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Sample records for composite ion exchanger

  1. Composite inorganic ion-exchangers and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, F.; John, J.; Motl, A.

    1998-01-01

    Composite inorganic ion exchangers are described containing modified polyacrylonitrile as the binding polymer. An overview of existing composite ion exchangers is presented, and the universality and assets of the developed procedure of treatment of inorganic ion exchanger powders are highlighted. Examples of applicability of the ion exchangers to the separation and concentration of radionuclides include in particular: wastes from the operation of nuclear power plants, contaminated surface waters and ground water, high level radioactive wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, and wastewaters from uranium ore mining and milling. In addition, composite ion exchangers find use in the monitoring of contamination of the hydrosphere and the environment and in the investigation of radionuclide migration in surface waters and ground water

  2. The study on the ion exchange behavior of metal ions using composite ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kukki; Lee, Kunjai [Nuclear Engineering Department Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youngkyun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sangjin; Yang, Hoyeon; Ha, Jonghyun [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-04-15

    In this study, a series of stepwise procedures to prepare a new organic-inorganic composite magnetic resin with phenol sulphonic-formaldehyde and freshly formed iron ferrite was established, based upon wet-and-neutralization method for synthesizing iron ferrite and pearl-polymerization method for synthesizing rigid bead-type composite resin. And a separation of metal ions in the liquid radioactive waste have been performed using organic-inorganic composite magnetic resin with phenol sulphonic-formaldehyde and freshly formed iron ferrite. The PSF-F (phenol sulphonic formaldehyde-iron ferrite) composite resin prepared by the above method shows stably high removal efficiency to Co(II), Fe, Cs species from wastewater in a wide range of solution pH. The wide range of applicable solution pH (i. e. pH 4.0 to 10.3) implies that the PSF-F composite resin overcomes the limitations of the conventional ferrite process which is practically applicable only to alkaline conditions. The experiment proceeded using batch reactor in a constant temperature with water bath. The experiments divided into three parts. The first one is TG/DTA (Thermogravimetry / Differential Thermal Analysis) which can analyze the trend of pyrolysis of PSF-F ion exchanger. The Second one is equilibrium experiment in which the separation factor of metal ions and Langmuir, Freundlich isotherm was achieved. The last one is kinetics experiment in which the equilibrium reaction time and removal efficiency is estimated.

  3. The study on the ion exchange behavior of metal ions using composite ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kukki; Lee, Kunjai; Kim, Youngkyun; Lee, Sangjin; Yang, Hoyeon; Ha, Jonghyun

    2002-01-01

    In this study, a series of stepwise procedures to prepare a new organic-inorganic composite magnetic resin with phenol sulphonic-formaldehyde and freshly formed iron ferrite was established, based upon wet-and-neutralization method for synthesizing iron ferrite and pearl-polymerization method for synthesizing rigid bead-type composite resin. And a separation of metal ions in the liquid radioactive waste have been performed using organic-inorganic composite magnetic resin with phenol sulphonic-formaldehyde and freshly formed iron ferrite. The PSF-F (phenol sulphonic formaldehyde-iron ferrite) composite resin prepared by the above method shows stably high removal efficiency to Co(II), Fe, Cs species from wastewater in a wide range of solution pH. The wide range of applicable solution pH (i. e. pH 4.0 to 10.3) implies that the PSF-F composite resin overcomes the limitations of the conventional ferrite process which is practically applicable only to alkaline conditions. The experiment proceeded using batch reactor in a constant temperature with water bath. The experiments divided into three parts. The first one is TG/DTA (Thermogravimetry / Differential Thermal Analysis) which can analyze the trend of pyrolysis of PSF-F ion exchanger. The Second one is equilibrium experiment in which the separation factor of metal ions and Langmuir, Freundlich isotherm was achieved. The last one is kinetics experiment in which the equilibrium reaction time and removal efficiency is estimated

  4. Adsorption behaviour and kinetics of exchange of Zn2+ and Eu3+ ions on a composite ion exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcos, T.N.

    2007-01-01

    Equilibria and kinetics of exchange of both Zn2+ and Eu3+ ions on a composite ion-exchanger, cobalt hexacyanocobaltate (III) (CoHCC) incorporated in polyacrylonitrile (PAN), has been studied. The apparent capacity of CoHCC-PAN for Zn2+ and Eu3+ was determined and found to be 0.353 and 0.69 meq/g, respectively. The higher capacity for Eu3+ ions than that for Zn2+ ions is due to the higher electrostatic interaction strength of the higher charge ion with the surface. Freundlich and Langmiur adsorption isotherms were used to investigate solute (Zn2+ or Eu3+) exchange phenomenon at the liquid/solid interface. The results indicated that both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms fit well for both Zn2+ and Eu3+. Sorption data have been also treated with the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation. The kinetics of Zn2+ or Eu3+ sorption on the composite seems to show that the reaction was proceed via two steps. The first one was fast and probably due to adsorption followed by a slow exchange reaction. In view of the data obtained on the effect of particle size and metal ion concentrations on the rate of exchange reaction, it is concluded that the mechanism for both ions was chemical control. Generally, it seems that there are two exchange sites chemically equivalent but present in pores of different sizes which lead to different degrees of dehydration of the ions sorbed on the two sites

  5. Composite sorbents of inorganic ion-exchangers and polyacrylonitrile binding matrix. Methods of modification of properties of inorganic ion-exchangers for application in column packed beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, F.

    1997-01-01

    Methods of preparation of granules of inorganic ion exchangers as well as methods for improvement of granular strength of these materials are reviewed. The resulting ion exchangers are classified in three groups - 'intrinsic', supported and composite ion exchangers. Their properties are compared and possibilities of their technological application are evaluated. A new method of preparation of inorganic-organic composite sorbents of inorganic ion-exchangers and polyacrylonitrile binding matrix is described, advantages and disadvantages of such sorbents are discussed. Proposed fields of application include tratment of liquid radioactive and/or hazardous wastes, decontamination of natural water as well as analytical applications. (author)

  6. Synthesis, Characterization and Ion Exchange Properties of a New Composite of Inorganic Ion Exchanger: Polyacrylonitrile Cerium(IV) Molybdophosphate%Synthesis, Characterization and Ion Exchange Properties of a New Composite of Inorganic Ion Exchanger: Polyacrylonitrile Cerium(IV) Molybdophosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmadi, Seyed Javad; Yavari, Ramin; Ashtari, Parviz'; Gholipour, Vanik; Kamel, Leila; Rakhshandehru, Farokh

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the synthesis of the composite of cerium(IV) molybdophosphate (CMP) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was reported (CMP-PAN). The material has been characterized by elemental and spectral (FT-IR), X-ray and thermal (TGA) analysis. Also the size analysis of the composite was done by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Its chemical stability in acidic, basic and saline solutions and radiation stability up to 100 kGy total expose dose were assessed. Whereas the synthesized composite has ion exchange properties, its ion exchange capacity and behavior toward several metal ions were also investigated. Further, the distribution coefficients of the metal ions were calculated. Finally, the ability of the synthesized CMP-PAN composite for the decontamination of low level liquid waste (LLLW) was investigated.

  7. Development of composite ion exchangers and their use in treatment of liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, F.; John, J.; Motl, A.

    1997-01-01

    Composite inorganic-organic absorbers represent a group of inorganic ion exchangers modified by using binding organic material for preparation of larger size particles having higher granular strength. Such modification of originally powdered or microcrystalline inorganic ion exchangers makes their application in packed beds possible. Modified polyacrylonitrile (PAN) has been used as a universal binding polymer for a number of inorganic ion exchangers. The kinetics of ion exchange and sorption capacity of such composite absorbers is not influenced by the binding polymer mentioned above. The contents of active component in composite absorber can be varied over a very broad range (5-95% of the dry weight of the composite absorber). These composite absorbers have been tested for separation and concentration of various contaminants from aqueous solutions. Their high selectivity and sorption efficiency are advantageous for treatment of various radioactive and/or industrial waste waters, removal of natural and/or artificial radionuclides and heavy or toxic metals from underground water, determination of radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 60 Co, U, Ra) in the environment, etc. Examples of some of these applications are presented in this report. (author). 21 refs, 9 figs, 10 tabs

  8. Characterization behavior of some polymeric composite ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zahhar, A.A; Ahdel-Aziz, H.M.; Siyam, T.

    2005-01-01

    Polymeric composite resins were prepared by template polymerization process in aqueous solution. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and The X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) were performed to evaluate the physico chemical properties of the different polymeric composite resins. The TGA and DTA clarify high thermal stability of prepared polymeric composite resins. XRD of prepared polymeric composite shows that there is crystalline structure of some resins while other are amorphous one

  9. Composition of atmospheric precipitation. I. Sampling technique. Use of ion exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egner, H; Eriksson, E; Emanuelsson, A

    1947-01-01

    In order to investigate the composition of atmospheric precipitations in Sweden, a technique using ion exchange resins has been developed. The possibilities of nitrate reduction, and ammonia losses, when the precipitation is collected in zinc gauges is stressed. Glass funnels are used, and they are effectively protected from bird droppings. The ion exchange resins so far available are quite serviceable but show some deficiencies as to stability, and activity in alkaline solutions. New resins, which are not yet available, seem to offer definite advantages.

