AU), DVS (10146 AU), ES (3946 AU), OES (3841 AU), A (3540 AU), and Z (1146 AU). The fluorescence intensity values for the composite resins differed statistically from those of dental tissues (E=1380 AU; D=6262 AU; E/D=3251 AU). The opacity interfered with fluorescence intensity, and group Z demonstrated fluorescence intensity values closest to that of tooth enamel. It is concluded that the

  4. Heavy Metal Content in Chilean Fish Related to Habitat Use, Tissue Type and River of Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copaja, S V; Pérez, C A; Vega-Retter, C; Véliz, D

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we analyze the concentration of ten metals in two freshwater fish-the benthic catfish Trichomycterus areolatus and the limnetic silverside Basilichthys microlepidotus-in order to detect possible accumulation differences related to fish habitat (benthic or pelagic), tissue type (gill, liver and muscle), and the river of origin (four different rivers) in central Chile. The MANOVA performed with all variables and metals, revealed independent effects of fish, tissue and river. In the case of the fish factor, Cu, Cr, Mo and Zn showed statistically higher concentrations in catfish compared with silverside for all tissues and in all rivers (p food sources and respiration.

  5. Multiplatform analysis of 12 cancer types reveals molecular classification within and across tissues of origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoadley, Katherine A; Yau, Christina; Wolf, Denise M

    2014-01-01

    Recent genomic analyses of pathologically defined tumor types identify "within-a-tissue" disease subtypes. However, the extent to which genomic signatures are shared across tissues is still unclear. We performed an integrative analysis using five genome-wide platforms and one proteomic platform...... on 3,527 specimens from 12 cancer types, revealing a unified classification into 11 major subtypes. Five subtypes were nearly identical to their tissue-of-origin counterparts, but several distinct cancer types were found to converge into common subtypes. Lung squamous, head and neck, and a subset...

  6. Composition of MRI phantom equivalent to human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Kuroda, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Koichi; Yoshida, Atsushi; Hanamoto, Katsumi; Kawasaki, Shoji; Shibuya, Koichi; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2005-01-01

    We previously developed two new MRI phantoms (called the CAG phantom and the CAGN phantom), with T1 and T2 relaxation times equivalent to those of any human tissue at 1.5 T. The conductivity of the CAGN phantom is equivalent to that of most types of human tissue in the frequency range of 1 to 130 MHz. In this paper, the relaxation times of human tissues are summarized, and the composition of the corresponding phantoms are provided in table form. The ingredients of these phantoms are carrageenan as the gelling agent, GdCl 3 as a T1 modifier, agarose as a T2 modifier, NaCl (CAGN phantom only) as a conductivity modifier, NaN 3 as an antiseptic, and distilled water. The phantoms have T1 values of 202-1904 ms and T2 values of 38-423 ms when the concentrations of GdCl 3 and agarose are varied from 0-140 μmol/kg, and 0%-1.6%, respectively, and the CAGN phantom has a conductivity of 0.27-1.26 S/m when the NaCl concentration is varied from 0%-0.7%. These phantoms have sufficient strength to replicate a torso without the use of reinforcing agents, and can be cut by a knife into any shape. We anticipate the CAGN phantom to be highly useful and practical for MRI and hyperthermia-related research

  7. The Origin of Mercury's Surface Composition, an Experimental Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujibar, A.; Righter, K.; Rapp, J. F.; Ross, D. K.; Pando, K. M.; Danielson, L. R.; Fontaine, E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Results from MESSENGER spacecraft have confirmed the reduced nature of Mercury, based on its high core/mantle ratio and its FeO-poor and S-rich surface. Moreover, high resolution images revealed large volcanic plains and abundant pyroclastic deposits, suggesting major melting stages of the Mercurian mantle. In addition, MESSENGER has provided the most precise data to date on major elemental compositions of Mercury's surface. These results revealed considerable chemical heterogeneities that suggested several stages of differentiation and re-melting processes. This interpretation was challenged by our experimental previous study, which showed a similar compositional variation in the melting products of enstatite chondrites, which are a possible Mercury analogue. However, these experimental melts were obtained over a limited range of pressure (1 bar to 1 gigapascal) and were not compared to the most recent elemental maps. Therefore, here we extend the experimental dataset to higher pressures and perform a more quantitative comparison with Mercury's surface compositions measured by MESSENGER. In particular, we test whether these chemical heterogeneities result from mixing between polybaric melts. Our experiments and models show that the majority of chemical diversity of Mercury's surface can result from melting of a primitive mantle compositionally similar to enstatite chondrites in composition at various depths and degrees of melting. The high-Mg region's composition is reproduced by melting at high pressure (3 gigapascals) (Tab. 1), which is consistent with previous interpretation as being a large degraded impact basin based on its low elevation and thin average crust. While low-Mg NVP (North Volcanic Plains) are the result of melting at low pressure (1 bar), intermediate-Mg NVP, Caloris Basin and Rachmaninoff result from mixing of a high-pressure (3 gigapascals) and low-pressure components (1 bar for Rachmaninoff and 1 gigapascal for the other regions

  8. Molecular composition and paleobotanical origin of Eocene resin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dation of plant tissues by sealing and protecting wounds (van Aarssen ... taceous whereas the evolution of conifers predates ... mainly to angiosperm plants of Dipterocarpaceae ..... cation, classification and nomenclature of resinites; Org. Geochem. 18 829–841. Appanah S 1993 Mass flowering of dipterocarp forests in the.

  9. Study on the meat isotopic composition for origin identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Chernukha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Russian consumer and governmental authorities are equally concerned to know where food products come from. This requires more accurate and specialized methods for the evaluation of geographical location. The following methods are used: chemometrics, histological and histochemical, genomic and proteomic, microbiological, immunochemical and mass spectrometric. Method of stable isotope analysis is becoming increasingly promising nowadays for the identification of meat and meat products' place of origin. The isotope ratios of the four elements - carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, are mainly determined. The method is successfully used to identify a country of origin of wines, juices and water. The aim of the research was to study the stable isotope ratios for pork and beef samples purchased in Moscow supermarkets (Russian Federation. The country of production of meat samples was determined according to specifications and/or labels. The geography of countries of meat samples origin includes Europe, both America continents and Australia. Databases collected by the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of the Brewing, Non-Alcoholic and Wine Industrywere used for the analysis and interpretation of the results. Values of 13С/12С, δ13С, 18О/16О, δ18О, 2Н/1Н, δ2Н for 30 pork and beef samples from 13 countries were obtained. Differences in stable isotope ratios were found depending on place of origin. The data correlated with the oxygen isotope characteristics for wine, which were in the range from 2.5 to 4.5 ppm. According to the 13С/12С, δ13С results, the assumption was made about a false indication of the region for the beef sample. Despite the fact that beef was labeled as a product of Lithuania, the region of origin was most probably defined as Germany. The studies carried out showed the possibility to identify the region of raw meat origin by the stable isotope ratio.

  10. Fatty acid composition of ostrich (Struthio camelus abdominal adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Belichovska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid composition of foods has a great impact on nutrition and health. Therefore, thе determination and knowledge of the fatty acid composition of food is very important for nutrition. Due to the high nutritional characteristics of ostrich meat and its products, the research determining their quality is of topical interest. The aim of the present investigation was the determination of fatty acid composition of ostrich adipose tissue. The content of fatty acids was determined according to AOAC Official Methods of Analysis and determination was performed using a gas chromatograph with a flame-ionization detector (GC-FID. The results are expressed as a percentage of the total content of fatty acids. The method was validated and whereupon the following parameters were determined: linearity, precision, recovery, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The repeatability was within of 0.99 to 2.15%, reproducibility from 2.01 to 4.57%, while recovery ranged from 94.89 to 101.03%. According to these results, this method is accurate and precise and can be used for analysis of fatty acids in foods. It was concluded that the content of saturated fatty acids (SFA accounted 34.75%, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA 38.37%, of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 26.88%, of total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA 65.25% and of desirable fatty acids (DFA (total unsaturated + stearic acid 70.37% of the analysed samples. The ratio polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids accounted 0.77. The most present fatty acid is the oleic (C18:1n9c with 28.31%, followed by palmitic (C16:0 with 27.12% and linoleic (C18:2n6c acid with 25.08%. Other fatty acids are contained in significantly lower quantities.

  11. Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue thyroid lymphoma: a rare thyroid neoplasm of extrathyroid origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Hadjidakis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary thyroid lymphoma is a rare malignancy, representing 2-8% of all thyroid malignancies and 1-2% of all extranodal lymphomas. The majority of cases concern non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma of B cell origin, following by Hodgkin’s disease, T cell lymphomas and rarely marginal zone B-cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphomas. MALT lymphomas have been associated with long-standing autoimmune Hashimoto`s thyroiditis. We present the case of a 44-years-old woman with thyroid MALT lymphoma in the background of multinodular goiter of autoimmune origin.

  12. Heterogeneity of the radiosensitivity and origins of tissue macrophage colony-forming cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oghiso, Yoichi; Yamada, Yutaka (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    Previous studies suggest that the radiosensitivity and origin of tissue macrophage precursors differ from those of hemopoietic macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-Ms) committed to macrophage-lineage cells. We assessed the origins of tissue macrophage colony-forming cells (M-CFCs) in mice by comparing their kinetics and radiosensitivities in the normal steady state and under the conditions of bone marrow depletion by [sup 89]Sr-administration and/or splenectomy. The results indicate that the radiosensitive peritoneal M-CFCs elicited by thioglycollate are derived from bone marrow macrophage precursors; where as alveolar M-CFCs, which are radioresistant, are self-sustained locally and independent of hemopoietic macrophage precursors. In contrast, highly radiosensitive liver M-CFCs are probably derived from CFU-Ms that appear to be propagated in the spleen in association with hemopoietic responses. (author).

  13. The immune cell composition in Barrett's metaplastic tissue resembles that in normal duodenal tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Lind

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Barrett's esophagus (BE is characterized by the transition of squamous epithelium into columnar epithelium with intestinal metaplasia. The increased number and types of immune cells in BE have been indicated to be due to a Th2-type inflammatory process. We tested the alternative hypothesis that the abundance of T-cells in BE is caused by a homing mechanism that is found in the duodenum. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Biopsies from BE and duodenal tissue from 30 BE patients and duodenal tissue from 18 controls were characterized by immmunohistochemistry for the presence of T-cells and eosinophils(eos. Ex vivo expanded T-cells were further phenotyped by multicolor analysis using flowcytometry. RESULTS: The high percentage of CD4(+-T cells (69±3% (mean±SEM/n = 17, by flowcytometry, measured by flowcytometry and immunohistochemistry, and the presence of non-activated eosinophils found in BE by immunohistochemical staining, were not different from that found in duodenal tissue. Expanded lymphocytes from these tissues had a similar phenotype, characterized by a comparable but low percentage of αE(CD103 positive CD4(+cells (44±5% in BE, 43±4% in duodenum of BE and 34±7% in duodenum of controls and a similar percentage of granzyme-B(+CD8(+ cells(44±5% in BE, 33±6% in duodenum of BE and 36±7% in duodenum of controls. In addition, a similar percentage of α4β7(+ T-lymphocytes (63±5% in BE, 58±5% in duodenum of BE and 62±8% in duodenum of controls was found. Finally, mRNA expression of the ligand for α4β7, MAdCAM-1, was also similar in BE and duodenal tissue. No evidence for a Th2-response was found as almost no IL-4(+-T-cells were seen. CONCLUSION: The immune cell composition (lymphocytes and eosinophils and expression of intestinal adhesion molecule MAdCAM-1 is similar in BE and duodenum. This supports the hypothesis that homing of lymphocytes to BE tissue is mainly caused by intestinal homing signals rather than to an

  14. Developing bioactive composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun

    bone-like apatite/collagen composite coating. Saos-2 osteoblast-like cells were used to evaluate the cellular behaviors on these biomimetic coatings. Cell morphologies on the surfaces of PLLA films and scaffolds, PLLA films and scaffolds with apatite coating, and PLLA films and scaffolds with apatite/collagen composite coating were studied by SEM. Cell viability was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrasodium bromide (MTT) assay. In addition, differentiated cell function was assessed by measuring alkaline phosphatase activity. These results suggested that the apatite coating and apatite/collagen composite coating fabricated through the accelerated biomimetic processes could improve the interactions between osteoblasts and PLLA. The composite coating was more effective than apatite coating in improving such interactions. PLLA scaffolds coated with submicron collagen fibrils and submicron apatite paticulates are expected to be one of the promising 3D substrates for bone tissue engineering. To facilitate coating into scaffolds, the flowing condition was introduced into the accelerated biomimetic process. The apatite formed in the different sites in the scaffold was characterized using SEM. It was found that the accelerated biomimetic process performed in the flowing condition yielded more uniform spatial distribution of apatite particles than that in the regular shaking condition. This work provides a novel condition for obtaining uniform spatial distribution of bone-like apatite within the scaffolds in a timely manner, which is expected to facilitate uniform distribution of attached cells within the scaffoldsin vitro and in vivo.

  15. Legal Issues Related to Donation of Organs, Tissues and Cells of Human Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Mironov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific developments, positive changes in attitude of the man and the new legal framework allow the donation of organs, tissues and cells of human origin. In this context it is necessary to clarifywhether the donation covered by the special law is, legally, one and the same as that covered by the Romanian Civil Code in force and qualified the successor’s right to accept or reject late withdrawals for transplantation. The right to life and physical integrity is personal patrimony; it is a subjective civil right that has no economic content and it cannot be measured in money. Consequently, the content of these rights can not be expressed in money, the property does not belong to their owner. Given the above view, "the right of disposal" to donation of organs, tissues and cells of human origin is an attribute of ownership, right to life and physical integrity, as a personal right that is an intimate attribute patrimonial related to the person’s right to dispose of his body as it wishes, within the law. Addressing these issues it is necessary to clarify the legal consequences of donating organs, tissues and cells of human origin, considering that medical activities are becoming more numerous.

  16. Tissue-specific composite cell aggregates drive periodontium tissue regeneration by reconstructing a regenerative microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bin; Liu, Wenjia; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Xicong; Duan, Yan; Li, Dehua; Jin, Yan

    2017-06-01

    Periodontitis is the most common cause of periodontium destruction. Regeneration of damaged tissue is the expected treatment goal. However, the regeneration of a functional periodontal ligament (PDL) insertion remains a difficulty, due to complicated factors. Recently, periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) have been shown to participate in PDL regeneration, both pathologically and physiologically. Besides, interactions affect the biofunctions of different derived cells during the regenerative process. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to discuss the different derived composite cell aggregate (CA) systems of PDLSCs and BMMSCs (iliac-derived or jaw-derived) for periodontium regeneration under regenerative microenvironment reconstruction. Our results showed although all three mono-MSC CAs were compacted and the cells arranged regularly in them, jaw-derived BMMSC (JBMMSC) CAs secreted more extracellular matrix than the others. Furthermore, PDLSC/JBMMSC compound CAs highly expressed ALP, Col-I, fibronectin, integrin-β1 and periostin, suggesting that their biofunction is more appropriate for periodontal structure regeneration. Inspiringly, PDLSC/JBMMSC compound CAs regenerated more functional PDL-like tissue insertions in both nude mice ectopic and minipig orthotopic transplantation. The results indicated that the different derived CAs of PDLSCs/JBMMSCs provided an appropriate regenerative microenvironment facilitating a more stable and regular regeneration of functional periodontium tissue. This method may provide a possible strategy to solve periodontium defects in periodontitis and powerful experimental evidence for clinical applications in the future. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Brazilian Red Propolis—Chemical Composition and Botanical Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Daugsch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis contains resinous substances collected by honey bees from various plant sources and has been used as a traditional folk medicine since ca 300 BC. Nowadays, the use of evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is increasing rapidly and so is the use of propolis in order to treat or support the treatment of various diseases. Much attention has been focused on propolis from Populus sp. (Salicaceae and Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteracea, but scientific information about the numerous other types of propolis is still sparse. We gathered six samples of red propolis in five states of Northeastern Brazil. The beehives were located near woody perennial shrubs along the sea and river shores. The bees were observed to collect red resinous exudates on Dalbergia ecastophyllum (L Taub. (Leguminosae to make propolis. The flavonoids of propolis and red resinous exudates were investigated using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and reversed-phase high-performance thin-layer chromatography. We conclude that the botanical origin of the reddish propolis is D. ecastophyllum. In areas where this source (D. ecastophyllum was scarce or missing, bees were collecting resinous material from other plants. Propolis, which contained the chemical constituents from the main botanical origin, showed higher antimicrobial activity.

  18. The International Registry on Hand and Composite Tissue Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzo, Palmina; Lanzetta, Marco; Dubernard, Jean-Michel; Landin, Luis; Cavadas, Pedro; Margreiter, Raimund; Schneeberger, Stephan; Breidenbach, Warren; Kaufman, Christina; Jablecki, Jerzy; Schuind, Frédéric; Dumontier, Christian

    2010-12-27

    The International Registry on Hand and Composite Tissue Transplantation was founded in May 2002, and the analysis of all cases with follow-up information up to July 2010 is presented here. From September 1998 to July 2010, 49 hands (17 unilateral and 16 bilateral hand transplantations, including 1 case of bilateral arm transplantation) have been reported, for a total of 33 patients. They were 31 men and 2 women (median age 32 years). Time since hand loss ranged from 2 months to 34 years, and in 46% of cases, the level of amputation was at wrist. Immunosuppressive therapy included tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, sirolimus, and steroids; polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies were used for induction. Topical immunosuppression was also used in several cases. Follow-up ranges from 1 month to 11 years. One patient died on day 65. Three patients transplanted in the Western countries have lost their graft, whereas until September 2009, seven hand grafts were removed for noncompliance to the immunosuppressive therapy in China. Eighty-five percent of recipients experienced at least one episode of acute rejection within the first year, and they were reversible when promptly treated. Side effects included opportunistic infections, metabolic complications, and malignancies. All patients developed protective sensibility, 90% of them developed tactile sensibility, and 82.3% also developed a discriminative sensibility. Motor recovery enabled patients to perform most daily activities. Hand transplantation is a complex procedure, and its success is based on patient's compliance and his or her careful evaluation before and after transplantation.

  19. Isotopic composition and origin of the precipitation in Northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravena, R.; Pena, H.; Grilli, A.; Pollastri, A.; Fuenzalida, H.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: A three years isotope data on precipitation collected in northern Chile show a very distinct pattern, with depleted δ 18 and -150/00 observed at high altitude stations, compared to δ 18 0 values ranging between - 10 and -6/00 measured at the lower altitude areas. The depleted δ 0 values observed in the high altitude area, the Altiplano, are related to different processes that affect the air masses as moved from the Atlantic, crossed the Amazon Basin (continental effect), ascend the Andes (altitude effect) and precipitated (convective effect) in the Altiplano. It is postulated that a second source of moisture, associated to air masses from the Pacific, explained the enriched isotopic values observed in the lower altitude areas. Similar isotopic pattern, documented in springs and groundwater, indicates that the rain data presented in this paper is an accurate representation of the long term behavior of the isotopic composition of the rain in northern Chile

  20. The Volatile Composition of Portuguese Propolis Towards its Origin Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia I. Falcão

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The volatiles from thirty six propolis samples collected from six different geographical locations in Portugal (mainland, Azores archipelago and Madeira Island were evaluated. Populus x canadensis Moenchen leaf-buds and Cistus ladanifer L. branches essential oils were comparatively analysed. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by Gas Chromatography (GC and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Cluster analysis based on propolis samples volatiles chemical composition defined three main clusters, not related to sample site collection. Cluster I grouped 28 samples with high relative amounts of oxygen-containing sesquiterpenes (20-77%, while cluster II grouped 7 samples rich in oxygen-containing monoterpenes (9-65% and the only sample from cluster III was monoterpene hydrocarbons rich (26%. Although Populus x canadensis and Cistus ladanifer were associated as resin sources of Portuguese propolis, other Populus species as well as plants like Juniperus genus may contribute to the resin in specific geographical locations.

  1. In vitro aging of mineralized collagen-based composite as guided tissue regeneration membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, S.X. [Department of Prothodontics, School of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100875 (China)]. E-mail: sx_pan@sina.com; Li, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Feng, H.L. [Department of Prothodontics, School of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100875 (China); Bai, W. [Department of Prothodontics, School of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100875 (China); Gu, Y.Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2006-05-15

    The technique of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) has been developed for the regeneration of periodontal tissues, bone around natural teeth and dental implants. The aim of this study is to investigate the biodegradability and mechanic behavior of a novel mineralized nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly (lactic acid) (nHAC/PLA) composite as GTR membrane in vitro. The elastic modulus and maximum tensile strength of GTR film samples with different nHAC/PLA ratio were measured to get an optimal nHAC/PLA ratio. Thermogravimetric analysis was conducted to evaluate the change of the inorganic component in the samples during the process of in vitro aging. Morphology of samples was checked by using scanning electron microscopy. On the basis of the above results, it can be concluded that the GTR membranes maintained integrity and the original appearance throughout the 1-month in vitro aging. There is an active dissolution and deposition process of crystals which is propitious to the bone formation on the surface of the composite membrane. The optimal nHAC/PLA ratio of the novel membrane is 0.4:1. For a longer period of bone repair, PLA with higher molecular weight should be chosen as the scaffold for the GTR membrane.

  2. Origins and Destinations: Tracking Planet Composition through Planet Formation Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Quadry; Ballard, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    There are now several thousand confirmed exoplanets, a number which far exceeds our resources to study them all in detail. In particular, planets around M dwarfs provide the best opportunity for in-depth study of their atmospheres by telescopes in the near future. The question of which M dwarf planets most merit follow-up resources is a pressing one, given that NASA’s TESS mission will soon find hundreds of such planets orbiting stars bright enough for both ground and spaced-based follow-up.Our work aims to predict the approximate composition of planets around these stars through n-body simulations of the last stage of planet formation. With a variety of initial disk conditions, we investigate how the relative abundances of both refractory and volatile compounds in the primordial planetesimals are mapped to the final planet outcomes. These predictions can serve to provide a basis for making an educated guess about (a) which planets to observe with precious resources like JWST and (b) how to identify them based on dynamical clues.

  3. A calibration approach to glandular tissue composition estimation in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufhold, J.; Thomas, J.A.; Eberhard, J.W.; Galbo, C.E.; Trotter, D.E. Gonzalez

    2002-01-01

    The healthy breast is almost entirely composed of a mixture of fatty, epithelial, and stromal tissues which can be grouped into two distinctly attenuating tissue types: fatty and glandular. Further, the amount of glandular tissue is linked to breast cancer risk, so an objective quantitative analysis of glandular tissue can aid in risk estimation. Highnam and Brady have measured glandular tissue composition objectively. However, they argue that their work should only be used for 'relative' tissue measurements unless a careful calibration has been performed. In this work, we perform such a 'careful calibration' on a digital mammography system and use it to estimate breast tissue composition of patient breasts. We imaged 0%, 50%, and 100% glandular-equivalent phantoms of varying thicknesses for a number of clinically relevant x-ray techniques on a digital mammography system. From these images, we extracted mean signal and noise levels and computed calibration curves that can be used for quantitative tissue composition estimation. In this way, we calculate the percent glandular composition of a patient breast on a pixelwise basis. This tissue composition estimation method was applied to 23 digital mammograms. We estimated the quantitative impact of different error sources on the estimates of tissue composition. These error sources include compressed breast height estimation error, residual scattered radiation, quantum noise, and beam hardening. Errors in the compressed breast height estimate contribute the most error in tissue composition--on the order of ±7% for a 4 cm compressed breast height. The spatially varying scattered radiation will contribute quantitatively less error overall, but may be significant in regions near the skinline. It is calculated that for a 4 cm compressed breast height, a residual scatter signal error is mitigated by approximately sixfold in the composition estimate. The error in composition due to the quantum noise, which is the limiting

  4. Neuroblastoma originating from soft tissue at the crus and its radiological feature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Shozo; Hanaguri, Katsuro; Hase, Mamoru; Sako, Masao.

    1984-01-01

    A very rare case of neuroblastoma originated from soft tissue at the crus in an adult man was reported especially about its radiological feature. Plain X-ray film of the leg showed slight distension of the distance between the tibia and fibula at the proximal portion of the crus. Bone scintigram using sup(99m)Tc-MDP revealed abnormal accumulation at the right upper crus. CT showed a low density mass with smooth margin being at the right upper crus. In femoral angiography, irregular arterial encasement, hypervascular fine tumor vessels, inhomogeneous tumor stain and venous obstruction were shown. Radiological findings made sure the mass to be a primary malignant soft tissue tumor at the right upper crus. Operative finding corroborated the mass to be a malignant one and the tumor extent to correspond to the angiographic diagnosis. The mass was microscopically diagnosed as neuroblastoma. It has been noted that neuroblastoma in childhood had shown extraosseous accumulation of bone seeking agent in a high frequency. Even if in an adult patient, extraosseous accumulation of bone seeking agent in soft tissue tumor, shown in this case, would suggest a mass to be indicative of neuroblastoma. Angiographically, neuroblastoma was said not to show a constant pattern. In the presented case, angiography was very significant in diagnosis of malignancy and tumor extent. (author)

  5. The importance of the biomimetic composites components for recreating the optical properties and molecular composition of intact dental tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredin, P. V.; Goloshchapov, D. L.; Gushchin, M. S.; Ippolitov, Y. A.; Prutskij, T.

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate whether it is possible to obtain biomimetic materials recreating the luminescent properties and molecular composition of intact dental tissues. Biomimetic materials were produced and their properties compared with native dental tissues. In addition, the overall contribution of the organic and non-organic components in the photoluminescence band was investigated. The results showed that it is possible to develop biomimetic materials with similar molecular composition and optical properties to native dental tissues for the early identification of dental caries.

  6. [The elemental composition of teeth hard tissues depending on the state of the environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suladze, N; Shishniashvili, T; Margvelashvili, V; Kobakhidze, K

    2014-01-01

    At present, great attention is paid to the origin of man-made micro elemental anomalies. To monitor the state of the environment and its effects on the human body, of great importance is the determination of the amount and distribution of various chemical elements in the dentin and enamel of the teeth. To determine the essential (Ca, Zn, Mn, Ni), conditionally essential (Rb, Ni, Sr) and toxic (Pb, Hg) trace elements in the mineralized tissues of the teeth and to identify the relationship between the elemental composition of the tooth structure and the state of the general and dental health depending on the state of the environment, we have examined 29 children aged 3-4 years who have carried out analysis of hard tissue of teeth (teeth used for remote medical reasons) for the maintenance of nine chemical elements. Children living in a relatively environmentally favorable conditions essential value and conditionally essential elements in the mineralized tissues of the teeth were within normal limits, and toxic elements slightly increased limits that differ from those of children living in environmentally disadvantaged areas. In particular, these essential elements were significantly reduced (except for zinc), as indicators of toxic elements - mercury and lead, increased by 12.5% and 44.5%, respectively, which is clearly reflected on the state of dental health because noted decompensated form of tooth decay. Thus, deviations in a state of general and dental health of children associated with an imbalance of macro-and microelements in the mineralized tissues of the teeth.

  7. The use of stable isotope compositions of selected elements in food origin control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzchnicki, R.

    2002-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios have been used widely for authentication of foodstuffs especially for detection of added water and sugar in fruit juices and wines. Hydrogen and oxygen composition are particularly interesting probes for geographical origin and authenticity identification. Carbon and nitrogen composition of fruits contains the finger-print of their metabolism and growing condition. Exemplary data are presented which demonstrated the usefulness of the Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) methods for authenticating wines and fruits (juice and pulp). (author)

  8. Establishment of Human Neural Progenitor Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with Diverse Tissue Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayato Fukusumi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs have previously been generated from limited numbers of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC clones. Here, 21 hiPSC clones derived from human dermal fibroblasts, cord blood cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were differentiated using two neural induction methods, an embryoid body (EB formation-based method and an EB formation method using dual SMAD inhibitors (dSMADi. Our results showed that expandable hNPCs could be generated from hiPSC clones with diverse somatic tissue origins. The established hNPCs exhibited a mid/hindbrain-type neural identity and uniform expression of neural progenitor genes.

  9. Fabrication and in vitro biocompatibility of biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Junmin, E-mail: jmqian@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Xu, Weijun; Yong, Xueqing; Jin, Xinxia; Zhang, Wei

    2014-03-01

    In this study, biomorphic poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite (PLGA/nHA) composite scaffolds were successfully prepared using cane as a template. The porous morphology, phase, compression characteristics and in vitro biocompatibility of the PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds and biomorphic PLGA scaffolds as control were investigated. The results showed that the biomorphic scaffolds preserved the original honeycomb-like architecture of cane and exhibited a bimodal porous structure. The average channel diameter and micropore size of the PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds were 164 ± 52 μm and 13 ± 8 μm, respectively, with a porosity of 89.3 ± 1.4%. The incorporation of nHA into PLGA decreased the degree of crystallinity of PLGA, and significantly improved the compressive modulus of biomorphic scaffolds. The in vitro biocompatibility evaluation with MC3T3-E1 cells demonstrated that the biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds could better support cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation than the biomorphic PLGA scaffolds. The localization depth of MC3T3-E1 cells within the channels of the biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds could reach approximately 400 μm. The results suggested that the biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds were promising candidates for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Novel biomimetic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds were successfully prepared. • nHA addition improved elastic modulus of PLGA scaffold and decreased its crystallinity. • PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds had better biocompatibility than PLGA scaffolds. • Biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffold had great potential in bone tissue engineering.

  10. Fabrication and in vitro biocompatibility of biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Junmin; Xu, Weijun; Yong, Xueqing; Jin, Xinxia; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In this study, biomorphic poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite (PLGA/nHA) composite scaffolds were successfully prepared using cane as a template. The porous morphology, phase, compression characteristics and in vitro biocompatibility of the PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds and biomorphic PLGA scaffolds as control were investigated. The results showed that the biomorphic scaffolds preserved the original honeycomb-like architecture of cane and exhibited a bimodal porous structure. The average channel diameter and micropore size of the PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds were 164 ± 52 μm and 13 ± 8 μm, respectively, with a porosity of 89.3 ± 1.4%. The incorporation of nHA into PLGA decreased the degree of crystallinity of PLGA, and significantly improved the compressive modulus of biomorphic scaffolds. The in vitro biocompatibility evaluation with MC3T3-E1 cells demonstrated that the biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds could better support cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation than the biomorphic PLGA scaffolds. The localization depth of MC3T3-E1 cells within the channels of the biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds could reach approximately 400 μm. The results suggested that the biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds were promising candidates for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Novel biomimetic PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds were successfully prepared. • nHA addition improved elastic modulus of PLGA scaffold and decreased its crystallinity. • PLGA/nHA composite scaffolds had better biocompatibility than PLGA scaffolds. • Biomorphic PLGA/nHA composite scaffold had great potential in bone tissue engineering

  11. Optical study on the dependence of breast tissue composition and structure on subject anamnesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taroni, Paola; Quarto, Giovanna; Pifferi, Antonio; Abbate, Francesca; Balestreri, Nicola; Menna, Simona; Cassano, Enrico; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2015-07-01

    Time domain multi-wavelength (635 to 1060 nm) optical mammography was performed on 200 subjects to estimate their average breast tissue composition in terms of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin, water, lipid and collagen, and structural information, as provided by scattering parameters (amplitude and power). Significant (and often marked) dependence of tissue composition and structure on age, menopausal status, body mass index, and use of oral contraceptives was demonstrated.

  12. Fabrication of chitin-chitosan/nano TiO2-composite scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, R; Ramachandran, Roshni; Divyarani, V V; Chennazhi, K P; Tamura, H; Nair, S V

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we prepared chitin-chitosan/nano TiO(2) composite scaffolds using lyophilization technique for bone tissue engineering. The prepared composite scaffold was characterized using SEM, XRD, FTIR and TGA. In addition, swelling, degradation and biomineralization capability of the composite scaffolds were evaluated. The developed composite scaffold showed controlled swelling and degradation when compared to the control scaffold. Cytocompatibility of the scaffold was assessed by MTT assay and cell attachment studies using osteoblast-like cells (MG-63), fibroblast cells (L929) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Results indicated no sign of toxicity and cells were found attached to the pore walls within the scaffolds. These results suggested that the developed composite scaffold possess the prerequisites for tissue engineering scaffolds and it can be used for tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Elemental composition of skin tissue by PIXE and INAA analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollands, R.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars are a particular type of scar that can form after any type of dermal injury. They are unsightly, red, elevated above normal skin level, itchy and painful. At present no-one knows why these scars form. Due to the differences between scar tissue and normal skin it was decided to analyse skin tissue which at a later date would be compared to scar tissue. Spit skin graft (epidermis) samples as well as full thickness skin (epidermis to dermis) tissue were analysed using PIXE and RBS with a 2 MeV proton beam. The epidermis was compared to the dermis to see if there were any variations between the two. In all the samples P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, and Cd were detected and in a majority of the samples Zn and Ba were found, using PIXE. It was found that, between the epidermis and dermis, there was an significant increase in P in the epidermis in both full thickness and split skin graft samples. Complementary elemental analysis was also performed using neutron activation, and Br, Na and Zn were detected. (author)

  14. Fatty acid composition of muscle and heart tissue of Nile perch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fatty acid composition in the heart tissue and muscle tissue of the Nile perch, Lates niloticus, and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus populations from Lakes Kioga and Victoria was determined by methanolysis and gas chromatography of the resulting fatty acid methyl esters. The analytical data were treated by ...

  15. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  16. Dual growth factor delivery from bilayered, biodegradable hydrogel composites for spatially-guided osteochondral tissue repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, S.; Lam, J.; Trachtenberg, J.E.; Lee, E.J.; Seyednejad, H.; van den Beucken, J.J.; Tabata, Y.; Wong, M.E.; Jansen, J.A.; Mikos, A.G.; Kasper, F.K.

    2014-01-01

    The present work investigated the use of biodegradable hydrogel composite scaffolds, based on the macromer oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF), to deliver growth factors for the repair of osteochondral tissue in a rabbit model. In particular, bilayered OPF composites were used to mimic the

  17. REE compositions in fossil vertebrate dental tissues indicate biomineral preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žigaite, Ž.; Kear, B.; Pérez-Huerta, A.; Jeffries, T.; Blom, H.

    2012-04-01

    Rare earth element (REE) abundances have been measured in a number of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic dental tissues using Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Fossil vertebrates analysed comprise scales and tesserae of Silurian and Devonian acanthodians, chondrichthyans, galeaspids, mongolepids, thelodonts, as well as teeth of Cretaceous lungfish and marine reptiles. The evaluation of fossil preservation level has been made by semi-quantitative spot geochemistry analyses on fine polished teeth and scale thin sections, using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Fossil teeth and scales with significant structure and colour alteration have shown elevated heavy element concentrations, and the silicification of bioapatite has been common in their tissues. Stable oxygen isotope measurements (δ18O) of bulk biomineral have been conducted in parallel, and showed comparatively lower heavy oxygen values in the same fossil tissues with stronger visible alteration. Significant difference in REE concentrations has been observed between the dentine and enamel of Cretaceous plesiosaurs, suggesting the enamel to be more geochemically resistant to diagenetic overprint.

  18. Origin,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur de Vargas Giorgi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay tightens the “origin” concept, its manifestation through puzzles and their relationship to techniques of reproduction. Contrary to the hegemonic critique of aesthetic and cultural objects – critique that, settled on the appearance and notions of identity, tradition, canon, etc., undervalues the reproductions of "originals" –, the aim is to deliver these objects from formal hierarchization dispositives, that is, release them of what is ideal and positively imposed, so that the reproducibility is potentiated as producer of singularities, of apparitions. The effort is to keep the undecided character of puzzles (bodies, texts, images in which the origin is manifest, so that the logic of the spectacle is reverted into sense opening, instance in which the aesthetic becomes a “performance” before contemporary complexity. With the reproducibility, an origin survives in passage: continually restored, but incomplete, present in trace, in absence.

  19. Effects of thiosulfonates on the lipid composition of rat tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Pylypets

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thiosulfonates are synthetic analogs of organic sulfur-containing compounds isolated from plants. Recent studies have shown that these substances lowering cholesterol content in the body, are effective against hyperlipidemia. Therefore, the aim of our investigation was to study the effect of synthesized thiosulfonates on the content of lipids and their spectrum in rats blood, liver and kidney. The amount of total lipids and their fractional profile were determined by thin-layer chromatography. The administration of methyl-, ethyl-, and allylthiosulfonates at a dose of 300 mg/kg of body weight did not cause significant changes in the content of total lipids and phospholipids, but led to the redistribution of their classes in the examined tissues. The content of triacylglycerols in the blood plasma under the action of ethyl- and allylthiosulfonates was decreased by 29.14 and 23.19% (P < 0.05-0.01, respectively, whereas the injection with methyl- and ethylthiosulfonates was accompanied by a significant decrease in mono-, di-, triglycerides and free fatty acids in the liver compared to control. The most significant changes in the lipid profile of kidney tissue were detected under the action of methylthiosulfonate.

  20. Composition, structure, and properties of iron-rich nontronites of different origins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palchik, N. A., E-mail: nadezhda@igm.nsc.ru; Grigorieva, T. N.; Moroz, T. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2013-03-15

    The composition, structure, and properties of smectites of different origins have been studied by X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and microprobe analysis. The results showed that nontronites of different origins differ in composition, properties, morphology, and IR spectroscopic characteristics. Depending on the degree of structural order and the negative charge of iron-silicate layers in nontronites, the shift of the 001 reflection to smaller angles as a result of impregnation with ethylene glycol (this shift is characteristic of the smectite group) occurs differently. The calculated values of the parameter b (from 9.11 to 9.14A) are valid for the extreme terms of dioctahedral smectite representatives: nontronites.

  1. Origin and composition of particulate organic matter in a macrotidal turbid estuary: The Gironde Estuary, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoye, Nicolas; David, Valérie; Morisseau, François; Etcheber, Henri; Abril, Gwenaël; Billy, Isabelle; Charlier, Karine; Oggian, Georges; Derriennic, Hervé; Sautour, Benoît

    2012-08-01

    At the interface between continent and ocean, estuaries receive particles, and especially particulate organic matter (POM) originating from these two reservoirs, but also produce POM, through autochthonous primary production. The origin and composition of surface POM in the Gironde Estuary (SW France) and the environmental forcing of its variability was investigated using the data set produced by the French Coastal Monitoring Network SOMLIT (Service d'Observation en Milieu LITtoral; monthly like sampling during years 2007-2009). This estuary is considered as a model of macrotidal turbid estuaries. Using elemental and isotopic composition of the POM, we estimated that, at the inner estuary space scale and inter-annual time scale, surface particulate organic carbon (POC) was composed of terrestrial POM originated from the turbidity maximum (96.4%; refractory POC) and flood events (1.6%; labile and refractory POC), and of riverine (0.1%), estuarine (0.8%) and marine (1.1%) phytoplankton, i.e. that POC was 98% and 2% of terrestrial and phytoplankton origin, respectively. However, there was a clear spatial gradient: the phytoplankton contribution increases from ca. 1% in the upper and middle estuary to 8.5% in the lower estuary, where light condition is more favourable to plankton growth. The low contribution of phytoplankton to the POC is a characteristic of the Gironde estuary and contrast with other large temperate estuaries. Statistical analysis indicates that salinity, river flow and SPM concentration, and thus associated hydro-dynamic and sedimentary processes, were the only environmental forcings to the composition of surface POC in this system, at intra- and inter-annual time scale. In contrast, temperature and nutrient concentrations, and thus associated processes, do not force this composition of POC. By combining POC fluxes entering the inner estuary (literature data), POC loss as dissolved organic carbon and CO2 and as sediment trapping within the inner

  2. Leg tissue composition and physico-chemical parameters of sheep meat fed annatto coproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorgival Morais de Lima Júnior

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate leg tissue composition and physico-chemical quality parameters of sheep meat fed with increasing levels of annatto coproduct. 32 male uncastrated animals without a defined breed were randomized in four treatments (0, 100, 200 and 300 g kg-1 of annatto coproduct in the DM diet. After 78 days of confinement, the animals were slaughtered and body components were recorded. Reconstituted leg weight, total muscle weight, biceps weight and semitendinosus weight showed a negative linear behavior (P 0.05 were found for leg tissue composition (%, muscle:bone ratio, relative fat or leg muscle. Meat physico-chemical parameters (color, shear force, water retention capacity and cooking losses were not affected by the inclusion of the annatto coproduct in the diet. The annatto coproduct can be included in up to 300 g kg-1 of dietary dry matter without negative effects to the leg tissue composition (% and physical parameters of confined sheep meat.

  3. Tissue biocompatibility of kevlar aramid fibers and polymethylmethacrylate, composites in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J D; Mullarky, R H; Ryan, D E

    1987-01-01

    Two groups of female NZW rabbits were implanted in the paravertebral muscles with aramid (du Pont Kevlar aramid 49) fibers and aramid-polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) composites for 14 and 28 days. Rabbits were killed at these times periods, necropsies performed, sites scored for gross tissue response, and tissue specimens containing the implants removed for histopathological evaluation. A mild fibrous tissue reaction was observed around all implants containing aramid fiber similar to that observed around the silicone control implant. Some foreign body giant cells were also present adjacent to the fibers. An intense necrotic inflammatory reaction was present around the positive control material (PVC Y-78). The tissue response to implantation of aramid fiber and fiber-PMMA composites indicates that aramid is a biocompatible material.

  4. Analysing breast tissue composition with MRI using currently available short, simple sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, A.C.M.; Hua, J.; Taylor, D.B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To determine the most robust commonly available magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence to quantify breast tissue composition at 1.5 T. Materials and methods: Two-dimensional (2D) T1-weighted, Dixon fat, Dixon water and SPAIR images were obtained from five participants and a breast phantom using a 1.5 T Siemens Aera MRI system. Manual segmentation of the breasts was performed, and an in-house computer program was used to generate signal intensity histograms. Relative trough depth and relative peak separation were used to determine the robustness of the images for quantifying the two breast tissues. Total breast volumes and percentage breast densities calculated using the four sequences were compared. Results: Dixon fat histograms had consistently low relative trough depth and relative peak separation compared to those obtained using other sequences. There was no significant difference in total breast volumes and percentage breast densities of the participants or breast phantom using Dixon fat and 2D T1-weighted histograms. Dixon water and SPAIR histograms were not suitable for quantifying breast tissue composition. Conclusion: Dixon fat images are the most robust for the quantification of breast tissue composition using a signal intensity histogram. - Highlights: • Signal intensity histogram analysis can determine robustness of images for quantification of breast tissue composition. • Dixon fat images are the most robust. • The characteristics of the signal intensity histograms from Dixon water and SPAIR images make quantification unsuitable.

  5. Sensitivity of low energy brachytherapy Monte Carlo dose calculations to uncertainties in human tissue composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landry, Guillaume; Reniers, Brigitte; Murrer, Lars; Lutgens, Ludy; Bloemen-Van Gurp, Esther; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Keller, Brian; Beaulieu, Luc; Verhaegen, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Departement de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie, de l' Universite Laval, CHUQ, Pavillon L' Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada) and Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d' Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands) and Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to assess the sensitivity of Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations to uncertainties in human tissue composition for a range of low photon energy brachytherapy sources: {sup 125}I, {sup 103}Pd, {sup 131}Cs, and an electronic brachytherapy source (EBS). The low energy photons emitted by these sources make the dosimetry sensitive to variations in tissue atomic number due to the dominance of the photoelectric effect. This work reports dose to a small mass of water in medium D{sub w,m} as opposed to dose to a small mass of medium in medium D{sub m,m}. Methods: Mean adipose, mammary gland, and breast tissues (as uniform mixture of the aforementioned tissues) are investigated as well as compositions corresponding to one standard deviation from the mean. Prostate mean compositions from three different literature sources are also investigated. Three sets of MC simulations are performed with the GEANT4 code: (1) Dose calculations for idealized TG-43-like spherical geometries using point sources. Radial dose profiles obtained in different media are compared to assess the influence of compositional uncertainties. (2) Dose calculations for four clinical prostate LDR brachytherapy permanent seed implants using {sup 125}I seeds (Model 2301, Best Medical, Springfield, VA). The effect of varying the prostate composition in the planning target volume (PTV) is investigated by comparing PTV D{sub 90} values. (3) Dose calculations for four clinical breast LDR brachytherapy permanent seed implants using {sup 103}Pd seeds (Model 2335, Best Medical). The effects of varying the adipose/gland ratio in the PTV and of varying the elemental composition of adipose and gland within one standard deviation of the assumed mean composition are investigated by comparing PTV D{sub 90} values. For (2) and (3), the influence of using the mass density from CT scans instead of unit mass density is also assessed. Results: Results from simulation (1) show that variations

  6. Effect of Strain, Region, and Tissue Composition on Glucose Partitioning in Meniscus Fibrocartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhans, Kelsey L; Jackson, Alicia R

    2017-03-01

    A nearly avascular tissue, the knee meniscus relies on diffusive transport for nutritional supply to cells. Nutrient transport depends on solute partitioning in the tissue, which governs the amount of nutrients that can enter a tissue. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of mechanical strain, tissue region, and tissue composition on the partition coefficient of glucose in meniscus fibrocartilage. A simple partitioning experiment was employed to measure glucose partitioning in porcine meniscus tissues from two regions (horn and central), from both meniscal components (medial and lateral), and at three levels of compression (0%, 10%, and 20%). Partition coefficient values were correlated to strain level, water volume fraction, and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content of tissue specimens. Partition coefficient values ranged from 0.47 to 0.91 (n = 48). Results show that glucose partition coefficient is significantly (p < 0.001) affected by compression, decreasing with increasing strain. Furthermore, we did not find a statistically significant effect of tissue when comparing medial versus lateral (p = 0.181) or when comparing central and horn regions (p = 0.837). There were significant positive correlations between tissue water volume fraction and glucose partitioning for all groups. However, the correlation between GAG content and partitioning was only significant in the lateral horn group. Determining how glucose partitioning is affected by tissue composition and loading is necessary for understanding nutrient availability and related tissue health and/or degeneration. Therefore, this study is important for better understanding the transport and nutrition-related mechanisms of meniscal degeneration.

  7. Macronutrient composition determines accumulation of persistent organic pollutants from dietary exposure in adipose tissue of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrmel, Lene Secher; Fjære, Even; Midtbø, Lisa Kolden

    2016-01-01

    in metabolism and elimination of xenobiotics. Exposure to POPs, either as single compounds or mixtures, had no effect on obesity development, glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the dietary composition of macronutrients profoundly modulates POP accumulation...... in adipose tissues adding an additional parameter to be included in future studies. Our results indicate that alterations in macronutrient composition might be an additional route for reducing total body burden of POPs....

  8. Development of keratin–chitosan–gelatin composite scaffold for soft tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakkar, Prachi [Central Leather Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Adyar, Chennai 600020 (India); Verma, Sudhanshu; Manjubala, I. [Biomedical Engineering Division, School of Bio Sciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India); Madhan, B., E-mail: bmadhan76@yahoo.co.in [Central Leather Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Adyar, Chennai 600020 (India)

    2014-12-01

    Keratin has gained much attention in the recent past as a biomaterial for wound healing owing to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, intrinsic biological activity and presence of cellular binding motifs. In this paper, a novel biomimetic scaffold containing keratin, chitosan and gelatin was prepared by freeze drying method. The prepared keratin composite scaffold had good structural integrity. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed the retention of the native structure of individual biopolymers (keratin, chitosan, and gelatin) used in the scaffold. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results revealed a high thermal denaturation temperature of the scaffold (200–250 °C). The keratin composite scaffold exhibited tensile strength (96 kPa), compression strength (8.5 kPa) and water uptake capacity (> 1700%) comparable to that of a collagen scaffold, which was used as control. The morphology of the keratin composite scaffold observed using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) exhibited good porosity and interconnectivity of pores. MTT assay using NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells demonstrated that the cell viability of the keratin composite scaffold was good. These observations suggest that the keratin–chitosan–gelatin composite scaffold is a promising alternative biomaterial for tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Fabrication of novel Keratin-Chitosan-Gelatin composite scaffold • Keratin composite scaffold shows excellent water uptake capacity and porosity • Keratin composite scaffold shows good thermal and physical stability • Biocompatibility of the developed scaffold is comparable to collagen scaffolds • Developed scaffold is a promising material for soft tissue engineering applications.

  9. Harvesting Season and Botanical Origin Interferes in Production and Nutritional Composition of Bee Pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA F. NEGRÃO

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We aimed to evaluate the frequency of bee pollen production, its botanical origin and chemical composition when collected in different seasons. Our results indicate that higher proteins (22.80 ± 3.09% and flavonoids (2789.87 ± 1396.00 μg 100g-1 levels were obtained in the winter season, which also showed greater pollen production (134.50 ± 35.70 grams and predominance of the Myrtaceae family. As for spring we found high concentrations of lipids (4.62 ± 2.26% and low ash content (2.22 ± 0.39%. Regarding the amino acid composition and vitamin C content, we found no differences between the averages throughout the seasons. Our results highlight the importance of understanding not only the botanical origin and the chemical composition of bee pollen, but also the harvesting frequency of this product by bees, so that it becomes possible to supplement the colonies in times of natural food resources shortage.

  10. Comparative carcass and tissue nutrient composition of transgenic Yorkshire pigs expressing phytase in the saliva and conventional Yorkshire pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, C W; Meidinger, R G; Ajakaiye, A; Murray, D; Fan, M Z; Mandell, I B; Phillips, J P

    2014-10-01

    A transgenic line of Yorkshire (YK) pigs named the Cassie (CA) line was produced with a low copy number phytase transgene inserted in the genome. The transgenic line efficiently digests P, Ca, and other major minerals of plant dietary origin. The objectives of this study were to 1) compare carcass and tissue nutrient composition and meat quality traits for third generation hemizygous CA line market BW finisher pigs (n = 24) with age-matched conventional YK finisher pigs (n = 24) and 2) examine effects of outbreeding with high-index conventional YK boars on modifying carcass leanness from the third to sixth generations in CA line finisher boars (n = 73) and gilts (n = 103). Cassie boars (n = 12) and CA gilts (n = 12) were fed diets without supplemental P and comparable numbers of age-matched YK boars and gilts fed diets containing supplement P were raised throughout the finisher phase. The pigs were slaughtered and then fabricated into commercial pork primals before meat composition and quality evaluation. Proximate and major micronutrient composition was determined on tissues including fat, kidney, lean, liver, and skin. The main difference observed was greater (P = 0.033) crude fat content in CA boar carcasses and increased (P phytase action rather than to insertion of the transgene. However, from a meat composition perspective, transgenic expression of phytase in the CA line of YK pigs had little overall effect on meat composition. Outbreeding of high-index CA gilts with high-index commercial YK boars linearly reduced (P = 0.002) back fat thickness with a corresponding linear increase (P = 0.001) in lean yield in finisher CA gilts, although no change in these parameters was observed in CA finisher boars. The increase in lean yield in CA gilts by selective breeding without affecting the level of salivary phytase activity documents the value of conventional genetic selection in conjunction with genetic modification.

  11. Novel synthesis strategy for composite hydrogel of collagen/hydroxyapatite-microsphere originating from conversion of CaCO3 templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qingrong; Lu, Jian; Wang, Qiaoying; Fan, Hongsong; Zhang, Xingdong

    2015-03-20

    Inspired by coralline-derived hydroxyapatite, we designed a methodological route to synthesize carbonated-hydroxyapatite microspheres from the conversion of CaCO3 spherulite templates within a collagen matrix under mild conditions and thus constructed the composite hydrogel of collagen/hydroxyapatite-microspheres. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to confirm the successful generation of the carbonated hydroxyapatite phase originating from CaCO3, and the ratios of calcium to phosphate were tracked over time. Variations in the weight portion of the components in the hybrid gels before and after the phase transformation of the CaCO3 templates were identified via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows these composite hydrogels have a unique multiscale microstructure consisting of a collagen nanofibril network and hydroxyapatite microspheres. The relationship between the hydroxyapatite nanocrystals and the collagen fibrils was revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in detail, and the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern further confirmed the results of the XRD analyses which show the typical low crystallinity of the generated hydroxyapatite. This smart synthesis strategy achieved the simultaneous construction of microscale hydroxyapatite particles and collagen fibrillar hydrogel, and appears to provide a novel route to explore an advanced functional hydrogel materials with promising potentials for applications in bone tissue engineering and reconstruction medicine.

  12. Determination of elemental tissue composition following proton treatment using positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jongmin; Ibbott, Geoffrey; Gillin, Michael; Gonzalez-Lepera, Carlos; Min, Chul Hee; Zhu, Xuping; El Fakhri, Georges; Paganetti, Harald; Mawlawi, Osama

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has been suggested as an imaging technique for in vivo proton dose and range verification after proton induced-tissue activation. During proton treatment, irradiated tissue is activated and decays while emitting positrons. In this paper, we assessed the feasibility of using PET imaging after proton treatment to determine tissue elemental composition by evaluating the resultant composite decay curve of activated tissue. A phantom consisting of sections composed of different combinations of 1 H, 12 C, 14 N, and 16 O was irradiated using a pristine Bragg peak and a 6 cm spread-out Bragg-peak (SOBP) proton beam. The beam ranges defined at 90% distal dose were 10 cm; the delivered dose was 1.6 Gy for the near monoenergetic beam and 2 Gy for the SOBP beam. After irradiation, activated phantom decay was measured using an in-room PET scanner for 30 min in list mode. Decay curves from the activated 12 C and 16 O sections were first decomposed into multiple simple exponential decay curves, each curve corresponding to a constituent radioisotope, using a least-squares method. The relative radioisotope fractions from each section were determined. These fractions were used to guide the decay curve decomposition from the section consisting mainly of 12 C + 16 O and calculate the relative elemental composition of 12 C and 16 O. A Monte Carlo simulation was also used to determine the elemental composition of the 12 C + 16 O section. The calculated compositions of the 12 C + 16 O section using both approaches (PET and Monte Carlo) were compared with the true known phantom composition. Finally, two patients were imaged using an in-room PET scanner after proton therapy of the head. Their PET data and the technique described above were used to construct elemental composition ( 12 C and 16 O) maps that corresponded to the proton-activated regions. We compared the 12 C and 16 O compositions of seven ROIs that corresponded to the vitreous humor, adipose

  13. Homogenization of tissues via picosecond-infrared laser (PIRL) ablation: Giving a closer view on the in-vivo composition of protein species as compared to mechanical homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, M; Wurlitzer, M; Krutilin, A; Kiani, P; Nimer, R; Omidi, M; Mannaa, A; Bussmann, T; Bartkowiak, K; Kruber, S; Uschold, S; Steffen, P; Lübberstedt, J; Küpker, N; Petersen, H; Knecht, R; Hansen, N O; Zarrine-Afsar, A; Robertson, W D; Miller, R J D; Schlüter, H

    2016-02-16

    Posttranslational modifications and proteolytic processing regulate almost all physiological processes. Dysregulation can potentially result in pathologic protein species causing diseases. Thus, tissue species proteomes of diseased individuals provide diagnostic information. Since the composition of tissue proteomes can rapidly change during tissue homogenization by the action of enzymes released from their compartments, disease specific protein species patterns can vanish. Recently, we described a novel, ultrafast and soft method for cold vaporization of tissue via desorption by impulsive vibrational excitation (DIVE) using a picosecond-infrared-laser (PIRL). Given that DIVE extraction may provide improved access to the original composition of protein species in tissues, we compared the proteome composition of tissue protein homogenates after DIVE homogenization with conventional homogenizations. A higher number of intact protein species was observed in DIVE homogenates. Due to the ultrafast transfer of proteins from tissues via gas phase into frozen condensates of the aerosols, intact protein species were exposed to a lesser extent to enzymatic degradation reactions compared with conventional protein extraction. In addition, total yield of the number of proteins is higher in DIVE homogenates, because they are very homogenous and contain almost no insoluble particles, allowing direct analysis with subsequent analytical methods without the necessity of centrifugation. Enzymatic protein modifications during tissue homogenization are responsible for changes of the in-vivo protein species composition. Cold vaporization of tissues by PIRL-DIVE is comparable with taking a snapshot at the time of the laser irradiation of the dynamic changes that occur continuously under in-vivo conditions. At that time point all biomolecules are transferred into an aerosol, which is immediately frozen. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Variations in growth, survival and carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C) among Pinus pinaster populations of different geographic origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Isabel; Almeida, Maria Helena; Aguiar, Alexandre; Alía, Ricardo; David, Teresa Soares; Pereira, João Santos

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate differences in growth and adaptability of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), we studied growth, polycyclism, needle tissue carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C) as an estimate of water-use efficiency (WUE) and survival of seven populations at 10 years of age growing in a performance trial at a provenance test site in Escaroupim, Portugal. Six populations were from relatively high rainfall sites in Portugal and southwestern France (Atlantic group), and one population was from a more arid Mediterranean site in Spain. There were significant differences between some populations in total height, diameter at breast height, delta(13)C of bulk needle tissue, polycyclism and survival. A population from central Portugal (Leiria, on the Atlantic coast) was the tallest and had the lowest delta(13)C. Overall, the variation in delta(13)C was better explained by the mean minimum temperatures of the coldest month than by annual precipitation at the place of origin. Analyses of the relationships between delta(13)C and growth or survival revealed a distinct pattern for the Mediterranean population, with low delta(13)C (and WUE) associated with the lowest growth potential and reduced survival. There were significant negative correlations between delta(13)C and height or survival in the Atlantic group. Variation in polycyclism was correlated with annual precipitation at the place of origin. Some Atlantic populations maintained a high growth potential while experiencing moderate water stress. A detailed knowledge of the relationships between growth, survival and delta(13)C in contrasting environments will enhance our ability to select populations for forestry or conservation.

  15. Effect of physical exercise on blood lipids and adipose tissue composition in young healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danner, S. A.; Wieling, W.; Havekes, L.; Leuven, J. G.; Smit, E. M.; Dunning, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    In a prospective, controlled study, the influence of strenuous physical exercise on plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, total triglycerides and fatty acid composition of adipose tissue was studied during 7 months of training in 15 senior oarsmen and 21 controls matched for

  16. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Nerve Regeneration and Immunomodulation after Composite Tissue Allotransplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    10-1-0927 TITLE: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Nerve Regeneration and Immunomodulation after Composite Tissue Allotransplantation...immunosuppression. Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are pluripotent cells, capable of differentiation along multiple mesenchymal lineages into...As part of implemented transition from University of Pittsburgh to Johns Hopkins University, we optimized our mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) isolation

  17. The geographical origin and chemical composition in phellinus mushrooms measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J.M.; Sun, G.M.; Moon, J.H.; Chung, Y.S.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, K.H.

    2012-01-01

    In order to expand the utilization of phellinus mushrooms as a dietary supplement, we attempted to evaluate the chemical composition by measuring its inorganic elemental content with the aid of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Twenty seven phellinus mushrooms samples were collected from Korea, Cambodia, and Vietnam. A total of 28 elements were analyzed in the phellinus mushroom samples using the INAA. The concentrations of Ca, K, and Mg are much higher than those of other elements in phellinus mushroom samples. The sum of determined elemental concentration in Cambodia samples was about 2-6 times higher than those in Korea and Vietnam samples, respectively. Based on our measurement data, we attempted to discriminate the geographical origin using principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The geographical origins of all samples were clearly classified with correct classification rate of 100%. (author)

  18. 3D printing of composite tissue with complex shape applied to ear regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung-Seob; Hong, Jung Min; Jung, Jin Woo; Shim, Jin-Hyung; Cho, Dong-Woo; Oh, Jeong-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    In the ear reconstruction field, tissue engineering enabling the regeneration of the ear's own tissue has been considered to be a promising technology. However, the ear is known to be difficult to regenerate using traditional methods due to its complex shape and composition. In this study, we used three-dimensional (3D) printing technology including a sacrificial layer process to regenerate both the auricular cartilage and fat tissue. The main part was printed with poly-caprolactone (PCL) and cell-laden hydrogel. At the same time, poly-ethylene-glycol (PEG) was also deposited as a sacrificial layer to support the main structure. After complete fabrication, PEG can be easily removed in aqueous solutions, and the procedure for removing PEG has no effect on the cell viability. For fabricating composite tissue, chondrocytes and adipocytes differentiated from adipose-derived stromal cells were encapsulated in hydrogel to dispense into the cartilage and fat regions, respectively, of ear-shaped structures. Finally, we fabricated the composite structure for feasibility testing, satisfying expectations for both the geometry and anatomy of the native ear. We also carried out in vitro assays for evaluating the chondrogenesis and adipogenesis of the cell-printed structure. As a result, the possibility of ear regeneration using 3D printing technology which allowed tissue formation from the separately printed chondrocytes and adipocytes was demonstrated. (paper)

  19. [The connective tissues, from the origin of the concept to its "Maturation" to extracellular matrix. Application to ocular tissues. Contribution to the history of medical sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labat-Robert, J; Robert, L; Pouliquen, Y

    2011-06-01

    The "Tissue" concept emerged apparently in the medical literature at about the French revolution, during the second half of the 18(th) century. It was found in the texts written by the physicians of Béarn and Montpellier, the Bordeu-s and also by the famous physician, Felix Vicq d'Azyr, the last attending physician of the queen Marie-Antoinette, "Bordeu et al. (1775) et Pouliquen (2009)". It was elaborated into a coherent doctrine somewhat later by Xavier Bichat, considered as the founder of modern pathological anatomy, Bichat. With the advent of histochemistry, from the beginning of the 20(th) century, several of the principal macromolecular components of connective tissues, collagens, elastin, "acid mucopolysaccharides" (later glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans) and finally structural glycoproteins were characterized. These constituents of connective tissues were then designated as components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), closely associated to the cellular components of these tissues by adhesive (structural) glycoproteins as fibronectin, several others and cell receptors, "recognising" ECM-components as integrins, the elastin-receptor and others. This molecular arrangement fastens cells to the ECM-components they synthesize and mediates the exchange of informations between the cells to the ECM (inside-out) and also from the ECM-components to the cells (outside-in). This macromolecular arrangement is specific for each tissue as a result of the differentiation of their cellular components. It is also the basis and condition of the fulfillment of the specific functions of differentiated tissues. This is a short description of the passage of the "tissue" concept from its vague origin towards its precise identification at the cellular and molecular level up to the recognition of its functional importance and its establishment as an autonomous science. This can be considered as a new example of the importance of metaphors for the progress of science, Keller

  20. Amino acid composition in determination of collagen origin and assessment of physical factors effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauza-Włodarczyk, Marlena; Kubisz, Leszek; Włodarczyk, Dariusz

    2017-11-01

    The amino acid composition of collagen is a characteristic feature of this protein. Collagen, irrespective of its origin, contains 19 amino acids, including hydroxyproline which does not occur in other proteins. Its atypical amino acid composition is characterized by high content of proline and glycine, as well as the absence of cysteine. This paper shows the comparison of qualitative composition of amino acids of fish skin (FS) collagen, bovine Achilles tendon (BAT) collagen, and bone collagen. Results demonstrate that FS collagen as well as BAT collagen contains no cysteine and significantly different amount of hydroxyproline. In BAT collagen hydroxyproline content is 30% higher than hydroxyproline content of FS collagen. In bone collagen the amount of hydroxyproline is two times more than in FS collagen. Furthermore, it is shown that sensitivity to radiation of individual amino acids varies and depends on the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation. The changes observed in the amino acid composition become very intense for the doses of 500kGy and 1000kGy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Interpretation of groundwater origin in the Velenje coal mine on the basis of isotope composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janko Urbanc

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to determine the isotopic properties of cave waters from the Velenje coal mine and define the recharge areas of individual aquifers. With regard to the oxygen isotope composition, groundwater in the Velenje coal mine can beclassified into three types. Typical d18O values of the first type are around -9 ‰ and are found in surface waters in the vicinity of the mine, therefore it is supposed that these waters are recharged locally. The second type is represented mainly by waters from thelower part of the pliocene aquifer. The average oxygen composition of these waters is about -11 ‰. This isotope composition is considerably different from the isotope composition of recent waters from the mine’s vicinity, which leads to the conclusion that these are older, fossile waters. These waters also have a very high degree of mineralization and consequently conductivity. Waters of the third type have average δ18O values around -10 ‰ and originate mainly from triassic dolomites. These waters could be a mixture of recentand old waters, but it is also possible that they flow into the coal mine from the higher areas of Paški Kozjak.

