WorldWideScience

Sample records for composite primary structural

  1. Composite Crew Module: Primary Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    In January 2007, the NASA Administrator and Associate Administrator for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate chartered the NASA Engineering and Safety Center to design, build, and test a full-scale crew module primary structure, using carbon fiber reinforced epoxy based composite materials. The overall goal of the Composite Crew Module project was to develop a team from the NASA family with hands-on experience in composite design, manufacturing, and testing in anticipation of future space exploration systems being made of composite materials. The CCM project was planned to run concurrently with the Orion project's baseline metallic design within the Constellation Program so that features could be compared and discussed without inducing risk to the overall Program. This report discusses the project management aspects of the project including team organization, decision making, independent technical reviews, and cost and schedule management approach.

  2. Resin transfer molding for advanced composite primary aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Alan; Palmer, Ray

    1991-01-01

    Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) has been identified by Douglas Aircraft Company (DAC) and industry to be one of the promising processes being developed today which can break the cost barrier of implementing composite primary structures into a commercial aircraft production environment. The RTM process developments and scale-up plans Douglas Aircrart will be conducting under the NASA ACT contract are discussed.

  3. Advanced composites structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures: Structural response and failure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorris, William J.; Hairr, John W.; Huang, Jui-Tien; Ingram, J. Edward; Shah, Bharat M.

    1992-01-01

    Non-linear analysis methods were adapted and incorporated in a finite element based DIAL code. These methods are necessary to evaluate the global response of a stiffened structure under combined in-plane and out-of-plane loading. These methods include the Arc Length method and target point analysis procedure. A new interface material model was implemented that can model elastic-plastic behavior of the bond adhesive. Direct application of this method is in skin/stiffener interface failure assessment. Addition of the AML (angle minus longitudinal or load) failure procedure and Hasin's failure criteria provides added capability in the failure predictions. Interactive Stiffened Panel Analysis modules were developed as interactive pre-and post-processors. Each module provides the means of performing self-initiated finite elements based analysis of primary structures such as a flat or curved stiffened panel; a corrugated flat sandwich panel; and a curved geodesic fuselage panel. This module brings finite element analysis into the design of composite structures without the requirement for the user to know much about the techniques and procedures needed to actually perform a finite element analysis from scratch. An interactive finite element code was developed to predict bolted joint strength considering material and geometrical non-linearity. The developed method conducts an ultimate strength failure analysis using a set of material degradation models.

  4. Advanced composite structural concepts and material technologies for primary aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    Structural weight savings using advanced composites have been demonstrated for many years. Most military aircraft today use these materials extensively and Europe has taken the lead in their use in commercial aircraft primary structures. A major inhibiter to the use of advanced composites in the United States is cost. Material costs are high and will remain high relative to aluminum. The key therefore lies in the significant reduction in fabrication and assembly costs. The largest cost in most structures today is assembly. As part of the NASA Advanced Composite Technology Program, Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company has a contract to explore and develop advanced structural and manufacturing concepts using advanced composites for transport aircraft. Wing and fuselage concepts and related trade studies are discussed. These concepts are intended to lower cost and weight through the use of innovative material forms, processes, structural configurations and minimization of parts. The approach to the trade studies and the downselect to the primary wing and fuselage concepts is detailed. The expectations for the development of these concepts is reviewed.

  5. NOVEL APPROACH TO DESIGN OF LIGHTWEIGHT AND RELIABLE COMPOSITE PRIMARY AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The experience of construction of composite primary aircraft structures has approved that the weight decrease for composite aggregates of aircraft in comparison with metallic analogues cannot be obtained within the frames of conventional structures based on stiffened laminated composite skin. One of the main reasons is the low level of stress-strain characteris- tics of current polymer resins, which does not allow to realize high strength characteristics of carbon fibers in laminated composit...

  6. NOVEL APPROACH TO DESIGN OF LIGHTWEIGHT AND RELIABLE COMPOSITE PRIMARY AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of construction of composite primary aircraft structures has approved that the weight decrease for composite aggregates of aircraft in comparison with metallic analogues cannot be obtained within the frames of conventional structures based on stiffened laminated composite skin. One of the main reasons is the low level of stress-strain characteris- tics of current polymer resins, which does not allow to realize high strength characteristics of carbon fibers in laminated composite packages. This consequence does not allow to use stiffened composite skin as a universal structure element, un- like metallic stiffened skin that sustains all main mechanical loads, including impact, loads from pressurizing and also sus- tains environmental factors. Hence, creation of lightweight and reliable composite primary structure elements of airframe, the novel types of structure layouts, allowing to realize high potential of current composite materials to the maximal extent, should be developed. In order to provide the development of such layots the novel approach is required, as the conventional stage-by-stage approach is based on a number of sufficient assumptions, most of which are correct only for the structures made of metallic alloys, but not correct as applied to the structures made of composite materials. The impossibility of the application of a stage-by-stage approach together with a significant increase of number of design parameters (in comparison with metallic structures, leads to the radical increase of labor input of the design task of composite structures.The novel approach to design of composite airframes, allowing to significantly decrease the extremely high labor input of the design process for composite structures is presented in this study. The approach presumes simultaneous solu- tions of design tasks on different levels of detailing of composite aircraft structure within the frames of the one integral design stage. The

  7. Advanced composites structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures. Structural response and failure analysis: ISPAN modules users manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairr, John W.; Huang, Jui-Ten; Ingram, J. Edward; Shah, Bharat M.

    1992-01-01

    The ISPAN Program (Interactive Stiffened Panel Analysis) is an interactive design tool that is intended to provide a means of performing simple and self contained preliminary analysis of aircraft primary structures made of composite materials. The program combines a series of modules with the finite element code DIAL as its backbone. Four ISPAN Modules were developed and are documented. These include: (1) flat stiffened panel; (2) curved stiffened panel; (3) flat tubular panel; and (4) curved geodesic panel. Users are instructed to input geometric and material properties, load information and types of analysis (linear, bifurcation buckling, or post-buckling) interactively. The program utilizing this information will generate finite element mesh and perform analysis. The output in the form of summary tables of stress or margins of safety, contour plots of loads or stress, and deflected shape plots may be generalized and used to evaluate specific design.

  8. Advanced composites structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures: Design/manufacturing concept assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Robert L.; Bayha, Tom D.; Davis, HU; Ingram, J. ED; Shukla, Jay G.

    1992-01-01

    Composite Wing and Fuselage Structural Design/Manufacturing Concepts have been developed and evaluated. Trade studies were performed to determine how well the concepts satisfy the program goals of 25 percent cost savings, 40 percent weight savings with aircraft resizing, and 50 percent part count reduction as compared to the aluminum Lockheed L-1011 baseline. The concepts developed using emerging technologies such as large scale resin transfer molding (RTM), automatic tow placed (ATP), braiding, out-of-autoclave and automated manufacturing processes for both thermoset and thermoplastic materials were evaluated for possible application in the design concepts. Trade studies were used to determine which concepts carry into the detailed design development subtask.

  9. Advanced composite structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures: Advanced material concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kreisler S. Y.; Landis, Abraham L.; Chow, Andrea W.; Hamlin, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    To achieve acceptable performance and long-term durability at elevated temperatures (350 to 600 F) for high-speed transport systems, further improvements of the high-performance matrix materials will be necessary to achieve very long-term (60,000-120,000 service hours) retention of mechanical properties and damage tolerance. This report emphasizes isoimide modification as a complementary technique to semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (SIPN's) to achieve greater processibility, better curing dynamics, and possibly enhanced thermo-mechanical properties in composites. A key result is the demonstration of enhanced processibility of isoimide-modified linear and thermo-setting polyimide systems.

  10. Critical joints in large composite primary aircraft structures. Volume 2: Technology demonstration test report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunin, Bruce L.

    1985-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop the technology for critical structural joints in composite wing structure that meets all the design requirements of a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. The results of four large composite multirow bolted joint tests are presented. The tests were conducted to demonstrate the technology for critical joints in highly loaded composite structure and to verify the analytical methods that were developed throughout the program. The test consisted of a wing skin-stringer transition specimen representing a stringer runout and skin splice on the wing lower surface at the side of the fuselage attachment. All tests were static tension tests. The composite material was Toray T-300 fiber with Ciba-Geigy 914 resin in 10 mil tape form. The splice members were metallic, using combinations of aluminum and titanium. Discussions are given of the test article, instrumentation, test setup, test procedures, and test results for each of the four specimens. Some of the analytical predictions are also included.

  11. Critical Joints in Large Composite Primary Aircraft Structures. Volume 3: Ancillary Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunin, Bruce L.; Sagui, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop the technology for critical structural joints for composite wing structure that meets all the design requirements of a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. The results of a comprehensive ancillary test program are summarized, consisting of single-bolt composite joint specimens tested in a variety of configurations. These tests were conducted to characterize the strength and load deflection properties that are required for multirow joint analysis. The composite material was Toray 300 fiber and Ciba-Geigy 914 resin, in the form of 0.005 and 0.01 inch thick unidirectional tape. Tests were conducted in single and double shear for loaded and unloaded hole configurations under both tensile and compressive loading. Two different layup patterns were examined. All tests were conducted at room temperature. In addition, the results of NASA Standard Toughness Test (NASA RP 1092) are reported, which were conducted for several material systems.

  12. Novel matrix resins for composites for aircraft primary structures, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Edmund P.; Puckett, P. M.; Maynard, S.; Bishop, M. T.; Bruza, K. J.; Godschalx, J. P.; Mullins, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the contract is the development of matrix resins with improved processability and properties for composites for primarily aircraft structures. To this end, several resins/systems were identified for subsonic and supersonic applications. For subsonic aircraft, a series of epoxy resins suitable for RTM and powder prepreg was shown to give composites with about 40 ksi compressive strength after impact (CAI) and 200 F/wet mechanical performance. For supersonic applications, a thermoplastic toughened cyanate prepreg system has demonstrated excellent resistance to heat aging at 360 F for 4000 hours, 40 ksi CAI and useful mechanical properties at greater than or equal to 310 F. An AB-BCB-maleimide resin was identified as a leading candidate for the HSCT. Composite panels fabricated by RTM show CAI of approximately 50 ksi, 350 F/wet performance and excellent retention of mechanical properties after aging at 400 F for 4000 hours.

  13. Fuel containment, lightning protection and damage tolerance in large composite primary aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Charles F.; James, Arthur M.

    1985-01-01

    The damage-tolerance characteristics of high strain-to-failure graphite fibers and toughened resins were evaluated. Test results show that conventional fuel tank sealing techniques are applicable to composite structures. Techniques were developed to prevent fuel leaks due to low-energy impact damage. For wing panels subjected to swept stroke lightning strikes, a surface protection of graphite/aluminum wire fabric and a fastener treatment proved effective in eliminating internal sparking and reducing structural damage. The technology features developed were incorporated and demonstrated in a test panel designed to meet the strength, stiffness, and damage tolerance requirements of a large commercial transport aircraft. The panel test results exceeded design requirements for all test conditions. Wing surfaces constructed with composites offer large weight savings if design allowable strains for compression can be increased from current levels.

  14. Critical joints in large composite primary aircraft structures. Volume 1: Technical summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunin, Bruce L.

    1985-01-01

    A program was conducted at Douglas Aircraft Company to develop the technology for critical joints in composite wing structure that meets all the design requirements of a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. In fulfilling this objective, analytical procedures for joint design and analysis were developed during Phase 1 of the program. Tests were conducted at the element level to supply the empirical data required for methods development. Large composite multirow joints were tested to verify the selected design concepts and for correlation with analysis predictions. The Phase 2 program included additional tests to provide joint design and analysis data, and culminated with several technology demonstration tests of a major joint area representative of a commercial transport wing. The technology demonstration program of Phase 2 is discussed. The analysis methodology development, structural test program, and correlation between test results and analytical strength predictions are reviewed.

  15. Innovative fabrication processing of advanced composite materials concepts for primary aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassapoglou, Christos; Dinicola, Al J.; Chou, Jack C.

    1992-01-01

    The autoclave based THERM-X(sub R) process was evaluated by cocuring complex curved panels with frames and stiffeners. The process was shown to result in composite parts of high quality with good compaction at sharp radius regions and corners of intersecting parts. The structural properties of the postbuckled panels fabricated were found to be equivalent to those of conventionally tooled hand laid-up parts. Significant savings in bagging time over conventional tooling were documented. Structural details such as cocured shear ties and embedded stiffener flanges in the skin were found to suppress failure modes such as failure at corners of intersecting members and skin stiffeners separation.

  16. Fuel containment and damage tolerance in large composite primary aircraft structures. Phase 2: Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandifer, J. P.; Denny, A.; Wood, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Technical issues associated with fuel containment and damage tolerance of composite wing structures for transport aircraft were investigated. Material evaluation tests were conducted on two toughened resin composites: Celion/HX1504 and Celion/5245. These consisted of impact, tension, compression, edge delamination, and double cantilever beam tests. Another test series was conducted on graphite/epoxy box beams simulating a wing cover to spar cap joint configuration of a pressurized fuel tank. These tests evaluated the effectiveness of sealing methods with various fastener types and spacings under fatigue loading and with pressurized fuel. Another test series evaluated the ability of the selected coatings, film, and materials to prevent fuel leakage through 32-ply AS4/2220-1 laminates at various impact energy levels. To verify the structural integrity of the technology demonstration article structural details, tests were conducted on blade stiffened panels and sections. Compression tests were performed on undamaged and impacted stiffened AS4/2220-1 panels and smaller element tests to evaluate stiffener pull-off, side load and failsafe properties. Compression tests were also performed on panels subjected to Zone 2 lightning strikes. All of these data were integrated into a demonstration article representing a moderately loaded area of a transport wing. This test combined lightning strike, pressurized fuel, impact, impact repair, fatigue and residual strength.

  17. Durability and damage tolerance of Large Composite Primary Aircraft Structure (LCPAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarty, John E.; Roeseler, William G.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis and testing addressing the key technology areas of durability and damage tolerance were completed for wing surface panels. The wing of a fuel-efficient, 200-passenger commercial transport airplane for 1990 delivery was sized using graphite-epoxy materials. Coupons of various layups used in the wing sizing were tested in tension, compression, and spectrum fatigue with typical fastener penetrations. The compression strength after barely visible impact damage was determined from coupon and structural element tests. One current material system and one toughened system were evaluated by coupon testing. The results of the coupon and element tests were used to design three distinctly different compression panels meeting the strength, stiffness, and damage-tolerance requirements of the upper wing panels. These three concepts were tested with various amounts of damage ranging from barely visible impact to through-penetration. The results of this program provide the key technology data required to assess the durability and damage-tolerance capability or advanced composites for use in commercial aircraft wing panel structure.

  18. Fuel containment and damage tolerance for large composite primary aircraft structures. Phase 1: Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandifer, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    Technical problems associated with fuel containment and damage tolerance of composite material wings for transport aircraft were identified. The major tasks are the following: (1) the preliminary design of damage tolerant wing surface using composite materials; (2) the evaluation of fuel sealing and lightning protection methods for a composite material wing; and (3) an experimental investigation of the damage tolerant characteristics of toughened resin graphite/epoxy materials. The test results, the test techniques, and the test data are presented.

  19. Composite Structures Manufacturing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Composite Structures Manufacturing Facility specializes in the design, analysis, fabrication and testing of advanced composite structures and materials for both...

  20. Long-term changes in structure and composition following hurricanes in a primary lower montane rain forest in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.L. Weaver

    2013-01-01

    Ridges within the lower montane rain forests (sensu Beard) of the Caribbean Basin are dominated by Dacryodes excelsa, a tree species known as tabonuco in Puerto Rico and gommier in the Lesser Antilles. Periodially, hurricanes traverse the islands causing changes in structure, species composition, and dynamics of forests. The chronology of post-hurricane vegetation...

  1. Advanced technology composite aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Walker, Thomas H.

    1991-01-01

    Work performed during the 25th month on NAS1-18889, Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures, is summarized. The main objective of this program is to develop an integrated technology and demonstrate a confidence level that permits the cost- and weight-effective use of advanced composite materials in primary structures of future aircraft with the emphasis on pressurized fuselages. The period from 1-31 May 1991 is covered.

  2. Multifunctional Structural Composite Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Conference held in Dallas, Texas on 6-9 November 2006. We are developing structural polymeric composites that both carry structural loads and store...structural polymeric composites that both carry structural loads and store electrochemical energy. These multifunctional batteries could replace inert...solid-state goal, and is compatible with our PEO -based resin electrolytes . The metal substrate provides structural support while acting as a

  3. Multifunctional Composite Structure

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project is developing a Composite Sandwich Habitable Pressurized Structure for deep space travel. Permeability, radiation, & micrometeoroids and orbital...

  4. Deployable Soft Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel.

  5. Bonded and Stitched Composite Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Bart F. (Inventor); Dial, William B. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method of forming a composite structure can include providing a plurality of composite panels of material, each composite panel having a plurality of holes extending through the panel. An adhesive layer is applied to each composite panel and a adjoining layer is applied over the adhesive layer. The method also includes stitching the composite panels, adhesive layer, and adjoining layer together by passing a length of a flexible connecting element into the plurality of holes in the composite panels of material. At least the adhesive layer is cured to bond the composite panels together and thereby form the composite structure.

  6. Radiation curable adhesive compositions and composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, W.

    1984-01-01

    This disclosure relates to novel adhesive compositions and composite structures utilizing the same, wherein said adhesive compositions contain an elastomer, a chemically compatible ethylenically unsaturated monomer, a tackifier, an adhesion promoter, and optionally, pigments, fillers, thickeners and flow control agents which are converted from the liquid to the solid state by exposure to high energy ionizing radiation such as electron beam. A particularly useful application for such adhesive compositions comprises the assembly of certain composite structures or laminates consisting of, for example, a fiber flocked rubber sheet and a metal base with the adhesive fulfilling the multiple functions of adhering the flocked fiber to the rubber sheet as well as adhering the rubber sheet to the metal base. Optionally, the rubber sheet itself may also be cured at the same time as the adhesive composition with all operations being carried out at ambient temperatures and in the presence of air, with exposure of said assembly to selected dosages of high energy ionizing radiation. These adhesive compositions contain no solvents thereby almost eliminating air pollution or solvent toxicity problems, and offer substantial savings in energy and labor as they are capable of curing in very short time periods without the use of external heat which might damage the substrate

  7. Composite materials for aircraft structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, A. A; Dutton, Stuart; Kelly, Donald

    2004-01-01

    ... materials for aircraft structures / Alan Baker, Stuart Dutton, and Donald Kelly- 2nd ed. p. cm. - (Education series) Rev. ed. of: Composite materials for aircraft structures / edited by B. C. Hos...

  8. Composite desiccant structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraioli, Anthony V.; Schertz, William W.

    1987-01-01

    A composite formed of small desiccant particles retained in a dark matrix composed of a porous binder containing a transition metal oxide with pores to provide moisture transport with respect to the particles, and metallic fibers to remove the heat of condensation during dehumidification and provide heat for the removal of moisture during regeneration. The moisture absorbing properties of the composite may be regenerated by exposure of the dark matrix to solar radiation with dehumidification occurring at night.

  9. Precision Composite Space Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-15

    processing of truss elements, e.g., using coating or multilayer insulation, can achieve certain success in alleviating thermal distortion problems...myViewport.setValues(displayedObject=hexpart) myViewport.partDisplay.setValues(renderStyle=SHADED) print’Part created from Extrusion ...strength of multilayered composites under a plane-stress state. Compos Sci Technol 1998;58(7):1209-1223. [D.219]. Zinoviev PA, Lebedeva OV, Tairova

  10. Deformation Characteristics of Composite Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theddeus T. AKANO

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The composites provide design flexibility because many of them can be moulded into complex shapes. The carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy composites exhibit excellent fatigue tolerance and high specific strength and stiffness which have led to numerous advanced applications ranging from the military and civil aircraft structures to the consumer products. However, the modelling of the beams undergoing the arbitrarily large displacements and rotations, but small strains, is a common problem in the application of these engineering composite systems. This paper presents a nonlinear finite element model which is able to estimate the deformations of the fibre-reinforced epoxy composite beams. The governing equations are based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory (EBBT with a von Kármán type of kinematic nonlinearity. The anisotropic elasticity is employed for the material model of the composite material. Moreover, the characterization of the mechanical properties of the composite material is achieved through a tensile test, while a simple laboratory experiment is used to validate the model. The results reveal that the composite fibre orientation, the type of applied load and boundary condition, affect the deformation characteristics of the composite structures. The nonlinearity is an important factor that should be taken into consideration in the analysis of the fibre-reinforced epoxy composites.

  11. Role of primary substrate composition on microbial community structure and function and trace organic chemical attenuation in managed aquifer recharge systems

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Dong

    2014-03-26

    This study was performed to reveal the microbial community characteristics in simulated managed aquifer recharge (MAR), a natural water treatment system, under different concentrations and compositions of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) and further link these to the biotransformation of emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs). Two pairs of soil-column setups were established in the laboratory receiving synthetic feed solutions composed of different peptone/humic acid ratios and concentrations. Higher BDOC concentration resulted in lower microbial community diversity and higher relative abundance of Betaproteobacteria. Decreasing the peptone/humic acid ratio resulted in higher diversity of the community and higher relative abundances of Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, and Actinobacteria. The metabolic capabilities of microbiome involved in xenobiotics biodegradation were significantly promoted under lower BDOC concentration and higher humic acid content. Cytochrome P450 genes were also more abundant under these primary substrate conditions. Lower peptone/humic acid ratios also promoted the attenuation of most TOrCs. These results suggest that the primary substrate characterized by a more refractory character could increase the relative abundances of Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, and Actinobacteria, as well as associated cytochrome P450 genes, all of which should play important roles in the biotransformation of TOrCs in this natural treatment system. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Transition from glass to graphite in manufacture of composite aircraft structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffum, H. E.; Thompson, V. S.

    1978-01-01

    The transition from fiberglass reinforced plastic composites to graphite reinforced plastic composites is described. Structural fiberglass design and manufacturing background are summarized. How this experience provides a technology base for moving into graphite composite secondary structure and then to composite primary structure is considered. The technical requirements that must be fulfilled in the transition from glass to graphite composite structure are also included.

  13. Composite materials for cryogenic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasen, M.B.

    1978-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the composition, mechanical properties and capabilities of various types of composite materials for cryogenic structures. Attention is given to high-pressure plastic laminates, low-pressure plastic laminates, metal-matrix laminates, and aggregates (low-temperature concretes). The ability of these materials to match the strength and modulus of stainless steels suggests that their usage will substantially increase as alloying elements become scarce and more expensive

  14. Commercial transport aircraft composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarty, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The role that analysis plays in the development, production, and substantiation of aircraft structures is discussed. The types, elements, and applications of failure that are used and needed; the current application of analysis methods to commercial aircraft advanced composite structures, along with a projection of future needs; and some personal thoughts on analysis development goals and the elements of an approach to analysis development are discussed.

  15. Optimization of Laminated Composite Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichsen, Søren Randrup

    allows for a higher degree of tailoring of the resulting material. To enable better utilization of the composite materials, optimum design procedures can be used to assist the engineer. This PhD thesis is focused on developing numerical methods for optimization of laminated composite structures....... The first part of the thesis is intended as an aid to read the included papers. Initially the field of research is introduced and the performed research is motivated. Secondly, the state-of-the-art is reviewed. The review includes parameterizations of the constitutive properties, linear and geometrically...... of the contributions of the PhD project are included in the second part of the thesis. Paper A presents a framework for free material optimization where commercially available finite element analysis software is used as analysis tool. Robust buckling optimization of laminated composite structures by including...

  16. Composite structure made of concrete and timber

    OpenAIRE

    Kozjan, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Thesis work is dealing with behavior of composite structure made of concrete and timber. First the scope of the document is introduced following by description of the problem and explaining the purpose and goals. Continuing of the document is presented composite structure concrete-timber. The composite material is described, composite structure is represent, stated are reasons of coupling concrete and timber and the typical connection in composite structure are represented. Thesis describes c...

  17. Durability of commercial aircraft and helicopter composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dexter, H.B.

    1982-01-01

    The development of advanced composite technology during the past decade is discussed. Both secondary and primary components fabricated with boron, graphite, and Kevlar composites are evaluated. Included are spoilers, rudders, and fairings on commercial transports, boron/epoxy reinforced wing structure on C-130 military transports, and doors, fairings, tail rotors, vertical fins, and horizontal stabilizers on commercial helicopters. The development of composite structures resulted in advances in design and manufacturing technology for secondary and primary composite structures for commercial transports. Design concepts and inspection and maintenance results for the components in service are reported. The flight, outdoor ground, and controlled laboratory environmental effects on composites were also determined. Effects of moisture absorption, ultraviolet radiation, aircraft fuels and fluids, and sustained tensile stress are included. Critical parameters affecting the long term durability of composite materials are identified

  18. Functionally Graded Metal-Metal Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Craig A. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Methods and devices are disclosed for creating a multiple alloy composite structure by forming a three-dimensional arrangement of a first alloy composition in which the three-dimensional arrangement has a substantially open and continuous porosity. The three-dimensional arrangement of the first alloy composition is infused with at least a second alloy composition, where the second alloy composition comprises a shape memory alloy. The three-dimensional arrangement is consolidated into a fully dense solid structure, and the original shape of the second alloy composition is set for reversible transformation. Strain is applied to the fully dense solid structure, which is treated with heat so that the shape memory alloy composition becomes memory activated to recover the original shape. An interwoven composite of the first alloy composition and the memory-activated second alloy composition is thereby formed in the multiple alloy composite structure.

  19. Development of thermoplastic composite aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renieri, Michael P.; Burpo, Steven J.; Roundy, Lance M.; Todd, Stephanie A.; Kim, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    Efforts focused on the use of thermoplastic composite materials in the development of structural details associated with an advanced fighter fuselage section with applicability to transport design. In support of these designs, mechanics developments were conducted in two areas. First, a dissipative strain energy approach to material characterization and failure prediction, developed at the Naval Research Laboratory, was evaluated as a design/analysis tool. Second, a finite element formulation for thick composites was developed and incorporated into a lug analysis method which incorporates pin bending effects. Manufacturing concepts were developed for an upper fuel cell cover. A detailed trade study produced two promising concepts: fiber placement and single-step diaphragm forming. Based on the innovative design/manufacturing concepts for the fuselage section primary structure, elements were designed, fabricated, and structurally tested. These elements focused on key issues such as thick composite lugs and low cost forming of fastenerless, stiffener/moldine concepts. Manufacturing techniques included autoclave consolidation, single diaphragm consolidation (SDCC) and roll-forming.

  20. Hybrid Simulation of Composite Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Jacob Herold

    Hybrid simulation is a substructural method combining a numerical simulation with a physical experiment. A structure is thereby simulated under the assumption that a substructure’s response is well known and easily modelled while a given substructure is studied more accurately in a physical...... of freedom. In this dissertation the main focus is to develop hybrid simulation for composite structures e.g. wind turbine blades where the boundary between the numerical model and the physical experiment is continues i.e. in principal infinite amount of degrees of freedom. This highly complicates...... the transfer system and the control and monitoring techniques in the shared boundary is therefore a key issue in this type of hybrid simulation. During the research, hybrid simulation platforms have been programmed capable of running on different time scales with advanced control and monitoring techniques...

  1. Effects of climate change and shifts in forest composition on forest net primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyh-Min Chiang; Louts [Louis] R. Iverson; Anantha Prasad; Kim J. Brown

    2008-01-01

    Forests are dynamic in both structure and species composition, and these dynamics are strongly influenced by climate. However, the net effects of future tree species composition on net primary production (NPP) are not well understood. The objective of this work was to model the potential range shifts of tree species (DISTRIB Model) and predict their impacts on NPP (...

  2. Structural Health Monitoring: Numerical Damage Predictor for Composite Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lannamann, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    .... Wide use of composites is found in aircraft, armored vehicles, ships and civil structures This present research demonstrates the ability to numerically detect damage in a composite sandwich structure...

  3. Unibody Composite Pressurized Structure (UCPS) for In-Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Microcosm, Inc., in conjunction with the Scorpius Space Launch Company, is developing a UCPS (Unibody Composite Pressurized Structure )for in-space propulsion. This innovative approach constitutes a clean break from traditional spacecraft design by combining what were traditionally separate primary and secondary support structures and metal propellant tanks into a single unit.

  4. Multiscale Multifunctional Progressive Fracture of Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Minnetyan, L.

    2012-01-01

    A new approach is described for evaluating fracture in composite structures. This approach is independent of classical fracture mechanics parameters like fracture toughness. It relies on computational simulation and is programmed in a stand-alone integrated computer code. It is multiscale, multifunctional because it includes composite mechanics for the composite behavior and finite element analysis for predicting the structural response. It contains seven modules; layered composite mechanics (micro, macro, laminate), finite element, updating scheme, local fracture, global fracture, stress based failure modes, and fracture progression. The computer code is called CODSTRAN (Composite Durability Structural ANalysis). It is used in the present paper to evaluate the global fracture of four composite shell problems and one composite built-up structure. Results show that the composite shells. Global fracture is enhanced when internal pressure is combined with shear loads. The old reference denotes that nothing has been added to this comprehensive report since then.

  5. Multifunctional Composite Nanofibers for Smart Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    translated to the composite nanofibrous structures in the form of nonwovens and yarns? (3) Can these functional composite fibers be integrated into...nanoparticles were co- electrospun into nonwoven mat and over meter long yarn. The SEM and TEM image in Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...functional composite nanofiber structures (yarn and nonwoven ) characterized we explored the feasibility of integrating these functional composite fibers into

  6. Fire resistance of structural composite lumber products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White

    2006-01-01

    Use of structural composite lumber products is increasing. In applications requiring a fire resistance rating, calculation procedures are used to obtain the fire resistance rating of exposed structural wood products. A critical factor in the calculation procedures is char rate for ASTM E 119 fire exposure. In this study, we tested 14 structural composite lumber...

  7. Composite materials application on FORMOSAT-5 remote sensing instrument structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Chueh Kuo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite material has been widely applied in space vehicle structures due to its light weight and designed stiffness modulus. Some special mechanical properties that cannot be changed in general metal materials, such as low CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion and directional material stiffness can be artificially adjusted in composite materials to meet the user’s requirements. Space-qualified Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP composite materials are applied In the FORMOSAT-5 Remote Sensing (RSI structure because of its light weight and low CTE characteristics. The RSI structural elements include the primary mirror supporting plate, secondary mirror supporting ring, and supporting frame. These elements are designed, manufactured, and verified using composite materials to meet specifications. The structure manufacturing process, detailed material properties, and CFRP structural element validation methods are introduced in this paper.

  8. Modelling the Crash Response of Composite Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A.; Kohlgrüber, D.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes recent progress on the materials modelling and numerical simulation of the dynamic crash response of fibre reinforced composite structures. The work is based on the application of explicit finite element analysis codes to composite aircraft structures and structural elements under low velocity impact conditions (up to 15 m/s). Structures studied are designed to absorb crash energy and reduce seat deceleration pulses in aircraft subfloor structures, and consist of an aircra...

  9. Inside-Out Manufacturing of Composite Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tooling for the manufacture of large structures from composite materials often costs much more than individual parts, rendering the processes unattractive for...

  10. Impact analysis of composite aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifko, Allan B.; Kushner, Alan S.

    1993-01-01

    The impact analysis of composite aircraft structures is discussed. Topics discussed include: background remarks on aircraft crashworthiness; comments on modeling strategies for crashworthiness simulation; initial study of simulation of progressive failure of an aircraft component constructed of composite material; and research direction in composite characterization for impact analysis.

  11. Structure-property relationships in eutectic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    The preparation of a composite material of eutectic composition directly from the molten state is investigated. The manufacture of eutectic composites by unidirectional solidification is reviewed, and it is shown how two-phase composite structures of given relative volume fraction can be produced with a range of particle sizes. Crystallographic relationships and the thermal stability of interfaces in controlled eutectic structures are examined, the mechanical behavior of aligned eutectic microstructures is discussed, and characteristics of eutectic composites having mechanical properties of engineering significance are evaluated. Specific properties of the Ni-Nb eutectic alloy are reviewed to demonstrate the effect of structure control (through directional solidification) on the mechanical response of a eutectic composite. It is noted that unidirectionally solidified eutectic composites possess highly aligned and thermally stable microstructures and also exhibit excellent combinations of strength and ductility to very high temperature levels.

  12. Deployable Composite Structures, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is seeking innovative structure technologies that will advance expandable modules for orbital and surface based habitats. These secondary structures must...

  13. Patterning of Structurally Anisotropic Composite Hydrogel Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Elisabeth; Alizadehgiashi, Moien; Campbell, Melissa; Khuu, Nancy; Albulescu, Alexandra; De France, Kevin; Ratkov, Dimitrije; Li, Yunfeng; Hoare, Todd; Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2018-04-09

    Compositional and structural patterns play a crucial role in the function of many biological tissues. In the present work, for nanofibrillar hydrogels formed by chemically cross-linked cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and gelatin, we report a microextrusion-based 3D printing method to generate structurally anisotropic hydrogel sheets with CNCs aligned in the direction of extrusion. We prepared hydrogels with a uniform composition, as well as hydrogels with two different types of compositional gradients. In the first type of gradient hydrogel, the composition of the sheet varied parallel to the direction of CNC alignment. In the second hydrogel type, the composition of the sheet changed orthogonally to the direction of CNC alignment. The hydrogels exhibited gradients in structure, mechanical properties, and permeability, all governed by the compositional patterns, as well as cytocompatibility. These hydrogels have promising applications for both fundamental research and for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  14. Thermomechanics of composite structures under high temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrienko, Yu I

    2016-01-01

    This pioneering book presents new models for the thermomechanical behavior of composite materials and structures taking into account internal physico-chemical transformations such as thermodecomposition, sublimation and melting at high temperatures (up to 3000 K). It is of great importance for the design of new thermostable materials and for the investigation of reliability and fire safety of composite structures. It also supports the investigation of interaction of composites with laser irradiation and the design of heat-shield systems. Structural methods are presented for calculating the effective mechanical and thermal properties of matrices, fibres and unidirectional, reinforced by dispersed particles and textile composites, in terms of properties of their constituent phases. Useful calculation methods are developed for characteristics such as the rate of thermomechanical erosion of composites under high-speed flow and the heat deformation of composites with account of chemical shrinkage. The author expan...

  15. Adaptive, tolerant and efficient composite structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, Martin; Sinapius, Michael (eds.) [German Aerospace Center DLR, Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. of Composite Structures and Adaptive Systems

    2013-07-01

    Polymer composites offer the possibility for functional integration since the material is produced simultaneously with the product. The efficiency of composite structures raises through functional integration. The specific production processes of composites offer the possibility to improve and to integrate more functions thus making the structure more valuable. Passive functions can be improved by combination of different materials from nano to macro scale, i.e. strength, toughness, bearing strength, compression after impact properties or production tolerances. Active functions can be realized by smart materials, i.e. morphing, active vibration control, active structure acoustic control or structure health monitoring. The basis is a comprehensive understanding of materials, simulation, design methods, production technologies and adaptronics. These disciplines together deliver advanced lightweight solutions for applications ranging from mechanical engineering to vehicles, airframe and space structures along the complete process chain. The book provides basics as well as inspiring ideas for engineers working in the field of adaptive, tolerant and robust composite structures.

  16. Primary School Composite Class Teaching and Learning Mode ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was prompted by the observation that many primary schools in Mentors district in Zimbabwe have composite classes. This teaching and learning practice raises questions of quality education against the education for all policy. The purpose of this study was to gather stakeholders' perceptions on the practice as a ...

  17. Structural Dynamics of Education Reforms and Quality of Primary Education in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenje, Aida

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines Uganda's recent undertaking to reform her Primary School education System with a focus on the effect of structural dynamics of education reforms and the quality of primary education. Structural dynamics in the context of this study is in reference to the organizational composition of the education system at the government,…

  18. Forming of shape memory composite structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santo, Loredana; Quadrini, Fabrizio; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    tomography. Final shape memory composite panels were mechanically tested by three point bending before and after a shape memory step. This step consisted of a compression to reduce the panel thickness up to 60%. At the end of the bending test the panel shape was recovered by heating and a new memory step...... was performed with a higher thickness reduction. Memory steps were performed at room temperature and 120 °C so as to test the foam core in the glassy and rubbery state, respectively. Shape memory tests revealed the ability of the shape memory composite structures to recover the initial shape also after severe......A new forming procedure was developed to produce shape memory composite structures having structural composite skins over a shape memory polymer core. Core material was obtained by solid state foaming of an epoxy polyester resin with remarkably shape memory properties. The composite skin consisted...

  19. Mechanical Model Development for Composite Structural Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Trenton M.; Lacy, Thomas E., Jr.; Santiago, Diana; Bednarcyk, Brett A.

    2016-01-01

    Novel composite structural supercapacitor concepts have recently been developed as a means both to store electrical charge and to provide modest mechanical load carrying capability. Double-layer composite supercapacitors are often fabricated by impregnating a woven carbon fiber fabric, which serves as the electrodes, with a structural polymer electrolyte. Polypropylene or a glass fabric is often used as the separator material. Recent research has been primarily limited to evaluating these composites experimentally. In this study, mechanical models based on the Multiscale Generalized Method of Cells (MSGMC) were developed and used to calculate the shear and tensile properties and response of two composite structural supercapacitors from the literature. The modeling approach was first validated against traditional composite laminate data. MSGMC models for composite supercapacitors were developed, and accurate elastic shear/tensile properties were obtained. It is envisioned that further development of the models presented in this work will facilitate the design of composite components for aerospace and automotive applications and can be used to screen candidate constituent materials for inclusion in future composite structural supercapacitor concepts.

  20. Design and Processing of Structural Composite Batteries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, E. L; Baechle, D. M; Xu, K; Carter, R. H; Snyder, J. F; Wetzel, E. D

    2007-01-01

    ...) 2007 Symposium and Exhibition held in Baltimore, MD, on 3-7 June 2007. Multifunctional structural composites are being developed to simultaneously bear mechanical loads and store electrochemical energy...

  1. Deployable Composite Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is seeking innovative structure technologies that will advance expandable exploration space modules and surface based habitats. To address this need CTD has...

  2. High Thermal Conductivity Composite Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bootle, John

    1999-01-01

    ... applications and space based radiators. The advantage of this material compared to competing materials that it can be used to fabricate high strength, high thermal conductivity, relatively thin structures less than 0.050" thick...

  3. Anisotropic magnetism in field-structured composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, James E.; Venturini, Eugene; Odinek, Judy; Anderson, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic field-structured composites (FSCs) are made by structuring magnetic particle suspensions in uniaxial or biaxial (e.g., rotating) magnetic fields, while polymerizing the suspending resin. A uniaxial field produces chainlike particle structures, and a biaxial field produces sheetlike particle structures. In either case, these anisotropic structures affect the measured magnetic hysteresis loops, with the magnetic remanence and susceptibility increased significantly along the axis of the structuring field, and decreased slightly orthogonal to the structuring field, relative to the unstructured particle composite. The coercivity is essentially unaffected by structuring. We present data for FSCs of magnetically soft particles, and demonstrate that the altered magnetism can be accounted for by considering the large local fields that occur in FSCs. FSCs of magnetically hard particles show unexpectedly large anisotropies in the remanence, and this is due to the local field effects in combination with the large crystalline anisotropy of this material. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  4. Structural investigation of a new composite process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Philippe; Becker, Eric; Bigot, Régis; Kaïci, Bruno

    2017-10-01

    This work presents a study done on a new patented forming process, created to produce massive composite parts used for structural applications in automotive and aeronautics industries. The study presented in this paper deals with an experimental setup, used to characterize thick composite cylinders. The author presents the characterization of these cylinders and a new analysis method, in order to understand the consolidation steps of the composite in this forming process. The structural health of the part is illustrated by the analysis of the intra-bundle and inter-bundle porosities, by micrographs characterizations.

  5. Impact damages modeling in laminated composite structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreculj Dragan D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminated composites have an important application in modern engineering structures. They are characterized by extraordinary properties, such as: high strength and stiffness and lightweight. Nevertheless, a serious obstacle to more widespread use of those materials is their sensitivity to the impact loads. Impacts cause initiation and development of certain types of damages. Failures that occur in laminated composite structures can be intralaminar and interlaminar. To date it was developed a lot of simulation models for impact damages analysis in laminates. Those models can replace real and expensive testing in laminated structures with a certain accuracy. By using specialized software the damage parameters and distributions can be determined (at certain conditions on laminate structures. With performing numerical simulation of impact on composite laminates there are corresponding results valid for the analysis of these structures.

  6. Adaptive, tolerant and efficient composite structures

    CERN Document Server

    Sinapius, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Polymer composites offer the possibility for functional integration since the material is produced simultaneously with the product. The efficiency of composite structures raises through functional integration. The specific production processes of composites offer the possibility to improve and to integrate more functions thus making the structure more valuable. Passive functions can be improved by combination of different materials from nano to macro scale, i.e. strength, toughness, bearing strength, compression after impact properties or production tolerances.  Active functions can be realized by smart materials, i.e. morphing, active vibration control, active structure acoustic control or structure health monitoring. The basis is a comprehensive understanding of materials, simulation, design methods, production technologies and adaptronics. These disciplines together deliver advanced lightweight solutions for applications ranging from mechanical engineering to vehicles, airframe and space structures along ...

  7. Integrating electrostatic adhesion to composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Callum J. C.; Bond, Ian P.; Potter, Kevin D.

    2015-04-01

    Additional functionality within load bearing components holds potential for adding value to a structure, design or product. We consider the adaptation of an established technology, electrostatic adhesion or electroadhesion, for application in glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite materials. Electroadhesion uses high potential difference (~2-3 kV) between co-planar electrodes to generate temporary holding forces to both electrically conductive and nonconductive contact surfaces. Using a combination of established fabrication techniques, electroadhesive elements are co-cured within a composite host structure during manufacture. This provides an almost symbiotic relationship between the electroadhesive and the composite structure, with the electroadhesive providing an additional functionality, whilst the epoxy matrix material of the composite acts as a dielectric for the high voltage electrodes of the device. Silicone rubber coated devices have been shown to offer high shear load (85kPa) capability for GFRP components held together using this technique. Through careful control of the connection interface, we consider the incorporation of these devices within complete composite structures for additional functionality. The ability to vary the internal connectivity of structural elements could allow for incremental changes in connectivity between discrete sub-structures, potentially introducing variable stiffness to the global structure.

  8. Lithographically defined microporous carbon-composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckel, David Bruce; Washburn, Cody M.; Lambert, Timothy N.; Finnegan, Patrick Sean; Wheeler, David R.

    2016-12-06

    A microporous carbon scaffold is produced by lithographically patterning a carbon-containing photoresist, followed by pyrolysis of the developed resist structure. Prior to exposure, the photoresist is loaded with a nanoparticulate material. After pyrolysis, the nanonparticulate material is dispersed in, and intimately mixed with, the carbonaceous material of the scaffold, thereby yielding a carbon composite structure.

  9. Quantitative NDE of Composite Structures at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Leckey, Cara A. C.; Howell, Patricia A.; Johnston, Patrick H.; Burke, Eric R.; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Winfree, William P.; Seebo, Jeffery P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of composite materials continues to increase in the aerospace community due to the potential benefits of reduced weight, increased strength, and manufacturability. Ongoing work at NASA involves the use of the large-scale composite structures for spacecraft (payload shrouds, cryotanks, crew modules, etc). NASA is also working to enable the use and certification of composites in aircraft structures through the Advanced Composites Project (ACP). The rapid, in situ characterization of a wide range of the composite materials and structures has become a critical concern for the industry. In many applications it is necessary to monitor changes in these materials over a long time. The quantitative characterization of composite defects such as fiber waviness, reduced bond strength, delamination damage, and microcracking are of particular interest. The research approaches of NASA's Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Branch include investigation of conventional, guided wave, and phase sensitive ultrasonic methods, infrared thermography and x-ray computed tomography techniques. The use of simulation tools for optimizing and developing these methods is also an active area of research. This paper will focus on current research activities related to large area NDE for rapidly characterizing aerospace composites.

  10. Ownership Structure, Board Composition and Investment Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Eklund, Johan; Palmberg, Johanna; Wiberg, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the relation between ownership structure, board composition and firm performance is explored. A panel of Swedish listed firms is used to investigate how board composition affects firm performance. Board heterogeneity is measured as board size, age and gender diversity. The results show that Swedish board of directors have become more diversified in terms of gender. Also, fewer firms have the CEO on the board which can be interpreted as a sign of increased independency. The regre...

  11. Composite electrode/electrolyte structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2004-01-27

    Provided is an electrode fabricated from highly electronically conductive materials such as metals, metal alloys, or electronically conductive ceramics. The electronic conductivity of the electrode substrate is maximized. Onto this electrode in the green state, a green ionic (e.g., electrolyte) film is deposited and the assembly is co-fired at a temperature suitable to fully densify the film while the substrate retains porosity. Subsequently, a catalytic material is added to the electrode structure by infiltration of a metal salt and subsequent low temperature firing. The invention allows for an electrode with high electronic conductivity and sufficient catalytic activity to achieve high power density in ionic (electrochemical) devices such as fuel cells and electrolytic gas separation systems.

  12. Composite Structure Optimization with Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslandes, Olivier

    2014-06-01

    In the frame of optimization studies in CNES launcher directorate structure, thermic and material department, the need of an optimization tool based on metaheuristic and finite element models for composite structural dimensioning was underlined.Indeed, composite structures need complex optimization methodologies in order to be really compared to metallic structures with regard to mass, static strength and stiffness constraints (metallic structures using optimization methods better known).After some bibliography research, the use of a genetic algorithm coupled with design of experiment to generate the initial population was chosen. Academic functions were used to validate the optimization process and then it was applied to an industrial study aiming to optimize an interstage skirt with regard to its mass, stiffness and stability (global buckling).

  13. Silver Matrix Composites - Structure and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieczorek J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phase compositions of composite materials determine their performance as well as physical and mechanical properties. Depending on the type of applied matrix and the kind, amount and morphology of the matrix reinforcement, it is possible to shape the material properties so that they meet specific operational requirements. In the paper, results of investigations on silver alloy matrix composites reinforced with ceramic particles are presented. The investigations enabled evaluation of hardness, tribological and mechanical properties as well as the structure of produced materials. The matrix of composite material was an alloy of silver and aluminium, magnesium and silicon. As the reinforcing phase, 20-60 μm ceramic particles (SiC, SiO2, Al2O3 and Cs were applied. The volume fraction of the reinforcing phase in the composites was 10%. The composites were produced using the liquid phase (casting technology, followed by plastic work (the KOBO method. The mechanical and tribological properties were analysed for plastic work-subjected composites. The mechanical properties were assessed based on a static tensile and hardness tests. The tribological properties were investigated under dry sliding conditions. The analysis of results led to determination of effects of the composite production technology on their performance. Moreover, a relationship between the type of reinforcing phase and the mechanical and tribological properties was established.

  14. Strength analysis and modeling of hybrid composite-aluminum aircraft structures

    OpenAIRE

    Kapidzic, Zlatan

    2013-01-01

    The current trend in aircraft design is to increase the proportion of fiber composites in the structures. Since many primary parts also are constructed using metals, the number of hybrid metal-composite structures is increasing. Such structures have traditionally often been avoided as an option because of the lack of methodology to handle the mismatch between the material properties. Composite and metal properties differ with respect to: thermal expansion, failure mechanisms, plasticity, sens...

  15. Variable sweep geometry primary structure actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Gareth J.; Bird, Ross W.; White, Edward V.; Valentino, Michael

    2004-07-01

    Several corporations including QorTek and Boeing have both independently proposed variable sweep primary structures for future adaptive airframe structures as to enable miniaturized area dominance munitions and UAVs. Various new vehicle concepts must insert a high power actuator to overcome low speed aerodynamic forces within a limited packaging availability. In order to meet requirements for this and other UAV/UCAV/MMT missions, require a re-thinking on how to accomplish large motor torque/lb (rather than energy/lb) while integrating the speed and torque capability in a small package. The difficulty is highlighted by considering that piezo devices are nicely compact but can only deliver is typically 1-2ft-lb/lb; whereas SMA has potential of being lighter solution and can deliver 100-200 ft-lb/lb but has two problems: slow recovery and large weight penalty for thermal components. Fortunately, some munition applications have relatively modest control surface actuation bandwidth requirements. However, until now, the thermal aspect has been prohibitive. QorTek will present a new SMA-based motor that provides high torque/lb for UAV/UCAV/MMT systems. This unique motor design has eliminated the need for additional power components for thermal excitation (transient heating) of the SMA elements as to accomplish phase transition. The resulting package is the desirable lightweight and compact packaged solution to many air vehicle and munition needs. Moreover, the design eliminates the undesirable "snapping" action associated with SMA phase transition.

  16. Composite structural armor for combat vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, William E., III; Alesi, A. L.; Parsons, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Several projects that have demonstrated the advantages of using thick composite armor technology for structural applications in armored combat vehicles are discussed. The first involved composite cargo doors for the Marine Corps LVTP-7 amphibious landing vehicle. Another was a demonstration composite turret that offered a weight reduction of 15.5 percent. The advantages of this composite armor compared to metallic armors used for combat vehicle hull and turret applications are reduced weight at equal ballistic protection; reduced back armor spall; excellent corrosion resistance; reduced production costs by parts consolidation; and inherent thermal and acoustic insulative properties. Based on the encouraging results of these past programs, the Demonstration Composite Hull Program was started in September 1986. To demonstrate this composite armor technology, the Army's newest infantry fighting vehicle, the Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV), was selected as a model. A composite infantry fighting vehicle, designated the CIFV for this program, has been designed and fabricated and is currently undergoing a 6000 mile field endurance test. The CIFV demonstration vehicle uses the BFV engine, transmission, suspension, track and other equipment.

  17. Resin selection criteria for tough composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Smith, G. T.

    1983-01-01

    Resin selection criteria are derived using a structured methodology consisting of an upward integrated mechanistic theory and its inverse (top-down structured theory). These criteria are expressed in a "criteria selection space" which are used to identify resin bulk properties for improved composite "toughness". The resin selection criteria correlate with a variety of experimental data including laminate strength, elevated temperature effects and impact resistance.

  18. Structural Design of Ares V Interstage Composite Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleigh, David W.; Sreekantamurthy, Thammaiah; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Martin, Robert A.; Johnson, Theodore F.

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary and detailed design studies were performed to mature composite structural design concepts for the Ares V Interstage structure as a part of NASA s Advanced Composite Technologies Project. Aluminum honeycomb sandwich and hat-stiffened composite panel structural concepts were considered. The structural design and analysis studies were performed using HyperSizer design sizing software and MSC Nastran finite element analysis software. System-level design trade studies were carried out to predict weight and margins of safety for composite honeycomb-core sandwich and composite hat-stiffened skin design concepts. Details of both preliminary and detailed design studies are presented in the paper. For the range of loads and geometry considered in this work, the hat-stiffened designs were found to be approximately 11-16 percent lighter than the sandwich designs. A down-select process was used to choose the most favorable structural concept based on a set of figures of merit, and the honeycomb sandwich design was selected as the best concept based on advantages in manufacturing cost.