  10. Development of composite ion exchanger for separation of cesium from high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Varshney, L.

    2010-01-01

    137 Cs (t 1/2 = 30 years) is one of the major radioisotope present in high level liquid waste (HLLW) generated during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. Separation of 137 Cs from HLLW results in reduction of personal radiation exposure during the conditioning, transportation, storage and disposal. In addition, 137 Cs has enormous application as a radiation source in food preservation, sterilization of medical products, brachytherapy, blood irradiation, hygienization of sewage sludge etc. Ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP), an inorganic ion exchanger, has high selectivity and high exchange capacity for Cs. It exits as microcrystalline powder which is not amenable for column operation. ALIX is a composite material in which AMP is physically blended with inert polymeric substrate to improve its column property, exchange kinetics and increase its mechanical strength. The observed excellent properties of the composite are attributed to its engineered structure which is formed during its production. SEM analysis of ALIX shows that AMP crystals embedded in the cavities are not covered by the polymer which greatly enhances its availability for cesium exchange. The highly porous structure of the composite having 49% void volume facilitates faster kinetics of exchange of Cs from the aqueous phase and increased rate of reaction with alkali required during its dissolution

  11. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  12. Fundamentals of ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the fundamentals of ion exchange mechanisms and their thermodynamics are described. A range of ion exchange materials is considered and problems of communication and technology transfer between scientists working in the field are discussed. (UK)

  13. Preparation of Nafion 117™-SnO2 Composite Membranes using an Ion-Exchange Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Casper Frydendal; Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Skou, Eivind Morten

    2012-01-01

    Nafion 117™-SnO2 composite membranes were prepared by in-situ particle formation using an ion-exchange method. SnO2 was incorporated into Nafion 117ä membranes by ion-exchange in solutions of SnCl2 ∙2 H2O in methanol, followed by oxidation to SnO2 in air. By adjustment of the concentration of SnCl2...... ∙ 2 H2O used in the ion-exchange step, compositions ranging from 2 to 8 wt% SnO2 with SnO2 homogeneously distributed as nanoparticles were obtained. The prepared nanocomposite membranes were characterized by powder XRD, 119Sn MAS NMR spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, water uptake...

  14. Composite ion-exchangers and their possible use in treatment of low/intermediate level liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, F.; Motl, A.; John, J.

    1993-01-01

    A new method of preparation of composite inorganic-organic ion exchangers using modified polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a binding polymer for the inorganic active component is described. This method enables incorporation of very fine to colloidal particles of active component in the binding polymer which increases the capacity and improves the kinetics of ion exchange of the resulting absorber. The proposed method can be applied on most of the inorganic ion exchangers known. Results of tests of some absorbers for treatment of radioactive wastes produced in the nuclear industry are given. For the removal of radiocesium from Long Term Fuel Storage Pond water at NPP Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia) NiFC-PAN composite ion exchanger has been tested. Excellent results have been achieved both at low and high (floating bed) flow rates in the course of treatment of up to 45,000 BV of pond water. The possibility of decreasing the total activity of the Biological Shield water from the same NPP below the 37 Bq/l discharge limit has been proved using NiFC-PAN and NaTiO-PAN composite ion exchangers. NiFC-PAN, NaTiO-PAN, MnO-PAN, M315-PAN and Na-Y-PAN composite ion exchangers were tested for removal of radiocesium, radiocobalt and radiomanganese from standard liquid radioactive wastes and concentrates from NPP Krsko, Croatia. Different combinations of absorbers have been tested for the treatment of Boron Recycle Hold-up, Waste Condensate and Waste Hold-up Tanks. Radium could be quantitatively removed from highly saline acid waste water from uranium underground leaching on Ba(Ca)SO 4 -PAN absorber

  15. Outlook for ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunin, R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the history and theory of ion exchange technology and discusses the usefulness of ion exchange resins which found broad applications in chemical operations. It is demonstrated that the theory of ion exchange technology seems to be moving away from the physical chemist back to the polymer chemist where it started originally. This but confronted the polymer chemists with some knotty problems. It is pointed out that one has still to learn how to use ion exchange materials as efficiently as possible in terms of the waste load that is being pumped into the environment. It is interesting to note that, whereas ion exchange is used for abating pollution, it is also a polluter. One must learn how to use ion exchange as an antipollution device, and at the same time minimize its polluting properties

  16. Copper ferrocyanide - polyurethane foam as a composite ion exchanger for removal of radioactive cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.V.S.; Lal, K.B.; Ahmed, J.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    1999-01-01

    A method has been developed for the removal of cesium from the aqueous radioactive waste using a composite ion-exchanger consisting of Copper-Ferrocyanide Powder (CFC) and Polyurethane (PU) Foam. Polyvinyl acetate has been used as a binder in the preparation of CFC-PU foam. The physical properties of CFC such as density, surface area, IR stretching frequency and lattice parameters have been evaluated and also its potassium and copper(II) content have been estimated. Optimization of loading of CFC on PU foam has been studied. The CFC-PU was viewed under microscope to find out the homogeneity of distribution. Exchange capacities of the CFC-PU foam in different media have been determined and column studies have been carried out. Studies have been undertaken on extraction of cesium from CFC foam and also on digestion of spent CFC-PU foam and immobilization of digested solution in cement matrix. The cement matrices have been characterized with respect to density, bio-resistance and leaching resistance. (author)

  17. Progress in liquid ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Genkichi

    1974-01-01

    Review is made on the extraction with anion exchangers and the extraction with liquid cation exchangers. On the former, explanation is made on the extraction of acids, the relation between anion exchange and the extraction of metals, the composition of the metallic complexes that are extracted, and the application of the extraction with anion exchangers to analytical chemistry. On the latter, explanation is made on the extraction of metals and its application to analytical chemistry. The extraction with liquid ion exchangers is suitable for the operation in chromatography, because the distribution of extracting agents into aqueous phase is small, and extraction equilibrium is quickly reached, usually within 1 to several minutes. The separation by means of anion exchangers is usually made from hydrochloric acid solution. For example, Brinkman et al. determined Rf values for more than 50 elements by thin layer chromatography. Tables are given for showing the structure of the liquid ion exchangers and the polymerized state of various amines. (Mori, K.)

  18. The application and properties of composite sorbents of inorganic ion exchangers and polyacrylonitrile binding matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilchi, A; Khanchi, A; Atashi, H; Bagheri, A; Nematollahi, L

    2006-10-11

    A description is given of the preparation and properties of potassium hexacyanocobalt (II) ferrate (II) (KCFC) and the composite, potassium hexacyanocobalt (II) ferrate (II)-polyacrylonitrile (KCFC-PAN). The materials were dried at high temperatures and characterized by chemical analysis, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma and infrared. The ion exchange of alkaline earth metals and molybdenum on a nonstoichiometric compound K(2)[CoFe(CN)(6)] and its PAN based absorber was examined by batch methods. The adsorption of molybdenum from aqueous solutions on KCFC-PAN was investigated and optimized as a function of equilibration time and pH. The materials which were dried at optimum high temperature of 110 degrees C were found to be stable in water, dilute acids, alkaline solutions and relatively high temperature. The distribution coefficient values K(d) for alkaline earth metals, followed the same trend of increase for both sets of absorbers studied, i.e. Ba(2+)>Sr(2+)>Ca(2+)>Mg(2+), which closely resembles to the order of the size of the hydrated cations. However, the K(d) values show a significant increase for PAN based absorbers in comparison to KCFC absorbers.

  19. Novel Bi/BiOBr/AgBr composite microspheres: Ion exchange synthesis and photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jianchang; Li, Zhenlu; Ge, Ming

    2018-06-01

    Novel Bi/BiOBr/AgBr composite microspheres were prepared by a rational in situ ion exchange reaction between Bi/BiOBr microspheres and AgNO3. The characteristic of the as-obtained ternary microspheres was tested by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS) and photoluminescence (PL). Under visible light irradiation, Bi/BiOBr/AgBr microspheres exhibited an excellent photocatalytic efficiency for rhodamine B (RhB) degradation, which was about 1.4 and 4.9 times as high as that of Bi/BiOBr and BiOBr/AgBr, demonstrating that the highest separation efficiency of charge carriers in the heterostructured Bi/BiOBr/AgBr. The photocatalytic activity of Bi/BiOBr/AgBr microspheres just exhibited a slight decrease after three consecutive cycles. The photocatalytic mechanism investigation confirmed that the superoxide radicals (O2•-) were the dominant reactive oxygen species for RhB degradation in Bi/BiOBr/AgBr suspension.