  2. Fabrication of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite doped degradable composite hollow fiber for guided and biomimetic bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Ning [Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, 29634 (United States); Nichols, Heather L. [Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, 29634 (United States); Tylor, Shila [Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, 29634 (United States); Wen Xuejun [Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, 29634 (United States)]. E-mail: xjwen@clemson.edu

    2007-04-15

    Natural bone tissue possesses a nanocomposite structure interwoven in a three-dimensional (3-D) matrix, which plays critical roles in conferring appropriate physical and biological properties to the bone tissue. Single type of material may not be sufficient to mimic the composition, structure and properties of native bone, therefore, composite materials consisting of both polymers, bioceramics, and other inorganic materials have to be designed. Among a variety of candidate materials, polymer-nanoparticle composites appear most promising for bone tissue engineering applications because of superior mechanical properties, improved durability, and surface bioactivity when compared with conventional polymers or composites. The long term objective of this project is to use highly aligned, bioactive, biodegradable scaffold mimicking natural histological structure of human long bone, and to engineer and regenerate human long bone both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, bioactive, degradable, and highly permeable composite hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) were fabricated using a wet phase phase-inversion approach. The structure of the hollow fiber membranes was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM); degradation behavior was examined using weigh loss assay, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC); and bioactivity was evaluated with the amount of calcium deposition from the culture media onto HFM surface. Doping PLGA HFMs with nanoHA results in a more bioactive and slower degrading HFM than pure PLGA HFMs.

  3. Preparation and characterization of chitosan-heparin composite matrices for blood contacting tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Qing; Gong Kai; Gong Yandao; Zhang Xiufang; Ao Qiang; Zhang Lihai; Hu Min

    2010-01-01

    Chitosan has been widely used for biomaterial scaffolds in tissue engineering because of its good mechanical properties and cytocompatibility. However, the poor blood compatibility of chitosan has greatly limited its biomedical utilization, especially for blood contacting tissue engineering. In this study, we exploited a polymer blending procedure to heparinize the chitosan material under simple and mild conditions to improve its antithrombogenic property. By an optimized procedure, a macroscopically homogeneous chitosan-heparin (Chi-Hep) blended suspension was obtained, with which Chi-Hep composite films and porous scaffolds were fabricated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and sulfur elemental analysis confirmed the successful immobilization of heparin in the composite matrices (i.e. films and porous scaffolds). Toluidine blue staining indicated that heparin was distributed homogeneously in the composite matrices. Only a small amount of heparin was released from the matrices during incubation in normal saline for 10 days. The composite matrices showed improved blood compatibility, as well as good mechanical properties and endothelial cell compatibility. These results suggest that the Chi-Hep composite matrices are promising candidates for blood contacting tissue engineering.

  4. Reconstruction with vascularized composite tissue in patients with excessive injury following surgery and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafin, D.; DeLand, M.; Lesesne, C.B.; Smith, P.J.; Noell, K.T.; Georgiade, N.

    1982-01-01

    The biological effects of a single high dose of radiation are examined. Both cellular injury and repair are reviewed during early, intermediate, and late phases. Anticipated composite tissue morbidity is detailed for therapeutic radiation doses administered to the head and neck, breast and thorax, and perineum. Patients who demonstrated excessive time-dose fractionation values were irradiated with lower x-ray energies. Those in whom there was an overlap of treatment fields presented a serious challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. Judicious selection of well-vascularized composite tissue outside the portals of irradiation, preferably with a long vascular pedicle, facilitated reconstruction. When possible, both donor and recipient vasculature should be outside the irradiated area to ensure uninterrupted blood flow to the transferred or transplanted tissue

  5. Tissue engineered vascular grafts: Origins, development, and current strategies for clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benrashid, Ehsan; McCoy, Christopher C; Youngwirth, Linda M; Kim, Jina; Manson, Roberto J; Otto, James C; Lawson, Jeffrey H

    2016-04-15

    Since the development of a dependable and durable synthetic non-autogenous vascular conduit in the mid-twentieth century, the field of vascular surgery has experienced tremendous growth. Concomitant with this growth, development in the field of bioengineering and the development of different tissue engineering techniques have expanded the armamentarium of the surgeon for treating a variety of complex cardiovascular diseases. The recent development of completely tissue engineered vascular conduits that can be implanted for clinical application is a particularly exciting development in this field. With the rapid advances in the field of tissue engineering, the great hope of the surgeon remains that this conduit will function like a true blood vessel with an intact endothelial layer, with the ability to respond to endogenous vasoactive compounds. Eventually, these engineered tissues may have the potential to supplant older organic but not truly biologic technologies, which are used currently. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Canine osteosarcoma karyotypes from an original tumor, its metastasis, and tumor cells in tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, N.; Shifrine, M.; Wolf, H.G.; Trommershausen-Smith, A.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation-induced osteosarcoma, its metastasis, and cells grown in tissue culture were karyotyped. Both hypodiploid and hyperdiploid stem lines were observed. The hypodiploid line contained 45-55 chromosomes with 10 to 15 abnormal metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes and one subtelocentric marker. The hyperdiploid line contained 90 to 105 chromosomes with 20 to 30 abnormal metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes with two subtelocentric markers. Karyotypic analysis can be used to monitor osteosarcomas maintained in tissue culture

  7. Perfusion decellularization of a human limb: A novel platform for composite tissue engineering and reconstructive surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Francesco Maria Gerli

    Full Text Available Muscle and fasciocutaneous flaps taken from autologous donor sites are currently the most utilized approach for trauma repair, accounting annually for 4.5 million procedures in the US alone. However, the donor tissue size is limited and the complications related to these surgical techniques lead to morbidities, often involving the donor sites. Alternatively, recent reports indicated that extracellular matrix (ECM scaffolds boost the regenerative potential of the injured site, as shown in a small cohort of volumetric muscle loss patients. Perfusion decellularization is a bioengineering technology that allows the generation of clinical-scale ECM scaffolds with preserved complex architecture and with an intact vascular template, from a variety of donor organs and tissues. We recently reported that this technology is amenable to generate full composite tissue scaffolds from rat and non-human primate limbs. Translating this platform to human extremities could substantially benefit soft tissue and volumetric muscle loss patients providing tissue- and species-specific grafts. In this proof-of-concept study, we show the successful generation a large-scale, acellular composite tissue scaffold from a full cadaveric human upper extremity. This construct retained its morphological architecture and perfusable vascular conduits. Histological and biochemical validation confirmed the successful removal of nuclear and cellular components, and highlighted the preservation of the native extracellular matrix components. Our results indicate that perfusion decellularization can be applied to produce human composite tissue acellular scaffolds. With its preserved structure and vascular template, these biocompatible constructs, could have significant advantages over the currently implanted matrices by means of nutrient distribution, size-scalability and immunological response.

  8. Thermogel-Coated Poly(ε-Caprolactone Composite Scaffold for Enhanced Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Jie Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional (3D composite scaffold was prepared for enhanced cartilage tissue engineering, which was composed of a poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL backbone network and a poly(lactide-co-glycolide-block-poly(ethylene glycol-block-poly(lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA–PEG–PLGA thermogel surface. The composite scaffold not only possessed adequate mechanical strength similar to native osteochondral tissue as a benefit of the PCL backbone, but also maintained cell-friendly microenvironment of the hydrogel. The PCL network with homogeneously-controlled pore size and total pore interconnectivity was fabricated by fused deposition modeling (FDM, and was impregnated into the PLGA–PEG–PLGA solution at low temperature (e.g., 4 °C. The PCL/Gel composite scaffold was obtained after gelation induced by incubation at body temperature (i.e., 37 °C. The composite scaffold showed a greater number of cell retention and proliferation in comparison to the PCL platform. In addition, the composite scaffold promoted the encapsulated mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs to differentiate chondrogenically with a greater amount of cartilage-specific matrix production compared to the PCL scaffold or thermogel. Therefore, the 3D PCL/Gel composite scaffold may exhibit great potential for in vivo cartilage regeneration.

  9. Variation in oil content and fatty acid composition of sesame accessions from different origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kurt

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Oil content and fatty acid composition are very important parameters for the human consumption of oilseed crops. Twenty-four sesame accessions including seven collected from various geographical regions of Turkey and 11 from different countries were investigated under field conditions for two consecutive years (2015 and 2016. The sesame accessions varied widely in their oil content and fatty acid compositions. The oil content varied between 44.6 and 53.1% with an average value of 48.15%. The content of oleic acids, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, palmitic acid,and stearic acid varied between 36.13–43.63%, 39.13–46.38%, 0.28–0.4%, 8.19–10.26%, and 4.63–6.35%, respectively. When total oil content and fatty acid composition were compared, Turkish sesame showed wide variation in oil and fatty acid compositions compared to those from other countries. However, the accessions from other countries were fewer compared to those from Turkey. It is essential to compare oil and fatty acid composition using a large number of germ plasm from different origins. In sesame oil, the average contents of oleic acid and linoleic acid were 39.02% and 43.64%, respectively, and their combined average content was 82.66%, representing the major fatty acid components in the oil from the sesame accessions used in the present study. The results obtained in this study provide useful information for the identification of better parents with high linoleic and oleic acid contents for developing elite sesame varieties with traits which are beneficial to consumer health.

  10. Impact of thermal pretreatment and MSW origin on composition and hydrolysability in a sugar platform biorefinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaurs, L. P.; Heaven, S.; Banks, C. J.

    2018-03-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a widely available large volume source of lignocellulosic material containing a waste paper/cardboard mixture which can be converted into fermentable sugars via cellulolytic enzyme hydrolysis in a sugar platform biorefinery. Thermal pretreatments are generally applied to MSW to facilitate the extraction of the lignocellulosic material from recyclable materials (plastics, metals etc.) and improve the paper pulp conversion to sugars. Applying high temperature might enhance food waste solubilisation but may collapse cellulose fibre decreasing its hydrolysability. Low temperature pre-treatment will reduce the energy demand but might result in highly contaminated pulp. Preliminary results showed that the enzymatic hydrolysis performances were dependent on the MSW origins. Using 8 different samples, the impact of thermal pretreatment and MSW origin on pulp composition and hydrolysability was assessed in this work. Low pre-treatment temperature produced pulp which contained less lignocellulosic material but which hydrolysed to a higher degree than MSW treated at high temperatures. High temperature pre-treatment could have exposed more of the inhibiting lignin to cellulase. This information would have a significant economic impact on a commercial plant as expensive autoclave could be advantageously replaced by a cheaper process. Glucan conversions were also found to vary depending on the region, the recycling rate possibly because of the lower recycling rate resulting in the use of less paper additive in the material or the difference in paper production technology (chemical VS mechanical pulping). This could also be explained by the differences in paper composition.

  11. Origin of the Moon Unveiled by its Heavy Iron Isotope Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitrasson, F.; Halliday, A. N.; Lee, D.; Levasseur, S.; Teutsch, N.

    2002-12-01

    The origin of the Moon has long been of interest and although the Giant Impact theory is currently the preferred explanation, unequivocal supporting evidence has been lacking. We have measured the iron isotope compositions of Shergotty-Nakhla-Chassigny meteorites and eucrites thought to come from Mars and Vesta, as well as samples from the Moon and the mafic Earth using high precision plasma source mass spectrometry. The mean iron isotope composition of the lunar samples, expressed in the conventional delta notation (d57Fe/54Fe) with respect to the IRMM-14 isotopic standard, is heavier (0.221 per mil (0.041: one standard deviation, 10 samples)) than those of the Earth (0.119 per mil (0.044, 7 samples)), which themselves are heavier than Martian meteorites (0.009 per mil (0.024, 6 samples)) and the eucrites measured (0.033 per mil (0.038, 7 samples)). Student's t-test calculations show that the Moon and Earth means are different from each other and from those of the other planetary bodies at >99% level of significance. The iron isotope compositions show no simple relationship with planetary heliocentric position, mantle oxygen fugacity, volatile content, or planet size. Similarly, these results do not support an origin of the Moon through co-accretion with the Earth, or as a fragment ejected from the Earth's mantle, or as another planet captured by the early Earth. In contrast, these data can be explained if the Earth, and especially the Moon, went through partial vaporisation and condensation leading to kinetic iron isotopic fractionation. Our data are also consistent with the suggested levels of enrichment of refractory elements for the bulk Earth and Moon. These new iron isotope results thus provide strong support for the origin of the Moon through a giant impact between the proto-Earth and another planet. Raleigh kinetic fractionation calculations indicate that only 1% loss of the current Fe budget of the Moon is required to explain its heavier isotopic

  12. Photoperiod affects daily torpor and tissue fatty acid composition in deer mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Fritz; McAllan, B. M.; Kenagy, G. J.; Hiebert, Sara M.

    2007-04-01

    Photoperiod and dietary lipids both influence thermal physiology and the pattern of torpor of heterothermic mammals. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that photoperiod-induced physiological changes are linked to differences in tissue fatty acid composition of deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus (˜18-g body mass). Deer mice were acclimated for >8 weeks to one of three photoperiods (LD, light/dark): LD 8:16 (short photoperiod), LD 12:12 (equinox photoperiod), and LD 16:8 (long photoperiod). Deer mice under short and equinox photoperiods showed a greater occurrence of torpor than those under long photoperiods (71, 70, and 14%, respectively). The duration of torpor bouts was longest in deer mice under short photoperiod (9.3 ± 2.6 h), intermediate under equinox photoperiod (5.1 ± 0.3 h), and shortest under long photoperiod (3.7 ± 0.6 h). Physiological differences in torpor use were associated with significant alterations of fatty acid composition in ˜50% of the major fatty acids from leg muscle total lipids, whereas white adipose tissue fatty acid composition showed fewer changes. Our results provide the first evidence that physiological changes due to photoperiod exposure do result in changes in lipid composition in the muscle tissue of deer mice and suggest that these may play a role in survival of low body temperature and metabolic rate during torpor, thus, enhancing favourable energy balance over the course of the winter.

  13. Short communication: Suitability of fluorescence spectroscopy for characterization of commercial milk of different composition and origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntakatsane, M P; Yang, X Q; Lin, M; Liu, X M; Zhou, P

    2011-11-01

    Thirteen milk brands comprising 76 pasteurized and UHT milk samples of various compositions (whole, reduced fat, skimmed, low lactose, and high protein) were obtained from local supermarkets, and milk samples manufactured in various countries were discriminated using front-face fluorescence spectroscopy (FFFS) coupled with chemometric tools. The emission spectra of Maillard reaction products and riboflavin (MRP/RF; 400 to 600 nm) and tryptophan (300 to 400 nm) were recorded using FFFS, and the excitation wavelengths were set at 360 nm for MRP/RF and 290 nm for tryptophan. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to analyze the normalized spectra. The PCA of spectral information from MRP/RF discriminated the milk samples originating in different countries, and PCA of spectral information from tryptophan discriminated the samples according to composition. The fluorescence spectral data were compared with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry results for the glycation extent of the milk samples, and a positive association (R(2)=0.84) was found between the degree of glycation of α-lactalbumin and the MRP/RF spectral data. This study demonstrates the ability and sensitivity of FFFS to rapidly discriminate and classify commercial milk with various compositions and processing conditions. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Biomineralization of Engineered Spider Silk Protein-Based Composite Materials for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Hardy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Materials based on biodegradable polyesters, such as poly(butylene terephthalate (PBT or poly(butylene terephthalate-co-poly(alkylene glycol terephthalate (PBTAT, have potential application as pro-regenerative scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Herein, the preparation of films composed of PBT or PBTAT and an engineered spider silk protein, (eADF4(C16, that displays multiple carboxylic acid moieties capable of binding calcium ions and facilitating their biomineralization with calcium carbonate or calcium phosphate is reported. Human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on films mineralized with calcium phosphate show enhanced levels of alkaline phosphatase activity suggesting that such composites have potential use for bone tissue engineering.

  15. Detection of Photoacoustic Transients Originating from Microstructures in Optically Diffuse Media such as Biological Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoelen, C.G.A.; Dekker, Andre; de Mul, F.F.M.

    2001-01-01

    The generation and detection of broadband photoacoustic (PA) transients may be used for on-axis monitoring or for imaging of optically different structures in the interior of diffuse bodies such as biological tissue. Various piezoelectric sensors are characterized and compared in terms of

  16. Determining the origin of cells in tissue engineered skin substitutes: a pilot study employing in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Andreas Daniel; Pontiggia, Luca; Biedermann, Thomas; Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Reichmann, Ernst

    2011-03-01

    Definitive and high-quality coverage of large and, in particular, massive skin defects remains a significant challenge in burn as well as plastic and reconstructive surgery because of donor site shortage. A novel and promising approach to overcome these problems is tissue engineering of skin. Clearly, before eventual clinical application, engineered skin substitutes of human origin must be grafted and then evaluated in animal models. For the various tests to be conducted it is indispensable to be able to identify human cells as such in culture and also to distinguish between graft and recipient tissue after transplantation. Here we describe a tool to identify human cells in vitro and in vivo. In situ hybridization allows for the detection and localization of specific DNA or RNA sequences in morphologically preserved cells in culture or tissue sections, respectively. We used digoxigenin-labeled DNA probes corresponding to human-specific Alu repeats in order to identify human keratinocytes grown in culture together with rat cells, and also to label split and full thickness skin grafts of human origin after transplantation on immuno-incompetent rats. Digoxigenin-labeled DNA probing resulted in an intensive nuclear staining of human cells, both in culture and after transplantation onto recipient animals, while recipient animal cells (rat cells) did not stain. In situ hybridization using primate-specific Alu probes reliably allows distinguishing between cells of human and non-human origin both in culture as well as in histological sections. This method is an essential tool for those preclinical experiments (performed on non-primate animals) that must be conducted before novel tissue engineered skin substitutes might be introduced into clinical practice.

  17. Development of high strength hydroxyapatite for bone tissue regeneration using nanobioactive glass composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Pragya; Dalai, Sridhar; Sudera, Prerna; Sivam, Santosh Param; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Sharma, Pratibha

    2013-02-01

    With an increasing demand of biocompatible bone substitutes for the treatment of bone diseases and bone tissue regeneration, bioactive glass composites are being tested to improvise the osteoconductive as well as osteoinductive properties. Nanobioactive glass (nBG) composites, having composition of SiO2 70 mol%, CaO 26 mol % and P2O5 4 mol% were prepared by Freeze drying method using PEG-PPG-PEG co-polymer. Polymer addition improves the mechanical strength and porosity of the scaffold of nBG. Nano Bioactive glass composites upon implantation undergo specific reactions leading to the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA). This is tested in vitro using Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). This high strength hydroxyapatite (HA) layer acts as osteoconductive in cellular environment, by acting as mineral base of bones, onto which new bone cells proliferate leading to new bone formation. Strength of the nBG composites as well as HA is in the range of cortical and cancellous bone, thus proving significant for bone tissue regeneration substitutes.

  18. Development of high strength hydroxyapatite for bone tissue regeneration using nanobioactive glass composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, Pragya; Dalai, Sridhar; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Sudera, Prerna; Sivam, Santosh Param; Sharma, Pratibha

    2013-01-01

    With an increasing demand of biocompatible bone substitutes for the treatment of bone diseases and bone tissue regeneration, bioactive glass composites are being tested to improvise the osteoconductive as well as osteoinductive properties. Nanobioactive glass (nBG) composites, having composition of SiO 2 70 mol%, CaO 26 mol % and P 2 O 5 4 mol% were prepared by Freeze drying method using PEG-PPG-PEG co-polymer. Polymer addition improves the mechanical strength and porosity of the scaffold of nBG. Nano Bioactive glass composites upon implantation undergo specific reactions leading to the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA). This is tested in vitro using Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). This high strength hydroxyapatite (HA) layer acts as osteoconductive in cellular environment, by acting as mineral base of bones, onto which new bone cells proliferate leading to new bone formation. Strength of the nBG composites as well as HA is in the range of cortical and cancellous bone, thus proving significant for bone tissue regeneration substitutes.

  19. Highly Concentrated Alginate-Gellan Gum Composites for 3D Plotting of Complex Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Rahul Akkineni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In tissue engineering, additive manufacturing (AM technologies have brought considerable progress as they allow the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D structures with defined architecture. 3D plotting is a versatile, extrusion-based AM technology suitable for processing a wide range of biomaterials including hydrogels. In this study, composites of highly concentrated alginate and gellan gum were prepared in order to combine the excellent printing properties of alginate with the favorable gelling characteristics of gellan gum. Mixtures of 16.7 wt % alginate and 2 or 3 wt % gellan gum were found applicable for 3D plotting. Characterization of the resulting composite scaffolds revealed an increased stiffness in the wet state (15%–20% higher Young’s modulus and significantly lower volume swelling in cell culture medium compared to pure alginate scaffolds (~10% vs. ~23%. Cytocompatibility experiments with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC revealed that cell attachment was improved—the seeding efficiency was ~2.5–3.5 times higher on the composites than on pure alginate. Additionally, the composites were shown to support hMSC proliferation and early osteogenic differentiation. In conclusion, print fidelity of highly concentrated alginate-gellan gum composites was comparable to those of pure alginate; after plotting and crosslinking, the scaffolds possessed improved qualities regarding shape fidelity, mechanical strength, and initial cell attachment making them attractive for tissue engineering applications.

  20. A novel basalt fiber-reinforced polylactic acid composite for hard tissue repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Li, Yan; Gu, Ning

    2010-08-01

    A basalt fiber (BF) was, for the first time, introduced into a poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) matrix as innovative reinforcement to fabricate composite materials for hard tissue repair. Firstly, BF/PLLA composites and pure PLLA were produced by the methods of solution blending and freeze drying. The results showed that basalt fibers can be uniformly dispersed in the PLLA matrix and significantly improve the mechanical properties and hydrophilicity of the PLLA matrix. The presence of basalt fibers may retard the polymer degradation rate and neutralize the acid degradation from PLLA. Osteoblasts were cultured in vitro to evaluate the cytocompatibility of the composite. An MTT assay revealed that osteoblasts proliferated well for 7 days and there was little difference found in their viability on both PLLA and BF/PLLA films, which was consistent with the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity results. A fluorescent staining observation showed that osteoblasts grew well on the composites. SEM images displayed that osteoblasts tended to grow along the fiber axis. The formation of mineralized nodules was observed on the films by Alizarin red S staining. These results suggest that the presence of basalt fibers does not noticeably affect osteoblastic behavior and the designed composites are osteoblast compatible. It is concluded that basalt fibers, as reinforcing fibers, may have promising applications in hard tissue repair.

  1. A novel basalt fiber-reinforced polylactic acid composite for hard tissue repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xi; Li Yan; Gu Ning

    2010-01-01

    A basalt fiber (BF) was, for the first time, introduced into a poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) matrix as innovative reinforcement to fabricate composite materials for hard tissue repair. Firstly, BF/PLLA composites and pure PLLA were produced by the methods of solution blending and freeze drying. The results showed that basalt fibers can be uniformly dispersed in the PLLA matrix and significantly improve the mechanical properties and hydrophilicity of the PLLA matrix. The presence of basalt fibers may retard the polymer degradation rate and neutralize the acid degradation from PLLA. Osteoblasts were cultured in vitro to evaluate the cytocompatibility of the composite. An MTT assay revealed that osteoblasts proliferated well for 7 days and there was little difference found in their viability on both PLLA and BF/PLLA films, which was consistent with the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity results. A fluorescent staining observation showed that osteoblasts grew well on the composites. SEM images displayed that osteoblasts tended to grow along the fiber axis. The formation of mineralized nodules was observed on the films by Alizarin red S staining. These results suggest that the presence of basalt fibers does not noticeably affect osteoblastic behavior and the designed composites are osteoblast compatible. It is concluded that basalt fibers, as reinforcing fibers, may have promising applications in hard tissue repair.

  2. Melting of the Primitive Mercurian Mantle, Insights into the Origin of Its Surface Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujibar, A.; Righter, K.; Rapp, J. F.; Ross, D. K.; Pando, K. M.; Danielson, L. R.; Fontaine, E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings of the MESSENGER mission on Mercury have brought new evidence for its reducing nature, widespread volcanism and surface compositional heteregeneity. MESSENGER also provided major elemental ratios of its surface that can be used to infer large-scale differentiation processes and the thermal history of the planet. Mercury is known as being very reduced, with very low Fe-content and high S and alkali contents on its surface. Its bulk composition is therefore likely close to EH enstatite chondrites. In order to elucidate the origin of the chemical diversity of Mercury's surface, we determined the melting properties of EH enstatite chondrites, at pressures between 1 bar and 3 GPa and oxygen fugacity of IW-3 to IW-5, using piston-cylinder experiments, combined with a previous study on EH4 melting at 1 bar. We found that the presence of Ca-rich sulfide melts induces significant decrease of Ca-content in silicate melts at low pressure and low degree of melting (F). Also at pressures lower than 3 GPa, the SiO2-content decreases with F, while it increases at 3 GPa. This is likely due to the chemical composition of the bulk silicate which has a (Mg+Fe+Ca)/Si ratio very close to 1 and to the change from incongruent to congruent melting of enstatite. We then tested whether the various chemical compositions of Mercury's surface can result from mixing between two melting products of EH chondrites. We found that the majority of the geochemical provinces of Mercury's surface can be explained by mixing of two melts, with the exception of the High-Al plains that require an Al-rich source. Our findings indicate that Mercury's surface could have been produced by polybaric melting of a relatively primitive mantle.

  3. Tissue viscoelasticity is related to tissue composition but may not fully predict the apparent-level viscoelasticity in human trabecular bone – An experimental and finite element study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojanen, X.; Tanska, P.; Malo, M. K.H.

    2017-01-01

    Trabecular bone is viscoelastic under dynamic loading. However, it is unclear how tissue viscoelasticity controls viscoelasticity at the apparent-level. In this study, viscoelasticity of cylindrical human trabecular bone samples (n = 11, male, age 18–78 years) from 11 proximal femurs were charact......). These findings indicate that bone tissue viscoelasticity is affected by tissue composition but may not fully predict the macroscale viscoelasticity in human trabecular bone....

  4. Adult Tissue-Derived Stem Cells and Tolerance Induction in Nonhuman Primates for Vascularized Composite Allograft Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-2-0042 TITLE: Adult Tissue-Derived Stem Cells and Tolerance Induction in Nonhuman Primates for Vascularized Composite...2017 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2016 - 29 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Adult Tissue-Derived Stem Cells and Tolerance Induction...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The utilization of adult derived adipose stem cells administration in composite tissue transplantation

  5. Breast tissue composition and its dependence on demographic risk factors for breast cancer: non-invasive assessment by time domain diffuse optical spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Taroni

    Full Text Available Breast tissue composition is recognized as a strong and independent risk factor for breast cancer. It is a heritable feature, but is also significantly affected by several other elements (e.g., age, menopause. Nowadays it is quantified by mammographic density, thus requiring the use of ionizing radiation. Optical techniques are absolutely non-invasive and have already proved effective in the investigation of biological tissues, as they are sensitive to tissue composition and structure.Time domain diffuse optical spectroscopy was performed at 7 wavelengths (635-1060 nm on 200 subjects to derive their breast tissue composition (in terms of water, lipid and collagen content, blood parameters (total hemoglobin content and oxygen saturation level, and information on the microscopic structure (scattering amplitude and power. The dependence of all optically-derived parameters on age, menopausal status, body mass index, and use of oral contraceptives, and the correlation with mammographic density were investigated.Younger age, premenopausal status, lower body mass index values, and use of oral contraceptives all correspond to significantly higher water, collagen and total hemoglobin content, and lower lipid content (always p < 0.05 and often p < 10-4, while oxygen saturation level and scattering parameters show significant dependence only on some conditions. Even when age-adjusted groups of subjects are compared, several optically derived parameters (and in particular always collagen and total hemoglobin content remain significantly different.Time domain diffuse optical spectroscopy can probe non-invasively breast tissue composition and physiologic blood parameters, and provide information on tissue structure. The measurement is suitable for in vivo studies and monitoring of changes in breast tissue (e.g., with age, lifestyle, chemotherapy, etc. and to gain insight into related processes, like the origin of cancer risk associated with breast density.

  6. Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue triglycerides after weight loss and weight maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunešová, M; Hlavatý, P; Tvrzická, E

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue changes with weight loss. Palmitoleic acid as a possible marker of endogenous lipogenesis or its functions as a lipokine are under debate. Objective was to assess the predictive role of adipose triglycerides fatty acids in weight maintenance in participants...... of the DIOGENES dietary intervention study. After an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) subjects with > 8 % weight loss were randomized to 5 ad libitum weight maintenance diets for 6 months: low protein (P)/low glycemic index (GI) (LP/LGI), low P/high GI (LP/HGI), high P/low GI (HP/LGI), high P/high GI (HP....../HGI), and a control diet. Fatty acid composition in adipose tissue triglycerides was determined by gas chromatography in 195 subjects before the LCD (baseline), after LCD and weight maintenance. Weight change after the maintenance phase was positively correlated with baseline adipose palmitoleic (16:1n-7...

  7. Porous starch/cellulose nanofibers composite prepared by salt leaching technique for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri-Nasrabadi, Bijan; Mehrasa, Mohammad; Rafienia, Mohammad; Bonakdar, Shahin; Behzad, Tayebeh; Gavanji, Shahin

    2014-08-08

    Starch/cellulose nanofibers composites with proper porosity pore size, mechanical strength, and biodegradability for cartilage tissue engineering have been reported in this study. The porous thermoplastic starch-based composites were prepared by combining film casting, salt leaching, and freeze drying methods. The diameter of 70% nanofibers was in the range of 40-90 nm. All samples had interconnected porous morphology; however an increase in pore interconnectivity was observed when the sodium chloride ratio was increased in the salt leaching. Scaffolds with the total porogen content of 70 wt% exhibited adequate mechanical properties for cartilage tissue engineering applications. The water uptake ratio of nanocomposites was remarkably enhanced by adding 10% cellulose nanofibers. The scaffolds were partially destroyed due to low in vitro degradation rate after more than 20 weeks. Cultivation of isolated rabbit chondrocytes on the fabricated scaffold proved that the incorporation of nanofibers in starch structure improves cell attachment and proliferation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The donor management algorithm in transplantation of a composite facial tissue allograft.. First experience in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Uyba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period from 2005 to December 2015, 37 transplantations of vascularized composite facial tissue allografts (VCAs were performed in the world. A vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation has been recognized as a solid organ transplantation rather than a special kind of tissue transplantation. The recent classification of composite tissue allografts into the category of donor organs gave rise to a number of organizational, ethical, legal, technical, and economic problems. In May 2015, the first successful transplantation of a composite facial tissue allograft was performed in Russia. The article describes our experience of multiple team interactions at donor management stage when involved in the identification, conditioning, harvesting, and delivering donor organs to various hospitals. A man, aged 51 years old, diagnosed with traumatic brain injury became a donor after the diagnosis of brain deathhad been made, his death had been ascertained, and the requested consent for organ donation had been obtained from relatives. At donor management stage, a tracheostomy was performed and a posthumous facial mask was molded. The "face first, concurrent completion" algorithm was chosen for organ harvesting and facial VCA procurement; meanwhile, the facial allograft was procured as the "full face" category. The total surgery duration from the incision to completing the procurement (including that of solid organs made 8 hours 20 minutes. Immediately after the procurement, the facial VCA complex was sent to the St. Petersburg clinic by medical aircraft transportation, and was there transplanted 9 hours later. Donor kidneys were transported to Moscow bycivil aviation and transplanted 17 and 20 hours later. The authors believe that this clinical case report demonstrates the feasibility and safety of multiple harvesting of solid organs and a vascularized composite facial tissue allograft. However, this kind of surgery requires an essential

  9. Biomimetic composite coating on rapid prototyped scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, M Tarik; Lam, Christopher X F; Ekaputra, Andrew K; Wong, Siew Yee; Li, Xu; Gibson, Ian

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this present study was to improve the functional performance of rapid prototyped scaffolds for bone tissue engineering through biomimetic composite coating. Rapid prototyped poly(ε-caprolactone)/tri-calcium phosphate (PCL/TCP) scaffolds were fabricated using the screw extrusion system (SES). The fabricated PCL/TCP scaffolds were coated with a carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA)-gelatin composite via biomimetic co-precipitation. The structure of the prepared CHA-gelatin composite coating was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Compressive mechanical testing revealed that the coating process did not have any detrimental effect on the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. The cell-scaffold interaction was studied by culturing porcine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) on the scaffolds and assessing the proliferation and bone-related gene and protein expression capabilities of the cells. Confocal laser microscopy and SEM images of the cell-scaffold constructs showed a uniformly distributed cell sheet and accumulation of extracellular matrix in the interior of CHA-gelatin composite-coated PCL/TCP scaffolds. The proliferation rate of BMSCs on CHA-gelatin composite-coated PCL/TCP scaffolds was about 2.3 and 1.7 times higher than that on PCL/TCP scaffolds and CHA-coated PCL/TCP scaffolds, respectively, by day 10. Furthermore, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis revealed that CHA-gelatin composite-coated PCL/TCP scaffolds stimulate osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs the most, compared with PCL/TCP scaffolds and CHA-coated PCL/TCP scaffolds. These results demonstrate that CHA-gelatin composite-coated rapid prototyped PCL/TCP scaffolds are promising for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Origins and selection of epidermal progenitors and stem cells: a challenge for tissue engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshayes, Nathalie; Rathman-Josserand, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The use of epidermal stem cells and their progeny for tissue engineering and cell therapy represents a source of hope and major interest in view of applications such as replacing the loss of functionality in failing tissues or obtaining physiologic skin equivalents for skin grafting. The use of such cells necessitates the isolation and purification of rare populations of keratinocytes and then increasing their numbers by mass culture. This is not currently possible since part of the specific phenotype of these cells is lost once the cells are placed in culture. Furthermore, few techniques are available to unequivocally detect the presence of skin stem cells and/or their progeny in culture and thus quantify them. Two different sources of stem cells are currently being studied for skin research and clinical applications: skin progenitors either obtained from embryonic stem cells (ESC) or from selection from adult skin tissue. It has been shown that "keratinocyte-like" cells can be derived from ESC; however, the culturing processes must still be optimized to allow for the mass culture of homogeneous populations at a controlled stage of differentiation. The functional characterization of such populations must also be more thoroughly achieved. In order to use stem cells from adult tissues, improvements must be made in order to obtain a satisfactory degree of purification and characterization of this rare population. Distinguishing stem cells from progenitor cells at the molecular level also remains a challenge. Furthermore, stem cell research inevitably requires cultivating these cells outside their physiological environment or niche. It will thus be necessary to better understand the impact of this specific environmental niche on the preservation of the cellular phenotypes of interest.

  11. Laminated electrospun nHA/PHB-composite scaffolds mimicking bone extracellular matrix for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhuoyue [Lab of Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Science, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology of Shaanxi, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Song, Yue [Lab of Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Science, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Zhang, Jing [Lab of Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Science, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology of Shaanxi, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Modern Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province, 710069 (China); Liu, Wei [Lab of Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Science, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Cui, Jihong, E-mail: cjh@nwu.edu.cn [Lab of Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Science, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology of Shaanxi, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Modern Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province, 710069 (China); and others

    2017-03-01

    Electrospinning is an effective means to generate nano- to micro-scale polymer fibers resembling native extracellular matrix for tissue engineering. However, a major problem of electrospun materials is that limited pore size and porosity may prevent adequate cellular infiltration and tissue ingrowth. In this study, we first prepared thin layers of hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (nHA)/poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) via electrospinning. We then laminated the nHA/PHB thin layers to obtain a scaffold for cell seeding and bone tissue engineering. The results demonstrated that the laminated scaffold possessed optimized cell-loading capacity. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibited better adherence, proliferation and osteogenic phenotypes on nHA/PHB scaffolds than on PHB scaffolds. Thereafter, we seeded MSCs onto nHA/PHB scaffolds to fabricate bone grafts. Histological observation showed osteoid tissue formation throughout the scaffold, with most of the scaffold absorbed in the specimens 2 months after implantation, and blood vessels ingrowth into the graft could be observed in the graft. We concluded that electrospun and laminated nanoscaled biocomposite scaffolds hold great therapeutic potential for bone regeneration. - Highlights: • We laminated the nHA/PHB layers to obtain a scaffold for bone tissue engineering. • The laminated scaffold performed optimized cell-loading capacity. • MSCs exhibited osteogenic phenotypes on the laminated scaffold. • Osteoid tissue formed throughout the laminated scaffold after 2 months in vivo. The laminated bio-composite scaffolds can be applied to bone regeneration.

  12. 3D Printing and Electrospinning of Composite Hydrogels for Cartilage and Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna De Mori

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Injuries of bone and cartilage constitute important health issues costing the National Health Service billions of pounds annually, in the UK only. Moreover, these damages can become cause of disability and loss of function for the patients with associated social costs and diminished quality of life. The biomechanical properties of these two tissues are massively different from each other and they are not uniform within the same tissue due to the specific anatomic location and function. In this perspective, tissue engineering (TE has emerged as a promising approach to address the complexities associated with bone and cartilage regeneration. Tissue engineering aims at developing temporary three-dimensional multicomponent constructs to promote the natural healing process. Biomaterials, such as hydrogels, are currently extensively studied for their ability to reproduce both the ideal 3D extracellular environment for tissue growth and to have adequate mechanical properties for load bearing. This review will focus on the use of two manufacturing techniques, namely electrospinning and 3D printing, that present promise in the fabrication of complex composite gels for cartilage and bone tissue engineering applications.

  13. Laminated electrospun nHA/PHB-composite scaffolds mimicking bone extracellular matrix for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhuoyue; Song, Yue; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Wei; Cui, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    Electrospinning is an effective means to generate nano- to micro-scale polymer fibers resembling native extracellular matrix for tissue engineering. However, a major problem of electrospun materials is that limited pore size and porosity may prevent adequate cellular infiltration and tissue ingrowth. In this study, we first prepared thin layers of hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (nHA)/poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) via electrospinning. We then laminated the nHA/PHB thin layers to obtain a scaffold for cell seeding and bone tissue engineering. The results demonstrated that the laminated scaffold possessed optimized cell-loading capacity. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibited better adherence, proliferation and osteogenic phenotypes on nHA/PHB scaffolds than on PHB scaffolds. Thereafter, we seeded MSCs onto nHA/PHB scaffolds to fabricate bone grafts. Histological observation showed osteoid tissue formation throughout the scaffold, with most of the scaffold absorbed in the specimens 2 months after implantation, and blood vessels ingrowth into the graft could be observed in the graft. We concluded that electrospun and laminated nanoscaled biocomposite scaffolds hold great therapeutic potential for bone regeneration. - Highlights: • We laminated the nHA/PHB layers to obtain a scaffold for bone tissue engineering. • The laminated scaffold performed optimized cell-loading capacity. • MSCs exhibited osteogenic phenotypes on the laminated scaffold. • Osteoid tissue formed throughout the laminated scaffold after 2 months in vivo. The laminated bio-composite scaffolds can be applied to bone regeneration.

  14. Adiponectin and Its Receptors Are Differentially Expressed in Human Tissues and Cell Lines of Distinct Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Jasinski-Bergner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adiponectin is secreted by adipose tissue and exerts high abundance and an anti-inflammatory potential. However, only little information exists about the expression profiles of adiponectin and its recently identified receptor CDH13 in non-tumorous human tissues and their association to clinical parameters. Methods: The expression levels of adiponectin and CDH13 were analyzed in heart, liver, kidney, spleen, skin, blood vessels, peripheral nerve and bone marrow of 21 human body donors, in 12 human cell lines, and in purified immune effector cell populations of healthy blood donors by immunohistochemistry, Western-blot, and semi-quantitative PCR. The obtained results were then correlated to clinical parameters, including age, sex and known diseases like cardiovascular and renal diseases. Results: Adiponectin expression in renal corpuscles was significantly higher in humans with known renal diseases. A coordinated expression of adiponectin and CDH13 was observed in the myocard. High levels of adiponectin could be detected in the bone marrow, in certain lymphoid tumor cell lines and in purified immune effector cell populations of healthy donors, in particular in cytotoxic T cells. Conclusion: For the first time, the expression profiles of adiponectin and CDH13 are analyzed in many human tissues in correlation to each other and to clinical parameters.

  15. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids affect tissue lipid composition but not de novo lipogenesis in finishing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Bee , Giuseppe

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been reported to profoundly affect lipid metabolism and to act as repartitioning agents. Currently, little is known about their effect on the fatty acid profile of tissue lipids in pigs. In the present study we determined the lipid composition of the backfat inner (BFI) and outer layer (BFO), omental fat (OF) and intramuscular fat (IMF) of the longissimus dorsi muscle in 24 Swiss Large White pigs fed diets supplemented eithe...

  16. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of Tuscan bee pollen of different botanic origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Domenici

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the apicultural products, the honey bee-pollen is growing in commercial interest due to its high nutritional properties. For the first time, bee-pollen samples from Tuscany (Italy were studied to evaluate botanical origin, phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity. The investigated pollen loads were composed of three botanical families: Castanea, Rubus and Cistus.The highest levels of proteins and lipids were detected in Rubus pollen. Castanea pollen contained greater polyphenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins content, while the highest flavonols level wasdetected in Cistus pollen. These results were also confirmed by front-face fluorescence spectroscopy, used here, for the first time, as a fast tool to characterize bee-pollens.

  17. Tablet-level origin of toughening in abalone shells and translation to synthetic composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Horacio D; Juster, Allison L; Latourte, Felix J; Loh, Owen Y; Gregoire, David; Zavattieri, Pablo D

    2011-02-01

    Nacre, the iridescent material in seashells, is one of many natural materials employing hierarchical structures to achieve high strength and toughness from relatively weak constituents. Incorporating these structures into composites is appealing as conventional engineering materials often sacrifice strength to improve toughness. Researchers hypothesize that nacre's toughness originates within its brick-and-mortar-like microstructure. Under loading, bricks slide relative to each other, propagating inelastic deformation over millimeter length scales. This leads to orders-of-magnitude increase in toughness. Here, we use in situ atomic force microscopy fracture experiments and digital image correlation to quantitatively prove that brick morphology (waviness) leads to transverse dilation and subsequent interfacial hardening during sliding, a previously hypothesized dominant toughening mechanism in nacre. By replicating this mechanism in a scaled-up model synthetic material, we find that it indeed leads to major improvements in energy dissipation. Ultimately, lessons from this investigation may be key to realizing the immense potential of widely pursued nanocomposites.

  18. Hand transplantation and vascularized composite tissue allografts in orthopaedics and traumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuind, F

    2010-05-01

    Composite tissue allograft (CTA) is defined as heterologous transplantation of a complex comprising skin and subcutaneous, neurovascular and mesenchymal tissue. Such techniques allow complex reconstruction using matched tissue, without donor site morbidity. The potential indications in orthopaedics-traumatology could in the future be more frequent than the present indications of heart, lung, liver, kidney and pancreas transplantation. International clinical experience clearly demonstrates the feasibility of CTA, both surgically and immunologically. However, immunosuppression remains indispensable, exposing the patient to risks that are not acceptable for purely functional surgery, except in very particular indications. The main hope for the future lies in induction of graft-specific tolerance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of intratumoral FDG and Cu-ATSM distributions in cancer tissue originated spheroid (CTOS) xenografts, a tumor model retaining the original tumor properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Takako; Yuan, Qinghua; Jin, Zhao-Hui; Aung, Winn; Yoshii, Yukie; Hasegawa, Sumitaka; Endo, Hiroko; Inoue, Masahiro; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Saga, Tsuneo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The intratumoral distributions of [ 18 F]FDG and [ 64 Cu]Cu-ATSM have been reported to be similar in adenocarcinomas but different in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in clinical studies. In the present study, we compared the intratumoral distributions of these two tracers in cancer tissue originated spheroid (CTOS) xenografts derived from adenocarcinoma and SCC, which retain the histological characteristics of the original tumors, and in cancer cell line xenografts of corresponding origin, to investigate the underlying mechanism of the distinct FDG and Cu-ATSM distribution patterns in adenocarcinoma and SCC. Methods: CTOSs derived from colon adenocarcinoma and lung SCC and cell lines established from colon adenocarcinoma and lung SCC, which were used for comparison, were subcutaneously transplanted into immunodeficient mice. One hour after administering [ 14 C]FDG and [ 64 Cu]Cu-ATSM, the intratumoral distributions were compared in the xenografts by using dual-tracer autoradiography. Adjacent sections were evaluated for necrosis, vasculature anatomy, Ki-67 antigen, and pimonidazole adducts using hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining. Results: There was a higher regional overlap of high FDG and Cu-ATSM accumulations in the adenocarcinoma CTOS xenografts than in the SCC CTOS xenografts, while the overlap in the adenocarcinoma cell line xenograft was lower than that observed in the SCC cell line. High FDG accumulation occurred primarily in proximity to necrotic or pimonidazole adduct positive regions, while high Cu-ATSM accumulation occurred primarily in live cell regions separate from the necrotic regions. The adenocarcinoma CTOS xenograft had the stereotypical glandular structure, resulting in more intricately mixed regions of live and necrotic cells compared to those observed in the SCC CTOS or the cell line xenografts. Conclusion: Tumor morphological characteristics, specifically the spatial distribution of live and necrotic cell

  20. In vitro evaluation of alginate/halloysite nanotube composite scaffolds for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Mingxian; Dai, Libing; Shi, Huizhe; Xiong, Sheng; Zhou, Changren

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a series of alginate/halloysite nanotube (HNTs) composite scaffolds were prepared by solution-mixing and freeze-drying method. HNTs are incorporated into alginate to improve both the mechanical and cell-attachment properties of the scaffolds. The interfacial interactions between alginate and HNTs were confirmed by the atomic force microscope (AFM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and FTIR spectroscopy. The mechanical, morphological, and physico-chemical properties of the composite scaffolds were investigated. The composite scaffolds exhibit significant enhancement in compressive strength and compressive modulus compared with pure alginate scaffold both in dry and wet states. A well-interconnected porous structure with size in the range of 100–200 μm and over 96% porosity is found in the composite scaffolds. X-ray diffraction (XRD) result shows that HNTs are uniformly dispersed and partly oriented in the composite scaffolds. The incorporation of HNTs leads to increase in the scaffold density and decrease in the water swelling ratio of alginate. HNTs improve the stability of alginate scaffolds against enzymatic degradation in PBS solution. Thermogravimetrica analysis (TGA) shows that HNTs can improve the thermal stability of the alginate. The mouse fibroblast cells display better attachment to the alginate/HNT composite than those to the pure alginate, suggesting the good cytocompatibility of the composite scaffolds. Alginate/HNT composite scaffolds exhibit great potential for applications in tissue engineering. - Highlights: • We fabricated HNTs reinforced alginate composite scaffolds for biomedical applications. • The hydrogen bond interactions between HNTs and alginate are confirmed. • HNTs can significantly enhance the mechanical properties of alginate scaffold. • The scaffolds exhibit a highly porous structure with interconnected pores. • HNTs can improve the cell attachment and proliferation on alginate

  1. In vitro evaluation of alginate/halloysite nanotube composite scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Mingxian [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Dai, Libing [Guangzhou Institute of Traumatic Surgery, Guangzhou Red Cross Hospital Medical College, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510220 (China); Shi, Huizhe; Xiong, Sheng [Institute of Biomedicine, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhou, Changren, E-mail: tcrz9@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a series of alginate/halloysite nanotube (HNTs) composite scaffolds were prepared by solution-mixing and freeze-drying method. HNTs are incorporated into alginate to improve both the mechanical and cell-attachment properties of the scaffolds. The interfacial interactions between alginate and HNTs were confirmed by the atomic force microscope (AFM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and FTIR spectroscopy. The mechanical, morphological, and physico-chemical properties of the composite scaffolds were investigated. The composite scaffolds exhibit significant enhancement in compressive strength and compressive modulus compared with pure alginate scaffold both in dry and wet states. A well-interconnected porous structure with size in the range of 100–200 μm and over 96% porosity is found in the composite scaffolds. X-ray diffraction (XRD) result shows that HNTs are uniformly dispersed and partly oriented in the composite scaffolds. The incorporation of HNTs leads to increase in the scaffold density and decrease in the water swelling ratio of alginate. HNTs improve the stability of alginate scaffolds against enzymatic degradation in PBS solution. Thermogravimetrica analysis (TGA) shows that HNTs can improve the thermal stability of the alginate. The mouse fibroblast cells display better attachment to the alginate/HNT composite than those to the pure alginate, suggesting the good cytocompatibility of the composite scaffolds. Alginate/HNT composite scaffolds exhibit great potential for applications in tissue engineering. - Highlights: • We fabricated HNTs reinforced alginate composite scaffolds for biomedical applications. • The hydrogen bond interactions between HNTs and alginate are confirmed. • HNTs can significantly enhance the mechanical properties of alginate scaffold. • The scaffolds exhibit a highly porous structure with interconnected pores. • HNTs can improve the cell attachment and proliferation on alginate.

  2. A novel squid pen chitosan/hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate composite for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shavandi, Amin, E-mail: amin.shavandi@postgrad.otago.ac.nz [Department of Food Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Department of Applied Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A. [Department of Food Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Sun, Zhifa; Ali, Azam [Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Gould, Maree [Department of Anatomy, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand)

    2015-10-01

    Squid pen chitosan was used in the fabrication of biocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Hydroxyapatite (HA) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) obtained from waste mussel shells were used as the calcium phosphate source. The composite was prepared using 2.5% tripolyphosphate (TPP) and 1% glycerol as a cross-linker and plasticizer, respectively. The weight percent (wt.%) ratios of the ceramic components in the composite were 20/10/70, 30/20/50 and 40/30/30 (HA/β-TCP/Chi). The biodegradation rate and structural properties of the scaffolds were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microCT(μCT) results indicated that the composites have a well defined lamellar structure with an average pore size of 200 μm. The porosity of the composites decreased from 88 to 56% by increasing the ratio of HA/β-TCP from 30 to 70%. After 28 days of incubation in a physiological solution, the scaffolds were degraded by approximately 30%. In vitro investigations showed that the composites were cytocompatible and supported the growth of L929 and Saos-2 cells. The obtained data suggests that the squid pen chitosan composites are potential candidates for bone regeneration. - Highlights: • Biocomposite scaffolds were made from mussel shells HA and β-TCP, and squid pin chitosan. • The porosity of the composites decreased with an increase in HA/β-TCP ratio. • Composites were cytocompatible and supported the growth of L929 and Saos-2 cells. • Composite containing 50% HA and β-TCP had the best mechanical properties.

  3. Stable hydrogen, oxygen and sulfur isotopes composition in different tissues of cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Fengmei; Shi Guangyu; Wang Huiwen; Yang Shuming

    2012-01-01

    In order to research on stable hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur isotopes composition in different tissues of cattle, as well as the breed, δ 2 H and δ 34 S values of different defatted muscle, cattle tail hair, blood, liver, also δ 2h and δ 18 O values of water from muscle were determined by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The stable sulfur isotope composition was not affected by cattle variety, meanwhile the hydrogen was uncertain; the δ 2 H and δ 34 S values between different defatted muscle, blood, liver, cattle hair were significantly different, at the same time the δ 34 S and δ 2 H values between each tissue were not significantly correlated; the δ 2 H values were strongly correlated with the δ 18 O values of muscle water. The above results indicated that stable sulfur and hydrogen isotopes fractionation in the various tissues were discrepant, thus the proper tissue should be selected according to the purpose and object in the beef traceability. (authors)

  4. Determination of quantitative tissue composition by iterative reconstruction on 3D DECT volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Maria [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics; Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV); Malusek, Alexandr [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics; Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV); Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Radiation Dosimetry; Muhammad, Arif [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics; Carlsson, Gudrun Alm [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics; Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV)

    2011-07-01

    Quantitative tissue classification using dual-energy CT has the potential to improve accuracy in radiation therapy dose planning as it provides more information about material composition of scanned objects than the currently used methods based on single-energy CT. One problem that hinders successful application of both single- and dual-energy CT is the presence of beam hardening and scatter artifacts in reconstructed data. Current pre- and post-correction methods used for image reconstruction often bias CT attenuation values and thus limit their applicability for quantitative tissue classification. Here we demonstrate simulation studies with a novel iterative algorithm that decomposes every soft tissue voxel into three base materials: water, protein, and adipose. The results demonstrate that beam hardening artifacts can effectively be removed and accurate estimation of mass fractions of each base material can be achieved. Our iterative algorithm starts with calculating parallel projections on two previously reconstructed DECT volumes reconstructed from fan-beam or helical projections with small conebeam angle. The parallel projections are then used in an iterative loop. Future developments include segmentation of soft and bone tissue and subsequent determination of bone composition. (orig.)

  5. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in diagnosis of pleural effusion of malignant origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorelli, Alfonso; Ricci, Serena; Feola, Antonia; Mazzella, Antonio; D'Angelo, Luigi; Santini, Mario; Di Domenico, Marina; Di Carlo, Angelina

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in differentiating benign from malignant exudative pleural effusions. This is a unicentre observational study including 97 consecutive patients with exudative pleural effusions. Metalloproteinase-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin, carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 15-3 were measured in pleural effusion and serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The activity of metalloproteinase-9 was also evaluated by substrate zymography. The data were correlated with final diagnosis of pleural effusions to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Of the 97 eligible patients, 6 were excluded. Of the 91 patients included in the study, 70 had malignant pleural effusions and 21 had benign pleural effusions. Both in sera and pleural effusions, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (P effusion (P effusion metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 levels showed higher value of sensitivity (97 and 91%, respectively) and specificity (90 and 95%, respectively) compared with other standard markers. Serum metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 levels showed similar results. Among 70 neoplastic patients, 29 had negative pleural cytology. Of these, 25 presented elevated levels of metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, whereas 4 patients had elevated levels of one of the two markers. Our results showed that metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 might be valuable markers in differentiating benign from malignant pleural effusions. Their levels are neither influenced by the histology and tumour origin nor by the presence of tumour cells in pleural effusions. Thus, their use in clinical practice could help in the selection of patients needing more invasive procedures, such as thoracoscopic biopsy. © The Author 2016

  6. The Origin and Composition of Cucurbit “Phloem” Exudate1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cankui; Yu, Xiyan; Ayre, Brian G.; Turgeon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Cucurbits exude profusely when stems or petioles are cut. We conducted studies on pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) to determine the origin and composition of the exudate. Morphometric analysis indicated that the exudate is too voluminous to derive exclusively from the phloem. Cold, which inhibits phloem transport, did not interfere with exudation. However, ice water applied to the roots, which reduces root pressure, rapidly diminished exudation rate. Sap was seen by microscopic examination to flow primarily from the fascicular phloem in cucumber, and several other cucurbit species, but primarily from the extrafascicular phloem in pumpkin. Following exposure of leaves to 14CO2, radiolabeled stachyose and other sugars were detected in the exudate in proportions expected of authentic phloem sap. Most of this radiolabel was released during the first 20 s. Sugars in exudate were dilute. The sugar composition of exudate from extrafascicular phloem near the edge of the stem differed from that of other sources in that it was high in hexose and low in stachyose. We conclude that sap is released from cucurbit phloem upon wounding but contributes negligibly to total exudate volume. The sap is diluted by water from cut cells, the apoplast, and the xylem. Small amounts of dilute, mobile sap from sieve elements can be obtained, although there is evidence that it is contaminated by the contents of other cell types. The function of P-proteins may be to prevent water loss from the xylem as well as nutrient loss from the phloem. PMID:22331409

  7. Terpenoid Compositions and Botanical Origins of Late Cretaceous and Miocene Amber from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Gongle; Dutta, Suryendu; Paul, Swagata; Wang, Bo; Jacques, Frédéric M. B.

    2014-01-01

    The terpenoid compositions of the Late Cretaceous Xixia amber from Central China and the middle Miocene Zhangpu amber from Southeast China were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to elucidate their botanical origins. The Xixia amber is characterized by sesquiterpenoids, abietane and phyllocladane type diterpenoids, but lacks phenolic abietanes and labdane derivatives. The molecular compositions indicate that the Xixia amber is most likely contributed by the conifer family Araucariaceae, which is today distributed primarily in the Southern Hemisphere, but widely occurred in the Northern Hemisphere during the Mesozoic according to paleobotanical evidence. The middle Miocene Zhangpu amber is characterized by amyrin and amyrone-based triterpenoids and cadalene-based sesquiterpenoids. It is considered derived from the tropical angiosperm family Dipterocarpaceae based on these compounds and the co-occurring fossil winged fruits of the family in Zhangpu. This provides new evidence for the occurrence of a dipterocarp forest in the middle Miocene of Southeast China. It is the first detailed biomarker study for amber from East Asia. PMID:25354364

  8. A numerical simulation of the origin and composition of the groundwater below Aespoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Urban

    1999-02-01

    An attempt is made to calculate the origin (in the time and space) of the waters found below Aespoe. It is assumed that the present water composition is due to the conditions prevailing after the last glaciation (initial conditions) and the hydrological events after this time (resulting in transient boundary conditions). The total time span simulated is from 10,000 years BP to 5 000 years AP. The different water types are tracked by solving an advection/diffusion equation for each of the identified water types. This novel technique is called the 'fluid population method' and is a simple and straightforward computational technique. Results from the simulation include the distribution of different water types in space and time and some detailed results for the conditions at 450 metres below Aespoe (water composition transport time to ground level). The main conclusion from the study is that the simulation model gives plausible results. However, the uncertainties about the basic conceptual model and the boundary conditions do not presently make a direct comparison with field data meaningful

  9. Design and characterization of a biodegradable composite scaffold for ligament tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayami, James W S; Surrao, Denver C; Waldman, Stephen D; Amsden, Brian G

    2010-03-15

    Herein we report on the development and characterization of a biodegradable composite scaffold for ligament tissue engineering based on the fundamental morphological features of the native ligament. An aligned fibrous component was used to mimic the fibrous collagen network and a hydrogel component to mimic the proteoglycan-water matrix of the ligament. The composite scaffold was constructed from cell-adherent, base-etched, electrospun poly(epsilon-caprolactone-co-D,L-lactide) (PCLDLLA) fibers embedded in a noncell-adherent photocrosslinked N-methacrylated glycol chitosan (MGC) hydrogel seeded with primary ligament fibroblasts. Base etching improved cellular adhesion to the PCLDLLA material. Cells within the MGC hydrogel remained viable (72 +/- 4%) during the 4-week culture period. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed ligament ECM markers collagen type I, collagen type III, and decorin organizing and accumulating along the PCLDLLA fibers within the composite scaffolds. On the basis of these results, it was determined that the composite scaffold design was a viable alternative to the current approaches used for ligament tissue engineering and merits further study. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Bacterial microbiota compositions of naturally fermented milk are shaped by both geographic origin and sample type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Z; Hou, Q; Kwok, L; Yu, Z; Zheng, Y; Sun, Z; Menghe, B; Zhang, H

    2016-10-01

    Naturally fermented dairy products contain a rich microbial biodiversity. This study aimed to provide an overview on the bacterial microbiota biodiversity of 85 samples, previously collected across a wide region of China, Mongolia, and Russia. Data from these 85 samples, including 55 yogurts, 18 naturally fermented yak milks, 6 koumisses, and 6 cheeses, were retrieved and collectively analyzed. The most prevalent phyla shared across samples were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria, which together accounted for 99% of bacterial sequences. The predominant genera were Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Acetobacter, Acinetobacter, Leuconostoc, and Macrococcus, which together corresponded to 96.63% of bacterial sequences. Further multivariate statistical analyses revealed significant differences in the microbiota structure across sample geographic origin and type. First, on the principal coordinate score plot, samples representing the 3 main sample collection regions (Russia, Xinjiang, and Tibet) were mostly located respectively in the upper left, lower right, and lower left quadrants, although slight overlapping occurred. In contrast, samples from the minor sampling areas (Inner Mongolia, Mongolia, Gansu, and Sichuan) were predominantly distributed in the lower left quadrant. These results suggest a possible association between sample geographical origin and microbiota composition. Second, bacterial microbiota structure was stratified by sample type. In particular, the microbiota of cheese was largely distinct from the other sample types due to its high abundances of Lactococcus and Streptococcus. The fermented yak milk microbiota was most like that of the yogurts. Koumiss samples had the lowest microbial diversity and richness. In conclusion, both geographic origin and sample type shape the microbial diversity of naturally fermented milk. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  11. GLOBAL CONSULTATION ON ESTABLISHMENT A UNIFIED SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM FOR DONATION AND TRANSPLANTATION OF ORGANS, TISSUES AND CELLS OF HUMAN ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Orlova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available From from February 7th to 9th 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO, the Italian National Transplant Cen- tre and the EU-funded Project «Vigilance and Surveillance of Substances of Human Origin» joined forces to organise a major global consultation that took place in Bologna, Italy. The scope of the project included organs, tissues and cells for transplantation and for assisted reproduction. The participants represented regulatory and non-regulatory government agencies, professional societies and scientific and clinical specialities from all WHO regions. The meeting explored the work already carried out on-line and agreed on priorities for the future deve- lopment of the Project «Vigilance and Surveillance of Substances of Human Origin». 

  12. Monte Carlo study of voxel S factor dependence on tissue density and atomic composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amato, Ernesto, E-mail: eamato@unime.it [University of Messina, Department of Biomedical Sciences and of Morphologic and Functional Imaging, Section of Radiological Sciences, via Consolare Valeria, 1, I-98125 Messina (Italy); Italiano, Antonio [INFN – Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo Collegato di Messina (Italy); Baldari, Sergio [University of Messina, Department of Biomedical Sciences and of Morphologic and Functional Imaging, Section of Radiological Sciences, via Consolare Valeria, 1, I-98125 Messina (Italy)

    2013-11-21

    Voxel dosimetry is a common approach to the internal dosimetry of non-uniform activity distributions in nuclear medicine therapies with radiopharmaceuticals and in the estimation of the radiation hazard due to internal contamination of radionuclides. Aim of the present work is to extend our analytical approach for the calculation of voxel S factors to materials different from the soft tissue. We used a Monte Carlo simulation in GEANT4 of a voxelized region of each material in which the source of monoenergetic electrons or photons was uniformly distributed within the central voxel, and the energy deposition was scored over the surrounding 11×11×11 voxels. Voxel S factors were obtained for the following standard ICRP materials: Adipose tissue, Bone cortical, Brain, Lung, Muscle skeletal and Tissue soft with 1 g cm{sup −3} density. Moreover, we considered the standard ICRU materials: Bone compact and Muscle striated. Voxel S factors were represented as a function of the “normalized radius”, defined as the ratio between the source–target voxel distance and the voxel side. We found that voxel S factors and related analytical fit functions are mainly affected by the tissue density, while the material composition gives only a slight contribution to the difference between data series, which is negligible for practical purposes. Our results can help in broadening the dosimetric three-dimensional approach based on voxel S factors to other tissues where diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides can be taken up and radiation can propagate.