  19. Advanced composite structures. [metal matrix composites - structural design criteria for spacecraft construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A monograph is presented which establishes structural design criteria and recommends practices to ensure the design of sound composite structures, including composite-reinforced metal structures. (It does not discuss design criteria for fiber-glass composites and such advanced composite materials as beryllium wire or sapphire whiskers in a matrix material.) Although the criteria were developed for aircraft applications, they are general enough to be applicable to space vehicles and missiles as well. The monograph covers four broad areas: (1) materials, (2) design, (3) fracture control, and (4) design verification. The materials portion deals with such subjects as material system design, material design levels, and material characterization. The design portion includes panel, shell, and joint design, applied loads, internal loads, design factors, reliability, and maintainability. Fracture control includes such items as stress concentrations, service-life philosophy, and the management plan for control of fracture-related aspects of structural design using composite materials. Design verification discusses ways to prove flightworthiness.

  20. Structure, composition, and condition of overstory trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel A. Yaussy; Todd F. Hutchinson; Elaine Kennedy Sutherland

    2003-01-01

    The structure, composition, and condition of overstory trees in the four study areas prior to prescribed fire treatments are summarized. Stand initiation dates were similar among the study areas (ca. 1885), and coincided with the decline of the charcoal iron industry in southern Ohio. Tree basal area averaged 26.8m²/ha and was not significantly different among...

  1. Species composition, Plant Community structure and Natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    objective of this work was to study the vegetation structure, composition and Natural ... Vegetation classification was performed using PC - ORD for windows version 5.0. Five communities were recognized. Results showed that a total of 157 plant ..... Vegetation types and forest fire management in Ethiopia In: MOA & GTZ.

  2. Vegetation composition and structure influences bird species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two gradients of increasing vegetation structural heterogeneity were most important in influencing bird community composition and had positive effects on species diversity and the presence of most of the species assessed: (1) increasing closed cover due to woody plant density, which also had positive effects on species ...

  3. Lightning Protection for Composite Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, G. O.

    1985-01-01

    Lightning protection system consisting of two layers of aluminum foil separated by layer of dielectric material protects graphite/epoxy composite structures on aircraft. Protective layer is secondarily applied lightning protection system, prime advantage of which is nullification of thermal and right angle effect of lightning arc attachment to graphite/epoxy laminate.

  4. Timber rivets in structural composite lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald W. Wolfe; Marshall Begel; Bruce Craig

    2004-01-01

    Timber rivet connections, originally developed for use with glulam construction, may be a viable option for use with structural composite lumber (SCL) products. Tests were conducted on small samples to assess the performance and predictability of timber rivet connections in parallel strand lumber (PSL) and laminated strand lumber (LSL). The test joint configurations...

  5. Dynamic Failure of Composite and Sandwich Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Abrate, Serge; Rajapakse, Yapa D S

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a broad view of the current state of the art regarding the dynamic response of composite and sandwich structures subjected to impacts and explosions. Each chapter combines a thorough assessment of the literature with original contributions made by the authors.  The first section deals with fluid-structure interactions in marine structures.  The first chapter focuses on hull slamming and particularly cases in which the deformation of the structure affects the motion of the fluid during the water entry of flexible hulls. Chapter 2 presents an extensive series of tests underwater and in the air to determine the effects of explosions on composite and sandwich structures.  Full-scale structures were subjected to significant explosive charges, and such results are extremely rare in the open literature.  Chapter 3 describes a simple geometrical theory of diffraction for describing the interaction of an underwater blast wave with submerged structures. The second section addresses the problem of...

  6. Multifunctional structural energy storage composite supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirshova, Natasha; Qian, Hui; Houllé, Matthieu; Steinke, Joachim H G; Kucernak, Anthony R J; Fontana, Quentin P V; Greenhalgh, Emile S; Bismarck, Alexander; Shaffer, Milo S P

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of producing multifunctional composites that can simultaneously carry mechanical loads whilst storing (and delivering) electrical energy. The embodiment is a structural supercapacitor built around laminated structural carbon fibre (CF) fabrics. Each cell consists of two modified structural CF fabric electrodes, separated by a structural glass fibre fabric or polymer membrane, infused with a multifunctional polymeric electrolyte. Rather than using conventional activated carbon fibres, structural carbon fibres were treated to produce a mechanically robust, high surface area material, using a variety of methods, including direct etching, carbon nanotube sizing, and carbon nanotube in situ growth. One of the most promising approaches is to integrate a porous bicontinuous monolithic carbon aerogel (CAG) throughout the matrix. This nanostructured matrix both provides a dramatic increase in active surface area of the electrodes, and has the potential to address mechanical issues associated with matrix-dominated failures. The effect of the initial reaction mixture composition is assessed for both the CAG modified carbon fibre electrodes and resulting devices. A low temperature CAG modification of carbon fibres was evaluated using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to enhance the electrochemical performance. For the multifunctional structural electrolyte, simple crosslinked gels have been replaced with bicontinuous structural epoxy-ionic liquid hybrids that offer a much better balance between the conflicting demands of rigidity and molecular motion. The formation of both aerogel precursors and the multifunctional electrolyte are described, including the influence of key components, and the defining characteristics of the products. Working structural supercapacitor composite prototypes have been produced and characterised electrochemically. The effect of introducing the necessary multifunctional resin on the mechanical properties has

  7. Fiber reinforced polymer composites for bridge structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra CANTORIU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid advances in construction materials technology have led to the emergence of new materials with special properties, aiming at safety, economy and functionality of bridges structures. A class of structural materials which was originally developed many years ago, but recently caught the attention of engineers involved in the construction of bridges is fiber reinforced polymer composites. This paper provides an overview of fiber reinforced polymer composites used in bridge structures including types, properties, applications and future trends. The results of this study have revealed that this class of materials presents outstanding properties such as high specific strength, high fatigue and environmental resistance, lightweight, stiffness, magnetic transparency, highly cost-effective, and quick assembly, but in the same time high initial costs, lack of data on long-term field performance, low fire resistance. Fiber reinforced polymer composites were widely used in construction of different bridge structures such as: deck and tower, I-beams, tendons, cable stands and proved to be materials for future in this field.

  8. Impact source localisation in aerospace composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Mario Emanuele; Ciampa, Francesco; Boccardi, Salvatore; Meo, Michele

    2017-12-01

    The most commonly encountered type of damage in aircraft composite structures is caused by low-velocity impacts due to foreign objects such as hail stones, tool drops and bird strikes. Often these events can cause severe internal material damage that is difficult to detect and may lead to a significant reduction of the structure’s strength and fatigue life. For this reason there is an urgent need to develop structural health monitoring systems able to localise low-velocity impacts in both metallic and composite components as they occur. This article proposes a novel monitoring system for impact localisation in aluminium and composite structures, which is able to determine the impact location in real-time without a-priori knowledge of the mechanical properties of the material. This method relies on an optimal configuration of receiving sensors, which allows linearization of well-known nonlinear systems of equations for the estimation of the impact location. The proposed algorithm is based on the time of arrival identification of the elastic waves generated by the impact source using the Akaike Information Criterion. The proposed approach was demonstrated successfully on both isotropic and orthotropic materials by using a network of closely spaced surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers. The results obtained show the validity of the proposed algorithm, since the impact sources were detected with a high level of accuracy. The proposed impact detection system overcomes current limitations of other methods and can be retrofitted easily on existing aerospace structures allowing timely detection of an impact event.

  9. Production defects in marine composite structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayman, Brian; Berggreen, Christian; Tsouvalis, Nicholas G.

    2007-01-01

    Composite structures are often used when there is a requirement for low weight. Then a key aspect is to be able to take full advantage of the material and utilise it to its limits. To do this it is important to achieve as low a variability as possible in the manufacture of such structures......, and to have a good understanding of the way in which production defects and imperfections influence the structural performance, so that adequate levels of structural safety and reliability can be achieved without having to apply excessively large factors of safety. A review is made of the types of defects...... that arise in the relevant production processes, of their causes and the means that can be used to reduce or eliminate them, and of models that enable the effects of defects and imperfections on structural performance to be predicted....

  10. Structure and composition of giant planet interiors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    In the simplest model of a Jovian planet atmosphere, the atmospheric abundances are identical to the bulk interior abundances, except as modified by atmospheric condensation processes. This model is now known to be generally inadequate, on the basis of comparisons between detailed atmospheric composition measurements and (less-detailed) determinations of interior composition. The latter are primarily deduced by integrating high-pressure equations of state of plausible constituents to obtain interior models which satisfy observational constraints such as mass, radius, gravitational moments, luminosity and age. This chapter reviews the status of discrepancies between such determinations of interior and atmospheric composition, and reviews possible explanations via interior processes such as hydrogen-helium immiscibility and phase transitions in major constituents. We discuss the proposed structure of the core, mantle and deep atmosphere for each of the four giant planets

  11. Holmium polysulfide crystals: Structure, shape and composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belaya, S.V.; Vasilyeva, I.G.; Naumov, D.Yu.; Podberezskaya, N.V.

    2006-01-01

    The variety of morphology, chemical composition and density of holmium polysulfide crystals grown from the flux in different as well as in the same experiments is observed. It was found that the crystals of different habits have the monoclinic structure, P2 1 /m, a=10.95, b=11.45, c=10.97A, β=91.3 o , as already known, and identical composition HoS 1.837 . All the crystals are twinned by the plane (101-bar ). It is shown that the diversity of crystal compositions and density values are due to the constitution of the flux in a crystal and displacement of a crystal in the growth zone. The formation of non-equilibrium growth forms is discussed

  12. Structure and Properties of LENRA/ Silica Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahathir Mohamed; Dahlan Mohd

    2010-01-01

    The sol-gel reaction using tetra ethoxysilane (TEOS) was conducted for modified natural rubber (NR) matrix to obtain in situ generated NR/ silica composite. The present of acrylate group in the modified NR chain turns the composite into radiation-curable. The maximum amount of silica generated in the matrix was 50 p hr by weight. During the sol-gel process the inorganic mineral was deposited in the rubber matrix forming hydrogen bonding between organic and inorganic phases. The composites obtained were characterized by various techniques including thermogravimetric analysis and infrared spectrometry to study their molecular structure. The increase in mechanical properties was observed for low silica contents ( 30 p hr) where more silica were generated, agglomerations were observed at the expense of the mechanical properties. From the DMTA data, it shows an increase of the interaction between the rubber and silica phases up to 30 p hr TEOS. Structure and morphology of the heterogeneous system were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The average particle sizes of between 150 nm to 300 nm were achieved for the composites that contain less than 20 p hr of TEOS. (author)

  13. Composites as structural materials in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megusar, J.

    1989-01-01

    In fusion reactors, materials are used under extreme conditions of temperature, stress, irradiation, and chemical environment. The absence of adequate materials will seriously impede the development of fusion reactors and might ultimately be one of the major difficulties. Some of the current materials problems can be solved by proper design features. For others, the solution will have to rely on materials development. A parallel and balanced effort between the research in plasma physics and fusion-related technology and in materials research is, therefore, the best strategy to ultimately achieve economic, safe, and environmentally acceptable fusion. The essential steps in developing composites for structural components of fusion reactors include optimization of mechanical properties followed by testing under fusion-reactor-relevant conditions. In optimizing the mechanical behavior of composite materials, a wealth of experience can be drawn from the research on ceramic matrix and metal matrix composite materials sponsored by the Department of Defense. The particular aspects of this research relevant to fusion materials development are methodology of the composite materials design and studies of new processing routes to develop composite materials with specific properties. Most notable examples are the synthesis of fibers, coatings, and ceramic materials in their final shapes form polymeric precursors and the infiltration of fibrous preforms by molten metals

  14. Thermal Inspection of Composite Honeycomb Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Parker, F. Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Composite honeycomb structures continue to be widely used in aerospace applications due to their low weight and high strength advantages. Developing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) inspection methods are essential for their safe performance. Pulsed thermography is a commonly used technique for composite honeycomb structure inspections due to its large area and rapid inspection capability. Pulsed thermography is shown to be sensitive for detection of face sheet impact damage and face sheet to core disbond. Data processing techniques, using principal component analysis to improve the defect contrast, are presented. In addition, limitations to the thermal detection of the core are investigated. Other NDE techniques, such as computed tomography X-ray and ultrasound, are used for comparison to the thermography results.

  15. OOA composite structures applicable in railway industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusnáková Soňa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite sandwich structures offers several advantages over conventional structural materials such as lightweight, high bending and torsional stiffness, superior thermal insulation and excellent acoustic damping. In the aerospace industry, sandwich composites are commonly manufactured using the autoclave process which is associated with high operating cost. Out-of-autoclave (OOA manufacturing has been shown to be capable of producing low cost and high performance composites. In this paper we present results of experimental testing of various sandwich materials according various standards and actual requirements in transport industry. We compared the different types of surface and paint systems, because these layers are the most important in contact with the surrounding environment and load conditions. In the experimental measurements were used various materials. For the core of the sandwich structure were selected aluminium honeycomb, aramid honeycomb and PET (Polyethylene terephthalate foam core. Support layers were chosen two kinds of predimpregnated materials. The conditions of measurements were requirements for strength and rigidity, safety - flame resistance and reflectivity resistance. The samples were tested at the 3 - point bending test according to standard EN ISO 178, by modified test to determine the force required to rapture threaded insert, by test of reflectivity according to UIC CODE 844-4 R and according to standard EN 45545-2 fire protection of railway vehicles.

  16. Wood-based composite materials : panel products, glued-laminated timber, structural composite lumber, and wood-nonwood composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Zhiyong Cai; Charles Carll

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the general types and composition of wood-based composite products and the materials and processes used to manufacture them. It describes conventional wood-based composite panels and structural composite materials intended for general construction, interior use, or both. This chapter also describes wood–nonwood composites. Mechanical...

  17. Carbon composites in space vehicle structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1974-01-01

    Recent developments in the technology of carbon or graphite filaments now provide the designer with greatly improved materials offering high specific strength and modulus. Besides these advantages are properties which are distinctly useful for space applications and which provide feasibility for missions not obtainable by other means. Current applications include major and secondary structures of communications satellites. A number of R & D projects are exploring carbon-fiber application to rocket engine motor cases, advanced antenna systems, and space shuttle components. Future system studies are being made, based on the successful application of carbon fibers for orbiting space telescope assemblies, orbital transfer vehicles, and very large deployable energy generation systems. Continued technology development is needed in analysis, material standards, and advanced structural concepts to exploit the full potential of carbon filaments in composite materials.

  18. Critical joints in large composite aircraft structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, W. D.; Bunin, B. L.; Hart-Smith, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    A program was conducted at Douglas Aircraft Company to develop the technology for critical structural joints of composite wing structure that meets design requirements for a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. The prime objective of the program was to demonstrate the ability to reliably predict the strength of large bolted composite joints. Ancillary testing of 180 specimens generated data on strength and load-deflection characteristics which provided input to the joint analysis. Load-sharing between fasteners in multirow bolted joints was computed by the nonlinear analysis program A4EJ. This program was used to predict strengths of 20 additional large subcomponents representing strips from a wing root chordwise splice. In most cases, the predictions were accurate to within a few percent of the test results. In some cases, the observed mode of failure was different than anticipated. The highlight of the subcomponent testing was the consistent ability to achieve gross-section failure strains close to 0.005. That represents a considerable improvement over the state of the art.

  19. Structural Health Monitoring for Impact Damage in Composite Structures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, Dennis P.; Raymond Bond (Purdue); Doug Adams (Purdue)

    2014-08-01

    Composite structures are increasing in prevalence throughout the aerospace, wind, defense, and transportation industries, but the many advantages of these materials come with unique challenges, particularly in inspecting and repairing these structures. Because composites of- ten undergo sub-surface damage mechanisms which compromise the structure without a clear visual indication, inspection of these components is critical to safely deploying composite re- placements to traditionally metallic structures. Impact damage to composites presents one of the most signi fi cant challenges because the area which is vulnerable to impact damage is generally large and sometimes very dif fi cult to access. This work seeks to further evolve iden- ti fi cation technology by developing a system which can detect the impact load location and magnitude in real time, while giving an assessment of the con fi dence in that estimate. Fur- thermore, we identify ways by which impact damage could be more effectively identi fi ed by leveraging impact load identi fi cation information to better characterize damage. The impact load identi fi cation algorithm was applied to a commercial scale wind turbine blade, and results show the capability to detect impact magnitude and location using a single accelerometer, re- gardless of sensor location. A technique for better evaluating the uncertainty of the impact estimates was developed by quantifying how well the impact force estimate meets the assump- tions underlying the force estimation technique. This uncertainty quanti fi cation technique was found to reduce the 95% con fi dence interval by more than a factor of two for impact force estimates showing the least uncertainty, and widening the 95% con fi dence interval by a fac- tor of two for the most uncertain force estimates, avoiding the possibility of understating the uncertainty associated with these estimates. Linear vibration based damage detection tech- niques were investigated in the

  20. Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring of Adhesively Bonded Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, William Walker

    As the growth of fiber reinforced composite materials continues in many industries, structural designers will have to look to new methods of joining components. In order to take full advantage of composite materials, such as increased stiffness, decreased weight, tailored material properties and increased fatigue life, mechanical fasteners will need to be replaced by adhesive bonding or welding, when possible. Mechanical fasteners require the drilling of holes, which damages the laminate and becomes the source of further fatigue damage. Also, an increase in laminate thickness or inclusion of other features is required for the material to withstand the bearing stress needed to preload fasteners. Adhesives transfer the load over a large area, do not require additional machining operations, provide increased stiffness through the joint, provide corrosion protection when joining dissimilar materials, and provide vibrational damping. Additionally, the repair of composite structures, which will become a major concern in the near future, will require the use of adhesive bonding for thermoset composites. In order for adhesives to be used to join primary aerospace structures they must meet certification requirements, which includes proof that the joint can withstand the required ultimate load without structural failure. For most components, nondestructive inspection is used to find critical flaws, which is combined with fracture mechanics to ensure that the structure can meet the requirements. This process works for some of the adhesive flaws, but other critical defects are not easily detected. Weak interface bonding is particularly challenging. This type of defect results in an interphase zone that may be only a dozen microns in thickness. Traditional bulk wave ultrasonic techniques cannot easily distinguish this zone from the interface between adherend and adhesive. This work considers two approaches to help solve this problem. Guided elastic wave propagation along

  1. Chemical compositions, methods of making the chemical compositions, and structures made from the chemical compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Cheng, Zhe; Liu, Ze; Liu, Meilin

    2015-01-13

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include chemical compositions, structures, anodes, cathodes, electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells, fuel cells, fuel cell membranes, separation membranes, catalytic membranes, sensors, coatings for electrolytes, electrodes, membranes, and catalysts, and the like, are disclosed.

  2. The european primary care monitor: structure, process and outcome indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Andrew

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scientific research has provided evidence on benefits of well developed primary care systems. The relevance of some of this research for the European situation is limited. There is currently a lack of up to date comprehensive and comparable information on variation in development of primary care, and a lack of knowledge of structures and strategies conducive to strengthening primary care in Europe. The EC funded project Primary Health Care Activity Monitor for Europe (PHAMEU aims to fill this gap by developing a Primary Care Monitoring System (PC Monitor for application in 31 European countries. This article describes the development of the indicators of the PC Monitor, which will make it possible to create an alternative model for holistic analyses of primary care. Methods A systematic review of the primary care literature published between 2003 and July 2008 was carried out. This resulted in an overview of: (1 the dimensions of primary care and their relevance to outcomes at (primary health system level; (2 essential features per dimension; (3 applied indicators to measure the features of primary care dimensions. The indicators were evaluated by the project team against criteria of relevance, precision, flexibility, and discriminating power. The resulting indicator set was evaluated on its suitability for Europe-wide comparison of primary care systems by a panel of primary care experts from various European countries (representing a variety of primary care systems. Results The developed PC Monitor approaches primary care in Europe as a multidimensional concept. It describes the key dimensions of primary care systems at three levels: structure, process, and outcome level. On structure level, it includes indicators for governance, economic conditions, and workforce development. On process level, indicators describe access, comprehensiveness, continuity, and coordination of primary care services. On outcome level, indicators

  3. [PSI+] maintenance is dependent on the composition, not primary sequence, of the oligopeptide repeat domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Toombs

    Full Text Available [PSI(+], the prion form of the yeast Sup35 protein, results from the structural conversion of Sup35 from a soluble form into an infectious amyloid form. The infectivity of prions is thought to result from chaperone-dependent fiber cleavage that breaks large prion fibers into smaller, inheritable propagons. Like the mammalian prion protein PrP, Sup35 contains an oligopeptide repeat domain. Deletion analysis indicates that the oligopeptide repeat domain is critical for [PSI(+] propagation, while a distinct region of the prion domain is responsible for prion nucleation. The PrP oligopeptide repeat domain can substitute for the Sup35 oligopeptide repeat domain in supporting [PSI(+] propagation, suggesting a common role for repeats in supporting prion maintenance. However, randomizing the order of the amino acids in the Sup35 prion domain does not block prion formation or propagation, suggesting that amino acid composition is the primary determinant of Sup35's prion propensity. Thus, it is unclear what role the oligopeptide repeats play in [PSI(+] propagation: the repeats could simply act as a non-specific spacer separating the prion nucleation domain from the rest of the protein; the repeats could contain specific compositional elements that promote prion propagation; or the repeats, while not essential for prion propagation, might explain some unique features of [PSI(+]. Here, we test these three hypotheses and show that the ability of the Sup35 and PrP repeats to support [PSI(+] propagation stems from their amino acid composition, not their primary sequences. Furthermore, we demonstrate that compositional requirements for the repeat domain are distinct from those of the nucleation domain, indicating that prion nucleation and propagation are driven by distinct compositional features.

  4. Braided Composite Technologies for Rotorcraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessie, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    A&P Technology has developed a braided material approach for fabricating lightweight, high-strength hybrid gears for aerospace drive systems. The conventional metallic web was replaced with a composite element made from A&P's quasi-isotropic braid. The 0deg, +/-60deg braid architecture was chosen so that inplane stiffness properties and strength would be nearly equal in all directions. The test results from the Phase I Small Spur Gear program demonstrated satisfactory endurance and strength while providing a 20 percent weight savings. (Greater weight savings is anticipated with structural optimization.) The hybrid gears were subjected to a proof-of-concept test of 1 billion cycles in a gearbox at 10,000 revolutions per minute and 490 in-lb torque with no detectable damage to the gears. After this test the maximum torque capability was also tested, and the static strength capability of the gears was 7x the maximum operating condition. Additional proof-of-concept tests are in progress using a higher oil temperature, and a loss-of-oil test is planned. The success of Phase I led to a Phase II program to develop, fabricate, and optimize full-scale gears, specifically Bull Gears. The design of these Bull Gears will be refined using topology optimization, and the full-scale Bull Gears will be tested in a full-scale gear rig. The testing will quantify benefits of weight savings, as well as noise and vibration reduction. The expectation is that vibration and noise will be reduced through the introduction of composite material in the vibration transmission path between the contacting gear teeth and the shaft-and-bearing system.

  5. Braided Composite Technologies for Rotorcraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessie, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    A&P Technology has developed a braided material approach for fabricating lightweight, high-strength hybrid gears for aerospace drive systems. The conventional metallic web was replaced with a composite element made from A&P's quasi-isotropic braid. The 0deg, plus or minus 60 deg braid architecture was chosen so that inplane stiffness properties and strength would be nearly equal in all directions. The test results from the Phase I Small Spur Gear program demonstrated satisfactory endurance and strength while providing a 20 percent weight savings. (Greater weight savings is anticipated with structural optimization.) The hybrid gears were subjected to a proof-of-concept test of 1 billion cycles in a gearbox at 10,000 revolutions per minute and 490 in-lb torque with no detectable damage to the gears. After this test the maximum torque capability was also tested, and the static strength capability of the gears was 7x the maximum operating condition. Additional proof-of-concept tests are in progress using a higher oil temperature, and a loss-of-oil test is planned. The success of Phase I led to a Phase II program to develop, fabricate, and optimize full-scale gears, specifically Bull Gears. The design of these Bull Gears will be refined using topology optimization, and the full-scale Bull Gears will be tested in a full-scale gear rig. The testing will quantify benefits of weight savings, as well as noise and vibration reduction. The expectation is that vibration and noise will be reduced through the introduction of composite material in the vibration transmission path between the contacting gear teeth and the shaft-and-bearing system.

  6. Optimization of composite wood structural components : processing and design choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore L. Laufenberg

    1985-01-01

    Decreasing size and quality of the world's forest resources are responsible for interest in producing composite wood structural components. Process and design optimization methods are offered in this paper. Processing concepts for wood composite structural products are reviewed to illustrate manufacturing boundaries and areas of high potential. Structural...

  7. Composite Structure Optimization using a Homogenized Material Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hozić, Dženan

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of bre-reinforced composite materials in the manufacturing of high performance structures is primarily driven by their superior strength-toweight ratio when compared to traditional metallic alloys. This provides the ability to design and manufacture lighter structures with improved mechanical properties. However, the specic manufacturing process of composite structures, along with the orthotropic material properties exhibited by bre-reinforced composite materials, result in...

  8. Multi-material Preforming of Structural Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Robert E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eberle, Cliff C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pastore, Christopher M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sudbury, Thomas Z. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Xiong, Fue [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hartman, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Fiber-reinforced composites offer significant weight reduction potential, with glass fiber composites already widely adopted. Carbon fiber composites deliver the greatest performance benefits, but their high cost has inhibited widespread adoption. This project demonstrates that hybrid carbon-glass solutions can realize most of the benefits of carbon fiber composites at much lower cost. ORNL and Owens Corning Reinforcements along with program participants at the ORISE collaborated to demonstrate methods for produce hybrid composites along with techniques to predict performance and economic tradeoffs. These predictions were then verified in testing coupons and more complex demonstration articles.

  9. Study on voids of epoxy matrix composites sandwich structure parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Simin; Wen, Youyi; Yu, Wenjun; Liu, Hong; Yue, Cheng; Bao, Jing

    2017-03-01

    Void is the most common tiny defect of composite materials. Porosity is closely related to composite structure property. The voids forming behaviour in the composites sandwich structural parts with the carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin skins was researched by adjusting the manufacturing process parameters. The composites laminate with different porosities were prepared with the different process parameter. The ultrasonic non-destructive measurement method for the porosity was developed and verified through microscopic examination. The analysis results show that compaction pressure during the manufacturing process had influence on the porosity in the laminate area. Increasing the compaction pressure and compaction time will reduce the porosity of the laminates. The bond-line between honeycomb core and carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin skins were also analyzed through microscopic examination. The mechanical properties of sandwich structure composites were studied. The optimization process parameters and porosity ultrasonic measurement method for composites sandwich structure have been applied to the production of the composite parts.

  10. Predictive Modeling of Complex Contoured Composite Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The existing HDWLT (pictured) contoured composite structure design, its analyses and manufacturing tools, will be used to validate key analyses inputs through...

  11. Composition, structure and chemistry of interstellar dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Allamandola, L.J.

    1986-09-01

    The observational constraints on the composition of the interstellar dust are analyzed. The dust in the diffuse interstellar medium consists of a mixture of stardust (amorphous silicates, amorphous carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and graphite) and interstellar medium dust (organic refractory material). Stardust seems to dominate in the local diffuse interstellar medium. Inside molecular clouds, however, icy grain mantles are also important. The structural differences between crystalline and amorphous materials, which lead to differences in the optical properties, are discussed. The astrophysical consequences are briefly examined. The physical principles of grain surface chemistry are discussed and applied to the formation of molecular hydrogen and icy grain mantles inside dense molecular clouds. Transformation of these icy grain mantles into the organic refractory dust component observed in the diffuse interstellar medium requires ultraviolet sources inside molecular clouds as well as radical diffusion promoted by transient heating of the mantle. The latter process also returns a considerable fraction of the molecules in the grain mantle to the gas phase

  12. Time Domain Diffraction by Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, Giovanni; Frongillo, Marcello

    2017-04-01

    Time domain (TD) diffraction problems are receiving great attention because of the widespread use of ultra wide band (UWB) communication and radar systems. It is commonly accepted that, due to the large bandwidth of the UWB signals, the analysis of the wave propagation mechanisms in the TD framework is preferable to the frequency domain (FD) data processing. Furthermore, the analysis of transient scattering phenomena is also of importance for predicting the effects of electromagnetic pulses on civil structures. Diffraction in the TD framework represents a challenging problem and numerical discretization techniques can be used to support research and industry activities. Unfortunately, these methods become rapidly intractable when considering excitation pulses with high frequency content. This contribution deals with the TD diffraction phenomenon related to composite structures containing a dielectric wedge with arbitrary apex angle when illuminated by a plane wave. The approach is the same used in [1]-[3]. The transient diffracted field originated by an arbitrary function plane wave is evaluated via a convolution integral involving the TD diffraction coefficients, which are determined in closed form starting from the knowledge of the corresponding FD counterparts. In particular, the inverse Laplace transform is applied to the FD Uniform Asymptotic Physical Optics (FD-UAPO) diffraction coefficients available for the internal region of the structure and the surrounding space. For each observation domain, the FD-UAPO expressions are obtained by considering electric and magnetic equivalent PO surface currents located on the interfaces. The surface radiation integrals using these sources is assumed as starting point and manipulated for obtaining integrals able to be solved by means of the Steepest Descent Method and the Multiplicative Method. [1] G. Gennarelli and G. Riccio, "Time domain diffraction by a right-angled penetrable wedge," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol

  13. Piezoelectric and mechanical properties of structured PZT-epoxy composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, N.K.; Ende, D.A. van den; Lafont, U.; Zwaag, S. van der; Groen, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Structured lead zirconium titanate (PZT)-epoxy composites are prepared by dielectrophoresis. The piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites as a function of PZT volume fraction are investigated and compared with the corresponding unstructured composites. The effect of poling voltage

  14. Piezoelectric and mechanical properties of structured PZT–epoxy composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnamkuzhakkal James, N.; Van den Ende, D.; Lafont, U.; Van der Zwaag, S.; Groen, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Structured lead zirconium titanate (PZT)–epoxy composites are prepared by dielectrophoresis. The piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites as a function of PZT volume fraction are investigated and compared with the corresponding unstructured composites. The effect of poling voltage

  15. Composites structures for bone tissue reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, W.; Santos, João [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Departament of Materials Engineering - Rd. Washington Luis, Km 235, 13565-905, São Carlos-SP (Brazil); Avérous, L.; Schlatter, G.; Bretas, Rosario, E-mail: bretas@ufscar.br [Université de Strasbourg, ECPM-LIPHT - 25 rue Becquerel, 67087, Strasbourg (France)

    2015-05-22

    The search for new biomaterials in the bone reconstitution field is growing continuously as humane life expectation and bone fractures increase. For this purpose, composite materials with biodegradable polymers and hydroxyapatite (HA) have been used. A composite material formed by a film, nanofibers and HA has been made. Both, the films and the non-woven mats of nanofibers were formed by nanocomposites made of butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) and HA. The techniques used to produce the films and nanofibers were spin coating and electrospinning, respectively. The composite production and morphology were evaluated. The composite showed an adequate morphology and fibers size to be used as scaffold for cell growth.

  16. Composites structures for bone tissue reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, W.; Santos, João; Avérous, L.; Schlatter, G.; Bretas, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    The search for new biomaterials in the bone reconstitution field is growing continuously as humane life expectation and bone fractures increase. For this purpose, composite materials with biodegradable polymers and hydroxyapatite (HA) have been used. A composite material formed by a film, nanofibers and HA has been made. Both, the films and the non-woven mats of nanofibers were formed by nanocomposites made of butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) and HA. The techniques used to produce the films and nanofibers were spin coating and electrospinning, respectively. The composite production and morphology were evaluated. The composite showed an adequate morphology and fibers size to be used as scaffold for cell growth

  17. Recent NASA progress in composites. [application to spacecraft and aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldenfels, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The application of composites in aerospace vehicle structures is reviewed. Research and technology program results and specific applications to space vehicles, aircraft engines, and aircraft and helicopter structures are discussed in detail. Particular emphasis is given to flight service evaluation programs that are or will be accumulating substantial experience with secondary and primary structural components on military and commercial aircraft to increase confidence in their use.

  18. Structural characterization and lipid composition of acquired cholesteatoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Maria; Svane-Knudsen, Viggo; Sørensen, Jens A

    2012-01-01

    noninvasive structural and lipid compositional study of acquired cholesteatoma and control human skin using multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy-related techniques and high-performance thin-layer chromatography. RESULTS: The structural arrangement of the cholesteatoma is morphologically invariant...

  19. Hybrid Composite Structures : Multifunctionality through Metal Fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, T.

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of fibre reinforced polymer composites into the wings and fuselages of the newest aircraft are changing the design and manufacturing approach. Composites provide greater freedom to designers who want to improve aircraft performance in an affordable way. In this quest, researchers

  20. Micromechanical models for textile structural composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrey, Ramesh V.; Sankar, Bhavani V.

    1995-01-01

    The objective is to develop micromechanical models for predicting the stiffness and strength properties of textile composite materials. Two models are presented to predict the homogeneous elastic constants and coefficients of thermal expansion of a textile composite. The first model is based on rigorous finite element analysis of the textile composite unit-cell. Periodic boundary conditions are enforced between opposite faces of the unit-cell to simulate deformations accurately. The second model implements the selective averaging method (SAM), which is based on a judicious combination of stiffness and compliance averaging. For thin textile composites, both models can predict the plate stiffness coefficients and plate thermal coefficients. The finite element procedure is extended to compute the thermal residual microstresses, and to estimate the initial failure envelope for textile composites.

  1. Structural Analysis of Ciprofloxacin-Carbopol Polymeric Composites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Structural Analysis of Ciprofloxacin-Carbopol. Polymeric Composites .... prepare a sample for analysis, a glass slide was clipped to the ... shows, both polymeric composite types showed similar diffraction patterns. Structure identification in a diffractogram is usually based on the position of peaks and their relative intensities.

  2. Floristic Composition and Structure of Yegof Mountain Forest, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Floristic Composition and Structure of Yegof Mountain Forest, South Wollo, Ethiopia. S Mohammed, B Abraha. Abstract. In this study, Floristic composition, diversity, population structure and regeneration status of woody plant species of Yegof Forest in South Wollo Zone, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia were analyzed.

  3. Chapter 4. Monitoring vegetation composition and structure as habitat attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas E. DeMeo; Mary M. Manning; Mary M. Rowland; Christina D. Vojta; Kevin S. McKelvey; C. Kenneth Brewer; Rebecca S.H. Kennedy; Paul A. Maus; Bethany Schulz; James A. Westfall; Timothy J. Mersmann

    2013-01-01

    Vegetation composition and structure are key components of wildlife habitat (Mc- Comb et al. 2010, Morrison et al. 2006) and are, therefore, essential components of all wildlife habitat monitoring. The objectives of this chapter are to describe common habitat attributes derived from vegetation composition and structure and to provide guidance for obtaining and using...

  4. Multilevel design optimization of composite structures with blended laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seresta, O.

    2007-01-01

    This research work deals with the design and optimization of a large composite structure. In design of large structural systems, it is customary to divide the problem into many smaller independent/semi-independent local design problems. The use of composite necessitates the inclusion of ply angles

  5. Fabrication of carbon film composites for high-strength structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiswerk, P. R.; Lippman, M.

    1972-01-01

    Physical and mechanical properties of fiber composite materials consisting of carbon films are described. Application of carbon film structural composites for constructing microwave filters or optical instruments is proposed. Applications in aerospace and architectural structures for high strength and low density properties are discussed.

  6. Low void content autoclave molded titanium alloy and polyimide graphite composite structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, R. W.; Jones, R. J.; Creedon, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    This paper discusses a resin developed for use in autoclave molding of polyimide graphite composite stiffened, titanium alloy structures. Both primary and secondary bonded structures were evaluated that were produced by autoclave processing. Details of composite processing, adhesive formulary, and bonding processes are provided in this paper, together with mechanical property data for structures. These data include -65 F, room temperature, and 600 F shear strengths; strength retention after aging; and stress rupture properties at 600 F under various stress levels for up to 1000 hours duration. Typically, shear strengths in excess of 16 ksi at room temperature with over 60% strength retention at 600 F were obtained with titanium alloy substrates.

  7. Structural and failure mechanics of sandwich composites

    CERN Document Server

    Carlsson, LA; Carlsson, Leif A

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on important deformation and failure modes of sandwich structures, this volume describes the mechanics behind fracture processes. The text also reviews test methods developed for the cr, structural integrity, and failure mechanisms of sandwich structures.

  8. Mechanistic Effects of Porosity on Structural Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siver, Andrew

    As fiber reinforced composites continue to gain popularity as primary structures in aerospace, automotive, and powersports industries, quality control becomes an extremely important aspect of materials and mechanical engineering. The ability to recognize and control manufacturing induced defects can greatly reduce the likelihood of unexpected catastrophic failure. Porosity is the result of trapped volatiles or air bubbles during the layup process and can significantly compromise the strength of fiber reinforced composites. A comprehensive study was performed on an AS4C-UF3352 TCR carbon fiber-epoxy prepreg system to determine the effect of porosity on flexural, shear, low-velocity impact, and damage residual strength properties. Autoclave cure pressure was controlled to induce varying levels of porosity to construct six laminates with porosity concentrations between 0-40%. Porosity concentrations were measured using several destructive and nondestructive techniques including resin burnoff, sectioning and optical analysis, and X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning. Ultrasonic transmission, thermography, and CT scanning provided nondestructive imaging to evaluate impact damage. A bilinear relationship accurately characterizes the change in mechanical properties with increasing porosity. Strength properties are relatively unaffected when porosity concentrations are below approximately 2.25% and decrease linearly by up to 40% in high porosity specimens.

  9. Lightweight, Composite Cryogenic Tank Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcosm has developed and qualified strong, all-composite LOX tanks for launch vehicles. Our new 42-inch diameter tank design weighs 486 lbs and burst without...

  10. Structural Composites Corrosive Management by Computational Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Minnetyan, Levon

    2006-01-01

    A simulation of corrosive management on polymer composites durability is presented. The corrosive environment is assumed to manage the polymer composite degradation on a ply-by-ply basis. The degradation is correlated with a measured Ph factor and is represented by voids, temperature, and moisture which vary parabolically for voids and linearly for temperature and moisture through the laminate thickness. The simulation is performed by a computational composite mechanics computer code which includes micro, macro, combined stress failure, and laminate theories. This accounts for starting the simulation from constitutive material properties and up to the laminate scale which exposes the laminate to the corrosive environment. Results obtained for one laminate indicate that the ply-by-ply managed degradation degrades the laminate to the last one or the last several plies. Results also demonstrate that the simulation is applicable to other polymer composite systems as well.

  11. Structure of cellulose microfibrils in primary cell walls from Collenchyma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thomas, L. H.; Forsyth, V. T.; Šturcová, Adriana; Kennedy, C. J.; May, R. P.; Altaner, C. M.; Apperley, D. C.; Wess, T. J.; Jarvis, M. C.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 1 (2013), s. 465-476 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0703 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : primary cell wall * cellulose microfibril structure * chain packing disorder Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 7.394, year: 2013

  12. The Compositional Structure of the Asteroid Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMeo, F. E.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Walsh, K. J.; Chapman, C. R.; Binzel, R. P.

    The past decade has brought major improvements in large-scale asteroid discovery and characterization, with over half a million known asteroids, more than 100,000 of which have some measurement of physical characterization. This explosion of data has allowed us to create a new global picture of the main asteroid belt. Put in context with meteorite measurements and dynamical models, a new and more complete picture of solar system evolution has emerged. The question has changed from "What was the original compositional gradient of the asteroid belt?" to "What was the original compositional gradient of small bodies across the entire solar system?" No longer is the leading theory that two belts of planetesimals are primordial, but instead those belts were formed and sculpted through evolutionary processes after solar system formation. This chapter reviews the advancements on the fronts of asteroid compositional characterization, meteorite measurements, and dynamical theories in the context of the heliocentric distribution of asteroid compositions seen in the main belt today. This chapter also reviews the major outstanding questions relating to asteroid compositions and distributions and summarizes the progress and current state of understanding of these questions to form the big picture of the formation and evolution of asteroids in the main belt. Finally, we briefly review the relevance of asteroids and their compositions in their greater context within our solar system and beyond.

  13. EAS fluctuation approach to primary mass composition investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamenov, J.N.; Janminchev, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    The analysis of muon and electron fluctuation distribution shapes by statistical method of inverse problem solution gives the possibility to obtain the relative contribution values of the five main primary nuclei groups. The method is model-independent for a big class of interaction models and can give good results for observation levels not too far from the development maximum and for the selection of showers with fixed sizes and zenith angles not bigger than 30 deg

  14. Composite Payload Fairing Structural Architecture Assessment and Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivanek, Thomas M.; Yount, Bryan C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the structural architecture assessments conducted and a recommendation for an affordable high performance composite structural concept to use on the next generation heavy-lift launch vehicle, the Space Launch System (SLS). The Structural Concepts Element of the Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) project and its follow on the Lightweight Spacecraft Structures and Materials (LSSM) project was tasked with evaluating a number of composite construction technologies for specific Ares V components: the Payload Shroud, the Interstage, and the Core Stage Intertank. Team studies strived to address the structural challenges, risks and needs for each of these vehicle components. Leveraging off of this work, the subsequent Composites for Exploration (CoEx) effort is focused on providing a composite structural concept to support the Payload Fairing for SLS. This paper documents the evaluation and down selection of composite construction technologies and evolution to the SLS Payload Fairing. Development of the evaluation criteria (also referred to as Figures of Merit or FOMs), their relative importance, and association to vehicle requirements are presented. A summary of the evaluation results, and a recommendation of the composite concept to baseline in the Composites for Exploration (CoEx) project is presented. The recommendation for the SLS Fairing is a Honeycomb Sandwich architecture based primarily on affordability and performance with two promising alternatives, Hat stiffened and Fiber Reinforced Foam (FRF) identified for eventual program block upgrade.

  15. Progress in composite structure and space construction systems technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodle, J. B.; Jenkins, L. M.

    1981-01-01

    The development of deployable and fabricated composite trusses for large space structures by NASA and private industry is reviewed. Composite materials technology is discussed with a view toward fabrication processes and the characteristics of finished truss beams. Advances in roll-forming open section caps from graphite-composite strip material and new ultrasonic welding techniques are outlined. Vacuum- and gravity-effect test results show that the ultrasonic welding of graphite-thermoplastic materials in space is feasible. The structural characteristics of a prototype truss segment are presented. A new deployable graphite-composite truss with high packaging density for broad application to large space platforms is described.

  16. Metallic and Non-Metallic Materials for the Primary Support Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RA Wolf; RP Corson

    2006-01-01

    The primary support structure (PSS) is required for mechanical support of reactor module (RM) components and mounting of the RM to the spacecraft. The PSS would provide support and accept all loads associated with dynamic (e. g., launch and maneuvering) or thermally induced loading. Prior to termination of NRPCT involvement in Project Prometheus, the NRPCT Mechanical Systems team developed preliminary finite element models to gain a basic understanding of the behavior of the structure, but optimization of the models, specification of the final design, and materials selection were not completed. The Space Plant Materials team had evaluated several materials for potential use in the primary support structure, namely titanium alloys, beryllium, aluminum alloys and carbon-carbon composites. The feasibility of application of each material system was compared based on mass, stiffness, thermal expansion, and ease of fabrication. Due to insufficient data on environmental factors, such as temperatures and radiation, and limited modeling support, a final materials selection was not made

  17. Metallic and Non-Metallic Materials for the Primary Support Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RA Wolf; RP Corson

    2006-02-21

    The primary support structure (PSS) is required for mechanical support of reactor module (RM) components and mounting of the RM to the spacecraft. The PSS would provide support and accept all loads associated with dynamic (e. g., launch and maneuvering) or thermally induced loading. Prior to termination of NRPCT involvement in Project Prometheus, the NRPCT Mechanical Systems team developed preliminary finite element models to gain a basic understanding of the behavior of the structure, but optimization of the models, specification of the final design, and materials selection were not completed. The Space Plant Materials team had evaluated several materials for potential use in the primary support structure, namely titanium alloys, beryllium, aluminum alloys and carbon-carbon composites. The feasibility of application of each material system was compared based on mass, stiffness, thermal expansion, and ease of fabrication. Due to insufficient data on environmental factors, such as temperatures and radiation, and limited modeling support, a final materials selection was not made.

  18. Structure and Properties of High Symmetry Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-27

    In Part I of this study, 3-D fiber architectures were classified according to the method of manufacture, symmetry and geometric isotopy . It was...concluded that a classification scheme based on geometric isotopy provides the most efficient and useful method for the modelling of the 3-D composite

  19. Diamond structures grown from polymer composite nanofibers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potocký, Štěpán; Kromka, Alexander; Babchenko, Oleg; Rezek, Bohuslav; Martinová, L.; Pokorný, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 6 (2013), s. 519-521 ISSN 2164-6627 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0910; GA ČR GAP205/12/0908 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : chemical vapour deposition * composite polymer * nanocrystalline diamond * nanofiber sheet * SEM Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  20. Species composition, Plant Community structure and Natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Floristic composition and environmental factors characterizing coffee forests in southwest Ethiopia. Forest. Ecology and Management, 255: 2138-2150. Tadesse Woldemariam. 2003. Vegetation of the Yayu forest in Southwest Ethiopia: Impacts of human use and Implications for In situ conservation of Wild Coffea arabica L.

  1. Active Structural Fibers for Multifunctional Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-06

    Sebald [3] used extrusion methods to produce fibers with a platinum core surrounded by a PNN-PZT/polymer binder which was fired to leave a platinum/PNN... multilayered inclusions. However, the model’s capability to estimate the electroelastic properties of the multiphase piezoelectric composites is yet

  2. Active Structural Fibers for Multifunctional Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    thickness from ~500nm to 20mm •Other perovskite compositions can be synthesized 2q Henry A Sodano – AFOSR Mech. of Multifunctional and...films Henry A Sodano – AFOSR Mech. of Multifunctional and Microsystems Review – July 31, 2012 ZnO Growth on Carbon Fibers • Solution based growth

  3. Advanced organic composite materials for aircraft structures: Future program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Revolutionary advances in structural materials have been responsible for revolutionary changes in all fields of engineering. These advances have had and are still having a significant impact on aircraft design and performance. Composites are engineered materials. Their properties are tailored through the use of a mix or blend of different constituents to maximize selected properties of strength and/or stiffness at reduced weights. More than 20 years have passed since the potentials of filamentary composite materials were identified. During the 1970s much lower cost carbon filaments became a reality and gradually designers turned from boron to carbon composites. Despite progress in this field, filamentary composites still have significant unfulfilled potential for increasing aircraft productivity; the rendering of advanced organic composite materials into production aircraft structures was disappointingly slow. Why this is and research and technology development actions that will assist in accelerating the application of advanced organic composites to production aircraft is discussed.

  4. Nano-structured polymer composites and process for preparing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmyer, Marc; Chen, Liang

    2013-04-16

    A process for preparing a polymer composite that includes reacting (a) a multi-functional monomer and (b) a block copolymer comprising (i) a first block and (ii) a second block that includes a functional group capable of reacting with the multi-functional monomer, to form a crosslinked, nano-structured, bi-continuous composite. The composite includes a continuous matrix phase and a second continuous phase comprising the first block of the block copolymer.

  5. Structural Composites with Intrinsic Multifunctionality, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a multifunctional, structural material for applications in terrestrial and space-based platforms used for instrumentation in earth observation is...

  6. Structural Composites with Intrinsic Multifunctionality, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of multifunctional, structural materials for applications in terrestrial and space-based platforms is proposed. The principle innovation is the...

  7. Woody species composition and structure of Gurra Farda forest

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *

    2008-03-02

    Mar 2, 2008 ... Therefore, Woody species composition and structure of Gurra Farda forest was studied from November 2005 to September 2006. ... land use systems such as coffee and tea plantations at present, threatens the few ... woody species composition of the forest and to documents its status that gives baseline ...

  8. Progressive failure analysis of fibrous composite materials and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahei-El-din, Yehia A.

    1990-01-01

    A brief description is given of the modifications implemented in the PAFAC finite element program for the simulation of progressive failure in fibrous composite materials and structures. Details of the memory allocation, input data, and the new subroutines are given. Also, built-in failure criteria for homogeneous and fibrous composite materials are described.

  9. Structure and properties of compositions based on petroleum sulfonic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tutorskii, I.A.; Sultanova, A.S.; Belkina, E.V.; Fomin, A.G. [Lomonosov Academy of Fine Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-03-01

    Colloidal characteristics of compositions based on petroleum sulfonic acids were studied. Neutralized heavy oil residue exhibits surface-active properties and contains an ultradisperse filler. Analysis of the compositions by size-exclusion-chromatography shows deep structural changes in the heavy acid residue upon neutralization with calcium carbonate.

  10. Flexible Nanocellulose - Nanoparticle Composites: Structures and Properties

    OpenAIRE

    UTHPALA MANAVI GARUSINGHE

    2018-01-01

    Nanocellulose is biodegradable and renewable and has many attractive properties of technological interest. Therefore, nanocellulose can be converted into thin films, which is used in wide range of applications. However, the property range achievable with nanocellulose by itself still has limitations. This thesis focuses on the production of nanocellulose-inorganic nanoparticle composites to combine the advantage associated with both individual components together to extend the range of proper...

  11. Composite Structures Damage Tolerance Analysis Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, James B.; Goyal, Vinay K.; Klug, John C.; Rome, Jacob I.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the results of a literature review as part of the development of composite hardware fracture control guidelines funded by NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) under contract NNL04AA09B. The objectives of the overall development tasks are to provide a broad information and database to the designers, analysts, and testing personnel who are engaged in space flight hardware production.

  12. Factor structure of functional state of primary school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidenko O.V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The examination of primary school children to determine the ranking of significant factors that determine the structure of their functional state depending on the level of physical health. It is shown that the main factor in the structure of the functional state of younger schoolchildren in low-and lower-middle level of physical fitness is selected morpho-functional status, which characterizes the functions of the body at rest. For children with average or above average level of physical fitness is a leading factor in physical fitness of schoolchildren.

  13. Composite Structure Monitoring using Direct Write Sensors, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA SBIR Phase II project seeks to develop and demonstrate a suite of sensor products to monitor the health of composite structures. Sensors will be made using...

  14. Fire Response of Loaded Composite Structures - Experiments and Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Burdette, Jason A.