  20. Evaluation of capacity ion exchange of MMT-Na+with rare earth salts for use in polymeric nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maino, Isabel B.; Scienza, Lisete C.; Piazza, Diego; Zattera, Ademir J.; Ferreira, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    The modification of the montmorillonite clay is associated with materials science, arousing interest in science and technology provide significant improvements when incorporated into polymeric materials neat and conventional composites. The process of modification of clays occurs mainly through the ion exchange of exchangeable cations in its crystal structure. In this study, we performed ion exchange of sodium montmorillonite with rare earth salts (cerium) through two routes: centrifugation and filtration. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDS). The sample obtained by the filtration route showed an increase of basal clay by XRD, indicating the presence of salts of cerium on the structure, and corroborated by EDS analysis. (author)

  1. Determination of feedstuff amino acids composition by ion-exchange chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Volnin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of animal feeds amino acids composition is the very important part of agricultural sciences and livestock management. This is necessary for normalization and balanced of farm animal’s diets parameters. Advances in husbandry techniques are making in response to the needs for rearing high genetic merit livestock. The nutrition of livestock has a critical role in these developments and is an element which needs to be continually updated as new scientific information becomes available. This article is devoted to the use of ion-exchange chromatography with post-colum derivatization by ninhydrin in the study of the amino acid composition and evaluation of the biological value of livestock feedstuff components. The amino acid composition (except tryptophan of the livestock feed-stuff component is presented for threonine – 3.26 g/100g of protein, leucine – 6.43, isoleucine – 3.24, valine – 4.77, methionine – 2.18, lysine – 2.90, phenylalanine – 3.16, histidine – 2.03, tyrosine – 2.33, sum of asparagine and aspartate – 6.76, serine – 3.97, sum of glutamine and glutamic acid – 12.04, glycine – 6.00, alanine – 6.71, arginine – 6.93, proline – 3.08, sum of cystine and cysteine – 1.38. Biological value of feedstuff component compared with the "ideal" protein (FAO WHO is estimated, limiting amino acids were found. The amino acid score was calculated: for threonine – 81.5%, leucine – 91.9%, isoleucine – 81%, valine – 95.4%, lysine – 52.7%, phenylalanine and tyrosine sum – 91.5%, methionine and cysteine sum – 101.7%. Feedstuff component had a low level of essential amino acids in compare with "ideal" protein (FAO WHO. Feedstuff component can be used for livestock nutrition as a component of essential amino-acid balanced diet.

  2. Ion exchange phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  3. Anion Effects on the Ion Exchange Process and the Deformation Property of Ionic Polymer Metal Composite Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Aoyagi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC actuator composed of a thin perfluorinated ionomer membrane with electrodes plated on both surfaces undergoes a large bending motion when a low electric field is applied across its thickness. Such actuators are soft, lightweight, and able to operate in solutions and thus show promise with regard to a wide range of applications, including MEMS sensors, artificial muscles, biomimetic systems, and medical devices. However, the variations induced by changing the type of anion on the device deformation properties are not well understood; therefore, the present study investigated the effects of different anions on the ion exchange process and the deformation behavior of IPMC actuators with palladium electrodes. Ion exchange was carried out in solutions incorporating various anions and the actuator tip displacement in deionized water was subsequently measured while applying a step voltage. In the step voltage response measurements, larger anions such as nitrate or sulfate led to a more pronounced tip displacement compared to that obtained with smaller anions such as hydroxide or chloride. In AC impedance measurements, larger anions generated greater ion conductivity and a larger double-layer capacitance at the cathode. Based on these mechanical and electrochemical measurements, it is concluded that the presence of larger anions in the ion exchange solution induces a greater degree of double-layer capacitance at the cathode and results in enhanced tip deformation of the IPMC actuators.

  4. Small Column Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) leverages a suite of technologies developed by DOE across the complex to achieve lifecycle savings. Technologies are applicable to multiple sites. Early testing supported multiple sites. Balance of SRS SCIX testing supports SRS deployment. A forma Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) was performed and selected Small Column Ion Exchange columns containing Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) in a 2-column lead/lag configuration. SEE considered use of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF). Advantages of approach at SRS include: (1) no new buildings, (2) low volume of Cs waste in solid form compared to aqueous strip effluent; and availability of downstream processing facilities for immediate processing of spent resin.

  5. Application of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markhol, M.

    1985-01-01

    Existing methods of multi-element separation for radiochemical analysis are considered. The majority of existing methods is noted to be based on application of organic and inorganic ion exchangers. Distillation, coprecipitation, extraction as well as combination of the above methods are also used. Concrete flowsheets of multi-element separation are presented

  6. Analytical applications of ion exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Inczédy, J

    1966-01-01

    Analytical Applications of Ion Exchangers presents the laboratory use of ion-exchange resins. This book discusses the development in the analytical application of ion exchangers. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history and significance of ion exchangers for technical purposes. This text then describes the properties of ion exchangers, which are large molecular water-insoluble polyelectrolytes having a cross-linked structure that contains ionic groups. Other chapters consider the theories concerning the operation of ion-exchange resins and investigate th

  7. A polymeric membrane ion selective electrode based on organic-inorganic composite ion exchanger for the determination of thorium(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Agarwal, Himanshu; Chandan Kumar, Singh; Sindhu, Susheel Kumar; Pankaj Kumar

    2005-01-01

    A poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrode based on organic- inorganic composite ion exchanger, tin(IV) tungstoselenate-pyridine, has been prepared and tested for the selective determination of thorium(IV) ions. The PVC membrane electrode comprising 16% composite ion exchanger as the electroactive phase, 50% o-dioctyl phthalate as plasticizer, 4% tetraphenyl borate as anionic excluder and 30% poly(vinylchloride) displays a linear response to thorium(IV) ions over a wide concentration range of 1.0 x 10 -1 -8.0 x 10 -6 M with a Nernstain slope of 14.2 mV/ decade. The electrode shows a very short response time (∼15 s) and may be used in the pH range 2.5-9.0. The selectivity coefficient for alkali, alkaline earth and transition is smaller than 4.0 x 10 -4 . The sensor has been successfully used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Th 4+ with EDTA as well as also for the determination of Th 4+ in the binary mixtures. (author)

  8. Treatment of low level radioactive liquid wastes using composite ion-exchange resins based on polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.V.S.; Lekshmi, R.; Mani, A.G.S.; Sinha, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Composite ion-exchange resins were prepared by coating copper-ferrocyanide (CFC) and hydrous manganese oxide (HMO) powders on polyurethane (PU) foam. Polyvinyl acetate/Acetone was used as a binder. The foam was loaded with about five times its weight with CFC and HMO powders. The distribution coefficients of CFC-PU foam and HMO-PU foam for cesium and strontium respectively were estimated. Under similar conditions the HMO-PU foam showed higher capacity as well as better kinetics for removal of strontium than CFC-PU foam for Cs. The pilot plant scale studies were conducted using a mixed composite ion-exchange resin bed. About 1000 bed volumes could be passed before attaining a DF of 10 from an initial value of 60-80. The spent resin was digested in alkaline KMnO 4 and the digested liquid was fixed in cement matrix. The matrices were characterized with respect to compressive strength and leach resistance. (author)

  9. Reverse adhesion of a gecko-inspired synthetic adhesive switched by an ion-exchange polymer-metal composite actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dong-Jie; Liu, Rui; Cheng, Yu; Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Li-Ming; Fang, Shao-Ming; Elliott, Winston Howard; Tan, Wei

    2015-03-11

    Inspired by how geckos abduct, rotate, and adduct their setal foot toes to adhere to different surfaces, we have developed an artificial muscle material called ion-exchange polymer-metal composite (IPMC), which, as a synthetic adhesive, is capable of changing its adhesion properties. The synthetic adhesive was cast from a Si template through a sticky colloid precursor of poly(methylvinylsiloxane) (PMVS). The PMVS array of setal micropillars had a high density of pillars (3.8 × 10(3) pillars/mm(2)) with a mean diameter of 3 μm and a pore thickness of 10 μm. A graphene oxide monolayer containing Ag globular nanoparticles (GO/Ag NPs) with diameters of 5-30 nm was fabricated and doped in an ion-exchanging Nafion membrane to improve its carrier transfer, water-saving, and ion-exchange capabilities, which thus enhanced the electromechanical response of IPMC. After being attached to PMVS micropillars, IPMC was actuated by square wave inputs at 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 V to bend back and forth, driving the micropillars to actively grip or release the surface. To determine the adhesion of the micropillars, the normal adsorption and desorption forces were measured as the IPMC drives the setal micropillars to grip and release, respectively. Adhesion results demonstrated that the normal adsorption forces were 5.54-, 14.20-, and 23.13-fold higher than the normal desorption forces under 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 V, respectively. In addition, shear adhesion or friction increased by 98, 219, and 245%, respectively. Our new technique provides advanced design strategies for reversible gecko-inspired synthetic adhesives, which might be used for spiderman-like wall-climbing devices with unprecedented performance.