  13. Monte Carlo study of voxel S factor dependence on tissue density and atomic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, Ernesto; Italiano, Antonio; Baldari, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Voxel dosimetry is a common approach to the internal dosimetry of non-uniform activity distributions in nuclear medicine therapies with radiopharmaceuticals and in the estimation of the radiation hazard due to internal contamination of radionuclides. Aim of the present work is to extend our analytical approach for the calculation of voxel S factors to materials different from the soft tissue. We used a Monte Carlo simulation in GEANT4 of a voxelized region of each material in which the source of monoenergetic electrons or photons was uniformly distributed within the central voxel, and the energy deposition was scored over the surrounding 11×11×11 voxels. Voxel S factors were obtained for the following standard ICRP materials: Adipose tissue, Bone cortical, Brain, Lung, Muscle skeletal and Tissue soft with 1 g cm −3 density. Moreover, we considered the standard ICRU materials: Bone compact and Muscle striated. Voxel S factors were represented as a function of the “normalized radius”, defined as the ratio between the source–target voxel distance and the voxel side. We found that voxel S factors and related analytical fit functions are mainly affected by the tissue density, while the material composition gives only a slight contribution to the difference between data series, which is negligible for practical purposes. Our results can help in broadening the dosimetric three-dimensional approach based on voxel S factors to other tissues where diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides can be taken up and radiation can propagate

  14. Automated segmentation of muscle and adipose tissue on CT images for human body composition analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Howard; Cobzas, Dana; Birdsell, Laura; Lieffers, Jessica; Baracos, Vickie

    2009-02-01

    The ability to compute body composition in cancer patients lends itself to determining the specific clinical outcomes associated with fat and lean tissue stores. For example, a wasting syndrome of advanced disease associates with shortened survival. Moreover, certain tissue compartments represent sites for drug distribution and are likely determinants of chemotherapy efficacy and toxicity. CT images are abundant, but these cannot be fully exploited unless there exist practical and fast approaches for tissue quantification. Here we propose a fully automated method for segmenting muscle, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, taking the approach of shape modeling for the analysis of skeletal muscle. Muscle shape is represented using PCA encoded Free Form Deformations with respect to a mean shape. The shape model is learned from manually segmented images and used in conjunction with a tissue appearance prior. VAT and SAT are segmented based on the final deformed muscle shape. In comparing the automatic and manual methods, coefficients of variation (COV) (1 - 2%), were similar to or smaller than inter- and intra-observer COVs reported for manual segmentation.

  15. Composite microsphere-functionalized scaffold for the controlled release of small molecules in tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current tissue engineering strategies focus on restoring damaged tissue architectures using biologically active scaffolds. The ideal scaffold would mimic the extracellular matrix of any tissue of interest, promoting cell proliferation and de novo extracellular matrix deposition. A plethora of techniques have been evaluated to engineer scaffolds for the controlled and targeted release of bioactive molecules to provide a functional structure for tissue growth and remodeling, as well as enhance recruitment and proliferation of autologous cells within the implant. Recently, novel approaches using small molecules, instead of growth factors, have been exploited to regulate tissue regeneration. The use of small synthetic molecules could be very advantageous because of their stability, tunability, and low cost. Herein, we propose a chitosan–gelatin scaffold functionalized with composite microspheres consisting of mesoporous silicon microparticles and poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid for the controlled release of sphingosine-1-phospate, a small molecule of interest. We characterized the platform with scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and confocal microscopy. Finally, the biocompatibility of this multiscale system was analyzed by culturing human mesenchymal stem cells onto the scaffold. The presented strategy establishes the basis of a versatile scaffold for the controlled release of small molecules and for culturing mesenchymal stem cells for regenerative medicine applications.

  16. Fetal subcutaneous tissue measurements in pregnancy as a predictor of neonatal total body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Clare; Doolan, Anne; O'Higgins, Amy; Segurado, Ricardo; Sheridan-Pereiraet, Margaret; Turner, Michael J; Stuart, Bernard; Kennelly, Máireád M

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between prenatal measures of subcutaneous tissue as surrogate markers of fetal nutritional status and correlate them with neonatal total body composition. This prospective longitudinal study of 62 singleton pregnancies obtained serial biometry and subcutaneous tissue measurements at 28, 33 and 38 weeks gestation. These measurements were then correlated with neonatal body composition, which was analysed using the PEAPOD™ Infant Body Composition System (Cosmed USA, Concord, CA, USA). At 38 weeks gestation, fetal abdominal subcutaneous tissue (FAST) in millimetres was significantly associated with infant fat mass at delivery (+64 g per mm of FAST, p < 0.001). Thigh fat (TF) at 28 weeks gestation was associated with infant fat mass at delivery (+79 g/mm TF, p = 0.023). TF at 38 weeks gestation was associated with infant fat mass (+63/mm TF, p = 0.004). TF and FAST at 38 weeks were also predictive of both birth weight and increased abdominal circumference (AC) (p = 0.001) with FAST measurement predicting an additional 5.7 mm in AC per millimetre of FAST (p = 0.002) and TF predicting an additional 6.9 mm per mm of TF (p = 0.002). We believe that this study further validates the use of prenatal measures of subcutaneous tissue and may help to highlight fetuses at risk of newborn adiposity and metabolic syndrome. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Protruding and non-protruding colon carcinomas originating in gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Carlos A; Lindh, Claes; Björk, Jan; Törnblom, Hans; Befrits, Ragnar

    2010-07-01

    Colon carcinomas arising in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALTC) are termed dome carcinomas (DC) because of their protruding phenotype. Only 8 GALTC cases have been reported in the literature. A female patient, aged 53, having a familial pedigree of colon cancer, uterine cervix cancer and brain tumour developed a signet-ring carcinoma in the cecum and 10 years later endometrial cancer. While asymptomatic, a plaque-like protrusion in the colon was detected at surveillance colonoscopy. Histology demonstrated a protruding GALTC. The surgical specimen showed four additional carcinomas: 2 GALTC (non-protruding) and 2 carcinomas in lymphoid-free colonic mucosa (LFCMC). Since adenomas could not be demonstrated neither previously nor in the colectomy specimen, it is suggested that the GALTCs in this patient may have followed the GALT-carcinoma pathway.

  18. [The composition of the gastrointestinal bacterial flora of mouse embryos and the placenta tissue bacterial flora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, D; Lin, Y; Jiang, X; Lan, L; Zhang, W; Wang, B X

    2017-03-02

    Objective: To explore the composition of the gastrointestinal bacterial flora of mouse embryos and the placenta tissue bacterial flora. Method: Twenty-four specimens were collected from pregnant Kunming mouse including 8 mice of early embryonic (12-13 days) gastrointestinal tissues, 8 cases of late embryonic (19-20 days)gastrointestinal tissues, 8 of late pregnancy placental tissues.The 24 samples were extracted by DNeasy Blood & Tissue kit for high-throughput DNA sequencing. Result: The level of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actino-bacteria and Firmicutes were predominantin all specimens.The relative content of predominant bacterial phyla in each group: Proteobacteria (95.00%, 88.14%, 87.26%), Bacteroidetes(1.71%, 2.15%, 2.63%), Actino-Bacteria(1.16%, 4.10%, 3.38%), Firmicutes(0.75%, 2.62%, 2.01%). At the level of family, there were nine predominant bacterial families in which Enterobacteriaeae , Shewanel laceae and Moraxellaceae were dominant.The relative content of dominant bacterial family in eachgroup: Enterobacteriaeae (46.99%, 44.34%, 41.08%), Shewanellaceae (21.99%, 21.10%, 19.05%), Moraxellaceae (9.18%, 7.09%, 5.64%). From the species of flora, the flora from fetal gastrointestinal in early pregnancy and late pregnancy (65.44% and 62.73%) were the same as that from placenta tissue in the late pregnancy.From the abundance of bacteria, at the level of family, the same content of bacteria in three groups accounted for 78.16%, 72.53% and 65.78% respectively. Conclusion: It was proved that the gastrointestinal bacterial flora of mouse embryos and the placenta tissue bacterial flora were colonized. At the same time the bacteria are classified.

  19. Silk-fibrin/hyaluronic acid composite gels for nucleus pulposus tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Hyug; Cho, Hongsik; Gil, Eun Seok; Mandal, Biman B; Min, Byoung-Hyun; Kaplan, David L

    2011-12-01

    Scaffold designs are critical for in vitro culture of tissue-engineered cartilage in three-dimensional environments to enhance cellular differentiation for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In the present study we demonstrated silk and fibrin/hyaluronic acid (HA) composite gels as scaffolds for nucleus pulposus (NP) cartilage formation, providing both biochemical support for NP outcomes as well as fostering the retention of size of the scaffold during culture due to the combined features of the two proteins. Passage two (P2) human chondrocytes cultured in 10% serum were encapsulated within silk-fibrin/HA gels. Five study groups with fibrin/HA gel culture (F/H) along with varying silk concentrations (2% silk gel only, fibrin/HA gel culture with 1% silk [F/H+1S], 1.5% silk [F/H+1.5S], and 2% silk [F/H+2S]) were cultured in serum-free chondrogenic defined media (CDM) for 4 weeks. Histological examination with alcian blue showed a defined chondrogenic area at 1 week in all groups that widened homogenously until 4 weeks. In particular, chondrogenic differentiation observed in the F/H+1.5S had no reduction in size throughout the culture period. The results of biochemical and molecular biological evaluations supported observations made during histological examination. Mechanical strength measurements showed that the silk mixed gels provided stronger mechanical properties for NP tissue than fibrin/HA composite gels in CDM. This effect could potentially be useful in the study of in vitro NP tissue engineering as well as for clinical implications for NP tissue regeneration.

  20. The rapid manufacture of uniform composite multicellular-biomaterial micropellets, their assembly into macroscopic organized tissues, and potential applications in cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babur, Betul Kul; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Klein, Travis Jacob; Lott, William B; Doran, Michael Robert

    2015-01-01

    We and others have published on the rapid manufacture of micropellet tissues, typically formed from 100-500 cells each. The micropellet geometry enhances cellular biological properties, and in many cases the micropellets can subsequently be utilized as building blocks to assemble complex macrotissues. Generally, micropellets are formed from cells alone, however when replicating matrix-rich tissues such as cartilage it would be ideal if matrix or biomaterials supplements could be incorporated directly into the micropellet during the manufacturing process. Herein we describe a method to efficiently incorporate donor cartilage matrix into tissue engineered cartilage micropellets. We lyophilized bovine cartilage matrix, and then shattered it into microscopic pieces having average dimensions manufacture of thousands of replica composite micropellets, with each micropellet having a material/CD core and a cellular surface. This micropellet organization enabled the rapid bulking up of the micropellet core matrix content, and left an adhesive cellular outer surface. This morphological organization enabled the ready assembly of the composite micropellets into macroscopic tissues. Generically, this is a versatile method that enables the rapid and uniform integration of biomaterials into multicellular micropellets that can then be used as tissue building blocks. In this study, the addition of CD resulted in an approximate 8-fold volume increase in the micropellets, with the donor matrix functioning to contribute to an increase in total cartilage matrix content. Composite micropellets were readily assembled into macroscopic cartilage tissues; the incorporation of CD enhanced tissue size and matrix content, but did not enhance chondrogenic gene expression.

  1. Effect of oral oleoyl-estrone on adipose tissue composition in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remesar, X; Fernández-López, J A; Blay, M T; Savall, P; Salas, A; Díaz-Silva, M; Esteve, M; Grasa, M M; Alemany, M

    2002-08-01

    To determine whether the oral administration of oleoyl-estrone has similar mass-decreasing effects on the main different sites of white adipose tissue (WAT). Adult male Zucker lean rats were given a daily oral gavage of oleoyl-estrone (OE, 10 micromol/kg) in 0.2 ml of sunflower oil for 10 days, and were compared with controls receiving only the oil. The mass of the main WAT sites: subcutaneous, epididymal, mesenteric, retroperitoneal, gluteal, perirenal and interscapular, as well as perirenal and interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT), were dissected and studied. The tissue weight, DNA, protein, lipid and total cholesterol content, together with the levels of leptin and acyl-estrone in the larger WAT and BAT masses, were measured. The weights of WAT depots were correlated with body weight but those of BAT were not. Cell size was maximal for epididymal and mesenteric and minimal for subcutaneous and retroperitoneal WAT and BAT. Differences were detected in DNA, and in protein and lipid content between distinct WAT sites. OE treatment tended to decrease cell number and cell size in WAT; only small differences in composition were found between WAT locations inside the visceral cavity and those outside. Decreases in lipid content were maximal in mesenteric fat. Leptin and acyl-estrone content were fairly uniform at the different WAT sites, except for high concentrations in gluteal WAT. OE induced a greater decrease in leptin and acyl-estrone than in DNA and lipids; changes in these hormones were fairly parallel in all sites. In general, the differences in composition between visceral and peripheral subcutaneous WAT and their responses to OE were less marked than the individual differences observed between specific sites, regardless of location. WAT sites are fairly diverse in composition, but their response to OE treatment was uniform. OE decreased the weight of WAT through reduction of both cell numbers and size; but did not change the mass or composition of BAT

  2. Composition and origin of rhyolite melt intersected by drilling in the Krafla geothermal field, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierenberg, R.A.; Schiffman, P.; Barfod, G.H.; Lesher, C.E.; Marks, N.E.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Mortensen, A.K.; Pope, E.C.; Bird, D.K.; Reed, M.H.; Friðleifsson, G.O.; Elders, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project Well 1 was designed as a 4- to 5-km-deep exploration well with the goal of intercepting supercritical hydrothermal fluids in the Krafla geothermal field, Iceland. The well unexpectedly drilled into a high-silica (76.5 % SiO2) rhyolite melt at approximately 2.1 km. Some of the melt vesiculated while extruding into the drill hole, but most of the recovered cuttings are quenched sparsely phyric, vesicle-poor glass. The phenocryst assemblage is comprised of titanomagnetite, plagioclase, augite, and pigeonite. Compositional zoning in plagioclase and exsolution lamellae in augite and pigeonite record changing crystallization conditions as the melt migrated to its present depth of emplacement. The in situ temperature of the melt is estimated to be between 850 and 920 °C based on two-pyroxene geothermometry and modeling of the crystallization sequence. Volatile content of the glass indicated partial degassing at an in situ pressure that is above hydrostatic (~16 MPa) and below lithostatic (~55 MPa). The major element and minor element composition of the melt are consistent with an origin by partial melting of hydrothermally altered basaltic crust at depth, similar to rhyolite erupted within the Krafla Caldera. Chondrite-normalized REE concentrations show strong light REE enrichment and relative flat patterns with negative Eu anomaly. Strontium isotope values (0.70328) are consistent with mantle-derived melt, but oxygen and hydrogen isotope values are depleted (3.1 and −118 ‰, respectively) relative to mantle values. The hydrogen isotope values overlap those of hydrothermal epidote from rocks altered by the meteoric-water-recharged Krafla geothermal system. The rhyolite melt was emplaced into and has reacted with a felsic intrusive suite that has nearly identical composition. The felsite is composed of quartz, alkali feldspar, plagioclase, titanomagnetite, and augite. Emplacement of the rhyolite magma has resulted in partial melting of

  3. Prediction of Local Ultimate Strain and Toughness of Trabecular Bone Tissue by Raman Material Composition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carretta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical studies indicate that bone mineral density correlates with fracture risk at the population level but does not correlate with individual fracture risk well. Current research aims to better understand the failure mechanism of bone and to identify key determinants of bone quality, thus improving fracture risk prediction. To get a better understanding of bone strength, it is important to analyze tissue-level properties not influenced by macro- or microarchitectural factors. The aim of this pilot study was to identify whether and to what extent material properties are correlated with mechanical properties at the tissue level. The influence of macro- or microarchitectural factors was excluded by testing individual trabeculae. Previously reported data of mechanical parameters measured in single trabeculae under tension and bending and its compositional properties measured by Raman spectroscopy was evaluated. Linear and multivariate regressions show that bone matrix quality but not quantity was significantly and independently correlated with the tissue-level ultimate strain and postyield work (r=0.65–0.94. Principal component analysis extracted three independent components explaining 86% of the total variance, representing elastic, yield, and ultimate components according to the included mechanical parameters. Some matrix parameters were both included in the ultimate component, indicating that the variation in ultimate strain and postyield work could be largely explained by Raman-derived compositional parameters.

  4. Autologous Cartilage Chip Transplantation Improves Repair Tissue Composition Compared With Marrow Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Bjørn Borsøe; Olesen, Morten Lykke; Lind, Martin; Foldager, Casper Bindzus

    2017-06-01

    Repair of chondral injuries by use of cartilage chips has recently demonstrated clinical feasibility. To investigate in vivo cartilage repair outcome of autologous cartilage chips compared with marrow stimulation in full-thickness cartilage defects in a minipig model. Controlled laboratory study. Six Göttingen minipigs received two 6-mm chondral defects in the medial and lateral trochlea of each knee. The two treatment groups were (1) autologous cartilage chips embedded in fibrin glue (ACC) (n = 12) and (2) marrow stimulation (MST) (n = 12). The animals were euthanized after 6 months, and the composition of repair tissue was quantitatively determined using histomorphometry. Semiquantitative evaluation was performed by means of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) II score. Collagen type II staining was used to further evaluate the repair tissue composition. Significantly more hyaline cartilage was found in the ACC (17.1%) compared with MST (2.9%) group ( P cartilage repair tissue compared with MST at 6 months postoperatively. Further studies are needed to investigate ACC as a possible alternative first-line treatment for focal cartilage injuries in the knee.

  5. Lipoproteins in Drosophila melanogaster—Assembly, Function, and Influence on Tissue Lipid Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Wilhelm; Sampaio, Julio L.; Brankatschk, Marko; Carvalho, Maria; Mahmoud, Ali; Shevchenko, Andrej; Eaton, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Interorgan lipid transport occurs via lipoproteins, and altered lipoprotein levels correlate with metabolic disease. However, precisely how lipoproteins affect tissue lipid composition has not been comprehensively analyzed. Here, we identify the major lipoproteins of Drosophila melanogaster and use genetics and mass spectrometry to study their assembly, interorgan trafficking, and influence on tissue lipids. The apoB-family lipoprotein Lipophorin (Lpp) is the major hemolymph lipid carrier. It is produced as a phospholipid-rich particle by the fat body, and its secretion requires Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein (MTP). Lpp acquires sterols and most diacylglycerol (DAG) at the gut via Lipid Transfer Particle (LTP), another fat body-derived apoB-family lipoprotein. The gut, like the fat body, is a lipogenic organ, incorporating both de novo–synthesized and dietary fatty acids into DAG for export. We identify distinct requirements for LTP and Lpp-dependent lipid mobilization in contributing to the neutral and polar lipid composition of the brain and wing imaginal disc. These studies define major routes of interorgan lipid transport in Drosophila and uncover surprising tissue-specific differences in lipoprotein lipid utilization. PMID:22844248

  6. The origin of groundwater composition in the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala, M E; Manzano, M; Vives, L

    2015-06-15

    The Pampean plain is the most productive region in Argentina. The Pampeano Aquifer beneath the Pampean plain is used mostly for drinking water. The study area is the sector of the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, in Buenos Aires province. The main objective is to characterize the chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwater and their origin on a regional scale. The methodology used involved the identification and characterization of potential sources of solutes, the study of rain water and groundwater chemical and isotopic characteristics to deduce processes, the development of a hydrogeochemical conceptual model, and its validation by hydrogeochemical modelling with PHREEQC. Groundwater samples come mostly from a two-depth monitoring network of the "Dr. Eduardo J. Usunoff" Large Plains Hydrology Institute (IHLLA). Groundwater salinity increases from SW to NE, where groundwater is saline. In the upper basin groundwater is of the HCO3-Ca type, in the middle basin it is HCO3-Na, and in the lower basin it is ClSO4-NaCa and Cl-Na. The main processes incorporating solutes to groundwater during recharge in the upper basin are rain water evaporation, dissolution of CO2, calcite, dolomite, silica, and anorthite; cationic exchange with Na release and Ca and Mg uptake, and clay precipitation. The main processes modifying groundwater chemistry along horizontal flow at 30 m depth from the upper to the lower basin are cationic exchange, dissolution of silica and anorthite, and clay precipitation. The origin of salinity in the middle and lower basin is secular evaporation in a naturally endorheic area. In the upper and middle basins there is agricultural pollution. In the lower basin the main pollution source is human liquid and solid wastes. Vertical infiltration through the boreholes annular space during the yearly flooding stages is probably the pollution mechanism of the samples at 30 m depth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Compton scattering spectrum as a source of information of normal and neoplastic breast tissues' composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceicao, A.L.C. [Departamento de Fisica-Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, 14040-901 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Poletti, M.E., E-mail: poletti@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Fisica-Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, 14040-901 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    In this work we measured X-ray scatter spectra from normal and neoplastic breast tissues using photon energy of 17.44 keV and a scattering angle of 90 Degree-Sign , in order to study the shape (FWHM) of the Compton peaks. The obtained results for FWHM were discussed in terms of composition and histological characteristics of each tissue type. The statistical analysis shows that the distribution of FWHM of normal adipose breast tissue clearly differs from all other investigated tissues. Comparison between experimental values of FWHM and effective atomic number revealed a strong correlation between them, showing that the FWHM values can be used to provide information about elemental composition of the tissues. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray scatter spectra from normal and neoplastic breast tissues were measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shape (FWHM) of Compton peak was related with elemental composition and characteristics of each tissue type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A statistical hypothesis test showed clear differences between normal and neoplastic breast tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a strong correlation between experimental values of FWHM and effective atomic number. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shape (FWHM) of Compton peak can be used to provide information about elemental composition of the tissues.

  8. Genetic origin and composition of a natural hybrid poplar Populus???jrtyschensis from two distantly related species

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Dechun; Feng, Jianju; Dong, Miao; Wu, Guili; Mao, Kangshan; Liu, Jianquan

    2016-01-01

    Background The factors that contribute to and maintain hybrid zones between distinct species are highly variable, depending on hybrid origins, frequencies and fitness. In this study, we aimed to examine genetic origins, compositions and possible maintenance of Populus???jrtyschensis, an assumed natural hybrid between two distantly related species. This hybrid poplar occurs mainly on the floodplains along the river valleys between the overlapping distributions of the two putative parents. Resu...

  9. Intervertebral Disc Tissue Engineering with Natural Extracellular Matrix-Derived Biphasic Composite Scaffolds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoshan Xu

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering has provided an alternative therapeutic possibility for degenerative disc diseases. However, we lack an ideal scaffold for IVD tissue engineering. The goal of this study is to fabricate a novel biomimetic biphasic scaffold for IVD tissue engineering and evaluate the feasibility of developing tissue-engineered IVD in vitro and in vivo. In present study we developed a novel integrated biphasic IVD scaffold using a simple freeze-drying and cross-linking technique of pig bone matrix gelatin (BMG for the outer annulus fibrosus (AF phase and pig acellular cartilage ECM (ACECM for the inner nucleus pulposus (NP phase. Histology and SEM results indicated no residual cells remaining in the scaffold that featured an interconnected porous microstructure (pore size of AF and NP phase 401.4 ± 13.1 μm and 231.6 ± 57.2 μm, respectively. PKH26-labeled AF and NP cells were seeded into the scaffold and cultured in vitro. SEM confirmed that seeded cells could anchor onto the scaffold. Live/dead staining showed that live cells (green fluorescence were distributed in the scaffold, with no dead cells (red fluorescence being found. The cell-scaffold constructs were implanted subcutaneously into nude mice and cultured for 6 weeks in vivo. IVD-like tissue formed in nude mice as confirmed by histology. Cells in hybrid constructs originated from PKH26-labeled cells, as confirmed by in vivo fluorescence imaging system. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the feasibility of developing a tissue-engineered IVD in vivo with a BMG- and ACECM-derived integrated AF-NP biphasic scaffold. As well, PKH26 fluorescent labeling with in vivo fluorescent imaging can be used to track cells and analyse cell--scaffold constructs in vivo.

  10. The origin of groundwater composition in the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabala, M.E.; Manzano, M.; Vives, L.

    2015-01-01

    The Pampean plain is the most productive region in Argentina. The Pampeano Aquifer beneath the Pampean plain is used mostly for drinking water. The study area is the sector of the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, in Buenos Aires province. The main objective is to characterize the chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwater and their origin on a regional scale. The methodology used involved the identification and characterization of potential sources of solutes, the study of rain water and groundwater chemical and isotopic characteristics to deduce processes, the development of a hydrogeochemical conceptual model, and its validation by hydrogeochemical modelling with PHREEQC. Groundwater samples come mostly from a two-depth monitoring network of the “Dr. Eduardo J. Usunoff” Large Plains Hydrology Institute (IHLLA). Groundwater salinity increases from SW to NE, where groundwater is saline. In the upper basin groundwater is of the HCO 3 -Ca type, in the middle basin it is HCO 3 -Na, and in the lower basin it is ClSO 4 –NaCa and Cl–Na. The main processes incorporating solutes to groundwater during recharge in the upper basin are rain water evaporation, dissolution of CO 2 , calcite, dolomite, silica, and anorthite; cationic exchange with Na release and Ca and Mg uptake, and clay precipitation. The main processes modifying groundwater chemistry along horizontal flow at 30 m depth from the upper to the lower basin are cationic exchange, dissolution of silica and anorthite, and clay precipitation. The origin of salinity in the middle and lower basin is secular evaporation in a naturally endorheic area. In the upper and middle basins there is agricultural pollution. In the lower basin the main pollution source is human liquid and solid wastes. Vertical infiltration through the boreholes annular space during the yearly flooding stages is probably the pollution mechanism of the samples at 30 m depth. - Highlights: • The work studies the

  11. The origin of groundwater composition in the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabala, M.E., E-mail: mzabala@faa.unicen.edu.ar [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Hidrología de Llanuras “Dr. Eduardo J. Usunoff”, Av. República Italia 780, 7300 Azul, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina); Manzano, M., E-mail: marisol.manzano@upct.es [Escuela de Ingeniería de Caminos, Canales y Puertos y de Ingeniería de Minas, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, P° de Alfonso XIII 52, E-30203 Cartagena (Spain); Vives, L., E-mail: lvives@faa.unicen.edu.ar [Instituto de Hidrología de Llanuras “Dr. Eduardo J. Usunoff”, Av. República Italia 780, 7300 Azul, Provincia Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-06-15

    The Pampean plain is the most productive region in Argentina. The Pampeano Aquifer beneath the Pampean plain is used mostly for drinking water. The study area is the sector of the Pampeano Aquifer underlying the Del Azul Creek basin, in Buenos Aires province. The main objective is to characterize the chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwater and their origin on a regional scale. The methodology used involved the identification and characterization of potential sources of solutes, the study of rain water and groundwater chemical and isotopic characteristics to deduce processes, the development of a hydrogeochemical conceptual model, and its validation by hydrogeochemical modelling with PHREEQC. Groundwater samples come mostly from a two-depth monitoring network of the “Dr. Eduardo J. Usunoff” Large Plains Hydrology Institute (IHLLA). Groundwater salinity increases from SW to NE, where groundwater is saline. In the upper basin groundwater is of the HCO{sub 3}-Ca type, in the middle basin it is HCO{sub 3}-Na, and in the lower basin it is ClSO{sub 4}–NaCa and Cl–Na. The main processes incorporating solutes to groundwater during recharge in the upper basin are rain water evaporation, dissolution of CO{sub 2}, calcite, dolomite, silica, and anorthite; cationic exchange with Na release and Ca and Mg uptake, and clay precipitation. The main processes modifying groundwater chemistry along horizontal flow at 30 m depth from the upper to the lower basin are cationic exchange, dissolution of silica and anorthite, and clay precipitation. The origin of salinity in the middle and lower basin is secular evaporation in a naturally endorheic area. In the upper and middle basins there is agricultural pollution. In the lower basin the main pollution source is human liquid and solid wastes. Vertical infiltration through the boreholes annular space during the yearly flooding stages is probably the pollution mechanism of the samples at 30 m depth. - Highlights: • The

  12. Original paper Influence of biologic therapy on growth in children with chronic inflammatory connective tissue diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Świdrowska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Connective tissue diseases (CTD are a heterogeneous group of chronic inflammatory conditions. One of their complications in children is the inhibition of growth velocity. Due to direct inflammation within the musculoskeletal system as well as glucocorticoid therapy, this feature is the most essential and is mainly expressed in the course of juvenile spondyloarthropathies and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Duration of the disease, but predominantly the activity of the inflammatory process, seems to have a significant impact on the abnormal growth profile in children. Effective biological therapy leads to improvement of the patient’s clinical condition and also, through the extinction of disease activity and reduction of daily doses of glucocorticosteroids (GCS, it gradually accelerates and normalizes the growth rate in children with CTD. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of biological therapy on growth in children with chronic inflammatory CTD. Material and methods: Data from 24 patients with CTD treated with tumor necrosis factor--blockers (etanercept, adalimumab, golimumab and an interleukin-6 receptor blocker (tocilizumab were reviewed at the time of disease onset, biological treatment initiation and at least 12 up to 24 months onwards. The rate of growth was correlated with the daily doses of GCS, and the type and duration of biological therapy. Results : Patient median height, measured as the change in height standard deviation score, was 0.36 ±1.07 at disease onset and –0.13 ±1.02 at biologic therapy initiation. The growth velocity accelerated in 17 patients (70.1% during the biological treatment. Mean height-SDS improvement between biological treatment initiation up to two years was 0.51 ±0.58. In 47% of patients daily doses of GCS were reduced to 0 mg/kg/day. Conclusions : In the treatment of CTD, biological agents restore growth velocity not only by inflammation inhibition, but also through limiting GCS

  13. Engineering of Corneal Tissue through an Aligned PVA/Collagen Composite Nanofibrous Electrospun Scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengjie; Kong, Bin; Liu, Rui; Sun, Wei; Mi, Shengli

    2018-02-24

    Corneal diseases are the main reason of vision loss globally. Constructing a corneal equivalent which has a similar strength and transparency with the native cornea, seems to be a feasible way to solve the shortage of donated cornea. Electrospun collagen scaffolds are often fabricated and used as a tissue-engineered cornea, but the main drawback of poor mechanical properties make it unable to meet the requirement for surgery suture, which limits its clinical applications to a large extent. Aligned polyvinyl acetate (PVA)/collagen (PVA-COL) scaffolds were electrospun by mixing collagen and PVA to reinforce the mechanical strength of the collagen electrospun scaffold. Human keratocytes (HKs) and human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) inoculated on aligned and random PVA-COL electrospun scaffolds adhered and proliferated well, and the aligned nanofibers induced orderly HK growth, indicating that the designed PVA-COL composite nanofibrous electrospun scaffold is suitable for application in tissue-engineered cornea.

  14. Fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissues of indigenous Caribbean goats under varying nutritional densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liméa, L; Alexandre, G; Berthelot, V

    2012-02-01

    The effects of a concentrate diet on growth, carcass fat, and fatty acid (FA) composition of muscle (supraspinatus), perirenal, and intermuscular adipose tissues of Creole goats (n = 32) were evaluated. Goats were fed a tropical green forage Digitaria decumbens ad libitum with no concentrate (G0) or 1 of 3 levels of concentrate: 140 (G100), 240 (G200), and 340 g•d(-1) (G300), respectively. Goats were slaughtered according to the standard procedure at the commercial BW (22 to 24 kg of BW). Goats fed the concentrate diets (G100, G200, and G300) had greater ADG (P 0.05). Increased concentrate supplementation did not affect (P > 0.05) the proportion of MUFA in all tissues and had very little effect on SFA in perirenal tissue, but increased the PUFA proportion in muscle (P < 0.05). The major effect of feeding increased concentrate was an increase in n-6 PUFA proportions in all tissues (P < 0.001) and, surprisingly, a decrease in n-3 PUFA (P < 0.001). Focusing on FA, which are supposed to have a beneficial or an adverse effect on human health, feeding increased concentrate did not increase the content of any cholesterol-increasing SFA in meat, but increased the n-6/n-3 ratio above 4 when more than 240 g of concentrate was fed per day.

  15. Dietary fat composition influences tissue lipid profile and gene expression in Fischer-344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Albert L; Hintze, Korry J; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Ward, Robert E

    2012-12-01

    The AIN-76A diet causes fatty liver in rodents when fed for long periods of time. The aim of this study was to utilize fatty acid analysis and transcriptomics to investigate the effects of different fat sources in the AIN-76A diet on tissue lipid profiles and gene expression in male, weanling Fischer-344 rats. Animals were fed isocaloric diets that differed only in the fat source: (1) corn oil (CO) (2) anhydrous milk fat (AMF), and (3) AMF supplemented with 10% phospholipids from the milk fat globule membrane (AMF-MFGM). There were no differences in food intake, body weight, growth rate, or body fat composition among the groups, and the fatty acid compositions of red blood cells (RBC), plasma, muscle, and visceral adipose tissues reflected the dietary fat sources. Modifying the fat source resulted in 293 genes differentially regulated in skeletal muscle, 1,124 in adipose, and 831 in liver as determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Although tissue fatty acid profiles mostly reflected the diet, there were several quantitative differences in lipid classes in the liver and plasma. The AMF diet resulted in the highest level of hepatic triacylglycerols, but the lowest level in plasma. The CO diet resulted in significant accumulation of hepatic unesterified fatty acids and decreased DGAT expression and activity, a potential trigger for steatohepatitis. These results indicate that the fatty acid composition and presence of polar lipids in the AIN-76A diets have significant effects on lipid partitioning, gene expression, and potentially the development of liver pathology.

  16. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Mono- and Heterofloral Bee Pollen of Different Geographical Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucilene Silva Araújo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows variations in pollen chemical constituents and, consequently, in their therapeutic properties. Mono and multifloral bee pollen extracts were investigated for antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activity properties, phenolic compounds and fatty acid composition. Generally, Eucalyptus spp. and multifloral extracts exhibited potent inhibitory activity against α-amylase, acetylcholinesterase, tyrosinase, lipoxygenase, lipase and hyaluronidase. On the other hand, Miconia spp. demonstrated higher antihemolytic activity. Cocos nucifera and Miconia spp. extracts exhibited important antioxidant properties in the different assays (ABTS, DPPH, β-carotene/linoleic acid and reducing power. Moreover, these extracts had greater amounts of total phenols and flavonoids in comparison to others. The increase in antioxidant activity (decrease in EC50 values was accompanied by an increase in the amount of total phenols in the extracts. The pollen extracts contained linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid as major fatty acids, followed by palmitic acid, and oleic acid. In this study, differences were observed in both chemical constituents and biological activities of the samples related to the geographical and botanical origin of bee pollen.

  17. Origin and diversity of testate amoebae shell composition: Example of Bullinularia indica living in Sphagnum capillifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaine, Maxence; Bernard, Nadine; Gilbert, Daniel; Recourt, Philippe; Armynot du Châtelet, Eric

    2017-06-01

    Testate amoebae are free-living shelled protists that build a wide range of shells with various sizes, shapes, and compositions. Recent studies showed that xenosomic testate amoebae shells could be indicators of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) deposition. However, no study has yet been conducted to assess the intra-specific mineral, organic, and biologic grain diversity of a single xenosomic species in a natural undisturbed environment. This study aims at providing new information about grain selection to develop the potential use of xenosomic testate amoebae shells as bioindicators of the multiple-origin mineral/organic diversity of their proximal environment. To fulfil these objectives, we analysed the shell content of 38 Bullinularia indica individuals, a single xenosomic testate amoeba species living in Sphagnum capillifolium, by scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with X-ray spectroscopy. The shells exhibited high diversities of mineral, organic, and biomineral grains, which confirms their capability to recycle xenosomes. Mineral grain diversity and size of B. indica matched those of the atmospheric natural mineral PM deposited in the peatbog. Calculation of grain size sorting revealed a discrete selection of grains agglutinated by B. indica. These results are a first step towards understanding the mechanisms of particle selection by xenosomic testate amoebae in natural conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Constraining the Origin of Phobos with the Elpasolite Planetary Ice and Composition Spectrometer (EPICS) - Simulated Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, S. F.; Mesick, K.; Coupland, D. D. S.; Dallmann, N. A.; Feldman, W. C.; Stonehill, L. C.; Hardgrove, C.; Dibb, S.; Gabriel, T. S. J.; West, S.

    2017-12-01

    Elpasolites are a promising new family of inorganic scintillators that can detect both gamma rays and neutrons within a single detector volume, reducing the instrument size, weight, and power (SWaP), all of which are critical for planetary science missions. The ability to distinguish between neutron and gamma events is done through pulse shape discrimination (PSD). The Elpasolite Planetary Ice and Composition Spectrometer (EPICS) utilizes elpasolites in a next-generation, highly capable, low-SWaP gamma-ray and neutron spectrometer. We present simulated capabilities of EPICS sensitivities to neutron and gamma-rays, and demonstrate how EPICS can constrain the origin of Phobos between the following three main hypotheses: 1) accretion after a giant impact with Mars, 2) co-accretion with Mars, and 3) capture of an external body. The MCNP6 code was used to calculate the neutron and gamma-ray flux that escape the surface of Phobos, and GEANT4 to model the response of the EPICS instrument on orbit around Phobos.

  19. Nature, Origin, Potential Composition, and Climate Impact of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, T. D.; Vernier, J.-P.; Thomason, L. W.; Natarajan, M.; Bedka, K.; Wienhold, F.; Bian J.; Martinsson, B.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite observations from SAGE II and CALIPSO indicate that summertime aerosol extinction has more than doubled in the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL) since the late 1990s. Here we show remote and in-situ observations, together with results from a chemical transport model (CTM), to explore the likely composition, origin, and radiative forcing of the ATAL. We show in-situ balloon measurements of aerosol backscatter, which support the high levels observed by CALIPSO since 2006. We also show in situ measurements from aircraft, which indicate a predominant carbonaceous contribution to the ATAL (Carbon/Sulfur ratios of 2- 10), which is supported by the CTM results. We show that the peak in ATAL aerosol lags by 1 month the peak in CO from MLS, associated with deep convection over Asia during the summer monsoon. This suggests that secondary formation and growth of aerosols in the upper troposphere on monthly timescales make a significant contribution to ATAL. Back trajectory calculations initialized from CALIPSO observations provide evidence that deep convection over India is a significant source for ATAL through the vertical transport of pollution to the upper troposphere.

  20. Thermo-mineral waters of Hammam Meskoutine (north-east Algeria: Composition and origin of mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benamara Abdelwaheb

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The extreme north-eastern Algeria, in particular the Guelma city conceals thermal springs, whose waters circulating at great depths allow the rain-waters to warm up (according to the average geothermal gradient of 1°C per 33 m and to acquire a mineralization which depends on the traversed rock. The goal of this research work was to determine mineralization origin of the thermo-mineral waters of Hammam Meskoutine (Algerian N-E. A hydro-chemical study involved analyses of a number of physical and chemical parameters of waters such as: temperature, hydrogen potential, electrolytical conductivity, Cl-, SO4 2-, HCO3 -, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+. The data processing on the diagram revealed two dominating chemical facies: sulphate-magnesium and bicarbonate magnesium. With a high conductivity in excess of 2300 μS·cm-1, the temperature reaches 97°C. Calculation of the saturation index shows that the waters are supersaturated in carbonate minerals (calcite, dolomite and aragonite and less saturated with evaporite minerals (halite, anhydrite, sylvite and gypsum. The reconstitution in dissolved salts reveals a dominant salt rich in calcium bicarbonates, in calcium sulphates and secondarily in magnesium salts. Geological sections used in the study zone affirm that the chemical composition of the spring waters comes from the neritic limestone dissolution and the gypso-saline complex of Hammam Meskoutine.

  1. Measurement of breast tissue composition with dual energy cone-beam computed tomography: A postmortem study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Huanjun; Ducote, Justin L.; Molloi, Sabee [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of a three-material compositional measurement of water, lipid, and protein content of breast tissue with dual kVp cone-beam computed tomography (CT) for diagnostic purposes. Methods: Simulations were performed on a flat panel-based computed tomography system with a dual kVp technique in order to guide the selection of experimental acquisition parameters. The expected errors induced by using the proposed calibration materials were also estimated by simulation. Twenty pairs of postmortem breast samples were imaged with a flat-panel based dual kVp cone-beam CT system, followed by image-based material decomposition using calibration data obtained from a three-material phantom consisting of water, vegetable oil, and polyoxymethylene plastic. The tissue samples were then chemically decomposed into their respective water, lipid, and protein contents after imaging to allow direct comparison with data from dual energy decomposition. Results: Guided by results from simulation, the beam energies for the dual kVp cone-beam CT system were selected to be 50 and 120 kVp with the mean glandular dose divided equally between each exposure. The simulation also suggested that the use of polyoxymethylene as the calibration material for the measurement of pure protein may introduce an error of -11.0%. However, the tissue decomposition experiments, which employed a calibration phantom made out of water, oil, and polyoxymethylene, exhibited strong correlation with data from the chemical analysis. The average root-mean-square percentage error for water, lipid, and protein contents was 3.58% as compared with chemical analysis. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the water, lipid, and protein contents can be accurately measured using dual kVp cone-beam CT. The tissue compositional information may improve the sensitivity and specificity for breast cancer diagnosis.

  2. Relative Composition of Fibrous Connective and Fatty/Glandular Tissue in Connective Tissue Grafts Depends on the Harvesting Technique but not the Donor Site of the Hard Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertl, Kristina; Pifl, Markus; Hirtler, Lena; Rendl, Barbara; Nürnberger, Sylvia; Stavropoulos, Andreas; Ulm, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Whether the composition of palatal connective tissue grafts (CTGs) varies depending on donor site or harvesting technique in terms of relative amounts of fibrous connective tissue (CT) and fatty/glandular tissue (FGT) is currently unknown and is histologically assessed in the present study. In 10 fresh human cadavers, tissue samples were harvested in the anterior and posterior palate and in areas close to (marginal) and distant from (apical) the mucosal margin. Mucosal thickness, lamina propria thickness (defined as the extent of subepithelial portion of the biopsy containing ≤25% or ≤50% FGT), and proportions of CT and FGT were semi-automatically estimated for the entire mucosa and for CTGs virtually harvested by split-flap (SF) preparation minimum 1 mm deep or after deepithelialization (DE). Palatal mucosal thickness, ranging from 2.35 to 6.89 mm, and histologic composition showed high interindividual variability. Lamina propria thickness (P >0.21) and proportions of CT (P = 0.48) and FGT (P = 0.15) did not differ significantly among the donor sites (anterior, posterior, marginal, apical). However, thicker palatal tissue was associated with higher FGT content (P tissue composition in the hard palate, DE-harvested CTG contains much larger amounts of CT and much lower amounts of FGT than SF-harvested CTG, irrespective of the harvesting site.

  3. A Novel High Mechanical Property PLGA Composite Matrix Loaded with Nanodiamond-Phospholipid Compound for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Song, Qingxin; Huang, Xuan; Li, Fengning; Wang, Kun; Tang, Yixing; Hou, Canglong; Shen, Hongxing

    2016-01-20

    A potential bone tissue engineering material was produced from a biodegradable polymer, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), loaded with nanodiamond phospholipid compound (NDPC) via physical mixing. On the basis of hydrophobic effects and physical absorption, we modified the original hydrophilic surface of the nanodiamond (NDs) with phospholipids to be amphipathic, forming a typical core-shell structure. The ND-phospholipid weight ratio was optimized to generate sample NDPC50 (i.e., ND-phospholipid weight ratio of 100:50), and NDPC50 was able to be dispersed in a PLGA matrix at up to 20 wt %. Compared to a pure PLGA matrix, the introduction of 10 wt % of NDPC (i.e., sample NDPC50-PF10) resulted in a significant improvement in the material's mechanical and surface properties, including a decrease in the water contact angle from 80 to 55°, an approximately 100% increase in the Young's modulus, and an approximate 550% increase in hardness, thus closely resembling that of human cortical bone. As a novel matrix supporting human osteoblast (hFOB1.19) growth, NDPC50-PFs with different amounts of NDPC50 demonstrated no negative effects on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, we focused on the behaviors of NDPC-PFs implanted into mice for 8 weeks and found that NDPC-PFs induced acceptable immune response and can reduce the rapid biodegradation of PLGA matrix. Our results represent the first in vivo research on ND (or NDPC) as nanofillers in a polymer matrix for bone tissue engineering. The high mechanical properties, good in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility, and increased mineralization capability suggest that biodegradable PLGA composite matrices loaded with NDPC may potentially be useful for a variety of biomedical applications, especially bone tissue engineering.

  4. Differential effects of diet composition and timing of feeding behavior on rat brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle peripheral clocks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Goede, P.; Sen, Satish; Oosterman, Johanneke E; Kalsbeek, A.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of feeding behavior and diet composition,as well as their possible interactions,on daily (clock) gene expression rhythms have mainly been studied in the liver, and to a lesser degree in white adipose tissue(WAT), but hardly in other metabolic tissues such as skeletal muscle (SM) and

  5. Common factors method to predict the carcass composition tissue in kid goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Fernanda Barros Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze the interrelations among weights and carcass measures of the longissimus lumborum muscle thickness and area, and of sternum tissue thickness, measured directly on carcass and by ultrasound scan. Measures were taken on live animals and after slaughter to develop models of multiple linear regression, to estimate the composition of shoulder blade, from selected variables in 89 kids of both genders and five breed groups, raised in feedlot system. The variables considered relevant and not redundant on the information they carry, for the common factor analysis, were used in the carcass composition estimate development models. The presuppositions of linear regression models relative to residues were evaluated, the estimated residues were subjected to analysis of variance and the means were compared by the Student t test. Based in these results, the group of 32 initial variables could be reduced to four variables: hot carcass weight, rump perimeter, leg length and tissue height at the fourth sternum bone. The analysis of common factors was shown as an effective technique to study the interrelations among the independent variables. The measures of carcass dimension, alone, did not add any information to hot carcass weight. The carcass muscle weight can be estimated with high precision from simple models, without the need for information related to gender and breed, and they could be built based on carcass weight, which makes it easy to be applied. The fat and bones estimate models were not as accurate.

  6. Elemental composition of 'normal' and Alzheimer brain tissue by INA and PIXE analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedman, J.D.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    Instrumental methods based on the nuclear and atomic properties of the elements have been used for many years to determine elemental concentrations in a variety of materials for biomedical, industrial and environmental applications. These methods offer high sensitivity for accurate trace element measurements, suffer few interfering or competing effects. Present no blank problems and are convenient for both research and routine analyses. The present article describes the use of two trace element techniques. Firstly the use of activation of stable nuclei irradiated by neutrons in the core of a low power research reactor as a means of detection of elements through the resulting gamma-rays emitted. Secondly, the observations of the interactions of energetic ion beams with the material in order to identify elemental species. Over recent years there has been some interest in determining the elemental composition of 'normal' and Alzheimer affected brain tissue, however literature findings are inconsistent. Possible reasons for discrepancies need to be identified for further progress to be made. Here, post-mortem tissue samples, provided by the Alzheimer's Disease Brain Bank, Institute of Psychiatry, London, were taken from the frontal, occipital, parietal and temporal lobes of both hemispheres of brains from 13 'normal' and 19 Alzheimer subjects. The elemental composition of the samples was determined using the analytical techniques of INAA (instrumental neutron activation analysis), RBS (Rutherford back-scattering) and PIXE (particle induced x-ray emission). The principal findings are summarised here. (author)

  7. Pullulan-based composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: Improved osteoconductivity by pore wall mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrita; Arora, Aditya; Sharma, Poonam; Katti, Dhirendra S

    2015-06-05

    Porous hydrogels have been explored for bone tissue engineering; however their poor mechanical properties make them less suitable as bone graft substitutes. Since incorporation of fillers is a well-accepted method for improving mechanical properties of hydrogels, in this work pullulan hydrogels were reinforced with nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite (nHAp) (5 wt% nHAp in hydrogel) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) fibers (3 wt% fibers in hydrogel) containing nHAp (3 wt% nHAp in fibers). Addition of these fillers to pullulan hydrogel improved compressive modulus of the scaffold by 10 fold. However, the hydrophilicity of pullulan did not support adhesion and spreading of cells. To overcome this limitation, porous composite scaffolds were modified using a double diffusion method that enabled deposition of hydroxyapatite on pore walls. This method resulted in rapid and uniform coating of HAp throughout the three-dimensional scaffolds which not only rendered them osteoconductive in vitro but also led to an improvement in their compressive modulus. These results demonstrate the potential of mineralized pullulan-based composite scaffolds in non-load bearing bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Composite Tissue Transplant of Hand or Arm: A Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to arms and legs following severe trauma can result in the loss of large regions of tissue, disrupting healing and function and sometimes leading to amputation of the damaged limb. People experiencing amputations of the hand or arm could potentially benefit from composite tissue transplant, which is being performed in some countries. Currently, there are no composite tissue transplant programs in Canada. We conducted a systematic review of the literature, with no restriction on study design, examining the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of hand and arm transplant. We assessed the overall quality of the clinical evidence with GRADE. We developed a Markov decision analytic model to determine the cost-effectiveness of transplant versus standard care for a healthy adult with a hand amputation. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated using a 30-year time horizon. We also estimated the impact on provincial health care costs if these transplants were publicly funded in Ontario. Compared to pre-transplant function, patients' post-transplant function was significantly better. For various reasons, 17% of transplanted limbs were amputated, 6.4% of patients died within the first year after the transplant, and 10.6% of patients experienced chronic rejections. GRADE quality of evidence for all outcomes was very low. In the cost-effectiveness analysis, single-hand transplant was dominated by standard care, with increased costs ($735,647 CAD vs. $61,429) and reduced quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) (10.96 vs. 11.82). Double-hand transplant also had higher costs compared with standard care ($633,780), but it had an increased effectiveness of 0.17 QALYs, translating to an ICER of $3.8 million per QALY gained. In most sensitivity analyses, ICERs for bilateral hand transplant were greater than $1 million per QALY gained. A hand transplant program would lead to an estimated annual budget impact of $0.9 million to $1.2 million in the next 3 years

  9. Origin and composition of mineralizing fluids in the Athabasca Basin, Canada; Origine et composition des fluides mineralisateurs dans le Bassin de l'Athabasca, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, A.; Cathelineau, M.; Boiron, M.Ch.; Cuney, M.; Mercadier, J. [G2R, Nancy-Universite, CNRS, CREGU, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Milesi, J.P. [AREVA, BU Mines, Tour Areva, 92 - Paris La Defense (France)

    2009-07-01

    The authors report studies aimed at understanding mechanisms of concentration of uranium in the geological environment of the Athabasca Basin (Saskatchewan, Canada). They describe how two brines, a sodic one and a calcic one, circulated and mixed together while carrying uranium with exceptional and very heterogeneous concentrations. They show that these brines have a common origin and are formed by sea water evaporation, that the calcic brine formed itself by interaction between the sodic brine and platform rocks, and that the interactions of brines with platform rocks and minerals, water radiolysis, and bitumen synthesis have controlled the isotopic content in oxygen, hydrogen and carbon of these brines

  10. Influence of Spray-dried Hydroxyapatite-5-Fluorouracil Granules on Cell Lines Derived from Tissues of Mesenchymal Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Scharnweber

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In our previous work we described the preparation and characterization of spray dried hydroxyapatite micro granules loaded with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU. These loaded particles are used as a model drug delivery system (DDS. In this study we examined the in vitro response of two cell lines derived from different tissues to 5-FU loaded granules (LG. Both cell lines, either L929 cells of a mouse fibroblast lineage or cells originating from a rat osteosarcoma (ROS 17/2.8 showed a dose dependent decrease in cell proliferation in response to 5-FU-, either dissolved in the culture medium or loaded onto particles. The response of the two cell lines to loaded and nonloaded particles was different. The effect of LG and of a corresponding concentration of free 5-FU was practically the same for the ROS 17/2.8 cells indicating that ROS 17/2.8 cells were not affected by the carrier material. In contrast, L929 cells showed a slight decrease in cell proliferation also in the presence of granules not loaded with 5-FU. This is thought to be attributed to the inhibition of mitogenesis by phosphocitrates, already demonstrated in fibroblasts. In summary, we found that the loaded 5-FU kept its effectivity after the spray drying process and that the response towards the granules varied with cell type. This is the first step towards a tissue specific DDS.

  11. Silicone-based composite materials simulate breast tissue to be used as ultrasonography training phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustbas, Burcin; Kilic, Deniz; Bozkurt, Ayhan; Aribal, Mustafa Erkin; Akbulut, Ozge

    2018-03-02

    A silicone-based composite breast phantom is fabricated to be used as an education model in ultrasonography training. A matrix of silicone formulations is tracked to mimic the ultrasonography and tactile response of human breast tissue. The performance of two different additives: (i) silicone oil and (ii) vinyl-terminated poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) are monitored by a home-made acoustic setup. Through the use of 75 wt% vinyl-terminated PDMS in two-component silicone elastomer mixture, a sound velocity of 1.29 ± 0.09 × 10 3  m/s and an attenuation coefficient of 12.99 ± 0.08 dB/cm-values those match closely to the human breast tissue-are measured with 5 MHz probe. This model can also be used for needle biopsy as well as for self-exam trainings. Herein, we highlight the fabrication of a realistic, durable, accessible, and cost-effective training platform that contains skin layer, inner breast tissue, and tumor masses. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping of Human Brain Reflects Spatial Variation in Tissue Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wu, Bing; Liu, Chunlei

    2011-01-01

    Image phase from gradient echo MRI provides a unique contrast that reflects brain tissue composition variations, such as iron and myelin distribution. Phase imaging is emerging as a powerful tool for the investigation of functional brain anatomy and disease diagnosis. However, the quantitative value of phase is compromised by its nonlocal and orientation dependent properties. There is an increasing need for reliable quantification of magnetic susceptibility, the intrinsic property of tissue. In this study, we developed a novel and accurate susceptibility mapping method that is also phase-wrap insensitive. The proposed susceptibility mapping method utilized two complementary equations: (1) the Fourier relationship of phase and magnetic susceptibility; and (2) the first-order partial derivative of the first equation in the spatial frequency domain. In numerical simulation, this method reconstructed the susceptibility map almost free of streaking artifact. Further, the iterative implementation of this method allowed for high quality reconstruction of susceptibility maps of human brain in vivo. The reconstructed susceptibility map provided excellent contrast of iron-rich deep nuclei and white matter bundles from surrounding tissues. Further, it also revealed anisotropic magnetic susceptibility in brain white matter. Hence, the proposed susceptibility mapping method may provide a powerful tool for the study of brain physiology and pathophysiology. Further elucidation of anisotropic magnetic susceptibility in vivo may allow us to gain more insight into the white matter microarchitectures. PMID:21224002

  13. The Relationship between Ethnic Classroom Composition and Turkish-Origin and German Students' Reading Performance and Sense of Belonging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Sog Yee; Martiny, Sarah E; Gleibs, Ilka H; Keller, Melanie M; Froehlich, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Past research on ethnic composition effects on migrant and ethnic majority students' performance has reported inconclusive results: Some studies have found no relationship between the proportion of migrant students in school and students' performance, some revealed positive effects, whereas others showed negative effects of the proportion of migrant students. Most of the studies did not consider whether an increase in the proportion of migrant students in the classroom has different effects on migrant and ethnic majority students' performance. For this reason, the present study (N = 9215) extends previous research by investigating the cross-level interaction effect of the proportion of Turkish-origin students in classrooms on Turkish-origin and German students' reading performance with data based on the German National Assessment Study 2008/2009 in the school subject German. In addition, we examined the cross-level interaction effect of Turkish-origin students' proportion on sense of belonging to school for Turkish-origin and German students, as sense of belonging has been shown to be an important predictor of well-being and integration. No cross-level interaction effect on performance emerged. Only a small negative main effect of the Turkish-origin students' proportion on all students' performance was found. As predicted, we showed a cross-level interaction on sense of belonging. Only Turkish-origin students' sense of belonging was positively related to the proportion of Turkish-origin students: The more Turkish-origin students there were in a classroom, the higher Turkish-origin students' sense of belonging. German students' sense of belonging was not related to the ethnic classroom composition. Implications of the results in the educational context are discussed.

  14. Tissue-engineered collateral ligament composite allografts for scapholunate ligament reconstruction: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ryan; Woon, Colin Y L; Farnebo, Simon J; Behn, Anthony; Bronstein, Joel; Pham, Hung; Yan, Xinrui; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Chang, James

    2012-08-01

    In patients with chronic scapholunate (SL) dissociation or dynamic instability, ligament repair is often not possible, and surgical reconstruction is indicated. The ideal graft ligament would recreate both anatomical and biomechanical properties of the dorsal scapholunate ligament (dorsal SLIL). The finger proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP joint) collateral ligament could possibly be a substitute ligament. We harvested human PIP joint collateral ligaments and SL ligaments from 15 cadaveric limbs. We recorded ligament length, width, and thickness, and measured the biomechanical properties (ultimate load, stiffness, and displacement to failure) of native dorsal SLIL, untreated collateral ligaments, decellularized collateral ligaments, and SL repairs with bone-collateral ligament-bone composite collateral ligament grafts. As proof of concept, we then reseeded decellularized bone-collateral ligament-bone composite grafts with green fluorescent protein-labeled adipo-derived mesenchymal stem cells and evaluated them histologically. There was no difference in ultimate load, stiffness, and displacement to failure among native dorsal SLIL, untreated and decellularized collateral ligaments, and SL repairs with tissue-engineered collateral ligament grafts. With pair-matched untreated and decellularized scaffolds, there was no difference in ultimate load or stiffness. However, decellularized ligaments revealed lower displacement to failure compared with untreated ligaments. There was no difference in displacement between decellularized ligaments and native dorsal SLIL. We successfully decellularized grafts with recently described techniques, and they could be similarly reseeded. Proximal interphalangeal joint collateral ligament-based bone-collateral ligament-bone composite allografts had biomechanical properties similar to those of native dorsal SLIL. Decellularization did not adversely affect material properties. These tissue-engineered grafts may offer surgeons another

  15. Viscoelastic behaviour of hydrogel-based composites for tissue engineering under mechanical load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocen, Rok; Gasik, Michael; Gantar, Ana; Novak, Saša

    2017-03-06

    Along with biocompatibility, bioinductivity and appropriate biodegradation, mechanical properties are also of crucial importance for tissue engineering scaffolds. Hydrogels, such as gellan gum (GG), are usually soft materials, which may benefit from the incorporation of inorganic particles, e.g. bioactive glass, not only due to the acquired bioactivity, but also due to improved mechanical properties. They exhibit complex viscoelastic properties, which can be evaluated in various ways. In this work, to reliably evaluate the effect of the bioactive glass (BAG) addition on viscoelastic properties of the composite hydrogel, we employed and compared the three most commonly used techniques, analyzing their advantages and limitations: monotonic uniaxial unconfined compression, small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) rheology and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Creep and small amplitude dynamic strain-controlled tests in DMA are suggested as the best ways for the characterization of mechanical properties of hydrogel composites, whereas the SAOS rheology is more useful for studying the hydrogel's processing kinetics, as it does not induce volumetric changes even at very high strains. Overall, the results confirmed a beneficial effect of BAG (nano)particles on the elastic modulus of the GG-BAG composite hydrogel. The Young's modulus of 6.6 ± 0.8 kPa for the GG hydrogel increased by two orders of magnitude after the addition of 2 wt.% BAG particles (500-800 kPa).

  16. Seasonal biochemical changes in composition of body wall tissues of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2011-03-01

    Seasonal Variation in proximate, amino acid and fatty acid composition of the body wall of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was evaluated. The proximate composition, except for ash content, changed significantly among seasons ( P<0.05). Alanine, glycine, glutamic acid and asparagic acid were the most abundant amino acids. Total amino acid and essential amino acid Contents both varied clearly with seasons ( P<0.05). 16:0 and 16:ln7 were the primary saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) respectively for all months. EPA (20:5n-3), AA (20:4n-6) and DHA (22:6n-3) were the major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The proportions of SFA and PUFA yielded significant seasonal variations ( P<0.001), but MUFA did not changed significantly. The results indicated that the biochemical compositions of the body wall in A. japonicus were significantly influenced by seasons and that the body wall tissue is an excellent source of protein, MUFA and n-3 PUFA for humans.

  17. Influence of plant root morphology and tissue composition on phenanthrene uptake: Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Xinhua; Liang, Xiao; Xu, Guohua; Zhou, Lixiang

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are contaminants that reside mainly in surface soils. Dietary intake of plant-based foods can make a major contribution to total PAH exposure. Little information is available on the relationship between root morphology and plant uptake of PAHs. An understanding of plant root morphologic and compositional factors that affect root uptake of contaminants is important and can inform both agricultural (chemical contamination of crops) and engineering (phytoremediation) applications. Five crop plant species are grown hydroponically in solutions containing the PAH phenanthrene. Measurements are taken for 1) phenanthrene uptake, 2) root morphology – specific surface area, volume, surface area, tip number and total root length and 3) root tissue composition – water, lipid, protein and carbohydrate content. These factors are compared through Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression analysis. The major factors which promote phenanthrene uptake are specific surface area and lipid content. -- Highlights: •There is no correlation between phenanthrene uptake and total root length, and water. •Specific surface area and lipid are the most crucial factors for phenanthrene uptake. •The contribution of specific surface area is greater than that of lipid. -- The contribution of specific surface area is greater than that of lipid in the two most important root morphological and compositional factors affecting phenanthrene uptake

  18. Donor-recipient human leukocyte antigen matching practices in vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation: a survey of major transplantation centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashvetiya, Tamara; Mundinger, Gerhard S; Kukuruga, Debra; Bojovic, Branko; Christy, Michael R; Dorafshar, Amir H; Rodriguez, Eduardo D

    2014-07-01

    Vascularized composite tissue allotransplant recipients are often highly sensitized to human leukocyte antigens because of multiple prior blood transfusions and other reconstructive operations. The use of peripheral blood obtained from dead donors for crossmatching may be insufficient because of life support measures taken for the donor before donation. No study has been published investigating human leukocyte antigen matching practices in this field. A survey addressing human leukocyte antigen crossmatching methods was generated and sent to 22 vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation centers with active protocols worldwide. Results were compiled by center and compared using two-tailed t tests. Twenty of 22 centers (91 percent) responded to the survey. Peripheral blood was the most commonly reported donor sample for vascularized composite tissue allotransplant crossmatching [78 percent of centers (n=14)], with only 22 percent (n=4) using lymph nodes. However, 56 percent of the 18 centers (n=10) that had performed vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation reported that they harvested lymph nodes for crossmatching. Of responding individuals, 62.5 percent (10 of 16 individuals) felt that lymph nodes were the best donor sample for crossmatching. A slight majority of vascularized composite tissue allotransplant centers that have performed clinical transplants have used lymph nodes for human leukocyte antigen matching, and centers appear to be divided on the utility of lymph node harvest. The use of lymph nodes may offer a number of potential benefits. This study highlights the need for institutional review board-approved crossmatching protocols specific to vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation, and the need for global databases for sharing of vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation experiences.

  19. Uniformly-dispersed nanohydroxapatite-reinforced poly(ε-caprolactone) composite films for tendon tissue engineering application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Shi Yun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117 576 (Singapore); Wang, Zuyong, E-mail: zuyong.nus@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117 576 (Singapore); Lim, Poon Nian [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117 576 (Singapore); Wang, Wilson [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, National University of Singapore, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119 074 (Singapore); Thian, Eng San, E-mail: mpetes@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117 576 (Singapore)

    2017-01-01

    Regeneration of injuries at tendon-to-bone interface (TBI) remains a challenging issue due to the complex tissue composition involving both soft tendon tissues and relatively hard bone tissues. Tissue engineering using polymeric/ceramic composites has been of great interest to generate scaffolds for tissue's healing at TBI. Herein, we presented a novel method to blend polymers and bioceramics for tendon tissue engineering application. A homogeneous composite comprising of nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) particles in poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) matrix was obtained using a combination of solvent and mechanical blending process. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the as-fabricated PCL/nHA composite film retained phase-pure apatite and semi-crystalline properties of PCL. Infrared spectroscopy spectra confirmed that the PCL/nHA composite film exhibited the characteristics functional groups of PCL and nHA, without alteration to the chemical properties of the composite. The incorporation of nHA resulted in PCL/nHA composite film with improved mechanical properties such as Young's Modulus and ultimate tensile stress, which were comparable to that of the native human rotator tendon. Seeding with human tenocytes, cells attached on the PCL/nHA composite film, and after 14 days of culturing, these cells could acquire elongated morphology without induced cytotoxicity. PCL/nHA composite film could also result in increased cell metabolism with prolonged culturing, which was comparable to that of the PCL group and higher than that of the nHA group. All these results demonstrated that the developed technique of combining solvent and mechanical blending could be applied to fabricate composite films with potential for tendon tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • A novel method fabricating polymeric/nanoceramic composite film was proposed. • The method involved solvent and mechanical blending to form a homogeneous film. • The film retained physicochemical

  20. FREE AMINO ACID COMPOSITION IN SCOTS PINE TISSUES UNDER STRESS IMPACT IN RHIZOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudachkova N.E.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The free amino acid content in the needles and the inner bark of stems and roots of 8-13-ages self-sawn trees of Pinus sylvestris L. in Central Siberia in experimental and natural conditions was compared. The experiments imitated an influence of long-seasonal or permafrost, soil drought and root hypoxia, concomitant flooding. The aim of the investigation was to expose the adaptive changes of these metabolites composition under stress impact. All of types of stress influences changed the total free amino acid content in the tissues of different morphological tree parts: the cooling of root system caused a deposit of free amino acids in overground tree part, the water deficit stimulated an accumulation of free amino acids in root inner bark, the flooding decreased the amino acid content in all tissues. The ratio in a group of amino acids with glutamic acid as metabolic precursor (-aminobutyric (GABA, proline, arginine, citrulline and ornithine changed under different stress impact. The cold stress in rhizosphere caused GABA accumulation in the needles and stem but not in the roots in the period of soil thawing. The moderate moisture deficit had not an influence on GABA content, the flooding caused GABA accumulation only in new needles. The maximal exceeding above control were marked for the sum of arginine and its metabolic precursors citrulline and ornithine. The group of these compounds may be considered as stress metabolites for scots pine, but specificity of depositing of these amino acids at water stress requires additional proofs. Since the proline accumulation was showed in separate times in the different tissues under all of investigated stressors impact, the specificity of proline as indicator of water stress in scots pine tissues is debatable. The disturbance of donor-acceptor connections in experiment with cooling resulted to the amino acid accumulation in stem inner bark, in experiment with drought – in root inner bark.