    2001-01-01

    In this work, the thermo-mechanical response and failure of loaded, fire-exposed composite structures was studied. Unique experimental equipment and procedures were developed and experiments were performed to assess the effects of mechanical loading and fire exposure on the service life of composite beams. A series of analytical models was assembled to describe the fire growth and structural response processes for the system used in the experiments. This series of models consists of a fire...

  15. Comparison of Micro-Shear Bond Strength between Silorane-Based Composite and Conventional Methacrylate-Based Composite to the Dentin of Primary Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sharifi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bond strength between the restorative material and tooth structure is one of the major factors in the selection of restorative materials, which plays a key role in durable restoration and reducing microleakage. Considering the recent attention of researchers to low-shrinkage composites, the present study aimed to compare the micro-shear bond strength of silorane-based composite (P90 with the conventional methacrylate-based composite (Z250 to the dentin of primary teeth. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 24 intact primary canines were selected. Two disks (thickness: 2 mm were prepared from each tooth, and the samples were randomly divided into four groups (n=12. Composite resin cylinders (r=0.7 were adapted on each dentin surface, as follows: g1: (silorane bond system + P90, g2: (etch + silorane bond system + P90, g3: (single bond + Z250, g4: (etch + single bond + Z250. Afterwards, the samples were subjected to a micro-shear bond strength test until failure. Data analysis was performed using Tamhane’s T2 (P

  16. Structural evolution of chitosan–palygorskite composites and removal of aqueous lead by composite beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusmin, Ruhaida; Sarkar, Binoy; Liu, Yanju; McClure, Stuart; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Facile preparation of chitosan–palygorskite composite beads demonstrated. • Components’ mass ratio impacted structural characteristics of composites. • Mechanism of composite formation and structure of composite beads proposed. • Composite beads adsorbed significantly greater amount of Pb than pristine materials. • In-depth investigation done on Pb adsorption mechanisms. - Abstract: This paper investigates the structural evolution of chitosan–palygorskite (CP) composites in relation to variable mass ratios of their individual components. The composite beads’ performance in lead (Pb) adsorption from aqueous solution was also examined. The composite beads were prepared through direct dispersion of chitosan and palygorskite at 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 mass ratios (CP1, CP2 and C2P, respectively). Analyses by Fourier transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the dependence of the composites’ structural characteristics on their composition mass ratio. The chitosan–palygorskite composite beads exhibited a better Pb adsorption performance than the pristine materials (201.5, 154.5, 147.1, 27.7 and 9.3 mg g −1 for CP1, C2P, CP2, chitosan and palygorskite, respectively). Adsorption of Pb by CP1 and CP2 followed Freundlich isothermal model, while C2P fitted to Langmuir model. Kinetic studies showed that adsorption by all the composites fitted to the pseudo-second order model with pore diffusion also acting as a major rate governing step. The surface properties and specific interaction between chitosan and palygorskite in the composites were the most critical factors that influenced their capabilities in removing toxic metals from water.

  17. Structural evolution of chitosan–palygorskite composites and removal of aqueous lead by composite beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusmin, Ruhaida, E-mail: ruhaida.rusmin@mymail.unisa.edu.au [CERAR – Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Negeri Sembilan, Kuala Pilah 72000 (Malaysia); Sarkar, Binoy, E-mail: binoy.sarkar@unisa.edu.au [CERAR – Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); CRC CARE – Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, P.O. Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia); Liu, Yanju [CERAR – Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); CRC CARE – Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, P.O. Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia); McClure, Stuart [CERAR – Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: Ravi.Naidu@newcastle.edu.au [CERAR – Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); CRC CARE – Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, P.O. Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Facile preparation of chitosan–palygorskite composite beads demonstrated. • Components’ mass ratio impacted structural characteristics of composites. • Mechanism of composite formation and structure of composite beads proposed. • Composite beads adsorbed significantly greater amount of Pb than pristine materials. • In-depth investigation done on Pb adsorption mechanisms. - Abstract: This paper investigates the structural evolution of chitosan–palygorskite (CP) composites in relation to variable mass ratios of their individual components. The composite beads’ performance in lead (Pb) adsorption from aqueous solution was also examined. The composite beads were prepared through direct dispersion of chitosan and palygorskite at 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 mass ratios (CP1, CP2 and C2P, respectively). Analyses by Fourier transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the dependence of the composites’ structural characteristics on their composition mass ratio. The chitosan–palygorskite composite beads exhibited a better Pb adsorption performance than the pristine materials (201.5, 154.5, 147.1, 27.7 and 9.3 mg g{sup −1} for CP1, C2P, CP2, chitosan and palygorskite, respectively). Adsorption of Pb by CP1 and CP2 followed Freundlich isothermal model, while C2P fitted to Langmuir model. Kinetic studies showed that adsorption by all the composites fitted to the pseudo-second order model with pore diffusion also acting as a major rate governing step. The surface properties and specific interaction between chitosan and palygorskite in the composites were the most critical factors that influenced their capabilities in removing toxic metals from water.

  18. Foundations of compositional models: structural properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiroušek, Radim; Kratochvíl, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2015), s. 2-25 ISSN 0308-1079 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20012S Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP403/12/2175 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : multidimensional distribution * conditional independence * composition * semigraphoid properties * running intersection property Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.677, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/MTR/jirousek-0442412.pdf

  19. Structures and Performance of Graphene/Polyimide Composite Graphite Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Na

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dry-wet spinning process was used to gain graphene oxide/polyimide composite fibers, then graphene/polyimide composite carbon and graphite fibers were obtained through carbonized and graphitized. Different graphene oxide contents of the composite carbon and graphite fibers were measured by thermal gravimetric analysis, Raman, mechanical properties, electrical properties,SEM and so on. The results show that when the GO content is 0.3%(mass fraction,the same below, the thermal property of the graphene oxide/polyimide composite fibers is the best. The mechanical and electrical properties are obriously improved by the addition of GO, graphitization degree also increases. When the composite carbon fibers are treated at 2800℃, GO content increases to 2.0%, the thermal conductivity of the composite graphite fibers reaches 435.57W·m-1·K-1 and cross-section structures of carbon fibers are more compact.

  20. Structure analysis, fatigue testing, and lifetime prediction of composite steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolkin, Yu. V.; Chekalkin, A. A.; Babushkin, A. V.

    1998-05-01

    Composite steels prepared by technology of powder metallurgy are widely used as low cost parts with good resistance to wear, fracture, and corrosion. The development of powder composite steels is directly related to strength under vibration, fatigue stabilizing, and accurate lifetime prediction for actual composite topology. The fatigue behavior of powder steels was studied by experimental and numerical methods of composite mechanics and materials sciences. The chemical composition of composite steel is a pure iron powder as the base material and a handful of carbon, chromium, nickel, or phosphorus powders. The powder multi-component mixture is compacted by cold isostatic pressing to a rectangular form. The compactants are sintered in protective atmosphere. The microscale examination of the composite structure included an METAM-RV-21 metallographic optic microscope with a high-resolution ScanNexIIc scanner and an image processing package on the PC platform. The phase composition of powder steels has complex disordered topology with irregular ferrite/austenite grains, iron carbide inclusions, and pores. The microstructure images are treated according to the theory of stochastic processes as ergodic probability functions; statistical moments and a structural covariance function of the composite steels are given. The microscale stress-strain state of the composite steel is analyzed by finite element methods. The stiffness matrix of the composite steel is also presented together with stiffness matrices of ferrite/austenite grains, iron carbide inclusions, and pores as zero matrices. Endurance limits of the microstructural components are described by the Basquin or Coffin-Manson laws, respectively, as high and low cycle fatigue; cumulative microdamage in loading with a variable amplitude is taken from the Palmgren-Miner rule. Planar specimens were tested by console bending. Symmetric fatigue cycling was performed at a stable frequency of 20 Hz with endurance limits up

  1. Characterization and manufacture of braided composites for large commercial aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedro, Mark J.; Willden, Kurtis

    1992-01-01

    Braided composite materials, one of the advanced material forms which is under investigation in Boeing's ATCAS program, have been recognized as a potential cost-effective material form for fuselage structural elements. Consequently, there is a strong need for more knowledge in the design, manufacture, test, and analysis of textile structural composites. The overall objective of this work is to advance braided composite technology towards applications to a large commercial transport fuselage. This paper summarizes the mechanics of materials and manufacturing demonstration results which have been obtained in order to acquire an understanding of how braided composites can be applied to a commercial fuselage. Textile composites consisting of 1D, 2D triaxial, and 3D braid patterns with thermoplastic and two RTM resin systems were investigated. The structural performance of braided composites was evaluated through an extensive mechanical test program. Analytical methods were also developed and applied to predict the following: internal fiber architectures, stiffnesses, fiber stresses, failure mechanisms, notch effects, and the entire history of failure of the braided composites specimens. The applicability of braided composites to a commercial transport fuselage was further assessed through a manufacturing demonstration. Three foot fuselage circumferential hoop frames were manufactured to demonstrate the feasibility of consistently producing high quality braided/RTM composite primary structures. The manufacturing issues (tooling requirements, processing requirements, and process/quality control) addressed during the demonstration are summarized. The manufacturing demonstration in conjunction with the mechanical test results and developed analytical methods increased the confidence in the ATCAS approach to the design, manufacture, test, and analysis of braided composites.

  2. Intrapulpal Temperature Rise During Light Activation of Restorative Composites in a Primary Molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinall, Craig V; Garcia-Silva, Tales C; Lou, Jennifer S B; Wells, Martha H; Tantbirojn, Daranee; Versluis, Antheunis

    2017-05-15

    To investigate intrapulpal temperature rise in a primary molar during light activation of a composite restoration to determine if clinically significant pulpal temperatures (greater than 5.5 degrees Celsius) were reached. Restorative composites (EsthetX HD, Filtek Supreme Ultra, Filtek Bulk Fill) were placed into a primary molar with occlusal preparation (1.5 mm depth; remaining pulpal floor thickness one mm). The pulp was extirpated through a root access to place a thermocouple against the pulpal roof. Temperature changes were recorded during composite restoration light polymerization with three curing lights (one quartz-tungsten-halogen, two LEDs). Sample size was 10. Samples received additional irradiation to assure complete polymerization, followed by a third irradiation for calculating the exothermic heat contribution (subtracting third irradiation temperatures from first irradiation temperatures). Cured restorations were removed after each test, and the tooth was reused. Results were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis (α =0.05). Type of curing light and composite material affected the intrapulpal temperature rise, which was up to five degrees Celsius for one combination of LED-composite. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for clinically significant intrapulpal temperature rises when light-activating composite restorations in a primary molar with a moderately deep cavity.

  3. Structure, composition and mechanical properties of the silk fibres of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The silk egg case and orb web of spiders are elaborate structures that are assembled from a number of components. We analysed the structure, the amino acid and fibre compositions, and the tensile properties of the silk fibres of the egg case of Nephila clavata. SEM shows that the outer and inner covers of the egg case ...

  4. Vegetation structure and floristic composition of Gergeda Anfillo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vegetation structure and floristic composition of Gergeda Anfillo Forest, West Ethiopia. ... Moreover, the forest housed 10 of the 24 national priority tree species and four plant communities were identified by cluster analysis. Structural analysis revealed that the forest is dominated by small sized trees and shrubs.

  5. Pectinesterase. The primary structure of the tomato enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, O; Jörnvall, H

    1986-08-01

    The first primary structure of a pectinesterase has been determined by analysis of the main form of this plant enzyme from tomatoes. The analysis was untraditional in the sense that few data were obtained by frequently used methods. Thus, digestion with trypsin, Glu-specific protease and several other enzymes gave limited cleavages and highly insoluble products. Instead, the determination was to a large extent based on peptides derived from chemical cleavages with CNBr at Met, N-chlorosuccinimide at Trp and hydroxylamine at Asn-Gly, plus an enzymatic cleavage at modified cysteine residues after chemical derivatizations. The structure shows the protein chain to be 305 residues long, with four half-cystine residues and five tryptophan residues. The N-terminus has a free alpha-amino group (from isoleucine). Two types of residue, tyrosine and histidine, have been functionally implied in the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Tyrosine is common in the protein (at 18 positions). However, only two histidine residues are found, and both are close to tyrosine residues in the primary structure (His-128 separated by one intervening residue from Tyr-126, and His-269 adjacent to Tyr-268), defining segment(s) of possible interest in relation to the active site.

  6. Improved Joining of Metal Components to Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmes, Edmund

    2009-01-01

    Systems requirements for complex spacecraft drive design requirements that lead to structures, components, and/or enclosures of a multi-material and multifunctional design. The varying physical properties of aluminum, tungsten, Invar, or other high-grade aerospace metals when utilized in conjunction with lightweight composites multiply system level solutions. These multi-material designs are largely dependent upon effective joining techAn improved method of joining metal components to matrix/fiber composite material structures has been invented. The method is particularly applicable to equipping such thin-wall polymer-matrix composite (PMC) structures as tanks with flanges, ceramic matrix composite (CMC) liners for high heat engine nozzles, and other metallic-to-composite attachments. The method is oriented toward new architectures and distributing mechanical loads as widely as possible in the vicinities of attachment locations to prevent excessive concentrations of stresses that could give rise to delaminations, debonds, leaks, and other failures. The method in its most basic form can be summarized as follows: A metal component is to be joined to a designated attachment area on a composite-material structure. In preparation for joining, the metal component is fabricated to include multiple studs projecting from the aforementioned face. Also in preparation for joining, holes just wide enough to accept the studs are molded into, drilled, or otherwise formed in the corresponding locations in the designated attachment area of the uncured ("wet') composite structure. The metal component is brought together with the uncured composite structure so that the studs become firmly seated in the holes, thereby causing the composite material to become intertwined with the metal component in the joining area. Alternately, it is proposed to utilize other mechanical attachment schemes whereby the uncured composite and metallic parts are joined with "z-direction" fasteners. The

  7. Recent developments of discrete material optimization of laminated composite structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Erik; Sørensen, Rene

    2015-01-01

    This work will give a quick summary of recent developments of the Discrete Material Optimization approach for structural optimization of laminated composite structures. This approach can be seen as a multi-material topology optimization approach for selecting the best ply material and number...... of plies in a laminated composite structure. The conceptual combinatorial design problem is relaxed to a continuous problem such that well-established gradient based optimization techniques can be applied, and the optimization problem is solved on basis of interpolation schemes with penalization...

  8. Metallic-glass-matrix composite structures with benchmark mechanical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Joseph P.; Hofmann, Douglas C.; Demetriou, Marios D.; Johnson, William L.

    2010-12-01

    Metallic-glass-matrix composites demonstrating unusual combination of high strength, high toughness, and excellent processability are utilized to fabricate cellular structures of egg-box topology. Under compressive loading, the egg-box panels are capable of undergoing extensive plastic collapse at very high plateau stresses enabling absorption of large amounts of mechanical energy. In terms of specific mechanical energy absorbed, the present panels far outperform panels of similar topology made of aluminum or fiber-reinforced polymer composites, and even surpass steel structures of highly buckling-resistant topologies, thus emerging among the highest performance structures of any kind.

  9. Ink composition for making a conductive silver structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Steven B.; Lewis, Jennifer A.

    2016-10-18

    An ink composition for making a conductive silver structure comprises a silver salt and a complex of (a) a complexing agent and a short chain carboxylic acid or (b) a complexing agent and a salt of a short chain carboxylic acid, according to one embodiment. A method for making a silver structure entails combining a silver salt and a complexing agent, and then adding a short chain carboxylic acid or a salt of the short chain carboxylic acid to the combined silver salt and a complexing agent to form an ink composition. A concentration of the complexing agent in the ink composition is reduced to form a concentrated formulation, and the silver salt is reduced to form a conductive silver structure, where the concentrated formulation and the conductive silver structure are formed at a temperature of about 120.degree. C. or less.

  10. An evaluation on shear strength of composite resin bonded to primary teeth dentin after Nd: YAG laser radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowsari A

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the differences in the composite and morphology of dentin in primary and permanent teeth, it is necessary to make improvements in bonding techniques to promote the strength of composite resins bonded to the dentinal surface, in primary teeth. The use of lower radiation, to make structural and chemical changes in dentinal surfaces has been investigated. This research was conducted to evaluate the shear strength of the composite bonded to primary teeth dentin after Nd: YAG laser radiation and acid etching for conditioning. Peripheral dentin of the buccal and lingua! surfaces of 60 extracted posterior primary teeth were exposed and polished with 600 grit with Sic paper. The teeth were divided randomly in 3 groups of 20 teeth. In group 1 etching gel, primer and adhesive of scotch bond multipurpose system (SMP, in group 2 laser at 1.6 w and 80 mj/pulse, and in group 3 laser at 2 s and 700 mj/pulse were used. Moreover, in groups 2 and 3, after laser radiation, acid etching, primer and adhesive of SMP system were applied. After necessary laboratory tests, the mean shear bond strength in MPa were 20.99±5.3 (group 1, 23.82±6.31 (group 2 and 26.58±5.59 (group 3. ANOVA, scheffe, tukey statistical tests showed that the bond strengths of group 3 were statistically higher than group 1. The frequency of dentin cohesive failures were significantly higher in groups 2 and 3, compared to group 1 that indicates a higher bond strength in these groups. Scanning electron mirographs of laser radiated surfaces, show a porous and rough surface morphology that enhances the mechanical bond of the composite.

  11. Study on Macro-fiber Composite Coupled-Plate Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiarui; Tu, Jianwei; Lai, Fangpeng; Luo, Wei; Zhu, Chenfei

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the dynamic and vibration control effect of macro-fiber composite (MFC) were studied on the plate and shell structure, proposing a new calculation method of MFC coupled-plate structure actuating equation. Based on the first kind of piezoelectric equation, this paper deduces the equation of P1-type MFC composite plate structure, considering the influence of the Poisson’s ratio of the controlled structure and the effect of the MFC plane strain on MFC’s actuating force and actuating moment. In this paper, the vibration control experiment of the MFC coupled-plate structure is completed. The deviation between the experimental results and the simulation results is less than 7.5%, indicating that the P1-type MFC actuating equation is correct and can be used in the simulation calculation of vibration control for the MFC coupled-plate structure.

  12. Elemental composition of normal primary tooth enamel analyzed with XRMA and SIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Nina; Dietz, Wolfram; Lundgren, Ted; Nietzsche, Sandor; Odelius, Hans; Rythén, Marianne; Rizell, Sara; Robertson, Agneta; Norén, Jörgen G; Klingberg, Gunilla

    2009-01-01

    There is an interest to analyze the chemical composition of enamel in teeth from patients with different developmental disorders or syndromes and evaluate possible differences compared to normal composition. For this purpose, it is essential to have reference material. The aim of this study was to, by means of X-ray micro analyses (XRMA) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), present concentration gradients for C, O, P and Ca and F, Na, Mg, Cl, K and Sr in normal enamel of primary teeth from healthy individuals. 36 exfoliated primary teeth from 36 healthy children were collected, sectioned, and analyzed in the enamel and dentin with X-ray micro analyses for the content of C, O, P and Ca and F, Na MgCl, K and Sr. This study has supplied reference data for C, O, P and Ca in enamel in primary teeth from healthy subjects. No statistically significant differences in the elemental composition were found between incisors and molars.The ratio Ca/P is in concordance with other studies. Some elements have shown statistically significant differences between different levels of measurement. These results may be used as reference values for research on the chemical composition of enamel and dentin in primary teeth from patients with different conditions and/or syndromes.

  13. Body composition and physical fitness of undernourished South African rural primary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monyeki, M.A.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Kemper, H.C.G.; Monyeki, K.D.; Toriola, A.L.; Pienaar, A.E.; Twisk, J.W.R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between the body composition characteristics, body mass index (BMI), sum of skinfolds (SSF), % body fat (%BF), fat-free mass (FFM) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and nine physical fitness items in undernourished rural primary

  14. Ethnic composition of the class and educational performance in primary education in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, G.J.M.; van de Werfhorst, H.G.; Dronkers, J.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the effect of the ethnic composition in the school class on school performance in primary education, using COOL 2008 data for The Netherlands. We make an important distinction between the proportion of migrant children and the diversity with regard to the different ethnic

  15. Diagnostic value of DIAGNOdent in detecting caries under composite restorations of primary molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ava Vali Sichani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: DIAGNOdent showed a greater accuracy in detecting secondary caries under primary molar restorations, compared to radiographs. Although DIAGNOdent is an effective method for detecting caries under composite restorations, it is better to be used as an adjunctive method alongside other detecting procedures.

  16. Woven Structures from Natural Fibres for Reinforcing Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Bernava, Aina; Manins, Maris; Strazds, Guntis

    2015-01-01

    The increase of production of woven structures from natural fibres for reinforced composites can be noticed in different sectors of economy. This can be explained by limited sources of raw materials and different environmental issues, as well as European Union guidelines for car manufacture [4]. This research produced 2D textile structures of hemp yarn and polypropylene yarn and tested the impact of added glass fibre yarn on the mechanical properties of the woven structur...

  17. Structural and functional characterization of barium zirconium titanate / epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiberto González Garcia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric behavior of composite materials (barium zirconium titanate / epoxy system was analyzed as a function of ceramic concentration. Structure and morphologic behavior of the composites was investigated by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM analyses. Composites were prepared by mixing the components and pouring them into suitable moulds. It was demonstrated that the amount of inorganic phase affects the morphology of the presented composites. XRD revealed the presence of a single phase while Raman scattering confirmed structural transitions as a function of ceramic concentration. Changes in the ceramic concentration affected Raman modes and the distribution of particles along into in epoxy matrix. Dielectric permittivity and dielectric losses were influenced by filler concentration.

  18. Hybrid Bridge Structures Made of Frp Composite and Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajchel, Mateusz; Siwowski, Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    Despite many advantages over the conventional construction materials, the contemporary development of FRP composites in bridge engineering is limited due to high initial cost, low stiffness (in case of glass fibers) and sudden composite failure mode. In order to reduce the given limitations, mixed (hybrid) solutions connecting the FRP composites and conventional construction materials, including concrete, have been tested in many countries for 20 years. Shaping the hybrid structures based on the attributes of particular materials, aims to increase stiffness and reduce cost without losing the carrying capacity, lightness and easiness of bridges that includes such hybrid girders, and to avoid the sudden dangerous failure mode. In the following article, the authors described examples of hybrid road bridges made of FRP composite and concrete within the time of 20 years and presented the first Polish hybrid FRP-concrete road bridge. Also, the directions of further research, necessary to spread these innovative, advanced and sustainable bridge structures were indicated.

  19. Relationship of structure and stiffness in laminated bamboo composites

    OpenAIRE

    Penellum, Matthew; Sharma, Bhavna; Shah, Darshil Upendra; Foster, Robert; Ramage, Michael Hector

    2018-01-01

    Laminated bamboo in structural applications has the potential to change the way buildings are constructed. The fibrous microstructure of bamboo can be modelled as a fibre-reinforced composite. This study compares the results of a fibre volume fraction analysis with previous experimental beam bending results. The link between fibre volume fraction and bending stiffness shows that differences previously attributed to preservation treatment in fact arise due to strip thickness. Composite t...

  20. Blast Testing and Modelling of Composite Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giversen, Søren

    The motivation for this work is based on a desire for finding light weight alternatives to high strength steel as the material to use for armouring in military vehicles. With the use of high strength steel, an increase in the level of armouring has a significant impact on the vehicle weight......-up proved functional and provided consistent data of the panel response. The tests reviled that the sandwich panels did not provide a decrease in panel deflection compared with the monolithic laminates, which was expected due to their higher flexural rigidity. This was found to be because membrane effects...... a pressure distribution on a selected surfaces and has been based on experimental pressure measurement data, and (ii) with a designed 3 step numerical load model, where the blast pressure and FSI (Fluid Structure Interaction) between the pressure wave and modelled panel is modelled numerically. The tested...

  1. Supersymmetric unified compositeness and the quark/lepton generation structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, A.; Sonnenschein, J.

    1983-12-01

    We attempt to construct a realistic model, incorporating the ideas of supersymmetry, compositeness and grand unification. Unification dictates the preon/spectator SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) assignments, while supersymmetry tackles the hierachy problem and partially protects chiral invariance. It is primarily the presence of scalar preons which allows for a 't Hooft-Appelquist-Carazzone consistent composite generation structure. The various quark/leptons are internally distinguished, with U(1)sub(R) serving as a broken horizontal symmetry. To demonstrate our idea, unified SU(10) is invoked to give birth to supersymmetric SU(5)sub(HC) compositeness with four low-lying standard families. (author)

  2. Thermosetting polymer-matrix composites for structural repair applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertzen, William Kirby

    2007-12-01

    Several classes of thermosetting polymer matrix composites were evaluated for use in structural repair applications. Initial work involved the characterization and evaluation of woven carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites for structural pipeline repair. Cyanate ester resins were evaluated as a replacement for epoxy in composites for high-temperature pipe repair applications, and as the basis for adhesives for resin infusion repair of high-temperature composite materials. Carbon fiber/cyanate ester matrix composites and fumed silica/cyanate ester nanocomposites were evaluated for their thermal, mechanical, viscoelastic, and rheological properties as they relate to their structure, chemistry, and processing characteristics. The bisphenol E cyanate ester under investigation possesses a high glass transition temperature, excellent mechanical properties, and unique ambient temperature processability. The incorporation of fumed silica served to enhance the mechanical and rheological properties of the polymer and reduce thermal expansion without sacrificing glass transition or drastically altering curing kinetics. Characterization of the composites included dynamic mechanical analysis, thermomechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, rheological and rheokinetic evaluation, and transmission electron microscopy.

  3. [Structural typology of Brazilian primary healthcare units: the 5 Rs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquat, Aylene; Giovanella, Ligia; Fausto, Marcia Cristina Rodrigues; Fusaro, Edgard Rodrigues; Mendonça, Maria Helena Magalhães de; Gagno, Juliana; Viana, Ana Luiza d'Ávila

    2017-08-21

    The structural typology of Brazil's 38,812 primary healthcare units (UBS) was elaborated on the basis of the results from a survey in cycle 1 of the National Program for Improvement in Access and Quality of Primary Care. Type of team, range of professionals, shifts open to the public, available services, and installations and inputs were the sub-dimensions used. For each sub-dimension, a reference standard was defined and a standardized score was calculated, with 1 as the best. The final score was calculated by factor analysis. The final mean score of Brazilian UBS was 0.732. The sub-dimension with the worst score was "installations and inputs" and the best was "shifts open to the public". The primary healthcare units were classified according to their final score in five groups, from best to worst: A, B, C, D, and E. Only 4.8% of the Brazilian UBS attained the maximum score. The typology showed specific characteristics and a regional distribution pattern: units D and/or E accounted for nearly one-third of the units in the North, and two-thirds of units A were situated in the South and Southeast of Brazil. Based on the typology, primary healthcare units were classified according to their infrastructure conditions and possible strategies for intervention, as follows: failed, rudimentary, limited, fair, and reference (benchmark). The lack of equipment and inputs in all the units except for type A limits their scope of action and case-resolution capacity, thus restricting their ability to respond to health problems. The typology presented here can be a useful tool for temporal and spatial monitoring of the quality of infrastructure in UBS in Brazil.

  4. Design and analysis of composite structures with applications to aerospace structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kassapoglou, Christos

    2010-01-01

    Design and Analysis of Composite Structures enables graduate students and engineers to generate meaningful and robust designs of complex composite structures. Combining analysis and design methods for structural components, the book begins with simple topics such as skins and stiffeners and progresses through to entire components of fuselages and wings. Starting with basic mathematical derivation followed by simplifications used in real-world design, Design and Analysis of Composite Structures presents the level of accuracy and range of applicability of each method. Examples taken from ac

  5. Behavior of grid-stiffened composite structures under transverse loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Changsheng

    The energy absorption characteristics and failure modes of grid-stiffened composite plates under transverse load were studied in detail. Several laboratory scale composite grid plates were fabricated by using co-mingled E-glass fiber/polypropylene matrix and carbon/nylon composites in a thermoplastic stamping process. Both experimental and finite element approaches were used to evaluate and understand the role of major failure modes on the performance of damaged grid-stiffened composite plates under transverse load. The load-deflection responses of grid-stiffened composite plates were determined and compared with those of sandwich composite plates of the same size. The failure modes of grid-stiffened composite plates under different load conditions were investigated and used as the basis for FEA models. The intrinsic strength properties of constituent composite materials were measured by using either three point bending or tensile test and were used as input data to the FEA models. Several FEA models including the major failure modes based on the experimental results were built to simulate the damage processes of grid-stiffened composite plates under transverse load. A FORTRAN subroutine was implemented within the ABAQUS code to incorporate the material failure models. Effects of damage on the modal frequencies and loss factors of grid-stiffened composite plates were also investigated experimentally. Experimental and simulation results showed that sandwich composite specimens failed catastrophically with the load dropping sharply at the displacement corresponding to initial and final failure. However, grid-stiffened composite specimens failed in a more gradual and forgiving way in a sequence of relatively small load drops. No catastrophic load drops were observed in the grid structures over the range of displacements investigated here. The SEA values of the grid composite specimens are typically higher than those of the sandwich specimens with the same boundary

  6. Eruption style at Kīlauea Volcano in Hawai‘i linked to primary melt composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sides. I.R.,; Edmonds, M.; Maclennan, J.; Swanson, Don; Houghton, Bruce F.

    2014-01-01

    Explosive eruptions at basaltic volcanoes have been linked to gas segregation from magmas at shallow depths in the crust. The composition of primary melts formed at greater depths was thought to have little influence on eruptive style. Ocean island basaltic volcanoes are the product of melting of a geochemically heterogeneous mantle plume and are expected to give rise to heterogeneous primary melts. This range in primary melt composition, particularly with respect to the volatile components, will profoundly influence magma buoyancy, storage and eruption style. Here we analyse the geochemistry of a suite of melt inclusions from 25 historical eruptions at the ocean island volcano of Kīlauea, Hawai‘i, over the past 600 years. We find that more explosive styles of eruption at Kīlauea Volcano are associated statistically with more geochemically enriched primary melts that have higher volatile concentrations. These enriched melts ascend faster and retain their primary nature, undergoing little interaction with the magma reservoir at the volcano’s summit. We conclude that the eruption style and magma-supply rate at Kīlauea are fundamentally linked to the geochemistry of the primary melts formed deep below the volcano. Magmas might therefore be predisposed towards explosivity right at the point of formation in their mantle source region.

  7. EMC characteristics of composite structure - Electric/electromagnetic shielding attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegertseder, P.; Breitsameter, R.

    1989-09-01

    The paper reports electric/electromagnetic shielding-attenuation experiments performed on different test boxes built with the same materials and processes as those to be used for the construction of a helicopter. The measurements are performed in the frequency range of 14 to 18 GHz, and the effects of different composite materials, jointing and bonding of structure parts of the boxes, application and bonding of the mesh, the construction of access panels, and conductive seals on these panels are assessed. It is demonstrated that moderate electric/electromagnetic shielding-attenuation values can be achieved by composite structures made from carbon, and materials and procedures required for high shielding attenuation are discussed.

  8. Failure mechanisms in energy-absorbing composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alastair F.; David, Matthew

    2010-11-01

    Quasi-static tests are described for determination of the energy-absorption properties of composite crash energy-absorbing segment elements under axial loads. Detailed computer tomography scans of failed specimens were used to identify local compression crush failure mechanisms at the crush front. These mechanisms are important for selecting composite materials for energy-absorbing structures, such as helicopter and aircraft sub-floors. Finite element models of the failure processes are described that could be the basis for materials selection and future design procedures for crashworthy structures.

  9. Structural optimization study of composite wind turbine blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jin; Shen, Wen Zhong; Wang, Quan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the initial layout of a 2. MW composite wind turbine blade is designed first. The new airfoils families are selected to design a 2. MW wind turbine blade. The finite element parametric model for the blade is established. Based on the modified Blade Element Momentum theory, a new one......-way fluid-structure interaction method is introduced. A procedure combining finite element analysis and particle swarm algorithm to optimize composite structures of the wind turbine blade is developed. The procedure proposed not only allows thickness variation but also permits the spar cap location...

  10. Kinetics of radiation-induced structural alterations in electron-irradiated polymer-based composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaikin, Yu.A.; Potanin, A.S.; Koztaeva, U.P.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In our previous studies measurements of internal friction temperature dependence were used for characterization of thermally activated and radiation-induced structural evolution in different types of polymer-based composites. This paper supplements these measurements with kinetic studies of internal friction (IF) parameters and EPR signals in a glass-cloth epoxy-filled laminate ST-ETF after electron irradiation up to doses of 1-10 MGy. Experiment have shown that the lifetime of free radicals in this composite considerably exceeds the characteristic time of molecular structural rearrangement due to scission and cross-linking after irradiation, as determined from IF measurements. This result is explained by slow proceeding of sterically hindered disproportionation reactions that stabilize the end groups of the macro-chain disrupt during irradiation and finally fix the act of scission. A mathematical model is formulated for description of structural evolution and alterations of IF parameters in polymer-based composites during and after electron irradiation. The description is based on the track model of radiation damage in polymers and phenomenological theory of radiation-induced structural transformations. General description does not give details of radiation-chemical conversion in different structural components of composites but indicates the direction of their structural evolution. In the model considered a composite material was divided into three parts (binder, filler, and a boundary layer). It was supposed that after primary distribution of radiation energy radiation-chemical conversion proceeds independently in each of these regions. It was also suggested that all the radical reactions were of the second order. On the example of glass-cloth laminate ST-ETF it is shown that this model allows to describe alterations in composite structural characteristics during irradiation and in the course of their self-organization after

  11. Electrochemical intercalation of lithium into polypyrrole/silver vanadium oxide composite used for lithium primary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong-Won; Popov, Branko N. [Center for Electrochemical Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2006-10-20

    Hybrid composites of polypyrrole (PPy) and silver vanadium oxide (SVO) used for lithium primary batteries were chemically synthesized by an oxidative polymerization of pyrrole monomer on the SVO surface in an acidic medium. The composite electrode exhibited higher discharge capacity and better rate capability as compared with the pristine SVO electrode. The improvement in electrochemical performance of the composite electrode was due to PPy which accommodates lithium ions and also enhances the SVO utilization. Chronoamperometric and ac-impedance measurements indicated that lithium intercalation proceeds under the mixed control by interfacial charge transfer and diffusion. The enhanced SVO utilization in the composite electrode results from a facilitated kinetics of interfacial charge transfer in the presence of PPy. (author)

  12. Electrochemical intercalation of lithium into polypyrrole/silver vanadium oxide composite used for lithium primary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Won; Popov, Branko N.

    Hybrid composites of polypyrrole (PPy) and silver vanadium oxide (SVO) used for lithium primary batteries were chemically synthesized by an oxidative polymerization of pyrrole monomer on the SVO surface in an acidic medium. The composite electrode exhibited higher discharge capacity and better rate capability as compared with the pristine SVO electrode. The improvement in electrochemical performance of the composite electrode was due to PPy which accommodates lithium ions and also enhances the SVO utilization. Chronoamperometric and ac-impedance measurements indicated that lithium intercalation proceeds under the mixed control by interfacial charge transfer and diffusion. The enhanced SVO utilization in the composite electrode results from a facilitated kinetics of interfacial charge transfer in the presence of PPy.

  13. Development of Textile Reinforced Composites for Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, H. Benson

    1998-01-01

    NASA has been a leader in development of composite materials for aircraft applications during the past 25 years. In the early 1980's NASA and others conducted research to improve damage tolerance of composite structures through the use of toughened resins but these resins were not cost-effective. The aircraft industry wanted affordable, robust structures that could withstand the rigors of flight service with minimal damage. The cost and damage tolerance barriers of conventional laminated composites led NASA to focus on new concepts in composites which would incorporate the automated manufacturing methods of the textiles industry and which would incorporate through-the-thickness reinforcements. The NASA Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) Program provided the resources to extensively investigate the application of textile processes to next generation aircraft wing and fuselage structures. This paper discusses advanced textile material forms that have been developed, innovative machine concepts and key technology advancements required for future application of textile reinforced composites in commercial transport aircraft. Multiaxial warp knitting, triaxial braiding and through-the-thickness stitching are the three textile processes that have surfaced as the most promising for further development. Textile reinforced composite structural elements that have been developed in the NASA ACT Program are discussed. Included are braided fuselage frames and window-belt reinforcements, woven/stitched lower fuselage side panels, stitched multiaxial warp knit wing skins, and braided wing stiffeners. In addition, low-cost processing concepts such as resin transfer molding (RTM), resin film infusion (RFI), and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) are discussed. Process modeling concepts to predict resin flow and cure in textile preforms are also discussed.

  14. A Formalism for Scattering of Complex Composite Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svaneborg, Carsten; Pedersen, Jan Skov

    2012-01-01

    -unit scattering. The structural scattering expressions allow composite structures to be used as sub-units within the formalism itself. This allows the scattering expressions for complex hierarchical structures to be derived with great ease. The formalism is generic in the sense that the scattering due......We present a formalism for the scattering of an arbitrary linear or acyclic branched structure build by joining mutually non-interacting arbitrary functional sub-units. The formalism consists of three equations expressing the structural scattering in terms of three equations expressing the sub...... to structural connectivity is completely decoupled from internal structure of the sub-units. This allows sub-units to be replaced by more complex structures. We illustrate the physical interpretation of the formalism diagrammatically. By applying a self-consistency requirement, we derive the pair distributions...

  15. Damping Analysis of Cylindrical Composite Structures with Enhanced Viscoelastic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliem, Mathias; Høgsberg, Jan; Vanwalleghem, Joachim; Filippatos, Angelos; Hoschützky, Stefan; Fotsing, Edith-Roland; Berggreen, Christian

    2018-04-01

    Constrained layer damping treatments are widely used in mechanical structures to damp acoustic noise and mechanical vibrations. A viscoelastic layer is thereby applied to a structure and covered by a stiff constraining layer. When the structure vibrates in a bending mode, the viscoelastic layer is forced to deform in shear mode. Thus, the vibration energy is dissipated as low grade frictional heat. This paper documents the efficiency of passive constrained layer damping treatments for low frequency vibrations of cylindrical composite specimens made of glass fibre-reinforced plastics. Different cross section geometries with shear webs have been investigated in order to study a beneficial effect on the damping characteristics of the cylinder. The viscoelastic damping layers are placed at different locations within the composite cylinder e.g. circumferential and along the neutral plane to evaluate the location-dependent efficiency of constrained layer damping treatments. The results of the study provide a thorough understanding of constrained layer damping treatments and an improved damping design of the cylindrical composite structure. The highest damping is achieved when placing the damping layer in the neutral plane perpendicular to the bending load. The results are based on free decay tests of the composite structure.

  16. Composite Structure Modeling and Analysis of Advanced Aircraft Fuselage Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Sorokach, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project and the Boeing Company are collabrating to advance the unitized damage arresting composite airframe technology with application to the Hybrid-Wing-Body (HWB) aircraft. The testing of a HWB fuselage section with Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) construction is presently being conducted at NASA Langley. Based on lessons learned from previous HWB structural design studies, improved finite-element models (FEM) of the HWB multi-bay and bulkhead assembly are developed to evaluate the performance of the PRSEUS construction. In order to assess the comparative weight reduction benefits of the PRSEUS technology, conventional cylindrical skin-stringer-frame models of a cylindrical and a double-bubble section fuselage concepts are developed. Stress analysis with design cabin-pressure load and scenario based case studies are conducted for design improvement in each case. Alternate analysis with stitched composite hat-stringers and C-frames are also presented, in addition to the foam-core sandwich frame and pultruded rod-stringer construction. The FEM structural stress, strain and weights are computed and compared for relative weight/strength benefit assessment. The structural analysis and specific weight comparison of these stitched composite advanced aircraft fuselage concepts demonstrated that the pressurized HWB fuselage section assembly can be structurally as efficient as the conventional cylindrical fuselage section with composite stringer-frame and PRSEUS construction, and significantly better than the conventional aluminum construction and the double-bubble section concept.

  17. 75 FR 24502 - Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation of Composite Rotorcraft Structures; Reopening of Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Evaluation of Composite Rotorcraft Structures; Reopening of Comment Period AGENCY: Federal Aviation... composite structures technology and provide internationally harmonized standards. The public was invited to... 793) Notice No. 09-12, entitled ``Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation of Composite Rotorcraft...

  18. Quantifying elemental compositions of primary minerals from granitic rocks and saprolite within the Santa Catalina Mountain Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybrand, R. A.; Rasmussen, C.

    2011-12-01

    strong indicator that the grain was transforming in situ to secondary weathering products. Other feldspar minerals in the sample appeared relatively un-weathered and were contained within perthite structural units where the plagioclase minerals were preserved as intergrowths of the orthoclase groundmasses. These results suggest differential plagioclase weathering pathways that may have resulted from variations in physical erosion rates or different geologic configurations of the feldspar minerals. Secondary mineral assemblages of the sample included kaolinite, dehydrated halloysite, illite, vermiculite, chlorite and gibbsite, indicating chemical alteration of both micas and feldspars. Current research is focused on additional electron microprobe analyses of surface and saprolite samples from other field areas along the gradient. The electron microprobe data aided in the constraint of chemical weathering processes as related to primary mineral composition.

  19. Self-learning health monitoring algorithm in composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassia, Luigi; Iannone, Michele; Califano, America; D'Amore, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    The paper describes a system that it is able of monitoring the health state of a composite structure in real time. The hardware of the system consists of a wire of strain sensors connected to a control unit. The software of the system elaborates the strain data and in real time is able to detect the presence of an eventual damage of the structures monitored with the strain sensors. The algorithm requires as input only the strains of the monitored structured measured on real time, i.e. those strains coming from the deformations of the composite structure due to the working loads. The health monitoring system does not require any additional device to interrogate the structure as often used in the literature, instead it is based on a self-learning procedure. The strain data acquired when the structure is healthy are used to set up the correlations between the strain in different positions of structure by means of neural network. Once the correlations between the strains in different position have been set up, these correlations act as a fingerprint of the healthy structure. In case of damage the correlation between the strains in the position of the structure near the damage will change due to the change of the stiffness of the structure caused by the damage. The developed software is able to recognize the change of the transfer function between the strains and consequently is able to detect the damage.

  20. Net-Shape Tailored Fabrics For Complex Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed novel looms used to make fabric preforms for complex structural elements, both stiffening elements and skin, from continuous fiber-reinforced composite material. Components of looms include custom reed and differential fabric takeup system. Structural parts made best explained by reference to curved "I" cross-section frame. Technology not limited to these fiber orientations or geometry; fiber angles, frame radius of curvature, frame height, and flange width changed along length of structure. Weaving technology equally applicable to structural skins, such as wing of fuselage skins.

  1. Low-Cost Composite Materials and Structures for Aircraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Ravi B.; Starnes, James H., Jr.; Holzwarth, Richard C.

    2003-01-01

    A survey of current applications of composite materials and structures in military, transport and General Aviation aircraft is presented to assess the maturity of composites technology, and the payoffs realized. The results of the survey show that performance requirements and the potential to reduce life cycle costs for military aircraft and direct operating costs for transport aircraft are the main reasons for the selection of composite materials for current aircraft applications. Initial acquisition costs of composite airframe components are affected by high material costs and complex certification tests which appear to discourage the widespread use of composite materials for aircraft applications. Material suppliers have performed very well to date in developing resin matrix and fiber systems for improved mechanical, durability and damage tolerance performance. The next challenge for material suppliers is to reduce material costs and to develop materials that are suitable for simplified and inexpensive manufacturing processes. The focus of airframe manufacturers should be on the development of structural designs that reduce assembly costs by the use of large-scale integration of airframe components with unitized structures and manufacturing processes that minimize excessive manual labor.

  2. Carbon Nanotube Enhanced Aerospace Composite Materials A New Generation of Multifunctional Hybrid Structural Composites

    CERN Document Server

    Kostopoulos, V

    2013-01-01

    The well documented increase in the use of high performance composites as structural materials in aerospace components is continuously raising the demands in terms of dynamic performance, structural integrity, reliable life monitoring systems and adaptive actuating abilities. Current technologies address the above issues separately; material property tailoring and custom design practices aim to the enhancement of dynamic and damage tolerance characteristics, whereas life monitoring and actuation is performed with embedded sensors that may be detrimental to the structural integrity of the component. This publication explores the unique properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT) as an additive in the matrix of Fibre Reinforced Plastics (FRP), for producing structural composites with improved mechanical performance as well as sensing/actuating capabilities. The successful combination of the CNT properties and existing sensing actuating technologies leads to the realization of a multifunctional FRP structure. The curre...

  3. Structure and content of competitive group compositions in sports aerobics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Moshenska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to make the analysis of modern competitive group compositions in sports aerobics. Material & Methods: pedagogical, sociological and methods of mathematical statistics were used. 10 coaches took part in the experimental part; analysis of protocols and video records of competitions of the aged category of children of 9–11 years old, who perform in the nomination of triplets and quintuples (group exercises, is carried out. Results: the content of competitive compositions and the allocated indicators are studied which defined it. Conclusions: the basic structural elements, which characterize competitive compositions, are allocated. Their components, quantity and time of performance are defined. It is established that variety of aerobic contents, spaces, and means of registration, musical compliance and logicality of creation of the whole competitive composition at high quality of performance characterizes teams – winners.

  4. Ceramic matrix composites -- Advanced high-temperature structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowden, R.A.; Ferber, M.K.; DiPietro, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    This symposium on Ceramic Matrix Composites: Advanced High-Temperature Structural Materials was held at the 1994 MRS Fall Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts on November 28--December 2. The symposium was sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technology's Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites Program, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, and NASA Lewis Research Center. Among the competing materials for advanced, high-temperature applications, ceramic matrix composites are leading candidates. The symposium was organized such that papers concerning constituents--fibers and matrices--were presented first, followed by composite processing, modeling of mechanical behavior, and thermomechanical testing. More stable reinforcements are necessary to enhance the performance and life of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, and to ensure final acceptance of these materials for high-temperature applications. Encouraging results in the areas of polymer-derived SiC fibers and single crystal oxide filaments were given, suggesting composites with improved thermomechanical properties and stability will be realized in the near future. The significance of the fiber-matrix interface in the design and performance of these materials is evident. Numerous mechanical models to relate interface properties to composite behavior, and interpret test methods and data, were enthusiastically discussed. One issue of great concern for any advanced material for use in extreme environments is stability. This theme arose frequently throughout the symposium and was the topic of focus on the final day. Fifty nine papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  5. Thermo-mechanical cyclic testing of carbon-carbon primary structure for an SSTO vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croop, Harold C.; Leger, Kenneth B.; Lowndes, Holland B.; Hahn, Steven E.; Barthel, Chris A.

    1999-01-01

    An advanced carbon-carbon structural component is being experimentally evaluated for use as primary load carrying structure for future single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicles. The component is a wing torque box section featuring an advanced, three-spar design. This design features 3D-woven, angle-interlock skins, 3D integrally woven spar webs and caps, oxidation inhibited matrix, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) oxidation protection coating, and ceramic matrix composite fasteners. The box spar caps are nested into the skins which, when processed together through the carbon-carbon processing cycle, resulted in monolithic box halves. The box half sections were then joined at the spar web intersections using ceramic matrix composite fasteners. This method of fabrication eliminated fasteners through both the upper and lower skins. Development of the carbon-carbon wing box structure was accomplished in a four phase design and fabrication effort, conducted by Boeing, Information, Space and Defense Systems, Seattle, WA, under contract to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The box is now set up for testing and will soon begin cyclic loads testing in the AFRL Structural Test Facility at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), OH. This paper discusses the latest test setup accomplishments and the results of the pre-cyclic loads testing performed to date.

  6. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) for Inspection of Composite Sandwich Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Parker, F. Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Composite honeycomb structures are widely used in aerospace applications due to their low weight and high strength advantages. Developing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) inspection methods are essential for their safe performance. Flash thermography is a commonly used technique for composite honeycomb structure inspections due to its large area and rapid inspection capability. Flash thermography is shown to be sensitive for detection of face sheet impact damage and face sheet to core disbond. Data processing techniques, using principal component analysis to improve the defect contrast, are discussed. Limitations to the thermal detection of the core are investigated. In addition to flash thermography, X-ray computed tomography is used. The aluminum honeycomb core provides excellent X-ray contrast compared to the composite face sheet. The X-ray CT technique was used to detect impact damage, core crushing, and skin to core disbonds. Additionally, the X-ray CT technique is used to validate the thermography results.

  7. Mechanical properties of Composite Engineering Structures by Multivolume Micromechanical Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Novotný

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Engineering structures often consist of elements having the character of a periodically repeated composite structure. A multivolume micromechanical model based on a representative cell division into r1 × r2 × r3 subcells with different elastic material properties has been used in this paper to derive macromechanical characteristics of the composite construction response to applied load and temperature changes. The multivolume method is based on ensuring the equilibrium of the considered volume on an average basis. In the same (average way, the continuity conditions of displacements and tractions at the interfaces between subcells and between neighboring representative elements are imposed, resulting in a homogenization procedure that eliminates the discrete nature of the composite model. The details of the method are shown for the case of a concrete block pavement. A parametric study is presented illustrating the influence of joint thickness, joint filling material properties and the quality of bonding between block and filler elements.

  8. A critical review of nanotechnologies for composite aerospace structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulos, Vassilis; Masouras, Athanasios; Baltopoulos, Athanasios; Vavouliotis, Antonios; Sotiriadis, George; Pambaguian, Laurent

    2017-03-01

    The past decade extensive efforts have been invested in understanding the nano-scale and revealing the capabilities offered by nanotechnology products to structural materials. Integration of nano-particles into fiber composites concludes to multi-scale reinforced composites and has opened a new wide range of multi-functional materials in industry. In this direction, a variety of carbon based nano-fillers has been proposed and employed, individually or in combination in hybrid forms, to approach the desired performance. Nevertheless, a major issue faced lately more seriously due to the interest of industry is on how to incorporate these nano-species into the final composite structure through existing manufacturing processes and infrastructure. This interest originates from several industrial applications needs that request the development of new multi-functional materials which combine enhanced mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. In this work, an attempt is performed to review the most representative processes and related performances reported in literature and the experience obtained on nano-enabling technologies of fiber composite materials. This review focuses on the two main composite manufacturing technologies used by the aerospace industry; Prepreg/Autoclave and Resin Transfer technologies. It addresses several approaches for nano-enabling of composites for these two routes and reports latest achieved results focusing on performance of nano-enabled fiber reinforced composites extracted from literature. Finally, this review work identifies the gap between available nano-technology integration routes and the established industrial composite manufacturing techniques and the challenges to increase the Technology Readiness Level to reach the demands for aerospace industry applications.