  10. Preparation of SiO2-KCoFC composite ion-exchanger for removal of Cs in the soil decontamination waste solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Joon; Moon, Jei kwon; Lee, Kune Woo

    2009-01-01

    The soil decontamination process has been developed for remediate the soil wastes excavated from the TRIGA research reactor sites. Even though the process was proven to be very effective for decontaminate the radioactive nuclides such as cesium and cobalt, the secondary spent solution should be treated with an appropriate method to minimize the waste volume. There are mainly two components in the spent decontamination solution of Cs and Co. The Co in the waste solution can be removed easily by precipitation under a basic condition. However, since the Cs is hardly removed by precipitation, an appropriate selective removal method should be employed. In this study, an inorganic composite ion exchanger of SiO 2 -KCoFC was prepared by sol-gel method for a removal of Cs in the decontamination waste solution. An optimum condition for a preparation of the composite ion exchanger and the adsorption performances of the prepared composite ion exchangers were evaluated

  11. Ion exchange for glass strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gy, Rene

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a short overview of silicate glass strengthening by exchange of alkali ions in a molten salt, below the glass transition temperature (chemical tempering). The physics of alkali inter-diffusion is briefly explained and the main parameters of the process, which control the glass reinforcement, are reviewed. Methods for characterizing the obtained residual stress state and the strengthening are described, along with the simplified modelling of the stress build-up. The fragmentation of chemically tempered glass is discussed. The concept of engineered stress profile glass is presented, and finally, the effect of glass and salt compositions is overviewed

  12. Ion exchange technology assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhn, E.F.

    1992-01-01

    In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW's. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team

  13. Electrically switched ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, M.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Schwartz, D.T.; Genders, D.

    1997-10-01

    A variety of waste types containing radioactive {sup 137}Cs are found throughout the DOE complex. These waste types include water in reactor cooling basins, radioactive high-level waste (HLW) in underground storage tanks, and groundwater. Safety and regulatory requirements and economics require the removal of radiocesium before these wastes can be permanently disposed of. Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is an approach for radioactive cesium separation that combines IX and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible, and economic separation method that also produces little or no secondary waste. In the ESIX process, an electroactive IX film is deposited electrochemically onto a high-surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. For cesium, the electroactive films under investigation are ferrocyanides, which are well known to have high selectivities for cesium in concentrated sodium solutions. When a cathode potential is applied to the film, Fe{sup +3} is reduced to the Fe{sup +2} state, and a cation must be intercalated into the film to maintain charge neutrality (i.e., Cs{sup +} is loaded). Conversely, if an anodic potential is applied, a cation must be released from the film (i.e., Cs{sup +} is unloaded). Therefore, to load the film with cesium, the film is simply reduced; to unload cesium, the film is oxidized.

  14. Ion exchange : principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bank, Nader; Majumdar, A.S.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide a brief state-of-the-art review of the basic principles underlying the unit operation of ion exchange and its numerous and diverse commercial applications. A selective bibliography is provided for the benefit of the reader interested in pursuing any specific aspect of ion exchange. (author)

  15. Porous polymer networks and ion-exchange media and metal-polymer composites made therefrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Katsoulidis, Alexandros

    2016-10-18

    Porous polymeric networks and composite materials comprising metal nanoparticles distributed in the polymeric networks are provided. Also provided are methods for using the polymeric networks and the composite materials in liquid- and vapor-phase waste remediation applications. The porous polymeric networks, are highly porous, three-dimensional structures characterized by high surface areas. The polymeric networks comprise polymers polymerized from aldehydes and phenolic molecules.

  16. Electrically switched cesium ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilga, M.A.; Orth, R.J.; Sukamto, J.P.H.; Schwartz, D.T.; Haight, S.M.; Genders, J.D.

    1997-04-01

    Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is a separation technology being developed as an alternative to conventional ion exchange for removing radionuclides from high-level waste. The ESIX technology, which combines ion exchange and electrochemistry, is geared toward producing electroactive films that are highly selective, regenerable, and long lasting. During the process, ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of an ion exchange film that has been electrochemically deposited onto a high surface area electrode. This method adds little sodium to the waste stream and minimizes the secondary wastes associated with traditional ion exchange techniques. Development of the ESIX process is well underway for cesium removal using ferrocyanides as the electroactive films. Films having selectivity for perrhenate (a pertechnetate surrogate) over nitrate also have been deposited and tested. A case study for the KE Basin on the Hanford Site was conducted based on the results of the development testing. Engineering design baseline parameters for film deposition, film regeneration, cesium loading, and cesium elution were used for developing a conceptual system. Order of magnitude cost estimates were developed to compare with conventional ion exchange. This case study demonstrated that KE Basin wastewater could be processed continuously with minimal secondary waste and reduced associated disposal costs, as well as lower capital and labor expenditures

  17. The novel composite mechanism of ammonium molybdophosphate loaded on silica matrix and its ion exchange breakthrough curves for cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Hao [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Li, Yuxiang, E-mail: superfigure@163.com [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); National Defense Key Discipline Laboratory for Nuclear Wastes and Environmental Safety, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Wu, Lang [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Ma, Xue [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • The granular composites were fabricated by the sequential annealing mechanism. • The method controls the porous characteristics and stable structure of materials. • The breakthrough curve of Cs{sup +} follows the Thomas model with a high removal rate. • It is a probable for SM-AMP20 to recycle Cs{sup +} using an eluent of 2–3 mol/L NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}. - Abstract: Long-lived {sup 137}Cs (over 30 years), a byproduct of the spent fuel fission processes, comprises the majority of high-level and prolific heat-generating waste in downstream processing. This study reports a novel sequential annealing mechanism with cross-linked network of polyvinyl alcohol, fabricating the composite of ammonium molybdophosphate loaded on silica matrix (SM-AMP20, 20 wt% AMP) as an excellent granular ion exchanger for removal Cs{sup +}. When the matrix is remarkably sequential annealed, well-dispersed SM-AMP20 particles are formed by firmly anchoring themselves on controlling the porous characteristics and stable structure. The material crystallizes in the complex cubic space group Pn-3m with cell parameters of crystalline AMP formation. The breakthrough curve of Cs{sup +} by SM-AMP20 follows the Thomas model with a high removal rate of 88.23% (∼10 mg/L of Cs{sup +}) and breakthrough time as high as 26 h (flow rate Q ≈ 2.5 mL/min and bed height Z ≈ 11 cm) at neutral pH. We also report on sorbents that could efficiently remove Cs{sup +} ions from complex solutions containing different competitive cations (Na{sup +}, Al{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, and Ni{sup 2+}, respectively) in large excess. Furthermore, this study shows that there is a probability for SM-AMP20 to recycle cesium using an eluent of 2–3 mol/L NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} solution.

  18. Organic decontamination by ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    This study has successfully identified ion exchanger media suitable for decontaminating the 5500-gallon organic layer in Tank 241-C-103. Decontamination of radionuclides is necessary to meet shipping, incinerator site storage, and incineration feed requirements. The exchanger media were identified through a literature search and experiments at the Russian Institute for Physical Chemistry. The principal radionuclides addressed are Cs-137 and Sr-90. Recommendations for an experimental program plan conclude the discussion. The experimental program would provide the data necessary for plant design specifications for a column and for ion exchange media to be used in decontaminating the organic layer

  19. Study of ion exchange equilibrium and determination of heat of ion exchange by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Kailu; Yang Wenying

    1996-01-01

    Ion chromatography using pellicularia ion exchange resins and dilute solution can be devoted to the study of ion exchange thermodynamics and kinetics. Ion exchange equilibrium equation was obtained, and examined by the experiments. Based on ion exchange equilibrium, the influence of eluent concentration and resin capacity on adjusted retention volumes was examined. The effect of temperature on adjusted retention volumes was investigated and heats of ion exchange of seven anions were determined by ion chromatography. The interaction between anions and skeleton structure of resins were observed

  20. chemical studies and sorption behavior of some hazardous metal ions on polyacrylamide stannic (IV) molybdophosphate as 'organic - inorganic' composite cation - exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Galil, E.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    compsite materials formed by the combination of multivalent metal acid salts and organic polymers provide a new class of (organic-inorganic) hypride ion exchangers with better mechanical and granulometric properties, good ion-exchange capacity, higher chemical and radiation stabilites, reproducibility and selectivity for heavy metals. this material was characterized using X-ray (XRD and XRF), IR, TGA-DTA and total elemental analysis studies. on the basis of distribution studies, the material has been found to be highly selective for pb(II). thermodynamic parameters (i.e δG 0 , δ S 0 and δH 0 ) have also been calculated for the adsorption of Pb 2+ , Cs + , Fe 3+ , Cd 2+ , Cu +2 , Zn 2+ , Co 2+ and Eu 3+ ions on polyacrylamide Sn(IV) molybdophosphate showing that the overall adsorption process is spontaneous endothermic. the mechanism of diffusion of Fe 3+ , Co 2+ , Cu +2 , Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ , Cs + , Pb 2+ and Eu 3+ in the H-form of polyacrylamide Sn(IV) molybdophosphate composite as cation exchanger was studied as a function of particle size, concentration of the exchanging ions, reaction temperature, dring temperature and pH. the exchange rate was controlled by particle diffusion mechanism as a limited batch techneque and is confirmed from straight lines of B versus 1/r 2 polts. the values of diffusion coefficients, activation energy and entropy of activation were calculated and their significance was discussed. the data obtained have been comared with that reported for other organic and inorganic exchangers.