  1. Composition and structure of porcine digital flexor tendon-bone insertion tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Sandhya; Pankow, Mark; Peters, Kara; Huang, Hsiao-Ying Shadow

    2017-11-01

    Tendon-bone insertion is a functionally graded tissue, transitioning from 200 MPa tensile modulus at the tendon end to 20 GPa tensile modulus at the bone, across just a few hundred micrometers. In this study, we examine the porcine digital flexor tendon insertion tissue to provide a quantitative description of its collagen orientation and mineral concentration by using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based image analysis and mass spectrometry, respectively. Histological results revealed uniformity in global collagen orientation at all depths, indicative of mechanical anisotropy, although at mid-depth, the highest fiber density, least amount of dispersion, and least cellular circularity were evident. Collagen orientation distribution obtained through 2D FFT of histological imaging data from fluorescent microscopy agreed with past measurements based on polarized light microscopy. Results revealed global fiber orientation across the tendon-bone insertion to be preserved along direction of physiologic tension. Gradation in the fiber distribution orientation index across the insertion was reflective of a decrease in anisotropy from the tendon to the bone. We provided elemental maps across the fibrocartilage for its organic and inorganic constituents through time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The apatite intensity distribution from the tendon to bone was shown to follow a linear trend, supporting past results based on Raman microprobe analysis. The merit of this study lies in the image-based simplified approach to fiber distribution quantification and in the high spatial resolution of the compositional analysis. In conjunction with the mechanical properties of the insertion tissue, fiber, and mineral distribution results for the insertion from this may potentially be incorporated into the development of a structural constitutive approach toward computational modeling. Characterizing the properties of the native insertion tissue would provide the

  2. The rapid manufacture of uniform composite multicellular-biomaterial micropellets, their assembly into macroscopic organized tissues, and potential applications in cartilage tissue engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betul Kul Babur

    Full Text Available We and others have published on the rapid manufacture of micropellet tissues, typically formed from 100-500 cells each. The micropellet geometry enhances cellular biological properties, and in many cases the micropellets can subsequently be utilized as building blocks to assemble complex macrotissues. Generally, micropellets are formed from cells alone, however when replicating matrix-rich tissues such as cartilage it would be ideal if matrix or biomaterials supplements could be incorporated directly into the micropellet during the manufacturing process. Herein we describe a method to efficiently incorporate donor cartilage matrix into tissue engineered cartilage micropellets. We lyophilized bovine cartilage matrix, and then shattered it into microscopic pieces having average dimensions < 10 μm diameter; we termed this microscopic donor matrix "cartilage dust (CD". Using a microwell platform, we show that ~0.83 μg CD can be rapidly and efficiently incorporated into single multicellular aggregates formed from 180 bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC each. The microwell platform enabled the rapid manufacture of thousands of replica composite micropellets, with each micropellet having a material/CD core and a cellular surface. This micropellet organization enabled the rapid bulking up of the micropellet core matrix content, and left an adhesive cellular outer surface. This morphological organization enabled the ready assembly of the composite micropellets into macroscopic tissues. Generically, this is a versatile method that enables the rapid and uniform integration of biomaterials into multicellular micropellets that can then be used as tissue building blocks. In this study, the addition of CD resulted in an approximate 8-fold volume increase in the micropellets, with the donor matrix functioning to contribute to an increase in total cartilage matrix content. Composite micropellets were readily assembled into macroscopic cartilage

  3. Chemical composition of the thermomineral waters of Josanicka Banja spa as an origin indicator, balneological valorization and geothermal potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenić Dejan R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the groundwater is directly dependent on the geological structure, hydrogeological and hydrochemical characteristics and as such it represents an output result of all the factors and processes which take place in the environment within which they were formed. The chemical composition of thermomineral waters often represents a crucial factor in determining the origin, balneological valorization and geothermal potential of the resources. This work presents the analysis of origin, belneological valorization and geothermal potential of Josanicka Banja spa, on the basis of the results gained through making the analyisis of chemical contents of the thermomineral waters which occur in the area. The ratio of concentrations of specific chemical components in the thermomineral waters of Josanicka Banja has served as the basic tool for ascertaining the origin of these waters. On the basis of the analysis of the main anion-cation and gas compositions as well as the contents of specific micro-components, a balneological valorization of these resources has been carried out. Apart from that this work also presents the calculation of the expected temperatures in the primary geothermal reservoir, which was carried out on the basis of the results of chemical analysis of thermomineral waters that occur in the area. Geothermal potential of about 4 MWt and significant contents of balneologically active components of the chemical composition of these waters, open up a possibility for their multi-purpose use, which is also presented in the work. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33053

  4. Preparation and characterization of gelatin–hydroxyapatite composite microspheres for hard tissue repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Shao Ching; Wang, Ming-Jia; Pai, Nai-Su; Yen, Shiow-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Gelatin–hydroxyapatite composite microspheres composed of 21% gelatin (G) and 79% hydroxyapatite (HA) with uniform morphology and controllable size were synthesized from a mixed solution of Ca(NO 3 ) 2 , NH 4 H 2 PO 4 and gelatin by a wet-chemical method. Material analyses such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning/transmission electron microscopy examination (SEM/TEM) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) were used to characterize G–HA microspheres by analyzing their crystalline phase, microstructure, morphology and composition. HA crystals precipitate along G fibers to form nano-rods with diameters of 6–10 nm and tangle into porous microspheres after blending. The cell culture indicates that G–HA composite microspheres without any toxicity could enhance the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like cells. In a rat calvarial defect model, G–HA bioactive scaffolds were compared with fibrin glue (F) and Osteoset® Bone Graft Substitute (OS) for their capacity of regenerating bone. Four weeks post-implantation, new bone, mineralization, and expanded blood vessel area were found in G–HA scaffolds, indicating greater osteoconductivity and bioactivity than F and OS. - Highlights: • G–HA composite microspheres were prepared by hydroxyapatite and gelatin. • In vitro tests indicated that the G–HA microspheres were biocompatible and bioactive. • In in vitro tests, G–HA microspheres could be applied in hard tissue engineering. • G–HA had healed the bone defect and provides a high proportion of surface area to open space

  5. Preparation and characterization of gelatin–hydroxyapatite composite microspheres for hard tissue repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Shao Ching [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Department of Minimally Invasive Skull Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, 1650 Taiwan Boulevard, Sect. 4, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Neurosurgery, ChangHua Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, 80 Chung Cheng Road, Sect. 2 Chiu Kuan Village, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China); Wang, Ming-Jia; Pai, Nai-Su [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Yen, Shiow-Kang, E-mail: skyen@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-01

    Gelatin–hydroxyapatite composite microspheres composed of 21% gelatin (G) and 79% hydroxyapatite (HA) with uniform morphology and controllable size were synthesized from a mixed solution of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and gelatin by a wet-chemical method. Material analyses such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning/transmission electron microscopy examination (SEM/TEM) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) were used to characterize G–HA microspheres by analyzing their crystalline phase, microstructure, morphology and composition. HA crystals precipitate along G fibers to form nano-rods with diameters of 6–10 nm and tangle into porous microspheres after blending. The cell culture indicates that G–HA composite microspheres without any toxicity could enhance the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like cells. In a rat calvarial defect model, G–HA bioactive scaffolds were compared with fibrin glue (F) and Osteoset® Bone Graft Substitute (OS) for their capacity of regenerating bone. Four weeks post-implantation, new bone, mineralization, and expanded blood vessel area were found in G–HA scaffolds, indicating greater osteoconductivity and bioactivity than F and OS. - Highlights: • G–HA composite microspheres were prepared by hydroxyapatite and gelatin. • In vitro tests indicated that the G–HA microspheres were biocompatible and bioactive. • In in vitro tests, G–HA microspheres could be applied in hard tissue engineering. • G–HA had healed the bone defect and provides a high proportion of surface area to open space.

  6. A new test phantom with different breast tissue compositions for image quality assessment in conventional and digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachoud, Marc; Lepori, D; Valley, Jean-Francois; Verdun, Francis R

    2004-01-01

    Our objective is to describe a new test phantom that permits the objective assessment of image quality in conventional and digital mammography for different types of breast tissue. A test phantom, designed to represent a compressed breast, was made from tissue equivalent materials. Three separate regions, with different breast tissue compositions, are used to evaluate low and high contrast resolution, spatial resolution and image noise. The phantom was imaged over a range of kV using a Contour 2000 (Bennett) mammography unit with a Kodak MinR 2190-MinR L screen-film combination and a Senograph 2000D (General Electric) digital mammography unit. Objective image quality assessments for different breast tissue compositions were performed using the phantom for conventional and digital mammography. For a similar mean glandular dose (MGD), the digital system gives a significantly higher contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) than the screen-film system for 100% glandular tissue. In conclusion, in mammography, a range of exposure conditions is used for imaging because of the different breast tissue compositions encountered clinically. Ideally, the patient dose-image quality relationship should be optimized over the range of exposure conditions. The test phantom presented in this work permits image quality parameters to be evaluated objectively for three different types of breast tissue. Thus, it is a useful tool for optimizing the patient dose-image quality relationship

  7. Comparison of fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, pericardial and epicardial adipose tissue and atrial tissue in patients with heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eschen, Rikke Bülow; Gu, Jiwei; Andreasen, Jan Jesper

    2016-01-01

    (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), from three different adipose tissue compartments [epicardial (EAT), pericardial (PAT) and subcutaneous (SAT)]. Furthermore, we studied the correlation between the content of EPA and DHA in these compartments and in atrial tissue (AT). METHODS We obtained AT from......OBJECTIVES The content in adipose tissue of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a marker of long-term fish consumption and data suggest an antiarrhythmic effect of n-3 PUFAs. We investigated the correlation between adipose tissue content of the major n-3 PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid...... auricles, EAT above the right ventricle, PAT, and SAT below the sternum from 50 patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Samples were frozen at -80°C and the content of n-3 PUFAs determined by gas chromatography with results given in relative weight%. RESULTS EPA and DHA were significantly correlated in EAT...

  8. Biofunctional Ionic-Doped Calcium Phosphates: Silk Fibroin Composites for Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, S; Canadas, R F; Jiménez, G; Perán, M; Marchal, J A; Reis, R L; Oliveira, J M

    2017-01-01

    The treatment and regeneration of bone defects caused by traumatism or diseases have not been completely addressed by current therapies. Lately, advanced tools and technologies have been successfully developed for bone tissue regeneration. Functional scaffolding materials such as biopolymers and bioresorbable fillers have gained particular attention, owing to their ability to promote cell adhesion, proliferation, and extracellular matrix production, which promote new bone growth. Here, we present novel biofunctional scaffolds for bone regeneration composed of silk fibroin (SF) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and incorporating Sr, Zn, and Mn, which were successfully developed using salt-leaching followed by a freeze-drying technique. The scaffolds presented a suitable pore size, porosity, and high interconnectivity, adequate for promoting cell attachment and proliferation. The degradation behavior and compressive mechanical strengths showed that SF/ionic-doped TCP scaffolds exhibit improved characteristics for bone tissue engineering when compared with SF scaffolds alone. The in vitro bioactivity assays using a simulated body fluid showed the growth of an apatite layer. Furthermore, in vitro assays using human adipose-derived stem cells presented different effects on cell proliferation/differentiation when varying the doping agents in the biofunctional scaffolds. The incorporation of Zn into the scaffolds led to improved proliferation, while the Sr- and Mn-doped scaffolds presented higher osteogenic potential as demonstrated by DNA quantification and alkaline phosphatase activity. The combination of Sr with Zn led to an influence on cell proliferation and osteogenesis when compared with single ions. Our results indicate that biofunctional ionic-doped composite scaffolds are good candidates for further in vivo studies on bone tissue regeneration. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Evaluating protein incorporation and release in electrospun composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Tonye; Matos, Jeffrey; Collins, George; Arinzeh, Treena Livingston

    2015-10-01

    Electrospun polymer/ceramic composites have gained interest for use as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. In this study, we investigated methods to incorporate Platelet Derived Growth Factor-BB (PDGF-BB) in electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) or PCL prepared with polyethylene oxide (PEO), where both contained varying levels (up to 30 wt %) of ceramic composed of biphasic calcium phosphates, hydroxyapatite (HA)/β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP). Using a model protein, lysozyme, we compared two methods of protein incorporation, adsorption and emulsion electrospinning. Adsorption of lysozyme on scaffolds with ceramic resulted in minimal release of lysozyme over time. Using emulsion electrospinning, lysozyme released from scaffolds containing a high concentration of ceramic where the majority of the release occurred at later time points. We investigated the effect of reducing the electrostatic interaction between the protein and the ceramic on protein release with the addition of the cationic surfactant, cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). In vitro release studies demonstrated that electrospun scaffolds prepared with CTAB released more lysozyme or PDGF-BB compared with scaffolds without the cationic surfactant. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on composite scaffolds containing PDGF-BB incorporated through emulsion electrospinning expressed higher levels of osteogenic markers compared to scaffolds without PDGF-BB, indicating that the bioactivity of the growth factor was maintained. This study revealed methods for incorporating growth factors in polymer/ceramic scaffolds to promote osteoinduction and thereby facilitate bone regeneration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Radiation synthesis of gelatin/CM-chitosan/{beta}-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Ying [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xu Ling, E-mail: lingxu@pku.edu.cn [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang Xiangmei; Zhao Yinghui [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wei Shicheng, E-mail: sc-wei@pku.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhai Maolin [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2012-05-01

    A series of biodegradable composite scaffolds was fabricated from an aqueous solution of gelatin, carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) and {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) by radiation-induced crosslinking at ambient temperature. Ultrasonic treatment on the polymer solutions significantly influenced the distribution of {beta}-TCP particles. An ultrasonic time of 20 min, followed by 30 kGy irradiation induced a crosslinked scaffold with homogeneous distribution of {beta}-TCP particles, interconnected porous structure, sound swelling capacity and mechanical strength. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction analysis indicated that {beta}-TCP successfully incorporated with the network of gelatin and CM-chitosan. In vivo implantation of the scaffold into the mandible of beagle dog revealed that the scaffolds had excellent biocompatibility and the presence of {beta}-TCP can accelerate bone regeneration. The comprehensive results of this study paved way for the application of gelatin/CM-chitosan/{beta}-TCP composite scaffolds as candidate of bone tissue engineering material. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation induced a crosslinked scaffold with interconnected porous structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasonic time of 20 min led to homogenerously distribution of {beta}-TCP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing amount of {beta}-TCP would restrict the swelling properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proper fraction of {beta}-TCP will promote the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid of {beta}-TCP promoted the bone regeneration of the mandibles of beagle dogs.

  11. Characterization of size, composition and origins of dust in fusion devices. Summary report of the 1. research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.E.H.

    2009-03-01

    Nine experts on dust formation and their physical and behavioural characteristics attended the first Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) on Characterization of Size, Composition and Origins of Dust in Fusion Devices held at IAEA Headquarters on 10-12 December 2008. Participants summarized recent relevant developments related to dust in fusion devices. The specific objectives of the CRP and a detailed work plan were formulated. Discussions, conclusions and recommendations of the RCM are briefly described in this report. (author)

  12. Compression properties and dissolution of bioactive glass S53P4 and n-butyl-2 cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive-composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, Jussi; Hiltunen, Markus; Hupa, Leena; Pulkkinen, Jaakko; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2016-09-28

    Bioactive glass (BG)-containing fiber-reinforced composite implants, typically screw-retained, have started to be used clinically. In this study, we tested the mechanical strength of composites formed by a potential implant adhesive of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate glue and BG S53P4 particles. Water immersion for 3, 10 or 30 days had no adverse effect on the compression strength. When cyanoacrylate glue-BG-composites were subjected to simulated body fluid immersion, the average pH rose to 7.52 (SD 0.066) from the original value of 7.35 after 7 days, and this pH increment was smaller compared to BG particle-group or fibrin glue-BG-composite group. Based on these results n-butyl-2 cyanoacrylate glue, by potentially producing a strong adhesion, might be considered a possible alternative for fixation of BG S53P4 containing composite implants. However, the mechanical and solubility properties of the cyanoacrylate glue may not encourage the use of this tissue adhesive with BG particles.

  13. Changes in mineralised tissue at the site of origin of condylar fracture are present before athletic training in Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, E C; Doube, M; Boyde, A

    2009-10-01

    To show that changes are present at the site of origin of metacarpal condylar fracture in young Thoroughbred horses before they enter race training. Bone slices, 2 mm thick, in three mediolateral planes through the centre of rotation of the metacarpo-phalangeal joint (MCPJ) of both distal third metacarpal bones (Mc3) of 12 Thoroughbred horses aged 17 months, were imaged using point-projection digital X-ray imaging (muXR). In some horses, linear or ovoid radiolucency was found in articular calcified cartilage (ACC) and subchondral bone of the palmaro-distal aspect of the sagittal groove, exactly at the site of more advanced stages of condylar fatigue fracture. An incidental finding was ovoid radiolucency in the apex of the dorso-distal aspect of the sagittal ridge, with or without fragmentation or disturbance of the subchondral mineralised tissue line, resembling equine osteochondrosis. The findings imply that the aetiology of condylar fatigue fracture in young Thoroughbred horses includes abnormality in development of the bone and joint that is present before athletic activity occurs.

  14. A critical evaluation of body composition modalities used to assess adipose and skeletal muscle tissue in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sebastiano, Katie M; Mourtzakis, Marina

    2012-10-01

    The majority of cancer patients experience some form of body composition change during the disease trajectory. For example, breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and prostate cancer patients undergoing androgen deprivation therapy gain fat and lose skeletal muscle, which are associated with increased risk of cancer recurrence and clinical comorbidities. In contrast, advanced cancer patients, such as lung and colorectal cancer patients, experience symptoms of cancer cachexia (accelerated loss of skeletal muscle with or without adipose tissue loss), which are associated with decreased treatment response and poorer survival rates in advanced cancers. The heterogeneity of body composition features and their diverse implications across different cancer populations supports the need for accurate quantification of muscle and adipose tissue. Use of appropriate body composition modalities will facilitate an understanding of the complex relationship between body composition characteristics and clinical outcomes. This will ultimately support the development and evaluation of future therapeutic interventions that aim to counter muscle loss and fat gain in cancer populations. Despite the various metabolic complications that may confound the accurate body composition measurement in cancer patients (i.e., dehydration may confound lean tissue measurement), there are no guidelines for selecting the most appropriate modalities to make these measurements. In this review we outline specific considerations for choosing the most optimal approaches of lean and adipose tissue measurements among different cancer populations. Anthropometric measures, bioelectrical impedance analysis, air displacement plethysmography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging will be discussed.

  15. Chemical Composition of Different Botanical Origin Honeys Produced by Sicilian Black Honeybees (Apis mellifera ssp. sicula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Vista, Silvia; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria

    2015-07-01

    In 2008 a Slow Food Presidium was launched in Sicily (Italy) for an early warning of the risk of extinction of the Sicilian native breed of black honeybee (Apis mellifera L. ssp sicula). Today, the honey produced by these honeybees is the only Sicilian honey produced entirely by the black honeybees. In view of few available data regarding the chemical composition of A. mellifera ssp. sicula honeys, in the present investigation the chemical compositions of sulla honey (Hedysarum coronarium L.) and dill honey (Anethum graveolens L.) were studied with a multimethodological approach, which consists of HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn and NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, three unifloral honeys (lemon honey (obtained from Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck), orange honey (Citrus arantium L.), and medlar honey (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl)), with known phenol and polyphenol compositions, were studied with NMR spectroscopy to deepen the knowledge about sugar and amino acid compositions.

  16. The Origin of the Compositional Diversity of Mercury's Surface Constrained From Experimental Melting of Enstatite Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujibar, A.; Righter, K.; Pando, K.; Danielson, L.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury is known as an endmember planet as it is the most reduced terrestrial planet with the highest core/mantle ratio. MESSENGER spacecraft has shown that its surface is FeO-poor (2-4 wt%) and Srich (up to 6-7 wt%), which confirms the reducing nature of its silicate mantle. Moreover, high resolution images revealed large volcanic plains and abundant pyroclastic deposits, suggesting important melting stages of the Mercurian mantle. This interpretation was confirmed by the high crustal thickness (up to 100 km) derived from Mercury's gravity field. This is also corroborated by a recent experimental result that showed that Mercurian partial melts are expected to be highly buoyant within the Mercurian mantle and could have risen from depths as high as the core-mantle boundary. In addition MESSENGER spacecraft provided relatively precise data on major elemental compositions of Mercury's surface. These results revealed important chemical and mineralogical heterogeneities that suggested several stages of differentiation and re-melting processes. However, the extent and nature of compositional variations produced by partial melting remains poorly constrained for the particular compositions of Mercury (very reducing conditions, low FeO-contents and high sulfur-contents). Therefore, in this study, we investigated the processes that lead to the various compositions of Mercury's surface. Melting experiments with bulk Mercury-analogue compositions were performed and compared to the compositions measured by MESSENGER.

  17. The biocompatibility of carbon hydroxyapatite/β-glucan composite for bone tissue engineering studied with Raman and FTIR spectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka-Bartnicka, Anna; Kimber, James A; Borkowski, Leszek; Pawlowska, Marta; Polkowska, Izabela; Kalisz, Grzegorz; Belcarz, Anna; Jozwiak, Krzysztof; Ginalska, Grazyna; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2015-10-01

    The spectroscopic approaches of FTIR imaging and Raman mapping were applied to the characterisation of a new carbon hydroxyapatite/β-glucan composite developed for bone tissue engineering. The composite is an artificial bone material with an apatite-forming ability for the bone repair process. Rabbit bone samples were tested with an implanted bioactive material for a period of several months. Using spectroscopic and chemometric methods, we were able to determine the presence of amides and phosphates and the distribution of lipid-rich domains in the bone tissue, providing an assessment of the composite's bioactivity. Samples were also imaged in transmission using an infrared microscope combined with a focal plane array detector. CaF2 lenses were also used on the infrared microscope to improve spectral quality by reducing scattering artefacts, improving chemometric analysis. The presence of collagen and lipids at the bone/composite interface confirmed biocompatibility and demonstrate the suitability of FTIR microscopic imaging with lenses in studying these samples. It confirmed that the composite is a very good background for collagen growth and increases collagen maturity with the time of the bone growth process. The results indicate the bioactive and biocompatible properties of this composite and demonstrate how Raman and FTIR spectroscopic imaging have been used as an effective tool for tissue characterisation.

  18. Novel scalable silicone elastomer and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) composite materials for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Hemmingsen, Mette; Wojcik, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    material with increased hydrophilicity in regard to virgin silicone elastomer, making it suitable as a scaffold for tissue engineering and with the concomitant possibility for delivering drug from the scaffold to the tissue. Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) of silicone elastomer and PHEMA......In recent years hydrogels have received increasing attention as potential materials for applications in regenerative medicine. They can be used for scaffold materials providing structural integrity to tissue constructs, for controlled delivery of drugs and proteins to cell and tissues......, and for support materials in tissue growth. However, the real challenge is to obtain sufficiently good mechanical properties of the hydrogel. The present study shows the combination of two normally non-compatible materials, silicone elastomer and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), into a novel composite...

  19. Experimental model for composite tissue allotransplantations Modelo experimental para alotransplantes de tecido composto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Masako Ferreira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In homologous transplantation or allotranplantation of limbs, the great tissue diversity causes variability in the rejection process and, consequently, its immunology is very complex. Thus, limb transplantation is the most used prototype of compound tissue transplantation among the protocols of experimental studies. Composite tissue allotransplantation represents the experimental model to study the homologous transplantation (from an individual to another of vascularized, innervated musclecutaneous units, joints, bone or even the whole member. Groups of rats were undergone allogeneic hindlimb transplantation. The receptors were randomized and control groups were established as: Control Group A: Autograft controls (F344 rats had its limbs reimplanted and no immunosuppressive therapy. Control Group B: Allograft controls (BN rats limbs were transplanted to F344. Composite tissue homotransplantation allows the inclusion of innervated muscle-cutaneous units, joint and bone or even the hole limb, is considerably applicable in cases of congenital absence or deformity, trauma or greater resection due to malignant tumor. For many complex deformities, these transplantations would allow a more precise reconstruction than the current reconstruction techniques.Nos transplantes alógenos de membro a grande variabilidade de tecidos (pele, subcutâneo, músculo, osso, medula óssea, gânglios linfáticos, cartilagem, nervo, vasos, tendão, articulação leva a grande variação dentro do processo de rejeição e consequentemente a sua imunologia é bastante complexa. Os transplantes alógenos de tecido composto representam o modelo experimental para se estudar o transplante homólogo (de um indivíduo para outro de unidades músculo cutâneas inervadas, vascularizadas, articulações, osso ou mesmo de todo o membro. Os receptores foram randomizados e os grupos controle foram estabelecidos como: grupo controle A: transplante autógeno de membro em que ratos F344

  20. Preparation of dexamethasone-loaded biphasic calcium phosphate nanoparticles/collagen porous composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Kawazoe, Naoki; Chen, Guoping

    2018-02-01

    Although bone is regenerative, its regeneration capacity is limited. For bone defects beyond a critical size, further intervention is required. As an attractive strategy, bone tissue engineering (bone TE) has been widely investigated to repair bone defects. However, the rapid and effective bone regeneration of large non-healing defects is still a great challenge. Multifunctional scaffolds having osteoinductivity and osteoconductivity are desirable to fasten functional bone tissue regeneration. In the present study, biomimetic composite scaffolds of collagen and biphasic calcium phosphate nanoparticles (BCP NPs) with a controlled release of dexamethasone (DEX) and the controlled pore structures were prepared for bone TE. DEX was introduced in the BCP NPs during preparation of the BCP NPs and hybridized with collagen scaffolds, which pore structures were controlled by using pre-prepared ice particulates as a porogen material. The composite scaffolds had well controlled and interconnected pore structures, high mechanical strength and a sustained release of DEX. The composite scaffolds showed good biocompatibility and promoted osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs when used for three-dimensional culture of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Subcutaneous implantation of the composite scaffolds at the dorsa of athymic nude mice demonstrated that they facilitated the ectopic bone tissue regeneration. The results indicated the DEX-loaded BCP NPs/collagen composite scaffolds had high potential for bone TE. Scaffolds play a crucial role for regeneration of large bone defects. Biomimetic scaffolds having the same composition of natural bone and a controlled release of osteoinductive factors are desirable for promotion of bone regeneration. In this study, composite scaffolds of collagen and biphasic CaP nanoparticles (BCP NPs) with a controlled release nature of dexamethasone (DEX) were prepared and their porous structures were controlled by using ice particulates

  1. Preparation of collagen/polyurethane/knitted silk as a composite scaffold for tendon tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Aghdam, Maryam; Faridi-Majidi, Reza; Derakhshan, Mohammad Ali; Chegeni, Arash; Azami, Mahmoud

    2017-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to prepare a hybrid three-dimensional scaffold that mimics natural tendon tissues. It has been found that a knitted silk shows good mechanical strength; however, cell growth on the bare silk is not desirable. Hence, electrospun collagen/polyurethane combination was used to cover knitted silk. A series of collagen and polyurethane solutions (4%-7% w/v) in aqueous acetic acid were prepared and electrospun. According to obtained scanning electron microscopy images from pure collagen and polyurethane nanofibers, concentration was set constant at 5% (w/v) for blend solutions of collagen/polyurethane. Afterward, blend solutions with the weight ratios of 75/25, 50/50 and 25/75 were electrospun. Scanning electron microscopy images demonstrated the smooth and uniform morphology for the optimized nanofibers. The least fibers diameter among three weight ratios was found for collagen/polyurethane (25/75) which was 100.86 ± 40 nm and therefore was selected to be electrospun on the knitted silk. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed the chemical composition of obtained electrospun nanofibers on the knitted silk. Tensile test of the specimens including blend nanofiber, knitted silk and commercial tendon substitute examined and indicated that collagen/polyurethane-coated knitted silk has appropriate mechanical properties as a scaffold for tendon tissue engineering. Then, Alamar Blue assay of the L929 fibroblast cell line seeded on the prepared scaffolds demonstrated appropriate viability of the cells with a significant proliferation on the scaffold containing more collagen content. The results illustrate that the designed structure would be promising for being used as a temporary substitute for tendon repair.

  2. Fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissues of organic and conventional Blanca Andaluza suckling kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. De la Vega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the preservation of autochthonous breeds such as the Blanca Andaluza goat (meat breed, raised under grazing-based management, has recently increased among Spanish farmers. A study of the possibilities of transformation to organic production needs to analyze the quality of their products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fatty acid (FA composition of muscle and adipose tissues of Blanca Andaluza goat kids under organic and conventional grazing–based management system. Twenty-four twin kids (12 males, 12 females were selected from each system. The FA profile was determined in the longissimus thoracis muscle, kidney and pelvic fat. The percentages of C17:0, C17:1, C20:1, C20:4 n-6, C22:2 and several n-3 FAs were higher in organic meat; C12:0, C18:1 trans-11, CLA and C20:5 n-3 were lower in organic meat. The fat depots from the conventional kids showed lower percentages of C12:0, C14:0, C15:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:3 n-3 and atherogenicity index, and higher percentage of C18:0. In the pelvic fat, the conventional kids displayed lower percentages of C16:0, C18:2 n-6 cis, PUFA, n-3 and n-6 FAs, and greater percentages of C18:1 n-9 cis and MUFA. The conventional kids displayed a major n6:n3 ratio in the kidney fat. No gender differences were observed. Significant differences were found only in some FA percentages of muscle and adipose tissues of suckling kids raised in organic and conventional livestock production systems, and due to this reason conventional grazing–based management farms could easily be transformed into organic production.

  3. Do very small adipocytes in subcutaneous adipose tissue (a proposed risk factor for insulin insensitivity have a fetal origin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Olaf Nielsen

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The present study showed that greater preponderance of very small adipocytes, increased collagen infiltration and reduced subcutaneous lipid accumulation ability, as well as altered perirenal fat preferences for accumulation of C14:0 can have a fetal origin. Disturbance of normal (subcutaneous adipose tissue development may play a key role in linking fetal malnutrition to disease risk later in life.

  4. Human Genetic Ancestral Composition Correlates with the Origin of Mycobacterium leprae Strains in a Leprosy Endemic Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Cardona-Castro

    Full Text Available Recent reports have suggested that leprosy originated in Africa, extended to Asia and Europe, and arrived in the Americas during European colonization and the African slave trade. Due to colonization, the contemporary Colombian population is an admixture of Native-American, European and African ancestries. Because microorganisms are known to accompany humans during migrations, patterns of human migration can be traced by examining genomic changes in associated microbes. The current study analyzed 118 leprosy cases and 116 unrelated controls from two Colombian regions endemic for leprosy (Atlantic and Andean in order to determine possible associations of leprosy with patient ancestral background (determined using 36 ancestry informative markers, Mycobacterium leprae genotype and/or patient geographical origin. We found significant differences between ancestral genetic composition. European components were predominant in Andean populations. In contrast, African components were higher in the Atlantic region. M. leprae genotypes were then analyzed for cluster associations and compared with the ancestral composition of leprosy patients. Two M. leprae principal clusters were found: haplotypes C54 and T45. Haplotype C54 associated with African origin and was more frequent in patients from the Atlantic region with a high African component. In contrast, haplotype T45 associated with European origin and was more frequent in Andean patients with a higher European component. These results suggest that the human and M. leprae genomes have co-existed since the African and European origins of the disease, with leprosy ultimately arriving in Colombia during colonization. Distinct M. leprae strains followed European and African settlement in the country and can be detected in contemporary Colombian populations.

  5. Human Genetic Ancestral Composition Correlates with the Origin of Mycobacterium leprae Strains in a Leprosy Endemic Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona-Castro, Nora; Cortés, Edwin; Beltrán, Camilo; Romero, Marcela; Badel-Mogollón, Jaime E; Bedoya, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested that leprosy originated in Africa, extended to Asia and Europe, and arrived in the Americas during European colonization and the African slave trade. Due to colonization, the contemporary Colombian population is an admixture of Native-American, European and African ancestries. Because microorganisms are known to accompany humans during migrations, patterns of human migration can be traced by examining genomic changes in associated microbes. The current study analyzed 118 leprosy cases and 116 unrelated controls from two Colombian regions endemic for leprosy (Atlantic and Andean) in order to determine possible associations of leprosy with patient ancestral background (determined using 36 ancestry informative markers), Mycobacterium leprae genotype and/or patient geographical origin. We found significant differences between ancestral genetic composition. European components were predominant in Andean populations. In contrast, African components were higher in the Atlantic region. M. leprae genotypes were then analyzed for cluster associations and compared with the ancestral composition of leprosy patients. Two M. leprae principal clusters were found: haplotypes C54 and T45. Haplotype C54 associated with African origin and was more frequent in patients from the Atlantic region with a high African component. In contrast, haplotype T45 associated with European origin and was more frequent in Andean patients with a higher European component. These results suggest that the human and M. leprae genomes have co-existed since the African and European origins of the disease, with leprosy ultimately arriving in Colombia during colonization. Distinct M. leprae strains followed European and African settlement in the country and can be detected in contemporary Colombian populations.

  6. Richly innervated soft tissues covering the superficial aspect of the extensor origin in patients with chronic painful tennis elbow – Implication for treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, C.; Alfredson, H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tennis elbow is difficult to treat. The results of surgical treatments are not convincing. Treatment studies on Achilles and patellar tendinopathy targeting the richly innervated and vascularized soft tissues outside the tendon have shown promising outcomes. The innervation patterns in the fibrous/fatty tissues superficially to the elbow extensor origin have not been clarified. Methods: Nine tissue specimens from the fibrous/fatty tissue covering the extensor origin was taken from seven patients (mean age: 45 years) undergoing surgical treatment for chronic painful tennis elbow. The specimens were stained for morphology (haematoxylin & eosin, H&E) and immunohistochemically for general nerve marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and markers for sympathetic (tyrosine hydroxylase, TH) and sensory nerve fibres (calcitonin gene-related peptide, CGRP). Results: All specimens contained multiple blood vessels and nerve structures indicated by morphology and immunoreactions. There was a frequent occurrence of TH reactions, especially peri-vascularly, but also in nerve fascicles. Immunoreactions for CGRP were seen in nerve fascicles and isolated nerve fibres. Conclusion: The results provide new information on the innervation patterns of the superficial tissues of the extensor origin and their potential as source of tennis elbow pain. Level of Evidence: IV. PMID:28574416

  7. Richly innervated soft tissues covering the superficial aspect of the extensor origin in patients with chronic painful tennis elbow - Implication for treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, C; Alfredson, H

    2017-06-01

    Tennis elbow is difficult to treat. The results of surgical treatments are not convincing. Treatment studies on Achilles and patellar tendinopathy targeting the richly innervated and vascularized soft tissues outside the tendon have shown promising outcomes. The innervation patterns in the fibrous/fatty tissues superficially to the elbow extensor origin have not been clarified. Nine tissue specimens from the fibrous/fatty tissue covering the extensor origin was taken from seven patients (mean age: 45 years) undergoing surgical treatment for chronic painful tennis elbow. The specimens were stained for morphology (haematoxylin and eosin, H and E) and immunohistochemically for general nerve marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and markers for sympathetic (tyrosine hydroxylase, TH) and sensory nerve fibres (calcitonin gene-related peptide, CGRP). All specimens contained multiple blood vessels and nerve structures indicated by morphology and immunoreactions. There was a frequent occurrence of TH reactions, especially peri-vascularly, but also in nerve fascicles. Immunoreactions for CGRP were seen in nerve fascicles and isolated nerve fibres. The results provide new information on the innervation patterns of the superficial tissues of the extensor origin and their potential as source of tennis elbow pain. IV.

  8. Fabrication and Characterization of Collagen-Immobilized Porous PHBV/HA Nano composite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin-Young, B.; Zhi-Cai, X.; Giseop, K.; Keun-Byoung, Y.; Soo-Young, P.; Lee, S.P.; Inn-Kyu, K.

    2012-01-01

    The porous composite scaffolds (PHBV/HA) consisting of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were fabricated using a hot-press machine and salt-leaching. Collagen (type I) was then immobilized on the surface of the porous PHBV/HA composite scaffolds to improve tissue compatibility. The structure and morphology of the collagen-immobilized composite scaffolds (PHBV/HA/Col) were investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA). The potential of the porous PHBV/HA/Col composite scaffolds for use as a bone scaffold was assessed by an experiment with osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) in terms of cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. The results showed that the PHBV/HA/Col composite scaffolds possess better cell adhesion and significantly higher proliferation and differentiation than the PHBV/HA composite scaffolds and the PHBV scaffolds. These results suggest that the PHBV/HA/Col composite scaffolds have a high potential for use in the field of bone regeneration and tissue engineering.

  9. Gestational age dependent content, composition and intrauterine accretion rates of fatty acids in fetal white adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; Offringa, Pieter J.; Martini, Ingrid A.; Boersma, E. Rudy; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the gestational age (GA) dependent content, composition and intrauterine accretion rates of fatty acids (FA) in fetal white adipose tissue (WAT). Objective & design: To acquire this information, we collected abdominal subcutaneous WAT samples from 40 preterm and

  10. Study Of Isotopic Technical Application To Estimate Origin Of Nitrogen Composition Of Groundwater In Hanoi Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinh Van Giap; Dinh Bich Lieu; Dang Anh Minh; Vo Thi Anh; Bui Dac Dung; Nguyen Thi Hong Thinh; Nguyen Manh Hung; Nguyen Van Hoan; Nguyen Van Hai

    2007-01-01

    Groundwater in Hanoi area as well as some other areas in Bac-Bo Delta is being contaminated by heavy metals and nitrogen compounds, especially arsenic and ammonium. The origin of nitrogen compounds in groundwater in Hanoi area is estimated in order to exploit and manage sustainable groundwater served for production and live. (author)

  11. Stable isotope composition of environmental water and food products as a tracer of origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzchnicki, R.; Owczarczyk, A.; Soltyk, W.

    2004-01-01

    The paper is the review of Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (INCT) activity in application of stable isotope ratios (especially D/H and 18 O/ 16 O) for environmental studies and food origin control. INCT has at disposal since 1998, a high class instrument - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer, Delta Plus, Finnigan MAT, Germany - suitable to perform such measurements. (author)

  12. Preparation and Characterization of Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite-Resorbable Polymer Composites for Hard Tissue Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebner, Kristopher Robert

    Autografts are the orthopedic "gold standard" for repairing bone voids. Autografts are osteoconductive and do not elicit an immune response, but they are in short supply and require a second surgery to harvest the bone graft. Allografts are currently the most common materials used for the repair of segmental defects in hard tissue. Unlike autografts, allografts can cause an undesirable immune response and the possibility of disease transmission is a major concern. As an alternative to the above approaches, recent research efforts have focused on the use of composite materials made from hydroxyapatite (HA) and bioresorbable polymers, such as poly-L-lactide (PLLA). Recent results have shown that the surface hydroxides on HA can initiate the ring opening polymerization (ROP) of L-lactide and other lactones creating a composite with superior interfacial strength. This thesis demonstrates that the surface of porous biologically derived HA substrates, such as coralline HA and trabecular bone, can be used to initiate the ROP of L-lactide and other lactones from the vapor phase. This process increases the strength of the porous scaffold through the deposition of a thin, uniform polymer coating, while maintaining the porous structure. The kinetics of the chemical vapor deposition polymerization (CVDP) are described using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The reaction temperature and monomer vapor pressure are found to affect the rate of the polymerization. Also described in this thesis is the preparation of a porous polymer scaffold that mimics the structure of demineralized bone matrix (DBM). This demineralized bone matrix simulant (DBMS) is created using anorganic bovine bone as a template to initiate the polymerization of various lactones, followed by the removal of the HA scaffold. This material retained its shape and exhibits mechanical properties superior to DBM. Finally it is shown that HA can be used to initiate the ROP of a-caprolactam and the biocompatibility

  13. Fiber/collagen composites for ligament tissue engineering: influence of elastic moduli of sparse aligned fibers on mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Patrick S; Verbridge, Scott S; Dahlgren, Linda A; Kakar, Sanjeev; Guelcher, Scott A; Goldstein, Aaron S

    2016-08-01

    Electrospun microfibers are attractive for the engineering of oriented tissues because they present instructive topographic and mechanical cues to cells. However, high-density microfiber networks are too cell-impermeable for most tissue applications. Alternatively, the distribution of sparse microfibers within a three-dimensional hydrogel could present instructive cues to guide cell organization while not inhibiting cell behavior. In this study, thin (∼5 fibers thick) layers of aligned microfibers (0.7 μm) were embedded within collagen hydrogels containing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), cultured for up to 14 days, and assayed for expression of ligament markers and imaged for cell organization. These microfibers were generated through the electrospinning of polycaprolactone (PCL), poly(ester-urethane) (PEUR), or a 75/25 PEUR/PCL blend to produce microfiber networks with elastic moduli of 31, 15, and 5.6 MPa, respectively. MSCs in composites containing 5.6 MPa fibers exhibited increased expression of the ligament marker scleraxis and the contractile phenotype marker α-smooth muscle actin versus the stiffer fiber composites. Additionally, cells within the 5.6 MPa microfiber composites were more oriented compared to cells within the 15 and 31 MPa microfiber composites. Together, these data indicate that the mechanical properties of microfiber/collagen composites can be tuned for the engineering of ligament and other target tissues. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1894-1901, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Degradation and biocompatibility of porous nano-hydroxyapatite/polyurethane composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Zhihong [Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Li Yubao, E-mail: nic7504@scu.edu.cn [Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zou Qin [Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials, Analytical and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2009-04-01

    Porous scaffold containing 30 wt% nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) and 70 wt% polyurethane (PU) from castor oil was prepared by a foaming method and investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared absorption (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results show that n-HA particles disperse homogeneously in the PU matrix. The porous scaffold has not only macropores of 100-800 {mu}m in size but also a lot of micropores on the walls of macropores. The porosity and compressive strength of scaffold are 80% and 271 kPa, respectively. After soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF), hydrolysis and deposition partly occur on the scaffold. The biological evaluation in vitro and in vivo shows that the n-HA/PU scaffold is non-cytotoxic and degradable. The porous structure provides a good microenvironment for cell adherence, growth and proliferation. The n-HA/PU composite scaffold can be satisfied with the basic requirement for tissue engineering, and has the potential to be applied in repair and substitute of human menisci of the knee-joint and articular cartilage.

  15. A composite chitosan-gelatin bi-layered, biomimetic macroporous scaffold for blood vessel tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhe, Ravindra V; Bijukumar, Divya; Chejara, Dharmesh R; Mabrouk, Mostafa; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Kondiah, Pierre P D; Pillay, Viness

    2017-02-10

    A composite chitosan-gelatin macroporous hydrogel-based scaffold with bi-layered tubular architecture was engineered by solvent casting-co-particulate leaching. The scaffold constituted an inner macroporous layer concealed by a non-porous outer layer mimicking the 3D matrix of blood vessels with cellular adhesion and proliferation. The scaffold was evaluated for its morphological, physicochemical, physicomechanical and biodurability properties employing SEM, FTIR, DSC, XRD, porositometry, rheology and texture analysis. The fluid uptake and biodegradation in the presence of lysozymes was also investigated. Cellular attachment and proliferation was analysed using human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-a) seeded onto the scaffold and evaluated by MTT assay, SEM, and confocal microscopy. Results demonstrated that the scaffold had a desirable tensile strength=95.81±11kPa, elongation at break 112.5±13%, porosity 82% and pores between 100 and 230μm, 50% in vitro biodegradation at day 16 and proliferated fibroblasts over 20 days. These results demonstrate that scaffold may be an excellent tubular archetype for blood vessel tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-assembled high-strength hydroxyapatite/graphene oxide/chitosan composite hydrogel for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peng; Bao, Rui-Ying; Shi, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Wei; Yang, Ming-Bo

    2017-01-02

    Graphene hydrogel has shown greatly potentials in bone tissue engineering recently, but it is relatively weak in the practical use. Here we report a facile method to synthesize high strength composite graphene hydrogel. Graphene oxide (GO), hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles (NPs) and chitosan (CS) self-assemble into a 3-dimensional hydrogel with the assistance of crosslinking agent genipin (GNP) for CS and reducing agent sodium ascorbate (NaVC) for GO simultaneously. The dense and oriented microstructure of the resulted composite gel endows it with high mechanical strength, high fixing capacity of HA and high porosity. These properties together with the good biocompatibility make the ternary composite gel a promising material for bone tissue engineering. Such a simultaneous crosslinking and reduction strategy can also be applied to produce a variety of 3D graphene-polymer based nanocomposites for biomaterials, energy storage materials and adsorbent materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Atomic Origins of the Self-Healing Function in Cement–Polymer Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Manh Thuong; Wang, Zheming; Rod, Kenton A.; Childers, Matthew I.; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Koech, Phillip K.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra

    2018-01-09

    Motivated by recent advances in self-healing cement and epoxy polymer composites, we present a combined ab initio molecular dynamics and sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy study of a calcium-silicate-hydrate/polymer interface. On stable, low-defect surfaces, the polymer only weakly adheres through coordination and hydrogen bonding interactions and can be easily mobilized towards defected surfaces. Conversely, on fractured surfaces, the polymer strongly anchors through ionic Ca-O bonds resulting from the deprotonation of polymer hydroxyl groups. In addition, polymer S-S groups are turned away from the cement/polymer interface, allowing for the self-healing function within the polymer. The overall elasticity and healing properties of these composites stem from a flexible hydrogen bonding network that can readily adapt to surface morphology. The theoretical vibrational signals associated with the proposed cement-polymer interfacial chemistry were confirmed experimentally by SFG spectroscopy.

  18. Isotopic compositions and probable origins of organic molecules in the Eocene Messel shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J. M.; Takigiku, Ray; Ocampo, Ruben; Callot, Enry J.; Albrecht, Pierre

    1987-01-01

    It is shown here that the carbon isotopic compositions of biomarkers from the Eocene Messel shale, accumulated 47 + or - 2 million years ago in anaerobic waters at the bottom of a lake, allow identification of specific sources for some materials and reconstruction of carbon flows within the lake and its sediments. The C-13 content of organic matter synthesized by lacustrine primary producers can be estimated from the observed C-13 content of the geoporphyrins derived from their chlorophylls. Total organic material in the shale is depleted in C-13 by six parts per thousand relative to that input. This difference cannot be explained by selective loss of components enriched in C-13, nor, as shown by isotopic compositions of other biomarkers, by inputs from land plants surrounding the lake or from methanogenic bacteria.

  19. Polymer-layered silicate nano composite by UV-radiation curing: an original synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, L.; Decker, C.; Zahouily, K.; Miehe-Brendle, J.; Le Meins, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text.Because of the many hopes which they raise, the nano composite materials are the subject of an increasing number of scientific publications. Indeed, the intimate association of a polymer matrix and silicate nano-platelets leads to the formation of materials having mechanical and barriers properties improved (fire, gas, humidity...). A literature survey shows that these materials are generally produced by a thermal polymerization, which presents two major disadvantages: the use of organic solvents and a great consumption of energy. To overcome such limitations, photo initiated polymerization was chosen to synthesize nano composite materials. By this technology, called UV radiation curing, a solvent-free resin is transformed within seconds into a solid polymer upon exposure to UV-radiation at ambient temperature. The principal objective of this study was to develop photopolymerizable systems with clay particles having a layer structure (phyllosilicates). The clay mineral was made organophilic by treatment with an alkylammonium salt to allow the acrylate resin to penetrate into the expanded galleries. A morphological characterization of the materials obtained was carried out by X-rays diffraction and electronic microscopy transmission. The polymerization of the various resins under the UV exposure was followed in situ by using the real-time infrared spectroscopy (RT-FTIR) and attenuated total reflection (ATR). The results obtained show that the presence of the organo clay does not modify much the polymerization kinetics. The nano composite material thus obtained is transparent, insoluble in the organic solvents and presents improved mechanical properties, compared to the neat resin and the micro composite, for a load factor ranging between 2 and 5%wt. The addition of nanoparticles also makes it possible to reduce efficiently the brightness of coatings UV and finally confers to this material barriers properties higher than that of the photo crosslinked

  20. Compositional evidence for an impact origin of the Moon's Procellarum basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryosuke; Yamamoto, Satoru; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Morota, Tomokatsu; Hiroi, Takahiro; Takeda, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Yokota, Yasuhiro; Hirata, Naru; Ohtake, Makiko; Saiki, Kazuto

    2012-11-01

    The asymmetry between the nearside and farside of the Moon is evident in the distribution of mare basalt, crustal thickness and concentrations of radioactive elements, but its origin remains controversial. According to one attractive scenario, a gigantic impact early in the Moon's history produced the observed dichotomy; the putative 3,000-km-diameter Procellarum basin has been suggested to be a relic of this ancient impact. Low-calcium pyroxene can be formed during an impact by melting a mixture of crust and mantle materials or by excavating differentiated cumulates from the lunar magma ocean. Therefore, the association of low-calcium pyroxene with a lunar basin could indicate an impact origin. Here we use spectral mapping data from KAGUYA/SELENE (ref. ) to show that low-calcium pyroxene is concentrated around two established impact structures, the South Pole-Aitken and Imbrium basins. In addition, we detect a high concentration of low-calcium pyroxene at Procellarum, which supports an impact origin of the ancient basin. We propose that, in forming the largest known basin on the Moon, the impact excavated the nearside's primary feldspathic crust, which derived from the lunar magma ocean. A secondary feldspathic crust would have later recrystallized from the sea of impact melt, leading to two distinct sides of the Moon.

  1. Compositional profile and variation of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles from various origins with focus on non-starch polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Brøgger; Dalsgaard, S.; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2014-01-01

    nutrients (e.g. protein, fat, fibre and minerals) after fermentation of starch to ethanol. Corn DDGS differentiated from wheat DDGS by a greater content of fat (P≤0.006), insoluble-NSP (Pcellulose (P=0.032), and arabinose/xylose (P....001). Wheat DDGS differentiated from corn DDGS by a greater content of ash (P=0.001), soluble-NSP (Plignin (P...Corn-, wheat- and mixed cereal Distillers' Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) were investigated for compositional variability among DDGS origins, ethanol plants, and the relationship between corn and corresponding DDGS. A total of 138 DDGS samples were analyzed by use of Near Infrared Reflectance...

  2. Characterization of Size, Composition and Origins of Dust in Fusion Devices. Summary Report of the Third Research Coordination Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.

    2013-02-01

    Twelve experts on processes of dust in fusion experiments met at IAEA Headquarters 30 November - 02 December 2011 for the 3rd Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on ''Characterization of size, composition and origins of dust in fusion devices.'' Participants reviewed their work done in the course of the CRP and the current state of knowledge, and they made plans for a dust database and a final CRP report. Presentations, discussions and recommendations of the RCM are summarized here. (author)

  3. Fabrication and in vitro evaluation of a sponge-like bioactive-glass/gelatin composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadeem, Danish [Biomaterials Engineering Group, School of Oral and Dental Sciences, University of Bristol, BS1 2LY (United Kingdom); Kiamehr, Mostafa [Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Group, Leeds Dental Institute, University of Leeds, LS2 9LU (United Kingdom); Yang, Xuebin [Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Group, Leeds Dental Institute, University of Leeds, LS2 9LU (United Kingdom); NIHR Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, Chapel Allerton Hospital, Leeds LS7 4SA (United Kingdom); Su, Bo, E-mail: b.su@bristol.ac.uk [Biomaterials Engineering Group, School of Oral and Dental Sciences, University of Bristol, BS1 2LY (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    In this work a bioactive composite scaffold, comprised of bioactive-glass and gelatin, is introduced. Through direct foaming a sponge-like composite of a sol–gel derived bioactive-glass (70S30C; 70% SiO{sub 2}, 30% CaO) and porcine gelatin was developed for use as a biodegradable scaffold for bone tissue engineering. The composite was developed to provide a suitable alternative to synthetic polymer based scaffolds, allowing directed regeneration of bone tissue. The fabricated scaffold was characterised through X-ray microtomography, scanning electron and light microscopy demonstrating a three dimensionally porous and interconnected structure, with an average pore size (170 μm) suitable for successful cell proliferation and tissue ingrowth. Acellular bioactivity was assessed through apatite formation during submersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) whereby the rate and onset of apatite nucleation was found to be comparable to that of bioactive-glass. Modification of dehydrothermal treatment parameters induced varying degrees of crosslinking, allowing the degradation of the composite to be tailored to suit specific applications and establishing its potential for a wide range of applications. Use of genipin to supplement crosslinking by dehydrothermal treatment provided further means of modifying degradability. Biocompatibility of the composite was qualified through successful cultures of human dental pulp stem cells (HDPSCs) on samples of the composite scaffold. Osteogenic differentiation of HDPSCs and extracellular matrix deposition were confirmed through positive alkaline phosphatase staining and immunohistochemistry. - Highlights: ► Optimised composition and fabrication produced sponge-like porosity (pore size ∼ 170 μm). ► Maximum aqueous stability via dehydrothermal treatment at 145 °C, for 48 h ► Biocompatibility and osteogenic potential confirmed via successful HDPSC cultures. ► Minimal toxicity exhibited in optimally crosslinked samples (10 m

  4. Fabrication and in vitro evaluation of a sponge-like bioactive-glass/gelatin composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, Danish; Kiamehr, Mostafa; Yang, Xuebin; Su, Bo

    2013-01-01

    In this work a bioactive composite scaffold, comprised of bioactive-glass and gelatin, is introduced. Through direct foaming a sponge-like composite of a sol–gel derived bioactive-glass (70S30C; 70% SiO 2 , 30% CaO) and porcine gelatin was developed for use as a biodegradable scaffold for bone tissue engineering. The composite was developed to provide a suitable alternative to synthetic polymer based scaffolds, allowing directed regeneration of bone tissue. The fabricated scaffold was characterised through X-ray microtomography, scanning electron and light microscopy demonstrating a three dimensionally porous and interconnected structure, with an average pore size (170 μm) suitable for successful cell proliferation and tissue ingrowth. Acellular bioactivity was assessed through apatite formation during submersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) whereby the rate and onset of apatite nucleation was found to be comparable to that of bioactive-glass. Modification of dehydrothermal treatment parameters induced varying degrees of crosslinking, allowing the degradation of the composite to be tailored to suit specific applications and establishing its potential for a wide range of applications. Use of genipin to supplement crosslinking by dehydrothermal treatment provided further means of modifying degradability. Biocompatibility of the composite was qualified through successful cultures of human dental pulp stem cells (HDPSCs) on samples of the composite scaffold. Osteogenic differentiation of HDPSCs and extracellular matrix deposition were confirmed through positive alkaline phosphatase staining and immunohistochemistry. - Highlights: ► Optimised composition and fabrication produced sponge-like porosity (pore size ∼ 170 μm). ► Maximum aqueous stability via dehydrothermal treatment at 145 °C, for 48 h ► Biocompatibility and osteogenic potential confirmed via successful HDPSC cultures. ► Minimal toxicity exhibited in optimally crosslinked samples (10 m

  5. Lipid composition of hepatic and adipose tissues from normal cats and from cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J A; Barstad, L A; Connor, W E

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the lipid classes in hepatic and adipose tissues from cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis (IHL). Concentrations of triglyceride, phospholipid phosphorus, and free and total cholesterol were determined in lipid extracts of liver homogenates from 5 cats with IHL and 5 healthy control cats. Total fatty acid composition of liver and adipose tissue was also compared. Triglyceride accounted for 34% of liver by weight in cats with IHL (338 +/- 38 mg/g wet liver) versus 1% in control cats (9.9 +/- 1.0 mg/g wet liver, P hepatic tissue in the 2 groups differed; palmitate was higher (19.5 +/- 1.1% of total fatty acids in cats with IHL versus 9.2 +/- 2.7% in controls, P hepatic triglyceride in cats with IHL is the mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue.

  6. Original sound compositions reduce anxiety in emergency department patients: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Tracey J; Jelinek, George A; Macarow, Keely E; Samartzis, Philip; Brown, David M; Grierson, Elizabeth M; Winter, Craig

    2011-12-19

    To determine whether emergency department (ED) patients' self-rated levels of anxiety are affected by exposure to purpose-designed music or sound compositions with and without the audio frequencies of embedded binaural beat. Randomised controlled trial in an ED between 1 February 2010 and 14 April 2010 among a convenience sample of adult patients who were rated as category 3 on the Australasian Triage Scale. All interventions involved listening to soundtracks of 20 minutes' duration that were purpose-designed by composers and sound-recording artists. Participants were allocated at random to one of five groups: headphones and iPod only, no soundtrack (control group); reconstructed ambient noise simulating an ED but free of clear verbalisations; electroacoustic musical composition; composed non-musical soundtracks derived from audio field recordings obtained from natural and constructed settings; sound composition of audio field recordings with embedded binaural beat. All soundtracks were presented on an iPod through headphones. Patients and researchers were blinded to allocation until interventions were administered. State-trait anxiety was self-assessed before the intervention and state anxiety was self-assessed again 20 minutes after the provision of the soundtrack. Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Of 291 patients assessed for eligibility, 170 patients completed the pre-intervention anxiety self-assessment and 169 completed the post-intervention assessment. Significant decreases (all P beats (43; 37) when compared with those allocated to receive simulated ED ambient noise (40; 41) or headphones only (44; 44). In moderately anxious ED patients, state anxiety was reduced by 10%-15% following exposure to purpose-designed sound interventions. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN 12608000444381.

  7. Gestational age dependent changes of the fetal brain, liver and adipose tissue fatty acid compositions in a population with high fish intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; Offringa, Pieter J.; Boersma, E. Rudy; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: There are no data on the intrauterine fatty acid (FA) compositions of brain, liver and adipose tissue of infants born to women with high fish intakes. Subjects and methods: We analyzed the brain (n = 18), liver (n = 14) and adipose tissue (n = 11) FA compositions of 20 stillborn

  8. Origin and composition of mineralizing fluids in the Athabasca Basin, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, A.; Cathelineau, M.; Boiron, M.Ch.; Cuney, M.; Mercadier, J.; Milesi, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    The authors report studies aimed at understanding mechanisms of concentration of uranium in the geological environment of the Athabasca Basin (Saskatchewan, Canada). They describe how two brines, a sodic one and a calcic one, circulated and mixed together while carrying uranium with exceptional and very heterogeneous concentrations. They show that these brines have a common origin and are formed by sea water evaporation, that the calcic brine formed itself by interaction between the sodic brine and platform rocks, and that the interactions of brines with platform rocks and minerals, water radiolysis, and bitumen synthesis have controlled the isotopic content in oxygen, hydrogen and carbon of these brines

  9. Electrospun composites of PHBV, silk fibroin and nano-hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paşcu, Elena I.; Stokes, Joseph; McGuinness, Garrett B., E-mail: garrett.mcguinness@dcu.ie

    2013-12-01

    Electrospinning of fibrous scaffolds containing nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) embedded in a matrix of functional biomacromolecules offers an attractive route to mimicking the natural bone tissue architecture. Functional fibrous substrates will support cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation, while the role of HAp is to induce cells to secrete extracellular matrix (ECM) for mineralization to form bone. Electrospinning of biomaterials composed of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-(3-hydroxyvalerate) with 2% valerate fraction (PHBV), nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp), and Bombyx mori silk fibroin essence (SF), Mw = 90KDa, has been achieved for nHAp and SF solution concentrations of 2 (w/vol) % each and 5 (w/vol) % each. The structure and properties of the nanocomposite fibrous membranes were investigated by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy in combination with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (SEM/EDX), Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), uniaxial tensile and compressive mechanical testing, degradation tests and in vitro bioactivity tests. SEM images showed smooth, uniform and continuous fibre deposition with no bead formation, and fibre diameters of between 10 and 15 μm. EDX and FT-IR confirmed the presence of nHAp and SF. After one month in deionised water, tests showed less than 2% weight loss with the samples retaining their fibrous morphology, confirming that this material biodegrades slowly. After 28 days of immersion in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) an apatite layer was visible on the surface of the fibres, proving their bioactivity. Preliminary in vitro biological assessment showed that after 1 and 3 days in culture, cells were attached to the fibres, retaining their morphology while presenting a flattened appearance and elongated shape on the surface of fibres. Young's modulus was found to increase from 0.7 kPa (± 0.33 kPa) for electrospun samples of PHBV only to 1.4 kPa (± 0.54 kPa) for samples with 2 (w/vol) % each of nHAp and SF. Samples

  10. Electrospun composites of PHBV, silk fibroin and nano-hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paşcu, Elena I.; Stokes, Joseph; McGuinness, Garrett B.

    2013-01-01

    Electrospinning of fibrous scaffolds containing nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) embedded in a matrix of functional biomacromolecules offers an attractive route to mimicking the natural bone tissue architecture. Functional fibrous substrates will support cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation, while the role of HAp is to induce cells to secrete extracellular matrix (ECM) for mineralization to form bone. Electrospinning of biomaterials composed of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-(3-hydroxyvalerate) with 2% valerate fraction (PHBV), nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp), and Bombyx mori silk fibroin essence (SF), Mw = 90KDa, has been achieved for nHAp and SF solution concentrations of 2 (w/vol) % each and 5 (w/vol) % each. The structure and properties of the nanocomposite fibrous membranes were investigated by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy in combination with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (SEM/EDX), Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), uniaxial tensile and compressive mechanical testing, degradation tests and in vitro bioactivity tests. SEM images showed smooth, uniform and continuous fibre deposition with no bead formation, and fibre diameters of between 10 and 15 μm. EDX and FT-IR confirmed the presence of nHAp and SF. After one month in deionised water, tests showed less than 2% weight loss with the samples retaining their fibrous morphology, confirming that this material biodegrades slowly. After 28 days of immersion in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) an apatite layer was visible on the surface of the fibres, proving their bioactivity. Preliminary in vitro biological assessment showed that after 1 and 3 days in culture, cells were attached to the fibres, retaining their morphology while presenting a flattened appearance and elongated shape on the surface of fibres. Young's modulus was found to increase from 0.7 kPa (± 0.33 kPa) for electrospun samples of PHBV only to 1.4 kPa (± 0.54 kPa) for samples with 2 (w/vol) % each of nHAp and SF. Samples

  11. Titanium-hydroxyapatite composites sintered at low temperature for tissue engineering: in vitro cell support and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comín, Romina; Cid, Mariana P; Grinschpun, Luciano; Oldani, Carlos; Salvatierra, Nancy A

    2017-04-26

    In clinical orthopedics, a critical problem is the bone tissue loss produced by a disease or injury. The use of composites from titanium and hydroxyapatite for biomedical applications has increased due to the resulting advantageous combination of hydroxyapatite bioactivity and favorable mechanical properties of titanium. Powder metallurgy is a simple and lower-cost method that uses powder from titanium and hydroxyapatite to obtain composites having hydroxyapatite phases in a metallic matrix. However, this method has certain limitations arising from thermal decomposition of hydroxyapatite in the titanium-hydroxyapatite system above 800°C. We obtained a composite from titanium and bovine hydroxyapatite powders sintered at 800°C and evaluated its bioactivity and cytocompatibility according to the ISO 10993 standard. Surface analysis and bioactivity of the composite was evaluated by X-ray diffraction and SEM. MTT assay was carried out to assess cytotoxicity on Vero and NIH3T3 cells. Cell morphology and cell adhesion on the composite surface were analyzed using fluorescence and SEM. We obtained a porous composite with hydroxyapatite particles well integrated in titanium matrix which presented excellent bioactivity. Our data did not reveal any toxicity of titanium-hydroxyapatite composite on Vero or NIH3T3 cells. Moreover, extracts from composite did not affect cell morphology or density. Finally, NIH3T3 cells were capable of adhering to and proliferating on the composite surface. The composite obtained displayed promising biomedical applications through the simple method of powder metallurgy. Additionally, these findings provide an in vitro proof for adequate biocompatibility of titanium-hydroxyapatite composite sintered at 800°C.