  9. Floristic Composition, Tree Canopy Structure and Regeneration in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Floristic composition, plant species diversity, tree canopy structure and regeneration were assessed in a degraded tropical humid rainforest in Nigeria using a systematic line transect sampling technique for plot demarcation. All plants in a plot were identified and classified into families while the diameters and heights of ...

  10. ALL NATURAL COMPOSITE SANDWICH BEAMS FOR STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS. (R829576)

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of developing an all natural composite roof for housing application,structural panels and unit beams were manufactured out of soybean oil based resinand natural fibers (flax, cellulose, pulp, recycled paper, chicken feathers)using vacuum assisted resin tran...

  11. Tree species composition, structure and utilisation in Maruzi Hills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the tree species composition, vegetation structure and harvesting pattern to guide management of the Maruzi Hills Forest Reserve. Stratified random sampling was used to site six (100 m × 100 m) permanent sample plots in the woodland, bushland and grassland vegetation types identified in the ...

  12. Materials research at Stanford University. [composite materials, crystal structure, acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Research activity related to the science of materials is described. The following areas are included: elastic and thermal properties of composite materials, acoustic waves and devices, amorphous materials, crystal structure, synthesis of metal-metal bonds, interactions of solids with solutions, electrochemistry, fatigue damage, superconductivity and molecular physics and phase transition kinetics.

  13. Variability in Parasites' Community Structure and Composition in Cat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the composition and structure of the parasite communities in Cat fish with respect to levels of water pollution in Lake Victoria. A total of 1071 Clarias gariepinus with mean TL range of 19 to 27 cm were analyzed from three localities in Mwanza Gulf (Kirumba, 298 fish infected with 15 parasite species), ...

  14. floristic composition and structure of the Dry Afromontane Forest

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    Key words/phrases: Bale Mountains, floristic composition, plant community, vegetation structure. INTRODUCTION. The highland area of ..... Juniperus procera had the highest dominance in. Adelle whereas Hagenia abyssinica ..... The World Bank is gratefully acknowledged for provision of financial support through the.

  15. Plant species composition and structure of the Mana Angetu moist ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A floristic composition and structure study of the Mana Angetu Forest was carried out between July 2003 and June 2004 at four sites of the forest with an altitudinal range of 1533-2431 m. Three transects, 750 ... Analysis of Importance Value Index indicated that Vepris dainellii had the highest value (79). The population ...

  16. Fish species composition, size structure and distribution in non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish diversity studies in littoral non-trawlable areas of Lake Victoria (Tanzania) were undertaken during six systematic surveys (November 2000 to December 2002). Information on fish species composition, size structure as well as spatial and temporal distribution was generated from gill-netting, beach-seining and electric ...

  17. Floristic Composition and Vegetation Structure of The KNUST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diversity, relative importance, canopy height and cover of plant species in the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) Botanic Garden were evaluated in five 1-ha plots using a stratified random sampling technique in order to build an understanding of its floristic composition and structure in two ...

  18. Laminated Ti-Al composites: Processing, structure and strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yan; Fan, Guohua; Yu, Tianbo

    2016-01-01

    . The mechanical properties of the composites with different volume fractions of Al from 10% to 67% show a good combination of strength and ductility. A constraint strain in the hot-rolled laminated structure between the hard and soft phases introduces an elastic-plastic deformation stage, which becomes more...

  19. Structural evolution of ZTA composites during synthesis and processing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Exare, C.; Kiat, J. M.; Guiblin, N.; Porcher, F.; Petříček, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 4 (2015), s. 1273-1283 ISSN 0955-2219 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03276S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ceramic s * alumina–zirconia composites * structural properties * strain effect * size effect Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.933, year: 2015

  20. The influence of compositional and structural diversity on forest productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    James N. Long; John D. Shaw

    2010-01-01

    Data from ~1500 ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa C. Lawson) stands in the western United States were used to examine the potential influence of compositional and structural diversity on forest productivity. Relative density, height and site quality were combined in a conceptually sound expression of the relationship between growth and growing stock for ponderosa pine-...

  1. Structural composite panel performance under long-term load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore L. Laufenberg

    1988-01-01

    Information on the performance of wood-based structural composite panels under long-term load is currently needed to permit their use in engineered assemblies and systems. A broad assessment of the time-dependent properties of panels is critical for creating databases and models of the creep-rupture phenomenon that lead to reliability-based design procedures. This...

  2. Capturing the Energy Absorbing Mechanisms of Composite Structures under Crash Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Bonnie

    As fiber reinforced composite material systems become increasingly utilized in primary aircraft and automotive structures, the need to understand their contribution to the crashworthiness of the structure is of great interest to meet safety certification requirements. The energy absorbing behavior of a composite structure, however, is not easily predicted due to the great complexity of the failure mechanisms that occur within the material. Challenges arise both in the experimental characterization and in the numerical modeling of the material/structure combination. At present, there is no standardized test method to characterize the energy absorbing capability of composite materials to aide crashworthy structural design. In addition, although many commercial finite element analysis codes exist and offer a means to simulate composite failure initiation and propagation, these models are still under development and refinement. As more metallic structures are replaced by composite structures, the need for both experimental guidelines to characterize the energy absorbing capability of a composite structure, as well as guidelines for using numerical tools to simulate composite materials in crash conditions has become a critical matter. This body of research addresses both the experimental characterization of the energy absorption mechanisms occurring in composite materials during crushing, as well as the numerical simulation of composite materials undergoing crushing. In the experimental investigation, the specific energy absorption (SEA) of a composite material system is measured using a variety of test element geometries, such as corrugated plates and tubes. Results from several crush experiments reveal that SEA is not a constant material property for laminated composites, and varies significantly with the geometry of the test specimen used. The variation of SEA measured for a single material system requires that crush test data must be generated for a range of

  3. Fluid-Structure Interaction in a Fluid-Filled Composite Structure Subjected to Low Velocity Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    this study of impact force, deflection, and strain were measured in a carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite cylinder subjected to low...Sanchez, J. Lopez-Puente, and D. Varas, “On the influence of filling level in CFRP aircraft fuel tank subjected to high velocity impacts,” Composite ...and back sides. The baffle provided the greatest strain reduction at the high fill levels. 14. SUBJECT TERMS glass fiber composite , fluid structure

  4. Amino Acid Molecular Units: Building Primary and Secondary Protein Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecido R. Silva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to guarantee the learning quality and suitable knowledge  use  about structural biology, it is fundamental to  exist, since the beginning of  students’ formation, the possibility of clear visualization of biomolecule structures. Nevertheless, the didactic books can only bring  schematic  drawings; even more elaborated figures and graphic computation  do not permit the necessary interaction.  The representation of three-dimensional molecular structures with ludic models, built with representative units, have supplied to the students and teachers a successfully experience to  visualize such structures and correlate them to the real molecules.  The design and applicability of the representative units were discussed with researchers and teachers before mould implementation.  In this stage  it  will be presented the  developed  kit  containing the  representative  plastic parts of the main amino acids.  The kit can demonstrate the interaction among the amino acids  functional groups  (represented by colors, shapes,  sizes and  the peptidic bonds between them  facilitating the assembly and visuali zation of the primary and secondary protein structure.  The models were designed for  Ca,  amino,  carboxyl groups  and  hydrogen. The  lateral chains have  well defined models that represent their geometrical shape.  The completed kit set  will be presented in this meeting (patent requested.  In the last phase of the project will be realized  an effective evaluation  of the kit  as a facilitative didactic tool of the teaching/learning process in the Structural Molecular Biology area.

  5. Innovative Structural Materials and Sections with Strain Hardening Cementitious Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Vikram

    The motivation of this work is based on development of new construction products with strain hardening cementitious composites (SHCC) geared towards sustainable residential applications. The proposed research has three main objectives: automation of existing manufacturing systems for SHCC laminates; multi-level characterization of mechanical properties of fiber, matrix, interface and composites phases using servo-hydraulic and digital image correlation techniques. Structural behavior of these systems were predicted using ductility based design procedures using classical laminate theory and structural mechanics. SHCC sections are made up of thin sections of matrix with Portland cement based binder and fine aggregates impregnating continuous one-dimensional fibers in individual or bundle form or two/three dimensional woven, bonded or knitted textiles. Traditional fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) use random dispersed chopped fibers in the matrix at a low volume fractions, typically 1-2% to avoid to avoid fiber agglomeration and balling. In conventional FRC, fracture localization occurs immediately after the first crack, resulting in only minor improvement in toughness and tensile strength. However in SHCC systems, distribution of cracking throughout the specimen is facilitated by the fiber bridging mechanism. Influence of material properties of yarn, composition, geometry and weave patterns of textile in the behavior of laminated SHCC skin composites were investigated. Contribution of the cementitious matrix in the early age and long-term performance of laminated composites was studied with supplementary cementitious materials such as fly ash, silica fume, and wollastonite. A closed form model with classical laminate theory and ply discount method, coupled with a damage evolution model was utilized to simulate the non-linear tensile response of these composite materials. A constitutive material model developed earlier in the group was utilized to characterize and

  6. Validation of Material Models For Automotive Carbon Fiber Composite Structures Via Physical And Crash Testing (VMM Composites Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppola, Anthony [General Motors Company, Flint, MI (United States); Faruque, Omar [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Truskin, James F [FCA US LLC, Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Board, Derek [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Jones, Martin [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Tao, Jian [FCA US LLC, Auburn Hills, MI (United States); Chen, Yijung [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Mehta, Manish [M-Tech International LLC, Dubai (United Arab Emirates)

    2017-09-27

    As automotive fuel economy requirements increase, the push for reducing overall vehicle weight will likely include the consideration of materials that have not previously been part of mainstream vehicle design and manufacturing, including carbon fiber composites. Vehicle manufacturers currently rely on computer-aided engineering (CAE) methods as part of the design and development process, so going forward, the ability to accurately and predictably model carbon fiber composites will be necessary. If composites are to be used for structural components, this need applies to both, crash and quasi-static modeling. This final report covers the results of a five-year, $6.89M, 50% cost-shared research project between Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Advanced Materials Partnership (USAMP) under Cooperative Agreement DE-EE-0005661 known as “Validation of Material Models for Automotive Carbon Fiber Composite Structures Via Physical and Crash Testing (VMM).” The objective of the VMM Composites Project was to validate and assess the ability of physics-based material models to predict crash performance of automotive primary load-carrying carbon fiber composite structures. Simulation material models that were evaluated included micro-mechanics based meso-scale models developed by the University of Michigan (UM) and micro-plane models by Northwestern University (NWU) under previous collaborations with the DOE and Automotive Composites Consortium/USAMP, as well as five commercial crash codes: LS-DYNA, RADIOSS, VPS/PAM-CRASH, Abaqus, and GENOA-MCQ. CAE predictions obtained from seven organizations were compared with experimental results from quasi-static testing and dynamic crash testing of a thermoset carbon fiber composite front-bumper and crush-can (FBCC) system gathered under multiple loading conditions. This FBCC design was developed to demonstrate progressive crush, virtual simulation, tooling, fabrication, assembly, non-destructive evaluation and crash testing

  7. Correlation of high energy muons with primary composition in extensive air shower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C.; Higashi, S.; Hiraoka, N.; Ozaki, S.; Sato, T.; Suwada, T.; Takahasi, T.; Umeda, H.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation of high energy muons above 200 GeV in extensive air showers has been made for studying high energy interaction and primary composition of cosmic rays of energies in the range 10 to the 14th power approx. 10 to the 15th power eV. The muon energies are estimated from the burst sizes initiated by the muons in the rock, which are measured by four layers of proportional counters, each of area 5 x 2.6 sq m, placed at 30 m.w.e. deep, Funasaka tunnel vertically below the air shower array. These results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations based on the scaling model and the fireball model for two primary compositions, all proton and mixed.

  8. Randomized Clinical Trial of Composite Restorations in Primary Teeth: Effect of Adhesive System after Three Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donmez, Secil Bektaş; Uysal, Serdar; Ozdemir, Pinar; Tekcicek, Meryem; Zimmerli, Brigitte; Lussi, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical performance of composite restorations placed with different adhesive systems in primary teeth. In 32 patients, 128 composite restorations were placed using a split-mouth design as follows (4 groups/patient): three-step etch-and-rinse (Group 1), two-step etch-and-rinse (Group 2), two-step self-etch (Group 3), and one-step self-etch (Group 4). The restorations were clinically evaluated at baseline and at 6, 18, and 36 months according to the FDI criteria. There was no significant difference between the adhesive systems in retention of the restorations (p > 0.05). Over time, there was a statistically significant decrease in marginal adaptation in all groups, whereas surface and marginal staining significantly increased in Groups 3 and 4 (p self-etch adhesive systems (p self-etch adhesive systems in primary teeth. PMID:27833917

  9. Vibration based structural health monitoring of composite skin-stiffener structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooijevaar, T.H.

    2014-01-01

    Composite materials combine a high strength and stiffness with a relatively low density. These materials can, however, exhibit complex types of damage, like transverse cracks and delaminations. These damage scenarios can severely influence the structural performance of a component. Periodic

  10. Coplanar capacitance sensors for detecting water intrusion in composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassr, Amr A; El-Dakhakhni, Wael W; Ahmed, Wael H

    2008-01-01

    Composite materials are becoming more affordable and widely used for retrofitting, rehabilitating and repairing reinforced concrete structures designed and constructed under older specifications. However, the mechanical properties and long-term durability of composite materials may degrade severely in the presence of water intrusion. This study presents a new non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique for detecting the water intrusion in composite structures by evaluating the dielectric properties of different composite system constituent materials. The variation in the dielectric signatures was employed to design a coplanar capacitance sensor with high sensitivity to detect such defects. An analytical model was used to study the effect of the sensor geometry on the output signal and to optimize sensor design. A finite element model was developed to validate analytical results and to evaluate other sensor design-related parameters. Experimental testing of a concrete specimen wrapped with composite laminate and containing a series of pre-induced water intrusion defects was conducted in order to validate the concept of the new technique. Experimental data showed excellent agreement with the finite element model predictions and confirmed sensor performance

  11. A Study of Flexible Composites for Expandable Space Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Payload volume for launch vehicles is a critical constraint that impacts spacecraft design. Deployment mechanisms, such as those used for solar arrays and antennas, are approaches that have successfully accommodated this constraint, however, providing pressurized volumes that can be packaged compactly at launch and expanded in space is still a challenge. One approach that has been under development for many years is to utilize softgoods - woven fabric for straps, cloth, and with appropriate coatings, bladders - to provide this expandable pressure vessel capability. The mechanics of woven structure is complicated by a response that is nonlinear and often nonrepeatable due to the discrete nature of the woven fiber architecture. This complexity reduces engineering confidence to reliably design and certify these structures, which increases costs due to increased requirements for system testing. The present study explores flexible composite materials systems as an alternative to the heritage softgoods approach. Materials were obtained from vendors who utilize flexible composites for non-aerospace products to determine some initial physical and mechanical properties of the materials. Uniaxial mechanical testing was performed to obtain the stress-strain response of the flexible composites and the failure behavior. A failure criterion was developed from the data, and a space habitat application was used to provide an estimate of the relative performance of flexible composites compared to the heritage softgoods approach. Initial results are promising with a 25% mass savings estimated for the flexible composite solution.

  12. Primary reference materials for chemical composition analysis - Proposal for an operational definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hässelbarth, W

    1996-01-01

    A metrologically motivated concept of a "Primary reference material (PRM)" for chemical composition analysis is proposed. This concept turns out to be essentially equivalent to that of a "Certified reference material (CRM)", as described in the relevant ISO Guides. Since the majority of actually available CRMs are far from realizing the theoretical concept, it is proposed to re-name and moderately revise the theoretical concept and to give it a new try to be put into practice.

  13. Curative procedures of oral health and structural characteristics of primary dental care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Alexandre; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Bulgarelli, Alexandre Fávero; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate if the provision of clinical dental care, by means of the main curative procedures recommended in Primary Health Care, is associated with team structural characteristics, considering the presence of a minimum set of equipment, instrument, and supplies in Brazil’s primary health care services. METHODS A cross-sectional exploratory study based on data collected from 18,114 primary healthcare services with dental health teams in Brazil, in 2014. The outcome was created from the confirmation of five clinical procedures performed by the dentist, accounting for the presence of minimum equipment, instrument, and supplies to carry them out. Covariables were related to structural characteristics. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to obtain crude and adjusted prevalence ratios, with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS A total of 1,190 (6.5%) dental health teams did not present the minimum equipment to provide clinical dental care and only 2,498 (14.8%) had all the instrument and supplies needed and provided the five curative procedures assessed. There was a positive association between the outcome and the composition of dental health teams, higher workload, performing analysis of health condition, and monitoring of oral health indicators. Additionally, the dental health teams that planned and programmed oral health actions with the primary care team monthly provided the procedures more frequently. Dentists with better employment status, career plans, graduation in public health or those who underwent permanent education activities provided the procedures more frequently. CONCLUSIONS A relevant number of Primary Health Care services did not have the infrastructure to provide clinical dental care. However, better results were found in dental health teams with oral health technicians, with higher workload and that plan their activities, as well as in those that employed dentists with better working relationships, who had dentists

  14. Hybrid Composites for LH2 Fuel Tank Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Johnston, Norman J.; Loos, Alfred C.; McMahon, William M.

    2001-01-01

    The application of lightweight carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) as structure for cryogenic fuel tanks is critical to the success of the next generation of Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV). The recent failure of the X-33 composite fuel tank occurred in part due to microcracking of the polymer matrix, which allowed cryogen to permeate through the inner skin to the honeycomb core. As part of an approach to solve these problems, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are working to develop and investigate polymer films that will act as a barrier to the permeation of LH2 through the composite laminate. In this study two commercially available films and eleven novel LaRC films were tested in an existing cryogenics laboratory at MSFC to determine the permeance of argon at room temperature. Several of these films were introduced as a layer in the composite to form an interleaved, or hybrid, composite to determine the effects on permeability. In addition, the effects of the interleaved layer thickness, number, and location on the mechanical properties of the composite laminate were investigated. In this initial screening process, several of the films were found to exhibit lower permeability to argon than the composite panels tested.

  15. Composition-structure-property relation of oxide glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Christian

    also increases such properties. Yet, these rules are not strictly followed even for the simplest binary oxide glasses, such as alkali silicates, borates and phosphates. In this thesis it is argued that the missing link between composition and properties is the glass structure. Structural models...... are proposed based on topological selection rules and experimentally verified. The relation between structure and properties is evaluated using topological constraint theory, which in its essence is a theory that quantifies the two intuitions of the glass scientist. The end result is a quantitative model...

  16. The composition of primary carbonate melts and their evolution through wallrock reaction in the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, John A.; Wood, Bernard J.

    1993-10-01

    We have experimentally determined the composition of near-soldus melts from depleted natural Iherzolite at pressures greater than 25 kbar. The melts are carbontitic with low alkali contents and Ca/(Ca + Mg) ratios of 0.72-0.74. Primary carbonate melts from fertile mantle are more sodic with Ca/(Ca + Mg + Fe + Na) of 0.52 and Na/(Na + Ca + Mg + Fe) up to 0.15. The melt compositions are similar to many natural magnesio-carbonatites, but differ substantially from the more abundant calcio-carbonatites. Experimentally we find that calcio-carbonatites are produced by wallrock reaction of primary melts with harzburgite at pressures of less than 25 kbar. At 15 kbar we have obtained a Ca/(Ca + Mg + Fe + Na) ratio of up to 0.87 and very low Na contents generated by this process. Values of Ca/(Ca + Mg + Fe + Na) up to 0.95 are possible at lower pressures. Low pressure wallrock reaction of primary carbonate melt with fertile Iherzolite produces melts richer in Na2CO3, corresponding to possible parental magmas of natrocarbonatite. Wallrock reaction at low pressures transforms the bulk peridotite composition from that of a harzburgite or Iherzolite to wehrlite. Examples of such carbonatite metasomatism are now widely documented. Our experiments show that the calcium content of olivine and the jadeite content of clinopyroxene may be used to constrain the Ca and Na contents respectively of the cabonatite melt responsible for metasomatism.

  17. Structures tubulaires minces en matériaux composites. Principes de calcul Thin-Walled Composite Tubular Structures. Calculation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odru P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente une méthode de calcul des structures composites fibres-résine appliquée aux cas des tubes minces. Outre l'établissement des relations contraintes - déformations généralisées des tubes à partir des caractéristiques des matériaux de base et de leur orientation, on pose les relations permettant de calculer leur comportement et leur dimensionnement sous des charges axisymétriques combinées de traction, pression et flexion. Une méthode simplifiée applicable au cas des composites microfissurés est aussi présentée. On montre ensuite, à travers quelques exemples concrets d'applications, les propriétés intéressantes ou inhabituelles que le matériau permet de conférer aux structures. This article presents a method of calculation of composite structures applied to thin-walled tubes. Starting from the characteristics and orientation of the basic materials, the generalized stress-strain equations of the tubes are determined ; then the relationship allowing the calculation of their design and behavior under combined axisymmetrical loads of tension, pressure and bending are established. A simplified method applicable to microcracked composite materials is also described. Several complete examples of applications illustrate the interesting or unusual properties that this material can impart to structures

  18. Structural and morphological characteristics of composite: polyamide 6/ferrite nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, P.C.; Santos, P.T.A.; Silva, T.R.G.; Araujo, E.M.; Costa, A.C.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the structural and morphological characteristics of a composite polyamide 6 with 50% loading of nickel ferrite. The ferrite was obtained by combustion synthesis and calcined in muffle furnace at 700 deg C. The polymer matrix was previously dried in vacuum oven at 80 deg C / 48 h to eliminate moisture. The composites were characterized by XRD and SEM. XRD results show the incorporation of cargo in the matrix, and that increasing temperature led to a considerable increase in crystallinity. The particle size of the load in the matrix was changed by increasing temperature. (author)

  19. Uncertainty Quantification in Experimental Structural Dynamics Identification of Composite Material Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luczak, Marcin; Peeters, Bart; Kahsin, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Aerospace and wind energy structures are extensively using components made of composite materials. Since these structures are subjected to dynamic environments with time-varying loading conditions, it is important to model their dynamic behavior and validate these models by means of vibration...... for uncertainty evaluation in experimentally estimated models. Investigated structures are plates, fuselage panels and helicopter main rotor blades as they represent different complexity levels ranging from coupon, through sub-component up to fully assembled structures made of composite materials. To evaluate...

  20. Thermo-mechanical evaluation of carbon-carbon primary structure for SSTO vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croop, Harold C.; Lowndes, Holland B.; Hahn, Steven E.; Barthel, Chris A.

    1998-01-01

    An advanced development program to demonstrate carbon-carbon composite structure for use as primary load carrying structure has entered the experimental validation phase. The component being evaluated is a wing torque box section for a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. The validation or demonstration component features an advanced carbon-carbon design incorporating 3D woven graphite preforms, integral spars, oxidation inhibited matrix, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) oxidation protection coating, and ceramic matrix composite fasteners. The validation component represents the culmination of a four phase design and fabrication development effort. Extensive developmental testing was performed to verify material properties and integrity of basic design features before committing to fabrication of the full scale box. The wing box component is now being set up for testing in the Air Force Research Laboratory Structural Test Facility at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. One of the important developmental tests performed in support of the design and planned testing of the full scale box was the fabrication and test of a skin/spar trial subcomponent. The trial subcomponent incorporated critical features of the full scale wing box design. This paper discusses the results of the trial subcomponent test which served as a pathfinder for the upcoming full scale box test.

  1. Purification and primary structure of a novel mannose-specific lectin from Centrolobium microchaete Mart seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves de; Alves, Ana Cecília; Carneiro, Rômulo Farias; Dias, Artur Hermano Sampaio; Martins, Francisco William Viana; Cajazeiras, João Batista; Nagano, Celso Shiniti; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Nascimento, Kyria Santiago do; Cavada, Benildo Sousa

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to purify and characterize a novel mannose-binding lectin from the seeds of Centrolobium microchaete. Centrolobium microchaete lectin (CML) was purified by affinity chromatography in mannose-Sepharose-4B column. CML agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes and was inhibited by D-mannose, α-methyl-D-mannoside, D-glucose, N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine and sucrose. The lectin was stable at pH 7.0 and 8.0 and temperatures up to 60°C. The monomeric form of CML showed approximately 28kDa, and its native form is probably a homodimer, as determined by gel filtration chromatography. The primary structure of CML was determined by tandem mass spectrometry that showed CML as a protein with two distinct forms (isolectins CML-1 and CML-2) with 246 and 247 residues, respectively. CML-2 possesses one residue of Asn more than CML-1 in C-terminal. The primary structure of CML agrees with the molecular weights found by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: 27,224 and 27,338Da for CML-1 and CML-2, respectively. CML is a metal-dependent glycoprotein. Moreover, the glycan composition of CML and its structure were predicted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Permeability and flammability study of composite sandwich structures for cryogenic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubacz, Monika

    Fiber reinforced plastics offer advantageous specific strength and stiffness compared to metals and has been identified as candidates for the reusable space transportation systems primary structures including cryogenic tanks. A number of carbon and aramid fiber reinforced plastics have been considered for the liquid hydrogen tanks. Materials selection is based upon mechanical properties and containment performance (long and short term) and upon manufacturing considerations. The liquid hydrogen tank carries shear, torque, end load, and bending moment due to gusts, maneuver, take-off, landing, lift, drag, and fuel sloshing. The tank is pressurized to about 1.5 atmosphere (14.6psi or 0.1 MPa) differential pressure and on ascent maintains the liquid hydrogen at a temperature of 20K. The objective of the research effort into lay the foundation for developing the technology required for reliable prediction of the effects of various design, manufacturing, and service parameters on the susceptibility of composite tanks to develop excessive permeability to cryogenic fuels. Efforts will be expended on developing the materials and structural concepts for the cryogenic tanks that can meet the functional requirements. This will include consideration for double wall composite sandwich structures, with inner wall to meet the cryogenic requirements. The structure will incorporate nanoparticles for properties modifications and developing barriers. The main effort will be extended to tank wall's internal skin design. The main requirements for internal composite stack are: (1) introduction of barrier film (e.g. honeycomb material paper sheet) to reduce the wall permeability to hydrogen, (2) introduction of nanoparticles into laminate resin to prevent micro-cracking or crack propagation. There is a need to characterize and analyze composite sandwich structural damage due to burning and explosion. Better understanding of the flammability and blast resistance of the composite structures

  3. Structural investigation of carbon/carbon composites by neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prem, Manfred; Krexner, Gerhard; Peterlik, Herwig

    2006-01-01

    Carbon/carbon (C/C) composite material was investigated by means of small-angle as well as wide-angle elastic neutron scattering. The C/C-composites were built up from bi-directionally woven fabrics from PAN-based carbon fibers. Pre-impregnation with phenolic resin was followed by pressure curing and carbonization at 1000 deg. C and a final heat treatment at either 1800 or 2400 deg. C. Measurements of the samples were performed in orientations arranging the carbon fibers, respectively, parallel and perpendicular to the incoming beam. Structural features of the fibers as well as the inherently existing pores are presented and the influence of the heat treatment is discussed. The results are compared to earlier X-ray investigations of carbon fibers and C/C-composites

  4. Effects of thermal cycling on composite materials for space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Stephen S.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of thermal cycling on the thermal and mechanical properties of composite materials that are candidates for space structures are briefly described. The results from a thermal analysis of the orbiting Space Station Freedom is used to define a typical thermal environment and the parameters that cause changes in the thermal history. The interactions of this environment with composite materials are shown and described. The effects of this interaction on the integrity as well as the properties of GR/thermoset, Gr/thermoplastic, Gr/metal and Gr/glass composite materials are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the effects of the interaction that are critical to precision spacecraft. Finally, ground test methodology are briefly discussed.

  5. Damage Evaluation and Analysis of Composite Pressure Vessels Using Fiber Bragg Gratings to Determine Structural Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kunzler, Marley; Udd, Eric; Kreger, Stephen; Johnson, Mont; Henrie, Vaughn

    2005-01-01

    .... Using fiber Bragg gratings embedded into the weave structure of carbon fiber epoxy composites allow the capability to monitor these composites during manufacture, cure, general aging, and damage...

  6. Polyurethane structural adhesives applied in automotive composite joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josue Garcia Quini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years structural adhesives technology has demonstrated great potential for application due to its capacity to transform complex structures into solid unitary and monolithic assemblies using different materials. Thus, seams or joints integrate these structures providing, besides a reduction in weight, a considerable increase in the mechanical resistance and stiffness. The increase in the industrial use of structural adhesives is mainly due to their ability to efficiently bond different materials in an irreversible manner, even replacing systems involving mechanical joints. In the automobile industry structural adhesives have been widely used for the bonding of metal substrates, thermoplastics and composites, frequently employing these in combination, particularly glass fiber and polyester resin composites molded using RTM and SMC processes. However, the use of urethane structural adhesives in applications involving composites and thermoplastics has been the subject of few investigations. In this study the effects of temperature and time on the shear strength of RTM, SMC and ABS joints, applying temperatures of -40, 25, 80, 120 and 177 °C and times of 20 minutes and 500 hours, were determined. The objective was to evaluate the performance under extreme conditions of use in order to assess whether these joints could be used in passenger or off-road vehicles. The results showed that the urethane structural adhesive promoted the efficient bonding of these materials, considering that due to the high adhesive strength the failures occurred in the substrates without adversely affecting the bonded area. For each test condition the joint failure modes were also determined.

  7. Structural CNT Composites Part II: Assessment of CNT Yarns as Reinforcement for Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo; Sauti, Godfrey; Cano, Roberto J.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Ratcliffe, James G.; Czabaj, Michael; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one-dimensional nanomaterials with outstanding electrical and thermal conductivities and mechanical properties. This combination of properties offers routes to enable lightweight structural aerospace components. Recent advances in the manufacturing of CNTs have made bulk forms such as yarns, tapes and sheets available in commercial quantities to permit the evaluation of these materials for aerospace use, where the superior tensile properties of CNT composites can be exploited in tension dominated applications such as composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs). To investigate their utility in this application, aluminum rings were overwrapped with thermoset/CNT yarn composite and their mechanical properties measured. CNT composite overwrap characteristics such as processing method, CNT/resin ratio, and applied tension during CNT yarn winding were varied to determine their effects on the mechanical performance of the CNT composite overwrapped Al rings (CCOARs). Mechanical properties of the CCOARs were measured under static and cyclic loads at room, elevated, and cryogenic temperatures to evaluate their mechanical performance relative to bare Al rings. At room temperature, the breaking load of CCOARs with a 10.8% additional weight due to the CNT yarn/thermoset overwrap increased by over 200% compared to the bare Al ring. The quality of the wound CNT composites was also investigated using x-ray computed tomography.

  8. Impact Testing and Simulation of Composite Airframe Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Littell, Justin D.; Horta, Lucas G.; Annett, Martin S.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Seal, Michael D., II

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic tests were performed at NASA Langley Research Center on composite airframe structural components of increasing complexity to evaluate their energy absorption behavior when subjected to impact loading. A second objective was to assess the capabilities of predicting the dynamic response of composite airframe structures, including damage initiation and progression, using a state-of-the-art nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic finite element code, LS-DYNA. The test specimens were extracted from a previously tested composite prototype fuselage section developed and manufactured by Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation under the US Army's Survivable Affordable Repairable Airframe Program (SARAP). Laminate characterization testing was conducted in tension and compression. In addition, dynamic impact tests were performed on several components, including I-beams, T-sections, and cruciform sections. Finally, tests were conducted on two full-scale components including a subfloor section and a framed fuselage section. These tests included a modal vibration and longitudinal impact test of the subfloor section and a quasi-static, modal vibration, and vertical drop test of the framed fuselage section. Most of the test articles were manufactured of graphite unidirectional tape composite with a thermoplastic resin system. However, the framed fuselage section was constructed primarily of a plain weave graphite fabric material with a thermoset resin system. Test data were collected from instrumentation such as accelerometers and strain gages and from full-field photogrammetry.

  9. Polycaprolactone/starch composite: Fabrication, structure, properties, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Akbari Ghavimi, Soheila; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Solati-Hashjin, Mehran; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2015-07-01

    Interests in the use of biodegradable polymers as biomaterials have grown. Among the different polymeric composites currently available, the blend of starch and polycaprolactone (PCL) has received the most attention since the 1980s. Novamont is the first company that manufactured a PCL/starch (SPCL) composite under the trademark Mater-Bi®. The properties of PCL (a synthetic, hydrophobic, flexible, expensive polymer with a low degradation rate) and starch (a natural, hydrophilic, stiff, abundant polymer with a high degradation rate) blends are interesting because of the composite components have completely different structures and characteristics. PCL can adjust humidity sensitivity of starch as a biomaterial; while starch can enhance the low biodegradation rate of PCL. Thus, by appropriate blending, SPCL can overcome important limitations of both PCL and starch components and promote controllable behavior in terms of mechanical properties and degradation which make it suitable for many biomedical applications. This article reviewed the different fabrication and modification methods of the SPCL composite; different properties such as structural, physical, and chemical as well as degradation behavior; and different applications as biomaterials. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Multifunctional Composites for Future Energy Storage in Aerospace Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Julian Adam

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Multifunctionalization of fiber-reinforced composites, especially by adding energy storage capabilities, is a promising approach to realize lightweight structural energy storages for future transport vehicles. Compared to conventional energy storage systems, energy density can be increased by reducing parasitic masses of non-energy-storing components and by benefitting from the composite meso- and microarchitectures. In this paper, the most relevant existing approaches towards multifunctional energy storages are reviewed and subdivided into five groups by distinguishing their degree of integration and their scale of multifunctionalization. By introducing a modified range equation for battery-powered electric aircrafts, possible range extensions enabled by multifunctionalization are estimated. Furthermore, general and aerospace specific potentials of multifunctional energy storages are discussed. Representing an intermediate degree of structural integration, experimental results for a multifunctional energy-storing glass fiber-reinforced composite based on the ceramic electrolyte Li1.4Al0.4Ti1.6(PO43 are presented. Cyclic voltammetry tests are used to characterize the double-layer behavior combined with galvanostatic charge–discharge measurements for capacitance calculation. The capacitance is observed to be unchanged after 1500 charge–discharge cycles revealing a promising potential for future applications. Furthermore, the mechanical properties are assessed by means of four-point bending and tensile tests. Additionally, the influence of mechanical loads on the electrical properties is also investigated, demonstrating the storage stability of the composites.

  11. Large Area Nondestructive Evaluation of a Fatigue Loaded Composite Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Burke, Eric R.; Horne, Michael R.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2016-01-01

    Large area nondestructive evaluation (NDE) inspections are required for fatigue testing of composite structures to track damage initiation and growth. Of particular interest is the progression of damage leading to ultimate failure to validate damage progression models. In this work, passive thermography and acoustic emission NDE were used to track damage growth up to failure of a composite three-stringer panel. Fourteen acoustic emission sensors were placed on the composite panel. The signals from the array were acquired simultaneously and allowed for acoustic emission location. In addition, real time thermal data of the composite structure were acquired during loading. Details are presented on the mapping of the acoustic emission locations directly onto the thermal imagery to confirm areas of damage growth leading to ultimate failure. This required synchronizing the acoustic emission and thermal data with the applied loading. In addition, processing of the thermal imagery which included contrast enhancement, removal of optical barrel distortion and correction of angular rotation before mapping the acoustic event locations are discussed.

  12. Primary structure and promoter analysis of leghemoglobin genes of the stem-nodulated tropical legume Sesbania rostrata: conserved coding sequences, cis-elements and trans-acting factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metz, B A; Welters, P; Hoffmann, H J

    1988-01-01

    The primary structure of a leghemoglobin (lb) gene from the stem-nodulated, tropical legume Sesbania rostrata and two lb gene promoter regions was analysed. The S. rostrata lb gene structure and Lb amino acid composition were found to be highly conserved with previously described lb genes and Lb ...

  13. Microhardness of composite resin cured through different primary tooth thicknesses with different light intensities and curing times: In vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhari, Fatemeh; Ajami, Behjatolmolok; Moazzami, Saied Mostafa; Baghaee, Bahareh; Hafez, Bahareh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased exposure time and light intensity on microhardness of cured composite through different thicknesses of tooth structure in primary teeth. One hundred and seventy cylindrical resin composite specimens were prepared. All specimens were divided into 17 experimental and control groups. "Light-emitting diode" light curing unit (LCU) applied directly or through 1, 2, and 3 mm thicknesses tooth slices for experimental groups. The irradiation protocols were 25 and 50 s at 650 mW/cm(2) and 15 and 30 s at 1100 mW/cm(2). The "quartz-tungsten-halogen" LCU (400 mW/cm(2)) for 40 s was used in control group. Microhardness was measured by the Vickers hardness test. Indirectly cured specimens and those cured through a 1 mm thick tooth structure, an increase in intensity caused hardness drop. In the specimens cured through 2 and 3 mm thick tooth structures, increased intensity and/or exposure time did not show any appropriate changes on microhardness. Irradiation through a 1.0 mm thick tooth slice resulted in reduced microhardness although it was still within the clinically acceptable level. The hardness values of the specimens cured through 2 or 3 mm thick tooth slices fell below the clinically acceptable level even after doubling the exposure time and/or light intensity.

  14. Modifying the structure and properties of Cu-Fe composites by the methods of pressure formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloshenko, V. A.; Dmitrenko, V. Yu.; Chishko, V. V.

    2015-05-01

    In this survey, the results of the available studies are generalized and the effects of thermomechanical treatment on the structure and the magnetic, mechanical, and electrical properties of Cu-Fe composites produced by the methods of casting, powder metallurgy, and severe plastic deformation are analyzed. The primary attention is paid to the method of packet hydroextrusion, which makes it possible to achieve a wide spectrum of diameters (3 nm-2 mm) of iron fibers and of the amount of fibers (1-8 × 108) in these composites with varying volume content (10-60%). The physical mechanisms of the revealed effects of the structural modification of the physicomechanical characteristics on different scale (macro, micro, and nano) levels are discussed.

  15. Development of HVOF Sprayed Erosion/Oxidation Resistant Coatings for Composite Structural Components in Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, R.; Ivosevic, M.; Twardowski, T. E.; Kalidindi, S. R.; Sutter, James K.; Kim, D. Y.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Thermally sprayed coatings are being studied and developed as methods of enabling lightweight composites to be used more extensively as structural components in propulsion applications in order to reduce costs and improve efficiency through weight reductions. The primary goal of this work is the development of functionally graded material [FGM] polymer/metal matrix composite coatings to provide improved erosion/oxidation resistance to polyimide-based polymer matrix composite [PMC] substrates. The goal is to grade the coating composition from pure polyimide, similar to the PMC substrate matrix on one side, to 100 % WC-Co on the other. Both step-wise and continuous gradation of the loading of the WC-Co reinforcing phase are being investigated. Details of the coating parameter development will be presented, specifically the high velocity oxy-fuel [HVOF] combustion spraying of pure PMR-11 matrix material and layers of various composition PMR-II/WC-Co blends onto steel and PMR-15 composite substrates. Results of the HVOF process optimization, microstructural characterization, and analysis will be presented. The sprayed coatings were evaluated using standard metallographic techniques - optical and scanning electron microscopy [SEM]. An SEM + electron dispersive spectroscopy [EDS] technique has also been used to confirm retention of the PMR-II component. Results of peel/butt adhesion testing to determine adhesion will also be presented.

  16. Structure for hts composite conductors and the manufacture of same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, James D.; Riley, Jr., Gilbert Neal

    1999-01-01

    A superconducting oxide composite structure including a superconducting oxide member, a metal layer surrounding the superconducting oxide member, and an insulating layer of a complex oxide formed in situ adjacent to the superconducting oxide member and the metal layer is provided together with a method of forming such a superconducting oxide composite structure including encapsulating a superconducting oxide member or precursor within a metal matrix layer from the group of: (i) a reactive metal sheath adjacent to the superconducting oxide member or precursor, the reactive metal sheath surrounded by a second metal layer or (ii) an alloy containing a reactive metal; to form an intermediate product, and, heating the intermediate product at temperatures and for time sufficient to form an insulating layer of a complex oxide in situ, the insulating layer to the superconducting oxide member or precursor and the metal matrix layer.

  17. Analysis of composite wing structures with a morphing leading edge

    OpenAIRE

    Morishima, Ryoko

    2011-01-01

    One of the main challenges for the civil aviation industry is the reduction of its environmental impact. Over the past years, improvements in performance efficiency have been achieved by simplifying the design of the structural components and using composite materials to reduce the overall weight. These approaches however, are not sufficient to meet the current demanding requirements set for a „greener‟ aircraft. Significant changes in drag reduction and fuel consumption can be obtained by...

  18. Nanomembrane structures having mixed crystalline orientations and compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagally, Max G.; Scott, Shelley A.; Savage, Donald E.

    2014-08-12

    The present nanomembrane structures include a multilayer film comprising a single-crystalline layer of semiconductor material disposed between two other single-crystalline layers of semiconductor material. A plurality of holes extending through the nanomembrane are at least partially, and preferably entirely, filled with a filler material which is also a semiconductor, but which differs from the nanomembrane semiconductor materials in composition, crystal orientation, or both.

  19. Comparative evaluation of slot versus dovetail design in class III composite restorations in primary anterior teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Rathnam

    2010-01-01

    It was concluded from the results that the both slot and dovetail types of cavity preparations were equally effacious when clinically reviewed for a period of 12 months. Hence the use of slot type of cavity preparation with reduced loss of the tooth structure is indicated for class III cavities in primary anterior teeth.

  20. Experimental study on beam for composite CES structural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tomoya

    2017-10-01

    Development study on Concrete Encase Steel (CES) composite structure system has been continuously conducted toward the practical use. CES structure is composed of steel and fiber reinforced concrete. In previous study, it was found that CES structure has good seismic performance from experimental study of columns, beam - column joints, shear walls and a two story two span frame. However, as fundamental study on CES beam could be lacking, it is necessary to understand the structural performance of CES beam. In this study, static loading tests of CES beams were conducted with experimental valuable of steel size, the presence or absence of slab and thickness of slab. And restoring characteristics, failure behavior, deformation behavior, and strength evaluation method of CES beam were investigated. As the results, it was found that CES beam showed stable hysteresis behavior. Furthermore it was found that the flexural strength of the CES beam could be evaluated by superposition strength theory.

  1. Properties of cellulose/pectins composites: implication for structural and mechanical properties of cell wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoda-Tandjawa, G; Durand, S; Gaillard, C; Garnier, C; Doublier, J L

    2012-10-01

    The primary cell wall of dicotyledonous plants can be considered as a concentrated polymer assembly, containing in particular polysaccharides among which cellulose and pectins are known to be the major components. In order to understand and control the textural quality of plant-derived foods, it is highly important to elucidate the rheological and microstructural properties of these components, individually and in mixture, in order to define their implication for structural and mechanical properties of primary plant cell wall. In this study, the rheological and microstructural properties of model systems composed of sugar-beet microfibrillated cellulose and HM pectins from various sources, with varied degrees of methylation and containing different amounts of neutral sugar side chains, were investigated. The influence of the presence of calcium and/or sodium ions and the biopolymer concentrations on the properties of the mixed systems were also studied. The characterizations of the mixed system, considered as a simplified model of primary plant cell wall, showed that whatever the structural characteristics of the pectins, the ionic conditions of the medium and the biopolymer concentrations, the gelation of the composite was mainly controlled by cellulose. Thus, the cellulose network would be the principal component governing the mechanical properties of the cell walls. However, the neutral sugar side chains of the pectins seem to play a part in the interactions with cellulose, as shown by the interesting viscoelastic properties of cellulose/apple HM pectins systems. The rigidity of cellulose/pectins composite was strongly influenced by the structural characteristics of pectins. The particular properties of primary plant cell walls would thus result from the solid viscoelastic properties of cellulose, its interactions with pectins according to their structural characteristics (implication of the neutral sugar side chains and the specific potential calcic

  2. Sapphire/TiAl composites - structure and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povarova, K.B.; Antonova, A.V.; Mileiko, S.T.; Sarkissyan, N.S.

    2001-01-01

    Ti-Al-intermetallic-based alloys with lamellar microstructure, -γ(TiAl) +α 2 (Ti 3 Al) are characterized by a high melting point of 1460 o C, a low density of ∼3.9 g/cm 3 , a high gas corrosion resistance up to a temperature of about 900 o C, a high creep resistance up to a temperature of about 800 o C, and a sufficiently high fracture toughness at low temperatures, up to 30 Mpa x m 1/2 . Hence, they are considered as excellent matrices for fibres of high melting point. Unlike well-developed SiC/TiAl composites, which have an obvious upper limit for the usage temperature due to SiC/TiAl interaction, Sapphire/TiAl composites remain nearly unknown because fibres to be used in such composites have not been really available. At the present time, such fibres are developed in Solid State Physics Inst. of RAS. The results of preliminary creep tests of Al 2 O 3 /TiAl composites obtained by using pressure casting have shown that usage of such composite systems shifts the temperature limit for light structural materials in terms of creep resistance to, at least, 1050 o C: creep strength on 100 h time base reaches 120 MPa at that temperature. It occurs also that Sapphire-fibres/TiAl-matrix composite specimens have an increased gas corrosion resistance by more than one order of the magnitudes as compared with that of the matrix alloy. (author)

  3. Reliability-based framework for fatigue damage prognosis of bonded structural elements in aerospace composite structures

    OpenAIRE

    Gobbato, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Fatigue-induced damage is one of the most uncertain and extremely unpredictable failure mechanisms for a large variety of structural systems (e.g., aerospace, automotive, offshore, and civil structures) subjected to stochastic and cyclic loading during service life. Among these systems, composite lightweight aerospace structures -- such as fighter aircrafts and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) -- are particularly sensitive to both fatigue- induced and impact-induced damage. Within this scenari...

  4. The European primary care monitor: structure, process and outcome indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kringos, Dionne S.; Boerma, Wienke G. W.; Bourgueil, Yann; Cartier, Thomas; Hasvold, Toralf; Hutchinson, Allen; Lember, Margus; Oleszczyk, Marek; Pavlic, Danica Rotar; Svab, Igor; Tedeschi, Paolo; Wilson, Andrew; Windak, Adam; Dedeu, Toni; Wilm, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Scientific research has provided evidence on benefits of well developed primary care systems. The relevance of some of this research for the European situation is limited.There is currently a lack of up to date comprehensive and comparable information on variation in development of primary care, and

  5. Monitoring of Structural Integrity of Composite Structures by Embedded Optical Fiber Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei, Albert J.

    2002-01-01

    Real time monitoring of the mechanical integrity and stresses on key aerospace composite structures like aircraft wings, walls of pressure vessels and fuel tanks or any other structurally extended components and panels as in space telescopes is very important to NASA. Future military and commercial aircraft as well as NASA space systems such as Space Based Radar and International Space Station will incorporate a monitoring system to sense any degradation to the structure. In the extreme flight conditions of an aerospace vehicle it might be desirable to measure the strain every ten centimeters and thus fully map out the strain field of a composite component. A series of missions and vehicle health management requirements call for these measurements. At the moment thousands of people support a few vehicle launches per year. This number can be significantly reduced by implementing intelligent vehicles with integral nervous systems (smart structures). This would require maintenance to be performed only as needed. Military and commercial aircrafts have an equally compelling case. Maintenance yearly costs are currently reaching astronomical heights. Monitoring techniques are therefore required that allow for maintenance to be performed only when needed. This would allow improved safety by insuring that necessary tasks are performed while reducing costs by eliminating procedures that are costly and not needed. The advantages fiber optical sensors have over conventional electro-mechanical systems like strain gauges have been widely extolled in the research literature. These advantages include their small size, low weight, immunity to electrical resistance, corrosion resistance, compatibility with composite materials and process conditions, and multiplexing capabilities. One fiber optic device which is suitable for distributed sensing is the fiber Bragg grating (FBG). Researchers at NASA MSFC are currently developing techniques for using FBGs for monitoring the integrity of

  6. Composition-Structure-Property Relations of Compressed Borosilicate Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenson, Mouritz N.; Bechgaard, Tobias K.; Fuglsang, Søren D.; Pedersen, Rune H.; Tjell, Anders Ø.; Østergaard, Martin B.; Youngman, Randall E.; Mauro, John C.; Rzoska, Sylwester J.; Bockowski, Michal; Smedskjaer, Morten M.

    2014-08-01

    Hot isostatic compression is an interesting method for modifying the structure and properties of bulk inorganic glasses. However, the structural and topological origins of the pressure-induced changes in macroscopic properties are not yet well understood. In this study, we report on the pressure and composition dependences of density and micromechanical properties (hardness, crack resistance, and brittleness) of five soda-lime borosilicate glasses with constant modifier content, covering the extremes from Na-Ca borate to Na-Ca silicate end members. Compression experiments are performed at pressures ≤1.0 GPa at the glass transition temperature in order to allow processing of large samples with relevance for industrial applications. In line with previous reports, we find an increasing fraction of tetrahedral boron, density, and hardness but a decreasing crack resistance and brittleness upon isostatic compression. Interestingly, a strong linear correlation between plastic (irreversible) compressibility and initial trigonal boron content is demonstrated, as the trigonal boron units are the ones most disposed for structural and topological rearrangements upon network compaction. A linear correlation is also found between plastic compressibility and the relative change in hardness with pressure, which could indicate that the overall network densification is responsible for the increase in hardness. Finally, we find that the micromechanical properties exhibit significantly different composition dependences before and after pressurization. The findings have important implications for tailoring microscopic and macroscopic structures of glassy materials and thus their properties through the hot isostatic compression method.

  7. Electrostatic adhesion for added functionality of composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, Callum J C; Bond, Ian P; Potter, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Electrostatic adhesion can be used as a means of reversible attachment. The incorporation of electrostatic adhesion into fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composite structures could provide significant value added functionality. Imparting large potential differences (∼2 kV) across electrodes generates an attractive force, thus providing a means of attachment. This could be used as a reversible latching mechanism or as a means of controllable internal connectivity. Varying the connectivity for discrete elements of a substructure of a given design allows for control of internal load paths and moment of area of the cross section. This could facilitate variable stiffness (both in bending and torsion). Using a combination of existing fabrication techniques, functional electrodes have been integrated within a FRP. Copper polyimide thin film laminate material has been both co-cured with carbon fibre reinforced epoxy and bonded to PVC closed cell foam core material to provide a range of structural configurations with integrated electrodes. The ability of such integrated devices to confer variations in global bending stiffness of basic beam structures is investigated. Through the application of 4 kV across integrated electrostatic adhesive devices, a 112% increase in flexural stiffness has been demonstrated for a composite sandwich structure. (paper)

  8. Electrostatic adhesion for added functionality of composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Callum J. C.; Bond, Ian P.; Potter, Kevin D.