  1. Disposal of bead ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Granthan, L.F.

    1985-01-01

    Bead ion exchange resin wastes are disposed of by a process which involves spray-drying a bead ion exchange resin waste in order to remove substantially all of the water present in such waste, including the water on the surface of the ion exchange resin beads and the water inside the ion exchange resin beads. The resulting dried ion exchange resin beads can then be solidified in a suitable solid matrix-forming material, such as a polymer, which solidifies to contain the dried ion exchange resin beads in a solid monolith suitable for disposal by burial or other conventional means

  2. Curing time effect on the fraction of 137Cs from cement- ion exchange resins-bentonite clay composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plecas, I.; Dimovic, S.

    2007-01-01

    Curing conditions and time are critically important in leach studies since the extent of hydratation of the cement materials determines how much hydratation product develops and whether it is available to block the pore network, thereby reducing leaching.[1,2]. To assess the safety of disposal of radioactive waste material in cement, curing conditions and time of leaching radionuclide 137 Cs has been studied in this paper. Leaching tests in cement-ion exchange resins-bentonite matrix, were carried out in accordance with a method recommended by IAEA. Curing conditions and curing time prior to commencing the leaching test are critically important in leach studies since the extent of hydration of the cement materials determines how much hydration product develop and whether it is available to block the pore network, thereby reducing leaching. Incremental leaching rates R n (cm/d) of 137 Cs from cement-ion exchange resins-bentonite matrix after 180 days were measured. The results presented in this paper are examples of results obtained in a 20-year concrete testing project which will influence the design of the engineer trenches system for future central Serbian radioactive waste storing center. (author)

  3. A Cadmium Ion-selective Membrane Electrode Based on Strong Acidic Organic-inorganic Composite Cation-exchanger: Polyaniline Ce(IV Molybdate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ashfaq NABI

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A cadmium ion-selective composite cation-exchanger polyaniline Ce(IV molybdate was used as electroactive component for the construction of a ion-selective membrane electrode. The membrane electrode showed a Nerstian response for Cd(II ions over a wide concentration range 5 × 10-6 – 1 × 10-1 with a sub-Nerstian slope of 27 mV per decade change in concentration of cadmium ions. The limit of detection was also ascertained to be 5 × 10-6 M. It has a fast response time 15 s and can be very well utilized for more than three months with out any appreciable divergence in potentials. The optimum pH for the smooth functioning of this electrode was found to be in the Ph range of 2.5 – 7.5. The electrode also showed better selectivity for Cd(II ions over many other interfering ions. The practical utility of membrane electrode was demonstrated by using as indicator electrode for the potentiometric titration of Cd(II with EDTA and determination of cadmium content in drain water.

  4. SPEEDUPtrademark ion exchange column model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, T.

    2000-01-01

    A transient model to describe the process of loading a solute onto the granular fixed bed in an ion exchange (IX) column has been developed using the SpeedUptrademark software package. SpeedUp offers the advantage of smooth integration into other existing SpeedUp flowsheet models. The mathematical algorithm of a porous particle diffusion model was adopted to account for convection, axial dispersion, film mass transfer, and pore diffusion. The method of orthogonal collocation on finite elements was employed to solve the governing transport equations. The model allows the use of a non-linear Langmuir isotherm based on an effective binary ionic exchange process. The SpeedUp column model was tested by comparing to the analytical solutions of three transport problems from the ion exchange literature. In addition, a sample calculation of a train of three crystalline silicotitanate (CST) IX columns in series was made using both the SpeedUp model and Purdue University's VERSE-LC code. All test cases showed excellent agreement between the SpeedUp model results and the test data. The model can be readily used for SuperLigtrademark ion exchange resins, once the experimental data are complete

  5. Ion exchange purification of scandium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herchenroeder, Laurie A.; Burkholder, Harvey R.

    1990-10-23

    An improvement in purification of scandium through ion exchange chromatography is disclosed in which the oxidation potential of the eluting solution is altered by the addition of potassium chlorate or ammonium chloride so that removal of contaminants is encouraged. The temperature, pH and concentration of the eluent HEDTA are controlled in order to maintain the scandium in the column while minimizing dilution of the scandium band. Recovery of scandium is improved by pumping dilute scandium over the column prior to stripping the scandium and precipitation. This eliminates the HEDTA ion and other monovalent cations contaminating the scandium band. This method maximizes recovery of scandium while maintaining purity.

  6. Ion-exchange composite membranes pore-filled with sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) and Engelhard titanosilicate-10 for improved performance of vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihoon; Lee, Yongkyu; Jeon, Jae-Deok; Kwak, Seung-Yeop

    2018-04-01

    A series of ion-exchange membranes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs) are prepared by filling the pores of a poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) substrate with sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and microporous Engelhard titanosilicate-10 (ETS-10). The effects of ETS-10 incorporation and PTFE reinforcement on membrane properties and VRB single-cell performance are investigated using various characterization tools. The results show that these composite membranes exhibit improved mechanical properties and reduced vanadium-ion permeabilities owing to the interactions between ETS-10 and SPEEK, the suppressed swelling of PTFE, and the unique ETS-10 framework. The composite membrane with 3 wt% ETS-10 (referred to as "SE3/P") exhibits the best membrane properties and highest ion selectivity. The VRB system with the SE3/P membrane exhibits higher cell capacity, higher cell efficiency, and lower capacity decay than that with a Nafion membrane. These results indicate that this composite membrane has potential as an alternative to Nafion in VRB systems.

  7. 225-B ion exchange piping design documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prather, M.C.

    1996-02-01

    This document describes the interface between the planned permanent ion exchange piping system and the planned portable ion exchange system. This is part of the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). In order to decouple this WESF from B-Plant and to improve recovery from a capsule leak, contaminated pool cell water will be recirculated through a portable ion exchange resin system

  8. Ion-exchange chromatographic protein refolding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freydell, E.; Wielen, van der L.; Eppink, M.H.M.; Ottens, M.

    2010-01-01

    The application of ion-exchange (IEX) chromatography to protein refolding (IExR) has been successfully proven, as supported by various studies using different model proteins, ion-exchange media and flow configurations. Ion-exchange refolding offers a relatively high degree of process

  9. Kinetic Rate Law Parameter Measurements on a Borosilicate Waste Glass: Effect of Temperature, pH, and Solution Composition on Alkali Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, Eric M.; McGrail, B PETER.; Icenhower, J P.; Rodriguez, Elsa A.; Steele, Jackie L.; Baum, Steven R.

    2004-01-01

    The reaction kinetics of glass is controlled by matrix dissolution and ion exchange (IEX). Dissolution of an alkali-rich simulated borosilicate waste glass was investigated using single-pass flow-through (SPFT) experiments. Experiments were conducted as a function of temperature, pH, and solution composition by varying the SiO 2 (aq) activity in the influent solution. Results showed that under dilute conditions matrix dissolution increased with increasing pH and temperature, and decreased with increasing SiO 2 (aq) activity. IEX rates decreased with increasing pH and temperature, and increased with increasing SiO 2 (aq) activity. Over the solution composition range interrogated in this study the dominant dissolution mechanism changed from matrix dissolution to IEX. These results suggest that ''secondary'' reactions may become dominant under certain environmental conditions and emphasize the need to incorporate these reactions into dissolution rate models

  10. PRTR ion exchange vault column sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornwell, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents ion exchange column sampling and Non Destructive Assay (NDA) results from activities in 1994, for the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange vault. The objective was to obtain sufficient information to prepare disposal documentation for the ion exchange columns found in the PRTR Ion exchange vault. This activity also allowed for the monitoring of the liquid level in the lower vault. The sampling activity contained five separate activities: (1) Sampling an ion exchange column and analyzing the ion exchange media for purpose of waste disposal; (2) Gamma and neutron NDA testing on ion exchange columns located in the upper vault; (3) Lower vault liquid level measurement; (4) Radiological survey of the upper vault; and (5) Secure the vault pending waste disposal