  12. Growth of Murine Splenic Tissue Is Suppressed by Lymphotoxin β-Receptor Signaling (LTβR) Originating from Splenic and Non-Splenic Tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milićević, Novica M; Nohroudi, Klaus; Schmidt, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    LTβR signaling. Two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and subsequent mass spectrometry of stromal splenic tissue was applied to screen for potential factors mediating the LTβR dependent suppressive activity. Thus, LTβR dependent growth suppression is involved in regulating the size...

  13. Alien animals in South Africa – composition, introduction history, origins and distribution patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike D. Picker

    2017-03-01

    Results: Of the 571 alien animal species analysed, insects comprised the largest component (53%, 300 species, followed by molluscs (9%, 51 species, annelids (8%, 48 species, arachnids (7%, 41 species, vertebrates (7%, 41 species and crustaceans (6%, 36 species. Vertebrate introductions (88% were largely intentional, whereas 84% of invertebrate introductions were unintentional. Conclusions: Almost all marine and most terrestrial alien species were accidentally introduced, whereas freshwater introductions were almost entirely intentional. Some 13% had not spread significantly, 16% had spread significantly and 71% had become fully invasive. Vertebrate introductions virtually ceased after the 1950s, but rate of introduction of invertebrates remained linear. The overall rate of species accumulation was fairly low until 1880, but accelerated sharply thereafter. Most terrestrial alien species originated from Europe (28.6% and Asia (25.0% and the lowest proportion (6.1% from Africa. Freshwater introductions largely originated from the Americas, with few from Africa. The most invaded areas were around Cape Town, (up to 162 introduced species/half-degree grid cell, followed by Gauteng and Durban

  14. Elemental compositions of lichens from Duolun County, Inner Mongolia, China: Origin, road effect and species difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Jie; Wang, Jing-Gong; Xia, Yu; Yang, Meng-Jie; Liu, Si-Wa; Zhao, Liang-Cheng; Guo, Xiu-Ping; Jiang, Yun-Jun; Li, Xin; Wu, Qing-Feng; Fang, Shi-Bo

    2017-07-17

    To assess the response of lichen elemental compositions to road traffic and species difference in the context of high dust input and anthropogenic emissions, two foliose epiphytic lichens (Phaeophyscia hirtuosa, PHh; Candelaria fibrosa, CAf) were sampled near a road adjacent to Dolon Nor Town (Duolun County, Inner Mongolia, China). Twenty elements (Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Sr, Ti, V and Zn) in lichen and surface soil samples were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The results demonstrate that lichen elemental compositions are highly influenced by both their natural environment and anthropogenic input. Windblown dust associated with sand dunes and degraded/desertified steppes represents the predominant source of lichen elements. Road traffic can enhance the lichen elemental burden by increasing the number of soil particles. Anthropogenic emissions from the town and road traffic have also led to the enrichment of Cd and Zn in lichens. PHh was higher than CAf in concentrations of 14 terrigenous metals. Both lichens are applicable to biomonitoring of atmospheric element deposition and, in most cases, yield comparable results.

  15. Carcass characteristics and tissue composition of commercial cuts of lambs fed with banana crop residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Dayana do Carmo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of substitution of Cynodon hay with banana plantation residue hay on the carcass characteristics and tissue composition of commercial cuts of feedlot Santa Inês lambs. Twenty-five whole lambs were used, with an average age of five months and an initial live weight of 26.95 kg (± 1.5, distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments (1 = 40% Cynodon spp. hay + 60% concentrate; 2 = 20% banana leaf hay + 20% Cynodon spp. hay + 60% concentrate; 3 = 40% banana leaf hay + 60% concentrate; 4 = 20% banana pseudostem hay + 20% Cynodon spp. hay + 60% concentrate; 5 = 40% banana pseudostem hay + 60% concentrate and five repetitions. The lambs were slaughtered on day 69 of the experiment. The variables evaluated were: live weight without fasting (LWWF, live weight post-fasting (LWPF, morphometric measurements in vivo and postmortem, hot and cold carcass weights (HCW, CCW, hot and cold carcass yield (HCY, CCY, biological performance and weight loss by chilling. The carcasses were divided into eight commercial cuts: neck, shoulder, foreshank and hindshank, breast and flank, loin, leg and rack. The leg, shoulder and loin were dissected into muscle, fat and bone. The animals fed on pseudostem hay showed higher LWWF, LWPF, body length, HCW and CCW; however, the HCY, CCY, morphometric measurements and commercial cut weights and yields were not altered by the treatments. The use of pseudostem hay allows for heavier carcasses; however, the use of coproducts changed the characteristics and carcass yield of the assessed commercial cuts.

  16. Characterization of Size, Composition and Origins of Dust in Fusion Devices. Summary Report of the Second Research Coordination Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.; Skinner, C.H.

    2010-11-01

    Eleven experts on processes of dust in fusion experiments met for the 2nd Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Characterization of size, composition and origins of dust in fusion devices' held at IAEA Headquarters 21-23 June 2010. Participants summarized their studies on dust in fusion experiments and reviewed progress made since the first RCM. Gaps in knowledge were identified and a plan of work for the remainder of the CRP was developed. Presentations, discussions and recommendations of the RCM are summarized in this report. Eleven experts on processes of dust in fusion experiments met for the 2nd Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Characterization of size, composition and origins of dust in fusion devices' held at IAEA Headquarters 21-23 June 2010. Participants summarized their studies on dust in fusion experiments and reviewed progress made since the first RCM. Gaps in knowledge were identified and a plan of work for the remainder of the CRP was developed. Presentations, discussions and recommendations of the RCM are summarized in this report. (author)

  17. Enhanced mechanical properties and biocompatibility of novel hydroxyapatite/TOPAS hybrid composite for bone tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ain, Qurat Ul [Department of Materials Engineering, School of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, H-12, Islamabad (Pakistan); Khan, Ahmad Nawaz, E-mail: ahmad.nawaz@scme.nust.edu.pk [Department of Materials Engineering, School of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, H-12, Islamabad (Pakistan); Nabavinia, Mahboubeh [Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA (United States); Mujahid, Mohammad [Department of Materials Engineering, School of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, H-12, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2017-06-01

    The bioactivity and mechanical properties of hybrid composites of hydroxyapatite (HA) in cyclic olefinic copolymer (COC) also known commercially as TOPAS are investigated, first time, for regeneration and repair of the bone tissues. HA is synthesized to obtain the spherically shaped nanoparticles in the size range of 60 ± 20 nm. Various concentrations of HA ranging from 1 to 30 wt% are dispersed in TOPAS using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coupling agent for better dispersion and interaction of hydrophilic HA with hydrophobic TOPAS. Scanning electron microscope shows the uniform dispersion of HA ≤ 10 wt% in TOPAS and at higher concentrations > 10 wt%, agglomeration occurs in the hybrid composites. Tunable mechanical properties are achieved as the compressive modulus and strength are increased around 140% from 6.4 to 15.3 MPa and 185% from 0.26 to 0.74 MPa, respectively. Such increase in the mechanical properties of TOPAS is attributed to the anchoring of the polymer chains in the vicinity of HA nanoparticles owing to better dispersion and interfacial interactions. In comparison to neat TOPAS, hybrid composites of TOPAS/HA promoted the cell adhesion and proliferation significantly. The cell density and proliferation of TOPAS/HA hybrid composites is enhanced 9 and 3 folds, respectively, after 1 day culturing in preosteoblasts cells. Moreover, the morphology of cells changed from spherical to flattened spread morphology demonstrating clearly the migration of the cells for the formation of interconnected cellular network. Additionally, very few dead cells are found in hybrid composites showing their cytocompatibility. Overall, the hybrid composites of TOPAS/HA exhibited superior strength and stiffness along with enhanced cytocompatibility for bone tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • TOPAS/HA hybrid composites exhibited enhanced mechanical properties owing to better dispersion and interaction of HA. • Without affecting the degradation rate, the

  18. Enhanced mechanical properties and biocompatibility of novel hydroxyapatite/TOPAS hybrid composite for bone tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ain, Qurat Ul; Khan, Ahmad Nawaz; Nabavinia, Mahboubeh; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    The bioactivity and mechanical properties of hybrid composites of hydroxyapatite (HA) in cyclic olefinic copolymer (COC) also known commercially as TOPAS are investigated, first time, for regeneration and repair of the bone tissues. HA is synthesized to obtain the spherically shaped nanoparticles in the size range of 60 ± 20 nm. Various concentrations of HA ranging from 1 to 30 wt% are dispersed in TOPAS using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coupling agent for better dispersion and interaction of hydrophilic HA with hydrophobic TOPAS. Scanning electron microscope shows the uniform dispersion of HA ≤ 10 wt% in TOPAS and at higher concentrations > 10 wt%, agglomeration occurs in the hybrid composites. Tunable mechanical properties are achieved as the compressive modulus and strength are increased around 140% from 6.4 to 15.3 MPa and 185% from 0.26 to 0.74 MPa, respectively. Such increase in the mechanical properties of TOPAS is attributed to the anchoring of the polymer chains in the vicinity of HA nanoparticles owing to better dispersion and interfacial interactions. In comparison to neat TOPAS, hybrid composites of TOPAS/HA promoted the cell adhesion and proliferation significantly. The cell density and proliferation of TOPAS/HA hybrid composites is enhanced 9 and 3 folds, respectively, after 1 day culturing in preosteoblasts cells. Moreover, the morphology of cells changed from spherical to flattened spread morphology demonstrating clearly the migration of the cells for the formation of interconnected cellular network. Additionally, very few dead cells are found in hybrid composites showing their cytocompatibility. Overall, the hybrid composites of TOPAS/HA exhibited superior strength and stiffness along with enhanced cytocompatibility for bone tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • TOPAS/HA hybrid composites exhibited enhanced mechanical properties owing to better dispersion and interaction of HA. • Without affecting the degradation rate, the

  19. The influence of parenteral nitrogen feeding on free amino acid composition of blood serum and hepatic tissue of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mil'ko, V.I.; Kirichenko, A.V.; Chalaya, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    A considerable change in the free am ino acid composition of blood serum and hepatic tissued was noted on the 7th and 14th days following total-body X-irradiation of rats with a dose of 2.9 Gy. The total free amino acid content of blood serum increased and that of hepatic tissue decreased by 85% (on an average) as compared to the intact controls. Quantitative changes in the content of individual amino acids were analysed. Polyamine injected enterally for 7 days and parenterally for 3 days after irradiation a the elimination of the postirradiation changes in the amino acid balance

  20. Simultaneous bone marrow and composite tissue transplantation in rats treated with nonmyeloablative conditioning promotes tolerance1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong; Ramsey, Deborah M.; Wu, Shengli; Bozulic, Larry D.; Ildstad, Suzanne T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Approaches to safely induce tolerance in vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) with chimerism through bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are currently being pursued. However, the VCA were historically performed sequentially after donor chimerism was established. Delayed VCA is not clinically applicable due to the time constraints associated with procurement from deceased donors. A more clinically relevant approach to perform both the BMT and VCA simultaneously was evaluated. Methods WF (RT1Au) rats were treated with a short course of immunosuppressive therapy (anti-αβ-TCR mAb, FK-506, and anti-lymphocyte serum). One day prior to BMT, rats were treated with varying doses of total body irradiation (TBI) followed by transplantation of heterotopic osteomyocutaneous flaps from hind limbs of ACI (RT1Aabl) rats. Results 80% of rats conditioned with 300 cGy TBI and 40% of rats receiving 400 cGy TBI accepted the VCA. Mixed chimerism was detected in peripheral blood at one month post-VCA, but chimerism was lost in all transplant recipients by 4 months. The majority of peripheral donor cells originated from the BMT and not the VCA. Acceptors of VCA were tolerant of a donor skin graft challenge and no anti-donor antibodies were detectable, suggesting a central deletional mechanism for tolerance. Regulatory T cells (Treg) from spleens of acceptors more potently suppressed lymphocyte proliferation than Treg from rejectors in the presence of donor stimulator cells. Conclusions These studies suggest that simultaneous BMT and VCA may establish indefinite allograft survival in rats through Treg-mediated suppression and thymic deletion of alloreactive T cells. PMID:23250336

  1. Air mass origins influencing TTL chemical composition over West Africa during 2006 summer monsoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Law

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Trace gas and aerosol data collected in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL between 12–18.5 km by the M55 Geophysica aircraft as part of the SCOUT-AMMA campaign over West Africa during the summer monsoon in August 2006 have been analysed in terms of their air mass origins. Analysis of domain filling back trajectories arriving over West Africa, and in the specific region of the flights, showed that the M55 flights were generally representative of air masses arriving over West Africa during the first 2 weeks of August, 2006. Air originating from the mid-latitude lower stratosphere was under-sampled (in the mid-upper TTL whilst air masses uplifted from central Africa (into the lower TTL were over-sampled in the latter part of the campaign. Signatures of recent (previous 10 days origins were superimposed on the large-scale westward flow over West Africa. In the lower TTL, air masses were impacted by recent local deep convection over Africa at the level of main convective outflow (350 K, 200 hPa and on certain days up to 370 K (100 hPa. Estimates of the fraction of air masses influenced by local convection vary from 10 to 50% depending on the method applied and from day to day during the campaign. The analysis shows that flights on 7, 8 and 11 August were more influenced by local convection than on 4 and 13 August allowing separation of trace gas and aerosol measurements into "convective" and "non-convective" flights. Strong signatures, particularly in species with short lifetimes (relative to CO2 like CO, NO and fine-mode aerosols were seen during flights most influenced by convection up to 350–365 K. Observed profiles were also constantly perturbed by uplift (as high as 39% of air masses from the mid to lower troposphere over Asia, India, and oceanic regions resulting in import of clean oceanic (e.g. O3-poor or polluted air masses from Asia (high O3, CO, CO2 into West Africa. Thus, recent uplift of CO

  2. J6 Himalia: New Compositional Evidence and Interpretations for the Origin of Jupiter's Small Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, Faith; Jarvis, K.; Larson, S.; Gaffey, M.

    1999-01-01

    New narrowband spectrophotometric data of J6 Himalia, some of which are spatially resolved, support its C-type classification. The new spectra confirm the presence of a weak absorption feature centered near 0.7 micron attributed to oxidized iron in phyllosilicates, products of aqueous alteration, which varies in depth on opposite sides of the satellite. Evaluation of older UBV photometry of J6 and J7 Elara compared to UBV photometry of C-class (and subclass) asteroids showing spectral evidence of the 0.7-microns absorption feature suggests that J6 Himalia is an F-class asteroid. We propose that the parent body of the prograde Jovian satellites originated as part of the Nysa asteroid family. Evolutionary models of the Jovian system are used to address the capture and dispersal of the irregular satellites.

  3. Origin of mechanical modifications in poly (ether ether ketone)/carbon nanotube composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlenko, Ekaterina; Puech, Pascal; Bacsa, Wolfgang; Boyer, François; Olivier, Philippe; Sapelkin, Andrei; King, Stephen; Heenan, Richard; Pons, François; Gauthier, Bénédicte; Cadaux, Pierre-Henri

    2014-01-01

    Variations in the hardness of a poly (ether ether ketone) beam electrically modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, 0.5%-3%) are investigated. It is shown that both rupture and hardness variations correlate with the changes in carbon nanotube concentration when using micro indentation and extended Raman imaging. Statistical analysis of the relative spectral intensities in the Raman image is used to estimate local tube concentration and polymer crystallinity. We show that the histogram of the Raman D band across the image provides information about the amount of MWCNTs and the dispersion of MWCNTs in the composite. We speculate that we have observed a local modification of the ordering between pure and modified polymer. This is partially supported by small angle neutron scattering measurements, which indicate that the agglomeration state of the MWCNTs is the same at the concentrations studied.

  4. Origin of mechanical modifications in poly (ether ether ketone)/carbon nanotube composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlenko, Ekaterina; Puech, Pascal; Bacsa, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.bacsa@cemes.fr [CEMES-CNRS and University of Toulouse, 29 Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Boyer, François; Olivier, Philippe [Université de Toulouse, Institut Clément Ader, I.U.T. Université Paul Sabatier - 133C Avenue de Rangueil - B.P. 67701, 31077 Toulouse CEDEX 4 (France); Sapelkin, Andrei [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, E1 4NS London (United Kingdom); King, Stephen; Heenan, Richard [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, OX11 0QX Didcot (United Kingdom); Pons, François; Gauthier, Bénédicte; Cadaux, Pierre-Henri [AIRBUS FRANCE (B.E. M and P Toulouse), 316 Route de Bayonne, 31060 Toulouse (France)

    2014-06-21

    Variations in the hardness of a poly (ether ether ketone) beam electrically modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, 0.5%-3%) are investigated. It is shown that both rupture and hardness variations correlate with the changes in carbon nanotube concentration when using micro indentation and extended Raman imaging. Statistical analysis of the relative spectral intensities in the Raman image is used to estimate local tube concentration and polymer crystallinity. We show that the histogram of the Raman D band across the image provides information about the amount of MWCNTs and the dispersion of MWCNTs in the composite. We speculate that we have observed a local modification of the ordering between pure and modified polymer. This is partially supported by small angle neutron scattering measurements, which indicate that the agglomeration state of the MWCNTs is the same at the concentrations studied.

  5. Microscopic origin of the composition-dependent change of the thermal conductivity in boron carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emin, D.; Howard, I.A.; Green, T.A.; Beckel, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    Large grain polycrystalline boron carbides have a high-temperature thermal conductivity which changes from being characteristic of a crystal to being glass-like as the carbon content is reduced from its maximal value. We relate this phenomenon, to compositional changes within the three-atom intericosahedral chains. With a reduction of the carbon concentration from its maximal concentration (20%), a carbon atom within some of the three-atoms (CBC) intericosahedral chains is replaced by a boron atom, thereby producing CBB chains. We estimate that the CBB chains are significantly softer than the CBC chains. Thus, with this reduction of carbon content the intericosahedral chains are inhomogeneously softened. This suppresses the coherent transport of heat through the chains. The remaining thermal transport occurs incoherently through vibrationally inequivalent structural units, i.e. ''phonon hopping.''

  6. Genetic origin and composition of a natural hybrid poplar Populus × jrtyschensis from two distantly related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dechun; Feng, Jianju; Dong, Miao; Wu, Guili; Mao, Kangshan; Liu, Jianquan

    2016-04-18

    The factors that contribute to and maintain hybrid zones between distinct species are highly variable, depending on hybrid origins, frequencies and fitness. In this study, we aimed to examine genetic origins, compositions and possible maintenance of Populus × jrtyschensis, an assumed natural hybrid between two distantly related species. This hybrid poplar occurs mainly on the floodplains along the river valleys between the overlapping distributions of the two putative parents. We collected 566 individuals from 45 typical populations of P. × jrtyschensis, P. nigra and P. laurifolia. We genotyped them based on the sequence variations of one maternally inherited chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) fragment and genetic polymorphisms at 20 SSR loci. We further sequenced eight nuclear genes for 168 individuals from 31 populations. Two groups of cpDNA haplotypes characteristic of P. nigra and P. laurifolia respectively were both recovered for P. × jrtyschensis. Genetic structures and coalescent tests of two sets of nuclear population genetic data suggested that P. × jrtyschensis originated from hybridizations between the two assumed parental species. All examined populations of P. × jrtyschensis comprise mainly F1 hybrids from interspecific hybridizations between P. nigra and P. laurifolia. In the habitats of P. × jrtyschensis, there are lower concentrations of soil nitrogen than in the habitats occupied by the other two species. Our extensive examination of the genetic composition of P. × jrtyschensis suggested that it is typical of F1-dominated hybrid zones. This finding plus the low concentration of soil nitrogen in the floodplain soils support the F1-dominated bounded hybrid superiority hypothesis of hybrid zone maintenance for this particular hybrid poplar.

  7. Influence of feeding graded levels of canned sardines on the inflammatory markers and tissue fatty acid composition of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Pedro O; Martins, Susana V; Lopes, Paula A; Ramos, Cristina; Miguéis, Samuel; Alfaia, Cristina M; Pinto, Rui M A; Rolo, Eva A; Bispo, Paulo; Batista, Irineu; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Prates, José A M

    2014-08-14

    Canned sardines are a ready-to-use fish product with excellent nutritional properties owing to its high n-3 long-chain PUFA content, mainly EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3). The present study aimed to assess the effect of two dosages of canned sardines, recommended for the primary and secondary prevention of human CVD, on the inflammatory marker concentrations and fatty acid composition of erythrocytes and key metabolic tissues (liver, muscle, adipose tissue and brain) in the rat model. Wistar rats were fed a diet containing 11 % (w/w) of canned sardines (low-sardine (LS) diet) and a diet containing 22 % (w/w) of canned sardines (high-sardine (HS) diet) for 10 weeks. Daily food intake, weight gain, and organ and final body weights were not affected by the dietary treatments. The concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol decreased in both the LS and HS groups, while those of alanine aminotransferase and adiponectin increased. The concentrations of IL-1β increased only with the highest dosage of sardine. The dose-dependent influence of the graded levels of EPA+DHA was tissue specific. Compared with that of other tissues and erythrocytes, the fatty acid composition of the brain was less affected by the canned sardine-supplemented diets. In contrast, the retroperitoneal adipose tissue was highly responsive. The deposition ratios of EPA and DHA indicated that the LS diet was optimal for DHA deposition across the tissues, except in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue. Taken together, our findings indicate that a LS diet positively affects plasma lipid profiles and inflammatory mediators, whereas a HS diet has contradictory effects on IL-1β, which, in turn, is not associated with variations in the concentrations of other pro-inflammatory cytokines. This finding requires further investigation and pathophysiological understanding.

  8. Origin of particulate organic carbon in the marine atmosphere as indicated by it stable carbon isotopic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesselet, R.; Fontugne, M.; Buat-Menard, P.; Ezat, U.; Lambert, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Organic carbon concentration and isotopic composition were determined in samples of atmospheric particulate matter collected in 1979 at remote marine locations (Enewetak atoll, Sargasso Sea) during the SEAREX (Sea-Air Exchange) program field experiments. Atmospheric Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) concentrations were found to be in the range of 0.3 to 1.2 mg. m -3 , in agreement with previous literature data. The major mass of POC was found on the smallest particles (r 13 C/ 12 C of the small particles is close to the one expected (d 13 C = 26 +- 2 0 //sub infinity/) for atmospheric POC of continental origin. For all the samples analysed so far, it appears that more than 80% of atmospheric POC over remote marine areas is of continental origin. This can be explained either by long-range transport of small sized continental organic aserosols or by the production of POC in the marine atmosphere from a vapor phase organic carbon pool of continental origin. The POC in the large size fraction of marine aerosols ( 13 C = -21 +- 2 0 / 00 ) for POC associated with sea-salt droplets transported to the marine atmosphere

  9. Chemical Composition and Amounts of Mineral Elements in Honeybee-Collected Pollen in Relation to Botanical Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha El-Kazafy Abdou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at the apiary of the Agricultural and Veterinary Training and Research Station, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. The purpose was to study the relationship between the botanical origin and chemical composition of bee-collected pollen. The amount of mineral elements present in bee-collected pollen was also studied. The composition of pollen loads showed the maximum contents of dry matter, ash, glucose, fructose, magnesium (Mg, phosphorus (P, and manganese (Mn for the date palm; the maximum contents of protein, calcium (Ca, and zinc (Zn for alfalfa; the maximum contents of fiber, and copper (Cu for the sunflower; the maximum contents of the lipids and iron (Fe for summer squash; and the maximum contents of sodium (Na, and potassium (K for rape. Calcium was found to be correlated in a significantly (p<0.01 positive way with K, Na, Mg, P, Mn, and Zn. Copper, though, was correlated in a significantly (p<0.01 negative way with Ca, Mg, P, Mn, and Zn. The high levels of protein, ash, glucose, and fructose, and low lipid content found in bee-pollen from the date palm and from alfalfa, mean that pollen from the date palm and from alfalfa make an excellent food supplement. It was concluded, that the chemical composition of beecollected pollen can be correlated with the plant species from which pollen was collected.

  10. Phenolic Contents and Compositions in Skins of Red Wine Grape Cultivars among Various Genetic Backgrounds and Originations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze and compare the phenolic characteristics of red wine grapes with diverse genetic backgrounds, skin phenolics among 21 different cultivars belonging to Vitis vinifera L., East Asian and North American Vitis species and hybrids, as well as 2 varieties of muscadine grapes were estimated by HPLC-MS/MS. There were 45 anthocyanins, 28 flavonols, 8 flavan-3-ols, 9 cinnamic acids, 5 benzoic acids, 5 ellagic acids and 2 stilbenes detected in all the samples. Total contents of each phenolic type varied significantly among the different grape cultivars investigated. There was also a large variability in the phenolic compositions of different grape groups. The differences in anthocyanin composition were obvious between V. vinifera and non-V. vinifera grapes and also between the grapes originating from Eurasia and North America. Quercetin-3-glucuronide and quercetin-3-glucoside were marker flavonol compounds for Euvitis grape skins. Flavan-3-ol monomers were dominant in the skins of muscadine and non-V. amurensis East Asian grapes, whereas polymers were more common in V. vinifera and North American grapes. The muscadine grapes were very rich in flavonols, flavan-3-ols and ellagic acids. Via principal component analysis, these grape cultivars were clustered into three groups according to their characteristic phenolic content and composition.

  11. Origin, composition and quality of suspended particulate organic matter in relation to freshwater inflow in a South Texas estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, Benoit; Beseres Pollack, Jennifer; Blomberg, Brittany; Palmer, Terence A.; Adams, Leslie; Guillou, Gaël; Montagna, Paul A.

    2016-03-01

    South Texas has a semi-arid climate with a large interannual variability of freshwater inflows. This study sought to define how changes in freshwater inflow affect the composition, quantity and quality of suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) in a South Texas estuary: the Mission-Aransas estuary. The study was implemented 1.5 months after a large rain event in September 2010 and continued for 10 months of drought conditions. The composition of SPOM originating from rivers, the Gulf of Mexico and the estuary were determined using stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N and δ34S). The quantity and quality of SPOM were assessed using organic carbon content, chlorophyll a concentrations and C/chl a ratios. Our results demonstrated that autochthonous phytoplankton was the dominant component of SPOM in the Mission-Aransas estuary during droughts. Benthic organic matter from local primary producers (i.e., seagrass, salt marsh plants, benthic microalgae) did not influence SPOM composition, either as fresh material or as detritus. A comparison with a positive estuary (i.e., Sabine-Neches estuary, TX) indicates that decreases in freshwater inflow may lead to decreases of terrestrial organic matter inputs and to increase the ratio of autochtonous phytoplanktonic material in SPOM.

  12. The extracellular matrix: Structure, composition, age-related differences, tools for analysis and applications for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kular, Jaspreet K; Basu, Shouvik; Sharma, Ram I

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular matrix is a structural support network made up of diverse proteins, sugars and other components. It influences a wide number of cellular processes including migration, wound healing and differentiation, all of which is of particular interest to researchers in the field of tissue engineering. Understanding the composition and structure of the extracellular matrix will aid in exploring the ways the extracellular matrix can be utilised in tissue engineering applications especially as a scaffold. This review summarises the current knowledge of the composition, structure and functions of the extracellular matrix and introduces the effect of ageing on extracellular matrix remodelling and its contribution to cellular functions. Additionally, the current analytical technologies to study the extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix-related cellular processes are also reviewed.

  13. Photoactivated Composite Biomaterial for Soft Tissue Restoration in Rodents and in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Hillel, Alexander T.; Unterman, Shimon; Nahas, Zayna; Reid, Branden; Coburn, Jeannine M.; Axelman, Joyce; Chae, Jemin J.; Guo, Qiongyu; Trow, Robert; Thomas, Andrew; Hou, Zhipeng; Lichtsteiner, Serge; Sutton, Damon; Matheson, Christine; Walker, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Soft tissue reconstruction often requires multiple surgical procedures that can result in scars and disfiguration. Facial soft tissue reconstruction represents a clinical challenge because even subtle deformities can severely affect an individual’s social and psychological function. We therefore developed a biosynthetic soft tissue replacement composed of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and hyaluronic acid (HA) that can be injected and photocrosslinked in situ with transdermal ligh...

  14. Phylogenomics Controlling for Base Compositional Bias Reveals a Single Origin of Eusociality in Corbiculate Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romiguier, Jonathan; Cameron, Sydney A; Woodard, S Hollis; Fischman, Brielle J; Keller, Laurent; Praz, Christophe J

    2016-03-01

    As increasingly large molecular data sets are collected for phylogenomics, the conflicting phylogenetic signal among gene trees poses challenges to resolve some difficult nodes of the Tree of Life. Among these nodes, the phylogenetic position of the honey bees (Apini) within the corbiculate bee group remains controversial, despite its considerable importance for understanding the emergence and maintenance of eusociality. Here, we show that this controversy stems in part from pervasive phylogenetic conflicts among GC-rich gene trees. GC-rich genes typically have a high nucleotidic heterogeneity among species, which can induce topological conflicts among gene trees. When retaining only the most GC-homogeneous genes or using a nonhomogeneous model of sequence evolution, our analyses reveal a monophyletic group of the three lineages with a eusocial lifestyle (honey bees, bumble bees, and stingless bees). These phylogenetic relationships strongly suggest a single origin of eusociality in the corbiculate bees, with no reversal to solitary living in this group. To accurately reconstruct other important evolutionary steps across the Tree of Life, we suggest removing GC-rich and GC-heterogeneous genes from large phylogenomic data sets. Interpreted as a consequence of genome-wide variations in recombination rates, this GC effect can affect all taxa featuring GC-biased gene conversion, which is common in eukaryotes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Genetic stock compositions and natal origin of green turtle (Chelonia mydas foraging at Brunei Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of genetics composition and growth stages of endangered green turtles, as well as the connectivity between nesting and foraging grounds is important for effective conservation. A total of 42 green turtles were captured at Brunei Bay with curved carapace length ranging from 43.8 to 102.0 cm, and most sampled individuals were adults and large juveniles. Twelve haplotypes were revealed in mitochondrial DNA control region sequences. Most haplotypes contained identical sequences to haplotypes previously found in rookeries in the Western Pacific, Southeast Asia, and the Indian Ocean. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity indices of the Brunei Bay were 0.8444±0.0390 and 0.009350±0.004964, respectively. Mixed-stock analysis (for both uninformative and informative prior weighting by population size estimated the main contribution from the Southeast Asian rookeries of the Sulu Sea (mean ≥45.31%, Peninsular Malaysia (mean ≥17.42%, and Sarawak (mean ≥12.46%. Particularly, contribution from the Sulu Sea rookery was estimated to be the highest and lower confidence intervals were more than zero (≥24.36%. When estimating contributions by region rather than individual rookeries, results showed that Brunei Bay was sourced mainly from the Southeast Asian rookeries. The results suggest an ontogenetic shift in foraging grounds and provide conservation implications for Southeast Asian green turtles.

  16. THE STRUCTURE, ORIGIN, ISOLATION, AND COMPOSITION OF THE TUBULAR MASTIGONEMES OF THE OCHROMONAS FLAGELLUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, G. Benjamin

    1971-01-01

    The structure, assembly, and composition of the extracellular hairs (mastigonemes) of Ochromonas are detailed in this report. These mastigonemes form two lateral unbalanced rows, each row on opposite sides of the long anterior flagellum. Each mastigoneme consists of lateral filaments of two distinct sizes attached to a tubular shaft. The shaft is further differentiated into a basal region at one end and a group of from one to three terminal filaments at the free end. Mastigoneme ontogeny as revealed especially in deflagellated and regenerating cells appears to begin by assembly of the basal region and shaft within the perinuclear continuum. However, addition of lateral filaments to the shaft and extrusion of the mastigonemes to the cell surface is mediated by the Golgi complex. The ultimate distribution of mastigonemes on the flagellar surface seems to be the result of extrusion of mastigonemes near the base of the flagellum, and it is suggested that mastigonemes are then pulled up the flagellum as the axoneme elongates. Efforts to characterize mastigonemes biochemically after isolation and purification on cesium chloride (CsCl) followed by electrophoresis on acrylamide gels have demonstrated what appear to be a single major polypeptide and several differentially migrating carbohydrates. The polypeptide is not homologous with microtuble protein. The functionally anomalous role of mastigonemes in reversing flagellar thrust is discussed in relation to their distribution relative to flagellar anatomy and to the plane of flagellar undulations. PMID:5123323

  17. A fish protein hydrolysate alters fatty acid composition in liver and adipose tissue and increases plasma carnitine levels in a mouse model of chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørndal, Bodil; Berge, Christ; Ramsvik, Marie Sannes; Svardal, Asbjørn; Bohov, Pavol; Skorve, Jon; Berge, Rolf K

    2013-10-07

    There is growing evidence that fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) diets affect mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism in animals. The aim of the study was to determine if FPH could influence fatty acid metabolism and inflammation in transgene mice expressing human tumor necrosis factor alpha (hTNFα). hTNFα mice (C57BL/6 hTNFα) were given a high-fat (23%, w/w) diet containing 20% casein (control group) or 15% FPH and 5% casein (FPH group) for two weeks. After an overnight fast, blood, adipose tissue, and liver samples were collected. Gene expression and enzyme activity was analysed in liver, fatty acid composition was analyzed in liver and ovarian white adipose tissue, and inflammatory parameters, carnitine, and acylcarnitines were analyzed in plasma. The n-3/n-6 fatty acid ratio was higher in mice fed the FPH diet than in mice fed the control diet in both adipose tissue and liver, and the FPH diet affected the gene expression of ∆6 and ∆9 desaturases. Mice fed this diet also demonstrated lower hepatic activity of fatty acid synthase. Concomitantly, a lower plasma INF-γ level was observed. Plasma carnitine and the carnitine precursor γ-butyrobetaine was higher in the FPH-group compared to control, as was plasma short-chained and medium-chained acylcarnitine esters. The higher level of plasma acetylcarnitine may reflect a stimulated mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation of fatty acids, as the hepatic activities of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase 1 and mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase-II were higher in the FPH-fed mice. The FPH diet was shown to influence hepatic fatty acid metabolism and fatty acid composition. This indicates that effects on fatty acid metabolism are important for the bioactivity of protein hydrolysates of marine origin.

  18. 3D bio-etching of a complex composite-like embryonic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazar, Melis; Kim, Yong Tae; Song, Jiho; LeDuc, Philip R; Davidson, Lance A; Messner, William C

    2015-08-21

    Morphogenesis involves a complex series of cell signaling, migration and differentiation events that are coordinated as tissues self-assemble during embryonic development. Collective cell movements such as those that occur during morphogenesis have typically been studied in 2D with single layers of cultured cells adhering to rigid substrates such as glass or plastic. In vivo, the intricacies of the 3D microenvironment and complex 3D responses are pivotal in the formation of functional tissues. To study such processes as collective cell movements within 3D multilayered tissues, we developed a microfluidic technique capable of producing complex 3D laminar multicellular structures. We call this technique "3D tissue-etching" because it is analogous to techniques used in the microelectromechanics (MEMS) field where complex 3D structures are built by successively removing material from a monolithic solid through subtractive manufacturing. We use a custom-designed microfluidic control system to deliver a range of tissue etching reagents (detergents, chelators, proteases, etc.) to specific regions of multilayered tissues. These tissues were previously isolated by microsurgical excision from embryos of the African claw-toed frog, Xenopus laevis. The ability to shape the 3D form of multicellular tissues and to control 3D stimulation will have a high impact on tissue engineering and regeneration applications in bioengineering and medicine as well as provide significant improvements in the synthesis of highly complex 3D integrated multicellular biosystems.

  19. Development of Novel Biodegradable Amino Acid Ester Based Polyphosphazene-Hydroxyapatite Composites for Bone Tissue Engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Nair, Lakshmi S; Singh, Anurima; Bender, Jared D; Greish, Yaser E; Brown, Paul W; Allcock, H. R; Laurencin, Cato T

    2005-01-01

    .... CPCs are attractive candidates for the development of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering, since they are moldable, resorbable, set at physiological temperature without the use of toxic chemicals...

  20. A Practical Standardized Composite Nutrition Score Based on Lean Tissue Index: Application in Nutrition Screening and Prediction of Outcome in Hemodialysis Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huan-Sheng; Cheng, Chun-Ting; Hou, Chun-Cheng; Liou, Hung-Hsiang; Chang, Cheng-Tsung; Lin, Chun-Ju; Wu, Tsai-Kun; Chen, Chang-Hsu; Lim, Paik-Seong

    2017-07-01

    Rapid screening and monitoring of nutritional status is mandatory in hemodialysis population because of the increasingly encountered nutritional problems. Considering the limitations of previous composite nutrition scores applied in this population, we tried to develop a standardized composite nutrition score (SCNS) using low lean tissue index as a marker of protein wasting to facilitate clinical screening and monitoring and to predict outcome. This retrospective cohort used 2 databases of dialysis populations from Taiwan between 2011 and 2014. First database consisting of data from 629 maintenance hemodialysis patients was used to develop the SCNS and the second database containing data from 297 maintenance hemodialysis patients was used to validate this developed score. SCNS containing albumin, creatinine, potassium, and body mass index was developed from the first database using low lean tissue index as a marker of protein wasting. When applying this score in the original database, significantly higher risk of developing protein wasting was found for patients with lower SCNS (odds ratio 1.38 [middle tertile vs highest tertile, P < .0001] and 2.40 [lowest tertile vs middle tertile, P < .0001]). The risk of death was also shown to be higher for patients with lower SCNS (hazard ratio 4.45 [below median level vs above median level, P < .0001]). These results were validated in the second database. We developed an SCNS consisting of 4 easily available biochemical parameters. This kind of scoring system can be easily applied in different dialysis facilities for screening and monitoring of protein wasting. The wide application of body composition monitor in dialysis population will also facilitate the development of specific nutrition scoring model for individual facility. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fabrication of Chitin/Poly(butylene succinate/Chondroitin Sulfate Nanoparticles Ternary Composite Hydrogel Scaffold for Skin Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Deepthi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Skin loss is one of the oldest and still not totally resolved problems in the medical field. Since spontaneous healing of the dermal defects would not occur, the regeneration of full thickness of skin requires skin substitutes. Tissue engineering constructs would provide a three dimensional matrix for the reconstruction of skin tissue and the repair of damage. The aim of the present work is to develop a chitin based scaffold, by blending it with poly(butylene succinate (PBS, an aliphatic, biodegradable and biocompatible synthetic polymer with excellent mechanical properties. The presence of chondroitin sulfate nanoparticles (CSnp in the scaffold would favor cell adhesion. A chitin/PBS/CSnp composite hydrogel scaffold was developed and characterized by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope, FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and swelling ratio of scaffolds were analyzed. The scaffolds were evaluated for the suitability for skin tissue engineering application by cytotoxicity, cell attachment, and cell proliferation studies using human dermal fibroblasts (HDF. The cytotoxicity and cell proliferation studies using HDF confirm the suitability of the scaffold for skin regeneration. In short, these results show promising applicability of the developed chitin/PBS/CSnps ternary composite hydrogel scaffolds for skin tissue regeneration.

  2. Composite hydrogel of chitosan-poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate) with chondroitin sulfate nanoparticles for nucleus pulposus tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Manitha B; Baranwal, Gaurav; Vijayan, Prajuna; Keyan, Kripa S; Jayakumar, R

    2015-12-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration, occurring mainly in nucleus pulposus (NP), is a leading cause of low back pain. In seeking to mitigate this condition, investigators in the field of NP tissue engineering have increasingly studied the use of hydrogels. However, these hydrogels should possess appropriate mechanical strength and swelling pressure, and concurrently support the proliferation of chondrocyte-like cells. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a composite hydrogel for NP tissue engineering, made of chitosan-poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate) (CP) with chondroitin sulfate (CS) nanoparticles, without using a cross linker. The water uptake ability, as well as the viscoelastic properties of this composite hydrogel, was similar to native tissue, as reflected in the complex shear modulus and stress relaxation values. The hydrogel could withstand varying stress corresponding to daily activities like lying down (0.01 MPa), sitting (0.5 MPa) and standing (1.0 MPa) under dynamic conditions. The hydrogels were stable in PBS for 2 weeks and its stiffness, elastic and viscous modulus did not alter significantly during this period. Both CP and CP-CS hydrogels could assist the viability and adhesion of adipose derived rat mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs). The viability and chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs was significantly enhanced in presence of CS nanoparticles. Thus, CS nanoparticles-incorporated chitosan-PHBV hydrogels offer great potential for NP tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mineral composition and heavy metal contamination of sediments originating from radium rich formation water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzowski, Zbigniew; Michalik, Bogusław

    2015-03-01

    Radium rich formation water is often associated with fossil fuels as crude oil, natural gas and hard coal. As a result of fossil fuels exploitation high amount of such water is released into environment. In spite of the high radium content such waters create a serious radiation risk neither to humans nor biota directly. First and foremost due to very high mineralization they are not drinkable at all. But after discharge chemical and physical conditions are substantially changed and sediments which additionally concentrated radium are arising. Due to features of technological processes such phenomenon is very intensive in underground coal mining where huge volume of such water must be pumped into surface in order to keep underground galleries dry. Slightly different situation occurs in oil rigs, but finally also huge volume of so called process water is pumped into environment. Regardless their origin arising sediments often contain activity concentration of radium isotopes exceeding the clearance levels set for naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) (Council Directive, 2013). The analysis of metals and minerals content showed that besides radioactivity such sediments contain high amount of metals geochemically similar to radium as barium, strontium and lead. Correlation analysis proved that main mechanism leading to sediment creation is co-precipitation radium with these metals as a sulfate. The absorption on clay minerals is negligible even when barium is not present in significant quantities. Owing to very low solubility of sulfates radium accumulated in this way should not migrate into environment in the neighborhood of a site where such sediment were deposited. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. "mysterium Cosmographicum", for Orchestra, Narrator/actor, and Computer Music on Tape. (with Original Composition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Robert Michael

    Mysterium Cosmographicum is a musical chronicle of an astronomy treatise by the German astronomer Johannes Kepler (1571-1630). Kepler's Mysterium Cosmographicum (Tubingen, 1596), or "Secret of the Universe," was a means by which he justified the existence of the six planets discovered during his lifetime. Kepler, through flawless a priori reasoning, goes to great lengths to explain that the reason there are six and only six planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn) is because God had placed one of the five regular solids (tetrahedron, cube, octa-, dodeca-, and icosahedron) around each orbiting body. Needless to say, the publication was not very successful, nor did it gain much comment from Kepler's peers, Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) and Tycho Brahe (1546-1601). But hidden within the Mysterium Cosmographicum, almost like a new planet waiting to be discovered, is one of Kepler's three laws of planetary motion, a law that held true for planets discovered long after Kepler's lifetime. Mysterium Cosmographicum is a monologue with music in three parts for orchestra, narrator/actor, and computer music on tape. All musical data structures are generated via an interactive Pascal computer program that computes latitudinal and longitudinal coordinates for each of the nine planets as seen from a fixed point on Earth for any given time frame. These coordinates are then mapped onto selected musical parameters as determined by the composer. Whenever Kepler reads from his treatise or from a lecture or correspondence, the monologue is supported by orchestral planetary data generated from the exact place, date, and time of the treatise, lecture, or correspondence. To the best of my knowledge, Mysterium Cosmographicum is the first composition ever written that employs planetary data as a supporting chronology to action and monologue.

  5. Ischemic Stroke: What Does the Histological Composition Tell Us About the Origin of the Thrombus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporns, Peter B; Hanning, Uta; Schwindt, Wolfram; Velasco, Aglaé; Minnerup, Jens; Zoubi, Tarek; Heindel, Walter; Jeibmann, Astrid; Niederstadt, Thomas Ulrich

    2017-08-01

    The introduction of stent retrievers allows for a complete extraction and histological analysis of human thrombi. Ischemic stroke is a major health issue, and differentiation of underlying causes is highly relevant to prevent recurrent stroke. Therefore, histopathologic analysis of the embolic clots after removal may provide valuable information about underlying pathologies. This study analyzes histological clot composition and aims to identify specific patterns that might help to distinguish causes of ischemic stroke. Patients with occlusion of the carotid-T or middle cerebral artery who underwent thrombectomy at our university medical center between December 2013 and February 2016 were included. Samples were histologically analyzed (hematoxylin and eosin, Elastica van Gieson, and Prussian blue), additionally immunohistochemistry for CD3, CD20, and CD68/KiM1P was performed. These data, along with additional clinical and interventional parameters, were compared for different stroke subtypes, as defined by the TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) classification. One hundred eighty-seven patients were included, of these, in 77 patients, cardioembolic; in 46 patients, noncardioembolic; and in 64 patients, cryptogenic pathogenesis was determined. Cardioembolic thrombi had higher proportions of fibrin/platelets ( P =0.027), less erythrocytes ( P =0.005), and more leucocytes ( P =0.026) than noncardioembolic thrombi. We observed a strong overlap of cryptogenic strokes and cardioembolic strokes concerning thrombus histology. The immunohistochemical parameters CD3, CD20, and CD68/KiM1P showed no statistically noticeable differences between stroke subtypes. Histological thrombus features vary significantly according to the underlying cause and may help to differentiate between cardioembolic and noncardioembolic stroke. In addition, our study supports the hypothesis that most cryptogenic strokes have a cardioembolic cause. © 2017 American Heart Association

  6. PIGMENT CONTENT AND COMPOSITION IN AUTOTROPHIC AND HETEROTROPHIC LEAF TISSUES OF AMARANTH SPECIES A. TRICOLOR L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Gins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present there is numerous evidence of the antioxidant positive role in the defensive reaction that is capable to protect not only plants, but also humans against oxidative stress. Plant pigments such as natural dyes from leaves, flowers and fruits are known to have high antioxidant activity. Amaranth species A. tricolor L. cultivar ‘Early Splendor’ is a convenient model for the comparative studying of the formation processes of differently colored pigment composition in leaf tissues that differs in the ability to photosynthesize. Leaves of amaranth cultivar ‘Valentina’ were as a standard. The aim of the experiment was a comparative studying of the pigments content: amaranthine, chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids in the cauline leaves of amaranth cultivars ‘Valentina’ and ‘Early Splendor’, as well as in the red and green areas of the leaves. Analysis of the aqueous extract of red Early Splendor amaranth apical leaves showed the presence of betacyanin pigment - amaranthine, in the absorption spectrum in which peak was seen in the green region at 540 nm. In addition to the antioxidant amaranthine there are  also antioxidants which might be phenolic glycosides, and ascorbic acid in the extract, the total content of which is almost twice as small as in the leaves of amaranth cauline of this cultivar. Yellow fraction was found in the ethanolic extract of red leaves. Its absorption spectrum had peaks in the blue region at 445 nm and 472 nm and a shoulder at 422 nm that indicated the presence of betaxanthin, betalamic acid or carotenoids. Water-soluble antioxidants - amaranthine and ascorbic acid were found in  auline leaves of studied species. Their content in the leaves of Valentina cultivar was higher than in the leaves of cultivar ‘Early Splendor’, and the maximum level of photosynthetic pigments was found in ‘Early Splendor’ leaves. The obtained results showed that the amaranth is a promising source of pigments with the

  7. In vitro evaluation of three-dimensional single-walled carbon nanotube composites for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashim; Main, Benjamin J; Taylor, Brittany L; Gupta, Manu; Whitworth, Craig A; Cady, Craig; Freeman, Joseph W; El-Amin, Saadiq F

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop three-dimensional single-walled carbon nanotube composites (SWCNT/PLAGA) using 10-mg single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) for bone regeneration and to determine the mechanical strength of the composites, and to evaluate the interaction of MC3T3-E1 cells via cell adhesion, growth, survival, proliferation, and gene expression. PLAGA (polylactic-co-glycolic acid) and SWCNT/PLAGA microspheres and composites were fabricated, characterized, and mechanical testing was performed. MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded and cell adhesion/morphology, growth/survival, proliferation, and gene expression analysis were performed to evaluate biocompatibility. Imaging studies demonstrated microspheres with uniform shape and smooth surfaces, and uniform incorporation of SWCNT into PLAGA matrix. The microspheres bonded in a random packing manner while maintaining spacing, thus resembling trabeculae of cancellous bone. Addition of SWCNT led to greater compressive modulus and ultimate compressive strength. Imaging studies revealed that MC3T3-E1 cells adhered, grew/survived, and exhibited normal, nonstressed morphology on the composites. SWCNT/PLAGA composites exhibited higher cell proliferation rate and gene expression compared with PLAGA. These results demonstrate the potential of SWCNT/PLAGA composites for musculoskeletal regeneration, for bone tissue engineering, and are promising for orthopedic applications as they possess the combined effect of increased mechanical strength, cell proliferation, and gene expression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Preparation of a biomimetic composite scaffold from gelatin/collagen and bioactive glass fibers for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharifi, Esmaeel; Azami, Mahmoud [Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad [Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pediatric Urology Research Center, Section of Tissue Engineering and Stem Cells Therapy, Department of Pediatric Urology, Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Tehran, Iran (IRI) (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moztarzadeh, Fatollah [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faridi-Majidi, Reza [Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamousi, Atefeh; Karimi, Roya [Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ai, Jafar, E-mail: jafar_ai@tums.ac.ir [Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Brain and Spinal Injury Research Center (BASIR), Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-01

    Bone tissue is a composite material made of organic and inorganic components. Bone tissue engineering requires scaffolds that mimic bone nature in chemical and mechanical properties. This study proposes a novel method for preparing composite scaffolds that uses sub-micron bioglass fibers as the organic phase and gelatin/collagen as the inorganic phase. The scaffolds were constructed by using freeze drying and electro spinning methods and their mechanical properties were enhanced by using genipin crosslinking agent. Electron microscopy micrographs showed that the structure of composite scaffolds were porous with pore diameters of approximately 70–200 μm, this was again confirmed by mercury porosimetery. These pores are suitable for osteoblast growth. The diameters of the fibers were approximately 150–450 nm. Structural analysis confirmed the formation of desirable phases of sub-micron bioglass fibers. Cellular biocompatibility tests illustrated that scaffolds containing copper ion in the bioglass structure had more cell growth and osteoblast attachment in comparison to copper-free scaffolds. - Highlights: • Fabrication of 45S5 sub-micron bioglass fiber using electrospinning method. • Production of copper doped submicron bioglass fibers on 45S5 bioglass base by electrospinning sol gel route method. • Incorporation of bioglass/Cu-bioglass sub-micron fibers into gelatin/collagen matrix to form biomimetic composite scaffold which were non-cytotoxic according to MTT assay. • Discovering that copper can decrease the glass transition temperatures and enhance osteoblast cell adhesion and viability.

  9. Preparation of a biomimetic composite scaffold from gelatin/collagen and bioactive glass fibers for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifi, Esmaeel; Azami, Mahmoud; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Moztarzadeh, Fatollah; Faridi-Majidi, Reza; Shamousi, Atefeh; Karimi, Roya; Ai, Jafar

    2016-01-01

    Bone tissue is a composite material made of organic and inorganic components. Bone tissue engineering requires scaffolds that mimic bone nature in chemical and mechanical properties. This study proposes a novel method for preparing composite scaffolds that uses sub-micron bioglass fibers as the organic phase and gelatin/collagen as the inorganic phase. The scaffolds were constructed by using freeze drying and electro spinning methods and their mechanical properties were enhanced by using genipin crosslinking agent. Electron microscopy micrographs showed that the structure of composite scaffolds were porous with pore diameters of approximately 70–200 μm, this was again confirmed by mercury porosimetery. These pores are suitable for osteoblast growth. The diameters of the fibers were approximately 150–450 nm. Structural analysis confirmed the formation of desirable phases of sub-micron bioglass fibers. Cellular biocompatibility tests illustrated that scaffolds containing copper ion in the bioglass structure had more cell growth and osteoblast attachment in comparison to copper-free scaffolds. - Highlights: • Fabrication of 45S5 sub-micron bioglass fiber using electrospinning method. • Production of copper doped submicron bioglass fibers on 45S5 bioglass base by electrospinning sol gel route method. • Incorporation of bioglass/Cu-bioglass sub-micron fibers into gelatin/collagen matrix to form biomimetic composite scaffold which were non-cytotoxic according to MTT assay. • Discovering that copper can decrease the glass transition temperatures and enhance osteoblast cell adhesion and viability.

  10. Tissue composition of the leg and meat quality of sheep fed castor bean hulls in replacement of tifton hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Antas Urbano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of replacing Tifton hay with castor bean hulls (0, 33, 66 and 100% on the leg tissue composition, chemical composition, physicochemical parameters and sensorial traits of sheep meat were studied. A total of 28 non-castrated sheep averaging seven months in age with an average initial weight of 19.5±4.3 kg were assigned to a randomized block design with four treatments and seven replicates and were slaughtered after 70 days of confinement. At slaughter, body weight and leg, muscle and bone weights decreased linearly, whereas the muscle-to-bone ratio increased linearly according to the treatments. There was a quadratic effect on yellow intensity (maximum of 8.05 with replacement of 54.5% and the percentage of cooking losses (minimum of 33.8% with replacement of 45.17%. The treatment employed did not affect either the chemical composition or sensorial traits of the lamb meat. Although replacing Tifton hay with castor bean hulls alters the tissue composition of the leg as well as some physicochemical parameters of the meat, the sensory analysis indicated good acceptability of the meat, regardless of the inclusion of this byproduct.

  11. Preparation and comparative characterization of keratin–chitosan and keratin–gelatin composite scaffolds for tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaji, S.; Kumar, Ramadhar; Sripriya, R.; Kakkar, Prachi; Ramesh, D. Vijaya; Reddy, P. Neela Kanta; Sehgal, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    We report fabrication of three dimensional scaffolds with well interconnected matrix of high porosity using keratin, chitosan and gelatin for tissue engineering and other biomedical applications. Scaffolds were fabricated using porous Keratin–Gelatin (KG), Keratin–Chitosan (KC) composites. The morphology of both KG and KC was investigated using SEM. The scaffolds showed high porosity with interconnected pores in the range of 20–100 μm. They were further tested by FTIR, DSC, CD, tensile strength measurement, water uptake and swelling behavior. In vitro cell adhesion and cell proliferation tests were carried out to study the biocompatibility behavior and their application as an artificial skin substitute. Both KG and KC composite scaffolds showed similar properties and patterns for cell proliferation. Due to rapid degradation of gelatin in KG, we found that it has limited application as compared to KC scaffold. We conclude that KC scaffold owing to its slow degradation and antibacterial properties would be a better substrate for tissue engineering and other biomedical application. Highlights: ► Extraction of reduced keratin from horn meal. ► Preparation of keratin–gelatin and keratin–chitosan composite scaffolds. ► Characterizations of the composite scaffolds. ► Comparative cytotoxicity analysis on NIH3T3 fibroblasts.

  12. Media Compositions for Three-Dimensional Mammalian Tissue Growth under Microgravity Culture Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Normal mammalian tissue and the culturing process has been developed for the three groups of organ, structural and blood tissue.The cells are grown in vitro under microgravity culture conditions and form three dimensional cells aggregates with normal cell function. The microgravity culture conditions may be microgravity or simulated microgravity created in a horizontal rotating wall culture vessel.

  13. Media Compositions for Three Dimensional Mammalian Tissue Growth Under Microgravity Culture Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Normal mammalian tissue and the culturing process has been developed for the three groups of organ, structural and blood tissue. The cells are grown in vitro under microgravity culture conditions and form three dimensional cells aggregates with normal cell function. The microgravity culture conditions may be microgravity or simulated microgravity created in a horizontal rotating wall culture vessel.

  14. A simple method to evaluate the composition of tissue-equivalent phantom materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geske, G.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of a method to calculate the composition of phantom materials with given density and radiation-physical parameters mixed of components, of which are known their chemical composition and their effective specific volumes. By an example of a simple composition with three components the method is illustrated. The results of this example and some experimental details that must be considered are discussed. (orig.) [de

  15. The southern cape conductive belt (South Africa): Its composition, origin and tectonic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beer, J. H.; Van Zijl, J. S. V.; Gough, D. I.

    1982-03-01

    is transported in the seafloor until it reaches a subduction, where it accumulates because of its low density. Examples of such accumulations are cited. Finally, it is shown that any iron in the olivine and pyroxene in the original basalt precipitates, when these silicates are hydrated to serpentine, as magnetite which is the dominant mineral conferring high electrical conductivity and high magnetic susceptibility on serpentinites. In particular the Beattie static magnetic anomaly requires, in our model calculation, a very high susceptibility readily attainable in basalt at 15-20% serpentinization. The authors know of no other rock able to provide this high susceptibility. A similar percentage of serpentinization provides the density required to model the gravity anomalies.

  16. Composition and potential origin of marine debris stranded in the Western Indian Ocean on remote Alphonse Island, Seychelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhec, Aurélie V.; Jeanne, Richard F.; Maximenko, Nikolai; Hafner, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The abundance, composition, and potential sources of marine debris were investigated on remote Alphonse Island, during the austral winter 2013. A total of 4743 items, weighing 142 kg, were removed from 1 km of windward beach, facing the prevailing southeasterly trade winds. Our study demonstrates the prevalence of plastic debris as a world-wide marine contaminant. Characteristics of the debris suggest it originated primarily from land-based sources. To determine their potential geographic sources we used the Surface Current from Diagnostic model of near-surface ocean currents, forced by satellite sea level and wind data. While preliminary evidence indicated the Southeast Asia to be the main source of the flotsam, the model highlighted Somalia as another potential primary source. Our study concludes that most of the collected debris entered the sea as a result of inadequate waste management and demonstrates how anthropogenic waste can negatively impact even the most remote environments

  17. Greener synthesis of electrospun collagen/hydroxyapatite composite fibers with an excellent microstructure for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Yao, Hongchang; Wang, Jianshe; Wang, Dalu; Liu, Qian; Li, Zhongjun

    2015-01-01

    In bone tissue engineering, collagen/hydroxyapatite (HAP) fibrous composite obtained via electrospinning method has been demonstrated to support the cells’ adhesion and bone regeneration. However, electrospinning of natural collagen often requires the use of cytotoxic organic solvents, and the HAP crystals were usually aggregated and randomly distributed within a fibrous matrix of collagen, limiting their clinical potential. Here, an effective and greener method for the preparation of collagen/HAP composite fibers was developed for the first time, and this green product not only had 40 times higher mechanical properties than that previously reported, but also had an excellent microstructure similar to that of natural bone. By dissolving type I collagen in environmentally friendly phosphate buffered saline/ethanol solution instead of the frequently-used cytotoxic organic solvents, followed with the key step of desalination, co-electrospinning the collagen solution with the HAP sol, generates a collagen/HAP composite with a uniform and continuous fibrous morphology. Interestingly, the nano-HAP needles were found to preferentially orient along the longitudinal direction of the collagen fibers, which mimicked the nanostructure of natural bones. Based on the characterization of the related products, the formation mechanism for this novel phenomenon was proposed. After cross-linking with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-aminopropyl)-1-carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide, the obtained composite exhibited a significant enhancement in mechanical properties. In addition, the biocompatibility of the obtained composite fibers was evaluated by in vitro culture of the human myeloma cells (U2-OS). Taken together, the process outlined herein provides an effective, non-toxic approach for the fabrication of collagen/HAP composite nanofibers that could be good candidates for bone tissue engineering. PMID:25995630

  18. Enhanced mechanical properties and biocompatibility of novel hydroxyapatite/TOPAS hybrid composite for bone tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ain, Qurat Ul; Khan, Ahmad Nawaz; Nabavinia, Mahboubeh; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    The bioactivity and mechanical properties of hybrid composites of hydroxyapatite (HA) in cyclic olefinic copolymer (COC) also known commercially as TOPAS are investigated, first time, for regeneration and repair of the bone tissues. HA is synthesized to obtain the spherically shaped nanoparticles in the size range of 60±20nm. Various concentrations of HA ranging from 1 to 30wt% are dispersed in TOPAS using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coupling agent for better dispersion and interaction of hydrophilic HA with hydrophobic TOPAS. Scanning electron microscope shows the uniform dispersion of HA≤10wt% in TOPAS and at higher concentrations >10wt%, agglomeration occurs in the hybrid composites. Tunable mechanical properties are achieved as the compressive modulus and strength are increased around 140% from 6.4 to 15.3MPa and 185% from 0.26 to 0.74MPa, respectively. Such increase in the mechanical properties of TOPAS is attributed to the anchoring of the polymer chains in the vicinity of HA nanoparticles owing to better dispersion and interfacial interactions. In comparison to neat TOPAS, hybrid composites of TOPAS/HA promoted the cell adhesion and proliferation significantly. The cell density and proliferation of TOPAS/HA hybrid composites is enhanced 9 and 3 folds, respectively, after 1day culturing in preosteoblasts cells. Moreover, the morphology of cells changed from spherical to flattened spread morphology demonstrating clearly the migration of the cells for the formation of interconnected cellular network. Additionally, very few dead cells are found in hybrid composites showing their cytocompatibility. Overall, the hybrid composites of TOPAS/HA exhibited superior strength and stiffness along with enhanced cytocompatibility for bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Diet authentication in sheep from the composition of animal tissues and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Prache

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There is currently an increased consumer demand for information on herbivore production factors, particularly animal diet. To meet these demands, producers and commercial entities develop specifications via quality certifications. There is therefore a need for analytical tools that may guarantee that the specification commitments have been fully met or to help with constructing them. The present paper reviews the current state of knowledge concerning diet authentication in sheep meat and milk, the different approaches that have been investigated, some leading examples concerning the discrimination of contrasting feeding situations, together with the persistence of some diet markers in the event of changes in animals' diet. The nature of the diet strongly influences the composition of the animal tissues and products, which is due to specific compounds that are directly transferred from the feed to the end product or that are transformed or produced by rumen micro-organisms or the animal's metabolism under the effect of specific diets. Some of these compounds can therefore be used as diet markers. Compounds such as carotenoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, volatile compounds and ratios of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope are potential tracers in meat and milk or animal tissues of animal feeding diets. Moreover, differences in meat and milk composition induce differences in their optical properties, and therefore in their spectral features, which can also be used for diet authentication. These techniques have already allowed discrimination among products obtained in contrasting feeding conditions. Intermediate situations, for example in case of modification of the animal's diet, may be less easily recognized and may require a combination of tracing methods. In particular, the persistence of tracers when animals are stall-fed a concentrate-based diet after pasture and its implications for traceability are discussed. Finally

  20. Controlled surface topography regulates collective 3D migration by epithelial-mesenchymal composite embryonic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiho; Shawky, Joseph H; Kim, YongTae; Hazar, Melis; LeDuc, Philip R; Sitti, Metin; Davidson, Lance A

    2015-07-01

    Cells in tissues encounter a range of physical cues as they migrate. Probing single cell and collective migratory responses to physically defined three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments and the factors that modulate those responses are critical to understanding how tissue migration is regulated during development, regeneration, and cancer. One key physical factor that regulates cell migration is topography. Most studies on surface topography and cell mechanics have been carried out with single migratory cells, yet little is known about the spreading and motility response of 3D complex multi-cellular tissues to topographical cues. Here, we examine the response to complex topographical cues of microsurgically isolated tissue explants composed of epithelial and mesenchymal cell layers from naturally 3D organized embryos of the aquatic frog Xenopus laevis. We control topography using fabricated micropost arrays (MPAs) and investigate the collective 3D migration of these multi-cellular systems in these MPAs. We find that the topography regulates both collective and individual cell migration and that dense MPAs reduce but do not eliminate tissue spreading. By modulating cell size through the cell cycle inhibitor Mitomycin C or the spacing of the MPAs we uncover how 3D topographical cues disrupt collective cell migration. We find surface topography can direct both single cell motility and tissue spreading, altering tissue-scale processes that enable efficient conversion of single cell motility into collective movement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Association between increased epicardial adipose tissue volume and coronary plaque composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kennosuke; Yamamoto, Myong Hwa; Ebara, Seitarou; Okabe, Toshitaka; Saito, Shigeo; Hoshimoto, Koichi; Yakushiji, Tadayuki; Isomura, Naoei; Araki, Hiroshi; Obara, Chiaki; Ochiai, Masahiko

    2014-09-01

    To assess the relationship between epicardial adipose tissue volume (EATV) and plaque vulnerability in significant coronary stenosis using a 40-MHz intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging system (iMap-IVUS), we analyzed 130 consecutive patients with coronary stenosis who underwent dual-source computed tomography (CT) and cardiac catheterization. Culprit lesions were imaged by iMap-IVUS before stenting. The iMAP-IVUS system classified coronary plaque components as fibrous, lipid, necrotic, or calcified tissue, based on the radiofrequency spectrum. Epicardial adipose tissue was measured as the tissue ranging from -190 to -30 Hounsfield units. EATV, calculated as the sum of the fat areas on short-axis images, was 85.0 ± 34.0 cm(3). There was a positive correlation between EATV and the percentage of necrotic plaque tissue (R (2) = 0.34, P EATV and the percentage of fibrous tissue (R (2) = 0.24, P EATV (β = 0.14, P = 0.02) were independently associated with the percentage of necrotic plaque tissue. An increase in EATV was associated with the development of coronary atherosclerosis and, potentially, with the most dangerous type of plaque.