    2016-02-01

    Electrostatic adhesion can be used as a means of reversible attachment. The incorporation of electrostatic adhesion into fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composite structures could provide significant value added functionality. Imparting large potential differences (˜2 kV) across electrodes generates an attractive force, thus providing a means of attachment. This could be used as a reversible latching mechanism or as a means of controllable internal connectivity. Varying the connectivity for discrete elements of a substructure of a given design allows for control of internal load paths and moment of area of the cross section. This could facilitate variable stiffness (both in bending and torsion). Using a combination of existing fabrication techniques, functional electrodes have been integrated within a FRP. Copper polyimide thin film laminate material has been both co-cured with carbon fibre reinforced epoxy and bonded to PVC closed cell foam core material to provide a range of structural configurations with integrated electrodes. The ability of such integrated devices to confer variations in global bending stiffness of basic beam structures is investigated. Through the application of 4 kV across integrated electrostatic adhesive devices, a 112% increase in flexural stiffness has been demonstrated for a composite sandwich structure.

  9. The comparative evaluation of fracture resistance and microleakage in bonded amalgam, amalgam, and composite resins in primary molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H S Vanishree

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Bonded amalgam appears to be comparable to amalgam when microleakage is considered and to composite resin when fracture resistance is considered; hence, bonded amalgam can also be an alternative material to amalgam in primary molars.

  10. Glassy Carbon Coating Deposited on Hybrid Structure of Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posmyk A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of production metal matrix composites with aluminum oxide foam covered by glassy carbon layer used as reinforcement. The glassy carbon coating was formed for decreasing of friction coefficient and reducing the wear. In first step of technology liquid glassy carbon precursor is on ceramic foam deposited, subsequently cured and carbonated at elevated temperature. In this way ceramic foam is covered with glassy carbon coating with thickness of 2-8 μm. It provides desirable amount of glassy carbon in the structure of the material. In the next step, porous spheres with carbon coating are infiltrated by liquid matrix of Al-Cu-Mg alloy. Thereby, equable distribution of glassy carbon in composite volume is achieved. Moreover, typical problems for composites reinforced by particles like sedimentation, agglomeration and clustering of particles are avoided. Tribological characteristics during friction in air versus cast iron as a counterpart were made. Produced composites with glassy carbon layer are characterised by friction coefficient between 0.08-0.20, thus meeting the typical conditions for solid lubricants.

  11. Food Composition Database Format and Structure: A User Focused Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Annabel K; Woods, Kaitlyn; McMahon, Anne; Probst, Yasmine

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the needs of Australian food composition database user's regarding database format and relate this to the format of databases available globally. Three semi structured synchronous online focus groups (M = 3, F = 11) and n = 6 female key informant interviews were recorded. Beliefs surrounding the use, training, understanding, benefits and limitations of food composition data and databases were explored. Verbatim transcriptions underwent preliminary coding followed by thematic analysis with NVivo qualitative analysis software to extract the final themes. Schematic analysis was applied to the final themes related to database format. Desktop analysis also examined the format of six key globally available databases. 24 dominant themes were established, of which five related to format; database use, food classification, framework, accessibility and availability, and data derivation. Desktop analysis revealed that food classification systems varied considerably between databases. Microsoft Excel was a common file format used in all databases, and available software varied between countries. User's also recognised that food composition databases format should ideally be designed specifically for the intended use, have a user-friendly food classification system, incorporate accurate data with clear explanation of data derivation and feature user input. However, such databases are limited by data availability and resources. Further exploration of data sharing options should be considered. Furthermore, user's understanding of food composition data and databases limitations is inherent to the correct application of non-specific databases. Therefore, further exploration of user FCDB training should also be considered.

  12. Food Composition Database Format and Structure: A User Focused Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Annabel K.; Woods, Kaitlyn; McMahon, Anne; Probst, Yasmine

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the needs of Australian food composition database user’s regarding database format and relate this to the format of databases available globally. Three semi structured synchronous online focus groups (M = 3, F = 11) and n = 6 female key informant interviews were recorded. Beliefs surrounding the use, training, understanding, benefits and limitations of food composition data and databases were explored. Verbatim transcriptions underwent preliminary coding followed by thematic analysis with NVivo qualitative analysis software to extract the final themes. Schematic analysis was applied to the final themes related to database format. Desktop analysis also examined the format of six key globally available databases. 24 dominant themes were established, of which five related to format; database use, food classification, framework, accessibility and availability, and data derivation. Desktop analysis revealed that food classification systems varied considerably between databases. Microsoft Excel was a common file format used in all databases, and available software varied between countries. User’s also recognised that food composition databases format should ideally be designed specifically for the intended use, have a user-friendly food classification system, incorporate accurate data with clear explanation of data derivation and feature user input. However, such databases are limited by data availability and resources. Further exploration of data sharing options should be considered. Furthermore, user’s understanding of food composition data and databases limitations is inherent to the correct application of non-specific databases. Therefore, further exploration of user FCDB training should also be considered. PMID:26554836

  13. Primary and diagenetic controls of isotopic compositions of iron-formation carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Alan J.; Hayes, J. M.; Klein, C.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on parallel analyses of carbonate and chert microbands in segments from the early Proterozoic Dales Gorge Member of the Brockman Iron Formation (western Australia), including data on isotopic, chemical, and mineralogic variations in microbanded carbonates, cherts, and coexisting minerals in four core segments from Paraburdoo and one from Wittenoom. It is shown that patterns of variation observed in isotopic abundance and mineral composition can be consistently explained in terms of diagenetic replacement of fine-grained primary precipitates by secondary ones, rather than by mineral-dependent fractionations, metamorphism, or the influence of large volumes of water in an open system.

  14. The clinical and radiographic success of bonded resin composite strip crowns for primary incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupietzky, Ari; Waggoner, William F; Galea, Jon

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the clinical and radiographic success of the treatment of maxillary anterior primary incisors with composite resin strip crowns placed in a private practice setting. This was a retrospective, clinical study of patients who had strip crowns (SC) placed on maxillary primary incisors, returned for at least 1, 6-month recall examination, and whose parents consented to participate in the study. Radiographic and photographic examinations were used for evaluation. Two evaluators rated the images independently. When ratings were not in agreement, the 2 examiners reviewed the photograph or radiograph together and reached a consensus rating. One hundred twelve restorations placed in 40 children were evaluated. The evaluations were performed after the crowns had been in place for an average of 18 months. None of the restorations were totally lost, and only 12% were rated as having lost some resin material, resulting in an 88% overall retention rate. There was no difference in restoration success if the crowns were placed 4 at a time, or if fewer crowns were placed in a single sitting; the failure rates were comparable. Teeth that had pulpal treatment were judged to have far more significant color match discrepancies than those teeth without pulpal treatment. Ninety-one percent of the teeth demonstrated healthy pulps. Eight percent had some pulpal changes but did not require immediate attention. Only 1 tooth showed radiographic evidence of pulpal necrosis. Only 11 teeth had pulpal treatment, but of these, 10 demonstrated clinical success. Composite resin strip crowns for restoring primary incisors with large or multisurface caries performed well. Color match of these crowns with adjacent teeth may be significantly reduced when placed upon teeth that have undergone pulpectomy treatment and have been obturated with an iodoform paste. However, based upon the results of this study, the strip crown may provide an esthetic and durable restoration

  15. Design and development of conformal antenna composite structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zonghong; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Peng; Li, Xiang

    2017-09-01

    In the manufacturing process of the common smart skin antenna, the adhesive covered on the radiating elements of the antenna led to severe deviation of the resonant frequency, which degraded the electromagnetic performance of the antenna. In this paper, a new component called package cover was adopted to prevent the adhesive from covering on the radiating elements of the microstrip antenna array. The package cover and the microstrip antenna array were bonded together as packaged antenna which was then embedded into the composite sandwich structure to develop a new structure called conformal antenna composite structure (CACS). The geometric parameters of the microstrip antenna array and the CACS were optimized by the commercial software CST microwave studio. According to the optimal results, the microstrip antenna array and the CACS were manufactured and tested. The experimental and numerical results of electromagnetic performance showed that the resonant frequency of the CACS was close to that of the microstrip antenna array (with error less than 1%) and the CACS had a higher gain (about 2 dB) than the microstrip antenna array. The package system would increase the electromagnetic radiating energy at the design frequency nearly 66%. The numerical model generated by CST microwave studio in this study could successfully predict the electromagnetic performance of the microstrip antenna array and the CACS with relatively good accuracy. The mechanical analysis results showed that the CACS had better flexural property than the composite sandwich structure without the embedment of packaged antenna. The comparison of the electromagnetic performance for the CACS and the MECSSA showed that the package system was useful and effective.

  16. Primary production in a tropical large lake: The role of phytoplankton composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darchambeau, F.; Sarmento, H.; Descy, J.-P.

    2014-01-01

    Phytoplankton biomass and primary production in tropical large lakes vary at different time scales, from seasons to centuries. We provide a dataset made of 7 consecutive years of phytoplankton biomass and production in Lake Kivu (Eastern Africa). From 2002 to 2008, bi-weekly samplings were performed in a pelagic site in order to quantify phytoplankton composition and biomass, using marker pigments determined by HPLC. Primary production rates were estimated by 96 in situ 14 C incubations. A principal component analysis showed that the main environmental gradient was linked to a seasonal variation of the phytoplankton assemblage, with a clear separation between diatoms during the dry season and cyanobacteria during the rainy season. A rather wide range of the maximum specific photosynthetic rate (P Bm ) was found, ranging between 1.15 and 7.21 g carbon g −1 chlorophyll a h −1 , and was best predicted by a regression model using phytoplankton composition as an explanatory variable. The irradiance at the onset of light saturation (I k ) ranged between 91 and 752 μE m −2 s −1 and was linearly correlated with the mean irradiance in the mixed layer. The inter-annual variability of phytoplankton biomass and production was high, ranging from 53 to 100 mg chlorophyll a m −2 (annual mean) and from 143 to 278 g carbon m −2 y −1 , respectively. The degree of seasonal mixing determined annual production, demonstrating the sensitivity of tropical lakes to climate variability. A review of primary production of other African great lakes allows situating Lake Kivu productivity in the same range as that of lakes Tanganyika and Malawi, even if mean phytoplankton biomass was higher in Lake Kivu. - Highlights: • We provide a 7-year dataset of primary production in a tropical great lake. • Specific photosynthetic rate was determined by community composition. • Annual primary production varied between 143 and 278 mg C m −2 y −1 . • Pelagic production was highly

  17. Primary production in a tropical large lake: The role of phytoplankton composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darchambeau, F., E-mail: francois.darchambeau@ulg.ac.be [Chemical Oceanography Unit, University of Liège, Liège (Belgium); Sarmento, H., E-mail: hugo.sarmento@gmail.com [Department of Hydrobiology, Federal University of São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil); Descy, J.-P., E-mail: jean-pierre.descy@unamur.be [Research Unit in Environmental and Evolutionary Biology, University of Namur, Namur (Belgium)

    2014-03-01

    Phytoplankton biomass and primary production in tropical large lakes vary at different time scales, from seasons to centuries. We provide a dataset made of 7 consecutive years of phytoplankton biomass and production in Lake Kivu (Eastern Africa). From 2002 to 2008, bi-weekly samplings were performed in a pelagic site in order to quantify phytoplankton composition and biomass, using marker pigments determined by HPLC. Primary production rates were estimated by 96 in situ {sup 14}C incubations. A principal component analysis showed that the main environmental gradient was linked to a seasonal variation of the phytoplankton assemblage, with a clear separation between diatoms during the dry season and cyanobacteria during the rainy season. A rather wide range of the maximum specific photosynthetic rate (P{sub Bm}) was found, ranging between 1.15 and 7.21 g carbon g{sup −1} chlorophyll a h{sup −1}, and was best predicted by a regression model using phytoplankton composition as an explanatory variable. The irradiance at the onset of light saturation (I{sub k}) ranged between 91 and 752 μE m{sup −2} s{sup −1} and was linearly correlated with the mean irradiance in the mixed layer. The inter-annual variability of phytoplankton biomass and production was high, ranging from 53 to 100 mg chlorophyll a m{sup −2} (annual mean) and from 143 to 278 g carbon m{sup −2} y{sup −1}, respectively. The degree of seasonal mixing determined annual production, demonstrating the sensitivity of tropical lakes to climate variability. A review of primary production of other African great lakes allows situating Lake Kivu productivity in the same range as that of lakes Tanganyika and Malawi, even if mean phytoplankton biomass was higher in Lake Kivu. - Highlights: • We provide a 7-year dataset of primary production in a tropical great lake. • Specific photosynthetic rate was determined by community composition. • Annual primary production varied between 143 and 278 mg C m

  18. Analysis Methods for Progressive Damage of Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Cheryl A.; Davila, Carlos G.; Leone, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    This document provides an overview of recent accomplishments and lessons learned in the development of general progressive damage analysis methods for predicting the residual strength and life of composite structures. These developments are described within their State-of-the-Art (SoA) context and the associated technology barriers. The emphasis of the authors is on developing these analysis tools for application at the structural level. Hence, modeling of damage progression is undertaken at the mesoscale, where the plies of a laminate are represented as a homogenous orthotropic continuum. The aim of the present effort is establish the ranges of validity of available models, to identify technology barriers, and to establish the foundations of the future investigation efforts. Such are the necessary steps towards accurate and robust simulations that can replace some of the expensive and time-consuming "building block" tests that are currently required for the design and certification of aerospace structures.

  19. Fibre Optic Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Aircraft Composite Structures: Recent Advances and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sante, Raffaella

    2015-07-30

    In-service structural health monitoring of composite aircraft structures plays a key role in the assessment of their performance and integrity. In recent years, Fibre Optic Sensors (FOS) have proved to be a potentially excellent technique for real-time in-situ monitoring of these structures due to their numerous advantages, such as immunity to electromagnetic interference, small size, light weight, durability, and high bandwidth, which allows a great number of sensors to operate in the same system, and the possibility to be integrated within the material. However, more effort is still needed to bring the technology to a fully mature readiness level. In this paper, recent research and applications in structural health monitoring of composite aircraft structures using FOS have been critically reviewed, considering both the multi-point and distributed sensing techniques.

  20. Fibre Optic Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Aircraft Composite Structures: Recent Advances and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Di Sante

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In-service structural health monitoring of composite aircraft structures plays a key role in the assessment of their performance and integrity. In recent years, Fibre Optic Sensors (FOS have proved to be a potentially excellent technique for real-time in-situ monitoring of these structures due to their numerous advantages, such as immunity to electromagnetic interference, small size, light weight, durability, and high bandwidth, which allows a great number of sensors to operate in the same system, and the possibility to be integrated within the material. However, more effort is still needed to bring the technology to a fully mature readiness level. In this paper, recent research and applications in structural health monitoring of composite aircraft structures using FOS have been critically reviewed, considering both the multi-point and distributed sensing techniques.

  1. Fibre Optic Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Aircraft Composite Structures: Recent Advances and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sante, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    In-service structural health monitoring of composite aircraft structures plays a key role in the assessment of their performance and integrity. In recent years, Fibre Optic Sensors (FOS) have proved to be a potentially excellent technique for real-time in-situ monitoring of these structures due to their numerous advantages, such as immunity to electromagnetic interference, small size, light weight, durability, and high bandwidth, which allows a great number of sensors to operate in the same system, and the possibility to be integrated within the material. However, more effort is still needed to bring the technology to a fully mature readiness level. In this paper, recent research and applications in structural health monitoring of composite aircraft structures using FOS have been critically reviewed, considering both the multi-point and distributed sensing techniques. PMID:26263987

  2. Engineering method to build the composite structure ply database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Shi

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new method to build a composite ply database with engineering design constraints is proposed. This method has two levels: the core stacking sequence design and the whole stacking sequence design. The core stacking sequences are obtained by the full permutation algorithm considering the ply ratio requirement and the dispersion character which characterizes the dispersion of ply angles. The whole stacking sequences are the combinations of the core stacking sequences. By excluding the ply sequences which do not meet the engineering requirements, the final ply database is obtained. One example with the constraints that the total layer number is 100 and the ply ratio is 30:60:10 is presented to validate the method. This method provides a new way to set up the ply database based on the engineering requirements without adopting intelligent optimization algorithms. Keywords: Composite ply database, VBA program, Structure design, Stacking sequence

  3. Local Structure Fixation in the Composite Manufacturing Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girdauskaite, Lina; Krzywinski, Sybille; Rödel, Hartmut; Wildasin-Werner, Andrea; Böhme, Ralf; Jansen, Irene

    2010-12-01

    Compared to metal materials, textile reinforced composites show interesting features, but also higher production costs because of low automation rate in the manufacturing chain at this time. Their applicability is also limited due to quality problems, which restrict the production of complex shaped dry textile preforms. New technologies, design concepts, and cost-effective manufacturing methods are needed in order to establish further fields of application. This paper deals with possible ways to improve the textile deformation process by locally applying a fixative to the structure parallel to the cut. This hinders unwanted deformation in the textile stock during the subsequent stacking and formation steps. It is found that suitable thermoplastic binders, applied in the appropriate manner do not restrict formation of the textile and have no negative influence on the mechanical properties of the composite.

  4. Production and Structural Investigation of Polyethylene Composites with Modified Kaolin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domka, L.; Malicka, A.; Stachowiak, N.

    2008-01-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of the filler (kaolin) modification with silane coupling agents on the properties of the polyethylene (HDPE Hostalen ACP 5831) composites. Powder mineral fillers are added to polymers to modify the properties of the latter and to reduce the cost of their production. A very important factor is the filler dispersion in the polymer matrix. Kaolin modified with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane and pure kaolin were characterised by surface area, pore size, water absorbing capacity, paraffin oil absorbing capacity, bulk density, scanning electron microscopy observations and X-ray diffraction measurements. Their performance was characterised by determination of the mechanical resistance upon static stretching and tearing, and their structure was observed in scanning electron microscopy images. The results were compared to those obtained for the composites with unmodified filler and pure HDPE. (authors)

  5. Structure of Al-CF composites obtained by infiltration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dolata-Grosz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the composites obtained in infiltration processes 2D and 3D carbon preform by liquid Al alloy have been presented in thispaper. An aluminum alloy with silicon and manganese AlSi9Mn (trimal 37-TR37 was applied in the researches. As the reinforcementused carbon perform prepared with various protective barriers such as the nickel coating, the coating of silicon carbide and pyrolyticcarbon coating. Carbon preforms was prepared at the Institute for Lightweight Structures and Polymer Technology (ILK TU Dresden andat the Institute of Technology and Ceramic Systems (Fraunhofer-IKTS. The process of infiltration of carbon perform by liquid aluminiumalloy was carried out using a pressure-vacuum infiltration on the Degussa press and gas-pressure infiltration (GPI in an autoclavedesigned and built at the Department of Materials Technology at the Silesian University of Technology. The obtained composites werecharacterized by a regular shape, with no surface casting defects. The best connection of components was observed in AlSi9Mn/Cf(Nicomposite, obtained by gas-pressure infiltration method (GPI. On metallographic specimens, good interface between fibres and thealuminium matrix were observed. The obtained research results justify the application of nickel coatings on the fibres. During the failurecrack propagated across fiber. There was no presence of aluminum carbide on the fiber-matrix. It can be assumed that the composite willbe characterized by the good mechanical properties. However, this requires further experimental verification planned in the next stage of research, in the project realized within the DFG program: "3D textile reinforced aluminium matrix composites for complex loadingsituations in lightweight automobile and machine parts".

  6. Structural, spectral and dielectric properties of piezoelectric–piezomagnetic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemeda, O.M.; Tawfik, A.; Amer, M.A.; Kamal, B.M.; El Refaay, D.E.

    2012-01-01

    Composite materials of spinel ferrite (SF) NiZnFe 2 O 4 (NZF) and barium titanate (BT) BaTiO 3 were prepared by double sintering ceramic technique. X-ray diffraction patterns for the composite system (1–x) NZF+x BT, showed the presence of mainly of 2 phases, hence confirming the successful preparation of the composite. Some structural and microstructural parameters like porosity, X-ray density, particle size and lattice constant were deduced from the analysis of X-ray data for both phases. Scan electron microscope (SEM) analysis shows nearly a homogeneous microstructure with good dispersion of BT grains as well as the presence of some pores. There was also an enlargement of BT grains with increasing its content. Infra red (IR) spectra of the composite system indicate that BT content affects the intermolecular character of the SF phase. A rise in the dielectric constant occurred at high temperature which was attributed to the effect of space change resulting from the increase of the change carriers in the paramagnetic region. The dielectric loss (tan δ) decreased by increasing BT content. - Highlights: ► Double phase NZF-BT composite has a high magnetoelectric coefficient compared with other materials. ► This makes it strongly candidates for electromagnetic wave sensors. ► Addition of BT phase enhance dielectric constant which make it very useful for capacitor industry. ► Ni ferrite shifts the transition temperature of BT from 120 °C near room temperature. ► Decrease of dielectric loss which supply with good material with law eddy current loss for cores of t ransformers at microwave frequency.

  7. Cardiac structure and functions in patients with asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas Yılmaz, B; Akyel, A; Kan, E; Ercin, U; Tavil, Y; Bilgihan, A; Cakır, N; Arslan, M; Balos Toruner, F

    2013-11-01

    The data about cardiovascular (CV) changes in patients with asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) are scarce. The aim of this study is to compare cardiac structure and functions in patients with asymptomatic PHPT and controls by using tissue Doppler echocardiography. Thirty-eight patients with asymptomatic PHPT and 31 sex- and age-matched controls with similar cardiac risk factors were evaluated. There was no significant difference in ejection fraction (EF) between the patients and the controls [64±5.95 vs 62±3.25% (p=0.094)]. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was significantly higher in patients than controls [105.96 (66.45-167.24) vs 93.79 (64.25- 139.25) g/m2, p=0.014]. There was a significant correlation between LVMI and serum calcium (Ca) (r=0.240, p<0.005). Myocardial performance index (MPI) was significantly higher in patients than controls [0.49 (0.35-0.60) vs 0.39 (0.33-0.62), p<0.001]. There was positive correlation between theMPI and serumCa levels (r=0.505, p<0.001), parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels (r=0.464, p<0.001) and LVMI (r=0.270, p<0.005). When the normotensive patients and controls were evaluated, the difference between the groups remained statistically significant considering LVMI and MPI [109 (66.45-167.24) g/m2 vs 94.17 (64.25-75.10) g/m2, p=0.03; and 0.49 (0.35-0.60) vs 0.39 (0.33-0.62), p<0.01, respectively]. There were significant correlations between MPI and Ca (r=0.566, p<0.001), and PTH (r=0.472, p<0.001). Our study results showed that cardiacmorphology and diastolic functions are altered in the patients with asymptomatic PHPT. High serum PTH and Ca levels may have an impact on these CV changes. Whether these subtle CV changes would affect cardiac systolic functions and mortality in patients with asymptomatic PHPT should be investigated in further prospective studies.

  8. Study of damping characteristics of fibre reinforced composite aerospace structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.Z.; Saleh, S.; Munir, A.

    2006-01-01

    Composite materials are used in a variety of high demanding structural applications. Apart from their other preferable properties, they have high-energy dissipation characteristics, which is important aspect when we repeatedly wiggle the system back and forth. It is important to have thorough understanding of material damping behavior; in general materials damping tends to be complex nonlinear function of vibration amplitude, frequency of loading and material formulation. There are number of mathematical models available in literature to obtain hysteresis curves. One approach for identifying damping characteristics used mechanical hysteresis curves. In present work, a phenomenon was observed during testing of fibre reinforced composite beam of an aerospace structure, that for increase load in structure, the path of Force vs. Displacement curve is different than the path of unloading. A plot is generated which indicate the hysteresis loop representing the steady state dynamic behavior of material. The area enclosed by such curves is proportional to energy dissipation per cycle. However, the specific shape of the curve also has important implications for characterizing the specific functional form of the damping. Therefore, it is important to develop methods for accurately accounting for such effects. The current work explores the damping characteristics both theoretically and experimentally. (author)

  9. Damage Detection in Composite Structures with Wavenumber Array Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara; Yu, Lingyu

    2013-01-01

    Guided ultrasonic waves (GUW) have the potential to be an efficient and cost-effective method for rapid damage detection and quantification of large structures. Attractive features include sensitivity to a variety of damage types and the capability of traveling relatively long distances. They have proven to be an efficient approach for crack detection and localization in isotropic materials. However, techniques must be pushed beyond isotropic materials in order to be valid for composite aircraft components. This paper presents our study on GUW propagation and interaction with delamination damage in composite structures using wavenumber array data processing, together with advanced wave propagation simulations. Parallel elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) is used for the example simulations. Multi-dimensional Fourier transform is used to convert time-space wavefield data into frequency-wavenumber domain. Wave propagation in the wavenumber-frequency domain shows clear distinction among the guided wave modes that are present. This allows for extracting a guided wave mode through filtering and reconstruction techniques. Presence of delamination causes spectral change accordingly. Results from 3D CFRP guided wave simulations with delamination damage in flat-plate specimens are used for wave interaction with structural defect study.

  10. Stress corrosion crack initiation of alloy 182 weld metal in primary coolant - Influence of chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calonne, O.; Foucault, M.; Steltzlen, F. [AREVA (France); Amzallag, C. [EDF SEPTEN (France)

    2011-07-01

    Nickel-base alloys 182 and 82 have been used extensively for dissimilar metal welds. Typical applications are the J-groove welds of alloy 600 vessel head penetrations, pressurizer penetrations, heater sleeves and bottom mounted instrumented nozzles as well as some safe end butt welds. While the overall performance of these weld metals has been good, during the last decade, an increasing number of cases of stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 182 weld metal have been reported in PWRs. In this context, the role of weld defects has to be examined. Their contribution in the crack initiation mechanism requires laboratory investigations with small scale characterizations. In this study, the influence of both alloy composition and weld defects on PWSCC (Stress Corrosion Cracking in Primary Water) initiation was investigated using U-bend specimens in simulated primary water at 320 C. The main results are the following: -) the chemical compositions of the weld deposits leading to a large propensity to hot cracking are not the most susceptible to PWSCC initiation, -) macroscopically, superficial defects did not evolve during successive exposures. They can be included in large corrosion cracks but their role as 'precursors' is not yet established. (authors)

  11. Size-fractionated dissolved primary production and carbohydrate composition of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchard, C.; Engel, A.

    2015-02-01

    Extracellular release (ER) by phytoplankton is the major source of fresh dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in marine ecosystems and accompanies primary production during all growth phases. Little is known, so far, on size and composition of released molecules, and to which extent ER occurs passively, by leakage, or actively, by exudation. Here, we report on ER by the widespread and bloom-forming coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi grown under steady-state conditions in phosphorus-controlled chemostats (N:P = 29, growth rate of μ = 0.2 d-1) at present-day and high-CO2 concentrations. 14C incubations were performed to determine primary production (PP), comprised of particulate (PO14C) and dissolved organic carbon (DO14C). Concentration and composition of particulate combined carbohydrates (pCCHO) and high-molecular-weight (>1 kDa, HMW) dissolved combined carbohydrates (dCCHO) were determined by ion chromatography. Information on size distribution of ER products was obtained by investigating distinct size classes (10 kDa was significantly different, with a higher mol% of arabinose. The mol% of acidic sugars increased and that of glucose decreased with increasing size of HMW-dCCHO. We conclude that larger polysaccharides follow different production and release pathways than smaller molecules, potentially serving distinct ecological and biogeochemical functions.

  12. Measuring Moisture Levels in Graphite Epoxy Composite Sandwich Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark; Youngquist, Robert; Starr, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Graphite epoxy composite (GEC) materials are used in the construction of rocket fairings, nose cones, interstage adapters, and heat shields due to their high strength and light weight. However, they absorb moisture depending on the environmental conditions they are exposed to prior to launch. Too much moisture absorption can become a problem when temperature and pressure changes experienced during launch cause the water to vaporize. The rapid state change of the water can result in structural failure of the material. In addition, heat and moisture combine to weaken GEC structures. Diffusion models that predict the total accumulated moisture content based on the environmental conditions are one accepted method of determining if the material strength has been reduced to an unacceptable level. However, there currently doesn t exist any field measurement technique to estimate the actual moisture content of a composite structure. A multi-layer diffusion model was constructed with Mathematica to predict moisture absorption and desorption from the GEC sandwich structure. This model is used in conjunction with relative humidity/temperature sensors both on the inside and outside of the material to determine the moisture levels in the structure. Because the core materials have much higher diffusivity than the face sheets, a single relative humidity measurement will accurately reflect the moisture levels in the core. When combined with an external relative humidity measurement, the model can be used to determine the moisture levels in the face sheets. Since diffusion is temperaturedependent, the temperature measurements are used to determine the diffusivity of the face sheets for the model computations.

  13. Structural and Compositional Transformations of Biomass Chars during Fast Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Steibel, Markus; Spliethoff, Hartmut

    In this work the physical and chemical transformations of biomass chars during fast pyrolysis, considered as a 2nd stage of combustion, has been investigated. Seven biomasses containing different amount of ash and organic components were reacted at up to 1673 K with high heating rates in a wire......-mesh reactor and the resulting chars were retrieved. In order to obtain information on the structural and compositional transformations of the biomass chars, samples were subjected to elemental analysis, scanning electron microcopy with EDX and Raman spectrometry. The results show that there are significant...

  14. Composition-Structure-Property Relationships in Boroaluminosilicate Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Qiuju; Potuzak, M.; Mauro, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    boroaluminosilicate glasses from peralkaline to peraluminous compositions by substituting Al2O3 for SiO2. Our results reveal a pronounced change in all the measured physical properties (density, elastic moduli, hardness, glass transition temperature, and liquid fragility) around [Al2O3]–[Na2O]=0. The structural...... origin of this change is elucidated through nuclear magnetic resonance analyses and topological considerations. Furthermore, we find that addition of 1 mol% Fe2O3 exerts a complicated impact on the measured properties....

  15. Influence of chemical structure on carbon isotope composition of lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdenetsogt, Bat-Orshikh; Lee, Insung; Ko, Yoon-Joo; Mungunchimeg, Batsaikhan

    2017-04-01

    During the last two decades, a number of studies on carbon isotopes in terrestrial organic matter (OM) have been carried out and used to determine changes in paleoatmospheric δ13C value as well as assisting in paleoclimate analysis. Coal is abundant terrestrial OM. However, application of its δ13C value is very limited, because the understanding of changes in isotopic composition during coalification is relatively insufficient. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the chemical structure on the carbon isotope composition of lignite. Generally, lignite has more complex chemical structures than other higher rank coal because of the existence of various types of oxygen-containing functional groups that are eliminated at higher rank level. A total of sixteen Lower Cretaceous lignite samples from Baganuur mine (Mongolia) were studied by ultimate, stable carbon isotope and solid-state 13C CP/MAS NMR analyses. The carbon contents of the samples increase with increase in depth, whereas oxygen content decreases continuously. This is undoubtedly due to normal coalification process and also consistent with solid state NMR results. The δ13C values of the samples range from -23.54‰ to -21.34‰ and are enriched in 13C towards the lowermost samples. Based on the deconvolution of the NMR spectra, the ratios between carbons bonded to oxygen (60-90 ppm and 135-220 ppm) over carbons bonded to carbon and hydrogen (0-50 ppm and 90-135 ppm) were calculated for the samples. These correlate well with δ13C values (R2 0.88). The results indicate that the δ13C values of lignite are controlled by two mechanisms: (i) depletion in 13C as a result of loss of isotopically heavy oxygen-bounded carbons and (ii) enrichment in 13C caused by a loss of isotopically light methane from aliphatic and aromatic carbons. At the rank of lignite, coal is enriched in 13C because the amount of isotopically heavy CO2 and CO, released from coal as a result of changes in the chemical

  16. 77 FR 50576 - Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation of Composite Rotorcraft Structures; OMB Approval of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... Evaluation of Composite Rotorcraft Structures; OMB Approval of Information Collection AGENCY: Federal... Composite Rotorcraft Structures,'' which was published on December 1, 2011. DATES: The rule published on... and Fatigue Evaluation of Composite Rotorcraft Structures,'' published in the Federal Register (76 FR...

  17. 77 FR 4890 - Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation for Composite Rotorcraft Structures, and Damage Tolerance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Fatigue Evaluation for Composite Rotorcraft Structures, and Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation for... Composite Rotorcraft Structures'' (76 FR 74655), published December 1, 2011, and ``Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation for Metallic Structures'' (76 FR 75435), published December 2, 2011. In the ``Composite...

  18. Challenges and Opportunities for Nanotechnology in Multi-Functional Composite Structures (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baur, Jeff; Silverman, Edward

    2006-01-01

    .... Of the wide variety of structural applications, fiber-reinforced composites for aerospace structures have some of the most demanding applications with extreme requirements in physical, chemical...

  19. Parental satisfaction with bonded resin composite strip crowns for primary incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupietzky, Ari; Waggoner, William F

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the parental satisfaction of bonded resin composite strip crowns for the treatment of maxillary anterior primary incisors and compare their satisfaction with the clinical evaluation and success of the crowns. This was a retrospective, clinical study of patients who had strip crowns (SC) placed on maxillary primary incisors, returned for at least 1 recall examination, and whose parents gave consent for them to participate in the study. Color photographs were used for evaluation by 2 independent pediatric dentists. Parental satisfaction regarding the esthetics of the crowns was evaluated by a questionnaire. One hundred and twelve restorations placed in 40 children were evaluated. The evaluations were performed after the crowns had been in place for an average of 18 months (range=6-25 months). Overall parental satisfaction with the treatment was excellent; however, satisfaction with regard to color received the lowest rating. No significant differences were found between dentist and parent evaluations of color, size, and overall appearance (Fisher exact test; P=.194,.776,.291, respectively). Parents rated their overall satisfaction as being positive regardless of their poor ratings of color, size, or overall appearance. However, a significant relationship was found between durability and overall satisfaction (P=.046). Parents who gave poor ratings to durability also rated their overall satisfaction as being poor. Parental satisfaction with bonded resin composite SCs for the treatment of primary incisors with large or multi-surface caries was excellent. Parents' dissatisfaction was most often related to color of the restorations. However, this did not affect their overall satisfaction with the crowns. The durability of restorations negatively affected the rating of overall satisfaction with the crown. Durability seems to be of more concern than excellent color match to this group of parents.

  20. Composite corrugated structures for morphing wing skin applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thill, C; Etches, J A; Bond, I P; Potter, K D; Weaver, P M

    2010-01-01

    Composite corrugated structures are known for their anisotropic properties. They exhibit relatively high stiffness parallel (longitudinal) to the corrugation direction and are relatively compliant in the direction perpendicular (transverse) to the corrugation. Thus, they offer a potential solution for morphing skin panels (MSPs) in the trailing edge region of a wing as a morphing control surface. In this paper, an overview of the work carried out by the present authors over the last few years on corrugated structures for morphing skin applications is first given. The second part of the paper presents recent work on the application of corrugated sandwich structures. Panels made from multiple unit cells of corrugated sandwich structures are used as MSPs in the trailing edge region of a scaled morphing aerofoil section. The aerofoil section features an internal actuation mechanism that allows chordwise length and camber change of the trailing edge region (aft 35% chord). Wind tunnel testing was carried out to demonstrate the MSP concept but also to explore its limitations. Suggestions for improvements arising from this study were deduced, one of which includes an investigation of a segmented skin. The overall results of this study show that the MSP concept exploiting corrugated sandwich structures offers a potential solution for local morphing wing skins for low speed and small air vehicles

  1. Structure recognition from high resolution images of ceramic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushizima, Daniela; Perciano, Talita; Krishnan, Harinarayan; Loring, Burlen; Bale, Hrishikesh; Parkinson, Dilworth; Sethian, James

    2015-01-05

    Fibers provide exceptional strength-to-weight ratio capabilities when woven into ceramic composites, transforming them into materials with exceptional resistance to high temperature, and high strength combined with improved fracture toughness. Microcracks are inevitable when the material is under strain, which can be imaged using synchrotron X-ray computed micro-tomography (mu-CT) for assessment of material mechanical toughness variation. An important part of this analysis is to recognize fibrillar features. This paper presents algorithms for detecting and quantifying composite cracks and fiber breaks from high-resolution image stacks. First, we propose recognition algorithms to identify the different structures of the composite, including matrix cracks and fibers breaks. Second, we introduce our package F3D for fast filtering of large 3D imagery, implemented in OpenCL to take advantage of graphic cards. Results show that our algorithms automatically identify micro-damage and that the GPU-based implementation introduced here takes minutes, being 17x faster than similar tools on a typical image file.

  2. Optimal Design of Composite Structures Under Manufacturing Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marmaras, Konstantinos

    sequence of well–posed optimization problems. They provide us with a discrete feasible solution or correctly determine problem infeasibility. Our aim is to solve the considered problems to proven global optimality. We propose a combination of the convergent Outer Approximation and Local Branching......This thesis considers discrete multi material and thickness optimization of laminated composite structures including local failure criteria and manufacturing constraints. Our models closely follow an immediate extension of the Discrete Material Optimization scheme, which allows simultaneous...... determination of the appropriate laminate thickness and the material choice in the structure. The optimal design problems that arise are stated as nonconvex mixed integer programming problems. We resort to different reformulation techniques to state the optimization problems as either linear or nonlinear convex...

  3. Structural Health Monitoring of an Advanced Composite Aircraft Structure Using a Modal Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooijevaar, T.H.; Loendersloot, Richard; Warnet, Laurent; Akkerman, Remko; de Boer, Andries; Chang, F.K.; Guemes, A.

    2011-01-01

    The experimental feasibility of a vibration based approach to identify damage in an advanced composite aircraft structure is presented. Analysis showed that the Modal Strain Energy Damage Index (MSE-DI) algorithm can be used to detect and localize single and multiple damage scenarios by using modal

  4. Bamboo–Polylactic Acid (PLA Composite Material for Structural Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Pozo Morales

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing an eco-friendly industry based on green materials, sustainable technologies, and optimum processes with low environmental impact is a general societal goal, but this remains a considerable challenge to achieve. Despite the large number of research on green structural composites, limited investigation into the most appropriate manufacturing methodology to develop a structural material at industrial level has taken place. Laboratory panels have been manufactured with different natural fibers but the methodologies and values obtained could not be extrapolated at industrial level. Bamboo industry panels have increased in the secondary structural sector such as building application, flooring and sport device, because it is one of the cheapest raw materials. At industrial level, the panels are manufactured with only the inner and intermediate region of the bamboo culm. However, it has been found that the mechanical properties of the external shells of bamboo culm are much better than the average cross-sectional properties. Thin strips of bamboo (1.5 mm thick and 1500 mm long were machined and arranged with the desired lay-up and shape to obtain laminates with specific properties better than those of conventional E-Glass/Epoxy laminates in terms of both strength and stiffness. The strips of bamboo were bonded together by a natural thermoplastic polylactic acid (PLA matrix to meet biodegradability requirements. The innovative mechanical extraction process developed in this study can extract natural strip reinforcements with high performance, low cost, and high rate, with no negative environmental impact, as no chemical treatments are used. The process can be performed at the industrial level. Furthermore, in order to validate the structural applications of the composite, the mechanical properties were analyzed under ageing conditions. This material could satisfy the requirements for adequate mechanical properties and life cycle costs at

  5. Bamboo-Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composite Material for Structural Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo Morales, Angel; Güemes, Alfredo; Fernandez-Lopez, Antonio; Carcelen Valero, Veronica; De La Rosa Llano, Sonia

    2017-11-09

    Developing an eco-friendly industry based on green materials, sustainable technologies, and optimum processes with low environmental impact is a general societal goal, but this remains a considerable challenge to achieve. Despite the large number of research on green structural composites, limited investigation into the most appropriate manufacturing methodology to develop a structural material at industrial level has taken place. Laboratory panels have been manufactured with different natural fibers but the methodologies and values obtained could not be extrapolated at industrial level. Bamboo industry panels have increased in the secondary structural sector such as building application, flooring and sport device, because it is one of the cheapest raw materials. At industrial level, the panels are manufactured with only the inner and intermediate region of the bamboo culm. However, it has been found that the mechanical properties of the external shells of bamboo culm are much better than the average cross-sectional properties. Thin strips of bamboo (1.5 mm thick and 1500 mm long) were machined and arranged with the desired lay-up and shape to obtain laminates with specific properties better than those of conventional E-Glass/Epoxy laminates in terms of both strength and stiffness. The strips of bamboo were bonded together by a natural thermoplastic polylactic acid (PLA) matrix to meet biodegradability requirements. The innovative mechanical extraction process developed in this study can extract natural strip reinforcements with high performance, low cost, and high rate, with no negative environmental impact, as no chemical treatments are used. The process can be performed at the industrial level. Furthermore, in order to validate the structural applications of the composite, the mechanical properties were analyzed under ageing conditions. This material could satisfy the requirements for adequate mechanical properties and life cycle costs at industrial sectors such

  6. The European Primary Care Monitor: structure, process and outcome indicators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kringos, D.S.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Bourgueil, Y.; Cartier, T.; Hasvold, T.; Hutchinson, A.; Lember, M.; Oleszczyk, M.; Pavlick, D.R.; Svab, I.; Tedeschi, P.; Wilson, A.; Windak, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background:Scientific research has provided evidence on benefits of well developed primary care systems. The relevance of some of this research for the European situation is limited. There is currently a lack of up to date comprehensive and comparable information on variation in development of

  7. The Structure of Primary School Teachers' Professional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirova, Ranija A.

    2016-01-01

    At the present stage of higher education development related to the transition of a competent model of learning, the problem of professional training of future teachers is actualized. To determine the problems in the preparation of future experts in the field of primary education, it is not enough to list the competencies that a graduate must…

  8. Role of contamination on the bondline integrity of composite structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, Xu [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Adhesively bonding composite structures have many applications in aerospace, automotive and submarine industries. The adhesive bonding joints have substantial advantage over the traditional metallic mechanical bonding joints, such as rivet and welding. However, the adhesive bonding joints require additional steps of surface preparation and cleaning to ensure consistent bond strength. In application, the adhesively bonded joints are exposed to environmental degradation and industrial solvent contaminates. Accordingly, the assurance of reliability of bonded composite structures requires detailed investigation of the role of contaminates on bondline integrity. This dissertation focuses on assessing the contaminates effect on the adhesive bondline integrity. A combined experimental and numerical framework is developed to study the contamination effect on the adhesive mechanical properties and adhesive joint strength. The bondline integrity were examined for a system of adhesive (EA9394) and the carbonfiber system (Hexply IM7/8552), after being subjected to different level of exposures to aviation hydraulic fluids and mold cleaning agents. A testing protocol based on nanoindentation for initial screening is used to predict the interfacial fracture characteristics after exposure to contamination. It is found the adhesive modulus and stiffness dropped by up to 10% for the hydraulic fluid contaminates, suggesting increase of the plastic dissipation within the bondline. However, the trend for the cleaning agent was not clear since the modulus drop while its hardness increased.

  9. Autonomous stimulus triggered self-healing in smart structural composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, C J; White, J A P; McCombe, G; Chatterjee, P; Bond, I P; Trask, R S

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by the ability of biological systems to sense and autonomously heal damage, this research has successfully demonstrated the first autonomous, stimulus triggered, self-healing system in a structural composite material. Both the sensing and healing mechanisms are reliant on microvascular channels incorporated within a laminated composite material. For the triggering mechanism, a single air filled vessel was pressurized, sealed and monitored. Upon drop weight impact (10 J), delamination and microcrack connectivity between the pressurized vessel and those open to ambient led to a pressure loss which, with the use of a suitable sensor, triggered a pump to deliver a healing agent to the damage zone. Using this autonomous healing approach, near full recovery of post-impact compression strength was achieved (94% on average). A simplified alternative system with healing agent continuously flowing through the vessels, akin to blood flow, was found to offer 100% recovery of the material’s virgin strength. Optical microscopy and ultrasonic C-scanning provided further evidence of large-scale infusion of matrix damage with the healing agent. The successful implementation of this bioinspired technology could substantially enhance the integrity and reliability of aerospace structures, whilst offering benefits through improved performance/weight ratios and extended lifetimes. (paper)

  10. Connectivity and propagule sources composition drive ditch plant metacommunity structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre-Bac, Lisa; Ernoult, Aude; Mony, Cendrine; Rantier, Yann; Nabucet, Jean; Burel, Françoise

    2014-11-01

    The fragmentation of agricultural landscapes has a major impact on biodiversity. In addition to habitat loss, dispersal limitation increasingly appears as a significant driver of biodiversity decline. Landscape linear elements, like ditches, may reduce the negative impacts of fragmentation by enhancing connectivity for many organisms, in addition to providing refuge habitats. To characterize these effects, we investigated the respective roles of propagule source composition and connectivity at the landscape scale on hydrochorous and non-hydrochorous ditch bank plant metacommunities. Twenty-seven square sites (0.5 km2 each) were selected in an agricultural lowland of northern France. At each site, plant communities were sampled on nine ditch banks (totaling 243 ditches). Variables characterizing propagule sources composition and connectivity were calculated for landscape mosaic and ditch network models. The landscape mosaic influenced only non-hydrochorous species, while the ditch network impacted both hydrochorous and non-hydrochorous species. Non-hydrochorous metacommunities were dependent on a large set of land-use elements, either within the landscape mosaic or adjacent to the ditch network, whereas hydrochorous plant metacommunities were only impacted by the presence of ditches adjacent to crops and roads. Ditch network connectivity also influenced both hydrochorous and non-hydrochorous ditch bank plant metacommunity structure, suggesting that beyond favoring hydrochory, ditches may also enhance plant dispersal by acting on other dispersal vectors. Increasing propagule sources heterogeneity and connectivity appeared to decrease within-metacommunity similarity within landscapes. Altogether, our results suggest that the ditch network's composition and configuration impacts plant metacommunity structure by affecting propagule dispersal possibilities, with contrasted consequences depending on species' dispersal vectors.

  11. Status of Advanced Stitched Unitized Composite Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.; Velicki, Alex

    2013-01-01

    NASA has created the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project to explore and document the feasibility, benefits and technical risk of advanced vehicle configurations and enabling technologies that will reduce the impact of aviation on the environment. A critical aspect of this pursuit is the development of a lighter, more robust airframe that will enable the introduction of unconventional aircraft configurations that have higher lift-to-drag ratios, reduced drag, and lower community noise levels. The primary structural concept being developed under the ERA project in the Airframe Technology element is the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept. This paper describes how researchers at NASA and The Boeing Company are working together to develop fundamental PRSEUS technologies that could someday be implemented on a transport size aircraft with high aspect ratio wings or unconventional shapes such as a hybrid wing body airplane design.

  12. PREFACE: International Conference on Structural Nano Composites (NANOSTRUC 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njuguna, James

    2012-09-01

    Dear Colleagues It is a great pleasure to welcome you to NanoStruc2012 at Cranfield University. The purpose of the 2012 International Conference on Structural Nano Composites (NanoStruc2012) is to promote activities in various areas of materials and structures by providing a forum for exchange of ideas, presentation of technical achievements and discussion of future directions. NanoStruc brings together an international community of experts to discuss the state-of-the-art, new research results, perspectives of future developments, and innovative applications relevant to structural materials, engineering structures, nanocomposites, modelling and simulations, and their related application areas. The conference is split in 7 panel sessions, Metallic Nanocomposites and Coatings, Silica based Nanocomposites, safty of Nanomaterials, Carboin based Nanocomposites, Multscale Modelling, Bio materials and Application of Nanomaterials. All accepted Papers will be published in the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (MSE), and included in the NanoStruc online digital library. The abstracts will be indexed in Scopus, Compedex, Inspec, INIS (International Nuclear Information System), Chemical Abstracts, NASA Astrophysics Data System and Polymer Library. Before ending this message, I would like to acknowledge the hard work, professional skills and efficiency of the team which ensured the general organisation. As a conclusion, I would like to Welcome you to the Nanostruc2012 and wish you a stimulating Conference and a wonderful time. On behalf of the scientific committee, Signature James Njuguna Conference Chair The PDF of this preface also contains committee listings and associates logos.

  13. Composite material designs for lightweight space packaging structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Raluca CONDRUZ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on advanced material designs suitable for lightweight space packaging structures. During this study, several material designs were proposed, evaluated and in the end three packaging structures were designed, manufactured and validated through a test campaign. The material designs proposed consisted in hybrid laminates composed of a composite substrate and integrating metallic foils with high atomic number (Low Z - High Z - Low Z concept and metallic coatings to increase the structure’s protection against harsh space conditions. The packaging structure design selected was a 2U CubeSat. A FEM analysis was performed on two different designs which showed good mechanical resistance under static loads, and regarding the modal analysis, the natural vibration frequencies of the CubeSat were in the imposed limits (outside of the critical range of 1-125 Hz. To reproduce the dynamic environment encountered during launching stage, vibration tests were performed. The structures were validated through a test campaign (vibration tests and their first vibration mode overcomes 100 Hz, results predicted by the FEM analysis.

  14. Primary structure and solution conditions determine conformational ensemble properties of intrinsically disordered proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hsuan-Han Alberto

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are a class of proteins that do not exhibit well-defined three-dimensional structures. The absence of structure is intrinsic to their amino acid sequences, which are characterized by low hydrophobicity and high net charge per residue compared to folded proteins. Contradicting the classic structure-function paradigm, IDPs are capable of interacting with high specificity and affinity, often acquiring order in complex with protein and nucleic acid binding partners. This phenomenon is evident during cellular activities involving IDPs, which include transcriptional and translational regulation, cell cycle control, signal transduction, molecular assembly, and molecular recognition. Although approximately 30% of eukaryotic proteomes are intrinsically disordered, the nature of IDP conformational ensembles remains unclear. In this dissertation, we describe relationships connecting characteristics of IDP conformational ensembles to their primary structures and solution conditions. Using molecular simulations and fluorescence experiments on a set of base-rich IDPs, we find that net charge per residue segregates conformational ensembles along a globule-to-coil transition. Speculatively generalizing this result, we propose a phase diagram that predicts an IDP's average size and shape based on sequence composition and use it to generate hypotheses for a broad set of intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). Simulations reveal that acid-rich IDRs, unlike their oppositely charged base-rich counterparts, exhibit disordered globular ensembles despite intra-chain repulsive electrostatic interactions. This apparent asymmetry is sensitive to simulation parameters for representing alkali and halide salt ions, suggesting that solution conditions modulate IDP conformational ensembles. We refine the ion parameters using a calibration procedure that relies exclusively on crystal lattice properties. Simulations with these parameters recover swollen

  15. γ-Hadron family description by quasi-scaling model at normal nuclear composition of primary cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmakhelidze, M.; Roinishvili, N.; Svanidze, M.