  11. Synthetic inorganic ion-exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, M.

    1979-01-01

    Exchange isotherms for hydrogen ion/alkali metal ions have been measured at 20 and 40 0 C, with a solution ionic strength of 0.1, in crystalline antimonic(V) acid as a cation-exchanger. The isotherms showed S-shaped curves for the systems of H + /Na + , H + /K + , H + /Rb + and H + /Cs + , but not for H + /Li + exchange. The selectivity coefficients (logarithm scale) vs equivalent fraction of alkali metal ions in the exchanger give linear functions for all systems studied. The selectivity sequences are shown. Overall and hypothetical (zero loading) thermodynamic equilibrium constants were evaluated for these ion-exchange reactions. (author)

  12. A study on dry decontamination using ion exchange polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Ki Jung; Ahn, Byung Gil

    1997-12-01

    Through the project of A study on dry decontamination using ion exchange polymer , the followings were investigated. 1. Highly probable decontamination technologies for the decontamination were investigated. 2. Development of gel type decontamination agent using ion-exchange resin powder (mixed type) as an ion exchanger. 3. Manufacturing of contaminated specimens (5 kinds) with Cs-137 solution and dust / Cs-137 solution. 4. Decontamination performance evaluation of the manufactured agent. 5. Analysis of composition (XRF) and the structure of surface of specimens (optic micrography). (author). 20 refs., 11 figs

  13. Composite films of poly-(ester-sulphonated) and poly-(3-methylthiophene) for ion-exchange voltammetry in acetonitrile solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scopece, Paolo; Moretto, Ligia M.; Polizzi, Stefano; Ugo, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation and characterisation of a polymeric electrode coating based on a composite of the poly-(ester-sulphonated) Eastman AQ55[reg] (AQ55) and poly-(3-methylthiophene) (PMeT), which is used for the controlled uptake and partial release of electroactive cations in acetonitrile solutions. The film is prepared by electrochemical oxidation in acetonitrile of 3-methylthiophene on glassy carbon disks or Pt-quartz crystal electrodes pre-coated with a thin film of AQ55. The electropolymerisation process is controlled so that the overall number of positive charges of oxidised PMeT is equal to the number of negative charges of the sulphonate groups of AQ55. Cyclic voltammetry and quartz crystal microbalance measurements indicate that the AQ55/PMeT mixed film is stable in acetonitrile and that its cation-exchange properties depend on the applied potential. When the PMeT moieties are reduced, the film incorporate cations; following electrochemical oxidation of the coating causes a release of the incorporated cations which, however, is only partial. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination of cross sections of the composite polymer layer indicate that it is really a bi-layer, made by an inner compact layer of AQ55 on which a thicker and porous PMeT layer is grown. The outer PMeT layer acts as a barrier whose ionic charges can be changed electrochemically from positive (oxidation) to neutral (reduction). These ionic charges hinder or allow, respectively, the permeation of redox cations which tend to interact with the negatively charged sulphonic sites of the AQ55 layer. Direct self-neutralization of part of the positive charges of oxidized PMeT by the AQ55 sulphonic groups allows the release of part of the redox cations incorporated previously in the mixed film when PMeT is in the reduced state. By operating in acetonitrile solutions without added electrolyte it is possible to increase the fraction of redox cations which are released in

  14. Ion exchange process: History, evolution and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzoldi, P.; Carturan, S.; Sada, C.; Quaranta, A.; Sglavo, V.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a review on some aspects and applications of ion exchange process in glasses, ferroelectric and polymers in the fields of optics, nanotechnology, gas sensors and chemical strengthening. The formation of nanoparticles in ion-exchanged glasses, as effect of ion or laser irradiation, is discussed. A discussion on the potentialities of ion exchange process in comparison to ion implantation in optical devices and nanotechnology is also introduced. Analytical techniques applied to the study of the ion exchange process are illustrated. The studies of ion exchange process in “Natural materials” constitute the content of a specific paragraph, for applications in water cleaning. Some initial considerations on the “old age” of this technique are introduced.

  15. Using Ion Exchange Chromatography to Separate and Quantify Complex Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Ion exchange chromatography is an important technique in the separation of charged species, particularly in biological, inorganic, and environmental samples. In this experiment, students are supplied with a mixture of two substitution-inert complex ions. They separate the complexes by ion exchange chromatography using a "flash"…

  16. Treatment of low-activity-level process wastewaters by Continuous Countercurrent Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.; Watson, J.S.; Robinson, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses application of the Thomas model for predicting breakthrough curves from ion exchange column tests, methods for scale-up of experimental small-scaled ion exchange columns to industrial scale columns, and methods for predicting effluent compositions in a continuous countercurrent ion exchange system. 20 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Ion exchange in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Ion exchange is used in nearly every part of the nuclear fuel cycle -- from the purification of uranium from its ore to the final recovery of uranium and transmutation products. Ion exchange also plays a valuable role in the management of nuclear wastes generated in the fuel cycle

  18. Ion exchange in the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehto, J.

    1993-01-01

    Ion exchangers are used in many fields in the nuclear power industry. At nuclear power plants, organic ion exchange resins are mainly used for the removal of ionic and particulate contaminants from the primary circuit, condensate and fuel storage pond waters. Ion exchange resins are used for the solidification of low- and medium-active nuclear waste solutions. The number of applications of zeolites, and other inorganic ion exchangers, in the separation of radionuclides from nuclear waste solutions has been increasing since the 1980s. In nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, ion exchange is used for the solidification of low- and medium-active waste solutions, as well as for the partitioning of radioactive elements for further use. (Author)

  19. Adsorption on mixtures of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triolo, R.; Lietzke, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical study has been made of adsorption on mixtures of ion exchangers. The effect of variables such as the concentration of the ion being adsorbed, the concentration of the supporting electrolyte, loading, the values of the capacities and equilibrium constants for the various exchange processes, and the fraction of each adsorber in the mixture on the observed distribution coefficient has been investigated. A computer program has been written to facilitate the calculation of distribution coefficients for the adsorption of an ion on a given mixture of ion exchangers under a specified set of conditions

  20. IMPACTS OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE STREAMS ON DWPF GLASS FORMULATION: KT01, KT02, KT03, AND KT04-SERIES GLASS COMPOSITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2010-11-01

    Four series of glass compositions were selected, fabricated, and characterized as part of a study to determine the impacts of the addition of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and Monosodium Titanate (MST) from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass waste form and the applicability of the DWPF process control models. The KT01 and KT02-series of glasses were chosen to allow for the identification of the influence of the concentrations of major components of the glass on the retention of TiO{sub 2}. The KT03 series of glasses was chosen to allow for the identification of these influences when higher Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and ZrO{sub 2} concentrations are included along with TiO2. The KT04 series of glasses was chosen to investigate the properties and performance of glasses based on the best available projections of actual compositions to be processed at the DWPF (i.e., future sludge batches including the SCIX streams).

  1. Decomposing method for ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, Takeshi; Sato, Shinshi; Akai, Yoshie; Moniwa, Shinobu; Yamada, Kazuo

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of decomposing ion exchange resins generated in a nuclear power plant to carbon dioxide reliably in a short period of time. (1) The ion exchange resins are mixed with water, and then they are kept for a predetermined period of time in the presence of an inert gas at high temperature and high pressure exceeding the critical point of water to decompose the ion exchange resins. (2) The ion exchange resins is mixed with water, an oxidant is added and they are kept for a predetermined time in the presence of an inert gas at a high temperature and a high pressure exceeding a critical point of water of an inert gas at a high temperature to decompose the ion exchange resins. (3) An alkali or acid is added to ion exchange resins and water to control the hydrogen ion concentration in the solution and the ion exchange resins are decomposed in above-mentioned (1) or (2). Sodium hydroxide is used as the alkali and hydrochloric acid is used as the acid. In addition, oxygen, hydrogen peroxide or ozone is used as an oxidant. (I.S.)