  2. Composition, oxygen isotope geochemistry, and origin of smectite in the metalliferous sediments of the Bauer Deep, southeast Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, T G [Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (UK). Geology Dept.

    1985-01-01

    The sediments of the Bauer Deep, an open ocean basin situated on the northwest Nazca Plate in the southeast Pacific, constitute a regional metalliferous deposit dominated by authigenic smectite. Two 2-metre long cores from the Bauer Deep were examined to investigate the nature and origin of the smectite. Infra-red and Mossbauer spectroscopy, and wet chemical analysis (LiBO/sub 2/ fusion) of isolated smectite, indicate the mineral is a Mg-rich, Al-rich nontronite. Oxygen isotopic compositions for isolated smectite are uniform and translate to a non-hydrothermal temperature of formation of about 3 deg C. SEM observations show an abundance of well-preserved biogenic opal in surface and near surface sediment but postburial dissolution and transformation of this phase to smectite is evident at depth. Smectite formation is the result of interaction between iron oxyhydroxide, ponded in the Bauer Deep following a hydrothermal origin at the adjacent East Pacific Rise, and biogenic opal. A reaction mechanism is proposed. Regional factors control smectite formation. In particular, formation is inhibited in areas of CaCO/sub 3/ accumulation (topographic elevations) but favoured in areas of oxyhydroxide and opal ponding (topographic depressions.)

  3. Composition, oxygen isotope geochemistry, and origin of smectite in the metalliferous sediments of the Bauer Deep, southeast Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, T.G.

    1985-01-01

    The sediments of the Bauer Deep, an open ocean basin situated on the northwest Nazca Plate in the southeast Pacific, constitute a regional metalliferous deposit dominated by authigenic smectite. Two 2-metre long cores from the Bauer Deep were examined to investigate the nature and origin of the smectite. Infra-red and Mossbauer spectroscopy, and wet chemical analysis (LiBO 2 fusion) of isolated smectite, indicate the mineral is a Mg-rich, Al-rich nontronite. Oxygen isotopic compositions for isolated smectite are uniform and translate to a non-hydrothermal temperature of formation of about 3 deg C. SEM observations show an abundance of well-preserved biogenic opal in surface and near surface sediment but postburial dissolution and transformation of this phase to smectite is evident at depth. Smectite formation is the result of interaction between iron oxyhydroxide, ponded in the Bauer Deep following a hydrothermal origin at the adjacent East Pacific Rise, and biogenic opal. A reaction mechanism is proposed. Regional factors control smectite formation. In particular, formation is inhibited in areas of CaCO 3 accumulation (topographic elevations) but favoured in areas of oxyhydroxide and opal ponding (topographic depressions.) (author)

  4. Exploring the Effects of Geographical Origin on the Chemical Composition and Quality Grading of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambetta, Joanna M; Cozzolino, Daniel; Bastian, Susan E P; Jeffery, David W

    2017-01-31

    The relationship between berry chemical composition, region of origin and quality grade was investigated for Chardonnay grapes sourced from vineyards located in seven South Australian Geographical Indications (GI). Measurements of basic chemical parameters, amino acids, elements, and free and bound volatiles were conducted for grapes collected during 2015 and 2016. Multiple factor analysis (MFA) was used to determine the sets of data that best discriminated each GI and quality grade. Important components for the discrimination of grapes based on GI were 2-phenylethanol, benzyl alcohol and C6 compounds, as well as Cu, Zn, and Mg, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), and pH. Discriminant analysis (DA) based on MFA results correctly classified 100% of the samples into GI in 2015 and 2016. Classification according to grade was achieved based on the results for elements such as Cu, Na, Fe, volatiles including C6 and aryl alcohols, hydrolytically-released volatiles such as (Z)-linalool oxide and vitispirane, pH, TSS, alanine and proline. Correct classification through DA according to grade was 100% for both vintages. Significant correlations were observed between climate, GI, grade, and berry composition. Climate influenced the synthesis of free and bound volatiles as well as amino acids, sugars, and acids, as a result of higher temperatures and precipitation.

  5. Natural isotopic composition of nitrogen as a tracer of origin for suspended organic matter in the Scheldt estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariotti, A.; Lancelot, C.; Billen, G.

    1984-01-01

    The natural isotopic composition of suspended particulate organic nitrogen was determined in the Southern Bight of the North Sea and in the Scheldt estuary. These data show that delta 15 N constitutes a convenient tracer of the origin of the suspended matter. In the winter, in the absence of intensive primary production, the suspended organic matter of the Scheldt estuary is a mixture of two components: a continental detrital component characterized by a low delta value of 1.5per mille and a marine component with a mean delta value of 8per mille. During the phytoplankton flowering period, lasting from early May to October, intensive primary production occurs throughout the estuary giving rise to a third source of organic matter. This material is characterized by high delta values reflecting the isotopic composition of ammonia, the nitrogenous nutrient assimilated by phytoplankton in the estuary. The nitrification process occuring in the mixing area of the Scheldt estuary leads to higher downstream delta values of ammonia (> 20per mille) which permits the distinction between estuarine from fresh-water phytoplankton. Simple isotopic budget calculations show that, both in the upstream part and in the downstream part, autochthonous phytoplanktonic material contributes a major part of the total suspended matter in the Scheldt estuary during summer. (author)

  6. LITHIUM-BERYLLIUM-BORON ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS IN METEORITIC HIBONITE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ORIGIN OF 10Be AND EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM IRRADIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ming-Chang; Nittler, Larry R.; Alexander, Conel M. O'D.; Lee, Typhoon

    2010-01-01

    NanoSIMS isotopic measurements of Li, Be, and B in individual hibonite grains extracted from the Murchison meteorite revealed that 10 B excesses correlate with the 9 Be/ 11 B ratios in 26 Al-free PLAty hibonite Crystals. From these data, an initial 10 Be/ 9 Be = (5.5 ± 1.6) x 10 -4 (2σ) and 10 B/ 11 B = 0.2508 ± 0.0015 can be inferred. On the other hand, chondritic boron isotopic compositions were found in 26 Al-bearing Spinel-HIBonite spherules, most likely due to contamination with normal boron. No 7 Li excesses due to 7 Be decay were observed. When combined with previously reported data, the new data yield the best defined 10 Be/ 9 Be = (5.3 ± 1.0) x 10 -4 (2σ) and 10 B/ 11 B = 0.2513 ± 0.0012 for PLACs. A comparison of this value and the best constrained 10 Be/ 9 Be = (8.8 ± 0.6) x 10 -4 in CV Ca-Al-rich inclusions supports a heterogeneous distribution of 10 Be and its protosolar irradiation origin. We consider two possible irradiation scenarios that could potentially lead to the observed Li-Be-B isotopic compositions in PLACs. Although in situ irradiation of solids with hibonite chemistry seems to provide the simplest explanation, more high quality data will be needed for quantitatively constraining the irradiation history.

  7. Surface modification of nanofibrous polycaprolactone/gelatin composite scaffold by collagen type I grafting for skin tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Sneh; Chou, Chia-Fu; Dinda, Amit K.; Potdar, Pravin D.; Mishra, Narayan C.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a tri-polymer polycaprolactone (PCL)/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold has been fabricated by electrospinning for skin tissue engineering and wound healing applications. Firstly, PCL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold was fabricated by electrospinning using a low cost solvent mixture [chloroform/methanol for PCL and acetic acid (80% v/v) for gelatin], and then the nanofibrous PCL/gelatin scaffold was modified by collagen type I (0.2–1.5 wt.%) grafting. Morphology of the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin composite scaffold that was analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), showed that the fiber diameter was increased and pore size was decreased by increasing the concentration of collagen type I. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis indicated the surface modification of PCL/gelatin scaffold by collagen type I immobilization on the surface of the scaffold. MTT assay demonstrated the viability and high proliferation rate of L929 mouse fibroblast cells on the collagen type I-modified composite scaffold. FE-SEM analysis of cell-scaffold construct illustrated the cell adhesion of L929 mouse fibroblasts on the surface of scaffold. Characteristic cell morphology of L929 was also observed on the nanofiber mesh of the collagen type I-modified scaffold. Above results suggest that the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin scaffold was successful in maintaining characteristic shape of fibroblasts, besides good cell proliferation. Therefore, the fibroblast seeded PCL/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold might be a potential candidate for wound healing and skin tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I scaffold was fabricated for skin tissue engineering. • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I scaffold showed higher fibroblast growth than PCL/gelatin one. • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I might be one of the ideal scaffold for

  8. The Microbiome of Seriola lalandi of Wild and Aquaculture Origin Reveals Differences in Composition and Potential Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ramírez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Seriola lalandi is an economically important species that is globally distributed in temperate and subtropical marine waters. Aquaculture production of this species has had problems associated with intensive fish farming, such as disease outbreaks or nutritional deficiencies causing high mortalities. Intestinal microbiota has been involved in many processes that benefit the host, such as disease control, stimulation of the immune response, and the promotion of nutrient metabolism, among others. However, little is known about the potential functionality of the microbiota and the differences in the composition between wild and aquacultured fish. Here, we assayed the V4-region of the 16S rRNA gene using high-throughput sequencing. Our results showed that there are significant differences between S. lalandi of wild and aquaculture origin (ANOSIM and PERMANOVA, P < 0.05. At the genus level, a total of 13 genera were differentially represented between the two groups, all of which have been described as beneficial microorganisms that have an antagonistic effect against pathogenic bacteria, improve immunological parameters and growth performance, and contribute to nutrition. Additionally, the changes in the presumptive functions of the intestinal microbiota of yellowtail were examined by predicting the metagenomes using PICRUSt. The most abundant functional categories were those corresponding to the metabolism of cofactors and vitamins, amino acid metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism, revealing differences in the contribution of the microbiota depending on the origin of the animals. To our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize and compare the intestinal microbiota of S. lalandi of wild and aquaculture origin using high-throughput sequencing.

  9. The Microbiome of Seriola lalandi of Wild and Aquaculture Origin Reveals Differences in Composition and Potential Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Carolina; Romero, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Seriola lalandi is an economically important species that is globally distributed in temperate and subtropical marine waters. Aquaculture production of this species has had problems associated with intensive fish farming, such as disease outbreaks or nutritional deficiencies causing high mortalities. Intestinal microbiota has been involved in many processes that benefit the host, such as disease control, stimulation of the immune response, and the promotion of nutrient metabolism, among others. However, little is known about the potential functionality of the microbiota and the differences in the composition between wild and aquacultured fish. Here, we assayed the V4-region of the 16S rRNA gene using high-throughput sequencing. Our results showed that there are significant differences between S. lalandi of wild and aquaculture origin (ANOSIM and PERMANOVA, P < 0.05). At the genus level, a total of 13 genera were differentially represented between the two groups, all of which have been described as beneficial microorganisms that have an antagonistic effect against pathogenic bacteria, improve immunological parameters and growth performance, and contribute to nutrition. Additionally, the changes in the presumptive functions of the intestinal microbiota of yellowtail were examined by predicting the metagenomes using PICRUSt. The most abundant functional categories were those corresponding to the metabolism of cofactors and vitamins, amino acid metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism, revealing differences in the contribution of the microbiota depending on the origin of the animals. To our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize and compare the intestinal microbiota of S. lalandi of wild and aquaculture origin using high-throughput sequencing.

  10. Variations in stomach contents and biochemical composition of tissues in some marine fishes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jacob, P.G.; Rajagopal, M.D.

    Relationship between calorific values and protein, fat and carbohydrate of the stomach contents (food) and body tissues of marine fishes, Sardinella longiceps, Valenciennes, Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier), Otolithus ruber (Schneider) and Lactarius...

  11. Altered Protein Composition of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Gertow

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: These findings demonstrate that adipose tissue of CKD patients shows signs of inflammation and disturbed functionality, thus potentially contributing to the unfavorable metabolic profile and increased risk of CVD in these patients.

  12. Differential effects of diet composition and timing of feeding behavior on rat brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle peripheral clocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul de Goede

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of feeding behavior and diet composition, as well as their possible interactions, on daily (clock gene expression rhythms have mainly been studied in the liver, and to a lesser degree in white adipose tissue (WAT, but hardly in other metabolic tissues such as skeletal muscle (SM and brown adipose tissues (BAT. We therefore subjected male Wistar rats to a regular chow or free choice high-fat-high sugar (fcHFHS diet in combination with time restricted feeding (TRF to either the light or dark phase. In SM, all tested clock genes lost their rhythmic expression in the chow light fed group. In the fcHFHS light fed group rhythmic expression for some, but not all, clock genes was maintained, but shifted by several hours. In BAT the daily rhythmicity of clock genes was maintained for the light fed groups, but expression patterns were shifted as compared with ad libitum and dark fed groups, whilst the fcHFHS diet made the rhythmicity of clock genes become more pronounced. Most of the metabolic genes in BAT tissue tested did not show any rhythmic expression in either the chow or fcHFHS groups. In SM Pdk4 and Ucp3 were phase-shifted, but remained rhythmically expressed in the chow light fed groups. Rhythmic expression was lost for Ucp3 whilst on the fcHFHS diet during the light phase. In summary, both feeding at the wrong time of day and diet composition disturb the peripheral clocks in SM and BAT, but to different degrees and thereby result in a further desynchronization between metabolically active tissues such as SM, BAT, WAT and liver.

  13. A review of fibrin and fibrin composites for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Alireza; Ashrafi, Seyed Jamal; Vaez-Ghaemi, Roza; Hatamian-Zaremi, Ashraf; Webster, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    Tissue engineering has emerged as a new treatment approach for bone repair and regeneration seeking to address limitations associated with current therapies, such as autologous bone grafting. While many bone tissue engineering approaches have traditionally focused on synthetic materials (such as polymers or hydrogels), there has been a lot of excitement surrounding the use of natural materials due to their biologically inspired properties. Fibrin is a natural scaffold formed following tissue injury that initiates hemostasis and provides the initial matrix useful for cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Fibrin has captured the interest of bone tissue engineers due to its excellent biocompatibility, controllable biodegradability, and ability to deliver cells and biomolecules. Fibrin is particularly appealing because its precursors, fibrinogen, and thrombin, which can be derived from the patient's own blood, enable the fabrication of completely autologous scaffolds. In this article, we highlight the unique properties of fibrin as a scaffolding material to treat bone defects. Moreover, we emphasize its role in bone tissue engineering nanocomposites where approaches further emulate the natural nanostructured features of bone when using fibrin and other nanomaterials. We also review the preparation methods of fibrin glue and then discuss a wide range of fibrin applications in bone tissue engineering. These include the delivery of cells and/or biomolecules to a defect site, distributing cells, and/or growth factors throughout other pre-formed scaffolds and enhancing the physical as well as biological properties of other biomaterials. Thoughts on the future direction of fibrin research for bone tissue engineering are also presented. In the future, the development of fibrin precursors as recombinant proteins will solve problems associated with using multiple or single-donor fibrin glue, and the combination of nanomaterials that allow for the

  14. New Coll–HA/BT composite materials for hard tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanfir, Andrei Vlad [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, “Politehnica” University of Bucharest, 1-7 Gh. Polizu Street, RO-011061 Bucharest (Romania); Voicu, Georgeta, E-mail: getav2001@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, “Politehnica” University of Bucharest, 1-7 Gh. Polizu Street, RO-011061 Bucharest (Romania); Busuioc, Cristina; Jinga, Sorin Ion [Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, “Politehnica” University of Bucharest, 1-7 Gh. Polizu Street, RO-011061 Bucharest (Romania); Albu, Madalina Georgiana [Department of Collagen, Branch of Leather and Footwear Research, National Institute of Research and Development for Textile and Leather, 93 I. Minulescu Street, RO-031215 Bucharest (Romania); Iordache, Florin [Department of Fetal and Adult Stem Cell Therapy, “Nicolae Simionescu” Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology of Romanian Academy, 8 B.P. Hasdeu Street, RO-050568 Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-05-01

    The integration of ceramic powders in composite materials for bone scaffolds can improve the osseointegration process. This work was aimed to the synthesis and characterization of new collagen–hydroxyapatite/barium titanate (Coll–HA/BT) composite materials starting from barium titanate (BT) nanopowder, hydroxyapatite (HA) nanopowder and collagen (Coll) gel. BT nanopowder was produced by combining two wet-chemical approaches, sol–gel and hydrothermal methods. The resulting materials were characterized in terms of phase composition and microstructure by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the biocompatibility and bioactivity of the composite materials were assessed by in vitro tests. The synthesized BT particles exhibit an average size of around 35 nm and a spherical morphology, with a pseudo-cubic or tetragonal symmetry. The diffraction spectra of Coll–HA and Coll–HA/BT composite materials indicate a pronounced interaction between Col and the mineral phases, meaning a good mineralization of Col fibres. As well, the in vitro tests highlight excellent osteoinductive properties for all biological samples, especially for Coll–HA/BT composite materials, fact that can be attributed to the ferromagnetic properties of BT. - Highlights: • Collagen–hydroxyapatite/barium titanate composite materials were synthesized. • Barium titanate was produced by combining the sol–gel and hydrothermal methods. • The in vitro tests highlight excellent osteoinductive properties for all samples.

  15. New Coll–HA/BT composite materials for hard tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanfir, Andrei Vlad; Voicu, Georgeta; Busuioc, Cristina; Jinga, Sorin Ion; Albu, Madalina Georgiana; Iordache, Florin

    2016-01-01

    The integration of ceramic powders in composite materials for bone scaffolds can improve the osseointegration process. This work was aimed to the synthesis and characterization of new collagen–hydroxyapatite/barium titanate (Coll–HA/BT) composite materials starting from barium titanate (BT) nanopowder, hydroxyapatite (HA) nanopowder and collagen (Coll) gel. BT nanopowder was produced by combining two wet-chemical approaches, sol–gel and hydrothermal methods. The resulting materials were characterized in terms of phase composition and microstructure by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the biocompatibility and bioactivity of the composite materials were assessed by in vitro tests. The synthesized BT particles exhibit an average size of around 35 nm and a spherical morphology, with a pseudo-cubic or tetragonal symmetry. The diffraction spectra of Coll–HA and Coll–HA/BT composite materials indicate a pronounced interaction between Col and the mineral phases, meaning a good mineralization of Col fibres. As well, the in vitro tests highlight excellent osteoinductive properties for all biological samples, especially for Coll–HA/BT composite materials, fact that can be attributed to the ferromagnetic properties of BT. - Highlights: • Collagen–hydroxyapatite/barium titanate composite materials were synthesized. • Barium titanate was produced by combining the sol–gel and hydrothermal methods. • The in vitro tests highlight excellent osteoinductive properties for all samples.

  16. Effects of increased pCO2 and geographic origin on purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) calcite elemental composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVigne, M.; Hill, T. M.; Sanford, E.; Gaylord, B.; Russell, A. D.; Lenz, E. A.; Hosfelt, J. D.; Young, M. K.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean acidification will likely have negative impacts on invertebrates producing skeletons composed of calcium carbonate. Skeletal solubility is partly controlled by the incorporation of "foreign" ions (such as Mg and Sr) into the crystal lattice of these skeletal structures, a process that is sensitive to a variety of biological and environmental factors. Here we explore the effects of life stage, oceanographic region of origin, and changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in seawater (pCO2) on trace elemental composition in the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus). We show that, similar to other urchin taxa, adult purple sea urchins have the ability to precipitate skeleton composed of a range of biominerals spanning low to high magnesium calcites. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios were substantially lower in adult spines compared to adult tests. On the other hand, trace elemental composition was invariant among adults collected from four oceanographically distinct regions along the US west coast (Oregon, Northern California, Central California, and Southern California). Skeletons of newly settled juvenile urchins that originated from adults from the four regions exhibited intermediate Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca between adult spine and test endmembers, indicating that skeleton precipitated during early life stages is more soluble than adult spines and less soluble than adult tests. Mean skeletal Mg/Ca or Sr/Ca of juvenile skeleton did not vary with source region when larvae were reared under present-day, global-average seawater carbonate conditions (400 ppm; pH = 8.02 ± 0.03 1 SD; Ωcalcite = 3.3 ± 0.2 1 SD). However, when reared under elevated CO2 (900 ppm; pH = 7.72 ± 0.03; Ωcalcite = 1.8 ± 0.1), skeletal Sr/Ca in juveniles exhibited increased variance across the four regions. Although larvae from the northern populations (Oregon, Northern California, Central California) did not exhibit differences in Mg or Sr incorporation under elevated CO2 (Sr/Ca = 2

  17. Ultrasound Imaging Techniques for Spatiotemporal Characterization of Composition, Microstructure, and Mechanical Properties in Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Cheri X; Hong, Xiaowei; Stegemann, Jan P

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound techniques are increasingly being used to quantitatively characterize both native and engineered tissues. This review provides an overview and selected examples of the main techniques used in these applications. Grayscale imaging has been used to characterize extracellular matrix deposition, and quantitative ultrasound imaging based on the integrated backscatter coefficient has been applied to estimating cell concentrations and matrix morphology in tissue engineering. Spectral analysis has been employed to characterize the concentration and spatial distribution of mineral particles in a construct, as well as to monitor mineral deposition by cells over time. Ultrasound techniques have also been used to measure the mechanical properties of native and engineered tissues. Conventional ultrasound elasticity imaging and acoustic radiation force imaging have been applied to detect regions of altered stiffness within tissues. Sonorheometry and monitoring of steady-state excitation and recovery have been used to characterize viscoelastic properties of tissue using a single transducer to both deform and image the sample. Dual-mode ultrasound elastography uses separate ultrasound transducers to produce a more potent deformation force to microscale characterization of viscoelasticity of hydrogel constructs. These ultrasound-based techniques have high potential to impact the field of tissue engineering as they are further developed and their range of applications expands.

  18. The adipose tissue of origin influences the biological potential of human adipose stromal cells isolated from mediastinal and subcutaneous fat depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Siciliano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Indirect evidence suggests that adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs possess different physiological and biological variations related to the anatomical localization of the adipose depots. Accordingly, to investigate the influence of the tissue origin on the intrinsic properties of ASCs and to assess their response to specific stimuli, we compared the biological, functional and ultrastructural properties of two ASC pools derived from mediastinal and subcutaneous depots (thoracic compartment by means of supplements such as platelet lysate (PL and FBS. Subcutaneous ASCs exhibited higher proliferative and clonogenic abilities than mediastinal counterpart, as well as increased secreted levels of IL-6 combined with lower amount of VEGF-C. In contrast, mediastinal ASCs displayed enhanced pro-angiogenic and adipogenic differentiation properties, increased cell diameter and early autophagic processes, highlighted by electron microscopy. Our results further support the hypothesis that the origin of adipose tissue significantly defines the biological properties of ASCs, and that a homogeneric function for all ASCs cannot be assumed.

  19. Non-invasive optical estimate of tissue composition to differentiate malignant from benign breast lesions: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taroni, Paola; Paganoni, Anna Maria; Ieva, Francesca; Pifferi, Antonio; Quarto, Giovanna; Abbate, Francesca; Cassano, Enrico; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2017-01-01

    Several techniques are being investigated as a complement to screening mammography, to reduce its false-positive rate, but results are still insufficient to draw conclusions. This initial study explores time domain diffuse optical imaging as an adjunct method to classify non-invasively malignant vs benign breast lesions. We estimated differences in tissue composition (oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin, lipid, water, collagen) and absorption properties between lesion and average healthy tissue in the same breast applying a perturbative approach to optical images collected at 7 red-near infrared wavelengths (635-1060 nm) from subjects bearing breast lesions. The Discrete AdaBoost procedure, a machine-learning algorithm, was then exploited to classify lesions based on optically derived information (either tissue composition or absorption) and risk factors obtained from patient’s anamnesis (age, body mass index, familiarity, parity, use of oral contraceptives, and use of Tamoxifen). Collagen content, in particular, turned out to be the most important parameter for discrimination. Based on the initial results of this study the proposed method deserves further investigation.

  20. Bioceramic/Poly (glycolic-poly (lactic acid composite induces mineralized barrier after direct capping of rat tooth pulp tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Gala-Garcia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe the histopathological pulp response following direct pulp capping of mechanically exposed teeth in rats with a composite of beta-tricalcium phosphate-hydroxyapatite bioceramic (BC and poly (glycolic-poly (lactic acid (PLGA material or a calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH2] material, compared to BC alone and a negative control of water. Pulp of the maxillary molars was exposed, followed by capping with the experimental material. The pulpal tissue response was assessed post-operatively at 1, 7, 14 and 30 d, followed by histological analysis. The Ca(OH2 group exhibited severe acute inflammatory cell infiltration at day 14. However after 30 d, a new hard tissue with macro porous obliteration of the pulp chamber and a characteristic necrotic area had appeared. BC and Ca(OH2 capping were associated with moderate inflammation and dentinal bridge similar. Meanwhile, in the BC/PLGA composite group, there was moderate inflammatory infiltrate and formation of a dense and complete dentinal bridge. In conclusion, the BC/PLGA composite material showed a large zone of tertiary dentin, and effectively reorganized the dentin-pulp complex.

  1. In Vitro Degradation of PHBV Scaffolds and nHA/PHBV Composite Scaffolds Containing Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles for Bone Tissue Engineering

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    Naznin Sultana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the long-term in vitro degradation properties of scaffolds based on biodegradable polymers and osteoconductive bioceramic/polymer composite materials for the application of bone tissue engineering. The three-dimensional porous scaffolds were fabricated using emulsion-freezing/freeze-drying technique using poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV which is a natural biodegradable and biocompatible polymer. Nanosized hydroxyapatite (nHA particles were successfully incorporated into the PHBV scaffolds to render the scaffolds osteoconductive. The PHBV and nHA/PHBV scaffolds were systematically evaluated using various techniques in terms of mechanical strength, porosity, porous morphology, and in vitro degradation. PHBV and nHA/PHBV scaffolds degraded over time in phosphate-buffered saline at 37°C. PHBV polymer scaffolds exhibited slow molecular weight loss and weight loss in the in vitro physiological environment. Accelerated weight loss was observed in nHA incorporated PHBV composite scaffolds. An increasing trend of crystallinity was observed during the initial period of degradation time. The compressive properties decreased more than 40% after 5-month in vitro degradation. Together with interconnected pores, high porosity, suitable mechanical properties, and slow degradation profile obtained from long-term degradation studies, the PHBV scaffolds and osteoconductive nHA/PHBV composite scaffolds showed promises for bone tissue engineering application.

  2. Preparation and biological properties of a novel composite scaffold of nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengdong Xiong

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we report the physico-chemical and biological properties of a novel biodegradable composite scaffold made of nano-hydroxyapatite and natural derived polymers of chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose, namely, n-HA/CS/CMC, which was prepared by freeze-drying method. The physico-chemical properties of n-HA/CS/CMC scaffold were tested by infrared absorption spectra (IR, transmission electron microscope(TEM, scanning electron microscope(SEM, universal material testing machine and phosphate buffer solution (PBS soaking experiment. Besides, the biological properties were evaluated by MG63 cells and Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs culture experiment in vitro and a short period implantation study in vivo. The results show that the composite scaffold is mainly formed through the ionic crossing-linking of the two polyions between CS and CMC, and n-HA is incorporated into the polyelectrolyte matrix of CS-CMC without agglomeration, which endows the scaffold with good physico-chemical properties such as highly interconnected porous structure, high compressive strength and good structural stability and degradation. More important, the results of cells attached, proliferated on the scaffold indicate that the scaffold is non-toxic and has good cell biocompatibility, and the results of implantation experiment in vivo further confirm that the scaffold has good tissue biocompatibility. All the above results suggest that the novel degradable n-HA/CS/CMC composite scaffold has a great potential to be used as bone tissue engineering material.

  3. Preparation and biological properties of a novel composite scaffold of nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuyun, Jiang; Yubao, Li; Chengdong, Xiong

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we report the physico-chemical and biological properties of a novel biodegradable composite scaffold made of nano-hydroxyapatite and natural derived polymers of chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose, namely, n-HA/CS/CMC, which was prepared by freeze-drying method. The physico-chemical properties of n-HA/CS/CMC scaffold were tested by infrared absorption spectra (IR), transmission electron microscope(TEM), scanning electron microscope(SEM), universal material testing machine and phosphate buffer solution (PBS) soaking experiment. Besides, the biological properties were evaluated by MG63 cells and Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) culture experiment in vitro and a short period implantation study in vivo. The results show that the composite scaffold is mainly formed through the ionic crossing-linking of the two polyions between CS and CMC, and n-HA is incorporated into the polyelectrolyte matrix of CS-CMC without agglomeration, which endows the scaffold with good physico-chemical properties such as highly interconnected porous structure, high compressive strength and good structural stability and degradation. More important, the results of cells attached, proliferated on the scaffold indicate that the scaffold is non-toxic and has good cell biocompatibility, and the results of implantation experiment in vivo further confirm that the scaffold has good tissue biocompatibility. All the above results suggest that the novel degradable n-HA/CS/CMC composite scaffold has a great potential to be used as bone tissue engineering material. PMID:19594953

  4. Characterization of elasticity and hydration of composite hydrogel based on collagen-iota carrageenan as a corneal tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinawati, M.; Triastuti, J.; Pursetyo, K. T.

    2018-04-01

    The cornea is a refractive element of the eye that serves to continue the stimulation of light into the eye it has a clear, transparent, elastic and relatively thick tissue. Factors caused corneal blindness, are dystrophy, keratoconus, corneal scaring. Hydrogels can be made from polysaccharide derivatives that have gelation properties such as iota carrageenan. Therefore, it is a need to develop composite hydrogel based collagen-iota carragenan as an engineeried corneal tissue with high elasticity and hydration properties. Collagen hydrogel has a maximum water content an has equlibrium up to 40 %, less than the human cornea, 81 % and under normal hydration conditions, the human cornea can transmit 87 % of visible light. In addition, the refractive index on the surface of the cornea with air is 1.375-1.380. Based on this study, it is necessary to conduct research on the development and composition of hydrogel composite collagen-iota carrageen hydrogen based on. The best result was K5 (5:5) treatment, which has the equilibrium water content of 87.07 % and viscosity of 10.7346 Pa.s.

  5. TumorTracer: a method to identify the tissue of origin from the somatic mutations of a tumor specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquard, Andrea Marion; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Thomas, Cecilia Engel

    2015-01-01

    A substantial proportion of cancer cases present with a metastatic tumor and require further testing to determine the primary site; many of these are never fully diagnosed and remain cancer of unknown primary origin (CUP). It has been previously demonstrated that the somatic point mutations......-copy-number classifier on three independent data sets: 1669 newly available public tumors of various types, a cohort of 91 breast metastases, and a set of 24 specimens from 9 lung cancer patients subjected to multiregion sequencing. The cross-validation accuracy was highest when all three types of information were used...... detected in a tumor can be used to identify its site of origin with limited accuracy. We hypothesized that higher accuracy could be achieved by a classification algorithm based on the following feature sets: 1) the number of nonsynonymous point mutations in a set of 232 specific cancer-associated genes, 2...

  6. A review of fibrin and fibrin composites for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noori A

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Alireza Noori,1 Seyed Jamal Ashrafi,2 Roza Vaez-Ghaemi,3 Ashraf Hatamian-Zaremi,4 Thomas J Webster5 1Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 2School of Medicine, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran; 3Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran; 5Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Tissue engineering has emerged as a new treatment approach for bone repair and regeneration seeking to address limitations associated with current therapies, such as autologous bone grafting. While many bone tissue engineering approaches have traditionally focused on synthetic materials (such as polymers or hydrogels, there has been a lot of excitement surrounding the use of natural materials due to their biologically inspired properties. Fibrin is a natural scaffold formed following tissue injury that initiates hemostasis and provides the initial matrix useful for cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Fibrin has captured the interest of bone tissue engineers due to its excellent biocompatibility, controllable biodegradability, and ability to deliver cells and biomolecules. Fibrin is particularly appealing because its precursors, fibrinogen, and thrombin, which can be derived from the patient’s own blood, enable the fabrication of completely autologous scaffolds. In this article, we highlight the unique properties of fibrin as a scaffolding material to treat bone defects. Moreover, we emphasize its role in bone tissue engineering nanocomposites where approaches further emulate the natural nanostructured features of bone when using fibrin and other nanomaterials. We also review the

  7. The Role of a Platelet Lysate-Based Compartmentalized System as a Carrier of Cells and Platelet-Origin Cytokines for Periodontal Tissue Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo, Pedro S; Cai, Xinjie; Plachokova, Adelina S; Reis, Rui L; Jansen, John A; Gomes, Manuela E; Walboomers, X Frank

    2016-10-01

    Currently available clinical therapies are not capable to regenerate tissues that are lost by periodontitis. Tissue engineering can be applied as a strategy to regenerate reliably the tissues and function of damaged periodontium. A prerequisite for this regeneration is the colonization of the defect with the adequate cell populations. In this study, we proposed a bilayered system composed of (1) a platelet lysate (PL)-based construct produced by crosslinking of PL proteins with genipin (gPL) for the delivery of rat periodontal ligament cells (rat-PDLCs); combined with (2) an injectable composite consisting of calcium phosphate cement incorporated with PL-loaded poly(d, l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres. This system was expected to promote periodontal regeneration by the delivery of adequate progenitor cells and providing a stable system enriched with adequate cytokines and growth factors for the orchestration of tissue regrowth in periodontal defects. The bilayered system was tested in a three-wall intrabony defect in rats and the healing of periodontal tissue was assessed 6 weeks after surgery. Results showed that the bilayered system was able to promote the regrowth of functional periodontal tissues, both with (cells + gPL) and without the loading of PDLCs (gPL). Significant connective tissue attachment (45.0 ± 15.0% and 64.0 ± 15.0% for gPL and cells + gPL group, respectively) and new bone area (33.8 ± 21% and 21.3 ± 3% for gPL and cells + gPL group, respectively) were observed. Nevertheless, rat PDLCs delivered with gPL construct in the defect area were hardly visible 6 weeks after surgery and did not contribute for the regeneration of new periodontal tissue. Overall, our findings show that the bilayered system promotes the stabilization of PL proteins on the root surface and has a positive effect in the repair of periodontal tissues both in quality and in quantity.

  8. A Historical Analysis of the Quest for the Origins of Aging Macula Disorder, the Tissues Involved, and Its Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Paulus T.V.M.

    2016-01-01

    Although ocular tissues involved in aging macula disorder (AMD) were already known in 300 BC, the last type of photoreceptors was discovered only 10 years ago. The earliest descriptions of AMD appeared around 1850. It took over 150 years, till a clearer concept of AMD was formulated and even longer to grasp its pathophysiology. The uncertainty of researchers about the pathogenesis of AMD over the last century is reflected in its changing terminology. The evolution of this terminology is provided in a table to afford the reader a better insight into explanations proposed by researchers during this quest. PMID:27812291

  9. Origins of the sympathetic innervation to the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT): an anatomical substrate for a neuroimmune connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marafetti, Lucas E; Romeo, Horacio E

    2014-11-15

    The participation of sympathetic nerve fibers in the innervation of the nasal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT) was investigated in hamsters. Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), an established sympathetic marker, is expressed in all neurons of superior cervical ganglia (SCG). In addition, VMAT2 -immunoreactive nerve fibers were localized in the NALT as well as in adjacent anatomical structures of the upper respiratory tract. Unilateral surgical ablation of the SCG abolished VMAT2 innervation patterns ipsilaterally while the contra lateral side is unaffected. These results provide the anatomical substrate for a neuroimmune connection in the NALT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Composite Match Index with Application of Interior Deformation Field Measurement from Magnetic Resonance Volumetric Images of Human Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penglin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas a variety of different feature-point matching approaches have been reported in computer vision, few feature-point matching approaches employed in images from nonrigid, nonuniform human tissues have been reported. The present work is concerned with interior deformation field measurement of complex human tissues from three-dimensional magnetic resonance (MR volumetric images. To improve the reliability of matching results, this paper proposes composite match index (CMI as the foundation of multimethod fusion methods to increase the reliability of these various methods. Thereinto, we discuss the definition, components, and weight determination of CMI. To test the validity of the proposed approach, it is applied to actual MR volumetric images obtained from a volunteer’s calf. The main result is consistent with the actual condition.

  11. In vitro cytocompatibility evaluation of chitosan/graphene oxide 3D scaffold composites designed for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinescu, Sorina; Ionita, Mariana; Pandele, Andreea Madalina; Galateanu, Bianca; Iovu, Horia; Ardelean, Aurel; Costache, Marieta; Hermenean, Anca

    2014-01-01

    Extensively studied nowadays, graphene oxide (GO) has a benefic effect on cell proliferation and differentiation, thus holding promise for bone tissue engineering (BTE) approaches. The aim of this study was not only to design a chitosan 3D scaffold improved with GO for optimal BTE, but also to analyze its physicochemical properties and to evaluate its cytocompatibility and ability to support cell metabolic activity and proliferation. Overall results show that the addition of GO in the scaffold's composition improved mechanical properties and pore formation and enhanced the bioactivity of the scaffold material for tissue engineering. The new developed CHT/GO 3 wt% scaffold could be a potential candidate for further in vitro and in vivo osteogenesis studies and BTE approaches.

  12. Lung adenocarcinoma originates from retrovirus infection of proliferating type 2 pneumocytes during pulmonary post-natal development or tissue repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Claudio; Caporale, Marco; Ceesay, Ousman; Di Francesco, Gabriella; Ferri, Nicola; Varasano, Vincenzo; de las Heras, Marcelo; Palmarini, Massimo

    2011-03-01

    Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is a unique oncogenic virus with distinctive biological properties. JSRV is the only virus causing a naturally occurring lung cancer (ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma, OPA) and possessing a major structural protein that functions as a dominant oncoprotein. Lung cancer is the major cause of death among cancer patients. OPA can be an extremely useful animal model in order to identify the cells originating lung adenocarcinoma and to study the early events of pulmonary carcinogenesis. In this study, we demonstrated that lung adenocarcinoma in sheep originates from infection and transformation of proliferating type 2 pneumocytes (termed here lung alveolar proliferating cells, LAPCs). We excluded that OPA originates from a bronchioalveolar stem cell, or from mature post-mitotic type 2 pneumocytes or from either proliferating or non-proliferating Clara cells. We show that young animals possess abundant LAPCs and are highly susceptible to JSRV infection and transformation. On the contrary, healthy adult sheep, which are normally resistant to experimental OPA induction, exhibit a relatively low number of LAPCs and are resistant to JSRV infection of the respiratory epithelium. Importantly, induction of lung injury increased dramatically the number of LAPCs in adult sheep and rendered these animals fully susceptible to JSRV infection and transformation. Furthermore, we show that JSRV preferentially infects actively dividing cell in vitro. Overall, our study provides unique insights into pulmonary biology and carcinogenesis and suggests that JSRV and its host have reached an evolutionary equilibrium in which productive infection (and transformation) can occur only in cells that are scarce for most of the lifespan of the sheep. Our data also indicate that, at least in this model, inflammation can predispose to retroviral infection and cancer.

  13. Microtomography evaluation of dental tissue wear surface induced by in vitro simulated chewing cycles on human and composite teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Bedini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study a 3D microtomography display of tooth surfaces after in vitro dental wear tests has been obtained. Natural teeth have been compared with prosthetic teeth, manufactured by three different polyceramic composite materials. The prosthetic dental element samples, similar to molars, have been placed in opposition to human teeth extracted by paradontology diseases. After microtomography analysis, samples have been subjected to in vitro fatigue test cycles by servo-hydraulic mechanical testing machine. After the fatigue test, each sample has been subjected again to microtomography analysis to obtain volumetric value changes and dental wear surface images. Wear surface images were obtained by 3D reconstruction software and volumetric value changes were measured by CT analyser software. The aim of this work has been to show the potential of microtomography technique to display very clear and reliable wear surface images. Microtomography analysis methods to evaluate volumetric value changes have been used to quantify dental tissue and composite material wear.

  14. Origin of energetic ions in the polar cusp inferred from ion composition measurements by the Viking satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kremser

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The magnetospheric ion composition spectrometer MICS on the Swedish Viking satellite provided measurements of the ion composition in the energy range 10.1 keV/e\\leqE/Q\\leq326.0 keV/e. Data obtained during orbit 842 were used to investigate the ion distribution in the northern polar cusp and its vicinity. The satellite traversed the outer ring current, boundary region, cusp proper and plasma mantle during its poleward movement. H+ and He++ ions were encountered in all of these regions. He+ ions were present only in the ring current. The number of O+ and O++ ions was very small. Heavy high-charge state ions typical for the solar wind were observed for the first time, most of them in the poleward part of the boundary region and in the cusp proper. The H+ ions exhibited two periods with high intensities. One of them, called the BR/CP event, appeared at energies up to 50 keV. It started at the equatorward limit of the boundary region and continued into the cusp proper. Energy spectra indicate a ring current origin for the BR/CP event. Pitch angle distributions show downward streaming of H+ ions at its equatorward limit and upward streaming on the poleward side. This event is interpreted as the result of pitch angle scattering of ring current ions by fluctuations in the magnetopause current layer in combination with poleward convection. The other of the two periods with high H+ ion intensities, called the accelerated ion event, was superimposed on the BR/CP event. It was restricted to energies \\leq15 keV and occurred in the poleward part of the boundary region. This event is regarded as the high-energy tail of magnetosheath ions that were accelerated while penetrating into the magnetosphere. The cusp region thus contains ions of magnetospheric as well as of magnetosheath origin. The appearance of the ions depends, in addition to the ion source, on the magnetic field configuration and dynamic processes inside and close to the cusp.

  15. Origin of energetic ions in the polar cusp inferred from ion composition measurements by the Viking satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kremser

    Full Text Available The magnetospheric ion composition spectrometer MICS on the Swedish Viking satellite provided measurements of the ion composition in the energy range 10.1 keV/eleqE/Qleq326.0 keV/e. Data obtained during orbit 842 were used to investigate the ion distribution in the northern polar cusp and its vicinity. The satellite traversed the outer ring current, boundary region, cusp proper and plasma mantle during its poleward movement. H+ and He++ ions were encountered in all of these regions. He+ ions were present only in the ring current. The number of O+ and O++ ions was very small. Heavy high-charge state ions typical for the solar wind were observed for the first time, most of them in the poleward part of the boundary region and in the cusp proper. The H+ ions exhibited two periods with high intensities. One of them, called the BR/CP event, appeared at energies up to 50 keV. It started at the equatorward limit of the boundary region and continued into the cusp proper. Energy spectra indicate a ring current origin for the BR/CP event. Pitch angle distributions show downward streaming of H+ ions at its equatorward limit and upward streaming on the poleward side. This event is interpreted as the result of pitch angle scattering of ring current ions by fluctuations in the magnetopause current layer in combination with poleward convection. The other of the two periods with high H+ ion intensities, called the accelerated ion event, was superimposed on the BR/CP event. It was restricted to energies leq15 keV and occurred in the poleward part of the boundary region. This event is regarded as the high-energy tail of magnetosheath ions that were accelerated while penetrating into the magnetosphere. The cusp region thus contains ions of magnetospheric as well as of magnetosheath origin. The appearance of the ions depends, in addition to the ion source, on the

  16. The Origin and Time Dependence of the Amount and Composition of Non-Constituent Gases Present in Crystal Growth Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosz, Witold

    1998-01-01

    Presence of different, non-constituent gases may be a critical factor in crystal growth systems. In Physical Vapor Transport processes the cras(es) can be used intentionally (to prevent excessively high, unstable growth conditions), or can evolve unintentionally during the course of the process (which may lead to undesired reduction in the -rowth rate). In melt growth, particularly under low gravity conditions (reduced hydrostatic pressure) the gas present in the system may contribute to formation of voids in the growing crystals and even to a separation of the crystal and the liquid phase [1]. On the other hand, some amount of gas may facilitate 'contactless' crystal growth particularly under reduced gravity conditions [2 - 6]. Different non-constituent gases may be present in growth ampoules, and their amount and composition may change during the crystallization process. Some gases can appear even in empty ampoules sealed originally under high vacuum: they may diffuse in from the outside, and/or desorb from the ampoule walls. Residual gases can also be generated by the source materials: even very high purity commercial elements and compounds may contain trace amounts of impurities, particularly oxides. The oxides may have low volatilities themselves but their reaction with other species, particularly carbon and hydrogen, may produce volatile compounds like water or carbon oxides. The non-constituent gases, either added initially to the system or evolved during the material processing, may diffuse out of the ampoule during the course of the experiment. Gases present outside (e.g. as a protective atmosphere or thermal conductor) may diffuse into the ampoule. In either case the growth conditions and the quality of the crystals may be affected. The problem is of a particular importance in sealed systems where the amount of the gases cannot be directly controlled. Therefore a reasonable knowledge and understanding of the origin, composition, magnitude, and change with

  17. Determination of sulfur isotopic composition for the study of iron sulfides origin, biotic or abiotic, in anoxic corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grousset, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The first goal of this project was to develop a methodology based on the study of the sulfur isotopic composition enabling the determination of iron sulfides origin, biotic or abiotic, within the corrosion products layers (CPL). Then, the aim was to apply this methodology to real corrosion systems in order to determine the mechanisms of iron sulfides formation. Sulfur isotopic analyses methodologies, adapted to micrometric iron sulfides layers observed in real corrosion systems, were developed in nanoSIMS and ToF-SIMS. The study of iron sulfides formed in anoxic carbonated medium with or without sulphate-reducing bacteria validated the use of these methods for the determination of iron sulfides origin. The application of these methods coupled with the precise characterization of irons sulfides formed in the real corrosion systems show two kind of corrosion pattern. In pattern 1, the iron sulfides are localized in the external part of the CPL. They result from the Fe 2+ migration from the metal surface to areas rich in biotic S 2- . In this pattern, corrosion rates are lower than 20 μm/year for laboratory systems, and lower than 5 μm/year for archaeological objects. In pattern 2, the large presence of conductive phases in the CPL results in the delocalization of electrons, and so a disequilibrium of the charges at the metal's surface. That leads to the migration of biotic S 2- in the CPL till the metal where they precipitate in iron sulphides. This pattern shows high corrosion rates (∼100 μm/an) that might be resulting from the accumulation of bio-corrosion and chloride corrosion mechanisms. (author) [fr

  18. Associations of physical activity and inactivity with body tissue composition among healthy Polish women and women after mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniak, U; Demuth, A; Skrzypczak, M

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the relationship between physical activity and body composition among healthy women and women who have had mastectomy. This is in order to establish whether physical activity of women after breast cancer treatment improves composition and distribution of body mass components to a degree which will allow to achieve the body composition of healthy women. Research material consists of anthropometric measurements (body height, weight) of women and bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) of body composition (using Akern - BIA 101 composition analyzer). Intensity of activity was assessed using the Physical Activity International Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 76 healthy women (active 44.74%, inactive 55.26%) and 70 females after mastectomy (54.29% and 45.71%, respectively). Mean chronological age of women after mastectomy was 53.40 years, SD=7.55, and of the healthy ones 52.38 years SD=11.01). A significant difference in body composition was noted among active and inactive women after mastectomy; namely the active females had lower weight (by approximately 12 kg), body mass index (BMI), level of fat mass (by approximately 8%) and (by approximately 5%) total body water. The active healthy women had 6% less fat mass, almost 4% more body water and 6% more fat free mass. Programmed physical activity undertaken by women after mastectomy is recommended and produces good results in the form of reduction of excessive body fat tissue. Through physical activity these women are able to achieve the same level of fat mass as healthy women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Surface modification of nanofibrous polycaprolactone/gelatin composite scaffold by collagen type I grafting for skin tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Sneh; Chou, Chia-Fu; Dinda, Amit K; Potdar, Pravin D; Mishra, Narayan C

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a tri-polymer polycaprolactone (PCL)/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold has been fabricated by electrospinning for skin tissue engineering and wound healing applications. Firstly, PCL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold was fabricated by electrospinning using a low cost solvent mixture [chloroform/methanol for PCL and acetic acid (80% v/v) for gelatin], and then the nanofibrous PCL/gelatin scaffold was modified by collagen type I (0.2-1.5wt.%) grafting. Morphology of the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin composite scaffold that was analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), showed that the fiber diameter was increased and pore size was decreased by increasing the concentration of collagen type I. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis indicated the surface modification of PCL/gelatin scaffold by collagen type I immobilization on the surface of the scaffold. MTT assay demonstrated the viability and high proliferation rate of L929 mouse fibroblast cells on the collagen type I-modified composite scaffold. FE-SEM analysis of cell-scaffold construct illustrated the cell adhesion of L929 mouse fibroblasts on the surface of scaffold. Characteristic cell morphology of L929 was also observed on the nanofiber mesh of the collagen type I-modified scaffold. Above results suggest that the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin scaffold was successful in maintaining characteristic shape of fibroblasts, besides good cell proliferation. Therefore, the fibroblast seeded PCL/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold might be a potential candidate for wound healing and skin tissue engineering applications. © 2013.

  20. Optimization of Polymer-ECM Composite Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering: Effect of Cells and Culture Conditions on Polymeric Nanofiber Mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Goyal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of composite tissue scaffolds containing an extracellular matrix (ECM and synthetic polymer fibers is a new approach to create bioactive scaffolds that can enhance cell function. Currently, studies investigating the effects of ECM-deposition and decellularization on polymer degradation are still lacking, as are data on optimizing the stability of the ECM-containing composite scaffolds during prolonged cell culture. In this study, we develop fibrous scaffolds using three polymer compositions, representing slow (E0000, medium (E0500, and fast (E1000 degrading materials, to investigate the stability, degradation, and mechanics of the scaffolds during ECM deposition and decellularization, and during the complete cellularization-decell-recell cycle. We report data on percent molecular weight (% Mw retention of polymeric fiber mats, changes in scaffold stiffness, ECM deposition, and the presence of fibronectin after decellularization. We concluded that the fast degrading E1000 (Mw retention ≤ 50% after 28 days was not sufficiently stable to allow scaffold handling after 28 days in culture, while the slow degradation of E0000 (Mw retention ≥ 80% in 28 days did not allow deposited ECM to replace the polymer support. The scaffolds made from medium degrading E0500 (Mw retention about 60% at 28 days allowed the gradual replacement of the polymer network with cell-derived ECM while maintaining the polymer network support. Thus, polymers with an intermediate rate of degradation, maintaining good scaffold handling properties after 28 days in culture, seem best suited for creating ECM-polymer composite scaffolds.

  1. The effect of hemiplegia on bone mass and soft tissue body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iversen, E.; Hassager, C.; Christiansen, C.

    1989-01-01

    The content of bone mineral (BMC), lean tissue, and fat tissue were measured by single and dual photon absorptiometry in both the paretic and the nonparetic limbs of 15 patients, hemiplegic due to cerebrovascular accident 23-38 weeks earlier. Compared with the non-paretic arm, the paretic arm had approximately 10% lower (P < 0.01) BMC. This difference was largest at the measuring site with the highest ratio of trabecular to compact bone. The paretic leg had a 4% (P < 0.001) lower BMC than the non-paretic leg. For both the arms and the legs, the lean content was lower (P < 0.05) and the fat content higher (P < 0.01) in the paretic than in the non-paretic. This was relatively more pronounced in the arms than in the legs. We conclude that partial immobilization, owing to parasis after a cerebrovascular accident, results in characteristic changes in the affected limbs, with a marked decrease in the content of bone and lean tissue and a pronounced increase in fatty tissue. (author)

  2. Composition, Architecture, and Functional Implications of the Connective Tissue Network of the Extraocular Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoon, Linda K.; Vicente, André; Fitzpatrick, Krysta R.; Lindström, Mona

    2018-01-01

    Purpose We examined the pattern and extent of connective tissue distribution in the extraocular muscles (EOMs) and determined the ability of the interconnected connective tissues to disseminate force laterally. Methods Human EOMs were examined for collagens I, III, IV, and VI; fibronectin; laminin; and elastin using immunohistochemistry. Connective tissue distribution was examined with scanning electron microscopy. Rabbit EOMs were examined for levels of force transmission longitudinally and transversely using in vitro force assessment. Results Collagens I, III, and VI localized to the endomysium, perimysium, and epimysium. Collagen IV, fibronectin, and laminin localized to the basal lamina surrounding all myofibers. All collagens localized similarly in the orbital and global layers throughout the muscle length. Elastin had the most irregular pattern and ran longitudinally and circumferentially throughout the length of all EOMs. Scanning electron microscopy showed these elements to be extensively interconnected, from endomysium through the perimysium to the epimysium surrounding the whole muscle. In vitro physiology demonstrated force generation in the lateral dimension, presumably through myofascial transmission, which was always proportional to the force generated in the longitudinally oriented muscles. Conclusions A striking connective tissue matrix interconnects all the myofibers and extends, via perimysial connections, to the epimysium. These interconnections are significant and allow measurable force transmission laterally as well as longitudinally, suggesting that they may contribute to the nonlinear force summation seen in motor unit recording studies. This provides strong evidence that separate compartmental movements are unlikely as no region is independent of the rest of the muscle. PMID:29346490

  3. Multi-tissue omics analyses reveal molecular regulatory networks for puberty in composite beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puberty is a complex physiological event by which animals mature into an adult capable of sexual reproduction. In order to enhance our understanding of the genes and regulatory pathways and networks involved in puberty, we characterized the transcriptome of five reproductive tissues (i.e., hypothal...

  4. Self-assembled composite matrix in a hierarchical 3-D scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Muwan; Le, Dang Quang Svend; Baatrup, Anette

    2011-01-01

    It is of high clinical relevance in bone tissue engineering that scaffolds promote a high seeding efficiency of cells capable of osteogenic differentiation, such as human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). We evaluated the effects of a novel polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold on h...

  5. Laser-assisted cold-sprayed hydroxyapatite/titanium composites: evaluation for tissues engineering applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This research work seeks to establish titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V), in the field of tissue engineering, as material of interest for bone replacement with a particular focus on hip implants replacement. The aim of this study was to produce a surface...

  6. Improving Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Vascularized Composite Tissue Allotransplantation Via Histone Deacetylase Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    animal colony maintenance, tissue fixation and staining – 1 month Scott Levin – consultative support and VCA surgical advisory capacity – 0 months Seth...paraffin embedded for histopathology. • Histopathology was scored in a blinded fashion on an accepted scale for amount of muscle necrosis2, 3

  7. Laminated electrospun nHA/PHB-composite scaffolds mimicking bone extracellular matrix for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuoyue; Song, Yue; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Wei; Cui, Jihong; Li, Hongmin; Chen, Fulin

    2017-03-01

    Electrospinning is an effective means to generate nano- to micro-scale polymer fibers resembling native extracellular matrix for tissue engineering. However, a major problem of electrospun materials is that limited pore size and porosity may prevent adequate cellular infiltration and tissue ingrowth. In this study, we first prepared thin layers of hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (nHA)/poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) via electrospinning. We then laminated the nHA/PHB thin layers to obtain a scaffold for cell seeding and bone tissue engineering. The results demonstrated that the laminated scaffold possessed optimized cell-loading capacity. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibited better adherence, proliferation and osteogenic phenotypes on nHA/PHB scaffolds than on PHB scaffolds. Thereafter, we seeded MSCs onto nHA/PHB scaffolds to fabricate bone grafts. Histological observation showed osteoid tissue formation throughout the scaffold, with most of the scaffold absorbed in the specimens 2months after implantation, and blood vessels ingrowth into the graft could be observed in the graft. We concluded that electrospun and laminated nanoscaled biocomposite scaffolds hold great therapeutic potential for bone regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Photoactivated Composite Biomaterial for Soft Tissue Restoration in Rodents and in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, Zayna; Reid, Branden; Coburn, Jeannine M.; Axelman, Joyce; Chae, Jemin J.; Guo, Qiongyu; Trow, Robert; Thomas, Andrew; Hou, Zhipeng; Lichtsteiner, Serge; Sutton, Damon; Matheson, Christine; Walker, Patricia; David, Nathaniel; Mori, Susumu; Taube, Janis M.; Elisseeff, Jennifer H.

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue reconstruction often requires multiple surgical procedures that can result in scars and disfiguration. Facial soft tissue reconstruction represents a clinical challenge because even subtle deformities can severely affect an individual’s social and psychological function. We therefore developed a biosynthetic soft tissue replacement composed of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and hyaluronic acid (HA) that can be injected and photocrosslinked in situ with transdermal light exposure. Modulating the ratio of synthetic to biological polymer allowed us to tune implant elasticity and volume persistence. In a small-animal model, implanted photocrosslinked PEG-HA showed a dose-dependent relationship between increasing PEG concentration and enhanced implant volume persistence. In direct comparison with commercial HA injections, the PEG-HA implants maintained significantly greater average volumes and heights. Reversibility of the implant volume was achieved with hyaluronidase injection. Pilot clinical testing in human patients confirmed the feasibility of the transdermal photocrosslinking approach for implantation in abdomen soft tissue, although an inflammatory response was observed surrounding some of the materials. PMID:21795587

  9. Influence of the chemical composition of human tissues on dose distributions in hadron-therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batin, E.

    2008-06-01

    To compute the dose distribution, treatment planning systems require the exact anatomical location of tissues provided by computed tomography (CT) and the exact range of hadron beams in tissues based on the water equivalent ratio (WER). Since CT numbers are determined with x-rays and with an energy different from that used in hadron-therapy, a relation between CT numbers and the WER must to be established. We propose a determination of the WER with a Monte-Carlo simulation (GEANT4). We have determined the WER for 76 human tissues for a 135 MeV proton beam and for a 290 MeV/A carbon beam. The difference between the stoichiometric calibration and the simulated WER is lower than 1%. An additional 2% uncertainty that arises from the uncertainty in the CT numbers measurement should also be considered. The calculated WER were used to convert the deposited energy curve into the human tissue deposited energy curve for a 135 MeV proton beam and for a 290 MeV/A carbon beam. For both beams, the difference between the rescaled Bragg peak location and the one from the simulated curve is lower than 0.5 mm over the whole range of CT numbers. The differences between the maximum deposited energy can reach 3% for the proton beam in bones and vary between 1.5% and 3.5% for all tissues for the carbon beam. The scaling in two dimensions can be improved by using an additional factor that takes the scattering into account. (author)

  10. Alterations in the Immune Cell Composition in Premalignant Breast Tissue that Precede Breast Cancer Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnim, Amy C; Hoskin, Tanya L; Arshad, Muhammad; Frost, Marlene H; Winham, Stacey J; Brahmbhatt, Rushin A; Pena, Alvaro; Carter, Jodi M; Stallings-Mann, Melody L; Murphy, Linda M; Miller, Erin E; Denison, Lori A; Vachon, Celine M; Knutson, Keith L; Radisky, Derek C; Visscher, Daniel W

    2017-07-15

    Purpose: Little is known about the role of the immune system in the earliest stages of breast carcinogenesis. We studied quantitative differences in immune cell types between breast tissues from normal donors and those from women with benign breast disease (BBD). Experimental Design: A breast tissue matched case-control study was created from donors to the Susan G. Komen for the Cure Tissue Bank (KTB) and from women diagnosed with BBD at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) who either subsequently developed cancer (BBD cases) or remained cancer-free (BBD controls). Serial tissue sections underwent immunostaining and digital quantification of cell number per mm 2 for CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells, CD20 + B cells, and CD68 + macrophages and quantification of positive pixel measure for CD11c (dendritic cells). Results: In 94 age-matched triplets, BBD lobules showed greater densities of CD8 + T cells, CD11c + dendritic cells, CD20 + B cells, and CD68 + macrophages compared with KTB normals. Relative to BBD controls, BBD cases had lower CD20 + cell density ( P = 0.04). Nearly 42% of BBD cases had no CD20 + B cells in evaluated lobules compared with 28% of BBD controls ( P = 0.02). The absence of CD20 + cells versus the presence in all lobules showed an adjusted OR of 5.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.4-23.1) for subsequent breast cancer risk. Conclusions: Elevated infiltration of both innate and adaptive immune effectors in BBD tissues suggests an immunogenic microenvironment. The reduced B-cell infiltration in women with later breast cancer suggests a role for B cells in preventing disease progression and as a possible biomarker for breast cancer risk. Clin Cancer Res; 23(14); 3945-52. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Boron isotopic composition of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from Gorgona komatiites, Colombia: New evidence supporting wet komatiite origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurenko, Andrey A.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.