    2002-01-01

    Primary Cosmic Rays Nuclear Composition was investigated in energy region 10 15 -10 16 eV. The study is based on comparison of γ hadron families observed by Pamir and Pamir-Chacaltaya collaborations with those generated by means of quasi-scaling model MC0 at different nuclear compositions. It was shown that all characteristics of the observed families (including their intensity) are in very good agreement with properties of simulated events MC0 at normal composition and are in disagreement at heavy dominant compositions [ru

  16. Project on strengthening of structures using advanced composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recuero, A.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Restoration, strengthening and rehabilitation of buildings becomes one of the more interesting aspects of the use of composites. Construction industry has not yet accepted the wide structural use of these new materials because it does not know the advantages of composites in comparison with traditional materials, such as concrete or steel. Engineers involved in design and construction are conservative and resist to changes. They require codes and specifications, what makes that an entity should lead the use of the new material or technology. At present, the experience needed to prepare those codes does not exist. Experimental tests and successful cases are necessary for the acceptance of these materials in construction. A project is presented, with the aim to provide the experimental basis, needed to update design codes and standards, and the technology for the use of these new composites in building and civil structures strengthening, taking actual pathology, quality and durability into account, as well as urban aesthetics. Research specialists in composites, structural analysis and testing, and in structural pathology, as well as composites and adhesives manufacturers and users, designers and final users will co-work in this project. This will allow that all relevant aspects of the problem be considered.

    La restauración, refuerzo o rehabilitación de estructuras resulta ser uno de los campos de aplicación de mayor interés y más directamente relacionado con los nuevos materiales compuestos. La Industria de la Construcción no ha aceptado aún el uso estructural extenso de los nuevos materiales compuestos porque todavía no conoce bien sus ventajas respecto a los materiales tradicionales, tales como el hormigón o el acero. Los profesionales implicados en el proyecto y en la ejecución de obras suelen ser conservadores y resistirse a los cambios. Para aceptar un nuevo material requieren disponer de normativa relativa a la nueva

  17. Morphological appearance and chemical composition of enamel in primary teeth from patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingberg, Gunilla; Dietz, Wolfram; Oskarsdóttir, Sólveig; Odelius, Hans; Gelander, Lars; Norén, Jörgen G

    2005-08-01

    Patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome have many and complex medical problems, including hypocalcemia and/or hypoparathyroidism. Odontological findings include enamel aberrations in both dentitions. In order to describe enamel morphology, chemical composition in primary teeth, and to investigate the relationship between medical history and morphological appearance, dental enamel was investigated in 38 exfoliated primary teeth from 15 children and adolescents. Morphology was studied by the use of a polarized light microscope, microradiography, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The morphological findings were compared with medical history. The teeth showed, in principle, a normal morphological appearance with regard to prism structure. A high frequency of aberrations, such as hypomineralization, hypoplasia and extra incremental lines, were found. The majority of the aberrations were found around the neonatal line. There was a relationship between high numbers of medical problems in the patients and enamel deviations. The result supports the hypothesis of under-reporting of both hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism in patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome.

  18. Hierarchical Composites with Nanostructured Reinforcement for Multifunctional Aerospace Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced nano-engineered composites hold great potential for augmenting aerospace composites material performance by reducing spacecraft weight, increasing payload...

  19. Association of Eating Behavior With Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Primary School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Chee Wee; Chin, Yit Siew; Lee, Shoo Thien; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Problematic eating behaviors during childhood may lead to positive energy balance and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of eating behaviors with nutritional status and body composition in Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years. A total of 1782 primary schoolchildren were randomly recruited from 6 regions in Malaysia. The multidimensional Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was reported by parents to determine the 8 different dimensions of eating styles among children. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were assessed. Linear regression analyses revealed that both food responsiveness and desire to drink subscales were positively associated with a child's body adiposity, whereas satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and emotional undereating subscales were negatively associated with adiposity (all P children. © 2016 APJPH.

  20. Inflatable Habitat with Integrated Primary and Secondary Structure, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Paragon Space Development Corp (Paragon) and Thin Red Line Aerospace (TRLA) proposes to explore the utilization of inflatable structures by designing a habitation...

  1. Modelling and simulating the forming of new dry automated lay-up reinforcements for primary structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquerel, Laure; Moulin, Nicolas; Drapier, Sylvain; Boisse, Philippe; Beraud, Jean-Marc

    2017-10-01

    While weight has been so far the main driver for the development of prepreg based-composites solutions for aeronautics, a new weight-cost trade-off tends to drive choices for next-generation aircrafts. As a response, Hexcel has designed a new dry reinforcement type for aircraft primary structures, which combines the benefits of automation, out-of-autoclave process cost-effectiveness, and mechanical performances competitive to prepreg solutions: HiTape® is a unidirectional (UD) dry carbon reinforcement with thermoplastic veil on each side designed for aircraft primary structures [1-3]. One privileged process route for HiTape® in high volume automated processes consists in forming initially flat dry reinforcement stacks, before resin infusion [4] or injection. Simulation of the forming step aims at predicting the geometry and mechanical properties of the formed stack (so-called preform) for process optimisation. Extensive work has been carried out on prepreg and dry woven fabrics forming behaviour and simulation, but the interest for dry non-woven reinforcements has emerged more recently. Some work has been achieved on non crimp fabrics but studies on the forming behaviour of UDs are seldom and deal with UD prepregs only. Tension and bending in the fibre direction, along with inter-ply friction have been identified as the main mechanisms controlling the HiTape® response during forming. Bending has been characterised using a modified Peirce's flexometer [5] and inter-ply friction study is under development. Anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive models have been selected to represent the assumed decoupled deformation mechanisms. Model parameters are then identified from associated experimental results. For forming simulation, a continuous approach at the macroscopic scale has been selected first, and simulation is carried out in the Zset framework [6] using proper shell finite elements.

  2. Buckling optimization of steering stiffeners for grid-stiffened composite structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, D.; Abdalla, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Grid-stiffened composite structures, where the skin is stiffened by a lattice of stiffeners, not only allow for significant reduction in structural weight but are also competitive in terms of structural stability and damage tolerance compared with sandwich composite structures. As the development of

  3. Generating the Best Stacking Sequence Table for the Design of Blended Composite Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farzan Nasab, F.; Geijselaers, H. J.M.; Baran, I.; de Boer, A.

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve the ability of a large-scale light-weight composite structure to carry tensile or compressive loads, stiffeners are added to the structure. The stiffeners divide the structure into several smaller panels. For a composite structure to be manufacturable, it is necessary that plies

  4. Echinococcus granulosus Antigen B Structure: Subunit Composition and Oligomeric States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Karina M.; Cardoso, Mateus B.; Follmer, Cristian; da Silveira, Nádya P.; Vargas, Daiani M.; Kitajima, Elliot W.; Zaha, Arnaldo; Ferreira, Henrique B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Antigen B (AgB) is the major protein secreted by the Echinococcus granulosus metacestode and is involved in key host-parasite interactions during infection. The full comprehension of AgB functions depends on the elucidation of several structural aspects that remain unknown, such as its subunit composition and oligomeric states. Methodology/Principal Findings The subunit composition of E. granulosus AgB oligomers from individual bovine and human cysts was assessed by mass spectrometry associated with electrophoretic analysis. AgB8/1, AgB8/2, AgB8/3 and AgB8/4 subunits were identified in all samples analyzed, and an AgB8/2 variant (AgB8/2v8) was found in one bovine sample. The exponentially modified protein abundance index (emPAI) was used to estimate the relative abundance of the AgB subunits, revealing that AgB8/1 subunit was relatively overrepresented in all samples. The abundance of AgB8/3 subunit varied between bovine and human cysts. The oligomeric states formed by E. granulosus AgB and recombinant subunits available, rAgB8/1, rAgB8/2 and rAgB8/3, were characterized by native PAGE, light scattering and microscopy. Recombinant subunits showed markedly distinct oligomerization behaviors, forming oligomers with a maximum size relation of rAgB8/3>rAgB8/2>rAgB8/1. Moreover, the oligomeric states formed by rAgB8/3 subunit were more similar to those observed for AgB purified from hydatid fluid. Pressure-induced dissociation experiments demonstrated that the molecular assemblies formed by the more aggregative subunits, rAgB8/2 and rAgB8/3, also display higher structural stability. Conclusions/Significance For the first time, AgB subunit composition was analyzed in samples from single hydatid cysts, revealing qualitative and quantitative differences between samples. We showed that AgB oligomers are formed by different subunits, which have distinct abundances and oligomerization properties. Overall, our findings have significantly contributed to increase the

  5. Material Distribution Optimization for the Shell Aircraft Composite Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsov, S.; Zhilyaev, I.; Oganesyan, P.; Axenov, V.

    2016-09-01

    One of the main goal in aircraft structures designing isweight decreasing and stiffness increasing. Composite structures recently became popular in aircraft because of their mechanical properties and wide range of optimization possibilities.Weight distribution and lay-up are keys to creating lightweight stiff strictures. In this paperwe discuss optimization of specific structure that undergoes the non-uniform air pressure at the different flight conditions and reduce a level of noise caused by the airflowinduced vibrations at the constrained weight of the part. Initial model was created with CAD tool Siemens NX, finite element analysis and post processing were performed with COMSOL Multiphysicsr and MATLABr. Numerical solutions of the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations supplemented by k-w turbulence model provide the spatial distributions of air pressure applied to the shell surface. At the formulation of optimization problem the global strain energy calculated within the optimized shell was assumed as the objective. Wall thickness has been changed using parametric approach by an initiation of auxiliary sphere with varied radius and coordinates of the center, which were the design variables. To avoid a local stress concentration, wall thickness increment was defined as smooth function on the shell surface dependent of auxiliary sphere position and size. Our study consists of multiple steps: CAD/CAE transformation of the model, determining wind pressure for different flow angles, optimizing wall thickness distribution for specific flow angles, designing a lay-up for optimal material distribution. The studied structure was improved in terms of maximum and average strain energy at the constrained expense ofweight growth. Developed methods and tools can be applied to wide range of shell-like structures made of multilayered quasi-isotropic laminates.

  6. Role of primary substrate composition and concentration on attenuation of trace organic chemicals in managed aquifer recharge systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alidina, Mazahirali

    2014-11-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the role of primary substrate composition and concentration on the attenuation of biodegradable emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) in simulated managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems. Four sets of soil columns were established in the laboratory, each receiving synthetic feed solutions comprising different ratios and concentrations of peptone-yeast and humic acid as the primary substrate to investigate the effect on removal of six TOrCs (atenolol, caffeine, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, primidone, and trimethoprim). Based on abiotic control experiments, adsorption was not identified as a significant attenuation mechanism for primidone, gemfibrozil and diclofenac. Caffeine, atenolol and trimethoprim displayed initial adsorptive losses, however, adsorption coefficients derived from batch tests confirmed that adsorption was limited and in the long-term experiment, biodegradation was the dominant attenuation process. Within a travel time of 16h, caffeine - an easily degradable compound exhibited removal exceeding 75% regardless of composition or concentration of the primary substrate. Primidone - a poorly degradable compound, showed no removal in any column regardless of the nature of the primary substrate. The composition and concentration of the primary substrate, however, had an effect on attenuation of moderately degradable TOrCs, such as atenolol, gemfibrozil and diclofenac, with the primary substrate composition seeming to have a larger impact on TOrC attenuation than its concentration. When the primary substrate consisted mainly of refractory substrate (humic acid), higher removal of the moderately degradable TOrCs was observed. The microbial communities in the columns receiving more refractory carbon, were noted to be more diverse and hence likely able to express a wider range of enzymes, which were more suitable for TOrC transformation. The effect of the primary substrate on microbial community composition, diversity

  7. Structural and compositional complexity of nitrogen implantation in silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suvorova, Alexandra A.; Rubanov, Sergey; Suvorov, Alexander V.

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the nitrogen-implanted SiC, with the focus being to understand the structure and composition of the implanted region and its evolution with annealing. The implantation region was probed as a function of implant and annealing conditions using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) based imaging and spectroscopy techniques as well as Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy revealed carbon bands at ∼1600 cm −1 and 1370 cm −1 and silicon nitride bands at ∼460 cm −1 and 790 cm −1 for the samples processed at high temperatures. TEM showed that nitrogen ion implantation of the silicon carbide followed by thermal annealing creates complicated nanocomposite structure. Elemental maps obtained using energy-filtered TEM revealed concentration variation across the implanted layer with carbon accumulation observed at the interfaces and the center of the implanted layer. The nitrogen atoms substitution of carbon in SiC and the segregation of implantation-induced carbon atoms are believed to be the reason for the observed structure.

  8. Body composition and physical fitness of undernourished South African rural primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monyeki, M A; Koppes, L L J; Kemper, H C G; Monyeki, K D; Toriola, A L; Pienaar, A E; Twisk, J W R

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between the body composition characteristics, body mass index (BMI), sum of skinfolds (SSF), % body fat (%BF), fat-free mass (FFM) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and nine physical fitness items in undernourished rural primary school children in Ellisras, South Africa. A cross-sectional study. The study consisted of 462 boys and 393 girls who were aged 7-14 y. Five body composition measures were assessed: BMI, SSF, %BF, FFM and WHR. Nine physical fitness test items were assessed: standing long jump, bent arm hang, sit-ups, 10 x 5 m shuttle run, 50 m sprint, 1600 m run, flamingo balance, sit and reach, plate tapping. BMI was highly correlated with FFM (r = 0.7, P sit and reach (B = -7.48, P = 0.01). In contrast, significant relationships were found between BMI and standing long jump (B = 0.74, P = 0.04), sit and reach (B = 0.51, P sit and reach (B = 0.04, P = 0.03). Significant inverse associations were found between FFM and bent arm hang (girls, B = -0.06, P = 0.05), 1600 m run (girls, B = -2.33, P = 0.003) and 50 m run (boys, B = -0.11, P = 0.006). FFM was significantly associated with standing long jump (boys, B = 0.99, P sit and reach (boys, B = 0.59, P = 0.03). In the present study in undernourished children, body composition was significantly related to physical fitness, but not always in the expected direction. It is therefore important to note that in this population, BMI should not be interpreted as a measure of fatness/overweight, but rather as an indicator of muscle mass.

  9. A composite measure to explore visual disability in primary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poretto, Valentina; Petracca, Maria; Saiote, Catarina; Mormina, Enricomaria; Howard, Jonathan; Miller, Aaron; Lublin, Fred D; Inglese, Matilde

    2017-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide complementary information on visual system damage in multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of this paper is to determine whether a composite OCT/MRI score, reflecting cumulative damage along the entire visual pathway, can predict visual deficits in primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS). Twenty-five PPMS patients and 20 age-matched controls underwent neuro-ophthalmologic evaluation, spectral-domain OCT, and 3T brain MRI. Differences between groups were assessed by univariate general linear model and principal component analysis (PCA) grouped instrumental variables into main components. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between low-contrast visual acuity (LCVA), OCT/MRI-derived metrics and PCA-derived composite scores. PCA identified four main components explaining 80.69% of data variance. Considering each variable independently, LCVA 1.25% was significantly predicted by ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness, thalamic volume and optic radiation (OR) lesion volume (adjusted R 2 0.328, p  = 0.00004; adjusted R 2 0.187, p  = 0.002 and adjusted R 2 0.180, p  = 0.002). The PCA composite score of global visual pathway damage independently predicted both LCVA 1.25% (adjusted R 2 value 0.361, p  = 0.00001) and LCVA 2.50% (adjusted R 2 value 0.323, p  = 0.00003). A multiparametric score represents a more comprehensive and effective tool to explain visual disability than a single instrumental metric in PPMS.

  10. Finite element model updating of natural fibre reinforced composite structure in structural dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sani M.S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Model updating is a process of making adjustment of certain parameters of finite element model in order to reduce discrepancy between analytical predictions of finite element (FE and experimental results. Finite element model updating is considered as an important field of study as practical application of finite element method often shows discrepancy to the test result. The aim of this research is to perform model updating procedure on a composite structure as well as trying improving the presumed geometrical and material properties of tested composite structure in finite element prediction. The composite structure concerned in this study is a plate of reinforced kenaf fiber with epoxy. Modal properties (natural frequency, mode shapes, and damping ratio of the kenaf fiber structure will be determined using both experimental modal analysis (EMA and finite element analysis (FEA. In EMA, modal testing will be carried out using impact hammer test while normal mode analysis using FEA will be carried out using MSC. Nastran/Patran software. Correlation of the data will be carried out before optimizing the data from FEA. Several parameters will be considered and selected for the model updating procedure.

  11. Ninth DOD/NASA/FAA Conference on Fibrous Composites in Structural Design, volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soderquist, J.R.; Neri, L.M.; Bohon, H.L.

    1992-09-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of the Ninth DOD/NASA/FAA conference on Fibrous Composites in structural Design. Presentations were made in the following areas of composite structural design: perspectives in composites; design methodology; design applications; design criteria; supporting technology; damage tolerance; and manufacturing. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for articles from this report.

  12. Ninth DOD/NASA/FAA Conference on Fibrous Composites in Structural Design, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, Joseph R. (Compiler); Neri, Lawrence M. (Compiler); Bohon, Herman L. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of the Ninth DOD/NASA/FAA Conference on Fibrous Composites in Structural Design held at Lake Tahoe, Nevada, during 4-7 Nov. 1991. Presentations were made in the following areas of composite structural design: perspectives in composites, design methodology, design applications, design criteria, supporting technology, damage tolerance, and manufacturing.

  13. Ninth DOD/NASA/FAA Conference on Fibrous Composites in Structural Design, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, Joseph R. (Compiler); Neri, Lawrence M. (Compiler); Bohon, Herman L. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of the Ninth DOD/NASA/FAA conference on Fibrous Composites in structural Design. Presentations were made in the following areas of composite structural design: perspectives in composites; design methodology; design applications; design criteria; supporting technology; damage tolerance; and manufacturing.

  14. Ninth DOD/NASA/FAA Conference on Fibrous Composites in Structural Design, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, Joseph R. (Compiler); Neri, Lawrence M. (Compiler); Bohon, Herman L. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of the Ninth DOD/NASA/FAA Conference on Fibrous Composites in Structural Design held at Lake Tahoe, Nevada, during 4-7 Nov. 1991. Presentations were made in the following areas of composite structural design: perspectives in composites, design methodology, design applications, design criteria, supporting technology, damage tolerance, and manufacturing.

  15. Ninth DOD/NASA/FAA Conference on Fibrous Composites in Structural Design, volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soderquist, J.R.; Neri, L.M.; Bohon, H.L.

    1992-09-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of the Ninth DOD/NASA/FAA Conference on Fibrous Composites in Structural Design held at Lake Tahoe, Nevada, during 4-7 Nov. 1991. Presentations were made in the following areas of composite structural design: perspectives in composites, design methodology, design applications, design criteria, supporting technology, damage tolerance, and manufacturing.

  16. Altered inorganic composition of dental enamel and dentin in primary teeth from girls with Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizell, Sara; Kjellberg, Heidrun; Dietz, Wolfram; Norén, Jörgen G; Lundgren, Ted

    2010-04-01

    In Turner syndrome (TS) one X-chromosome is missing or defective. The amelogenin gene, located on the X-chromosome, plays a key role during the formation of dental enamel. The aim of this study was to find support for the hypothesis that impaired expression of the X-chromosome influences mineral incorporation during amelogenesis and, indirectly, during dentinogenesis. Primary tooth enamel and dentin from girls with TS were analysed and compared with the enamel and dentin of primary teeth from healthy girls. Qualitative and quantitative changes in the composition of TS enamel were found, in addition to morphological differences. Higher frequencies of subsurface lesions and rod-free zones were seen in TS enamel using polarized light microscopy. Similarly, scanning electron microscopy showed that the enamel rods from TS teeth were of atypical sizes and directions. Using X-ray microanalysis, high levels of calcium and phosphorus, and low levels of carbon, were found in both TS enamel and dentin. Using microradiography, a lower degree of mineralization was found in TS enamel. Rule induction analysis was performed to identify characteristic element patterns for TS. Low values of carbon were the most critical attributes for the outcome TS. The conclusion was that impaired expression of the X-chromosome has an impact on dental hard tissue formation.

  17. Giant Planets of Our Solar System Atmospheres, Composition, and Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, Patrick G. J

    2009-01-01

    This book reviews the current state of knowledge of the atmospheres of the giant gaseous planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The current theories of their formation are reviewed and their recently observed temperature, composition and cloud structures are contrasted and compared with simple thermodynamic, radiative transfer and dynamical models. The instruments and techniques that have been used to remotely measure their atmospheric properties are also reviewed, and the likely development of outer planet observations over the next two decades is outlined. This second edition has been extensively updated following the Cassini mission results for Jupiter/Saturn and the newest ground-based measurements for Uranus/Neptune as well as on the latest development in the theories on planet formation.

  18. Composition structure and main parameters of automated radiographic complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majorov, A.N.; Akopov, V.S.; Golenishchev, I.A.; Grachev, A.V.; Zasimov, V.P.

    1977-01-01

    The function and basic parameters of separate units of an automation complex for radiographic control (ACRC) enabling to introduce the control process in the general production control circuit are discussed. The composition and structure of the ACRC are determined by the kind of an article under control (pivoted or unpivoted), by the mode of article X-raying (panoramic, partial or with a picture scanning), as well as by the type of instrument for data readout. Radiographic pictures are processed automatically by means of a system containing a drum optical and mechanical readout device, an analog-to-digital converter, a data transmitter and the ''Minsk-22'' computer. The analysis of the system capacity has shown the data volume to amount to some 1.2x10 8 bit while the data readout transmission and processing rates are 1.2x10 6 ; 0.3x10 11 and 0.7x10 4 mm 2 /h accordingly

  19. 3rd International Conference on Structural Nano Composites (NANOSTRUC2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njuguna, J.

    2017-05-01

    The Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen hosted The NANOSTRUC 2016 in Aberdeen (Scotland, United Kingdom). The conference focused on ‘Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies - Recent Advances towards Nanoproducts and Applications’. It promoted activities in various areas on materials and structures by providing a forum for exchange of ideas, presentation of technical achievements and discussion of future directions. The conference benefitted from keynote lectures focused on topical issues in nanosciences and nanotechnology. The key sessions were on Application of Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites, Functional Nanocomposites, Graphene and Carbon-based Nanocomposites, Metallic and Metals Oxide Nanocomposites, Sustainability - Nanosafety & Environment, Toughness of Polymer Nanocomposites, Biocomposites and Nanofibres and on Fibre Reinforced Composites. A sample of papers presented at the NANOSTRUC 2016 are briefly summarised in this Issue

  20. Research on primary mirror lateral support structure of large-aperture telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang

    2010-05-01

    The primary mirror of large-aperture telescope is an important component of telescope system. The surface figure error of the primary mirror is a critical factor affecting the imaging quality of telescope system. With the augment of primary mirror aperture, the surface figure error of the primary mirror is affected by many factors, such as gravity, thermal deformation and so on. The factors that influence the surface figure error of the primary mirror are considered and analyzed roundly according to technical requirements of optical system. So the feasible project is researched on the lateral support structure of large-aperture telescope primary mirror. The primary mirror support system of large-aperture telescope is composed of axial support and lateral support. In traditional telescope, the contribution of lateral support to surface distortion is less than axial support. With increase of diameter to thickness ratio, lateral support is becoming more complicated and important than before. Lateral support is a key technology the same as axial support for the large-aperture telescope primary mirror. With the foundation of analysis, comparison and conclusion of related literature and monograph, according to primary mirror supporting principle of the large-aperture telescope. Lateral support methods, the influence of the primary mirror surface figure error due to primary mirror lateral support and lateral support structure of primary mirror are analyzed.

  1. Cyanate ester-nanoparticle composites as multifunctional structural capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, J. Eliseo

    An important goal of engineering is to increase the energy density of electrical energy storage devices used to deliver power onboard mobile platforms. Equally important is the goal to reduce the overall mass of the vehicles transporting these devices to achieve increased fuel and cost efficiency. One approach to meeting both these objectives is to develop multifunctional systems that serve as both energy storage and load bearing structural devices. Multifunctional devices consist of constituents that individually perform a subset of the overall desired functions. However, the synergy achieved by the combination of each constituent's characteristics allows for system-level benefits that cannot be achieved by simply optimizing the separate subsystems. We investigated multifunctional systems consisting of light weight polymer matrix and high dielectric constant fillers to achieve these objectives. The monomer of bisphenol E cyanate ester exhibited excellent processing ability because of its low room temperature viscosity. Additionally, the fully cured thermoset demonstrated excellent thermal stability, specific strength and stiffness. Fillers, including multi-walled carbon nanotubes, nanometer scale barium titanate and nanometer scale calcium copper titanate, offer high dielectric constants that raised the effective dielectric constant of the polymer matrix composite. The combination of high epsilon'and high dielectric strength produce high energy density components exhibiting increased electrical energy storage. Mechanical (load bearing) improvements of the PMCs were attributed to covalently bonded nanometer and micrometer sized filler particles, as well as the continuous glass fiber, integrated into the resin systems which increased the structural characteristics of the cured composites. Breakdown voltage tests and dynamic mechanical analysis were employed to demonstrate that precise combinations of these constituents, under the proper processing conditions, can

  2. Characterization of adhesive from oysters: A structural and compositional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Erik

    The inability for man-made adhesives to set in wet or humid environments is an ongoing challenging the design of biomedical and marine adhesive materials. However, we see that nature has already overcome this challenge. Mussels, barnacles, oysters and sandcastle worms all have unique mechanisms by which they attach themselves to surfaces. By understanding what evolution has already spent millions of years perfecting, we can design novel adhesive materials inspired by nature's elegant designs. The well-studied mussel is currently the standard for design of marine inspired biomimetic polymers. In the work presented here, we aim to provide new insights into the adhesive produced by the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Unlike the mussel, which produces thread-like plaques comprised of DOPA containing-protein, the oyster secretes an organic-inorganic hybrid adhesive as it settles and grows onto a surface. This form of adhesion renders the oyster to be permanently fixed in place. Over time, hundreds of thousands of oyster grow and agglomerate to form extensive reef structures. These reefs are not only essential to survival of the oyster, but are also vital to intertidal ecosystems. While the shell of the oyster has been extensively studied, curiously, only a few conflicting insights have been made into the nature of the adhesive and contact zone between shell and substrate, and even lesfs information has been ascertained on organic and inorganic composition. In this work, we provide microscopy and histochemical studies to characterize the structure and composition of the adhesive, using oyster in the adult and juvenile stages of life. Preliminary work on extracting and characterizing organic components through collaborative help with solid-state NMR (SSNMR) and proteomics are also detailed here. We aim to provide a full, comprehensive characterization of oyster adhesive so that in the future, we may apply what we learn to the design of new materials.

  3. The effects of embedded piezoelectric fiber composite sensors on the structural integrity of glass-fiber–epoxy composite laminate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konka, Hari P; Wahab, M A; Lian, K

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric fiber composite sensors (PFCSs) made from micro-sized lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fibers have many advantages over the traditional bulk PZT sensors for embedded sensor applications. PFCSs as embedded sensors will be an ideal choice to continuously monitor the stress/strain levels and health conditions of composite structures. PFCSs are highly flexible, easily embeddable, have high compatibility with composite structures, and also provides manufacturing flexibility. This research is focused on examining the effects of embedding PFCS sensors (macro-fiber composite (MFC) and piezoelectric fiber composite (PFC)) on the structural integrity of glass-fiber–epoxy composite laminates. The strengths of composite materials with embedded PFCSs and conventional PZT sensors were compared, and the advantages of PFCS sensors over PZTs were demonstrated. Initially a numerical simulation study is performed to understand the local stress/strain field near the embedded sensor region inside a composite specimen. High stress concentration regions were observed near the embedded sensor corner edge. Using PFCS leads to a reduction of 56% in longitudinal stress concentration and 38% in transverse stress concentration, when compared to using the conventional PZTs as embedded sensors. In-plane tensile, in-plane tension–tension fatigue, and short beam strength tests are performed to evaluate the strengths/behavior of the composite specimens containing embedded PFCS. From the tensile test it is observed that embedding PFCS and PZT sensors in the composite structures leads to a reduction in ultimate strength by 3 and 6% respectively. From the fatigue test results it is concluded that both embedded PFCS and PZT sensors do not have a significant effect on the fatigue behavior of the composite specimens. From the short beam strength test it is found that embedding PFCS and PZT sensors leads to a reduction in shear strength by 7 and 15% respectively. Overall the pure PZT

  4. Microleakage and Micrographic Evaluation of Composite Restorations With Various Bases Over ZOE Layer in Pulpotomized Primary Molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rezamand

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE under composite restorations should be covered with a suitable material in order to prevent the harmful effect of ZOE on the composite. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate microleakage of composite restorations in pulpotomized primary molars with different bases for covering the ZOE layer and to assess the distance between different layers.Materials and Methods: Proximo-occlusal cavities were prepared in 78 extracted second primary molars. Carious lesions were removed and pulpotomy was carried out. Zinc oxide eugenol paste was placed in 2-mm thickness. The teeth were randomly divided in 6 groups and restored as follows: 1. Light-cured composite; 2. Resin-modified glass-ionomer and composite resin; 3. Glass-ionomer and composite resin; 4. Light-cured calcium hydroxide and composite resin; 5.Calcium hydroxide and composite resin; 6. Amalgam and composite resin. The restored specimens were thermocycled for 500 cycles (5°C/55°C and microleakage was assessed by dye penetration technique. Three specimens from each group were processed for scanning electron microscope evaluation to determine the distance between the layers. The results were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests.Results: Microleakage assessment revealed significant differences between the groups (P=0.04, with the amalgam group exhibiting the lowest microleakage values. In SEM micrographs no significant differences were observed in the distance between ZOE base layers (P=0.94 and base-composite layers (P=0.47; however, the amalgam group had the lowest distances.Conclusion: The use of amalgam over zinc oxide eugenol layer in pulpotomized primary molars decreases microleakage.

  5. Graphites and composites irradiations for gas cooled reactor core structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Laan, J.G.; Vreeling, J.A.; Buckthorpe, D.E.; Reed, J.

    2008-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Material investigations are undertaken as part of the European Commission 6. Framework Programme for helium-cooled fission reactors under development like HTR, VHTR, GCFR. The work comprises a range of activities, from (pre-)qualification to screening of newly designed materials. The High Flux Reactor at Petten is the main test bed for the irradiation test programmes of the HTRM/M1, RAPHAEL and ExtreMat Integrated Projects. These projects are supported by the European Commission 5. and 6. Framework Programmes. To a large extent they form the European contribution to the Generation-IV International Forum. NRG is also performing a Materials Test Reactor project to support British Energy in preparing extended operation of their Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGR). Irradiations of commercial and developmental graphite grades for HTR core structures are undertaken in the range of 650 to 950 deg C, with a view to get data on physical and mechanical properties that enable engineering design. Various C- and SiC-based composite materials are considered for support structures or specific components like control rods. Irradiation test matrices are chosen to cover commercial materials, and to provide insight on the behaviour of various fibre and matrix types, and the effects of architecture and manufacturing process. The programme is connected with modelling activities to support data trending, and improve understanding of the material behaviour and micro-structural evolution. The irradiation programme involves products from a large variety of industrial and research partners, and there is strong interaction with other high technology areas with extreme environments like space, electronics and fusion. The project on AGR core structures graphite focuses on the effects of high dose neutron irradiation and simultaneous radiolytic oxidation in a range of 350 to 450 deg C. It is aimed to provide data on graphite properties into the parameter space

  6. In vitro Comparison of Microleakage of Nanofilled and Flowable Composites in Restoring Class V Cavities in Primary Molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahil Ahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Composite resins undergo microleakage due to polymerization shrinkage particularly when located in cementum or dentin. The purpose of this study was to compare the microleakage of flowable and nanofilled composites in Class V cavities extending on to the root in primary molars. Materials and Methods: Forty eight class V cavities in the cervical part of buccal and lingual surfaces of 24 intact mandibular second primary molars were prepared, with occlusal margins on enamel and gingival margins on cementum. After restoring cavities randomly with nanofilled or flowable composite by incremental technique, specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours, thermocycled, immersed in a basic Fuchsin solution for 24 hours and sectioned buccolingually. Microleakage was evaluated according to the depth of dye penetration along the restoration wall using a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by Mann- Whitney U test at a significance level of 0.05.Results Microleakage of flowable and nanofilled composites at the cervical margin showed no statistically significant difference, however occlusal margin in nanofilled composite exhibited significantly less microleakage than flowable composite (p=0.013.Conclusion: In contrast to occlusal margin, there was no statistically significant difference in microleakage between the 2 composites on the gingival margin. Microleakage on the gingival wall was greater compared to occlusal wall for both composites.

  7. Structure and chemical composition of hydrocarbons from semicoking tar of lignites from the near-Moscow fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Antonio, T.Z.; Ryltsova, S.V.; Platonova, M.V.; Shvykin, A.Y. [Lev Tolstoi State Pedagogical University, Tula (Russian Federation)

    1999-02-01

    Hydrocarbons from semicoking tar of lignites from the near-Moscow fields were separated by thin-layer chromatography and the molecular and hypothetical structural formulae of the components were determined. A genetic relationship between the components and the initial biological material was revealed. A contribution of `primary` hydrocarbons to formation of the qualitative composition of tars obtained by high-temperature processing of lignites was demonstrated.

  8. The importance of tissue specificity for RNA-seq: highlighting the errors of composite structure extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian R; Atallah, Joel; Plachetzki, David C

    2013-08-28

    A composite biological structure, such as an insect head or abdomen, contains many internal structures with distinct functions. Composite structures are often used in RNA-seq studies, though it is unclear how expression of the same gene in different tissues and structures within the same structure affects the measurement (or even utility) of the resulting patterns of gene expression. Here we determine how complex composite tissue structure affects measures of gene expression using RNA-seq. We focus on two structures in the honey bee (the sting gland and digestive tract) both contained within one larger structure, the whole abdomen. For each of the three structures, we used RNA-seq to identify differentially expressed genes between two developmental stages, nurse bees and foragers. Based on RNA-seq for each structure-specific extraction, we found that RNA-seq with composite structures leads to many false negatives (genes strongly differentially expressed in particular structures which are not found to be differentially expressed within the composite structure). We also found a significant number of genes with one pattern of differential expression in the tissue-specific extraction, and the opposite in the composite extraction, suggesting multiple signals from such genes within the composite structure. We found these patterns for different classes of genes including transcription factors. Many RNA-seq studies currently use composite extractions, and even whole insect extractions, when tissue and structure specific extractions are possible. This is due to the logistical difficultly of micro-dissection and unawareness of the potential errors associated with composite extractions. The present study suggests that RNA-seq studies of composite structures are prone to false negatives and difficult to interpret positive signals for genes with variable patterns of local expression. In general, our results suggest that RNA-seq on large composite structures should be avoided

  9. Cracking and Corrosion of Composite Tubes in Black Liquor Recovery Boiler Primary Air Ports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, James R.; Singbeil, Douglas L.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Kish, Joseph R.; Yuan, Jerry; Frederick, Laurie A.; Choudhury, Kimberly A.; Gorog, J. Peter; Jetté, Francois R.; Hubbard, Camden R.; Swindeman, Robert W.; Singh, Prett M.; Maziasz, Phillip J.

    2006-10-01

    Black liquor recovery boilers are an essential part of kraft mills. Their design and operating procedures have changed over time with the goal of providing improved boiler performance. These performance improvements are frequently associated with an increase in heat flux and/or operating temperature with a subsequent increase in the demand on structural materials associated with operation at higher temperatures and/or in more corrosive environments. Improvements in structural materials have therefore been required. In most cases the alternate materials have provided acceptable solutions. However, in some cases the alternate materials have solved the original problem but introduced new issues. This report addresses the performance of materials in the tubes forming primary air port openings and, particularly, the problems associated with use of stainless steel clad carbon steel tubes and the solutions that have been identified.

  10. Effect of dielectrophoretic structuring on piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties of lead titanate-epoxy composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khanbareh, H.; Zwaag, S. van der; Groen, W.A.

    2014-01-01

    Functional granular composites of lead titanate particles in an epoxy matrix prepared by dielectrophoresis show enhanced dielectric, piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties compared to 0-3 composites for different ceramic volume content from 10% to 50%. Two structuring parameters, the

  11. Stochastic collocation-based finite element of structural nonlinear dynamics with application in composite structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepahvand K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic analysis of structures having nonlinearity by means of sampling methods leads to expensive cost in term of computational time. In contrast, non-sampling methods based on the spectral representation of uncertainty are very efficient with comparable accurate results. In this pa- per, the application of spectral methods to nonlinear dynamics of structures with random parameters is investigated. The impact of the parameter randomness on structural responses has been consid- ered. To this end, uncertain parameters and the structure responses are represented using the gPC expansions with unknown deterministic coefficients and random orthogonal polynomial basis. The deterministic finite element model of the structure is used as black-box and it is executed on a set of random collocation points. As the sample structure responses are estimated, a nonlinear optimization process is employed to calculate the unknown coefficients. The method has this main advantage that can be used for complicated nonlinear structural dynamic problems for which the deterministic FEM model has been already developed. Furthermore, it is very time efficient in comparison with sampling methods, as MC simulations. The application of the method is applied to the nonlinear transient analysis of composite beam structures including uncertain quadratic random damping. The results show that the proposed method can capture the large range of uncertainty in input parameters as well as in structural dynamic responses while it is too time-efficient.

  12. On the structure of anomalous composite Higgs models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gripaios, Ben [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Nardecchia, Marco [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); You, Tevong [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    We describe the anomaly structure of a composite Higgs model in which the SO(5)/SO(4) coset structure of the minimal model is extended by an additional, non-linearly realised U(1){sub η}. In addition, we show that the effective Lagrangian admits a term that, like the Wess-Zumino-Witten term in the chiral Lagrangian for QCD, is not invariant under the non-linearly realised symmetries, but rather changes by a total derivative. This term is unlike the Wess-Zumino-Witten term in that it does not arise from anomalies. If present, it may give rise to the rare decay η → hW{sup +}W{sup -}Z. The phenomenology of the singlet in this model differs from that in a model based on SO(6)/SO(5), in that couplings to both gluons and photons, arising via anomalies, are present. We show that while some tuning is needed to accommodate flavour and electroweak precision constraints, the model is no worse than the minimal model in this regard. (orig.)

  13. On the composition of modal structures of Tuvan traditional songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayasmaa D.-B. Baranmaa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important aspects of musical language of song folklore of Tuvans – the scale – is as yet underinvestigated in contemporary Tuvan musicology. The author is studying the effect of structural principles in scale and sound gamut of Tuvan folk songs. The theory of monodic scales (S.P. Galitskaya, E.V. Gertsman, Yu.G. Kon, Kh.S. Kushnarev, etc. forms the methodological basis for the analysis. The object of our studies are manuscripts of traditional Tuvan songs published by Russian musicologists (A. N. Aksenov, Z. K. Kyrgys, etc. serves as material base for analysis. The analysis revealed that traditional Tuvan songs are usually based on two- or three-part composite gamut structures. This significantly enriched the substantial aspect of the process by complicating types of links between the sounds, making the medium more profound, compact and complete. Scale links and subscales were detected that can interconnect in four manners (discrete, monolithic, catenary, inclusive. Conjunction principles are illustrated by a few folk songs. Catenary and inclusive manners of conjunctions have been noticed to be dominating. A vast variety of different link combinations has been detected. This is a point where intonational abundance of folklore melos reveals its inexhaustibility.

  14. Laser Surface Preparation for Adhesive Bonding of Aerospace Structural Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, M. A.; Wohl, C. J.; Hopkins, J. W.; Connell, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Adhesive bonds are critical to the integrity of built-up structures. Disbonds can often be detected but the strength of adhesion between surfaces in contact is not obtainable without destructive testing. Typically the number one problem in a bonded structure is surface contamination, and by extension, surface preparation. Standard surface preparation techniques, including grit blasting, manual abrasion, and peel ply, are not ideal because of variations in their application. Etching of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) panels using a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser appears to be a highly precise and promising way to both clean a composite surface prior to bonding and provide a bond-promoting patterned surface akin to peel ply without the inherent drawbacks from the same (i.e., debris and curvature). CFRP surfaces prepared using laser patterns conducive to adhesive bonding were compared to typical pre-bonding surface treatments through optical microscopy, contact angle goniometry, and post-bonding mechanical testing.

  15. Primary structure of the signal peptide of tropoelastin b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, S R; Foster, J A

    1981-06-25

    Elastin is a major protein of compliant connective tissue and is characterized by an amino acid composition abundant in nonpolar residues. The soluble precursor to elastin tropoelastin, is extractable in organic solvents and possesses an extensive clustering of nonpolar amino acid residues in the immediate NH2-terminal region (Foster, J. A., Shapiro, R., Voynow, P., Crombie, G., Faris, B., and Franzblau, C. (1975) Biochemistry 14, 857-864). It was, therefore, of special interest to determine whether tropoelastin requires a hydrophobic signal peptide for vectorial transport of the nascent polypeptide. The possibility that the initial tropoelastin translation product possesses a short signal peptide was examined in a cell-free translation system. Total RNA, isolated from aortae of 1-day-old chicks, was translated in an mRNA-dependent reticulocyte lysate translation assay. The translation products were then immunoprecipitated and subjected to automated radiosequencing. Comparison of the NH2-terminal sequence of tropoelastin b synthesized in the cell-free system versus that synthesized in organ culture demonstrated the presence of a signal peptide 24 amino acid residues in length. The signal peptide sequence is as follows: Met-Arg-Gln-Ala-Ala-Ala-Pro-Leu-Leu-Pro-Gly-Val-Leu-Leu-Leu-Phe-Ser-Ile-Leu-Pro -Ala-Ser-Gln-Gln. The preponderance of hydrophobic amino acid residues as well as the polar residues adjacent to the initiator methionine and the carboxyl termini found in the signal peptide is similar to that reported for other secreted proteins.

  16. Clinical evaluation of fiber-reinforced composite crowns in pulp-treated primary molars: 12-month results

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadzadeh, Zahra; Parisay, Iman; Mehrabkhani, Maryam; Madani, Azam Sadat; Mazhari, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of tooth-colored fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) crowns in pulp-treated second primary mandibular teeth. Materials and Methods: This split-mouth randomized, clinical trial performed on 67 children between 3 and 6 years with two primary mandibular second molars requiring pulp treatment. After pulp therapy, the teeth were randomly assigned to stainless steel crown (SSC) or FRC crown groups. Modified United States Public ...

  17. Structure, composition and function of interfaces in ceramic fibre/matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pippel, E.

    1993-01-01

    Improving the properties of fibre reinforced ceramics and glasses by optimizing their microstructure requires the knowledge of this structure down to the atomic level. In these materials energy-dissipative processes during fracture particularly act within an interface layer or layer system between fibre and matrix which can either be produced by fibre coating, or which develops during the processing of the composites. Examples are presented of the microstructural phenomena of such layers revealed by HVEM and HREM and complemented by microchemical information via a nanoscale EDXS equipment. The investigations are carried out on Nicalon fibres in Duran glass as well as on Tyranno, Nicalon and carbon fibres in different SiC-matrices. Finally, a process is discussed which may control the important interface parameters. (orig.)

  18. Risks and reliability of manufacturing processes as related to composite materials for spacecraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Han P.

    1995-01-01

    Fabricating primary aircraft and spacecraft structures using advanced composite materials entail both benefits and risks. The benefits come from much improved strength-to-weight ratios and stiffness-to-weight ratios, potential for less part count, ability to tailor properties, chemical and solvent resistance, and superior thermal properties. On the other hand, the risks involved include high material costs, lack of processing experience, expensive labor, poor reproducibility, high toxicity for some composites, and a variety of space induced risks. The purpose of this project is to generate a manufacturing database for a selected number of materials with potential for space applications, and to rely on this database to develop quantitative approaches to screen candidate materials and processes for space applications on the basis of their manufacturing risks including costs. So far, the following materials have been included in the database: epoxies, polycyanates, bismalemides, PMR-15, polyphenylene sulfides, polyetherimides, polyetheretherketone, and aluminum lithium. The first four materials are thermoset composites; the next three are thermoplastic composites, and the last one is is a metal. The emphasis of this database is on factors affecting manufacturing such as cost of raw material, handling aspects which include working life and shelf life of resins, process temperature, chemical/solvent resistance, moisture resistance, damage tolerance, toxicity, outgassing, thermal cycling, and void content, nature or type of process, associate tooling, and in-process quality assurance. Based on industry experience and published literature, a relative ranking was established for each of the factors affecting manufacturing as listed above. Potential applications of this database include the determination of a delta cost factor for specific structures with a given process plan and a general methodology to screen materials and processes for incorporation into the current

  19. A Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Method for Determining Manganese Composition in Welding Fume as a Function of Primary Particle Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Julie D; Livi, Kenneth J T; Geyh, Alison S

    2011-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the physicochemical properties of inhaled nanoparticles influence the resulting toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. This report presents a method using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to measure the Mn content throughout the primary particle size distribution of welding fume particle samples collected on filters for application in exposure and health research. Dark field images were collected to assess the primary particle size distribution and energy-dispersive X-ray and electron energy loss spectroscopy were performed for measurement of Mn composition as a function of primary particle size. A manual method incorporating imaging software was used to measure the primary particle diameter and to select an integration region for compositional analysis within primary particles throughout the size range. To explore the variation in the developed metric, the method was applied to 10 gas metal arc welding (GMAW) fume particle samples of mild steel that were collected under a variety of conditions. The range of Mn composition by particle size was -0.10 to 0.19 %/nm, where a positive estimate indicates greater relative abundance of Mn increasing with primary particle size and a negative estimate conversely indicates decreasing Mn content with size. However, the estimate was only statistically significant (psize among welding fume samples can be detected.

  20. Structural health monitoring of co-cured composite structures using FBG sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Ramesh; Kamath, G. M.; Gupta, Nitesh; Rao, M. Subba

    2005-05-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of aircraft structures, especially composite structures, has assumed increased significance on considerations of safety and costs. With the advent of co-cured structures, wherein bonded joints are replacing bolted joints there is a concern regarding skin-stiffener separation, which might not be detected unless a rigorous non-destructive testing (NDT) is done. It would hence be necessary to be able to detect and assess skin-stiffener separation in composite structures before it reaches the critical size. One of the health monitoring strategies is through strain monitoring using fibre optic strain sensors such as Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors. The first aspect that needs to be addressed is the characterization of the FBG sensors. Issues of embedment in composites have also to be addressed. Before evolving a damage detection strategy, the sensitivity of the structural strain to skin-stiffener separations must be clearly understood and quantified. This paper presents the analysis and experiments done with a composite test box to study the effect of skin-stiffener separation on the strain behaviour. The box consists of two skins stiffened with spars made of Bi-Directional (BD) glass-epoxy prepreg material. The spars are bolted to the skins and removing suitable number of bolts simulates 'de-bonds'. The strains of the healthy box are compared with the unhealthy box. The strains in the experiments are monitored using both strain gauges and Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors. The experimental results show that there is significant change in the measured strain near and away from the debond location. The finite element analysis of the box is done using ABAQUS and the analysis is validated with the experimental results. A neural network based methodology is developed here to detect skin-stiffener debonds in structures. A multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network with a feed forward back propagation algorithm is used to determine the

  1. Energy Absorption Capacity in Natural Fiber Reinforcement Composites Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alba, Elías; Díaz, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    The study of natural fiber reinforcement composite structures has focused the attention of the automobile industry due to the new regulation in relation to the recyclability and the reusability of the materials preserving and/or improving the mechanical characteristics. The influence of different parameters on the material behavior of natural fiber reinforced plastic structures has been investigated, showing the potential for transport application in energy absorbing structures. Two different woven fabrics (twill and hopsack) made of flax fibers as well as a non-woven mat made of a mixture of hemp and kenaf fibers were employed as reinforcing materials. These reinforcing textiles were impregnated with both HD-PE (high-density polyethylen) and PLA (polylactic acid) matrix, using a continuous compression molding press. The impregnated semi-finished laminates (so-called organic sheets) were thermoformed in a second step to half-tubes that were assembled through vibration-welding process to cylindric crash absorbers. The specimens were loaded by compression to determine the specific energy absorption capacity. Quasi-static test results were compared to dynamic test data obtained on a catapult arrangement. The differences on the specific energies absorption (SEA) as a function of different parameters, such as the wall thickness, the weave material type, the reinforced textiles, and the matrix used, depending on the velocity rate application were quantified. In the case of quasi-static analysis it is observed a 20% increment in the SEA value when wove Hopsack fabric reinforcement is employed. No velocity rate influence from the material was observed on the SEA evaluation at higher speeds used to perform the experiments. The influence of the weave configuration (Hopsack) seems to be more stable against buckling effects at low loading rates with 10% higher SEA values. An increase of SEA level of up to 72% for PLA matrix was observed when compared with HD-PE matrix. PMID

  2. Energy Absorption Capacity in Natural Fiber Reinforcement Composites Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alba, Elías; Schmeer, Sebastian; Díaz, Francisco

    2018-03-13

    The study of natural fiber reinforcement composite structures has focused the attention of the automobile industry due to the new regulation in relation to the recyclability and the reusability of the materials preserving and/or improving the mechanical characteristics. The influence of different parameters on the material behavior of natural fiber reinforced plastic structures has been investigated, showing the potential for transport application in energy absorbing structures. Two different woven fabrics (twill and hopsack) made of flax fibers as well as a non-woven mat made of a mixture of hemp and kenaf fibers were employed as reinforcing materials. These reinforcing textiles were impregnated with both HD-PE (high-density polyethylen) and PLA (polylactic acid) matrix, using a continuous compression molding press. The impregnated semi-finished laminates (so-called organic sheets) were thermoformed in a second step to half-tubes that were assembled through vibration-welding process to cylindric crash absorbers. The specimens were loaded by compression to determine the specific energy absorption capacity. Quasi-static test results were compared to dynamic test data obtained on a catapult arrangement. The differences on the specific energies absorption (SEA) as a function of different parameters, such as the wall thickness, the weave material type, the reinforced textiles, and the matrix used, depending on the velocity rate application were quantified. In the case of quasi-static analysis it is observed a 20% increment in the SEA value when wove Hopsack fabric reinforcement is employed. No velocity rate influence from the material was observed on the SEA evaluation at higher speeds used to perform the experiments. The influence of the weave configuration (Hopsack) seems to be more stable against buckling effects at low loading rates with 10% higher SEA values. An increase of SEA level of up to 72% for PLA matrix was observed when compared with HD-PE matrix.