  2. Ion exchange currents in vacuum accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.A.; Thorn, R.

    1978-01-01

    Ion exchange currents (microdischarges) have been observed in short lengths of accelerator tube. The occurrence of these discharges can be related to the trajectories of ions in the tube. High-resolution mass spectra of the negative and positive ion components have been obtained. (author)

  3. Radionuclide Leaching from Organic Ion Exchange Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Rinehart, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory tests were performed to examine the efficacy of leach treatments for decontaminating organic ion exchange resins (OIER), which have been found in a number of samples retrieved from K East Basin sludge. Based on process records, the OIER found in the K Basins is a mixed-bet strong acid/strong base material marketed as Purolitetrademark NRW-037. Radionuclides sorbed or associated with the OIER can restrict its disposal to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The need for testing to support development of a treatment process for K Basin sludge has been described in Section 4.2 of ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process'' (Flament 1998). To help understand the effects of anticipated OIER elutriation and washing, tests were performed with well-rinsed OIER material from K East Basin floor sludge (sample H-08 BEAD G) and with well-rinsed OIER having approximately 5% added K East canister composite sludge (sample KECOMP). The rinsed resin-bearing material also contained the inorganic ion exchanger Zeolon-900trademark, a zeolite primarily composed of the mineral mordenite. The zeolite was estimated to comprise 27 weight percent of the dry H-08 BEAD G material

  4. Chemical uranium enrichment with ion exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko; Onitsuka, Hatsuki; Obanawa, Heiichiro

    1991-01-01

    The uranium enrichment by using ion-exchange has been studied and developed since 1972. The ion-exchange rate has been improved approx. 3000 times and the electron exchange reaction, which occurs with ion-exchange reaction, was also accelerated with catalyst. Flow disturbance in a ion-exchange column has been fully studied and the value of turbulence has been reduced to 150μm. These results allowed us to design a very fine separation column, in which about 10000 stages can be obtained even when the column is more than 1 m in diameter. In the course of the development, a self-regenerating reaction between the redox agents was discovered and incorporated into the process, and has resulted in a reduction of 70 % in the separation energy requirement. (author)

  5. Biodegradation of ion-exchange media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowerman, B.S.; Clinton, J.H.; Cowdery, S.R.

    1988-08-01

    Ion-exchange media, both bead resins and powdered filter media, are used in nuclear power plants to remove radioactivity from process water prior to reuse or environmental discharge. Since the ion- exchange media are made from synthetic hydrocarbon-based polymers, they may be susceptible to damage from biological activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate some of the more basic aspects of biodegradation of ion-exchange media, specifically to evaluate the ability of microorganisms to utilize the ion-exchange media or materials sorbed on them as a food source. The ASTM-G22 test, alone and combined with the Bartha Pramer respirometric method, failed to indicate the biodegradability of the ion-exchange media. The limitation of these methods was that they used a single test organism. In later phases of this study, a mixed microbial culture was grown from resin waste samples obtained from the BNL High Flux Beam Reactor. These microorganisms were used to evaluate the susceptibility of different types of ion-exchange media to biological attack. Qualitative assessments of biodegradability were based on visual observations of culture growths. Greater susceptibility was associated with increased turbidity in solution indicative of bacterial growth, and more luxuriant fungal mycelial growth in solution or directly on the ion-exchange resin beads. 21 refs., 9 figs., 18 tabs

  6. Ion exchange and hydrolysis reactions in zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harjula, Risto.

    1993-09-01

    Among other uses, zeolites are efficient cation exchangers for aquatic pollution control. At present they they are mainly used in nuclear waste effluent treatment and in detergency. In the thesis, several ion exchange equilibria, important in these main fields of zeolite applications, were studied, with special emphasis on the formulation and calculation of the equilibria. The main interest was the development of thermodynamic formulations for the calculation of zeolite ion exchange equilibria in solutions of low or very low (trace) ion concentration, which are relevant for the removal of trace pollutants, such as radionuclides, from waste waters. Two groups of zeolite-cation systems were studied. First, binary Ca 2+ /Na + exchange in zeolites X and Y, which are of interest for detergency applications. Second, binary Cs + /Na + and Cs + /K + exchanges, and ternary Cs + /Na + /K + exchange in mordenite, which are important in nuclear waste effluent treatment. The thesis is based on five previous publications by author. (100 refs., 7 figs.)

  7. Ion exchange of strontium on synthetic hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazic, S.; Vukovic, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Adsorption of strontium ions on synthetic hydroxyapatite was examined using both batch and column methods. The apatite was prepared from aqueous solutions and characterized by standard analytical methods. The sample obtained had characteristics of well crystallized stoichiometric hydroxyapatite. The experimental data for sorption of strontium can be very well fitted with Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. It was found that sorption occurs by an ion exchange reaction between strontium ions in solution and calcium ions in apatite. (author) 14 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  8. Research of thermal stability of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchlik, S.; Srnkova, J.

    1983-01-01

    Prior to the fixation of radioactive ion exchangers into bitumen these exchangers have to be dried. The resulting gaseous products may generate explosive mixtures. An analysis was made of the thermal stability of two types of ion exchangers, the cation exchanger KU-2-8 cS and the anion exchanger AV-17-8 cS which are used in the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice. The thermal stability of the anion exchangers was monitored using gas chromatography at temperatures of 100, 120, 140, 160 and 180 degC and by measuring weight loss by kiln-drying at temperatures of 120, 140, 160 and 180 degC. The ion exchanger was heated for 6 hours and samples were taken continuously at one hour intervals. The thermal stability of the cation exchanger was monitored by measuring the weight loss. Gas chromatography showed the release of trimethylamine from the anion exchanger in direct dependence on temperature. The measurement of weight losses, however, only showed higher losses of released products which are explained by the release of other thermally unstable products. The analysis of the thermal stability of the cation exchanger showed the release of SO 2 and the weight loss (following correction for water content) was found only after the fourth hour of decomposition. The experiment showed that the drying of anion exchanger AV-17-8 cS may cause the formation of explosive mixtures. (J.P.)

  9. Crystalline silicotitanates -- novel commercial cesium ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, R.; Dangieri, T.J.; Fennelly, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    A new class of inorganic ion exchangers called crystalline silicotitanates (CST), invented by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A ampersand M University, has been commercialized in a joint Sandia-UOP effort. The original developmental materials exhibited high selectivity for the ion exchange of cesium, strontium, and several other radionuclides from highly alkaline solutions containing molar concentrations of Na + . The materials also showed excellent chemical and radiation stability. These CST properties made them excellent candidates for treatment of solutions such as the Hanford tank supernates and other DOE radwastes. Sandia and UOP, under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), developed CSTs in the powdered form and in an engineered form suitable for column ion exchange use. A continuous-flow, column ion exchange process is expected to be used to remove Cs and other radionuclides from the Hanford supernatant. The powder material invented by Sandia and Texas A ampersand M consists of submicron-size particles. It is not designed for column ion exchange but may be used in other applications such as batch waste processing. Data are also presented confirming the excellent stability of the commercial CSTs over a broad pH range and the high radiation stability of the exchangers. In addition, data are provided that demonstrate the high physical strength and attrition resistance of IONSIV reg-sign IE-911, critical properties for column ion exchange applications

  10. Ion-exchange concentration of inorganic anions from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Bondareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of natural waters in the present time - consuming process, the accuracy of which is influenced by many factors: the composition of water, the presence of impurities and "interfering" components. The water sample preparation process includes the step of concentration and separation of ions determined. The most versatile, efficient, and frequently used method is the concentration of inorganic anions from aqueous solutions by ion exchanger, which can optimize the composition of water to the optimal for identification and quantitative determination of anions. The characteristics of sorption chloride, nitrate and sulfate ions of basic anion exchange resin AВ-17 and Purolite A430 were compared in the article. The constants of protolysis of ion exchangers both AB 17 and Purolite A430 are the same and equal 0.037 ± 0,002. The value of total capacity (POE Purolite A430 was 4.3 mmol/g, AB 17 – 3.4 mmol/g. The studied ion exchangers have the same type of ionic groups – quaternary ammonium, but their number and denotes differ. The number of quaternary ammonium groups is higher in Purolite A430, respectively the number of absorbed anions of these ion exchanger is higher. The values of dynamic exchange capacity (DOE of ion exchanger Purolite A430 is higher than these values of AB-17 and equal to 1.48 ± 0.03 mmol / dm3 for chloride ion, 1.50 ± 0.03 mmol / dm3 for nitrate ion, 1.62 ± 0.03 mmol / dm3 for sulfate ion. The values of the POE and DOE of anion-exchange resins Purolite A430 and AV-17 and the characteristics of the individual sorption of chloride, nitrate, sulfate ions showed an advantage of the Purolite for the concentrationing of anions. It is found that times of anions sorption from triple-anion solutions by Purolite A430 are significantly different for different anions, and these times are close for anion-exchanger AV-17. It proves the possibility of quantitative separation and concentration by anion-exchanger Purolite A430.

  11. ION EXCHANGE IN GLASS-CERAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Halsey Beall

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years ion-exchange in glasses has found a renewed interest with a lot of new development and research in industrial and academic labs and the commercialization of materials with outstanding mechanical properties. These glasses are now widely used in many electronic devices including hand-held displays and tablets. The exchange is generally conducted in a bath of molten salt below the transition temperature of the glass. The exchange at the surface of an alkali ion by a bigger one brings compressive stress at the surface. The mechanical properties are dependent on the stress level at the surface and the depth of penetration of the bigger ion. As compared to glasses, glass-ceramics have the interest to display a wide range of aspects (transparent to opaque and different mechanical properties (especially higher modulus and toughness. There has been little research on ion-exchange in glass-ceramics. In these materials the mechanisms are much more complex than in glasses because of their polyphasic nature: ion-exchange generally takes place mostly in one phase (crystalline phase or residual glass. The mechanism can be similar to what is observed in glasses with the replacement of an ion by another in the structure. But in some cases this ion-exchange leads to microstructural modifications (for example amorphisation or phase change.This article reviews these ion-exchange mechanisms using several transparent and opaque alumino-silicate glass-ceramics as examples. The effect of the ion exchange in the various glass-ceramics will be described, with particular emphasis on flexural strength.