    2011-12-01

    A fundamental question in the genesis of komatiites is whether these rocks originate from partial melting of dry and hot mantle, 400-500 °C hotter than typical sources of MORB and OIB magmas, or if they were produced by hydrous melting of the source at much lower temperatures, similar or only moderately higher than those known today. Gorgona Island, Colombia, is a unique place where Phanerozoic komatiites occur and whose origin is directly connected to the formation of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province. The genesis of Gorgona komatiites remains controversial, mostly because of the uncertain origin of volatile components which they appear to contain. These volatiles could equally result from shallow level magma contamination, melting of a "damp" mantle or fluid-induced partial melting of the source due to devolatilization of the ancient subducting plate. We have analyzed boron isotopes of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from the Gorgona komatiites. These inclusions are characterized by relatively high contents of volatile components and boron (0.2-1.0 wt.% H 2O, 0.05-0.08 wt.% S, 0.02-0.03 wt.% Cl, 0.6-2.0 μg/g B), displaying positive anomalies in the overall depleted, primitive mantle (PM) normalized trace element and REE spectra ([La/Sm] n = 0.16-0.35; [H 2O/Nb] n = 8-44; [Cl/Nb] n = 27-68; [B/Nb] n = 9-30, assuming 300 μg/g H 2O, 8 μg/g Cl and 0.1 μg/g B in PM; Kamenetsky et al., 2010. Composition and temperature of komatiite melts from Gorgona Island constrained from olivine-hosted melt inclusions. Geology 38, 1003-1006). The inclusions range in δ11B values from - 11.5 to + 15.6 ± 2.2‰ (1 SE), forming two distinct trends in a δ11B vs. B-concentration diagram. Direct assimilation of seawater, seawater-derived components, altered oceanic crust or marine sediments by ascending komatiite magma cannot readily account for the volatile contents and B isotope variations. Alternatively, injection of < 3wt.% of a 11B enriched fluid to the mantle source could

  12. Composition and potential origin of marine debris stranded in the Western Indian Ocean on remote Alphonse Island, Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhec, Aurélie V; Jeanne, Richard F; Maximenko, Nikolai; Hafner, Jan

    2015-07-15

    The abundance, composition, and potential sources of marine debris were investigated on remote Alphonse Island, during the austral winter 2013. A total of 4743 items, weighing 142 kg, were removed from 1 km of windward beach, facing the prevailing southeasterly trade winds. Our study demonstrates the prevalence of plastic debris as a world-wide marine contaminant. Characteristics of the debris suggest it originated primarily from land-based sources. To determine their potential geographic sources we used the Surface Current from Diagnostic model of near-surface ocean currents, forced by satellite sea level and wind data. While preliminary evidence indicated the Southeast Asia to be the main source of the flotsam, the model highlighted Somalia as another potential primary source. Our study concludes that most of the collected debris entered the sea as a result of inadequate waste management and demonstrates how anthropogenic waste can negatively impact even the most remote environments. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Linseed Oil Dietary Supplementation on Fatty Acid Composition and Gene Expression in Adipose Tissue of Growing Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ebrahimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding oil palm frond silage based diets with added linseed oil (LO containing high α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3, namely, high LO (HLO, low LO (LLO, and without LO as the control group (CON on the fatty acid (FA composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARα, PPAR-γ, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD in Boer goats. The proportion of C18:3n-3 in subcutaneous adipose tissue was increased (P<0.01 by increasing the LO in the diet, suggesting that the FA from HLO might have escaped ruminal biohydrogenation. Animals fed HLO diets had lower proportions of C18:1 trans-11, C18:2n-6, CLA cis-9 trans-11, and C20:4n-6 and higher proportions of C18:3n-3, C22:5n-3, and C22:6n-3 in the subcutaneous adipose tissue than animals fed the CON diets, resulting in a decreased n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio (FAR in the tissue. In addition, feeding the HLO diet upregulated the expression of PPAR-γ (P<0.05 but downregulated the expression of SCD (P<0.05 in the adipose tissue. The results of the present study show that LO can be safely incorporated in the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with potential health beneficial FA (i.e., n-3 FA.

  14. In vitro-ex vivo correlations between a cell-laden hydrogel and mucosal tissue for screening composite delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakney, Anna K; Little, Adam B; Jiang, Yonghou; Woodrow, Kim A

    2016-11-01

    Composite delivery systems where drugs are electrospun in different layers and vary the drug stacking-order are posited to affect bioavailability. We evaluated how the formulation characteristics of both burst- and sustained-release electrospun fibers containing three physicochemically diverse drugs: dapivirine (DPV), maraviroc (MVC) and tenofovir (TFV) affect in vitro and ex vivo release. We developed a poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) hydrogel release platform for the rapid, inexpensive in vitro evaluation of burst- and sustained-release topical or dermal drug delivery systems with varying microarchitecture. We investigated properties of the hydrogel that could recapitulate ex vivo release into nonhuman primate vaginal tissue. Using a dimethyl sulfoxide extraction protocol and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, we achieved >93% recovery from the hydrogels and >88% recovery from tissue explants for all three drugs. We found that DPV loading, but not stacking order (layers of fiber containing a single drug) or microarchitecture (layers with isolated drug compared to all drugs in the same layer) impacted the burst release in vitro and ex vivo. Our burst-release formulations showed a correlation for DPV accumulation between the hydrogel and tissue (R 2 =   0.80), but the correlation was not significant for MVC or TFV. For the sustained-release formulations, the PLGA/PCL content did not affect TFV release in vitro or ex vivo. Incorporation of cells into the hydrogel matrix improved the correlation between hydrogel and tissue explant release for TFV. We expect that this hydrogel-tissue mimic may be a promising preclinical model to evaluate topical or transdermal drug delivery systems with complex microarchitectures.

  15. Greener synthesis of electrospun collagen/hydroxyapatite composite fibers with an excellent microstructure for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou YY

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Yuanyuan Zhou,1,2 Hongchang Yao,1 Jianshe Wang,1 Dalu Wang,1 Qian Liu,1 Zhongjun Li11College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Institute of Enviromental and Municipal Engineering, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: In bone tissue engineering, collagen/hydroxyapatite (HAP fibrous composite obtained via electrospinning method has been demonstrated to support the cells’ adhesion and bone regeneration. However, electrospinning of natural collagen often requires the use of cytotoxic organic solvents, and the HAP crystals were usually aggregated and randomly distributed within a fibrous matrix of collagen, limiting their clinical potential. Here, an effective and greener method for the preparation of collagen/HAP composite fibers was developed for the first time, and this green product not only had 40 times higher mechanical properties than that previously reported, but also had an excellent microstructure similar to that of natural bone. By dissolving type I collagen in environmentally friendly phosphate buffered saline/ethanol solution instead of the frequently-used cytotoxic organic solvents, followed with the key step of desalination, co-electrospinning the collagen solution with the HAP sol, generates a collagen/HAP composite with a uniform and continuous fibrous morphology. Interestingly, the nano-HAP needles were found to preferentially orient along the longitudinal direction of the collagen fibers, which mimicked the nanostructure of natural bones. Based on the characterization of the related products, the formation mechanism for this novel phenomenon was proposed. After cross-linking with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-aminopropyl-1-carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide, the obtained composite exhibited a significant enhancement in mechanical properties. In addition, the biocompatibility of the

  16. Fabrication of Nanohydroxyapatite/Poly(caprolactone Composite Microfibers Using Electrospinning Technique for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Izzat Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering fibrous scaffolds serve as three-dimensional (3D environmental framework by mimicking the extracellular matrix (ECM for cells to grow. Biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL microfibers were fabricated to mimic the ECM as a scaffold with 7.5% (w/v and 12.5% (w/v concentrations. Lower PCL concentration of 7.5% (w/v resulted in microfibers with bead defects. The average diameter of fibers increased at higher voltage and the distance of tip to collector. Further investigation was performed by the incorporation of nanosized hydroxyapatite (nHA into microfibers. The incorporation of 10% (w/w nHA with 7.5% (w/v PCL solution produced submicron sized beadless fibers. The microfibrous scaffolds were evaluated using various techniques. Biodegradable PCL and nHA/PCL could be promising for tissue engineering scaffold application.

  17. Characterising human atherosclerotic carotid plaque tissue composition and morphology using combined spectroscopic and imaging modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Hilary E; Mulvihill, John J; Cunnane, Eoghan M; Walsh, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    Calcification is a marked pathological component in carotid artery plaque. Studies have suggested that calcification may induce regions of high stress concentrations therefore increasing the potential for rupture. However, the mechanical behaviour of the plaque under the influence of calcification is not fully understood. A method of accurately characterising the calcification coupled with the associated mechanical plaque properties is needed to better understand the impact of calcification on the mechanical behaviour of the plaque during minimally invasive treatments. This study proposes a comparison of biochemical and structural characterisation methods of the calcification in carotid plaque specimens to identify plaque mechanical behaviour. Biochemical analysis, by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, was used to identify the key components, including calcification, in each plaque sample. However, FTIR has a finite penetration depth which may limit the accuracy of the calcification measurement. Therefore, this FTIR analysis was coupled with the identification of the calcification inclusions located internally in the plaque specimen using micro x-ray computed tomography (μX-CT) which measures the calcification volume fraction (CVF) to total tissue content. The tissue characterisation processes were then applied to the mechanical material plaque properties acquired from experimental circumferential loading of human carotid plaque specimen for comparison of the methods. FTIR characterised the degree of plaque progression by identifying the functional groups associated with lipid, collagen and calcification in each specimen. This identified a negative relationship between stiffness and 'lipid to collagen' and 'calcification to collagen' ratios. However, μX-CT results suggest that CVF measurements relate to overall mechanical stiffness, while peak circumferential strength values may be dependent on specific calcification geometries. This study

  18. Antibacterial glass and glass-biodegradable matrix composites for bone tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, João Pedro Silva

    2017-01-01

    Multiple joint and bone diseases affect millions of people worldwide. In fact the Bone and Joint Decade’s association predicted that the percentage of people over 50 years of age affected by bone diseases will double by 2020. Bone diseases commonly require the need for surgical intervention, often involving partial or total bone substitution. Therefore biodegradable biomaterials designed as bone tissue engineered (BTE) devices to be implanted into the human body, function as a ...

  19. Association between increased epicardial adipose tissue volume and coronary plaque composition

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Kennosuke; Yamamoto, Myong Hwa; Ebara, Seitarou; Okabe, Toshitaka; Saito, Shigeo; Hoshimoto, Koichi; Yakushiji, Tadayuki; Isomura, Naoei; Araki, Hiroshi; Obara, Chiaki; Ochiai, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationship between epicardial adipose tissue volume (EATV) and plaque vulnerability in significant coronary stenosis using a 40-MHz intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging system (iMap-IVUS), we analyzed 130 consecutive patients with coronary stenosis who underwent dual-source computed tomography (CT) and cardiac catheterization. Culprit lesions were imaged by iMap-IVUS before stenting. The iMAP-IVUS system classified coronary plaque components as fibrous, lipid, necrotic, or ...

  20. The Study on Biocompatibility of Porous nHA/PLGA Composite Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering with Rabbit Chondrocytes In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the biocompatibility of a novel nanohydroxyapatite/poly[lactic-co-glycolic acid] (nHA/PLGA composite and evaluate its feasibility as a scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering. Methods. Chondrocytes of fetal rabbit were cultured with nHA/PLGA scaffold in vitro and the cell viability was assessed by MTT assay first. Cells adhering to nHA/PLGA scaffold were then observed by inverted microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The cell cycle profile was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results. The viability of the chondrocytes on the scaffold was not affected by nHA/PLGA comparing with the control group as it was shown by MTT assay. Cells on the surface and in the pores of the scaffold increased in a time-dependent manner. Results obtained from flow cytometry showed that there was no significant difference in cell cycle profiles between the coculture group and control (P>0.05. Conclusion. The porous nHA/PLGA composite scaffold is a biocompatible and good kind of scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

  1. Injectable alginate-O-carboxymethyl chitosan/nano fibrin composite hydrogels for adipose tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaikumar, Dhanya; Sajesh, K M; Soumya, S; Nimal, T R; Chennazhi, K P; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2015-03-01

    Injectable, biodegradable scaffolds are required for soft tissue reconstruction owing to its minimally invasive approach. Such a scaffold can mimic the native extracellular matrix (ECM), provide uniform distribution of cells and overcome limitations like donor site morbidity, volume loss, etc. So, here we report two classes of biocompatible and biodegradable hydrogel blend systems namely, Alginate/O-carboxymethyl chitosan (O-CMC) and Alginate/poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with the inclusion of fibrin nanoparticles in each. The hydrogels were prepared by ionic cross-linking method. The developed hydrogels were compared in terms of its swelling ratio, degradation profile, compressive strength and elastic moduli. From these preliminary findings, it was concluded that Alginate/O-CMC formed a better blend for tissue engineering applications. The potential of the formed hydrogel as an injectable scaffold was revealed by the survival of adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) on the scaffold by its adhesion, proliferation and differentiation into adipocytes. Cell differentiation studies of fibrin incorporated hydrogel scaffolds showed better differentiation was confirmed by Oil Red O staining technique. These injectable gels have potential in soft tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of chemical composition on corneal tissue response to photopolymerized materials comprising 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and acrylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jui-Yang, E-mail: jylai@mail.cgu.edu.tw

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between the feed composition of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)/acrylic acid (AAc) and hydrogel material compatibility towards ocular anterior segment tissues, particularly the corneal endothelium. The monomer solutions of HEMA and AAc were mixed at varying volume ratios of 92:0, 87:5, 82:10, 77:15, and 72:20, and were subjected to UV irradiation. Then, the 7-mm-diameter membrane implants made from photopolymerized materials were placed into the ocular anterior chamber for 4 days and assessed by biomicroscopic examinations, corneal thickness measurements, and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses. The poly(HEMA-co-AAc) implants prepared from the solution mixture containing 0–10 vol.% AAc displayed good biocompatibility. However, with increasing volume ratio of AAc and HEMA from 15:77 to 20:72, the enhanced inflammatory response, decreased endothelial cell density, and increased ocular score and corneal thickness were observed, probably due to the influence of surface charge of copolymer membranes. On the other hand, the ionic pump function of corneal endothelium exposed to photopolymerized membranes was examined by analyzing the Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase alpha 1 subunit (ATP1A1) expression level. The presence of the implants having higher amount of AAc incorporated in the copolymers (i.e., 15.1 to 24.7 μmol) and zeta potential (i.e., -38.6 to − 56.5 mV) may lead to abnormal transmembrane transport. It is concluded that the chemical composition of HEMA/AAc has an important influence on the corneal tissue responses to polymeric biomaterials. - Highlights: • We examine the corneal tissue responses to photopolymerized biomaterials. • Carboxyl groups in copolymers increased with increasing volume ratio of AAc/HEMA. • 15–20 vol.% AAc raised ocular score and caused corneal endothelial loss and edema. • High anionic charge density stimulated inflammation

  3. Effect of crystallinity and plasticizer on mechanical properties and tissue integration of starch-based materials from two botanical origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Diego; Pavon-Djavid, Graciela; Chaunier, Laurent; Meddahi-Pellé, Anne; Lourdin, Denis

    2015-06-25

    The application of starch-based materials for biomedical purposes has attracted significant interest due to their biocompatibility. The physical properties and crystal structure of materials based on potato starch (PS) and amylomaize starch (AMS) were studied under physiological conditions. PS plasticized with 20% glycerol presented the best mechanical properties with an elastic modulus of 1.6MPa and a weak swelling, remaining stable for 30 days. The in vitro cell viability of 3T3 cells after contact with extracts from PS and AMS with 20% glycerol is 72% and 80%, respectively. PS presented good tissue integration and no significant inflammation or foreign body response after 30 days intra-muscular implantation in a rat model, contrary to AMS. It was shown that glycerol plasticization favors a fast B-type crystallization of PS materials, enhancing their mechanical strength and durability, and making them a good candidate for bioresorbable and biocompatible materials for implantable medical devices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fatty acid composition of total lipids and phospholipids of muscular tissue and brain of rats under the impact of vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Kostyshyn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids are important structural components of biological membranes, energy substrate of cells involved in fixing phospholipid bilayer proteins, and acting as regulators and modulators of enzymatic activity. Under the impact of vibration oscillations there can occur shifts in the ratio of different groups of fatty acids, and degrees of their saturation may change. The imbalance between saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which occurs later in the cell wall, disrupts fluidity and viscosity of lipid phase and causes abnormal cellular metabolism. Aim. In order to study the impact of vibration on the level of fatty acids of total lipids in muscular tissue and fatty acid composition of phospholipids in muscles and brain, experimental animals have been exposed to vertical vibration oscillations with different frequency for 28 days. Methods and results. Tissues fragments of hip quadriceps and brain of rats were used for obtaining methyl esters of fatty acids studied by the method of gas-liquid chromatography. It was found that the lipid content, ratio of its separate factions and fatty acid composition in muscular tissue and brain of animals with the action of vibration considerably varies. With the increase of vibration acceleration tendency to increase in absolute quantity of total lipids fatty acids can be observed at the account of increased level of saturated and monounsaturated ones. These processes are caused by activation of self-defense mechanisms of the body under the conditions of deviations from stabilized physiological norm, since adaptation requires certain structural and energy costs. Increase in the relative quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids of muscles and brain and simultaneous reduction in concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids are observed. Conclusion. These changes indicate worsening of structural and functional organization of muscles and brain cell membranes of

  5. Fabrication and characterization of PCL/gelatin composite nanofibrous scaffold for tissue engineering applications by electrospinning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Sneh; Dinda, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Narayan Chandra

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, composite nanofibrous tissue engineering-scaffold consisting of polycaprolactone and gelatin, was fabricated by electrospinning method, using a new cost-effective solvent mixture: chloroform/methanol for polycaprolactone (PCL) and acetic acid for gelatin. The morphology of the nanofibrous scaffold was investigated by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) which clearly indicates that the morphology of nanofibers was influenced by the weight ratio of PCL to gelatin in the solution. Uniform fibers were produced only when the weight ratio of PCL/gelatin is sufficiently high (10:1). The scaffold was further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). FT-IR and TG analysis indicated some interactions between PCL and gelatin molecules within the scaffold, while XRD results demonstrated crystalline nature of PCL/gelatin composite scaffold. Cytotoxicity effect of scaffold on L929 mouse fibroblast cells was evaluated by MTT assay and cell proliferation on the scaffold was confirmed by DNA quantification. Positive results of MTT assay and DNA quantification L929 mouse fibroblast cells indicated that the scaffold made from the combination of natural polymer (gelatin) and synthetic polymer (PCL) may serve as a good candidate for tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: ► PCL/Gelatin scaffold was successfully fabricated by electrospinning method. ► PCL in CHCl 3 /CH 3 OH and gelatin in acetic acid: a novel polymer-solvent system. ► The morphology of nanofibers was influenced by the weight ratio of PCL/gelatin. ► Chemical interactions between PCL and gelatin molecules enhanced cell growth. ► Cell culture studies indicate the suitability of scaffold for tissue regeneration

  6. Tissue Reactivity of the 14F7 Mab Raised against N-Glycolyl GM3 Ganglioside in Tumors of Neuroectodermal, Mesodermal, and Epithelial Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Rancés; Quintana, Yisel; Blanco, Damián; Cedeño, Mercedes; Rengifo, Charles E.; Frómeta, Milagros; Ríos, Martha; Rengifo, Enrique; Carr, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    The expression of N-glycolylneuraminic acid forming the structure of gangliosides and/or other glycoconjugates (Hanganutziu-Deicher antigen) in human has been considered as a tumor-associated antigen. Specifically, some reports of 14F7 Mab (a highly specific Mab raised against N-glycolyl GM3 ganglioside) reactivity in human tumors have been recently published. Nevertheless, tumors of epithelial origin have been mostly evaluated. The goal of the present paper was to evaluate the immunohistochemical recognition of 14F7 Mab in different human tumors of neuroectodermal, mesodermal, and epithelial origins using an immunoperoxidase staining method. Samples of fetal, normal, and reactive astrocytosis of the brain were also included in the study. In general, nontumoral tissues, as well as, low-grade brain tumors showed no or a limited immunoreaction with 14F7 Mab. Nevertheless, high-grade astrocytomas (III-IV) and neuroblastomas, as well as, sarcomas and thyroid carcinomas were mostly reactive with 14F7. No reaction was evidenced in medulloblastomas and ependymoblastomas. Our data suggest that the expression of N-glycolyl GM3 ganglioside could be related to the aggressive behavior of malignant cells, without depending on the tumor origin. Our data could also support the possible use of N-glycolyl GM3 as a target for both active and passive immunotherapies of malignancies expressing this molecule. PMID:26317019

  7. Determination of composition and structure of spongy bone tissue in human head of femur by Raman spectral mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozielski, M; Buchwald, T; Szybowicz, M; Błaszczak, Z; Piotrowski, A; Ciesielczyk, B

    2011-07-01

    Biomechanical properties of bone depend on the composition and organization of collagen fibers. In this study, Raman microspectroscopy was employed to determine the content of mineral and organic constituents and orientation of collagen fibers in spongy bone in the human head of femur at the microstructural level. Changes in composition and structure of trabecula were illustrated using Raman spectral mapping. The polarized Raman spectra permit separate analysis of local variations in orientation and composition. The ratios of ν₂PO₄³⁻/Amide III, ν₄PO₄³⁻/Amide III and ν₁CO₃²⁻/ν₂PO₄³⁻ are used to describe relative amounts of spongy bone components. The ν₁PO₄³⁻/Amide I ratio is quite susceptible to orientation effect and brings information on collagen fibers orientation. The results presented illustrate the versatility of the Raman method in the study of bone tissue. The study permits better understanding of bone physiology and evaluation of the biomechanical properties of bone.

  8. Using of Synchrotron radiation for study of multielement composition of the small mammals diet and tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezel, V S [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Marta str., 202, 620144, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Koutzenogii, K P [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Institutskaya str., 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Mukhacheva, S V [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Marta str., 202, 620144, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Chankina, O V [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Institutskaya str., 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Savchenko, T I [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Institutskaya str., 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-21

    The Synchrotron radiation X-ray Fluorescence analysis (SRXRF) was used for estimation of 'geochemical selection' of elements by small mammals, which belong to different trophic groups and inhabit polluted and background areas (the Middle Ural). The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Cd, Pb in the diet and into hepar of a herbivorous (bank vole) and carnivorous (Laxmann's shrew) small mammals were compared. Herbivores play a particular role in chemical elements translocation between trophic levels, limiting element transition to consumers of the consequent levels. Whereas, insectivores concentrate most elements in their tissues under the same conditions.

  9. Groundwater origin investigation with isotopic compositions for evaluation of high productive deep aquifers in Khon Kaen area, Northeast Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buaphan, C.; Yangme, W.; Wannakao, L.; Sriboonlue, V.; Tassanasorn, A.; Buapeng, S.

    1999-01-01

    Investigation of groundwater origin by using isotopic compositions for evaluation of high productive deep aquifers in Khon Kaen Province is emphasized on hydrogeology and isotopes technique. The study area consists of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks and unconsolidated sediments of Quaternary. Phu Tok aquifers in the southern part of the study area are mainly confined in very well sorted, fine grained sandstone as well as in fractures and joints. They extend from Ban Tha Pra to Ban Phai covering area 500 km 2 . Depth to the aquifers is from 20 to 250 m, while their piezometric surface ranges from 0.35 m to 15 m from the ground surface. Their thickness range from 50 to 100 m. The transmissivity is from 0.45 to 1,047 m 2 /d on the pumping rate of 48-1,200 m 3 /d with drawdown of less than 10% and rough annual safe yield is 83.34x10 6 m 3 . The water is very good in quality for drinking, except for the TDS and total hardness around aquifer boundary. The groundwater and surface water are analysed for stable and radioactive isotopes, including 2 H, 18 O, 3 H and 14 C. The results show that the shallow groundwater of the depth less than 50 m is originated by direct recharge of rainfall between 180 and 6,820 a. The groundwater flow is relatively rapid from west to east and northwest to southeast, the high productive deep aquifer of Phu Tok flow radiate from recharging area to all direction. However, the groundwater flow rate based on 14 C analyses for Phu Tok is 2 to 3 m/a. Within some areas the flow is about 8 m/a, while the unconsolidated aquifers along the Phong River give flow rate about 4 m/a. The deeper aquifers also have direct rain recharge the same as the above aquifers but the flow rate are lower, especially the deepest aquifer at the depth of nearly 200 m indicated no direct rain recharge with age of more than 20 000 a, which is confirmed with the amount of tritium less than 1.0 TU. (author)

  10. Allogeneic transplantation of programmable cells of monocytic origin (PCMO) improves angiogenesis and tissue recovery in critical limb ischemia (CLI): a translational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Rouven; Hummitzsch, Lars; Heß, Katharina; Albrecht, Martin; Zitta, Karina; Rusch, Rene; Sarras, Beke; Bayer, Andreas; Cremer, Jochen; Faendrich, Fred; Groß, Justus

    2018-04-27

    Employing growth factor-induced partial reprogramming in vitro, peripheral human blood monocytes can acquire a state of plasticity along with expression of various markers of pluripotency. These so-called programmable cells of monocytic origin (PCMO) hold great promise in regenerative therapies. The aim of this translational study was to explore and exploit the functional properties of PCMO for allogeneic cell transplantation therapy in critical limb ischemia (CLI). Using our previously described differentiation protocol, murine and human monocytes were differentiated into PCMO. We examined paracrine secretion of pro-angiogenic and tissue recovery-associated proteins under hypoxia and induction of angiogenesis by PCMO in vitro. Allogeneic cell transplantation of PCMO was performed in a hind limb ischemia mouse model in comparison to cell transplantation of native monocytes and a placebo group. Moreover, we analyzed retrospectively four healing attempts with PCMO in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD; Rutherford classification, stage 5 and 6). Statistical analysis was performed by using one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test or the Student's t test, p < 0.05. Cell culture experiments revealed good resilience of PCMO under hypoxia, enhanced paracrine release of pro-angiogenic and tissue recovery-associated proteins and induction of angiogenesis in vitro by PCMO. Animal experiments demonstrated significantly enhanced SO 2 saturation, blood flow, neoangiogenesis and tissue recovery after treatment with PCMO compared to treatment with native monocytes and placebo. Finally, first therapeutic application of PCMO in humans demonstrated increased vascular collaterals and improved wound healing in patients with chronic CLI without exaggerated immune response, malignant processes or extended infection after 12 months. In all patients minor and/or major amputations of the lower extremity could be avoided. In summary, PCMO improve angiogenesis and tissue recovery in chronic

  11. Mineralogical and compositional characteristics of Late Permian coals from an area of high lung cancer rate in Xuan Wei, Yunnan, China: Occurrence and origin of quartz and chamosite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Shifeng; Zhao, Lei; Cao, Hongzhi; Ren, Deyi [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Tian, Linwei [School of Public Health, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Chou, Chen-Lin [Illinois State Geological Survey (Emeritus), 615 East Peabody Drive, Champaign, IL 61820 (United States); Zhou, Yiping; Zhang, Mingquan; Wang, Jumin; Yang, Zong [Yunnan Institute of Coal Geology Prospection, Kunming 650218 (China)

    2008-12-01

    Some townships in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, have one of the highest lung cancer mortality rates in China and the epidemic disease in the area has generally been attributed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) released from domestic coal burning. However, the cancer-causing culprit is not settled as Tian [Tian, L., 2005. Coal Combustion Emissions and Lung Cancer in Xuan Wei, China. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley.] found nanometer quartz in these coals, soot emissions, and lung cancer tissues. We have conducted mineralogical and geochemical studies of the coals from Xuan Wei for the purpose of shedding light on the minerals which may be related to the epidemic lung cancer. In this paper, abundances, modes of occurrence, and origins of minerals and elements in the coals from two mines in Xuan Wei have been studied using optical microscope, low-temperature ashing, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The minerals in the coals are mainly composed of quartz, chamosite, kaolinite, and calcite. The particle size of quartz is rather small, mostly less than 20 {mu}m and it is of authigenic origin. Chamosite occurs mainly as cell-fillings. The occurrence of quartz and chamosite indicates that they were derived from the hydrothermal fluids. Epigenetic calcite is derived from calcic fluids. Kaolinite is derived mainly from sediment source region of Kangdian Oldland to the west of coal basin. The composition of Xuan Wei coal is high in SiO{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}, CaO, MnO, V, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. The high SiO{sub 2} content is attributed to quartz, and the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} content to chamosite. The high Mn and low Mg contents in the coal indicate the inputs of hydrothermal fluids. CaO occurs mainly in epigenetic calcite. Elements Ti, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and rare earth elements were derived from the basaltic rocks

  12. UV-B Radiation Impacts Shoot Tissue Pigment Composition in Allium fistulosum L. Cultigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin R. Abney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants from the Allium genus are valued worldwide for culinary flavor and medicinal attributes. In this study, 16 cultigens of bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L. were grown in a glasshouse under filtered UV radiation (control or supplemental UV-B radiation [7.0 μmol·m−2·s−2 (2.68 W·m−2] to determine impacts on growth, physiological parameters, and nutritional quality. Supplemental UV-B radiation influenced shoot tissue carotenoid concentrations in some, but not all, of the bunching onions. Xanthophyll carotenoid pigments lutein and β-carotene and chlorophylls a and b in shoot tissues differed between UV-B radiation treatments and among cultigens. Cultigen “Pesoenyj” responded to supplemental UV-B radiation with increases in the ratio of zeaxanthin + antheraxanthin to zeaxanthin + antheraxanthin + violaxanthin, which may indicate a flux in the xanthophyll carotenoids towards deepoxydation, commonly found under high irradiance stress. Increases in carotenoid concentrations would be expected to increase crop nutritional values.

  13. SU-E-T-409: Evaluation of Tissue Composition Effect On Dose Distribution in Radiotherapy with 6 MV Photon Beam of a Medical Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghorbani, M; Tabatabaei, Z; Noghreiyan, A Vejdani [Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Meigooni, A Soleimani [Comprehensive Cancer Center of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate soft tissue composition effect on dose distribution for various soft tissues and various depths in radiotherapy with 6 MV photon beam of a medical linac. Methods: A phantom and Siemens Primus linear accelerator were simulated using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. In a homogeneous cubic phantom, six types of soft tissue and three types of tissue-equivalent materials were defined separately. The soft tissues were muscle (skeletal), adipose tissue, blood (whole), breast tissue, soft tissue (9-component) and soft tissue (4-component). The tissue-equivalent materials included: water, A-150 tissue-equivalent plastic and perspex. Photon dose relative to dose in 9-component soft tissue at various depths on the beam’s central axis was determined for the 6 MV photon beam. The relative dose was also calculated and compared for various MCNPX tallies including,F8, F6 and,F4. Results: The results of the relative photon dose in various materials relative to dose in 9-component soft tissue and using different tallies are reported in the form of tabulated data. Minor differences between dose distributions in various soft tissues and tissue-equivalent materials were observed. The results from F6 and F4 were practically the same but different with,F8 tally. Conclusion: Based on the calculations performed, the differences in dose distributions in various soft tissues and tissue-equivalent materials are minor but they could be corrected in radiotherapy calculations to upgrade the accuracy of the dosimetric calculations.

  14. Compositional Variation of Chrome Spinels in the Ore-bearing Zones of the Kraka Ophiolite and the Chromitite Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Saveliev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a chemical variation of accessory and ore-forming chrome spinels from the Kraka ultramafic massif at the different scales, from the deposit to the thin section. A correlation analysis of compositional and structural features of ultramafic rocks and ores was performed. The ultramafic rocks and chromitites in the studied massif show the distinct deformation structures and tectonite olivine fabric. A typical chemical gap (i.e. Cr#=Cr/(Cr+Al was observed between peridotite, on the one hand, and dunite and chromitite, on the other hand, on the scale of deposits and ore-bearing zones. The location and size of this gap depend on the type of deposit. The gap becomes wider from the disseminated tabular bodies to the typical podiform ones. It has been found that in the thin initial dunite veinlets in peridotite the chrome spinels chemistry changes gradually and there is no Cr# gap between peridotite and dunite. The dunite venlets show a strong olivine fabric, which is an evidence of their high-temperature plastic flow origin. It has been revealed that new chrome spinel grains previously formed as rods or needles and then coarsened. We explained this observation as the result of impurity segregation, coalescence and spheroidization induced by the plastic deformation of olivine. It is inferred that a solid crystal flow is the main requirement for the dunite and chromitite body formation in the Kraka ophiolite massif. In the solid stream, the mineral phase separation takes place. For example, olivine and orthopyroxene grains of parental peridotite separate from one another, and weaker (more mobile olivine grains form dunite bodies in which chromitite appears as a result of impurity segregation.

  15. Adiposity, lipogenesis, and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues of Brahman and Angus crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, E M G; Sanders, J O; Lunt, D K; Gill, C A; Taylor, J F; Davis, S K; Riley, D G; Smith, S B

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate differences in aspects of adipose tissue cellularity, lipid metabolism, and fatty and cholesterol composition in Angus and Brahman crossbred cattle. We hypothesized that in vitro measures of lipogenesis would be greater in three-fourths Angus progeny than in three-fourths Brahman progeny, especially in intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissue. Progeny ( = 227) were fed a standard, corn-based diet for approximately 150 d before slaughter. Breed was considered to be the effect of interest and was forced into the model. There were 9 breed groups including all 4 kinds of three-fourths Angus calves: Angus bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 32), Angus bulls Brahman-sired F cows ( = 20), Brahman-sired F bulls Angus cows ( = 24), and Angus-sired F bulls Angus cows ( = 20). There were all 4 kinds of three-fourths Brahman calves: Brahman bulls Brahman-sired F cows ( = 21), Brahman bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 43), Brahman-sired F bulls Brahman cows ( = 26), and Angus-sired F bulls Brahman cows ( = 13). Additionally, F calves (one-half Brahman and one-half Angus) were produced only from Brahman-sired F bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 28). Contrasts were calculated when breed was an important fixed effect, using the random effect family(breed) as the error term. Most contrasts were nonsignificant ( > 0.10). Those that were significant ( Angus > F, three-fourths Brahman > F, and three-fourths crossbred progeny combined > F), s.c. adipocyte volume (three-fourths Angus > F and three-fourths bloods combined > F), lipogenesis from acetate in s.c. adipose tissue (three-fourths Brahman calves from Brahman dams > three-fourths Brahman calves from F dams), and percentage 18:3-3 in s.c. adipose tissue (three-fourths Brahman calves from Brahman-sired F dams Angus-sired F dams). Intramuscular adipocyte volume ( Angus cattle. Additionally, several differences were observed in i.m. adipose tissue that were consistent with this being a less-developed adipose

  16. Evaluation of Synthesized Nanohydroxyapatite-Nanocellulose Composites as Biocompatible Scaffolds for Applications in Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia S. Herdocia-Lluberes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic calcium phosphate (BCP crystals have been associated with many diseases due to their activation of signaling pathways that lead to their mineralization and deposition in intra-articular and periarticular locations in the bones. In this study, hydroxyapatite (HAp has been placed in a polysaccharide network as a strategy to minimize this deposition. This research consisted of the evaluation of varying proportions of the polysaccharide network, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs, and HAp synthesized via a simple sol-gel method. The resulting biocompatible composites were extensively characterized by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, dynamic light scattering (DLS, zeta potential, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was found that an nHAp = CNC ratio presented greater homogeneity in the size and distribution of the nanoparticles without compromising the crystalline structure. Also, incorporation of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 was performed to evaluate the effects that this interaction would have in the constructs. Finally, the osteoblast cell (hFOB 1.19 viability assay was executed and it showed that all of the materials promoted greater cell proliferation while the nHAp > CNC proportion with the inclusion of the BMP-2 protein was the best composite for the purpose of this study.

  17. Infectious bursal disease virus infection leads to changes in the gut associated-lymphoid tissue and the microbiota composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Kubasová, Tereza; Rychlik, Ivan; Hoerr, Frederic J; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2018-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious and immunosuppressive poultry disease. IBD virus (IBDV) is the causative agent, which may lead to high morbidity and mortality rates in susceptible birds. IBDV-pathogenesis studies have focused mainly on primary lymphoid organs. It is not known if IBDV infection may modify the development of the gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) as well as the microbiota composition. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of IBDV-infection on the bursa of Fabricius (BF), caecal tonsils (CT) and caecum, and to determine the effects on the gut microbiota composition in the caecum. Commercial broiler chickens were inoculated with a very virulent (vv) strain of IBDV at 14 (Experiment 2) or 15 (Experiment 1) days post hatch (dph). Virus replication, lesion development, immune parameters including numbers of T and B lymphocytes, macrophages, as well as the gut microbiota composition were compared between groups. Rapid IBDV-replication was detected in the BF, CT and caecum. It was accompanied by histological lesions including an infiltration of heterophils. In addition a significant reduction in the total mucosal thickness of the caecum was observed in vvIBDV-infected birds compared to virus-free controls (P < 0.05). vvIBDV infection also led to an increase in T lymphocyte numbers and macrophages, as well as a decrease in the number of B lymphocytes in the lamina propria of the caecum, and in the caecal tonsils. Illumina sequencing analysis indicated that vvIBDV infection also induced changes in the abundance of Clostridium XIVa and Faecalibacterium over time. Overall, our results suggested that vvIBDV infection had a significant impact on the GALT and led to a modulation of gut microbiota composition, which may lead to a higher susceptibility of affected birds for pathogens invading through the gut.

  18. Infectious bursal disease virus infection leads to changes in the gut associated-lymphoid tissue and the microbiota composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease (IBD is an acute, highly contagious and immunosuppressive poultry disease. IBD virus (IBDV is the causative agent, which may lead to high morbidity and mortality rates in susceptible birds. IBDV-pathogenesis studies have focused mainly on primary lymphoid organs. It is not known if IBDV infection may modify the development of the gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALT as well as the microbiota composition. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of IBDV-infection on the bursa of Fabricius (BF, caecal tonsils (CT and caecum, and to determine the effects on the gut microbiota composition in the caecum. Commercial broiler chickens were inoculated with a very virulent (vv strain of IBDV at 14 (Experiment 2 or 15 (Experiment 1 days post hatch (dph. Virus replication, lesion development, immune parameters including numbers of T and B lymphocytes, macrophages, as well as the gut microbiota composition were compared between groups. Rapid IBDV-replication was detected in the BF, CT and caecum. It was accompanied by histological lesions including an infiltration of heterophils. In addition a significant reduction in the total mucosal thickness of the caecum was observed in vvIBDV-infected birds compared to virus-free controls (P < 0.05. vvIBDV infection also led to an increase in T lymphocyte numbers and macrophages, as well as a decrease in the number of B lymphocytes in the lamina propria of the caecum, and in the caecal tonsils. Illumina sequencing analysis indicated that vvIBDV infection also induced changes in the abundance of Clostridium XIVa and Faecalibacterium over time. Overall, our results suggested that vvIBDV infection had a significant impact on the GALT and led to a modulation of gut microbiota composition, which may lead to a higher susceptibility of affected birds for pathogens invading through the gut.

  19. Computer tomographic investigation of subcutaneous adipose tissue as an indicator of body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Fintan; Madsen, Mads T.; Nielsen, Mai B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Modern computer tomography (CT) equipment can be used to acquire whole-body data from large animals such as pigs in minutes or less. In some circumstances, computer assisted analysis of the resulting image data can identify and measure anatomical features. The thickness of subcutaneous...... adipose tissue at a specific site measured by ultrasound, is used in the pig industry to assess adiposity and inform management decisions that have an impact on reproduction, food conversion performance and sow longevity. The measurement site, called "P2", is used throughout the industry. We propose...... and expressed as a proportion of total volume (fat-index). A computer algorithm was used to determined 10,201 subcutaneous adipose thickness measurements in each pig for each scan. From these data, sites were selected where correlation with fat-index was optimal. Results Image analysis correctly identified...

  20. Outsourcing neural active control to passive composite mechanics: a tissue engineered cyborg ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Park, Sung Jin; Park, Kyung Soo; Park, Shirley; di Santo, Valentina; Deisseroth, Karl; Lauder, George V.; Mahadevan, L.; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2016-11-01

    Translating the blueprint that stingrays and skates provide, we create a cyborg swimming ray capable of orchestrating adaptive maneuvering and phototactic navigation. The impossibility of replicating the neural system of batoids fish is bypassed by outsourcing algorithmic functionalities to the body composite mechanics, hence casting the active control problem into a design, passive one. We present a first step in engineering multilevel "brain-body-flow" systems that couple sensory information to motor coordination and movement, leading to behavior. This work paves the way for the development of autonomous and adaptive artificial creatures able to process multiple sensory inputs and produce complex behaviors in distributed systems and may represent a path toward soft-robotic "embodied cognition".

  1. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity in Different Tissues of Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Ram Bhandari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate glucosinolate profiles, vitamin C, total phenol, total flavonoid, and free sugar (glucose, fructose, and sucrose content, fatty acid composition, and antioxidant activity in floret and leaf of six cauliflower and broccoli cultivars. The level of chemical constituents as well as antioxidants significantly varied among crop types, cultivars, and their different parts, in that phytochemicals such as glucosinolate were statistically higher in florets compared with leaves in both broccoli and cauliflower cultivars. In contrast, total flavonoid and free sugar were found at higher levels in the leaf parts. The Asia purple cultivar exhibited statistically higher vitamin C (649.7 mg·100 g−1, total phenol (1345.2 mg·GAE 100 g−1, and total flavonoid (632.7 mg·CE 100 g−1 contents and consequently had the highest antioxidant activity (1.12 mg·mL−1 in its florets, while Baeridom and Bridal had the highest total glucosinolate (9.66 µmol·g−1 and free sugar (318.6 mg·g−1 contents, respectively compared with other cultivars. Likewise, the major fatty acids were palmitic (23.52%–38.42%, linoleic (13.09%–18.97%, and linolenic (26.32%–51.80% acids, which comprised the highest compositional ratio (more than 50% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs in most cultivars. Among the antioxidants, total phenol exhibited the most significant positive correlation (r = 0.698 ** with antioxidant activity, followed by vitamin C (r = 0.522 ** and total flavonoid (r = 0.494 **, indicating their significant contributions to total antioxidant activity.

  2. Natural Hg isotopic composition of different Hg compounds in mammal tissues as a proxy for in vivo breakdown of toxic methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Vincent; Masbou, Jeremy; Pastukhov, Mikhail V; Epov, Vladimir N; Point, David; Bérail, Sylvain; Becker, Paul R; Sonke, Jeroen E; Amouroux, David

    2016-02-01

    In the last decade, specific attention has been paid to total mercury (HgT) stable isotopic composition, especially in natural samples such as aquatic organisms, due to its potential to track the cycle of this toxic element in the environment. Here, we investigated Hg Compound Specific stable Isotopic Composition (CSIC) of natural inorganic Hg (iHg) and methylmercury (MMHg) in various tissues of aquatic mammals (Beluga whale from the Arctic marine environment and seals from the freshwater lake Baikal, Russia). In seals' organs the variation in mass dependent fractionation (MDF, δ(202)Hg) for total Hg was significantly correlated to the respective fraction of iHg and MMHg compounds, with MMHg being enriched by ∼ 3‰ in heavier isotopes relative to iHg. On the other hand, we observe insignificant variation in Hg mass independent isotope fractionation (MIF, Δ(199)Hg) among iHg and MMHg in all organs for the same mammal species and MMHg in prey items. MIF signatures suggest that both MMHg and iHg in aquatic mammals have the same origin (i.e., MMHg from food), and are representative of Hg photochemistry in the water column of the mammal ecosystem. MDF signatures of Hg compounds indicate that MMHg is demethylated in vivo before being stored in the muscle, and the iHg formed is stored in the liver, and to a lesser extent in the kidney, before excretion. Thus, Hg CSIC analysis in mammals can be a powerful tool for tracing the metabolic response to Hg exposure.

  3. Evaluation of a deep learning approach for the segmentation of brain tissues and white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeskops, Pim; de Bresser, Jeroen; Kuijf, Hugo J; Mendrik, Adriënne M; Biessels, Geert Jan; Pluim, Josien P W; Išgum, Ivana

    2018-01-01

    Automatic segmentation of brain tissues and white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin (WMH) in MRI of older patients is widely described in the literature. Although brain abnormalities and motion artefacts are common in this age group, most segmentation methods are not evaluated in a setting that includes these items. In the present study, our tissue segmentation method for brain MRI was extended and evaluated for additional WMH segmentation. Furthermore, our method was evaluated in two large cohorts with a realistic variation in brain abnormalities and motion artefacts. The method uses a multi-scale convolutional neural network with a T 1 -weighted image, a T 2 -weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) image and a T 1 -weighted inversion recovery (IR) image as input. The method automatically segments white matter (WM), cortical grey matter (cGM), basal ganglia and thalami (BGT), cerebellum (CB), brain stem (BS), lateral ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (lvCSF), peripheral cerebrospinal fluid (pCSF), and WMH. Our method was evaluated quantitatively with images publicly available from the MRBrainS13 challenge ( n  = 20), quantitatively and qualitatively in relatively healthy older subjects ( n  = 96), and qualitatively in patients from a memory clinic ( n  = 110). The method can accurately segment WMH (Overall Dice coefficient in the MRBrainS13 data of 0.67) without compromising performance for tissue segmentations (Overall Dice coefficients in the MRBrainS13 data of 0.87 for WM, 0.85 for cGM, 0.82 for BGT, 0.93 for CB, 0.92 for BS, 0.93 for lvCSF, 0.76 for pCSF). Furthermore, the automatic WMH volumes showed a high correlation with manual WMH volumes (Spearman's ρ  = 0.83 for relatively healthy older subjects). In both cohorts, our method produced reliable segmentations (as determined by a human observer) in most images (relatively healthy/memory clinic: tissues 88%/77% reliable, WMH 85%/84% reliable) despite various degrees of

  4. Silicate Inclusions in IAB Irons: Correlations Between Metal Composition and Inclusion Properties, and Inferences for Their Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedix, G. K.; McCoy, T. J.; Keil, K.

    1995-09-01

    IAB irons are the largest group of iron meteorites, exhibit a large range of siderophile element concentrations in their metal, and commonly contain silicate inclusions with roughly chondritic composition. They are closely related to IIICD irons [1,2] and their inclusions resemble winonaites [3]. It has been suggested that IAB's and IIICD's formed in individual impact melt pools [4,2] on a common parent body. However, it has also been suggested that fractional crystallization [5,6] of a S-saturated core could produce the observed siderophile element trends. Metal composition is correlated with silicate inclusion mineralogy in IIICD's [1], indicating reactions between solid silicates and the metallic magma in a core. These trends observed in IIICD's differ from those in IAB's, suggesting different parent bodies. A bi-modal grouping, based primarily on mineralogy and mineral abundances, was suggested for IAB inclusions [7]. However, recent recoveries of several new silicate-bearing IAB's, along with the emergence of new ideas on their origins, prompted a comprehensive study to document more fully the range of inclusions within IAB irons, to examine possible correlations between the compositions of the metallic host and the silicate inclusions, and to elucidate the origin of IAB irons. We are studying troilite-graphite-silicate inclusions in 24 IAB irons with Ni concentrations ranging from 6.6-25.0%. These include Odessa and Copiapo types [7], newly recovered meteorites (e.g., Lueders [8]) and meteorites with extreme Ni contents (e.g., Jenny's Creek, 6.8%; San Cristobal, 25.0% [9]). The inclusions exhibit a range of textures from recrystallized to partial melts (e.g., Caddo County [10]). Rigorous classification [7] is hampered by heterogeneities between group meteorites, between different samples of distinct meteorites, and within individual inclusions. While intergroup heterogeneities make comparisons between the suite of IAB's somewhat difficult, some general trends

  5. Localization of trefoil factor family peptide 3 (TFF3) in epithelial tissues originating from the three germ layers of developing mouse embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijelić, Nikola; Belovari, Tatjana; Tolušić Levak, Maja; Baus Lončar, Mirela

    2017-08-20

    Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides are involved in the maintenance of epithelial integrity and epithelial restitution. Mature epithelial tissues originate from different embryonic germ layers. The objective of this research was to explore the presence and localization of TFF3 peptide in mouse embryonic epithelia and to examine if the occurrence of TFF3 peptide is germ layer-dependent. Mouse embryos (14-18 days old) were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. Immunohistochemistry was performed with affinity purified rabbit anti-TFF3 antibody, goat anti-rabbit biotinylated secondary antibody and streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase, followed by 3,3'-diaminobenzidine. TFF3 peptide was present in the gastric and intestinal mucosa, respiratory mucosa in the upper and lower airways, pancreas, kidney tubules, epidermis, and oral cavity. The presence and localization of TFF3 peptide was associated with the embryonic stage and tissue differentiation. TFF3 peptide distribution specific to the germ layers was not observed. The role of TFF3 peptide in cell migration and differentiation, immune response, and apoptosis might be associated with specific embryonic epithelial cells. TFF3 peptide may also be considered as a marker for mucosal maturation.

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells of Fetal (Wharton's Jelly and Adult (Adipose Tissue Origin during Prolonged In Vitro Expansion: Considerations for Cytotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Christodoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are somatic cells with a dual capacity for self-renewal and differentiation, and diverse therapeutic applicability, both experimentally and in the clinic. These cells can be isolated from various human tissues that may differ anatomically or developmentally with relative ease. Heterogeneity due to biological origin or in vitro manipulation is, nevertheless, considerable and may equate to differences in qualitative and quantitative characteristics which can prove crucial for successful therapeutic use. With this in mind, in the present study we have evaluated the proliferation kinetics and phenotypic characteristics of MSCs derived from two abundant sources, that is, fetal umbilical cord matrix (Wharton's jelly and adult adipose tissue (termed WJSC and ADSC, resp. during prolonged in vitro expansion, a process necessary for obtaining cell numbers sufficient for clinical application. Our results show that WJSC are derived with relatively high efficiency and bear a substantially increased proliferation capacity whilst largely sustaining the expression of typical immunophenotypic markers, whereas ADSC exhibit a reduced proliferation potential showing typical signs of senescence at an early stage. By combining kinetic with phenotypic data we identify culture thresholds up to which both cell types maintain their stem properties, and we discuss the practical implications of their differences.

  7. Localization of trefoil factor family peptide 3 (TFF3 in epithelial tissues originating from the three germ layers of developing mouse embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Bijelić

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Trefoil factor family (TFF peptides are involved in the maintenance of epithelial integrity and epithelial restitution. Mature epithelial tissues originate from different embryonic germ layers. The objective of this research was to explore the presence and localization of TFF3 peptide in mouse embryonic epithelia and to examine if the occurrence of TFF3 peptide is germ layer-dependent. Mouse embryos (14-18 days old were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. Immunohistochemistry was performed with affinity purified rabbit anti-TFF3 antibody, goat anti-rabbit biotinylated secondary antibody and streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase, followed by 3,3'-diaminobenzidine. TFF3 peptide was present in the gastric and intestinal mucosa, respiratory mucosa in the upper and lower airways, pancreas, kidney tubules, epidermis, and oral cavity. The presence and localization of TFF3 peptide was associated with the embryonic stage and tissue differentiation. TFF3 peptide distribution specific to the germ layers was not observed. The role of TFF3 peptide in cell migration and differentiation, immune response, and apoptosis might be associated with specific embryonic epithelial cells. TFF3 peptide may also be considered as a marker for mucosal maturation.

  8. Tissue-engineered matrices as functional delivery systems: adsorption and release of bioactive proteins from degradable composite scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushnie, Emily K; Khan, Yusuf M; Laurencin, Cato T

    2010-08-01

    A tissue-engineered bone graft should imitate the ideal autograft in both form and function. However, biomaterials that have appropriate chemical and mechanical properties for grafting applications often lack biological components that may enhance regeneration. The concept of adding proteins such as growth factors to scaffolds has therefore emerged as a possible solution to improve overall graft design. In this study, we investigated this concept by loading porous hydroxyapatite-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (HA-PLAGA) scaffolds with a model protein, cytochrome c, and then studying its release in a phosphate-buffered saline solution. The HA-PLAGA scaffold has previously been shown to be bioactive, osteoconductive, and to have appropriate physical properties for tissue engineering applications. The loading experiments demonstrated that the HA-PLAGA scaffold could also function effectively as a substrate for protein adsorption and release. Scaffold protein adsorptive loading (as opposed to physical entrapment within the matrix) was directly related to levels of scaffold HA-content. The HA phase of the scaffold facilitated protein retention in the matrix following incubation in aqueous buffer for periods up to 8 weeks. Greater levels of protein retention time may improve the protein's effective activity by increasing the probability for protein-cell interactions. The ability to control protein loading and delivery simply via composition of the HA-PLAGA scaffold offers the potential of forming robust functionalized bone grafts. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Production of Composite Scaffold Containing Silk Fibroin, Chitosan, and Gelatin for 3D Cell Culture and Bone Tissue Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianqing; Wang, Qiuke; Gu, Yebo; Zhu, Yu; Chen, Liang; Chen, Yunfeng

    2017-11-08

    BACKGROUND Bone tissue engineering, a powerful tool to treat bone defects, is highly dependent on use of scaffolds. Both silk fibroin (SF) and chitosan (Cs) are biocompatible and actively studied for reconstruction of tissue engineering. Gelatin (Gel) is also widely applied in the biomedical field due to its low antigenicity and physicochemical stability. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study, 4 different types of scaffolds were constructed - SF, SF/Cs, SF/Gel, and SF/Cs/Gel - and we compared their physical and chemical properties as well as biological characterization of these scaffolds to determine the most suitable scaffold for use in bone regeneration. First, these scaffolds were produced via chemical cross-linking method and freeze-drying technique. Next, the characterization of internal structure was studied using scanning electron microscopy and the porosity was evaluated by liquid displacement method. Then, we compared physicochemical properties such as water absorption rate and degradation property. Finally, MC3T3-E1 cells were inoculated on the scaffolds to study the biocompatibility and osteogenesis of the three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds in vitro. RESULTS The composite scaffold formed by all 3 components was the best for use in bone regeneration. CONCLUSIONS We conclude that the best scaffold among the 4 studied for MC3T3-E1 cells is our SF/Cs/Gel scaffold, suggesting a new choice for bone regeneration that can be used to treat bone defects or fractures in clinical practice.

  10. Relevance of fiber integrated gelatin-nanohydroxyapatite composite scaffold for bone tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halima Shamaz, Bibi; Anitha, A.; Vijayamohan, Manju; Kuttappan, Shruthy; Nair, Shantikumar; Nair, Manitha B.

    2015-10-01

    Porous nanohydroxyapatite (nanoHA) is a promising bone substitute, but it is brittle, which limits its utility for load bearing applications. To address this issue, herein, biodegradable electrospun microfibrous sheets of poly(L-lactic acid)-(PLLA)-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were incorporated into a gelatin-nanoHA matrix which was investigated for its mechanical properties, the physical integration of the fibers with the matrix, cell infiltration, osteogenic differentiation and bone regeneration. The inclusion of sacrificial fibers like PVA along with PLLA and leaching resulted in improved cellular infiltration towards the center of the scaffold. Furthermore, the treatment of PLLA fibers with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide enhanced their hydrophilicity, ensuring firm anchorage between the fibers and the gelatin-HA matrix. The incorporation of PLLA microfibers within the gelatin-nanoHA matrix reduced the brittleness of the scaffolds, the effect being proportional to the number of layers of fibrous sheets in the matrix. The proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells was augmented on the fibrous scaffolds in comparison to those scaffolds devoid of fibers. Finally, the scaffold could promote cell infiltration, together with bone regeneration, upon implantation in a rabbit femoral cortical defect within 4 weeks. The bone regeneration potential was significantly higher when compared to commercially available HA (Surgiwear™). Thus, this biomimetic, porous, 3D composite scaffold could be offered as a promising candidate for bone regeneration in orthopedics.

  11. Fabricating a pearl/PLGA composite scaffold by the low-temperature deposition manufacturing technique for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mingen; Li Yanlei; Suo Hairui; Wang Qiujun; Ge Yakun; Xu Ying; Yan Yongnian; Liu Li

    2010-01-01

    Here we developed a composite scaffold of pearl/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (pearl/PLGA) utilizing the low-temperature deposition manufacturing (LDM). LDM makes it possible to fabricate scaffolds with designed microstructure and macrostructure, while keeping the bioactivity of biomaterials by working at a low temperature. Process optimization was carried out to fabricate a mixture of pearl powder, PLGA and 1,4-dioxane with the designed hierarchical structures, and freeze-dried at a temperature of -40 deg. C. Scaffolds with square and designated bone shape were fabricated by following the 3D model. Marrow stem cells (MSCs) were seeded on the pearl/PLGA scaffold and then cultured in a rotating cell culture system. The adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of MSCs into osteoblasts were determined using scanning electronic microscopy, WST-1 assay, alkaline phosphatase activity assay, immunofluorescence staining and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that the composite scaffold had high porosity (81.98 ± 3.75%), proper pore size (micropores: <10 μm; macropore: 495 ± 54 μm) and mechanical property (compressive strength: 0.81 ± 0.04 MPa; elastic modulus: 23.14 ± 0.75 MPa). The pearl/PLGA scaffolds exhibited better biocompatibility and osteoconductivity compared with the tricalcium phosphate/PLGA scaffold. All these results indicate that the pearl/PLGA scaffolds fulfill the basic requirements of bone tissue engineering scaffold.

  12. Enhanced Bone Tissue Regeneration by Porous Gelatin Composites Loaded with the Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ling Wang

    Full Text Available Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT is a traditional Chinese herbal decoction containing Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae sinensis. Pharmacological results indicate that DBT can stimulate bone cell proliferation and differentiation. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of adding DBT to bone substitutes on bone regeneration following bone injury. DBT was incorporated into porous composites (GGT made from genipin-crosslinked gelatin and β-triclacium phosphates as bone substitutes (GGTDBT. The biological response of mouse calvarial bone to these composites was evaluated by in vivo imaging systems (IVIS, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT, and histology analysis. IVIS images revealed a stronger fluorescent signal in GGTDBT-treated defect than in GGT-treated defect at 8 weeks after implantation. Micro-CT analysis demonstrated that the level of repair from week 4 to 8 increased from 42.1% to 71.2% at the sites treated with GGTDBT, while that increased from 33.2% to 54.1% at GGT-treated sites. These findings suggest that the GGTDBT stimulates the innate regenerative capacity of bone, supporting their use in bone tissue regeneration.

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF DIFFERENT ORIGIN BEANS (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. ON TOLERANCE TO THE BEAN WEEVIL (ACANTHOSCELIDES OBTECTUS SAY STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A ODAGIU

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say is a very harmful pest. When pest control lacks it can produce 100% damages in stocked seeds. Research performed in Romania emphasized the importance of resistant or tolerant origins use besides the quarantine and fight measures in order to limit the stroke of this pest (Manolache et al., 1966; Marghitu et al., 1978. Research aimed to establish the chemical composition of the beans of different origins in the same time with correlation between the different chemical components and their tolerance against A. obtectus stroke.

  14. The design of and chronic tissue response to a composite nerve electrode with patterned stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeberg, M. J.; Stone, M. A.; Triolo, R. J.; Tyler, D. J.

    2017-06-01

    Objective. As neural interfaces demonstrate success in chronic applications, a novel class of reshaping electrodes with patterned regions of stiffness will enable application to a widening range of anatomical locations. Patterning stiff regions and flexible regions of the electrode enables nerve reshaping while accommodating anatomical constraints of various implant locations ranging from peripheral nerves to spinal and autonomic plexi. Approach. Introduced is a new composite electrode enabling patterning of regions of various electrode mechanical properties. The initial demonstration of the composite’s capability is the composite flat interface nerve electrode (C-FINE). The C-FINE is constructed from a sandwich of patterned PEEK within layers of pliable silicone. The shape of the PEEK provides a desired pattern of stiffness: stiff across the width of the nerve to reshape the nerve, but flexible along its length to allow for bending with the nerve. This is particularly important in anatomical locations near joints or organs, and in constrained compartments. We tested pressure and volume design constraints in vitro to verify that the C-FINE can attain a safe cuff-to-nerve ratio (CNR) without impeding intraneural blood flow. We measured nerve function as well as nerve and axonal morphology following 3 month implantation of the C-FINE without wires on feline peripheral nerves in anatomically constrained areas near mobile joints and major blood vessels in both the hind and fore limbs. Main Results. In vitro inflation tests showed effective CNRs (1.93  ±  0.06) that exceeded the industry safety standard of 1.5 at an internal pressure of 20 mmHg. This is less than the 30 mmHg shown to induce loss of conduction or compromise blood flow. Implanted cats showed no changes in physiology or electrophysiology. Behavioral signs were normal suggesting healthy nerves. Motor nerve conduction velocity and compound motor action potential did not change significantly

  15. Metabolic rates and biochemical compositions of Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) tissue during periods of inactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jie; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Wang, Fang; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Yunwei

    2010-03-01

    Estivation, hibernation, and starvation are indispensable inactive states of sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus in nature and in culture ponds. Generally, temperature is the principal factor that induces estivation or hibernation in the sea cucumber. The present study provided insight into the physiological adaptations of A. japonicus during the three types of inactivity (hibernation, estivation, and starvation) by measuring the oxygen consumption rates ( Vo2) and biochemical compositions under laboratory conditions of low (3°C), normal (17°C) and high (24°C) temperature. The results show that the characteristics of A. japonicus in dormancy (hibernation and estivation) states were quite different from higher animals, such as fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, but more closely resembled a semi-dormant state. It was observed that the shift in the A. japonicus physiological state from normal to dormancy was a chronic rather than acute process, indicated by the gradual depression of metabolic rate. While metabolic rates declined 44.9% for the estivation group and 71.7% for the hibernation group, relative to initial rates, during the 36 d culture period, metabolic rates were not maintained at constant levels during these states. The metabolic depression processes for sea cucumbers in hibernation and estivation appeared to be a passive and an active metabolic suppression, respectively. In contrast, the metabolic rates (128.90±11.70 μg/g h) of estivating sea cucumbers were notably higher (107.85±6.31 μg/g h) than in starving sea cucumbers at 17°C, which indicated that the dormancy mechanism here, as a physiological inhibition, was not as efficient as in higher animals. Finally, the principle metabolic substrate or energy source of sea cucumbers in hibernation was lipid, whereas in estivation they mainly consumed protein in the early times and both protein and lipid thereafter.

  16. Electrospun composites of PHBV, silk fibroin and nano-hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paşcu, Elena I; Stokes, Joseph; McGuinness, Garrett B

    2013-12-01

    Electrospinning of fibrous scaffolds containing nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) embedded in a matrix of functional biomacromolecules offers an attractive route to mimicking the natural bone tissue architecture. Functional fibrous substrates will support cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation, while the role of HAp is to induce cells to secrete extracellular matrix (ECM) for mineralization to form bone. Electrospinning of biomaterials composed of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-(3-hydroxyvalerate) with 2% valerate fraction (PHBV), nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp), and Bombyx mori silk fibroin essence (SF), Mw=90KDa, has been achieved for nHAp and SF solution concentrations of 2 (w/vol) % each and 5 (w/vol) % each. The structure and properties of the nanocomposite fibrous membranes were investigated by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy in combination with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (SEM/EDX), Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), uniaxial tensile and compressive mechanical testing, degradation tests and in vitro bioactivity tests. SEM images showed smooth, uniform and continuous fibre deposition with no bead formation, and fibre diameters of between 10 and 15 μm. EDX and FT-IR confirmed the presence of nHAp and SF. After one month in deionised water, tests showed less than 2% weight loss with the samples retaining their fibrous morphology, confirming that this material biodegrades slowly. After 28 days of immersion in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) an apatite layer was visible on the surface of the fibres, proving their bioactivity. Preliminary in vitro biological assessment showed that after 1 and 3 days in culture, cells were attached to the fibres, retaining their morphology while presenting a flattened appearance and elongated shape on the surface of fibres. Young's modulus was found to increase from 0.7 kPa (±0.33 kPa) for electrospun samples of PHBV only to 1.4 kPa (±0.54 kPa) for samples with 2 (w/vol) % each of nHAp and SF. Samples prepared with

  17. Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasen, M.B.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter discusses the roles of composite laminates and aggregates in cryogenic technology. Filamentary-reinforced composites are emphasized because they are the most widely used composite materials. Topics considered include composite systems and terminology, design and fabrication, composite failure, high-pressure reinforced plastic laminates, low-pressure reinforced plastics, reinforced metals, selectively reinforced structures, the effect of cryogenic temperatures, woven-fabric and random-mat composites, uniaxial fiber-reinforced composites, composite joints in cryogenic structures, joining techniques at room temperature, radiation effects, testing laminates at cryogenic temperatures, static and cyclic tensile testing, static and cyclic compression testing, interlaminar shear testing, secondary property tests, and concrete aggregates. It is suggested that cryogenic composite technology would benefit from the development of a fracture mechanics model for predicting the fitness-for-purpose of polymer-matrix composite structures

  18. Inverse relationship between tumour proliferation markers and connexin expression in a malignant cardiac tumour originating from mesenchymal stem cell engineered tissue in a rat in-vivo model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathleen eSpath

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, we demonstrated the beneficial effects of engineered heart tissues for the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy in rats. For further development of this technique we started to produce engineered tissue (ET from mesenchymal stem cells. Interestingly, we observed a malignant tumour invading the heart with an inverse relationship between proliferation markers and connexin-expression.Methods: Commercial CD54+/CD90+/CD34-/CD45- bone marrow derived mesenchymal rat stem cells (cBM-MSC, characterized were used for production of mesenchymal stem-cell-ET (MSC-ET by suspending them in a collagen-I, matrigel-mixture and cultivating for 14 days with electrical stimulation. 3 MSC-ET were implanted around the beating heart of adult rats for days. Another 3 MSC-ET were produced from freshly isolated rat bone marrow derived stem cells (sBM-MSC.Results: 3 weeks after implantation of the MSC-ETs the hearts were surgically excised. While in 5/6 cases the ET was clearly distinguishable and was found as a ring containing mostly connective tissue around the heart, in 1/6 the heart was completely surrounded by a huge, undifferentiated, pleomorphic tumour originating from the cMSC-ET (cBM-MSC, classified as a high grade malignant sarcoma. Quantitatively we found a clear inverse relationship between cardiac connexin-expression (Cx43, Cx40 or Cx45 and increased Ki-67 expression (Cx43: p<0.0001, Cx45: p<0.03, Cx40: p<0.014. At the tumour-heart border there were significantly more Ki-67 positive cells (p=0.001, and only 2% Cx45 and Ki-67-expressing cells, while the other connexins were nearly completely absent (p<0.0001.Conclusions and hypothesis: These observations strongly suggest the hypothesis, that invasive tumour growth is accompanied by reduction in connexins. This implicates that gap junction communication between tumour and normal tissue is reduced or absent, which could mean that growth and differentiation signals can not be exchanged.