  3. Energy Absorption Capacity in Natural Fiber Reinforcement Composites Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías López-Alba

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of natural fiber reinforcement composite structures has focused the attention of the automobile industry due to the new regulation in relation to the recyclability and the reusability of the materials preserving and/or improving the mechanical characteristics. The influence of different parameters on the material behavior of natural fiber reinforced plastic structures has been investigated, showing the potential for transport application in energy absorbing structures. Two different woven fabrics (twill and hopsack made of flax fibers as well as a non-woven mat made of a mixture of hemp and kenaf fibers were employed as reinforcing materials. These reinforcing textiles were impregnated with both HD-PE (high-density polyethylen and PLA (polylactic acid matrix, using a continuous compression molding press. The impregnated semi-finished laminates (so-called organic sheets were thermoformed in a second step to half-tubes that were assembled through vibration-welding process to cylindric crash absorbers. The specimens were loaded by compression to determine the specific energy absorption capacity. Quasi-static test results were compared to dynamic test data obtained on a catapult arrangement. The differences on the specific energies absorption (SEA as a function of different parameters, such as the wall thickness, the weave material type, the reinforced textiles, and the matrix used, depending on the velocity rate application were quantified. In the case of quasi-static analysis it is observed a 20% increment in the SEA value when wove Hopsack fabric reinforcement is employed. No velocity rate influence from the material was observed on the SEA evaluation at higher speeds used to perform the experiments. The influence of the weave configuration (Hopsack seems to be more stable against buckling effects at low loading rates with 10% higher SEA values. An increase of SEA level of up to 72% for PLA matrix was observed when compared with HD

  4. Development of Stitched Composite Structure for Advanced Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn; Przekop, Adam; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew; Velicki, Alex; Linton, Kim; Wu, Hsi-Yung; Baraja, Jaime; Thrash, Patrick; Hoffman, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    NASA has created the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project to develop technologies which will reduce the impact of aviation on the environment. A critical aspect of this pursuit is the development of a lighter, more robust airframe that will enable the introduction of unconventional aircraft configurations. NASA and The Boeing Company are working together to develop a structural concept that is lightweight and an advancement beyond state-of-the-art composites. The Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) is an integrally stiffened panel design where elements are stitched together and designed to maintain residual load-carrying capabilities under a variety of damage scenarios. With the PRSEUS concept, through-the-thickness stitches are applied through dry fabric prior to resin infusion, and replace fasteners throughout each integral panel. Through-the-thickness reinforcement at discontinuities, such as along flange edges, has been shown to suppress delamination and turn cracks, which expands the design space and leads to lighter designs. The pultruded rod provides stiffening away from the more vulnerable skin surface and improves bending stiffness. A series of building blocks were evaluated to explore the fundamental assumptions related to the capability and advantages of PRSEUS panels. These building blocks addressed tension, compression, and pressure loading conditions. The emphasis of the development work has been to assess the loading capability, damage arrestment features, repairability, post-buckling behavior, and response of PRSEUS flat panels to out-of plane pressure loading. The results of this building-block program from coupons through an 80%-scale pressure box have demonstrated the viability of a PRSEUS center body for the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) transport aircraft. This development program shows that the PRSEUS benefits are also applicable to traditional tube-andwing aircraft, those of advanced configurations, and other

  5. Development of a Damage Quantification Model for Composite Skin-Stiffener Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loendersloot, Richard; Ooijevaar, T.H.; de Boer, Andries; Akkerman, Remko; Boller, C; Janocha, H

    2011-01-01

    The development of a model-based approach for a damage severity assessment applied on a complex composite skin structure with stiffeners is presented in this paper. Earlier investigations on composite structures with stiffeners revealed that a vibration based structural health monitoring approach,

  6. Synthesis and structural characterization of polyaniline/cobalt chloride composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asha, E-mail: arana5752@gmail.com [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, Bhagat Phool Singh Mahilla Vishwavidyalaya, Khanpur Kalan, Sonipat-131305 (India); Goyal, Sneh Lata; Kishore, Nawal [Department of Applied Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar-125001 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Polyaniline (PANI) and PANI /cobalt chloride composites were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline with CoCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O using ammonium peroxidisulphate as an oxidant. These composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD study reveals that both PANI and composites are amorphous. The XRD and SEM results confirm the presence of cobalt chloride in the composites.

  7. Relationship between Professional Learning Community, Bureaucratic Structure and Organisational Trust in Primary Education Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Fatma

    2016-01-01

    This research uses relational survey method to determine the relationship between professional learning community, bureaucratic structure and organisational trust according to the perceptions of teachers who work in primary education schools. Data were collected from 805 teachers who work in primary education schools in the districts (Altindag,…

  8. Interspecific Plant Interactions Reflected in Soil Bacterial Community Structure and Nitrogen Cycling in Primary Succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E. Knelman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Past research demonstrating the importance plant–microbe interactions as drivers of ecosystem succession has focused on how plants condition soil microbial communities, impacting subsequent plant performance and plant community assembly. These studies, however, largely treat microbial communities as a black box. In this study, we sought to examine how emblematic shifts from early successional Alnus viridus ssp. sinuata (Sitka alder to late successional Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce in primary succession may be reflected in specific belowground changes in bacterial community structure and nitrogen cycling related to the interaction of these two plants. We examined early successional alder-conditioned soils in a glacial forefield to delineate how alders alter the soil microbial community with increasing dominance. Further, we assessed the impact of late-successional spruce plants on these early successional alder-conditioned microbiomes and related nitrogen cycling through a leachate addition microcosm experiment. We show how increasingly abundant alder select for particular bacterial taxa. Additionally, we found that spruce leachate significantly alters the composition of these microbial communities in large part by driving declines in taxa that are enriched by alder, including bacterial symbionts. We found these effects to be spruce specific, beyond a general leachate effect. Our work also demonstrates a unique influence of spruce on ammonium availability. Such insights bolster theory relating the importance of plant–microbe interactions with late-successional plants and interspecific plant interactions more generally.

  9. Interspecific Plant Interactions Reflected in Soil Bacterial Community Structure and Nitrogen Cycling in Primary Succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knelman, Joseph E; Graham, Emily B; Prevéy, Janet S; Robeson, Michael S; Kelly, Patrick; Hood, Eran; Schmidt, Steve K

    2018-01-01

    Past research demonstrating the importance plant-microbe interactions as drivers of ecosystem succession has focused on how plants condition soil microbial communities, impacting subsequent plant performance and plant community assembly. These studies, however, largely treat microbial communities as a black box. In this study, we sought to examine how emblematic shifts from early successional Alnus viridus ssp. sinuata (Sitka alder) to late successional Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce) in primary succession may be reflected in specific belowground changes in bacterial community structure and nitrogen cycling related to the interaction of these two plants. We examined early successional alder-conditioned soils in a glacial forefield to delineate how alders alter the soil microbial community with increasing dominance. Further, we assessed the impact of late-successional spruce plants on these early successional alder-conditioned microbiomes and related nitrogen cycling through a leachate addition microcosm experiment. We show how increasingly abundant alder select for particular bacterial taxa. Additionally, we found that spruce leachate significantly alters the composition of these microbial communities in large part by driving declines in taxa that are enriched by alder, including bacterial symbionts. We found these effects to be spruce specific, beyond a general leachate effect. Our work also demonstrates a unique influence of spruce on ammonium availability. Such insights bolster theory relating the importance of plant-microbe interactions with late-successional plants and interspecific plant interactions more generally.

  10. Elephants, fire, and frost can determine community structure and composition in Kalahari Woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdo, Ricardo M

    2007-03-01

    Fire, elephants, and frost are important disturbance factors in many African savannas, but the relative magnitude of their effects on vegetation and their interactions have not been quantified. Understanding how disturbance shapes savanna structure and composition is critical for predicting changes in tree cover and for formulating management and conservation policy. A simulation model was used to investigate how the disturbance regime determines vegetation structure and composition in a mixed Kalahari sand woodland savanna in western Zimbabwe. The model consisted of submodels for tree growth, tree damage caused by disturbance, mortality, and recruitment that were parameterized from field data collected over a two-year period. The model predicts that, under the current disturbance regime, tree basal area in the study area will decline by two-thirds over the next two decades and become dominated by species unpalatable to elephants. Changes in the disturbance regime are predicted to greatly modify vegetation structure and community composition. Elephants are the primary drivers of woodland change in this community at present-day population densities, and their impacts are exacerbated by the effects of fire and frost. Frost, in particular, does not play an important role when acting independently but appears to be a key secondary factor in the presence of elephants and/or fire. Unlike fire and frost, which cannot suppress the woodland phase on their own in this ecosystem, elephants can independently drive the vegetation to the scrub phase. The results suggest that elephant and fire management may be critical for the persistence of certain woodland communities within dry-season elephant habitats in the eastern Kalahari, particularly those dominated by Brachystegia spiciformis and other palatable species.

  11. A novel structural risk index for primary spontaneous pneumothorax: Ankara Numune Risk Index

    OpenAIRE

    Yucel Akkas; Neslihan Gulay Peri; Bulent Kocer; Tevfik Kaplan; Aslihan Alhan

    2017-01-01

    Background: In this study, we aimed to reveal a novel risk index as a structural risk marker for primary spontanoeus pneumothorax using body mass index and chest height, structural risk factors for pneumothorax development. Methods: Records of 86 cases admitted between February 2014 and January 2015 with or without primary spontaneous pneumothorax were analysed retrospectively. The patients were allocated to two groups as Group I and Group II. The patients were evaluated with regard to age...

  12. Guidelines for analysis, testing, and nondestructive inspection of impact-damaged composite sandwich structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shyprykevich, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Sandwich construction composites are used in a wide variety of structural applications largely because of their relative advantages over other designs in terms of improved stability, weight savings...

  13. A Tailorable Structural Composite for GCR and Albedo Neutron Protection on the Lunar Surface, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A tailorable structural composite that will provide protection from the lunar radiation environment, including GCR and albedo neutrons will be developed. This...

  14. FIBER-TEX 1991: The Fifth Conference on Advanced Engineering Fibers and Textile Structures for Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, J.D.

    1992-10-01

    This document is a compilation of papers presented at a joint NASA/North Carolina State University/DoD/Clemson University/Drexel University conference on Fibers, Textile Technology, and Composites Structures held at the College of Textiles Building on Centennial Campus of North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina on October 15-17, 1991. Conference papers presented information on advanced engineering fibers, textile processes and structures, structural fabric production, mechanics and characteristics of woven composites, pultruded composites, and the latest requirements for the use of textiles in the production of composite materials and structures. Separate abstracts have been prepared for papers in this report

  15. Survival of self-etch adhesive Class II composite restorations using ART and conventional cavity preparations in primary molars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eden, E.; Topaloglu-Ak, A.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test the null-hypothesis that there was no difference in the survival percentages of Class II composite restorations in primary teeth produced through either ART or conventional approaches after 2 years. METHODS: 157 children with 325 Class II cavitated dentin lesions were included in a

  16. Multiplicity spectrum of muon bundles and primary CR composition in the range 1 – 10000 TeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alikhanov I.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiplicity spectrum of muon bundles underground, with Eμ ≥ few × 100 GeV, is an effective tool for study of primary Cosmic Ray spectrum and composition in wide range of the primary energies. In this paper we study integral muon number distribution measured at the Baksan Underground Scintillation Telescope (BUST. The analyzed range of the number of muon tracks crossing BUST (1 - 170 approximately corresponds to the primary energy range 1 – 104 TeV. The analysis shows that non-power law primary spectra are preferable below the knee. Such a spectrum can be obtained as superposition of the basic power law primary spectrum and an additional component from nearby supernova remnant in the Galaxy.

  17. Strength and toughness of structural fibres for composite material reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herráez, M; Fernández, A; Lopes, C S; González, C

    2016-07-13

    The characterization of the strength and fracture toughness of three common structural fibres, E-glass, AS4 carbon and Kevlar KM2, is presented in this work. The notched specimens were prepared by means of selective carving of individual fibres by means of the focused ion beam. A straight-fronted edge notch was introduced in a plane perpendicular to the fibre axis, with the relative notch depth being a0/D≈0.1 and the notch radius at the tip approximately 50 nm. The selection of the appropriate beam current during milling operations was performed to avoid to as much as possible any microstructural changes owing to ion impingement. Both notched and un-notched fibres were submitted to uniaxial tensile tests up to failure. The strength of the un-notched fibres was characterized in terms of the Weibull statistics, whereas the residual strength of the notched fibres was used to determine their apparent toughness. To this end, the stress intensity factor of a fronted edge crack was computed by means of the finite-element method for different crack lengths. The experimental results agreed with those reported in the literature for polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibres obtained by using similar techniques. After mechanical testing, the fracture surface of the fibres was analysed to ascertain the failure mechanisms. It was found that AS4 carbon and E-glass fibres presented the lower toughness with fracture surfaces perpendicular to the fibre axis, emanating from the notch tip. The fractured region of Kevlar KM2 fibres extended along the fibre and showed large permanent deformation, which explains their higher degree of toughness when compared with carbon and glass fibres. This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Socialist and postsocialist land-use legacies determine farm woodland composition and structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Schaich, H.

    2014-01-01

    European agroecosystems host a variety of farm woodlands that act as primary determinants of biodiversity and ecosystem services. While woodland areas have been in decline worldwide, they have regionally increased, for example, in Eastern Germany. This study performs a quantitative and spatially...... of variability. Percentages of nonnative (7 %) and coniferous (10 %) individuals are low. The findings suggest that socialist and postsocialist farmland and forest policies translated into distinct land-use legacies in the newly established farm woodlands, which differ considerably from the composition...... and structure of presocialist woodlands. We argue that forest conservation planning should actively consider land-use legacies, which are of particular relevance in the landscapes of Central and Eastern Europe, as these have undergone multiple, abrupt, and severe land-use transitions....

  19. Approaches to simulate impact damages on aeronautical composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanga, R. P. Lemanle; Garnier, C.; Pantalé, O.

    2018-02-01

    Impact damage is one of the most critical aggressions for composite structures in aeronautical applications. Consequences of a high/low velocity and high/low energy impacts are very important to investigate. It is usually admitted that the most critical configuration is the Barely Visible Impact Damage (BVID), with impact energy of about 25 J, where some internal damages, invisible on the impacted surface of the specimen, drastically reduce the residual properties of the impacted material. In this work we highlight by the finite element simulation, the damage initiation and propagation process and the size of the defaults created by low velocity impact. Two approaches were developed: the first one is the layup technic and the second one is based on the cohesive element technic. Both technics show the plies damages by the Hashin's criteria. Moreover the second one gives the delamination damages with regards to the Benzeggah-Kenane criteria. The validation of these models is done by confrontation with some experimental results.

  20. Composite Polymer Electrolytes: Nanoparticles Affect Structure and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs can significantly improve the performance in electrochemical devices such as lithium-ion batteries. This review summarizes property/performance relationships in the case where nanoparticles are introduced to polymer electrolytes. It is the aim of this review to provide a knowledge network that elucidates the role of nano-additives in the CPEs. Central to the discussion is the impact on the CPE performance of properties such as crystalline/amorphous structure, dielectric behavior, and interactions within the CPE. The amorphous domains of semi-crystalline polymer facilitate the ion transport, while an enhanced mobility of polymer chains contributes to high ionic conductivity. Dielectric properties reflect the relaxation behavior of polymer chains as an important factor in ion conduction. Further, the dielectric constant (ε determines the capability of the polymer to dissolve salt. The atom/ion/nanoparticle interactions within CPEs suggest ways to enhance the CPE conductivity by generating more free lithium ions. Certain properties can be improved simultaneously by nanoparticle addition in order to optimize the overall performance of the electrolyte. The effects of nano-additives on thermal and mechanical properties of CPEs are also presented in order to evaluate the electrolyte competence for lithium-ion battery applications.

  1. The Okhansk Meteorite: Specifics of Composition, Structure, and Genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Bakhtin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Okhansk meteorite fell on August 18, 1887 near the village of Tabor, about 15 km away from the town of Okhansk in Perm province and weighed 186.5 kg (the total weight of collected fragments, according to P.I. Krotov, was more than 245 kg. The shock wave from the meteorite entry knocked down animals and riders on horses. Despite the fact that it was significantly stronger than that caused by the Chelyabinsk meteorite of 2013, all information about this meteorite has completely erased from people's memory. It has been shown that the meteorite is an ordinary olivine-bronzite chondrite. Its main silicate minerals are olivine, bronzite, plagioclase, and diopside. The main ore minerals are kamacite and troilite. The meteorite contains silicate glass in large amounts. The analysis of the composition and structure of the Okhansk meteorite has demonstrated that it was formed at the early stages of accretion of the melted substance of the protosolar nebula without undergoing endogenous, temperature, or pressure changes.

  2. Glass Fibre-Reinforced Composite Post and Core Used in Decayed Primary Anterior Teeth: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Verma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aesthetic requirement of severely mutilated primary anterior teeth in the case of early childhood caries has been a challenge to pediatric dentist. Among restorative treatment options, prefabricated crown and biological and resin composite restoration either by means of direct or indirect technique are mentioned in the literature. This paper presents the clinical sequence of rehabilitation of maxillary anterior primary teeth. Endodontic treatment was followed by the placement of a glass fibre-reinforced composite resin post. The crown reconstruction was done with composite restoration. Resin glass fibre post has best properties in elasticity, translucency, adaptability, tenaciousness, and resistance to traction and to impact. Along with ease of application, fiber can be used as an alternative to traditionally used materials in the management of early childhood caries.

  3. The comparative evaluation of fracture resistance and microleakage in bonded amalgam, amalgam, and composite resins in primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanishree, H S; Shanthala, B M; Bobby, W

    2015-01-01

    The intense development of adhesive restorative materials and parents' preferences for esthetic restorations prompt clinicians to use alternative restorative materials for primary molars. Amalgam, however, is the choice of material when it comes to occlusal stress bearing areas, either in primary or permanent molars. To overcome the drawbacks of amalgam and restorative adhesive materials, the bonded amalgam technique is employed. To evaluate microleakage and fracture resistance of bonded amalgam in primary molars, and compare it with the microleakage and fracture resistance of high-copper amalgam and composite resin materials. An in vitro study and 60 caries-free primary molars were used. A total of 60 samples were randomly divided into two equal groups for the evaluation of microleakage and fracture resistance. Class V cavities for microleakage study prepared on 30 samples and Class II mesio-occluso-distal cavities for fracture resistance study on other 30 samples were prepared and randomly divided into three equal groups. Group I received amalgam, Group II received bonded amalgam, and Group III received composite resins. The microleakage was viewed under a stereomicroscope. The fracture resistance was evaluated using a universal testing machine. Bonded amalgam exhibited minimum microleakage, when compared to amalgam and composite resin and was found to be statistically insignificant (P = 0.203), while amalgam showed better fracture resistance compared to bonded amalgam and composite resin. It was found to be statistically insignificant (P = 0.144). Bonded amalgam appears to be comparable to amalgam when microleakage is considered and to composite resin when fracture resistance is considered; hence, bonded amalgam can also be an alternative material to amalgam in primary molars.

  4. Plant Communities Rather than Soil Properties Structure Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities along Primary Succession on a Mine Spoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kohout

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF community assembly during primary succession has so far received little attention. It remains therefore unclear, which of the factors, driving AMF community composition, are important during ecosystem development. We addressed this question on a large spoil heap, which provides a mosaic of sites in different successional stages under different managements. We selected 24 sites of c. 12, 20, 30, or 50 years in age, including sites with spontaneously developing vegetation and sites reclaimed by alder plantations. On each site, we sampled twice a year roots of the perennial rhizomatous grass Calamagrostis epigejos (Poaceae to determine AMF root colonization and diversity (using 454-sequencing, determined the soil chemical properties and composition of plant communities. AMF taxa richness was unaffected by site age, but AMF composition variation increased along the chronosequences. AMF communities were unaffected by soil chemistry, but related to the composition of neighboring plant communities of the sampled C. epigejos plants. In contrast, the plant communities of the sites were more distinctively structured than the AMF communities along the four successional stages. We conclude that AMF and plant community successions respond to different factors. AMF communities seem to be influenced by biotic rather than by abiotic factors and to diverge with successional age.

  5. Structural studies of thermally stable, combustion-resistant polymer composites

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, G.N.; Hallett, J.E.; Joseph, P.; Tretsiakova-McNally, S.; Zhang, T.; Blum, F.D.; Eastoe, J.

    2017-01-01

    Composites of the industrially important polymer, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), were prepared by free-radical polymerization of MMA with varying amounts (1–30 wt. %) of sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate (Aerosol OT or AOT) surfactant added to the reaction mixture. The composites with AOT incorporated show enhanced resistance to thermal degradation compared to pure PMMA homopolymer, and micro-cone combustion calorimetry measurements also show that the composites are combustion-resistant. The ph...

  6. Energy absorption in composite materials for crashworthy structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1987-01-01

    Crash energy-absorption processes in composite materials have been studied as part of a research program aimed at the development of energy absorbing subfloor beams for crashworthy military helicopters. Based on extensive tests on glass/epoxy, graphite/epoxy, and Kevlar/epoxy composites, it is shown that the energy-absorption characteristics and crushing modes of composite beams are similar to those exhibited by tubular specimens of similar material and architecture. The crushing mechanisms have been determined and related to the mechanical properties of the constituent materials and specimen architecture. A simple and accurate method for predicting the energy-absorption capability of composite beams has been developed.

  7. Structure and properties of pregelatinized cassava starch/kaolin composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaewtatip, Kaewta; Tanrattanakul, Varaporn

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pregelatinized starch/kaolin composites were prepared using compression molding. ► The tensile strengths of the composites were higher than for thermoplastic starch. ► Degradation temperatures of the composites were higher than for thermoplastic starch. ► The retrogradation behavior of the composites was hindered by kaolin. -- Abstract: Pregelatinized cassava starch/kaolin composites were prepared using compression molding. The morphology of the fractured surfaces, retrogradation behavior, thermal decomposition temperatures and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated using scanning election microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile testing, respectively. The tensile strengths and thermal degradation temperatures of the composites were higher than for thermoplastic starch (TPS). The retrogradation behavior of the composites was hindered by kaolin. The water absorption was measured after aging for 12 and 45 days at a relative humidity (RH) of 15% and 55%. It indicated that all the composites displayed lower water absorption values than TPS.

  8. Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength and nanoleakage of conventional and self-adhering flowable composites to primary teeth dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Sachdeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The latest advancement in adhesive dentistry is the development of self adhering flowable composite resin which incorporates the self-etch adhesion technology to eliminate the steps of etching, rinsing, priming and bonding. Few studies have addressed resin bonding to primary teeth. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength and nanoleakage of conventional and self adhering flowable composites to primary teeth dentin. Settings and Design: This study was conducted in the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, I.T.S Dental College, Hospital and Research Centre, Greater Noida; in association with the Department of Mechanical Engineering, I.T.S Engineering College, Greater Noida; and the Advanced Instrumentation Research Facility (AIRF, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. Materials and Methods: Sixty of the ninety primary teeth were evaluated for shear bond strength and thirty for nanoleakage. The samples were divided into three groups; Group I - Dyad Flow (Kerr, Group II - Fusio Liquid Dentin (Pentron Clinical Technologies and Group III - G-aenial Universal Flo (GC. Shear bond strength was determined using a universal testing machine. Nanoleakage pattern was observed under scanning electron microscope. Results: The shear bond strength of conventional flowable composite was significantly greater than self adhering flowable composite (p<0.05. Nanoleakage scores of both conventional and self adhering flowable composites were comparable. Conclusions: Self adhering flowable composites combine properties of composites and self etch adhesives, eliminating the need for separate bond application that simplifies direct restorative procedure. The evolution of self adhering materials could open new horizons for pediatric dentistry.

  9. Application of Ultrasonic Phased Array Technology to the Detection of Defect in Composite Stiffened-structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan-Qi; Zhan, Li-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Composite stiffened-structure consists of the skin and stringer has been widely used in aircraft fuselage and wings. The main purpose of the article is to detect the composite material reinforced structure accurately and explore the relationship between defect formation and structural elements or curing process. Based on ultrasonic phased array inspection technology, the regularity of defects in the manufacture of composite materials are obtained, the correlation model between actual defects and nondestructive testing are established. The article find that the forming quality of deltoid area in T-stiffened structure is obviously improved by pre-curing, the defects of hat-stiffened structure are affected by the mandrel. The results show that the ultrasonic phased array inspection technology can be an effectively way for the detection of composite stiffened-structures, which become an important means to control the defects of composite and improve the quality of the product.

  10. DMTO – a method for Discrete Material and Thickness Optimization of laminated composite structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Nørgaard; Sørensen, Rene; Lund, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a gradient based topology optimization method for Discrete Material and Thickness Optimization of laminated composite structures, labelled the DMTOmethod. The capabilities of the proposed method are demonstrated on mass minimization, subject to constraints on the structural...

  11. Preparation of Desirable Porous Cell Structure Polylactide/Wood Flour Composite Foams Assisted by Chain Extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youyong; Song, Yongming; Du, Jun; Xi, Zhenhao; Wang, Qingwen

    2017-08-26

    Polylactide (PLA)/wood flour composite foam were prepared through a batch foaming process. The effect of the chain extender on the crystallization behavior and dynamic rheological properties of the PLA/wood flour composites were investigated as well as the crystal structure and cell morphology of the composite foams. The incorporation of the chain extender enhanced the complex viscosity and storage modulus of PLA/wood flour composites, indicating the improved melt elasticity. The chain extender also led to a decreased crystallization rate and final crystallinity of PLA/wood flour composites. With an increasing chain extender content, a finer and more uniform cell structure was formed, and the expansion ratio of PLA/wood flour composite foams was much higher than without the chain extender. Compared to the unfoamed composites, the crystallinity of the foamed PLA/wood flour composites was improved and the crystal was loosely packed. However, the new crystalline form was not evident.

  12. Multi-scale compositionality: identifying the compositional structures of social dynamics using deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huan-Kai; Marculescu, Radu

    2015-01-01

    Social media exhibit rich yet distinct temporal dynamics which cover a wide range of different scales. In order to study this complex dynamics, two fundamental questions revolve around (1) the signatures of social dynamics at different time scales, and (2) the way in which these signatures interact and form higher-level meanings. In this paper, we propose the Recursive Convolutional Bayesian Model (RCBM) to address both of these fundamental questions. The key idea behind our approach consists of constructing a deep-learning framework using specialized convolution operators that are designed to exploit the inherent heterogeneity of social dynamics. RCBM's runtime and convergence properties are guaranteed by formal analyses. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches both in terms of solution quality and computational efficiency. Indeed, by applying the proposed method on two social network datasets, Twitter and Yelp, we are able to identify the compositional structures that can accurately characterize the complex social dynamics from these two social media. We further show that identifying these patterns can enable new applications such as anomaly detection and improved social dynamics forecasting. Finally, our analysis offers new insights on understanding and engineering social media dynamics, with direct applications to opinion spreading and online content promotion.

  13. The use of damage as a design parameter for postbuckling composite aerospace structures

    OpenAIRE

    Orifici, Adrian; Thomson, Rodney; Degenhardt, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer composites have seen a rapid increase in use in aircraft structures in recent years due their high specific strength and stiffness, amongst other properties. The use of postbuckling design, where lightweight structures are designed to operate safely at loads in excess of buckling loads, has been applied to metals for decades to design highly efficient structures. However, to date, the application of postbuckling design in composite structures has been limited...

  14. Structural Analysis of Ciprofloxacin-Carbopol Polymeric Composites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate physicochemical changes in ciprofloxacin following incorporation in Carbopol polymeric composites. Methods: The ciprofloxacin and Carbopol were mixed in water in a drug:polymer ratio of 1:5 (w/w) and homogenized to produce uniform composites. X-ray powder diffraction analysis of the pure ...

  15. Development of hybrid composite radar wave absorbing structure for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ideally invisible stealth radomes are usually sandwiched constructions composed of E-glass/epoxy composite ... existing stealth radomes were improved by employing nylon 6/6 fibre and balsa wood, along with E-glass/epoxy composite ..... [15] USA Department of Commerce 1972 Dielectric constant and loss data ...

  16. Enabling next generation composite manufacturing by in-situ structural evaluation and process adjustment, International Symposium on Composites Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Wille, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Current composite part development and manufacturing processes still requires a disproportional high effort in order to find optimal process parameters and to meet required qualities and tolerances of high performance light weight structures. Within the ECOMISE project new technologies were developed and integrated into the ECOMISE Manufacturing System in order to maximize process efficiency at reduced costs and production time of thermoset composite manufacturing and post-processing. The ...

  17. Deciphering the structure of nano-nickel composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Oliver K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    A model has been developed to predict piezoresistivity in Silicone/Nickel Nanostrand composites. This model combines the theory of quantum mechanical tunneling with percolation theory to obtain macroscopic composite resistivity as a function of strain from quantum mechanical principles and statistical characterization of constituent morphology. It has been shown that a model incorporating quantum mechanical tunneling and percolation theory can be used to predict piezoresistivity in Silicone/Nickel Nanostrand composites. The predictions of this model qualitatively demonstrate the large drop in resistivity with strain that these composites exhibit. The quantitative accuracy of the model was shown to be usually within one order of magnitude. Further work must be done to obtain an empirical distribution of inter-nanostrand gap distances, the tunneling barrier height ({lambda}), and the fraction of conductive junctions as a function of strain for these composites.

  18. Interface structure and strength in model dental resin composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Skovgaard

    Most composites for dental restoration are based on a methacrylate polymer matrix and a ceramic filler, often silanized silica or silicate glasses. A problem with these composites is the polymerization shrinkage, which causes the filling to loosen from the tooth under formation of a crack....... This will facilitate discoloration by colorants from e.g. coffee and red wine entering the crack, or even worse lead to secondary caries and infection of dental pulp due to bacteria. The aim of this study was to develop a low shrinkage dental composite based on an expandable metastable zirconia filler A metastable...... the polymer shrinkage and reduces the overall shrinkage of the composite. In this thesis the zirconia filler is characterized and tested for the potential as a filler for use in dental composites. The zirconia powder is composed of highly agglomerated particles of nanosized crystals. The average particle size...

  19. Composite load spectra for select space propulsion structural components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, J. F.; Ho, H. W.; Kurth, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    The work performed to develop composite load spectra (CLS) for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) using probabilistic methods. The three methods were implemented to be the engine system influence model. RASCAL was chosen to be the principal method as most component load models were implemented with the method. Validation of RASCAL was performed. High accuracy comparable to the Monte Carlo method can be obtained if a large enough bin size is used. Generic probabilistic models were developed and implemented for load calculations using the probabilistic methods discussed above. Each engine mission, either a real fighter or a test, has three mission phases: the engine start transient phase, the steady state phase, and the engine cut off transient phase. Power level and engine operating inlet conditions change during a mission. The load calculation module provides the steady-state and quasi-steady state calculation procedures with duty-cycle-data option. The quasi-steady state procedure is for engine transient phase calculations. In addition, a few generic probabilistic load models were also developed for specific conditions. These include the fixed transient spike model, the poison arrival transient spike model, and the rare event model. These generic probabilistic load models provide sufficient latitude for simulating loads with specific conditions. For SSME components, turbine blades, transfer ducts, LOX post, and the high pressure oxidizer turbopump (HPOTP) discharge duct were selected for application of the CLS program. They include static pressure loads and dynamic pressure loads for all four components, centrifugal force for the turbine blade, temperatures of thermal loads for all four components, and structural vibration loads for the ducts and LOX posts.

  20. Comparison of nanoleakage in composite restorations following application of self-etch and total-etch adhesives in primary and permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarem A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Nanoleakage can cause discoloration around restoration margins, secondary caries, postoperative sensitivity and finally loss of restoration, thus adequate hybrid layer is of primary importance in prevention of nanoleakage in adhesive restorations. Because of structural differences between primary and permanent dentin, evaluation of nanoleakge in primary teeth is very important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nanoleakage in composite restorations following application of self -etch and total-etch adhesives in primary and permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Cl V cavities were prepared in buccal surfaces of 20 extracted primary molars and 20 extracted premolars. Each group was divided into 2 subgroups: In group (A, Gluma One Bond and in group (B, iBond adhesive materials were applied. After silver nitrate staining, specimens were mesiodistally sectioned and polished and then SEM examination was carried out to measure the nanoleakage .Data were analyzed statistically using, ANOVA and Duncan tests with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: Factors tested had no significant effect on each other. Primary teeth showed more nanoleakage than permanent teeth (P<0.05. Mean nanoleakage was significantly higher in cervical than occlusal margins (P<0.05 and also in iBond than in Gluma One Bond in primary teeth (P<0.05. In permanent teeth, the lowest nanoleakage was observed in Gluma One Bond. Conclusion: The result of this study indicates that the use of total etch dentin adhesives (Gluma One Bond in bonded restorations results in less nanoleakage in primary and permanent teeth.

  1. Mechanical Properties Of 3D-Structure Composites Based On Warp-Knitted Spacer Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Si

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the mechanical properties (compression and impact behaviours of three-dimension structure (3D-structure composites based on warp-knitted spacer fabrics have been thoroughly investigated. In order to discuss the effect of fabric structural parameters on the mechanical performance of composites, six different types of warp-knitted spacer fabrics having different structural parameters (such as outer layer structure, diameter of spacer yarn, spacer yarn inclination angle and thickness were involved for comparison study. The 3D-structure composites were fabricated based on a flexible polyurethane foam. The produced composites were characterised for compression and impact properties. The findings obtained indicate that the fabric structural parameters have strong influence on the compression and impact responses of 3D-structure composites. Additionally, the impact test carried out on the 3D-structure composites shows that the impact loads do not affect the integrity of composite structure. All the results reveal that the product exhibits promising mechanical performance and its service life can be sustained.

  2. Design and thermal testing of smart composite structure for architecture applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, C.; Jansen, K.M.B.

    2013-01-01

    A composite structure consisting of a Shape Memory Polymer (SMP) matrix and three Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) strips was constructed. The SMA strips act as actuators which create forward and backward angle bends of 90 degrees of the composite structure. The function of the polymer matrix was to give

  3. Eighth DOD/NASA/FAA Conference on Fibrous Composites in Structural Design, part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starnes, J.H. Jr.; Bohon, H.L.; Garzon, S.B.

    1990-09-01

    Papers presented at the conference are compiled. The conference provided a forum for the scientific community to exchange composite structures design information and an opportunity to observe recent progress in composite structures design and technology. Part 2 contains papers related to the following subject areas: the application in design; methodology in design; and reliability in design.

  4. Eighth DOD/NASA/FAA Conference on Fibrous Composites in Structural Design, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnes, James H., Jr. (Compiler); Bohon, Herman L. (Compiler); Garzon, Sherry B. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference are compiled. The conference provided a forum for the scientific community to exchange composite structures design information and an opportunity to observe recent progress in composite structures design and technology. Part 2 contains papers related to the following subject areas: the application in design; methodology in design; and reliability in design.

  5. Vibration based structural health monitoring of a composite plate with stiffeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loendersloot, Richard; Ooijevaar, T.H.; Warnet, Laurent; de Boer, Andries; Akkerman, Remko; Sas, P

    2010-01-01

    A vibration based damage identification algorithm is implemented to assess the damage of a thin-walled composite structure. The structure analysed is a skin with stiffeners, as frequently applied in aircraft components. Both experimental and numerical studies on a single composite skin--stiffener

  6. Lightning current tests to evaluate vulnerability of electronics in composite structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaj, M.A.; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Damstra, G.C.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Protecting highly sensitive electronics housed inside composite structures against lightning is a real challenge. The direct strike represents the worst-case scenario for composite structures. The electromagnetic field generated by an indirect lightning strike in the vicinity of highly sensitive

  7. Using thin metal layers on composite structures for shielding the electromagnetic pulse caused by nearby lightning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaj, M.A.; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Damstra, G.C.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Electronic systems in composite structures could be vulnerable to the (dominant magnetic) field caused by a lightning strike, because only thin layers of metal can be used on composite structures. Thin layers result in a very low shielding effectiveness against magnetic fields. Many experiments

  8. Digitally focused array ultrasonic testing technique for carbon fiber composite structures

    OpenAIRE

    Salchak, Yana Alekseevna; Zhvyrblya, Vadim Yurievich; Sednev, Dmitry Andreevich; Lider, Andrey Markovich

    2016-01-01

    Composite fiber reinforced polymers are highly promising structures. At present, they are widely used in different areas such as aeronautics and nuclear industries. There is a great number of advantages of composite structures such as design flexibility, low cost per cubic inch, resistance to corrosion, lower material costs, lighter weight and improved productivity. However, composites degradation may be caused by different mechanisms such as overload, impact, overheating, creep and fatigue. ...

  9. Composite structures of steel and concrete beams, slabs, columns, and frames for buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, R P

    2008-01-01

    This book sets out the basic principles of composite construction with reference to beams, slabs, columns and frames, and their applications to building structures. It deals with the problems likely to arise in the design of composite members in buildings, and relates basic theory to the design approach of Eurocodes 2, 3 and 4.The new edition is based for the first time on the finalised Eurocode for steel/concrete composite structures.

  10. Ninth DOD/NASA/FAA Conference on Fibrous Composites in Structural Design, volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soderquist, J.R.; Neri, L.M.; Bohon, H.L.

    1992-09-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of the Ninth DOD/NASA/FAA Conference on Fibrous Composites in Structural Design held at Lake Tahoe, Nevada, during 4-7 Nov. 1991. Presentations were made in the following areas of composite structural design: perspectives in composites, design methodology, design applications, design criteria, supporting technology, damage tolerance, and manufacturing. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  11. Durability-Based Design Criteria for a Chopped-Glass-Fiber Automotive Structural Composite; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battiste, R.L.; Corum, J.M.; Ren, W.; Ruggles, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides recommended durability-based design criteria for a chopped-glass-fiber reinforced polymeric composite for automotive structural applications. The criteria closely follow the framework of an earlier criteria document for a continuous-strand-mat (CSM) glass-fiber reference composite. Together these design criteria demonstrate a framework that can be adapted for future random-glass-fiber composites for automotive structural applications

  12. Durability-Based Design Criteria for a Chopped-Glass-Fiber Automotive Structural Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battiste, R.L.; Corum, J.M.; Ren, W.; Ruggles, M.B.

    1999-11-01

    This report provides recommended durability-based design criteria for a chopped-glass-fiber reinforced polymeric composite for automotive structural applications. The criteria closely follow the framework of an earlier criteria document for a continuous-strand-mat (CSM) glass-fiber reference composite. Together these design criteria demonstrate a framework that can be adapted for future random-glass-fiber composites for automotive structural applications.

  13. Design and Manufacturing of Composite Tower Structure for Wind Turbine Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunbum

    2018-02-01

    This study proposes the composite tower design process for large wind turbine equipment. In this work, structural design of tower and analysis using finite element method was performed. After structural design, prototype blade manufacturing and test was performed. The used material is a glass fiber and epoxy resin composite. And also, sand was used in the middle part. The optimized structural design and analysis was performed. The parameter for optimized structural design is weight reduction and safety of structure. Finally, structure of tower will be confirmed by structural test.

  14. BODY COMPOSITE ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL STRUCTURE, CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS USING BODY COMPOSITION ANALYZER „TANITA“ TBF-300

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujo Bjeković

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the research based on the sample of 56 children with special needs, age 12 to 15, we conducted composite morphological analysis, apropos body composite physical structure analysis using BODY COMPOSITION ANALYZER TANITA TBF- 300. Likewise, with Cluster analysis, actually method of conformational criteria (K-Means Cluster Analysis, using values BMI we made the assessment of physical status and fattening up. The gained results present justification, in another words, product of sensory - motor disorder in this population which is manifested with reduced kinesiology activity because of limited various motor task performance. This and similar kind of condition inevitably leads to disorder in structural analysis of physical structure, therefore to fattening up disorder

  15. Microtensile bond strength and failure modes of flowable composites on primary dentin with application of different adhesive strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simge Durmuslar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resin composite is an option for the restoration of primary teeth, and new materials with simplified procedures are increasingly being suggested. Aims: This study aims to evaluate the microtensile bond strengths and fracture modes of flowable composites on primary dentin with application of different adhesive strategies. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted noncaries primary molars were abraded from buccal surfaces to expose dentin surface. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups as follows: Group 1, Vertise™ Flow (Kerr (self-adhering flowable composite; Group 2, G-aenial Universal Flo® (GC Europe (used with one-step self-etch system; Group 3, Tetric® N-Flow (Ivoclar/Vivadent (used with two-step total etch system. Then, the flowable composites were applied to buccal dentin surfaces with the help of guide mold. Samples were embedded in acrylic blocks and sectioned to form dentin-composite sticks with a surface area of approximately 1 mm2. Finally, a total of 180 sticks were obtained to give each group of 60 sticks. Microtensile bond strengths were measured using a universal testing machine (1 mm/min. Fracture modes were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy. Statistical Analysis: Microtensile bond strengths data were analyzed by Kruskal–Wallis nonparametric test. Results: The microtensile bond strengths of G-aenial (15.5 megapascals [Mpa] and Tetric (13.0 MPa were statistically significant higher than Vertise (2.3 MPa. It was recorded that most of fractures in G-aenial was 40% cohesive, Tetric was 53.3% mixed, and Vertise was 83.3% adhesive. Conclusions: The self-adhering flowable composite Vertise™ Flow had the lowest and G-aenial Universal Flo® had the highest microtensile bond values.

  16. Structural Performance of Composite Shear Walls under Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingyue Hao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to research the effect of different layout forms of steel plate on the axial compression behavior of a steel plate-concrete composite shear wall, this paper presents the experimental results and analysis of the axial compression behavior of a composite shear wall, with different layout forms of steel plate. A total of three tests were carried out, composed of two composite walls with built-in steel plate, and one composite wall with two skins of steel plate. The gross dimensions of the three specimens were 1206 mm × 2006 mm × 300 mm. Experimental results show that the composite wall with two skins of steel plate has an optimal ability of elastic-plastic deformation, and the maximum axial compressive bearing capacity among the three specimens. Using the energy method, the critical local buckling stresses of steel plate were calculated, and compared with the yield stresses. According to different confined actions of concrete, concrete constitutive models were proposed, and the axial compressive strengths of confined concrete were calculated. Considering the local buckling of steel plate and confined concrete, the calculation formula of the axial compression of the composite wall was put forward, and the calculated results were in good agreement with the test results. Therefore, the different layout forms of steel plate have a great influence on its buckling, and on the concrete inhibition effect, which can affect the axial compressive bearing capacity of the composite wall.

  17. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in pore water of Arctic Ocean sediments: linking DOM molecular composition with microbial community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossel, P. E.; Bienhold, C.; Boetius, A.; Dittmar, T.

    2016-02-01

    Marine organic matter (OM) that sinks from surface waters to the seafloor is the energy and carbon source for benthic communities. These communities produce dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the process of remineralization, enriching the sediment porewater with fresh DOM compounds. In the Arctic Ocean, primary production is limited by nutrients and light and is thus strongly influenced by sea ice cover. Ice cover is expected to further decrease due to global warming, which may have important consequences for primary production and the quantity and quality of OM exported to the seafloor. This study focused on: 1) the molecular composition of the DOM in sediment pore waters of the deep Eurasian Arctic basins, 2) whether there is any relation between Arctic Ocean ice cover and DOM composition and 3) whether the DOM composition correlates with microbial community structure. Molecular data, obtained via 15 Tesla Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, were statistically correlated with environmental parameters. The productive ice margin stations showed higher abundances of molecular formulae of peptides, unsaturated aliphatics and saturated fatty acids. This molecular trend is indicative of fresh OM and phytodetritus deposition, compared to the northernmost, ice-covered stations which had stronger aromatic signals. Benthic bacterial community structure, as assessed with the fingerprinting method ARISA, was significantly correlated with DOM molecular composition. Further analyses using Illumina next-generation sequencing will enable the taxonomic identification of specific bacterial groups and their interdependence with DOM compounds. This study contributes to the understanding of the coupling between Arctic Ocean productivity and its depositional regime, and provides first insights into potential links between microbial community structure and DOM molecular composition in Arctic sediments

  18. Surface topography regulates wnt signaling through control of primary cilia structure in mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, R. J.; Wann, A. K. T.; Thompson, C. L.; Connelly, J. T.; Knight, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    The primary cilium regulates cellular signalling including influencing wnt sensitivity by sequestering β-catenin within the ciliary compartment. Topographic regulation of intracellular actin-myosin tension can control stem cell fate of which wnt is an important mediator. We hypothesized that topography influences mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) wnt signaling through the regulation of primary cilia structure and function. MSCs cultured on grooves expressed elongated primary cilia, through reduced actin organization. siRNA inhibition of anterograde intraflagellar transport (IFT88) reduced cilia length and increased active nuclear β-catenin. Conversely, increased primary cilia assembly in MSCs cultured on the grooves was associated with decreased levels of nuclear active β-catenin, axin-2 induction and proliferation, in response to wnt3a. This negative regulation, on grooved topography, was reversed by siRNA to IFT88. This indicates that subtle regulation of IFT and associated cilia structure, tunes the wnt response controlling stem cell differentiation. PMID:24346024

  19. Bio-based structural composite materials for aerospace applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available . Figure 2: Composite Panel 4.3 Cone calorimeter testing Flammability behaviour of the composite panel was tested using a Fire Testing Technology dual cone calorimeter. A constant incident heat flux of 35 kW/m² was used and an electronic ignition... of combustion5,6. The results are given in Table 1. Plots of HRR and smoke production rate (SPR) are given in Figures 3 and 4 and Figure 5 shows the composite panel after cone calorimeter testing. 3 2nd SAIAS Symposium, 14-16 September 2008...

  20. Theory structure on 'decontamination technology for primary coolant loop of in-service pressurized water reactors'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xianyu

    1996-07-01

    Theory structure on 'Decontamination Technology for Primary Coolant Loop of In-Service Pressurized Water Reactors' is proposed. The paper aims at systematizing the experiences accumulated abroad in the development of decontamination over a long period of time and raising them to the level of instructive theory, so as to help form 'Decontamination Technology for Primary Coolant Loop of In-Service Pressurized Water Reactors', turn 'skill' into 'science', and stop acting blindly in the development of decontamination. (26 refs., 5 figs.)

  1. Structure-Function Correlations using Scanning Laser Polarimetry in Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma and Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-Jung; Liu, Catherine Jui-Ling.; Wojciechowski, Robert; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To assess the correlations between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured with scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) and visual field (VF) sensitivity in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). Design Prospective, comparative, observational cases series Methods Fifty patients with POAG and 56 with PACG were examined using SLP with variable corneal compensation (GDx VCC) and Humphrey VF analyzer between August 2005 and July 2006 at Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Correlations between RNFL thickness and VF sensitivity, expressed as mean sensitivity (MS) in both decibel (dB) and 1/Lambert (L) scales, were estimated by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs) and multivariate median regression models (pseudo R2). The correlations were determined globally and for six RNFL sectors and their corresponding VF regions. Results The correlation between RNFL thickness and MS (in dB) was weaker in the PACG group (rs = 0.38, P = 0.004, pseudo R2 = 0.17) than in the POAG group (rs = 0.51, P <0.001, pseudo R2 = 0.31), but the difference in the magnitude of correlation was not significant (P = 0.42).With Bonferroni correction, the structure-function correlation was significant in the superotemporal (rs = 0.62), superonasal (rs = 0.56), inferonasal (rs = 0.53), and inferotemporal (rs = 0.50) sectors in the POAG group (all P <0.001), while it was significant only in the superotemporal (rs = 0.53) and inferotemporal (rs = 0.48) sectors in the PACG group (both P <0.001). The results were similar when MS was expressed as 1/L scale. Conclusions Both POAG and PACG eyes had moderate structure-function correlations using SLP. Compared to eyes with POAG, fewer RNFL sectors have significant structure-function correlations in eyes with PACG. PMID:20202618

  2. Metal Matrix Composite Enchanced Aluminum Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed research pursues a path for reducing structural weight, increasing structural performance, and reducing fabrication cost while also minimizing...

  3. Metal Matrix Composite Enchanced Aluminum Structures, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed research pursues a path for reducing structural weight, increasing structural performance, and reducing fabrication cost while also minimizing...

  4. Reduced Cost Composite Hot Structures with Oxidation Protection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovative, low cost high performance technologies are critical to the affordability of future space missions. Carbon/carbon (C/C) composites have significant...

  5. Composite Structures Repair Development at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sarah B.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation discusses the development and results of composite patch repair perfromed at Kennedy Space Center. This includes impact damage, patch repair methods, nondestructive evaluation, and edgewise compression testing.

  6. Optimal Realtime Damage Identification in Composite Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS) proposes to develop an effective real-time, in situ damage locating and growth monitoring system of composite...

  7. Novel, Nanotechnology Based CMC composites for Hot Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Very extensive R&D efforts over the past several decades resulted in several classes of high temperature composites offering potential for future hypersonic...

  8. Overview Of Structural Behavior and Occupant Responses from Crash Test of a Composite Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lisa E.; Carden, Huey D.

    1995-01-01

    As part of NASA's composite structures crash dynamics research, a general aviation aircraft with composite wing, fuselage and empennage (but with metal subfloor structure) was crash tested at the NASA Langley Research Center Impact Research Facility. The test was conducted to determine composite aircraft structural behavior for crash loading conditions and to provide a baseline for a similar aircraft test with a modified subfloor. Structural integrity and cabin volume were maintained. Lumbar loads for dummy occupants in energy absorbing seats wer substantially lower than those in standard aircraft seats; however, loads in the standard seats were much higher that those recorded under similar conditions for an all-metallic aircraft.

  9. Discrete Material Buckling Optimization of Laminated Composite Structures considering "Worst" Shape Imperfections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichsen, Søren Randrup; Lindgaard, Esben; Lund, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Robust design of laminated composite structures is considered in this work. Because laminated composite structures are often thin walled, buckling failure can occur prior to material failure, making it desirable to maximize the buckling load. However, as a structure always contains imperfections...... and “worst” shape imperfection optimizations to design robust composite structures. The approach is demonstrated on an U-profile where the imperfection sensitivity is monitored, and based on the example it can be concluded that robust designs can be obtained....

  10. Adhesive compositions and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Scott D.; Sendijarevic, Vahid; O' Connor, James

    2017-12-05

    The present invention encompasses polyurethane adhesive compositions comprising aliphatic polycarbonate chains. In one aspect, the present invention encompasses polyurethane adhesives derived from aliphatic polycarbonate polyols and polyisocyanates wherein the polyol chains contain a primary repeating unit having a structure:. In another aspect, the invention provides articles comprising the inventive polyurethane compositions as well as methods of making such compositions.

  11. The long-term differential achievement effects of school socioeconomic composition in primary education: A propensity score matching approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfi, Barbara; Haelermans, Carla; De Fraine, Bieke

    2016-12-01

    The effects of school socio-economic composition on student achievement growth trajectories have been a hot topic of discussion among politicians around the world for many years. However, the bulk of research investigating school socio-economic composition effects has been limited in important ways. In an attempt to overcome the flaws in earlier research on school socio-economic composition effects, this study used data from a large sample, followed students throughout primary education, addressed selection bias problems, identified the grade(s) in which school socio-economic composition mattered the most, and studied the differential effects of school socio-economic composition by individual socio-economic status (SES). In a longitudinal design with seven occasions of data collection, the authors drew on a sample of N = 3,619 students (age at T1 about 5 years, age at T7 about 12 years) from 151 primary schools in Flanders (the northern part of Belgium). Students in low-, medium-, high-, and mixed-SES schools were matched using propensity scores. To compare students' achievement growth trajectories in the different school compositions, multilevel regression modelling with repeated measurements was applied. The results showed that students had more positive achievement growth in high-SES as compared to low-SES and mixed-SES schools. In two of the three comparisons, students in mixed-SES schools showed the lowest math development. The negative effects of mixed-SES schools on math achievement growth were the strongest for high-SES students. Our findings contribute to the ongoing discussion on the effects of school socio-economic composition on student achievement growth. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Characterization and Detection of Delamination in Smart Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-31

    Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA, 22202-4302, and...1991. Plasticity theories for fibrous composite materials. Metal Matrix Composites: Mechanisms and Properties. Academic Press, Boston, 1-77. Elman ...177. Jordan, M.I., 1989. Serial Order: A Parallel Distributed Approach. Advances in Connectionist Theory: Speech, Eds. J. L. Elman and D. E

  13. Primary Manufacturing Processes for Fiber Reinforced Composites: History, Development & Future Research Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapan Bhatt, Alpa; Gohil, Piyush P.; Chaudhary, Vijaykumar

    2018-03-01

    Composite Materials are becoming more popular gradually replacing traditional material with extra strength, lighter weight and superior property. The world is exploring use of fiber reinforced composites in all application which includes air, land and water transport, construction industry, toys, instrumentation, medicine and the list is endless. Based on application and reinforcement used, there are many ways to manufactures parts with fiber reinforced composites. In this paper various manufacturing processes have been discussed at length, to make fiber reinforced composites components. The authors have endeavored to include all the processes available recently in composite industry. Paper first highlights history of fiber reinforced composites manufacturing, and then the comparison of different manufacturing process to build composites have been discussed, to give clear understanding on, which process should be selected, based on reinforcement, matrix and application. All though, there are several advantages to use such fiber reinforcement composites, still industries have not grown at par and there is a lot of scope to improve these industries. At last, where India stands today, what are the challenges in market has been highlighted and future market and research trend of exploring such composite industries have been discussed. This work is carried out as a part of research project sanctioned by GUJCOST, Gandhinagar.

  14. Glyceride structure and sterol composition of SOS-7 halophyte oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shami, S. M.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Glyceride structure of SOS-7 halophyte oil was studied using the lipase hydrolysis technique. This halophyte sample was obtained from 1988 harvest planted in Ghardaka, on the border of the Red Sea, Egypt. The oilseed was ground and extracted for its oil using commercial hexane in Soxhlet extractor. The unsaturated fatty acids were found centralized in the 2-position of triglycerides, whereas oleic and linolenic acids showed more preference for this position. It was found that P3 was the major component of GS3, whereas P2L and PStL; PL2, POL and StL2 are predominating among GS2U and GSU3 respectively. L3 manifested itself as the principal constituent of GU3 type. Sterol composition of the halophyte oil was determined by GLC as TMS derivative. It was found that the oil contains campsterol, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and 7-stigmasterol of which 7-stigmasterol is the major sterol and constitute 52.4%.

    Se ha estudiado usando la técnica de hidrólisis mediante lipasa la estructura glicerídica de aceite de halofito SOS-7. Esta muestra de halofito fue obtenida a partir de una cosecha de 1988 plantada en Ghardaka, en la orilla del Mar Rojo, Egipto. Para la extracción del aceite de la semilla molida se utilizó hexano comercial en extractor Soxhlet. Los ácidos grasos insaturados se encontraron centralizados en la posición 2 de los triglicéridos, siendo los ácidos oleico y linolénico los que mostraron mayor preferencia por esta posición. Se encontró que P3 fue el componente mayoritario de GS3, mientras que P2L y PStL; PL2 POL y StL2 son los predominantes para GS2U y GSU3 respectivamente. L3 se manifestó como el principal constituyente de los GU3. La composición esterólica del aceite de halofito se determinó por GLC como derivados del

  15. Structural analysis of composite wind turbine blades nonlinear mechanics and finite element models with material damping

    CERN Document Server

    Chortis, Dimitris I

    2013-01-01

    This book concerns the development of novel finite elements for the structural analysis of composite beams and blades. The introduction of material damping is also an important aspect of composite structures and it is presented here in terms of their static and dynamic behavior. The book thoroughly presents a new shear beam finite element, which entails new blade section mechanics, capable of predicting structural blade coupling due to composite coupling and/or internal section geometry. Theoretical background is further expanded towards the inclusion of nonlinear structural blade models and damping mechanics for composite structures. The models effectively include geometrically nonlinear terms due to large displacements and rotations, improve the modeling accuracy of very large flexible blades, and enable the modeling of rotational stiffening and buckling, as well as, nonlinear structural coupling. Validation simulations on specimen level study the geometric nonlinearities effect on the modal frequencies and...

  16. Specialists meeting on properties of primary circuit structural materials including environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Specialists Meeting on Properties of Primary Circuit Structural Materials of LMFBRs covered the following topics: overview of materials program in different countries; mechanical properties of materials in air; fracture mechanics studies - component related activities; impact of environmental influences on mechanical properties; relationship of material properties and design methods. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of information on structural materials behaviour in primary circuit of fast breeder reactors. Special emphasis was placed on environmental effects such as influence of sodium and irradiation on mechanical properties of reactor materials

  17. The Packaging Technology Study on Smart Composite Structure Based on The Embedded FBG Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youhong; Chang, Xinlong; Zhang, Xiaojun; He, Xiangyong

    2018-03-01

    It is convenient to carry out the health monitoring of the solid rocket engine composite shell based on the embedded FBG sensor. In this paper, the packaging technology using one-way fiber layer of prepreg fiberglass/epoxy resin was proposed. The proposed packaging process is simple, and the packaged sensor structure size is flexible and convenient to use, at the mean time, the packaged structure has little effect on the pristine composite material structure.

  18. Structural and compositional features of high-rise buildings: experimental design in Yekaterinburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovskaya, Yulia; Lobanov, Yuriy; Temnov, Vladimir

    2018-03-01

    The study looks at the specifics of high-rise development in Yekaterinburg. High-rise buildings are considered in the context of their historical development, structural features, compositional and imaginative design techniques. Experience of Yekaterinburg architects in experimental design is considered and analyzed. Main issues and prospects of high-rise development within the Yekaterinburg structure are studied. The most interesting and significant conceptual approaches to the structural and compositional arrangement of high-rise buildings are discussed.

  19. Comparative in vivo evaluation of restoring severely mutilated primary anterior teeth with biological post and crown preparation and reinforced composite restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grewal N

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to compare the success rate of biological and composite restorations when used to replace structural loss of primary anterior teeth using intracanal post for radicular support of the restoration. Materials and Methods: Forty-two patients aged between 3-5 years presenting with early childhood caries (ECC received at least one or more composite and biological restorations for comparative evaluation. A total of 150 restorations were done (75 biological restorations and 75 composite restorations. The restorations were evaluated single-blind according to a modified USPHS system. Assessment of the patient′s response in accepting a biological restoration, psychological impact of the restorations, view of the parents, and peer group reviews, etc. were recorded in a response sheet in presence of the child and the parents. Observations and Results: In vivo clinical performance of biological post and crown restorations and intracanal reinforced composite restorations was comparable with respect to shade match, marginal discoloration, marginal integrity, surface finish, gingival health, retention, and recurrent carious lesions. The cost effectiveness of biological restorations was certainly a positive attribute. Conclusion: The biological restoration presented as a cost effective, clinician friendly, less-technique sensitive, and esthetic alternative to commercially available restorative materials used for restoring deciduous teeth affected by ECC.

  20. Structure-function correlations using scanning laser polarimetry in primary angle-closure glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-Jung; Liu, Catherine Jui-Ling; Wojciechowski, Robert; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2010-05-01

    To assess the correlations between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured with scanning laser polarimetry and visual field (VF) sensitivity in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). Prospective, comparative, observational cases series. Fifty patients with POAG and 56 patients with PACG were examined using scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDx VCC; Laser Diagnostic Technologies, Inc.) and Humphrey VF analyzer (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc.) between August 2005 and July 2006 at Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Correlations between RNFL thickness and VF sensitivity, expressed as mean sensitivity in both decibel and 1/Lambert scales, were estimated by the Spearman rank correlation coefficient (r(s)) and multivariate median regression models (pseudo R(2)). The correlations were determined globally and for 6 RNFL sectors and their corresponding VF regions. The correlation between RNFL thickness and mean sensitivity (in decibels) was weaker in the PACG group (r(s) = 0.38; P = .004; pseudo R(2) = 0.17) than in the POAG group (r(s) = 0.51; P polarimetry. Compared with eyes with POAG, fewer RNFL sectors have significant structure-function correlations in eyes with PACG. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength of conventional composite resin and nanocomposite resin to sandblasted primary anterior stainless steel crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, A; Nandlal, B

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of conventional composite resin and nanocomposite resin to sandblasted primary anterior stainless steel crown. The study samples consisted of 30 primary anterior stainless steel crowns (Unitek TM, size R4), embedded in resin blocks with crown, in test groups of 15 samples each. Mounting of the crown was done using resin block with one crown each. Sandblasting was done and the bonding agent Prime and Bond NT (Dentsply) was applied on the labial surface of the primary anterior sandblasted crown. The composite resin and nanocomposite resin were placed into the well of Teflon jig and bonded to Stainless Steel Crowns. The cured samples were placed in distilled water and stored in incubator at 37 degrees C for 48 hours. Shear bond strength was measured using universal testing machine (Hounsefield U.K. Model, with a capacity of 50 KN). Independent sample 't' test revealed a nonsignificant (P resin and nanocomposite resin had statistically similar mean shear bond strength, with nanocomposite having little more strength compared to conventional composite.

  2. Structural Framework for Flight: NASA's Role in Development of Advanced Composite Materials for Aircraft and Space Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenney, Darrel R.; Davis, John G., Jr.; Johnston, Norman J.; Pipes, R. Byron; McGuire, Jack F.

    2011-01-01

    This serves as a source of collated information on Composite Research over the past four decades at NASA Langley Research Center, and is a key reference for readers wishing to grasp the underlying principles and challenges associated with developing and applying advanced composite materials to new aerospace vehicle concepts. Second, it identifies the major obstacles encountered in developing and applying composites on advanced flight vehicles, as well as lessons learned in overcoming these obstacles. Third, it points out current barriers and challenges to further application of composites on future vehicles. This is extremely valuable for steering research in the future, when new breakthroughs in materials or processing science may eliminate/minimize some of the barriers that have traditionally blocked the expanded application of composite to new structural or revolutionary vehicle concepts. Finally, a review of past work and identification of future challenges will hopefully inspire new research opportunities and development of revolutionary materials and structural concepts to revolutionize future flight vehicles.

  3. Composition effects on chemical durability and viscosity of nuclear waste glasses - systematic studies and structural thermodynamic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.

    1988-01-01

    Two of the primary criteria for the acceptability of nuclear waste glasses are their durability, i.e. chemical resistance to aqueous attack for 10 4 to 10 5 years, and processability, which requires their viscosity at the desired melt temperature to be sufficiently low. Chapter 3 presents the results of systematic composition variation studies around the preliminary reference glass composition WV205 and an atomistic interpretation of the effects of individual oxides. Chapter 4 is concerned with modifications of the Jantzen-Plodinec hydration model which takes into account formation of complex aluminosilicate compounds in the glass. Chapter 5 is devoted to the development and validation of the structural-thermodynamic model for both durability and viscosity. This model assumes the strength of bonds between atoms to be the controlling factor in the composition dependence of these glass properties. The binding strengths are derived from the known heats of formation and the structural roles of constituent oxides. Since the coordination state of various oxides in the glass is temperature dependent and cation size has opposite effects on the two properties, the correlation between melt viscosity and rate of corrosion at low temperature is not simply linear. Chapter 6 surveys the effects of aqueous phase composition on the leach behavior of glasses. These studies provide a comprehensive view of the effects of both glass composition and leachant composition on leaching. The models developed correlate both durability and viscosity with glass composition. A major implication is that these findings can be used in the systematic optimization of the properties of complex oxide glasses

  4. Microbial community structure affects marine dissolved organic matter composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth B Kujawinski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine microbes are critical players in the global carbon cycle, affecting both the reduction of inorganic carbon and the remineralization of reduced organic compounds back to carbon dioxide. Members of microbial consortia all depend on marine dissolved organic matter (DOM and in turn, affect the molecules present in this heterogeneous pool. Our understanding of DOM produced by marine microbes is biased towards single species laboratory cultures or simplified field incubations, which exclude large phototrophs and protozoan grazers. Here we explore the interdependence of DOM composition and bacterial diversity in two mixed microbial consortia from coastal seawater: a whole water community and a <1.0-μm community dominated by heterotrophic bacteria. Each consortium was incubated with isotopically-labeled glucose for 9 days. Using stable-isotope probing techniques and electrospray ionization Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, we show that the presence of organisms larger than 1.0-μm is the dominant factor affecting bacterial diversity and low-molecular-weight (<1000 Da DOM composition over this experiment. In the <1.0-μm community, DOM composition was dominated by compounds with lipid and peptide character at all time points, confirmed by fragmentation spectra with peptide-containing neutral losses. In contrast, DOM composition in the whole water community was nearly identical to that in the initial coastal seawater. These differences in DOM composition persisted throughout the experiment despite shifts in bacterial diversity, underscoring an unappreciated role for larger microorganisms in constraining DOM composition in the marine environment.

  5. Effects of pore structure and distribution on strength of porous Cu-Sn-Ti alumina composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao ZHAO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Porous Cu-Sn-Ti alumina composites were fabricated by sintering Cu-Sn-Ti alloy powders, graphite particles, and alumina hollow particles agent. The effects of the pore structure and distribution on the composites strength were evaluated. Different pore distributions were modeled by using finite element analysis to investigate the tensile strength of the composites. Furthermore, a fractal analysis-based box-covering algorithm was used on the Cu-Sn-Ti alumina composites topology graphs to better investigate the pore structure and distribution. Results obtained show that different sizes and concentrations of alumina hollow particles could result in different porosities from 20% to 50%. A larger pore size and a higher pore concentration reduce the strength, but provide more space for chip formation as a bonding material of a grinding wheel. The body-centered pore structure of the composites shows the highest stress under a tension load. The original composites topology graphs have been transformed to ordered distributed pore graphs based on the total pore area conservation. The information dimension magnitude difference between the original topology graphs and the ordered distributed circulars graphs is found to be linear with the Cu-Sn-Ti alumina composites strength. A larger difference renders a lower flexural strength, which indicates that uniform ordered distributed pores could benefit the composites strength. Keywords: Finite element analysis (FEA, Metal-matrix composites (MMCs, Microstructural analysis, Pore structure, Strength

  6. Energy Finite Element Analysis Developments for Vibration Analysis of Composite Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahopoulos, Nickolas; Schiller, Noah H.

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) has been utilized successfully for modeling complex structural-acoustic systems with isotropic structural material properties. In this paper, a formulation for modeling structures made out of composite materials is presented. An approach based on spectral finite element analysis is utilized first for developing the equivalent material properties for the composite material. These equivalent properties are employed in the EFEA governing differential equations for representing the composite materials and deriving the element level matrices. The power transmission characteristics at connections between members made out of non-isotropic composite material are considered for deriving suitable power transmission coefficients at junctions of interconnected members. These coefficients are utilized for computing the joint matrix that is needed to assemble the global system of EFEA equations. The global system of EFEA equations is solved numerically and the vibration levels within the entire system can be computed. The new EFEA formulation for modeling composite laminate structures is validated through comparison to test data collected from a representative composite aircraft fuselage that is made out of a composite outer shell and composite frames and stiffeners. NASA Langley constructed the composite cylinder and conducted the test measurements utilized in this work.

  7. Three-dimensional (3D) printing of mouse primary hepatocytes to generate 3D hepatic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yohan; Kang, Kyojin; Jeong, Jaemin; Paik, Seung Sam; Kim, Ji Sook; Park, Su A; Kim, Wan Doo; Park, Jisun; Choi, Dongho

    2017-02-01

    The major problem in producing artificial livers is that primary hepatocytes cannot be cultured for many days. Recently, 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology draws attention and this technology regarded as a useful tool for current cell biology. By using the 3D bio-printing, these problems can be resolved. To generate 3D bio-printed structures (25 mm × 25 mm), cells-alginate constructs were fabricated by 3D bio-printing system. Mouse primary hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of 6-8 weeks old mice by a 2-step collagenase method. Samples of 4 × 10 7 hepatocytes with 80%-90% viability were printed with 3% alginate solution, and cultured with well-defined culture medium for primary hepatocytes. To confirm functional ability of hepatocytes cultured on 3D alginate scaffold, we conducted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence with hepatic marker genes. Isolated primary hepatocytes were printed with alginate. The 3D printed hepatocytes remained alive for 14 days. Gene expression levels of Albumin , HNF-4α and Foxa3 were gradually increased in the 3D structures. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the primary hepatocytes produced hepatic-specific proteins over the same period of time. Our research indicates that 3D bio-printing technique can be used for long-term culture of primary hepatocytes. It can therefore be used for drug screening and as a potential method of producing artificial livers.

  8. Mesoporous TiO2 Micro-Nanometer Composite Structure: Synthesis, Optoelectric Properties, and Photocatalytic Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous anatase TiO2 micro-nanometer composite structure was synthesized by solvothermal method at 180°C, followed by calcination at 400°C for 2 h. The as-prepared TiO2 was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM, and Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR. The specific surface area and pore size distribution were obtained from N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, and the optoelectric property of the mesoporous TiO2 was studied by UV-Vis absorption spectrum and surface photovoltage spectra (SPS. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photodegradation of sole rhodamine B (RhB and sole phenol aqueous solutions under simulated sunlight irradiation and compared with that of Degussa P-25 (P25 under the same conditions. The photodegradation preference of this mesoporous TiO2 was also investigated for an RhB-phenol mixed solution. The results show that the TiO2 composite structure consists of microspheres (∼0.5–2 μm in diameter and irregular aggregates (several hundred nanometers with rough surfaces and the average primary particle size is 10.2 nm. The photodegradation activities of this mesoporous TiO2 on both RhB and phenol solutions are higher than those of P25. Moreover, this as-prepared TiO2 exhibits photodegradation preference on RhB in the RhB-phenol mixture solution.

  9. Structural, electronic and optical properties of well-known primary explosive: Mercury fulminate

    OpenAIRE

    Yedukondalu, N.; Vaitheeswaran, G.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury Fulminate (MF) is one of the well-known primary explosives since 17th century and it has rendered invaluable service over many years. However, the correct molecular and crystal structures are determined recently after 300 years of its discovery. In the present study, we report pressure dependent structural, elastic, electronic and optical properties of MF. Non-local correction methods have been employed to capture the weak van der Waals interactions in layered and molecular energetic ...

  10. Seismic retrofitting of reinforced concrete frame structures using GFRP-tube-confined-concrete composite braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasi B., Nasim S.; Zhang, Yunfeng; Hu, Xiaobin

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a new type of structural bracing intended for seismic retrofitting use in framed structures. This special composite brace, termed glass-fiber-reinforced-polymer (GFRP)-tube-confined-concrete composite brace, is comprised of concrete confined by a GFRP tube and an inner steel core for energy dissipation. Together with a contribution from the GFRP-tube confined concrete, the composite brace shows a substantially increased stiffness to control story drift, which is often a preferred feature in seismic retrofitting. An analysis model is established and implemented in a general finite element analysis program — OpenSees, for simulating the load-displacement behavior of the composite brace. Using this model, a parametric study of the hysteretic behavior (energy dissipation, stiffness, ductility and strength) of the composite brace was conducted under static cyclic loading and it was found that the area ratio of steel core to concrete has the greatest influence among all the parameters considered. To demonstrate the application of the composite brace in seismic retrofitting, a three-story nonductile reinforced concrete (RC) frame structure was retrofitted with the composite braces. Pushover analysis and nonlinear time-history analyses of the retrofitted RC frame structure was performed by employing a suite of 20 strong ground motion earthquake records. The analysis results show that the composite braces can effectively reduce the peak seismic responses of the RC frame structure without significantly increasing the base shear demand.

  11. Structure and work process in primary care and hospitalizations for sensitive conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleska Regina Machado Araujo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to investigate whether the characteristics of the structure of primary health units and the work process of primary care teams are associated with the number of hospitalizations for primary care sensitive conditions. METHODS In this ecological study, we have analyzed data of Brazilian municipalities related to sociodemographic characteristics, coverage of care programs, structure of primary health units, and work process of primary care teams. We have obtained the data from the first cycle of the Brazilian Program for Improving Access and Quality of the Primary Care, of the Department of Information Technology of the Brazilian Unified Health System, the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, and the United Nations Development Programme. The associations have been estimated using negative binomial regression coefficients (β and respective 95% confidence intervals, with a hierarchical approach in three levels (alpha = 5%. RESULTS In the adjusted analysis for the outcome in 2013, in the distal level, the coverage of the Bolsa Família Program (β = -0.001 and private insurance (β = -0.01 had a negative association, and the human development index (β = 1.13, the proportion of older adults (β = 0.05 and children under the age of five (β = 0.05, and the coverage of the Community Health Agent Strategy (β = 0.002 showed positive association with hospitalizations for primary care sensitive conditions. In the intermediate level, minimum hours (β = -0.14 and availability of vaccines (β = -0.16 showed a negative association, and availability of medications showed a positive association (β = 0.16. In the proximal level, only the variable of matrix support (β = 0.10 showed a positive association. The variables in the adjusted analysis of the number of hospitalizations for primary care sensitive conditions in 2014 presented the same association as in 2013. CONCLUSIONS The characteristics of

  12. Composites based on cellulose fiber nonwovens and a water soluble polymer 1. Structure and strength-deformation characteristics of cellulose fiber nonwovens and structural characteristics of the composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerpakovska, D.; Kalnins, M.

    2012-03-01

    The results of a study on the strength-deformation characteristics (tensile elastic modulus, ultimate strength, elongation at break, and punching and tearing strengths) of two kinds of cellulose fiber nonwovens (CFNs) with dissimilar void content and different geometrical parameters of cellulose fibers are discussed. The structural characteristics of composites prepared by impregnation with poly(vinyl alcohol) water solutions are analyzed, too. Composites with volume fractions of polymer up to 0.4% and volume fractions of voids up to 0.3% were prepared. Filling of voids by the polymer occurred without significant changes in the structure of CFNs. The fraction of closed voids increased with polymer content.

  13. Thermography Inspection for Early Detection of Composite Damage in Structures During Fatigue Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Burke, Eric R.; Parker, F. Raymond; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Wright, Christopher W.; Bly, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced composite structures are commonly tested under controlled loading. Understanding the initiation and progression of composite damage under load is critical for validating design concepts and structural analysis tools. Thermal nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is used to detect and characterize damage in composite structures during fatigue loading. A difference image processing algorithm is demonstrated to enhance damage detection and characterization by removing thermal variations not associated with defects. In addition, a one-dimensional multilayered thermal model is used to characterize damage. Lastly, the thermography results are compared to other inspections such as non-immersion ultrasonic inspections and computed tomography X-ray.

  14. Methodology for repeated load analysis of composite structures with embedded magnetic microwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Semrád

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article processes issue of strength of cyclically loaded composite structures with the possibility of contactless stress measuring inside a material. For this purpose a contactless tensile stress sensor using improved induction principle based on the magnetic microwires embedded in the composite structure has been developed. The methodology based on the E-N approach was applied for the analysis of the repeated load of the wing hinge connection, including finite element method (FEM fatigue strength analysis. The results proved that composites in comparison with the metal structures offer significant weight reduction of the small aircraft construction, whereas the required strength, stability and lifetime of the components are remained.

  15. A Multiscale, Nonlinear, Modeling Framework Enabling the Design and Analysis of Composite Materials and Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    A framework for the multiscale design and analysis of composite materials and structures is presented. The ImMAC software suite, developed at NASA Glenn Research Center, embeds efficient, nonlinear micromechanics capabilities within higher scale structural analysis methods such as finite element analysis. The result is an integrated, multiscale tool that relates global loading to the constituent scale, captures nonlinearities at this scale, and homogenizes local nonlinearities to predict their effects at the structural scale. Example applications of the multiscale framework are presented for the stochastic progressive failure of a SiC/Ti composite tensile specimen and the effects of microstructural variations on the nonlinear response of woven polymer matrix composites.

  16. Magnetic Structure of a Composite Solar Microwave Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeongwoo; White, Stephen M.; Liu, Chang; Kliem, Bernhard; Masuda, Satoshi

    2018-03-01

    A composite flare consisting of an impulsive flare SOL2015-06-21T01:42 (GOES class M2.0) and a more gradual, long-duration flare SOL2015-06-21T02:36 (M2.6) from NOAA Active Region 12371, is studied using observations with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH) and the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). While composite flares are defined by their characteristic time profiles, in this paper we present imaging observations that demonstrate the spatial relationship of the two flares and allow us to address the nature of the evolution of a composite event. The NoRH maps show that the first flare is confined not only in time, but also in space, as evidenced by the stagnation of ribbon separation and the stationarity of the microwave source. The NoRH also detected another microwave source during the second flare, emerging from a different location where thermal plasma is so depleted that accelerated electrons could survive longer against Coulomb collisional loss. The AIA 131 Å images show that a sigmoidal EUV hot channel developed after the first flare and erupted before the second flare. We suggest that this eruption removed the high-lying flux to let the separatrix dome underneath reconnect with neighboring flux and the second microwave burst follow. This scenario explains how the first microwave burst is related to the much-delayed second microwave burst in this composite event.

  17. Biopolymer composites for engineering food structures to control product functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.; Moschakis, T.; Biliaderis, C.G.

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing need for food systems with tailored properties using essential ingredients. This review provides an overview of how interactions between different ingredients, such as proteins, polysaccharides and lipids can be used to design different biopolymer composites, and how isotropic

  18. Damping analysis of cylindrical composite structures with enhanced viscoelastic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kliem, Mathias; Høgsberg, Jan Becker; Vanwalleghem, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    is forced to deform in shear mode. Thus, the vibration energy is dissipated as low grade frictional heat. This paper documents the efficiency of passive constrained layer damping treatments for low frequency vibrations of cylindrical composite specimens made of glass fibre-reinforced plastics. Different cross...

  19. Sustainable Use of Tepetate Composite in Earthen Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. López-Lara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the best indicators for construction sustainability is the use of earthy local materials which are completely recyclables and savers of energy during their life cycle. Tepetate is an underestimated earth-natural material, vast and economic, used only in a compacted form in backfills for layers of low resistance in pavements and platforms of buildings. This volcanic soil, named in different ways in several countries, is found in the central region of Mexico. Its resistance as compacted material is very low, of the order of 0.08 MPa. In this work, an improved sustainable-tepetate composite, using CaOH, is presented. This research includes the determination of mechanical properties as well as the physicochemical characterization of the sustainable-tepetate composite behavior. It can be concluded that the strength of the proposed composite increases significantly, immediately after treatment and with time. X-Ray Diffraction shows that all the mineralogical phases prevail in the natural tepetate and only a new phase appeared (calcite, which increases with time. This and the reaction of CaOH with clay content are very likely associated with the continuous strength increase of the composite.

  20. Effect of chemical composition and alumina content on structure and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In the present work, six electrical porcelain compositions with different amount of alumina and silica have been prepared and fired in an industrial furnace at 1300 ◦C. Density, porosity, bending strength and electrical strength were measured in the samples. In order to find a relationship between properties and ...

  1. Structure, composition and mechanical properties of the silk fibres of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ampullate glands. The silk fibres of the inner cover of the egg case from cylindrical glands appears to be distinct from the silk fibres of the major ampullate glands based on their micro-morphology, mole percent amino acid composition and types, and tensile behaviour and properties. Collectively, our investigations show that ...

  2. Development of hybrid composite radar wave absorbing structure for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ideally invisible stealth radomes are usually sandwiched constructions composed of E-glass/epoxy composite, polyvinyl chloride foam and frequency selective surfaces (FSS). Nylon 6/6 and balsa wood are well known for their low dielectric properties. In this work the electromagnetic (EM) wave transmission ...

  3. Structure, composition and mechanical properties of the silk fibres of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Collectively, our investigations show that N. clavata uses silk fibres from relatively few glands in varying combinations to achieve different physical and chemical properties (e.g., color, diameter, morphology and amino acid composition) and functional and mechanical properties in the different layers of the egg case.

  4. Optimal Design of Variable Stiffness Composite Structures using Lamination Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJsselmuiden, S.T.

    2011-01-01

    Fiber reinforced composite materials have gained widespread acceptance for a multitude of applications in the aerospace, automotive, maritime and wind-energy industries. Automated fiber placement technologies have developed rapidly over the past two decades, driven primarily by a need to reduce

  5. Strengthening of Concrete Structures with cement based bonded composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Täljsten, Björn; Blanksvärd, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Due to demands on higher loads, degradation, re-construction etc. there is a constant need for repair or strengthening of existing concrete structures. Many varying methods exist to strengthen concrete structures, one such commonly used technique utilizes surface epoxy bonded FRPs (Fibre Reinforced...... with improved working environment and better compatibility to the base concrete structure. This study gives an overview of different cement based systems, all with very promising results for structural upgrading. Studied parameters are structural retrofit for bending, shear and confinement. It is concluded...

  6. Metabolic and structural integrity of magnetic nanoparticle-loaded primary endothelial cells for targeted cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orynbayeva, Zulfiya; Sensenig, Richard; Polyak, Boris

    2015-05-01

    To successfully translate magnetically mediated cell targeting from bench to bedside, there is a need to systematically assess the potential adverse effects of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) interacting with 'therapeutic' cells. Here, we examined in detail the effects of internalized polymeric MNPs on primary rat endothelial cells' structural intactness, metabolic integrity and proliferation potential. The intactness of cytoskeleton and organelles was studied by fluorescent confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and high-resolution respirometry. MNP-loaded primary endothelial cells preserve intact cytoskeleton and organelles, maintain normal rate of proliferation, calcium signaling and mitochondria energy metabolism. This study provides supportive evidence that MNPs at doses necessary for targeting did not induce significant adverse effects on structural integrity and functionality of primary endothelial cells - potential cell therapy vectors.

  7. Research in active composite materials and structures: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Devendra P.; Anderson, Gary L.

    2000-06-01

    During the past several years, the Materials Science Division and the Mechanical and Environmental Sciences Division of the Army Research Office have been supporting projects focusing on basic resaserch in the area of smart materials and structures. The major emphasis of the ARO Structures and Dynamics Program has been on the theoretical, computational, and experimental analysis of smart structures and structural dynamics, damping, active control, and health monitoring as applied to rotor craft, electromagnetic antenna structures, missiles, land vehicles, and weapon systems. The research projects supported by the program have been primarily directed towards improving the ability to predict, control, and optimize the dynamic response of complex, multi-body deformable structures. The projects in the field of smart materials and structures have included multi-disciplinary research conducted by teams of several faculty members as well as research performed by individual investigators.

  8. Primary volcanic structures from a type section of Deccan Trap flows ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Field investigations of the Deccan Trap lava sequence along a 70km traverse in the Narsingpur–. Harrai–Amarwara area of central India indicate twenty lava flows comprising a total thickness of around 480 m. Primary volcanic structures like vesicles and cooling joints are conspicuous in this volcanic succession and are ...

  9. Primary structure of the plant serpin BSZ7 having the capacity of chymotrypsin inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren K; Klausen, Janne; Hejgaard, Jørn

    1996-01-01

    The primary structure of barley grain serpin BSZ7 was deduced from a cDNA encoding 397 amino-acid residues. More than 70% of the residues were confirmed by sequencing peptide fragments. The N-terminus was identified as an acetylated Ala by using mass spectrometry coupled with amino-acid analysis...

  10. Bifactor Structure of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Marley W.; Beaujean, A. Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition (WPPSI-IV; Wechsler, 2012) represents a substantial departure from its predecessor, including omission of 4 subtests, addition of 5 new subtests, and modification of the contents of the 5 retained subtests. Wechsler (2012) explicitly assumed a higher-order structure with…

  11. The Hierarchical Factor Structure Of The Wechsler Preschool And Primary Scale Of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallbrown, Fred H.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    A Wherry-Wherry hierarchical factor analysis was performed on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) subtest intercorrelations for each of six age groups. A hierarchical arrangement of abilities highly congruent with Vernon's structure of intellect theory was obtained. The findings support the construct validity of the…

  12. The CFRP primary structure of the MIRI instrument onboard the James Webb Space Telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Niels Christian; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Schroll, J

    2004-01-01

    The design of the Primary Structure of the Mid Infra-Red Instrument (MIRI) onboard the NASA/ESA James Webb Space Telescope will be presented. The main design driver is the energy flow from the 35 K "hot" satellite interface to the 7 K "cold" MIRI interface. Carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP...

  13. Hepatocellular localisation of biosynthesis of vitronectin. Characterisation of the primary structure of rat vitronectin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, M.; Kuiper, J.; Rijken, D.; Zonneveld, A.-J. van

    1995-01-01

    To characterize the primary structure of rat Vn, a cDNA library constructed from freshly isolated rat hepatocytes, was screened with a human Vn cDNA probe. Comparison of the sequence of the obtained rat cDNA clone with the sequences of human, mouse and rabbit Vn cDNA's showed predominantly consensus

  14. Factor Structure of the 10 WISC-V Primary Subtests across Four Standardization Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2018-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition (WISC-V; Wechsler 2014a) "Technical and Interpretation Manual" (Wechsler 2014b) dedicated only a single page to discussing the 10-subtest WISC-V primary battery across the entire 6 to 16 age range. Users are left to extrapolate the structure of the 10-subtest battery from the…

  15. cDNA cloning and primary structure analysis of invariant chain in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cDNA cloning and primary structure analysis of invariant chain in Chinese Pengze crucian carp. X Liu, W Yu, J Li, F Chen, S Liu, C Wu, J Xu. Abstract. Invariant chain (Ii) plays an important role in MHC class II molecules assembly and exogenous peptide presentation in vertebrates. Although mammalian Ii has been ...

  16. Design of a Carbon Fiber Composite Grid Structure for the GLAST Spacecraft Using a Novel Manufacturing Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, M

    2004-04-12

    The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope is an orbital observatory being planned as a joint DOE/NASA mission. The primary support of the instrument requires a grid structure which is very stiff, strong, light-weight, and thermally conductive. A carbon fiber composite grid design using a novel manufacture technique is proposed which meets or exceeds an aluminum design in all performance criteria and is economically competitive as well. Finite element analysis, confirmed by testing of a sample grid, is used to examine trade-offs for the materials and layups. Based on these analyses, recommendations are given for a viable design.

  17. Sandwich Structured Composites for Aeronautics: Methods of Manufacturing Affecting Some Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Krzyżak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich panels are composites which consist of two thin laminate outer skins and lightweight (e.g., honeycomb thick core structure. Owing to the core structure, such composites are distinguished by stiffness. Despite the thickness of the core, sandwich composites are light and have a relatively high flexural strength. These composites have a spatial structure, which affects good thermal insulator properties. Sandwich panels are used in aeronautics, road vehicles, ships, and civil engineering. The mechanical properties of these composites are directly dependent on the properties of sandwich components and method of manufacturing. The paper presents some aspects of technology and its influence on mechanical properties of sandwich structure polymer composites. The sandwiches described in the paper were made by three different methods: hand lay-up, press method, and autoclave use. The samples of sandwiches were tested for failure caused by impact load. Sandwiches prepared in the same way were used for structural analysis of adhesive layer between panels and core. The results of research showed that the method of manufacturing, more precisely the pressure while forming sandwich panels, influences some mechanical properties of sandwich structured polymer composites such as flexural strength, impact strength, and compressive strength.

  18. Study on the structure of pitch-polymer compositions by fluorescence microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Makomaski, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the results of studies on the evaluation of colloidal structure of coal-tar pitch compositions with selected waste polymers by fluorescence microscope. For pitch-polymer compositions containing 10?50?wt% waste polymer, softening point, coking value and content of components insoluble in toluene and quinoline were carried out. The results indicate that pitch-polymer compositions can be treated as microheterogeneous systems, colloidal and biphase, generally exhibiting uniform disp...

  19. An addressable conducting network for autonomic structural health management of composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kosuke; Park, Jong Se; Thomas Hahn, H

    2010-01-01

    The electrical resistance change method (ERCM) has long been an area of interest as an in-service health monitoring system. To apply the ERCM to existing structures, a new concept, the addressable conducting network (ACN), is proposed for autonomic structural health management of graphite/polymer composites. The ACN consists of two sets of conducting lines normal to each other, where one set resides on the top surface of the laminate and the other on the bottom surface. Damage can be detected by monitoring the resistance change 'through the laminate thickness' between two lines. By using a thermally mendable polymer as the matrix, the same conducting lines can be used to supply the electric current needed for resistive heating, thereby allowing the detected damage to be healed. As shown experimentally, the electrical resistance change method using an ACN distinguishes between laminates made of properly and improperly cured prepreg as well as revealing damage generated during three-point bending tests. Finite element analysis was performed to examine the feasibility of the ACN and indicated that the damage can be easily located from the spatial distribution of resistance changes and that the damaged area can be locally heated by supplying a large amount of current to selected conducting lines

  20. Survival of self-etch adhesive Class II composite restorations using ART and conventional cavity preparations in primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Ece; Topaloglu-Ak, Asli; Frencken, Jo E; van't Hof, Martin

    2006-12-01

    To test the null-hypothesis that there was no difference in the survival percentages of Class II composite restorations in primary teeth produced through either ART or conventional approaches after 2 years. 157 children with 325 Class II cavitated dentin lesions were included in a split-mouth study design. A computer program randomly assigned cavitated dentin lesions to treatment groups stratified for gender, operator, upper/lower jaw and left/right side of the mouth. Three operators placed resin composite (Pertac II) restorations using a self-etch adhesive (Prompt L-Pop). Two independent examiners evaluated the restorations after 0.5, 1 and 2 years using the modified Ryge criteria. A modification of the actuarial survival method was applied to estimate survival percentages. There was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) observed between the cumulative survival percentages of Class II composite restorations in primary teeth produced by the two approaches after 2 years (ART: 34.9% +/- 4.7%; conventional: 35.1% +/- 4.7%). The cumulative survival percentages of ART and conventional Class II restorations of one of the operators were lower than for ART restorations of the other two operators and for conventional restorations of one of the operators (P ART: 75%; conventional: 77%. The null-hypothesis was accepted as there was no difference in the cumulative survival percentages of ART and conventional Class II composite restorations in primary teeth after 2 years. It appears that the low survival results obtained may have been caused by poor bonding of the self-etch adhesive.

  1. The Evolution and Internal Structure of Jupiter and Saturn with Compositional Gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vazan, A.; Helled, R.; Podolak, M.; Kovetz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The internal structure of gas giant planets may be more complex than the commonly assumed core-envelope structure with an adiabatic temperature profile. Different primordial internal structures as well as various physical processes can lead to non-homogenous compositional distributions. A

  2. A Review of Structural Performance of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber in Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mahjoub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to environmental concerns and financial problems, natural fibers have become interesting and fascinating nowadays to be used as an industrial material and structural material for rehabilitating of structures. Oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (OPF is a natural fiber which is found a lot in tropical areas. Scientists have used OPF fiber with many types of resins such as epoxy, polypropylene, polyester, and phenol formaldehyde. Therefore, this paper focused on the properties of OPF fiber and gathered mechanical properties of OPF composites (OPF as reinforcement of polymer reported by other researchers in terms of tensile and flexural properties. Furthermore, the chemical surface modification methods to solve the interfacial bonding of fiber and polymer were mentioned. In addition, the results of hybrid composites of OPF were also discussed in this paper. Meanwhile, the results of composites were compared to pure resin properties and also the stress-strain diagram and internal strain energy of composites were considered. Besides, the effects of adding OPF to other composites to make a new hybrid composite were indicated. Finally, it is clear that the use of oil palm fiber composites for structural elements for bearing loads is not recommended but the usage of OPF composites for secondary structural elements may be recommended due to future researches.

  3. Structural Performance of Fiber-Placed, Variable-Stiffness Composite Conical and Cylindrical Shells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, A.W.

    2010-01-01

    The use of fiber-reinforced composites in aerospace structures has increased dramatically over the past decades. The high specific strength and stiffness, the tailorability, and the possibilities to integrate parts and reduce the number of fasteners give composites an advantage over metals.

  4. Structure and composition of vegetation along an elevational gradient in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.A. Gould; G. Gonzalez; G. Carrero Rivera

    2006-01-01

    Question: What are the composition, conservation status, and structural and environmental characteristics of eight mature tropical forest plant communities that occur along an elevational gradient. Location: Northeastern Puerto Rico. Methods: We quantified the species composition, diversity, conservation status, and ecological attributes of eight mature tropical forest...

  5. Quantitative Diagnostics of Multilayered Composite Structures with Ultrasonic Guided Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Chimenti, 2001. [2] J. Barshinger and J. Rose, "Guided wave propagation in an elastic hollow cylinder coated with a viscoelastic material," IEEE ...Trans. Ultras. Ferroelect. & Freq. Control, vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 1547 - 1556, 2004. [3] D. Chimenti and A. Nayfeh, "Leaky Lamb waves in fibrous...piezoelectric transducers," J. NDE, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 11-20, 1996. [5] T. Hay, L . Wei and J. Rose, "Rapid inspection of composite skin-honeycomb

  6. Composite Sandwich Structures for Shock Mitigation and Energy Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-28

    shells. • Validate analytical solutions with finite element analysis using ABAQUS and test data , if available. TECHNICAL APPROACH Composite sandwich...collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources...gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any

  7. Structural Acoustic Physics Based Modeling of Curved Composite Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-19

    various geometries and materials. This can help drive future research on composite material applications and enhance design methods for future Navy...both the plate and the water is 0.15 inch. The plate elements are eight-node, linear , brick stress/displacement continuum elements (C3D8R) while the...water elements are eight-node, linear , brick acoustic continuum elements (AC3D8). The analyses of the flat plate model were completed using Abaqus

  8. The fractal analysis of e-γ families with regard to chemical composition of primary cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempa, J.; Krys, A.

    1999-01-01

    In the paper we have analyzed properties of the fractal structures of the e,γ-families detected at the Pamir altitude. These structures were used for the mass estimation of primary nuclei which are responsible for the generation of these families. The major property of the detected e,γ-families turns out to be their asymmetry. Examples of various kinds of families are discussed

  9. Carbon fiber epoxy composites for both strengthening and health monitoring of structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvado, Rita; Lopes, Catarina; Szojda, Leszek; Araújo, Pedro; Gorski, Marcin; Velez, Fernando José; Castro-Gomes, João; Krzywon, Rafal

    2015-05-06

    This paper presents a study of the electrical and mechanical behavior of several continuous carbon fibers epoxy composites for both strengthening and monitoring of structures. In these composites, the arrangement of fibers was deliberately diversified to test and understand the ability of the composites for self-sensing low strains. Composites with different arrangements of fibers and textile weaves, mainly unidirectional continuous carbon reinforced composites, were tested at the dynamometer. A two-probe method was considered to measure the relative electrical resistance of these composites during loading. The measured relative electrical resistance includes volume and contact electrical resistances. For all tested specimens, it increases with an increase in tensile strain, at low strain values. This is explained by the improved alignment of fibers and resulting reduction of the number of possible contacts between fibers during loading, increasing as a consequence the contact electrical resistance of the composite. Laboratory tests on strengthening of structural elements were also performed, making hand-made composites by the "wet process", which is commonly used in civil engineering for the strengthening of all types of structures in-situ. Results show that the woven epoxy composite, used for strengthening of concrete elements is also able to sense low deformations, below 1%. Moreover, results clearly show that this textile sensor also improves the mechanical work of the strengthened structural elements, increasing their bearing capacity. Finally, the set of obtained results supports the concept of a textile fabric capable of both structural upgrade and self-monitoring of structures, especially large structures of difficult access and needing constant, sometimes very expensive, health monitoring.

  10. Carbon Fiber Epoxy Composites for Both Strengthening and Health Monitoring of Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Salvado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the electrical and mechanical behavior of several continuous carbon fibers epoxy composites for both strengthening and monitoring of structures. In these composites, the arrangement of fibers was deliberately diversified to test and understand the ability of the composites for self-sensing low strains. Composites with different arrangements of fibers and textile weaves, mainly unidirectional continuous carbon reinforced composites, were tested at the dynamometer. A two-probe method was considered to measure the relative electrical resistance of these composites during loading. The measured relative electrical resistance includes volume and contact electrical resistances. For all tested specimens, it increases with an increase in tensile strain, at low strain values. This is explained by the improved alignment of fibers and resulting reduction of the number of possible contacts between fibers during loading, increasing as a consequence the contact electrical resistance of the composite. Laboratory tests on strengthening of structural elements were also performed, making hand-made composites by the “wet process”, which is commonly used in civil engineering for the strengthening of all types of structures in-situ. Results show that the woven epoxy composite, used for strengthening of concrete elements is also able to sense low deformations, below 1%. Moreover, results clearly show that this textile sensor also improves the mechanical work of the strengthened structural elements, increasing their bearing capacity. Finally, the set of obtained results supports the concept of a textile fabric capable of both structural upgrade and self-monitoring of structures, especially large structures of difficult access and needing constant, sometimes very expensive, health monitoring.

  11. Structural Analysis of Composite Laminates using Analytical and Numerical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghi Divya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A laminated composite material consists of different layers of matrix and fibres. Its properties can vary a lot with each layer’s or ply’s orientation, material property and the number of layers itself. The present paper focuses on a novel approach of incorporating an analytical method to arrive at a preliminary ply layup order of a composite laminate, which acts as a feeder data for the further detailed analysis done on FEA tools. The equations used in our MATLAB are based on analytical study code and supply results that are remarkably close to the final optimized layup found through extensive FEA analysis with a high probabilistic degree. This reduces significant computing time and saves considerable FEA processing to obtain efficient results quickly. The result output by our method also provides the user with the conditions that predicts the successive failure sequence of the composite plies, a result option which is not even available in popular FEM tools. The predicted results are further verified by testing the laminates in the laboratory and the results are found in good agreement.

  12. Nonlinear Analysis and Scaling Laws for Noncircular Composite Structures Subjected to Combined Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Results from an analytical study of the response of a built-up, multi-cell noncircular composite structure subjected to combined internal pressure and mechanical loads are presented. Nondimensional parameters and scaling laws based on a first-order shear-deformation plate theory are derived for this noncircular composite structure. The scaling laws are used to design sub-scale structural models for predicting the structural response of a full-scale structure representative of a portion of a blended-wing-body transport aircraft. Because of the complexity of the full-scale structure, some of the similitude conditions are relaxed for the sub-scale structural models. Results from a systematic parametric study are used to determine the effects of relaxing selected similitude conditions on the sensitivity of the effectiveness of using the sub-scale structural model response characteristics for predicting the full-scale structure response characteristics.

  13. Primary Structure and Mechanical Properties of AlSi2 Alloy Continuous Ingots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wróbel T.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research results of horizontal continuous casting of ingots of aluminium alloy containing 2% wt. silicon (AlSi2. Together with the casting velocity (velocity of ingot movement we considered the influence of electromagnetic stirring in the area of the continuous casting mould on refinement of the ingot’s primary structure and their selected mechanical properties, i.e. tensile strength, yield strength, hardness and elongation. The effect of primary structure refinement and mechanical properties obtained by electromagnetic stirring was compared with refinement obtained by using traditional inoculation, which consists in introducing additives, i.e. Ti, B and Sr, to the metal bath. On the basis of the obtained results we confirmed that inoculation done by electromagnetic stirring in the range of the continuous casting mould guarantees improved mechanical properties and also decreases the negative influence of casting velocity, thus increasing the structure of AlSi2 continuous ingots.

  14. Primary Response Assessment Method for Concept Design of Monotonous Thin-Walled Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zanic

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A concept design methodology for monotonous, tapered thin-walled structures (wing/fuselage/ship/bridge is presented including modules for: model generation; loads; primary (longitudinal and secondary (transverse strength calculations; structural feasibility (buckling/fatigue/ultimate strength criteria; design optimization modules based on ES/GA/FFE; graphics. A method for primary strength calculation is presented in detail. It provides the dominant response field for design feasibility assessment. Bending and torsion of the structure are modelled with the accuracy required for concept design. A ‘2.5D-FEM’ model is developed by coupling a 1D-FEM model along the ‘monotonity’ axis and a 2D-FEM model(s transverse to it. The shear flow and stiffness characteristics of the cross-section for bending and pure/restrained torsion are given, based upon the warping field of the cross-section. Examples: aircraft wing and ship hull. 

  15. Structure, dynamics, and energetics of the primary photochemistry of photosystem II of oxygenic photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, Bruce A; Rappaport, Fabrice

    2002-01-01

    Recent progress in two-dimensional and three-dimensional electron and X-ray crystallography of Photosystem II (PSII) core complexes has led to major advances in the structural definition of this integral membrane protein complex. Despite the overall structural and kinetic similarity of the PSII reaction centers to their purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacterial homologues, the different cofactors and subtle differences in their spatial arrangement result in significant differences in the energetics and mechanism of primary charge separation. In this review we discuss some of the recent spectroscopic, structural, and mutagenic work on the primary and secondary electron transfer reactions in PSII, stressing what is experimentally novel, what new insights have appeared, and where questions of interpretation remain.

  16. Demonstration of Advanced Composite Cables for Prestressing Applications in Concrete Waterfront Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iyer, Srinivasa

    1998-01-01

    ... structures in corrosive environments. Piles, a deck slab, and pile caps using advanced composite prestressing cables were designed, constructed, and tested for a demonstration pier at Port Hueneme, CA...

  17. Automated Design and Analysis Tool for CLV/CEV Composite and Metallic Structural Components, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the proposed effort is a unique automated process for the analysis, design, and sizing of CLV/CEV composite and metallic structures. This developed...

  18. Ceramic Composite Mechanical Fastener System for High-Temperature Structural Assemblies, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hot structures fabricated from ceramic composite materials are an attractive design option for components of future high-speed aircraft, re-entry vehicles and...

  19. Cradle-to-Grave Monitoring of Composite Aircraft Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NextGen is proposing a simple yet powerful damage identification technique for advanced composite structures. We propose to develop a damage index based on vibration...

  20. Toughened and corrosion- and wear-resistant composite structures and fabrication methods thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D.; Ripley, Edward B.; Hallman, Russell L.

    2017-06-20

    Composite structures having a reinforced material interjoined with a substrate, wherein the reinforced material comprises a compound selected from the group consisting of titanium monoboride, titanium diboride, and combinations thereof.