  19. Fabrication and Properties of Silica Gel/Calcium Sulfate/Strontium-doped β-tricalcium Phosphate Composite Porous Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIN Xiao-su

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The calcium sulfate/strontium-doped β-tricalcium phosphate composite spherical pellets was fabricated, using the calcium sulfate/strontium-doped β-TCP as raw material, and through the stirring spray drying method, and then composite spherical pellets were combined with silica gel, porous silica gel/calcium sulfate/strontium-doped β-tricalcium phosphate scaffold was obtained by stacking aggregation method in the mould. The XRD, SEM and FT-IR, etc are employed to examine the chemical composition, composite morphology and structure characteristics, and the degradability, porosity, mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of the scaffolds materials were studied. The results reveal that the composite porous scaffolds have irregular pore structure with pore size between 0.2-1.0mm, and they have a large number of micropores on each of the composite spherical pellets, with the aperture between 50-200μm. Moreover, the porosity of the composite scaffolds is about 62%, which can meet the requirements of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering in porosity; the cytotoxicity tests show the composite scaffolds have no cytotoxic effect and it has good degradation. Therefore, it has good application prospect in bone tissue engineering of the bone defect repair of non-bearing site.

  20. Short and long carbon fibre reinforced Cu-matrix composites: microstructural results and structural origin of properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchgraber, W.

    1997-01-01

    Carbon fibre reinforced copper matrix composites possess properties of copper, i.e. excellent thermal and electrical conductivities, and properties of carbon fibre, i.e. a small thermal expansion coefficient. Since the desirable properties of the composite can be obtained by selecting the amount, type and orientation of the carbon fibres, it is considered to be suitable for use as electric and electronic materials. This lecture focuses on two-dimensional isotropic carbon fibre reinforced copper matrix composites with long or short carbon fibres. Short carbon fibre reinforced copper matrix composites have been produced by hot-pressing of copper coated short carbon fibres. During hot-pressing, the carbon fibres take on a preferred orientation in a plane perpendicular to the hot pressing direction. Within this plane the fibre orientation is random. Long carbon fibre reinforced copper matrix composites have been made by hot pressing of monolayers consisting of copper coated long carbon fibres. Different orientations of the monolayers will be compared. Both the physical and mechanical properties of the discussed composites are strongly influenced not only by the properties of its individual constituents, but also by the microstructure and properties of the fibre matrix interface. The problem of poor wettability of the carbon fibre by the copper matrix will be discussed. The microstructure of several types of carbon fibre reinforced copper matrix composites will be discussed. Their thermophysical properties will be compared with microstructural results. (author)

  1. Exposure of tumor-bearing mice to extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation modifies the composition of fatty acids in thymocytes and tumor tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapeyev, Andrew B; Kulagina, Tatiana P; Aripovsky, Alexander V

    2013-08-01

    To test the participation of fatty acids (FA) in antitumor effects of extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR), the changes in the FA composition in the thymus, liver, blood plasma, muscle tissue, and tumor tissue in mice with Ehrlich solid carcinoma exposed to EHF EMR were studied. Normal and tumor-bearing mice were exposed to EHF EMR with effective parameters (42.2 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm2, 20 min daily during five consecutive days beginning the first day after the inoculation of tumor cells). Fatty acid composition of various organs and tissues of mice were determined using a gas chromatography. It was shown that the exposure of normal mice to EHF EMR or tumor growth significantly increased the content of monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and decreased the content of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) in all tissues examined. Exposure of tumor-bearing mice to EHF EMR led to the recovery of FA composition in thymocytes to the state that is typical for normal animals. In other tissues of tumor-bearing mice, the exposure to EHF EMR did not induce considerable changes that would be significantly distinguished between disturbances caused by EHF EMR exposure or tumor growth separately. In tumor tissue which is characterized by elevated level of MUFA, the exposure to EHF EMR significantly decreased the summary content of MUFA and increased the summary content of PUFA. The recovery of the FA composition in thymocytes and the modification of the FA composition in the tumor under the influence of EHF EMR on tumor-bearing animals may have crucial importance for elucidating the mechanisms of antitumor effects of the electromagnetic radiation.

  2. Composition of Dietary Fat Source Shapes Gut Microbiota Architecture and Alters Host Inflammatory Mediators in Mouse Adipose Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Edmond; Leone, Vanessa; Devkota, Suzanne; Wang, Yunwei; Brady, Matthew; Chang, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Background Growing evidence shows that dietary factors can dramatically alter the gut microbiome in ways that contribute to metabolic disturbance and progression of obesity. In this regard, mesenteric adipose tissue has been implicated in mediating these processes through the elaboration of pro-inflammatory adipokines. In this study, we examined the relationship of these events by determining the effects of dietary fat content and source on gut microbiota, as well as the effects on adipokine profiles of mesenteric and peripheral adipocytes. Methods Adult male C57Bl/6 mice were fed milk fat-, lard-(SFA sources), or safflower oil (PUFA)- based high fat diets for four weeks. Body mass and food consumption were measured. Stool 16S rRNA was isolated and analyzed via T-RFLP as well as variable V3-4 sequence tags via next gen sequencing. Mesenteric and gonadal adipose samples were analyzed for both lipogenic and inflammatory mediators via qRT-PCR. Results High-fat feedings caused more weight gain with concomitant increases in caloric consumption relative to low-fat diets. Additionally, each of the high fat diets induced dramatic and specific 16S rRNA phylogenic profiles that were associated with different inflammatory and lipogenic mediator profile of mesenteric and gonadal fat depots. Conclusions Our findings support the notion that dietary fat composition can both reshape the gut microbiota as well as alter host adipose tissue inflammatory/lipogenic profiles. They also demonstrate the interdependency of dietary fat source, commensal gut microbiota, and inflammatory profile of mesenteric fat that can collectively impact the host metabolic state. PMID:23639897

  3. Perinatal exposure to PCB 153, but not PCB 126, alters bone tissue composition in female goat offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, Rebecca; Lyche, Jan L.; Ropstad, Erik; Aleksandersen, Mona; Roenn, Monika; Skaare, Janneche U.; Larsson, Sune; Orberg, Jan; Lind, P. Monica

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if environmentally relevant doses of the putative estrogenic non dioxin-like PCB 153 and the dioxin-like PCB 126 caused changes in bone tissue in female goat offspring following perinatal exposure. Goat dams were orally dosed with PCB 153 in corn oil (98 μg/kg body wt/day) or PCB 126 (49 ng/kg body wt/day) from day 60 of gestation until delivery. The offspring were exposed to PCB in utero and through mother's milk. The suckling period lasted for 6 weeks. Offspring metacarpal bones were analysed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) after euthanisation at 9 months of age. The diaphyseal bone was analysed at a distance of 18% and 50% of the total bone length, and the metaphyseal bone at a distance of 9%. Also, biomechanical three-point bending of the bones was conducted, with the load being applied to the mid-diaphyseal pQCT measure point (50%). PCB 153 exposure significantly decreased the total cross-sectional area (125 mm 2 ± 4) versus non-exposed (142 mm 2 ± 5), decreased the marrow cavity (38 mm 2 ± 4) versus non-exposed (50 mm 2 ± 3) and decreased the moment of resistance (318 mm 3 ± 10) versus non-exposed (371 mm 3 ± 20) at the diaphyseal 18% measure point. At the metaphyseal measure point, the trabecular bone mineral density (121 mg/cm 3 ± 5) was increased versus non-exposed (111 mg/cm 3 ± 3). PCB 126 exposure did not produce any observable changes in bone tissue. The biomechanical testing of the bones did not show any significant changes in bone strength after PCB 153 or PCB 126 exposure. In conclusion, perinatal exposure to PCB 153, but not PCB 126, resulted in altered bone composition in female goat offspring

  4. Tissue level material composition and mechanical properties in Brtl/+ mouse model of Osteogenesis Imperfecta after sclerostin antibody treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, William R.; Sinder, Benjamin P.; Salemi, Joseph; Ominsky, Michael S.; Marini, Joan C.; Caird, Michelle S.; Morris, Michael D.; Kozloff, Kenneth M.

    2015-02-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder resulting in defective collagen or collagen-associated proteins and fragile, brittle bones. To date, therapies to improve OI bone mass, such as bisphosphonates, have increased bone mass in the axial skeleton of OI patients, but have shown limited effects at reducing long bone fragility. Sclerostin antibody (Scl- Ab), currently in clinical trials for osteoporosis, stimulates bone formation and may have the potential to reduce long bone fracture rates in OI patients. Scl-Ab has been investigated as an anabolic therapy for OI in the Brtl/+ mouse model of moderately severe Type IV OI. While Scl-Ab increases long bone mass in the Brtl/+ mouse, it is not known whether material properties and composition changes also occur. Here, we report on the effects of Scl-Ab on wild type and Brtl/+ young (3 week) and adult (6 month) male mice. Scl-Ab was administered over 5 weeks (25mg/kg, 2x/week). Raman microspectroscopy and nanoindentation are used for bone composition and biomechanical bone property measurements in excised bone. Fluorescent labels (calcein and alizarin) at 4 time points over the entire treatment period are used to enable measurements at specific tissue age. Differences between wild type and Brtl/+ groups included variations in the mineral and matrix lattices, particularly the phosphate v1, carbonate v1, and the v(CC) proline and hydroxyproline stretch vibrations. Results of Raman spectroscopy corresponded to nanoindentation findings which indicated that old bone (near midcortex) is stiffer (higher elastic modulus) than new bone. We compare and contrast mineral to matrix and carbonate to phosphate ratios in young and adult mice with and without treatment.

  5. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles filled poly(d,l lactid acid) (PDLLA) matrix composites for bone tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerhardt, L.C.; Jell, G.M.R.; Boccaccini, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were investigated for bone tissue engineering applications with regard to bioactivity and particle cytotoxicity. Composite films on the basis of poly(d,l lactid acid) (PDLLA) filled with 0, 5 and 30 wt% TiO2 nanoparticles were processed by solvent casting.

  6. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Strategies are open compositions to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them in full...

  7. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Memory Pieces are open compositions to be realised solo by an improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them...

  8. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of microporous chitosan hydrogel/nanofibrin composite bandage for skin tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheesh Kumar, P T; Raj, N Mincy; Praveen, G; Chennazhi, Krishna Prasad; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2013-02-01

    In this work, we have developed chitosan hydrogel/nanofibrin composite bandages (CFBs) and characterized using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The homogeneous distribution of nanofibrin in the prepared chitosan hydrogel matrix was confirmed by phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin staining. The mechanical strength, swelling, biodegradation, porosity, whole-blood clotting, and platelet activation studies were carried out. In addition, the cell viability, cell attachment, and infiltration of the prepared CFBs were evaluated using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells. It was found that the CFBs were microporous, flexible, biodegradable, and showed enhanced blood clotting and platelet activity compared to the one without nanofibrin. The prepared CFBs were capable of absorbing fluid and this was confirmed when immersed in phosphate buffered saline. Cell viability studies on HUVECs and HDF cells proved the nontoxic nature of the CFBs. Cell attachment and infiltration studies showed that the cells were found attached and proliferated on the CFBs. In vivo experiments were carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats and found that the wound healing occurred within 2 weeks when treated with CFBs than compared to the bare wound and wound treated with Kaltostat. The deposition of collagen was found to be more on CFB-treated wounds compared to the control. The above results proved the use of these CFBs as an ideal candidate for skin tissue regeneration and wound healing.

  9. Hydroxyapatite-lignin composite as a metallic implant-bone tissue osseointegration improver: experimental study in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Luciani Valente

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate biocompatibility, osteoconduction and osseointegration of a pasty composite of hydroxyapatite (20% and lignin (80% as a promoter of metal implant and bone tissue integration. An intramedullary Schanz pin was implanted in both tibias of fifteen bitches. In the left tibia, the pin was coated with the biomaterial at the time of surgery. Marrow cavity was also filled with the biomaterial. Right limb did not receive the biomaterial, then constituting the control group. Tibias were harvested from five animals at 8, 60 and 150 days after surgery; three of them were analyzed by histological and biomechanical assessment and the two remaining tibias by X-ray diffraction. Results showed that the biomaterial is biocompatible, with osteoconductivity and osseointegration properties. Histological analysis and diffractograms showed the presence of hydroxyapatite in samples in all periods, although the presence of organic material of low crystallinity was variable. There was no statistical difference in the forces required for removal of the biocompatibility, osteoconductivity and osseointegration, it was not able to promote a better intramedullary pin anchorage.

  10. Biocompatibility studies of endothelial cells on a novel calcium phosphate/SiO2-xerogel composite for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thimm, Benjamin W; Unger, Ronald E; Kirkpatrick, C James; Neumann, Hans-Georg

    2008-01-01

    The bone biomaterial BONITmatrix, a nanoporous, granular scaffold composed of hydroxylapatite, calcium phosphate and SiO 2 , linked by a dense collagen mesh, was tested for its biocompatibility using endothelial cells (EC) in the form of macrovascular HUVEC, microvascular HDMEC and the endothelial cell line ISOHAS-1. Cells were examined for their adherence and growth on the biomaterial and this was followed by confocal laser scanning microscopy after vital staining or immunocytochemical reactions, as well as by scanning electron microscopy. Macro- and microvascular ECs predominantly spread on BONITmatrix-collagen mesh-covered surfaces and fibres and maintained their typical morphology. As ECs in vivo must build up a functional vasculature, the seeded cells were further tested for proinflammatory expression markers and cytokine expression after lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Protein-coating studies revealed that BONITmatrix-collagen scaffolds needed human blood serum coating to successfully support the growth of ECs. All cells expressed endothelium-specific surface marker proteins such as PECAM-1, VE-cadherin and vWF. The in vitro data support recent in vivo studies and indicate that this calcium phosphate/SiO 2 -xerogel composite could be a useful scaffold material for tissue engineering

  11. Breast Tissue Composition and Immunophenotype and Its Relationship with Mammographic Density in Women at High Risk of Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Min B Pang

    Full Text Available To investigate the cellular and immunophenotypic basis of mammographic density in women at high risk of breast cancer.Mammograms and targeted breast biopsies were accrued from 24 women at high risk of breast cancer. Mammographic density was classified into Wolfe categories and ranked by increasing density. The histological composition and immunophenotypic profile were quantified from digitized haematoxylin and eosin-stained and immunohistochemically-stained (ERα, ERβ, PgR, HER2, Ki-67, and CD31 slides and correlated to mammographic density.Increasing mammographic density was significantly correlated with increased fibrous stroma proportion (rs (22 = 0.5226, p = 0.0088 and significantly inversely associated with adipose tissue proportion (rs (22 = -0.5409, p = 0.0064. Contrary to previous reports, stromal expression of ERα was common (19/20 cases, 95%. There was significantly higher stromal PgR expression in mammographically-dense breasts (p=0.026.The proportion of stroma and fat underlies mammographic density in women at high risk of breast cancer. Increased expression of PgR in the stroma of mammographically dense breasts and frequent and unexpected presence of stromal ERα expression raises the possibility that hormone receptor expression in breast stroma may have a role in mediating the effects of exogenous hormonal therapy on mammographic density.

  12. SU-F-T-46: The Effect of Inter-Seed Attenuation and Tissue Composition in Prostate 125I Brachytherapy Dose Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, K; Araki, F; Ohno, T [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the difference of dose distributions with/without the effect of inter-seed attenuation and tissue compositions in prostate {sup 125}I brachytherapy dose calculations, using Monte Carlo simulations of Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS). Methods: The dose distributions in {sup 125}I prostate brachytherapy were calculated using PHITS for non-simultaneous and simultaneous alignments of STM1251 sources in water or prostate phantom for six patients. The PHITS input file was created from DICOM-RT file which includes source coordinates and structures for clinical target volume (CTV) and organs at risk (OARs) of urethra and rectum, using in-house Matlab software. Photon and electron cutoff energies were set to 1 keV and 100 MeV, respectively. The dose distributions were calculated with the kerma approximation and the voxel size of 1 × 1 × 1 mm{sup 3}. The number of incident photon was set to be the statistical uncertainty (1σ) of less than 1%. The effect of inter-seed attenuation and prostate tissue compositions was evaluated from dose volume histograms (DVHs) for each structure, by comparing to results of the AAPM TG-43 dose calculation (without the effect of inter-seed attenuation and prostate tissue compositions). Results: The dose reduction due to the inter-seed attenuation by source capsules was approximately 2% for CTV and OARs compared to those of TG-43. In additions, by considering prostate tissue composition, the D{sub 90} and V{sub 100} of CTV reduced by 6% and 1%, respectively. Conclusion: It needs to consider the dose reduction due to the inter-seed attenuation and tissue composition in prostate {sup 125}I brachytherapy dose calculations.

  13. The origin and evolution of chondrites recorded in the elemental and isotopic compositions of their macromolecular organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. M. O.'D.; Fogel, M.; Yabuta, H.; Cody, G. D.

    2007-09-01

    Extraterrestrial organic matter in meteorites potentially retains a unique record of synthesis and chemical/thermal modification by parent body, nebular and even presolar processes. In a survey of the elemental and isotopic compositions of insoluble organic matter (IOM) from 75 carbonaceous, ordinary and enstatite chondrites, we find dramatic variations within and between chondrite classes. There is no evidence that these variations correlate with the time and/or location of chondrite formation, or with any primary petrologic or bulk compositional features that are associated with nebular processes (e.g., chondrule and volatile trace element abundances). Nor is there evidence for the formation of the IOM by Fischer-Tropsch-Type synthesis in the nebula or in the parent bodies. The elemental variations are consistent with thermal maturation and/or oxidation of a common precursor. For reasons that are unclear, there are large variations in isotopic composition within and between chondrite classes that do not correlate in a simple way with elemental composition or petrologic type. Nevertheless, because of the pattern of elemental variations with petrologic type and the lack of any correlation with the primary features of the chondrite classes, at present the most likely explanation is that all IOM compositional variations are the result of parent body processing of a common precursor. If correct, the range of isotopic compositions within and between chondrite classes implies that the IOM is composed of several isotopically distinct components whose relative stability varied with parent body conditions. The most primitive IOM is found in the CR chondrites and Bells (CM2). Isotopically, the IOM from these meteorites resembles the IOM in interplanetary dust particles. Chemically, their IOM resembles the CHON particles of comet Halley. Despite the large isotopic anomalies in the IOM from these meteorites, it is uncertain whether the IOM formed in the interstellar medium or

  14. U-Pb isotope and trace element compositions of pyrites in the Black Reef: implications on their age and origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, E.S.

    1990-01-01

    In the Black Reef Quartzite Formation of the Transvaal Supergroup two gold-bearing conglomerate facies have been recognized. The source of gold in these reefs has long been a matter of speculation. Although some ascribe the gold and pyrite to a hydrothermal origin, the prevailing opinion favours a detrital origin. As a possible source, the reworked underlying sub-outcrops of the Kimberly Reef horizons in the Central Rand group have been proposed. An investigation was undertaken with the aim of defining the Pb-isotopic and trace element signatures of morphologically different pyrite populations within the two Black Reef facies as well as for the underlying Kimberly Reef. 2 tabs

  15. Species and life-history affects the utility of otolith chemical composition to determine natal stream-of-origin in Pacific salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Swanson, Heidi K.; Volk, Eric C.; Kent, Adam J.R.

    2013-01-01

    To test the utility of otolith chemical composition as a tool for determining the natal stream of origin for salmon, we examined water chemistry and otoliths of juvenile and adult Chum Salmon Oncorhynchus keta and Coho Salmon O. kisutch from three watersheds (five rivers) in the Norton Sound region of Alaska. The two species are characterized by different life histories: Coho Salmon rear in freshwater for up to 3 years, whereas Chum Salmon emigrate from freshwater shortly after emergence. We used laser ablation (LA) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS) to quantify element: Ca ratios for Mg, Mn, Zn, Sr, and Ba, and we used multicollector LA-ICP-MS to determine 87Sr:86Sr ratios in otolith regions corresponding to the period of freshwater residence. Significant differences existed in both water and otolith elemental composition, suggesting that otolith composition could be used to discriminate the natal origin of Coho Salmon and Chum Salmon but only when 87Sr:86Sr ratios were included in the discriminant function analyses. The best discriminant model included 87Sr:86Sr ratios, and without 87Sr:86Sr ratios it was difficult to discriminate among watersheds and rivers. Classification accuracy was 80% for Coho Salmon and 68% for Chum Salmon, indicating that this method does not provide sufficient sensitivity to estimate straying rates of Pacific salmon at the scale we studied.

  16. A note on chemical composition and origin of ferromanganese oxide coated and uncoated pumice samples from central Indian Ocean basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Parthiban, G.; Moraes, C.; Rajalakshmi, R.; Lekshmi, S.; Athira, S.; JaiSankar, S.

    other suggesting a same source. Tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams (Nb vs Y: Yb vs. Ta), triangular plot (TiO2-Y) and High Field Strength Element ratios (La/Ta-25; Ta/Hf-0.2; Nb/Ta-9; Zr/Nb-22 and Ba/Ta-1084) indicate volcanic arc origin...

  17. Nitrate and the origin of saliva influence composition and short chain fatty acid production of oral microcosms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, J.E.; Buijs, M.J.; Brandt, B.W.; Keijser, B.J.F.; Crielaard, W.; Zaura, E.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate is emerging as a possible health benefactor. Especially the microbial conversion of nitrate to nitrite in the oral cavity and the subsequent conversion to nitric oxide in the stomach are of interest in this regard. Yet, how nitrate influences the composition and biochemistry of the oral

  18. Skeletal status and soft tissue composition in astronauts. Tissue and fluid changes by radionuclide absorptiometry in vivo. Annual progress report, 15 July 1973--15 July 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, J.R.; Mazess, R.B.; Wilson, C.R.

    1974-01-01

    Research on the measurement of bone mineral content and body composition ranges from isotopic tracer methods and the adoption of clinical standards to osteoporosis therapy and the effects of nutritional factors on bone loss. (U.S.)

  19. Potential of Osteoblastic Cells Derived from Bone Marrow and Adipose Tissue Associated with a Polymer/Ceramic Composite to Repair Bone Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Gileade P; Lopes, Helena B; Almeida, Adriana L G; Abuna, Rodrigo P F; Gimenes, Rossano; Souza, Lucas E B; Covas, Dimas T; Beloti, Marcio M; Rosa, Adalberto L

    2017-09-01

    One of the tissue engineering strategies to promote bone regeneration is the association of cells and biomaterials. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate if cell source, either from bone marrow or adipose tissue, affects bone repair induced by osteoblastic cells associated with a membrane of poly(vinylidene-trifluoroethylene)/barium titanate (PVDF-TrFE/BT). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were isolated from rat bone marrow and adipose tissue and characterized by detection of several surface markers. Also, both cell populations were cultured under osteogenic conditions and it was observed that MSC from bone marrow were more osteogenic than MSC from adipose tissue. The bone repair was evaluated in rat calvarial defects implanted with PVDF-TrFE/BT membrane and locally injected with (1) osteoblastic cells differentiated from MSC from bone marrow, (2) osteoblastic cells differentiated from MSC from adipose tissue or (3) phosphate-buffered saline. Luciferase-expressing osteoblastic cells derived from bone marrow and adipose tissue were detected in bone defects after cell injection during 25 days without difference in luciferin signal between cells from both sources. Corroborating the in vitro findings, osteoblastic cells from bone marrow combined with the PVDF-TrFE/BT membrane increased the bone formation, whereas osteoblastic cells from adipose tissue did not enhance the bone repair induced by the membrane itself. Based on these findings, it is possible to conclude that, by combining a membrane with cells in this rat model, cell source matters and that bone marrow could be a more suitable source of cells for therapies to engineer bone.

  20. Ag-loaded MgSrFe-layered double hydroxide/chitosan composite scaffold with enhanced osteogenic and antibacterial property for bone engineering tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dandan; Xu, Zhengliang; Chen, Yixuan; Ke, Qinfei; Zhang, Changqing; Guo, Yaping

    2018-02-01

    Bone tissue engineering scaffolds for the reconstruction of large bone defects should simultaneously promote osteogenic differentiation and avoid postoperative infection. Herein, we develop, for the first time, Ag-loaded MgSrFe-layered double hydroxide/chitosan (Ag-MgSrFe/CS) composite scaffold. This scaffold exhibits three-dimensional interconnected macroporous structure with a pore size of 100-300 μm. The layered double hydroxide nanoplates in the Ag-MgSrFe/CS show lateral sizes of 200-400 nm and thicknesses of ∼50 nm, and the Ag nanoparticles with particle sizes of ∼20 nm are uniformly dispersed on the scaffold surfaces. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) present good adhesion, spreading, and proliferation on the Ag-MgSrFe/CS composite scaffold, suggesting that the Ag and Sr elements in the composite scaffold have no toxicity to hBMSCs. When compared with MgFe/CS composite scaffold, the Ag-MgSrFe/CS composite scaffold has better osteogenic property. The released Sr 2+ ions from the composite scaffold enhance the alkaline phosphatase activity of hBMSCs, promote the extracellular matrix mineralization, and increase the expression levels of osteogenic-related RUNX2 and BMP-2. Moreover, the Ag-MgSrFe/CS composite scaffold possesses good antibacterial property because the Ag nanoparticles in the composite scaffold effectively prevent biofilm formation against S. aureus. Hence, the Ag-MgSrFe/CS composite scaffold with excellent osteoinductivity and antibacterial property has a great potential for bone tissue engineering. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 863-873, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. In vitro assessment of the composition and microhardness of hard tissues of oral cavity submitted to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, Wilber Edison Bernaola

    2017-01-01

    Clinical Radiotherapy is extremely important for the treatment of malignant lesions of the head and neck region, however, exposure to ionizing radiation can lead to systemic or local complications during and after radiation treatment. Among these immediate local complications are the oral cavity xerostomia and the consequent oral mucositis. Regarding late complications produced by radiation, tooth decay of radiation and osteoradionecrosis are included, which are considered dose-dependent lesions, with high incidence in recent decades and difficult to manage, although these appear after completion of treatment and under the influence of local factors. The methodology proposed in this study consists in evaluating the effect of gamma radiation after irradiation of the samples, using the dose used in patients suffering with head and neck cancer. The samples were obtained from human enamel and root dentin; and swine mandibular bone, which were previously polished, and then submitted to the analysis of the initial surface microhardness of all groups. Subsequently, the samples were irradiated in a dose rate of 4 Gy per day, completing a total dose of 72 Gy. Finally, the samples were submitted to surface microhardness analysis after irradiation, which presented statistically significant results from the Student t, ANOVA and Tukey statistical tests referred to the difference of the mean of the initial and final values of each study group with a significant value of p = 0.00 (<0.05). Regarding the morphological analysis in scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the deleterious effect of gamma irradiation was evidenced as structural cracks, breaks and superficial fractures of the analyzed tissues and the biochemical analysis by Attenuated Total Reflection technique using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR - FTIR) showed degradation of inorganic components and denaturation of organic compounds; whereby, the effect of gamma irradiation on the hard tissues of the oral

  2. The Role of a Platelet Lysate-Based Compartmentalized System as a Carrier of Cells and Platelet-Origin Cytokines for Periodontal Tissue Regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babo, P.S.; Cai, X.; Plachokova, A.S.; Reis, R.L.; Jansen, J.A.; Gomes, M.E.; Walboomers, X.F.

    2016-01-01

    Currently available clinical therapies are not capable to regenerate tissues that are lost by periodontitis. Tissue engineering can be applied as a strategy to regenerate reliably the tissues and function of damaged periodontium. A prerequisite for this regeneration is the colonization of the defect

  3. Composite cell sheet for periodontal regeneration: crosstalk between different types of MSCs in cell sheet facilitates complex periodontal-like tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Liu, Shiyu; Zhu, Bin; Xu, Qiu; Ding, Yin; Jin, Yan

    2016-11-14

    Tissue-engineering strategies based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cell sheets have been widely used for periodontal tissue regeneration. However, given the complexity in periodontal structure, the regeneration methods using a single species of MSC could not fulfill the requirement for periodontal regeneration. We researched the interaction between the periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and jaw bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (JBMMSCs), and constructed a composite cell sheet comprising both of the above MSCs to regenerate complex periodontium-like structures in nude mice. Our results show that by co-culturing PDLSCs and JBMMSCs, the expressions of bone and extracellular matrix (ECM)-related genes and proteins were significantly improved in both MSCs. Further investigations showed that, compared to the cell sheet using PDLSCs or JBMMSCs, the composite stem cell sheet (CSCS), which comprises these two MSCs, expressed higher levels of bone- and ECM-related genes and proteins, and generated a composite structure more similar to the native periodontal tissue physiologically in vivo. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the crosstalk between PDLSCs and JBMMSCs in cell sheets facilitate regeneration of complex periodontium-like structures, providing a promising new strategy for physiological and functional regeneration of periodontal tissue.

  4. PHBV/PLLA-based composite scaffolds fabricated using an emulsion freezing/freeze-drying technique for bone tissue engineering: surface modification and in vitro biological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, Naznin; Wang Min

    2012-01-01

    Tissue engineering combines living cells with biodegradable materials and/or bioactive components. Composite scaffolds containing biodegradable polymers and nanosized osteoconductive bioceramic with suitable properties are promising for bone tissue regeneration. In this paper, based on blending two biodegradable and biocompatible polymers, namely poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) with incorporated nano hydroxyapatite (HA), three-dimensional composite scaffolds with controlled microstructures and an interconnected porous structure, together with high porosity, were fabricated using an emulsion freezing/freeze-drying technique. The influence of various parameters involved in the emulsion freezing/freeze-drying technique was studied for the fabrication of good-quality polymer scaffolds based on PHBV polymers. The morphology, mechanical properties and crystallinity of PHBV/PLLA and HA in PHBV/PLLA composite scaffolds and PHBV polymer scaffolds were studied. The scaffolds were coated with collagen in order to improve wettability. During in vitro biological evaluation study, it was observed that SaOS-2 cells had high attachment on collagen-coated scaffolds. Significant improvement in cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity for HA-incorporated composite scaffolds was observed due to the incorporation of HA. After 3 and 7 days of culture on all scaffolds, SaOS-2 cells also had normal morphology and growth. These results indicated that PHBV/PLLA-based scaffolds fabricated via an emulsion freezing/freeze-drying technique were favorable sites for osteoblastic cells and are promising for the applications of bone tissue engineering.

  5. A porous silica rock ("tripoli") in the footwall of the Jurassic Úrkút manganese deposit, Hungary: composition, and origin through carbonate dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgari, Marta; Szabo, Zoltan; Szabo-Drubina, Magda; Hein, James R.; Yeh, Hsueh-Wen

    2005-01-01

    The mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic compositions were determined for a white tripoli from the footwall of the Jurassic Úrkút Mn-oxide ore deposit in the Bakony Mountains, Hungary. The tripoli consists of quartz and chalcedony, with SiO2 contents up to 100 wt.%; consequently, trace-element contents are very low. Oxygen isotopes and quartz crystallinity indicate a low-temperature diagenetic origin for this deposit. The tripoli was formed by dissolution of the carbonate portion of the siliceous (sponge spicules) Isztimér Limestone. Dissolution of the carbonate was promoted by inorganic and organic acids generated during diagensis and left a framework composed of diagenetic silica that preserved the original volume of the limestone layer. The relative enrichment of silica and high porosity is the result of that carbonate dissolution. The silty texture of this highly friable rock is due to the structurally weak silica framework.

  6. Particle spectra and mass composition in the ultra-high energy region in the framework of the Galactic origin of cosmic rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagutin A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility for a self-consistent description of all the basic features of the observed cosmic ray spectra and primary composition variations in the energy range of 1015 ÷ 1020 eV within the Galactic origin scenario is examined. We assume the existence of Galactic sources that accelerate particles up to ∼ 3 · 1018Z eV and take into account a highly inhomogeneous (fractal-like distribution of matter and magnetic fields in the Galaxy that leads to extremely large free paths of particles (“Lévy flights”, along with an overwhelming contribution to the cosmic ray fluxes observed above ∼1018 eV from particles reaching the Solar System without scattering. Our scenario was refined on the basis of recent experimental results on primary mass composition. Model predictions, which could be verified with the improved high-precision measurements in the nearest future are discussed.

  7. The Relationship Between Ethnic Classroom Composition on Turkish-Origin and German Students’ Reading Performance and Sense of Belonging

    OpenAIRE

    Sog Yee Mok; Sarah E. Martiny; Ilka H. Gleibs; Melanie M. Keller; Laura Froehlich

    2016-01-01

    Past research on ethnic composition effects on migrant and ethnic majority students’ performance has reported inconclusive results: Some studies have found no relationship between the proportion of migrant students in school and students’ performance, some revealed positive effects, whereas others showed negative effects of the proportion of migrant students. Most of the studies did not consider whether an increase in the proportion of migrant students in the classroom has different effects o...

  8. Seasonality of New Particle Formation in Vienna, Austria - Influence of Air Mass Origin and Aerosol Chemical Composition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wonaschütz, A.; Demattio, A.; Wagner, R.; Burkart, J.; Zíková, Naděžda; Vodička, Petr; Ludwig, W.; Steiner, G.; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Hitzenberger, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 118, OCT 2015 (2015), s. 118-126 ISSN 1352-2310 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB12AT021; GA ČR(CZ) GBP503/12/G147 Grant - others:FWF(AT) P19515-N20 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : urban aerosol * aerosol chemical composition * new particle formation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.459, year: 2015

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community composition affected by original elevation rather than translocation along an altitudinal gradient on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Zheng, Yong; Gao, Cheng; Duan, Ji-Chuang; Wang, Shi-Ping; Guo, Liang-Dong

    2016-11-01

    Elucidating arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal responses to elevation changes is critical to improve understanding of microbial function in ecosystems under global asymmetrical climate change scenarios. Here we examined AM fungal community in a two-year reciprocal translocation of vegetation-intact soil blocks along an altitudinal gradient (3,200 m to 3,800 m) in an alpine meadow on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. AM fungal spore density was significantly higher at lower elevation than at higher elevation regardless of translocation, except that this parameter was significantly increased by upward translocation from original 3,200 m to 3,400 m and 3,600 m. Seventy-three operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of AM fungi were recovered using 454-pyrosequencing of 18S rDNA sequences at a 97% sequence similarity. Original elevation, downward translocation and upward translocation did not significantly affect AM fungal OTU richness. However, with increasing altitude the OTU richness of Acaulosporaceae and Ambisporaceae increased, but the OTU richness of Gigasporaceae and Glomeraceae decreased generally. The AM fungal community composition was significantly structured by original elevation but not by downward translocation and upward translocation. Our findings highlight that compared with the short-term reciprocal translocation, original elevation is a stronger determinant in shaping AM fungal community in the Qinghai-Tibet alpine meadow.

  10. Sugar Composition and Molecular Weight Distribution of Cell Wall Polysaccharides in Outer and Inner Tissues from Segments of Dark Grown Squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) Hypocotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, K; Sakurai, N; Kuraishi, S

    1990-07-01

    The elongation growth of stem segments is determined by the outer cell layers (epidermis and collenchyma). We measured the sugar composition and molecular weight distribution of pectin and hemicellulose fractions obtained from inner and outer tissues of squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) hypocotyls. In addition, we studied the changes in these parameters after a 9 hour period of incubation of the segments. The results show that outer tissues have higher molecular weight pectin and hemicellulose compared to inner tissues (2-3 times higher). Incubation results in a 13 to 25% decrease in the amount of pectin and hemicellulose in inner tissues and an increase of 11 to 32% in the outer tissues. This increase in the outer tissues is accompanied by a decrease in the molecular weight of some of the components. These results clearly show that cell wall metabolism during elongation growth differs markedly in inner and outer tissues, and that future studies on the effect of auxin need to take these differences into account.

  11. Sugar Composition and Molecular Weight Distribution of Cell Wall Polysaccharides in Outer and Inner Tissues from Segments of Dark Grown Squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) Hypocotyls 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Sakurai, Naoki; Kuraishi, Susumu

    1990-01-01

    The elongation growth of stem segments is determined by the outer cell layers (epidermis and collenchyma). We measured the sugar composition and molecular weight distribution of pectin and hemicellulose fractions obtained from inner and outer tissues of squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) hypocotyls. In addition, we studied the changes in these parameters after a 9 hour period of incubation of the segments. The results show that outer tissues have higher molecular weight pectin and hemicellulose compared to inner tissues (2-3 times higher). Incubation results in a 13 to 25% decrease in the amount of pectin and hemicellulose in inner tissues and an increase of 11 to 32% in the outer tissues. This increase in the outer tissues is accompanied by a decrease in the molecular weight of some of the components. These results clearly show that cell wall metabolism during elongation growth differs markedly in inner and outer tissues, and that future studies on the effect of auxin need to take these differences into account. PMID:16667612

  12. Engineering a multi-biofunctional composite using poly(ethylenimine) decorated graphene oxide for bone tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sachin; Raj, Shammy; Sarkar, Kishor; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2016-03-01

    Toward preparing strong multi-biofunctional materials, poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) conjugated graphene oxide (GO_PEI) was synthesized using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as a spacer and incorporated in poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) at different fractions. GO_PEI significantly promoted the proliferation and formation of focal adhesions in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on PCL. GO_PEI was highly potent in inducing stem cell osteogenesis leading to near doubling of alkaline phosphatase expression and mineralization over neat PCL with 5% filler content and was ~50% better than GO. Remarkably, 5% GO_PEI was as potent as soluble osteoinductive factors. Increased adsorption of osteogenic factors due to the amine and oxygen containing functional groups on GO_PEI augment stem cell differentiation. GO_PEI was also highly efficient in imparting bactericidal activity with 85% reduction in counts of E. coli colonies compared to neat PCL at 5% filler content and was more than twice as efficient as GO. This may be attributed to the synergistic effect of the sharp edges of the particles along with the presence of the different chemical moieties. Thus, GO_PEI based polymer composites can be utilized to prepare bioactive resorbable biomaterials as an alternative to using labile biomolecules for fabricating orthopedic devices for fracture fixation and tissue engineering.Toward preparing strong multi-biofunctional materials, poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) conjugated graphene oxide (GO_PEI) was synthesized using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as a spacer and incorporated in poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) at different fractions. GO_PEI significantly promoted the proliferation and formation of focal adhesions in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on PCL. GO_PEI was highly potent in inducing stem cell osteogenesis leading to near doubling of alkaline phosphatase expression and mineralization over neat PCL with 5% filler content and was ~50% better than GO. Remarkably, 5% GO_PEI was as potent as soluble

  13. The composition of engineered cartilage at the time of implantation determines the likelihood of regenerating tissue with a normal collagen architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Thomas; Kelly, Daniel J

    2013-04-01

    The biomechanical functionality of articular cartilage is derived from both its biochemical composition and the architecture of the collagen network. Failure to replicate this normal Benninghoff architecture in regenerating articular cartilage may in turn predispose the tissue to failure. In this article, the influence of the maturity (or functionality) of a tissue-engineered construct at the time of implantation into a tibial chondral defect on the likelihood of recapitulating a normal Benninghoff architecture was investigated using a computational model featuring a collagen remodeling algorithm. Such a normal tissue architecture was predicted to form in the intact tibial plateau due to the interplay between the depth-dependent extracellular matrix properties, foremost swelling pressures, and external mechanical loading. In the presence of even small empty defects in the articular surface, the collagen architecture in the surrounding cartilage was predicted to deviate significantly from the native state, indicating a possible predisposition for osteoarthritic changes. These negative alterations were alleviated by the implantation of tissue-engineered cartilage, where a mature implant was predicted to result in the formation of a more native-like collagen architecture than immature implants. The results of this study highlight the importance of cartilage graft functionality to maintain and/or re-establish joint function and suggest that engineering a tissue with a native depth-dependent composition may facilitate the establishment of a normal Benninghoff collagen architecture after implantation into load-bearing defects.

  14. Chemical, multispectral, and textural constraints on the composition and origin of rocks at the Mars Pathfinder landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSween, H.Y.; Murchie, S.L.; Crisp, J.A.; Bridges, N.T.; Anderson, R.C.; Bell, J.F.; Britt, D.T.; Brückner, J.; Dreibus, G.; Economou, T.; Ghosh, A.; Golombek, M.P.; Greenwood, J.P.; Johnson, J. R.; Moore, H.J.; Morris, R.V.; Parker, T.J.; Rieder, R.; Singer, R.; Wänke, H.

    1999-01-01

    Rocks at the Mars Pathfinder site are probably locally derived. Textures on rock surfaces may indicate volcanic, sedimentary, or impact-generated rocks, but aeolian abration and dust coatings prevent unambiguous interpretation. Multispectral imaging has resolved four spectral classes of rocks: gray and red, which occur on different surfaces of the same rocks; pink, which is probably soil crusts; and maroon, which occurs as large boulders, mostly in the far field. Rocks are assigned to two spectral trends based on the position of peak reflectance: the primary spectral trend contains gray, red, and pink rocks; maroon rocks constitute the secondary spectral trend. The spatial pattern of spectral variations observed is oriented along the prevailing wind direction. The primary spectral trend arises from thin ferric coatings of aeolian dust on darker rocks. The secondary spectral trend is apparently due to coating by a different mineral, probably maghemite or ferrihydrite. A chronology based on rock spectra suggests that rounded maroon boulders constitute the oldest petrologic unit (a flood deposit), succeeded by smaller cobbles possibly deposited by impact, and followed by aeolian erosion and deposition. Nearly linear chemical trends in alpha proton X-ray spectrometer rock compositions are interpreted as mixing lines between rock and adhering dust, a conclusion supported by a correlation between sulfur abundance and red/blue spectral ratio. Extrapolations of regression lines to zero sulfur give the composition of a presumed igneous rock. The chemistry and normative mineralogy of the sulfur-free rock resemble common terrestrial volcanic rocks, and its classification corresponds to andesite. Igneous rocks of this composition may occur with clastic sedimentary rocks or impact melts and breccias. However, the spectral mottling expected on conglomerates or breccias is not observed in any APXS-analyzed rocks. Interpretation of the rocks as andesites is complicated by absence

  15. Dissociation between peripheral blood chimerism and tolerance to hindlimb composite tissue transplants: preferential localization of chimerism in donor bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahhal, Dina N; Xu, Hong; Huang, Wei-Chao; Wu, Shengli; Wen, Yujie; Huang, Yiming; Ildstad, Suzanne T

    2009-09-27

    Mixed chimerism induces donor-specific tolerance to composite tissue allotransplants (CTAs). In the present studies, we used a nonmyeloablative conditioning approach to establish chimerism and promote CTA acceptance. Wistar Furth (RT1A(u)) rats were conditioned with 600 to 300 cGy total body irradiation (TBI, day-1), and 100 x 10(6) T-cell-depleted ACI (RT1A(abl)) bone marrow cells were transplanted on day 0, followed by a 11-day course of tacrolimus and one dose of antilymphocyte serum (day 10). Heterotopic osteomyocutaneous flap transplantation was performed 4 to 6 weeks after bone marrow transplantation. Mixed chimerism was initially achieved in almost all recipients, but long-term acceptance of CTA was only achieved in rats treated with 600 cGy TBI. When anti-alphabeta-T-cell receptor (TCR) monoclonal antibody (mAb) (day-3) was added into the regimens, donor chimerism was similar to recipients preconditioned without anti-alphabeta-TCR mAb. However, the long-term CTA survival was significantly improved in chimeras receiving more than or equal to 300 cGy TBI plus anti-alphabeta-TCR mAb. Higher levels of donor chimerism were associated with CTA acceptance. The majority of flap acceptors lost peripheral blood chimerism within 6 months. However, donor chimerism persisted in the transplanted bone at significantly higher levels compared with other hematopoietic compartments. The compartment donor chimerism may be responsible for the maintenance of tolerance to CTA. Long-term acceptors were tolerant to a donor skin graft challenge even in the absence of peripheral blood chimerism. Mixed chimerism established by nonmyeloablative conditioning induces long-term acceptance of CTA, which is associated with persistent chimerism preferentially in the transplanted donor bone.

  16. Effects of flow configuration on bone tissue engineering using human mesenchymal stem cells in 3D chitosan composite scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellgren, Katelyn L; Ma, Teng

    2015-08-01

    Perfusion bioreactor plays important role in supporting 3D bone construct development. Scaffolds of chitosan composites have been studied to support bone tissue regeneration from osteogenic progenitor cells including human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). In this study, porous scaffolds of hydroxyapatite (H), chitosan (C), and gelatin (G) were fabricated by phase-separation and press-fitted in the perfusion bioreactor system where media flow is configured either parallel or transverse with respect to the scaffolds to investigate the impact of flow configuration on hMSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. The in vitro results showed that the interstitial flow in the transverse flow (TF) constructs reduced cell growth during the first week of culture but improved spatial cell distribution and early onset of osteogenic differentiation measured by alkaline phosphatase and expression of osteogenic genes. After 14 days of bioreactor culture, the TF constructs have comparable cell number but higher expression of bone markers genes and proteins compared to the parallel flow constructs. To evaluate ectopic bone formation, the HCG constructs seeded with hMSCs pre-cultured under two flow configurations for 7 days were implanted in CD-1 nude mice. While Masson's Trichrom staining revealed bone formation in both constructs, the TF constructs have improved spatial cell and osteoid distribution throughout the 2.0 mm constructs. The results highlight the divergent effects of media flow over the course of construct development and suggest that the flow configuration is an important parameter regulating the cellular events leading to bone construct formation in the HCG scaffolds. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Cue Rondo is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound/video files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample, or the visuals will not appear at all....... Please DOWNLOAD them to see/hear them in full length! This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You may for non-commercial purposes use and distribute it, performance instructions as well as specially designated recordings, as long as the author is mentioned. Please see http...

  18. Composition of α-tocopherol and fatty acids in porcine tissues after dietary supplementation with vitamin E and different fat sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Theil, Peter Kappel; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2013-01-01

    in transfer of α-tocopherol, and oxidation and metabolism of fatty acids. From day 28 to 56 of age, pigs were provided 5% of tallow, fish oil or sunflower oil and 85, 150, or 300 mg/kg of all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate. Samples of liver, heart, and adipose tissue were obtained from littermates at day 56. Tissue...... fatty acid composition was highly influenced by dietary fat sources. Dietary fatty acid composition (Pfish oil...... lower in pigs fed fish oil compared to other treatments, whereas the fatty acid oxidation, as indicated by the expression of PPAR-α, was higher when sunflower and fish oil was provided (P=0.03). Expression of α-TTP in liver was higher in pigs fed fish oil (P=0.01). Vitamin E supplementation did...

  19. Composition-function relations of cartilaginous tissues engineered from chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells isolated from bone marrow and infrapatellar fat pad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinardell, T; Buckley, C T; Thorpe, S D; Kelly, D J

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the functional properties of cartilaginous tissues generated by porcine MSCs isolated from different tissue sources, and to compare these properties to those derived from chondrocytes (CCs). MSCs were isolated from bone marrow (BM) and infrapatellar fat pad (FP), while CCs were harvested from the articular surface of the femoro-patellar joint. Culture-expanded CCs and MSCs were encapsulated in agarose hydrogels and cultured in the presence of TGFβ3. Samples were analysed biomechanically, biochemically and histologically at days 0, 21 and 42. After 42 days in free swelling culture, mean GAG content was 1.50% w/w in CC-seeded constructs, compared to 0.95% w/w in FP- and 0.43% w/w in BM-seeded constructs. Total collagen accumulation was highest in FP constructs. DNA content increased with time for all the groups. The mechanical functionality of cartilaginous tissues engineered using CCs was superior to that generated from either source of MSCs. Differences were also observed in the spatial distribution of matrix components in tissues engineered using CCs and MSCs, which appears to have a strong influence on the apparent mechanical properties of the constructs. Therefore, while functional cartilaginous tissues can be engineered using MSCs isolated from different sources, the spatial composition of these tissues is unlike that generated using chondrocytes, suggesting that MSCs and chondrocytes respond differently to the regulatory factors present within developing cartilaginous constructs. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Peroneal perforator-based peroneus longus tendon and sural neurofasciocutaneous composite flap transfer for a large soft-tissue defect of the forearm: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Kenji; Saijo, Hiroto; Fujioka, Masaki

    2018-01-01

    We describe the use of a composite flap composed of a sural neurofasciocutaneous flap and a vascularized peroneus longus tendon for the reconstruction of severe composite forearm tissue defects in a patient. A 43-year-old man had his left arm caught in a conveyor belt resulting in a large soft-tissue defect of 18 × 11 cm over the dorsum forearm. The extensor carpi radialis, superficial radial nerve, and radial artery were severely damaged. A free neurofasciocutaneous composite flap measuring 16 × 11 cm was outlined on the patient's left lower leg to allow simultaneous skin, tendon, nerve, and artery reconstruction. The flap, which included the peroneus longus tendon, was elevated on the subfascial plane. After the flap was transferred to the recipient site, the peroneal artery was anastomosed to the radial artery in a flow-through manner. The vascularized tendon graft with 15 cm in length was used to reconstruct the extensor carpi radialis longus tendon defect using an interlacing suture technique. As the skin paddle of the sural neurofasciocutaneous flap and the vascularized peroneus longus tendon graft were linked by the perforator and minimal fascial tissue, the skin paddle was able to rotate and slide with comparative ease. The flap survived completely without any complications. The length of follow-up was 12 months and was uneventful. Range of motion of his left wrist joint was slightly limited to 75 degrees. This novel composite flap may be useful for reconstructing long tendon defects associated with extensive forearm soft tissue defects. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The origin, composition and distribution of 'hot particles' derived from the nuclear industry and dispersed in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, E.I.; Clifton, R.J.

    1987-10-01

    Today, recent sediments of the Esk estuary, Cumbria, contain few hot particles derived from BNF compared with those deposited during peak releases of 1972-74. Overall the hot particles account for about 10% of the total alpha particle activity of the sediments. At some horizons, in buried sediments, concentrations of hot particles probably represent rapid transport on the sea surface under conditions of minimum erosion. Similar particles, usually less well defined, occur in accreting sediments but are corroded. Representative types of the most radioactive particles have been isolated and contain Pu, Am and Cm but only trace amounts of naturally occuring alpha emitters. Microprobe analysis of these particles often shows the presence of fairly pure uranium as the major element. On the basis of radioactivity and elemental composition many of these particles appear to be irradiated nuclear fuel debris. (author)

  2. A composite plot of far-infrared versus radio luminosity, and the origin of far-infrared luminosity in quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopp, H.M.; Alexander, P.

    1991-01-01

    We have constructed a composite plot of far-infrared versus radioluminosity for late-type galaxies, Seyferts, quasars and radio galaxies. The most striking result is that the radio and far-infrared luminosities of radio-quiet quasars are correlated and follow the same correlation as normal star-forming galaxies and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies, whereas the radio-loud quasars have luminosities in both bands similar to those of radio galaxies. We conclude that the far-infrared emission from radio-quiet quasars is from star-forming host galaxies and not from active galactic nuclei. The far-infrared radio plot may be a powerful discriminator between host galaxy type. (author)

  3. Origins of strandline duricrusts around the Makgadikgadi Pans (Botswana Kalahari) as deduced from their chemical and isotope composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringrose, S.; Harris, C.; Huntsman-Mapila, P.; Vink, B. W.; Diskins, S.; Vanderpost, C.; Matheson, W.

    2009-07-01

    Trace elements together with some O and C isotope analysis were undertaken on duricrust strandline deposits in the palaeo-Makgadikgadi sub-basin (PMSB) to provide insight into palaeo-climatic conditions through the interpretation of calcrete, silcrete-calcrete intergrade and silcrete deposits. Trace element content and relative abundance suggest that the duricrust origins are associated with the long-term weathering of the Karoo Large Igneous Province which underlies the PMSB. This work shows that duricrust origins are related to Ca 2+ and Si (and associated trace elements) being transported mainly through the groundwater and then subsequently precipitated at different strandline elevations over time. Local groundwater feeding in towards the pan margin and accumulating in near-neutral pan-marginal pools, appears to facilitate Si concentration and permeation of pre-existing calcretes. The silica precipitates as the pH drops when renewed freshwater enters the pools. Hence the inferred palaeo-climatic regime for silcretisation may be similar to that occurring in Botswana at present being dry semi-arid with low seasonal rainfall. In contrast the extensive calcrete precipitation in the strandlines results from abundant Ca 2+ in adjacent waters which appear to be derived from both local and regional sources. The arrival of Ca 2+ from regional sources (shown by trace element evidence) infers heavy rainfall in the upper catchment suggesting a major humid event followed by regional drying. Palaeo-climatic inferences suggest the juxtaposition of major humid events interspersed with more normal semi-arid palaeo-climates with an exception obtained from isotope data, of drier and cooler conditions than usual for the region around 80-90 000 years ago. Whereas trace element data can greatly assist in the interpretation of complex deposits such as duricrusts, care should be taken over the use of particular ratios (such as Yb/Gd ratio) which may produce spurious results.

  4. Determination of the geographic origin of onions between three main production areas in Japan and other countries by mineral composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyama, Kaoru; Aoyama, Yoshinori; Mochizuki, Akashi; Homura, Yuji; Kadokura, Masashi; Yasui, Akemi

    2007-01-24

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are produced in many countries and are one of the most popular vegetables in the world, thus leading to an enormous amount of international trade. It is currently important that a scientific technique be developed for determining geographic origin as a means to detect fraudulent labeling. We have therefore developed a technique based on mineral analysis and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The onion samples used in this study were from Hokkaido, Hyogo, and Saga, which are the primary onion-growing areas in Japan, and those from countries that export onions to Japan (China, the United States, New Zealand, Thailand, Australia, and Chile). Of 309 samples, 108 were from Hokkaido, 52 were from Saga, 77 were from Hyogo, and 72 were from abroad. Fourteen elements (Na, Mg, P, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Cs, and Ba) in the samples were determined by frame atomic adsorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The models established by LDA were used to discriminate the geographic origin between Hokkaido and abroad, Hyogo and abroad, and Saga and abroad. Ten-fold cross-validations were conducted using these models. The discrimination accuracies obtained by cross-validation between Hokkaido and abroad were 100 and 86%, respectively. Those between Hyogo and abroad were 100 and 90%, respectively. Those between Saga and abroad were 98 and 90%, respectively. In addition, it was demonstrated that the fingerprint of an element pattern from a specific production area, which a crop receives, did not easily change by the variations of fertilization, crop year, variety, soil type, and production year if appropriate elements were chosen.

  5. Determination of elemental impurities and U and O isotopic compositions with a view to identify the geographical and industrial origins of uranium ore concentrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaun, A.; Hubert, A.; Pointurier, F.; Aupiais, J.; Pili, E.; Richon, P.; Fauré, A.; Diallo, S.

    2012-12-01

    First events of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radiological materials occurred 50 years ago. Nuclear forensics expertise are aiming at determining the use of seized material, its industrial history and provenance (geographical area, place of production or processing), at assisting in the identification and dismantling of illicit trafficking networks. This information is also valuable in the context of inspections of declared facilities to verify the consistency of operator's declaration. Several characteristics can be used to determine the origin of uranium ore concentrates such as trace elemental impurity patterns (Keegan et al., 2008 ; Varga et al., 2010a, 2010b) or uranium, oxygen and lead isotopic compositions (Tamborini et al., 2002a, 2002b ; Wallenius et al., 2006; Varga et al., 2009). We developed analytical procedures for measuring the isotopic compositions of uranium (234U/238U and 235U/238U) and oxygen (18O/16O) and levels of elemental impurities (e.g. REE, Th) from very small amounts of uranium ore concentrates (or yellow cakes). Micrometer particles and few milligrams of material are used for oxygen isotope measurements and REE determination, respectively. Reference materials were analyzed by mass spectrometry (TIMS, SF-ICP-MS and SIMS) to validate testing protocols. Finally, materials of unknown origin were analyzed to highlight significant differences and determine whether these differences allow identifying the origin of these ore concentrates. References: Keegan, E., et al. (2008). Applied Geochemistry 23, 765-777. Tamborini, G., et al. (2002a). Analytical Chemistry 74, 6098-6101. Tamborini, G., et al. (2002b). Microchimica Acta 139, 185-188. Varga, Z., et al. (2009). Analytical Chemistry 81, 8327-8334. Varga, Z., et al. (2010a). Talanta 80, 1744-1749. Varga, Z., et al. (2010b). Radiochimica Acta 98, 771-778 Wallenius, M., et al. (2006). Forensic Science International 156, 55-62.

  6. Bio-composites composed of a solid free-form fabricated polycaprolactone and alginate-releasing bone morphogenic protein and bone formation peptide for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, MinSung; Jung, Won-Kyo; Kim, GeunHyung

    2013-11-01

    Biomedical scaffolds should be designed with highly porous three-dimensional (3D) structures that have mechanical properties similar to the replaced tissue, biocompatible properties, and biodegradability. Here, we propose a new composite composed of solid free-form fabricated polycaprolactone (PCL), bone morphogenic protein (BMP-2) or bone formation peptide (BFP-1), and alginate for bone tissue regeneration. In this study, PCL was used as a mechanical supporting component to enhance the mechanical properties of the final biocomposite and alginate was used as the deterring material to control the release of BMP-2 and BFP-1. A release test revealed that alginate can act as a good release control material. The in vitro biocompatibilities of the composites were examined using osteoblast-like cells (MG63) and the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition were assessed. The in vitro test results revealed that PCL/BFP-1/Alginate had significantly higher ALP activity and calcium deposition than the PCL/BMP-2/Alginate composite. Based on these findings, release-controlled BFP-1 could be a good growth factor for enhancement of bone tissue growth and the simple-alginate coating method will be a useful tool for fabrication of highly functional biomaterials through release-control supplementation.

  7. Pyrosequencing of the bacteria associated with Platygyra carnosus corals with skeletal growth anomalies reveals differences in bacterial community composition in apparently healthy and diseased tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Chun-Yee Ng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Corals are rapidly declining globally due to coral diseases. Skeletal growth anomalies (SGA or coral tumors are a group of coral diseases that affect coral reefs worldwide, including Hong Kong waters in the Indo-Pacific region. To better understand how bacterial communities may vary in corals with SGA, for the first time, we examined the bacterial composition associated with the apparently healthy and the diseased tissues of SGA-affected Platgyra carnosus using 16S ribosomal rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Taxonomic analysis revealed Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, and Actinobacteria as the main phyla in both the apparently healthy and the diseased tissues. A significant difference in the bacterial community composition was observed between the two conditions at the OTU level. Diseased tissues were associated with higher abundances of Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes, and a lower abundance of Spirochaetes. Several OTUs belonging to Rhodobacteraceae, Rhizobiales, Gammaproteobacteria, and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroidetes (CFB were strongly associated with the diseased tissues. These groups of bacteria may contain potential pathogens involved with the development of SGA or opportunistic secondary or tertiary colonizers that proliferated upon the health-compromised coral host. We suggest that these bacterial groups to be further studied based on inoculation experiments and testing of Koch’s postulates in efforts to understand the etiology and progression of SGA.

  8. Composition of hot ions /0.1-16 keV/e/ as observed by the GEOS and ISEE mass spectrometers and inferences for the origin and circulation of magnetospheric plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsiger, H.

    1981-01-01

    The composition of hot magnetospheric plasma through different regions of the magnetosphere is described on the basis of mass spectrometer measurements by the GEOS 1, GEOS 2, and ISEE-1 spacecraft. Coordinated composition measurements on the different spacecraft also provide information on the spatial and temporal characteristics of the plasma during storms. Data on ion origins are also provided.

  9. Aligned poly(L-lactic-co-e-caprolactone) electrospun microfibers and knitted structure: a novel composite scaffold for ligament tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquette, Cédryck; Kahn, Cyril; Frochot, Céline; Nouvel, Cécile; Six, Jean-Luc; De Isla, Natalia; Luo, Li-Hua; Cooper-White, Justin; Rahouadj, Rachid; Wang, Xiong

    2010-09-15

    We developed a novel technique involving knitting and electrospinning to fabricate a composite scaffold for ligament tissue engineering. Knitted structures were coated with poly(L-lactic-co-e-caprolactone) (PLCL) and then placed onto a rotating cylinder and a PLCL solution was electrospun onto the structure. Highly aligned 2-microm-diameter microfibers covered the space between the stitches and adhered to the knitted scaffolds. The stress-strain tensile curves exhibited an initial toe region similar to the tensile behavior of ligaments. Composite scaffolds had an elastic modulus (150 +/- 14 MPa) similar to the modulus of human ligaments. Biological evaluation showed that cells proliferated on the composite scaffolds and they spontaneously orientated along the direction of microfiber alignment. The microfiber architecture also induced a high level of extracellular matrix secretion, which was characterized by immunostaining. We found that cells produced collagen type I and type III, two main components found in ligaments. After 14 days of culture, collagen type III started to form a fibrous network. We fabricated a composite scaffold having the mechanical properties of the knitted structure and the morphological properties of the aligned microfibers. It is difficult to seed a highly macroporous structure with cells, however the technique we developed enabled an easy cell seeding due to presence of the microfiber layer. Therefore, these scaffolds presented attractive properties for a future use in bioreactors for ligament tissue engineering. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Bio-based polyurethane for tissue engineering applications: How hydroxyapatite nanoparticles influence the structure, thermal and biological behavior of polyurethane composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Laís P; Santos, Maria Elizabeth M Dos; Jardini, André L; Bastos, Gilmara N T; Dias, Carmen G B T; Webster, Thomas J; Maciel Filho, Rubens

    2017-01-01

    In this work, thermoset polyurethane composites were prepared by the addition of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles using the reactants polyol polyether and an aliphatic diisocyanate. The polyol employed in this study was extracted from the Euterpe oleracea Mart. seeds from the Amazon Region of Brazil. The influence of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on the structure and morphology of the composites was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), the structure was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal properties were analyzed by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), and biological properties were studied by in vitro and in vivo studies. It was found that the addition of HA nanoparticles promoted fibroblast adhesion while in vivo investigations with histology confirmed that the composites promoted connective tissue adherence and did not induce inflammation. In this manner, this study supports the further investigation of bio-based, polyurethane/hydroxyapatite composites as biocompatible scaffolds for numerous tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tissue-specific congener composition of organohalogen and metabolite contaminants in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebbink, Wouter A.; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Kirkegaard, Maja; Riget, Frank F.; Born, Erik W.; Muir, Derek C.G.; Letcher, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Congener patterns of the major organohalogen contaminant classes of PCBs, PBDEs and their metabolites and/or by-products (OH-PCBs, MeSO 2 -PCBs, OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs) were examined in adipose tissue, liver, brain and blood of East