  12. Studies on indigenous ion exchange resins: alkali metal ions-hydrogen ion exchange equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, S.; Kumar, Surender; Venkataramani, B.

    2001-01-01

    With a view to select a suitable ion exchange resin for the removal of radionuclides (such as cesium, strontium etc.) from low level radioactive effluents, alkali metal ion -H' exchanges on nine indigenous gel- and macroporous-type and nuclear grade resins have been studied at a total ionic strength of 0.1 mol dm .3 (in the case ofCs' -H' exchange it was 0.05 mol dm .3 ). The expected theoretical capacities were not attained by all the resins for the alkali metal ions. The water content (moles/equiv.) of the fully swollen resins for different alkali metal ionic forms do not follow the usual sequence of greater the tendency of the cation to hydrate the higher the water uptake, but a reverse trend. The ion exchange isotherms (plots of equivalent fractions of the ion in resin phase, N M1 to that in solution, N M ) were not satisfactory and sorption of cations, for most of the resins, was possible only when the acidity of the solution was lowered. The variations of the selectivity coefficient, K, with N M show that the resins are highly cross linked and the selectivity sequence: Cs + >K + >Na + >Li + , obtained for all the resins indicate that hydrated ions were involved in the exchange process. However, the increase in the selectivity was not accompanied by the release of water, but unusual uptake of water, during the exchange process. The characteristics of macroporous resins were not significantly different from those of the gel-type resins. The results are discussed in terms of heterogeneity in the polymer net work, improper sulphonation process resulting in the formation of functional groups at inaccessible sites with weak acidic character and the overall lack of control in the preparation of different resins. (author)

  13. Isotope exchange of strontium and molybdate ions in strontium polymolybdates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atun, G.

    2002-01-01

    The heterogeneous isotopic exchange reactions in strontium polymolybdates of Sr 2+ and MoO 4 2- ions in the strontium nitrate and sodium molybdate solutions have been studied using 90 Sr and 99 Mo as tracers. Electrometric methods have been used to study the compositions of strontium molybdates obtained by adding strontium chloride to a progressively acidified solution of sodium molybdate. It has been found that the exchange fraction increases with increasing chain length of strontium polymolybdate. The exchange equilibrium constant (K ex ) has been calculated between 298 and 348 K as well as ΔG deg, ΔH deg and ΔS deg. The results indicate that Sr 2+ cations have a much higher affinity for exchangers than MoO 4 2- anions. By fitting the data to the Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm it has been shown that the exchange capacity (X m ) for both ions is affected by the ion adsorption process at low temperatures and by the ion exchange process at high temperatures. At high concentrations, the recrystallization process contributes to on the cation exchange but is ineffective on the anion exchange mechanism. (author)

  14. KOP ion exchange plant officially opened

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The KOP ion exchange plant, which was officially opened in February 1982, can be seen as an important milestone in the history of Klipfontein Organic Products. The plant, erected at a cost of R7 million, has enabled South Africa to achieve virtual self-sufficiency as far as resins are concerned. It will produce R5 million worth of resins per annum, and it has been estimated that it will save the country R3 million per annum in foreign exchange. The plant is the only of its kind in Africa, and will be able to meet 98% of the ion exchange resin requirements of the Republic

  15. Inorganic ion exchange evaluation and design: Silicotitanate ion exchange waste conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, M.L.; Bunker, B.C.

    1995-03-01

    Ion exchange materials are being evaluated for removing Cs, SR from tank waste. Thermal conversion of a variety of compositions within the Cs 2 O-TiO 2 -SiO 2 phase diagram yielded both glass and crystalline materials, some of which show low leach rates and negligible Cs losses during heat treatment. A new material, CsTiSi 2 0 6 , with a structure isomorphous to pollucite (CsAlSi 2 0 6 ) has been identified. This material represents a new class of crystalline zeolite materials which contain large amounts of titanium. Direct conversion of Cs loaded silicotitanate ion exchangers to CsTiSi 2 O 6 is an excellent alternative to dissolving the Cs-loaded or Cs-eluted exchangers in borosilicate glass because: CsTiSi 2 O 6 is formed using a simple, one step heat treatment. The unique crystalline pollucite-like structure of CsTiSi 2 O 6 traps Cs, and exhibits extremely low Cs leach rates. CsTiSi 2 O 6 is converted to solid waste at a low processing temperature of 700 to 800 C (nominal melter operating temperatures are 1150 C). CsTiSi 2 0 6 concentrates the waste, thus generating lower volumes of expensive HLW. Cs losses due to volatilization during processing of CsTiSi 2 O 6 are extremely low

  16. Inorganic ion exchangers for nuclear waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clearfield, A.; Bortun, A.; Bortun, L.; Behrens, E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a broad spectrum of inorganic ion exchangers that can be used for a range of applications and separations involving remediation of groundwater and tank wastes. The authors intend to scale-up the most promising exchangers, through partnership with AlliedSignal Inc., to provide samples for testing at various DOE sites. While much of the focus is on exchangers for removal of Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} from highly alkaline tank wastes, especially at Hanford, the authors have also synthesized exchangers for acid wastes, alkaline wastes, groundwater, and mercury, cobalt, and chromium removal. These exchangers are now available for use at DOE sites. Many of the ion exchangers described here are new, and others are improved versions of previously known exchangers. They are generally one of three types: (1) layered compounds, (2) framework or tunnel compounds, and (3) amorphous exchangers in which a gel exchanger is used to bind a fine powder into a bead for column use. Most of these exchangers can be regenerated and used again.

  17. Method of solidifying radioactive ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Yuji; Tomita, Toshihide

    1989-01-01

    Spent anion exchange resin formed in nuclear power plants, etc. generally catch only a portion of anions in view of the ion exchange resins capacity and most of the anions are sent while possessing activities to radioactive waste processing systems. Then, the anion exchange resins increase the specific gravity by the capture of the anions. Accordingly, anions are caused to be captured on the anion exchange resin wastes such that the specific gravity of the anion exchange resin wastes is greater than that of the thermosetting resins to be mixed. This enables satisfactory mixing with the thermosetting resins and, in addition, enables to form integral solidification products in which anion exchange resins and cation exchange resins are not locallized separately and which are homogenous and free from cracks. (T.M.)

  18. On the mechanism of ion exchange in zirconium phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearfield, A.; Kalnins, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The exchange of transition metal (M 2+ ) ions from manganese through cobalt, nickel, copper to zinc with γ-zirconium phosphate was examined. By using acetate salts the hydrogen ion concentration is kept low enough to achieve high loadings. The fully loaded solids have the composition ZrM(PO 4 ) 2 .4H 2 O. Near quantitative uptakes are achieved at 100 0 C. The interlayer spacings change very little with loading indicating that γ-zirconium phosphate is able to accommodate cations and water molecules without appreciable increase in volume. The copper exchanged phase readily forms an acetylacetonate when shaken with 2,4-pentanedione. (author)

  19. Ion-exchange properties of natural mordenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelishchev, N.F.; Volodin, V.F.

    1977-01-01

    Ion exchange properties are studied of natural mordenite Si(Al=4.75) exhibiting adequate mechanical characteristics and sufficient resistance to high temperature acids. Consideration is given to the pattern of exchange ions distribution among mordenite and chloride solutions of K, Cs, Rb, Sr. Mordenite shows sharp selectivity towards large alkali metal cations, particularly Cs + . In these processes the exchange isotherms are characterized by the constant selectivity towards a counterion. For the Sr 2+ -2Na + exchange the isotherm shows a change of selectivity after a definite counterion concentration has been reached in the solution. Correlation between the exchange thermodynamic constants makes it possible to propose the following range of mordenite selectivity towards the cations under study: Cs>Rb>K>Na>Sr

  20. Method of processing spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kazuhide; Tamada, Shin; Kikuchi, Makoto; Matsuda, Masami; Aoyama, Yoshiyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the amount of radioactive spent ion exchange resins generated from nuclear power plants, etc and process them into stable inorganic compounds through heat decomposition. Method: Spent ion exchange resins are heat-decomposed in an inert atmosphere to selectively decompose only ion exchange groups in the preceeding step while high molecular skeltons are completely heat-decomposed in an oxidizing atmosphere in the succeeding step. In this way, gaseous sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides are generated in the preceeding step, while gaseous carbon dioxide and hydrogen requiring no discharge gas procession are generated in the succeeding step. Accordingly, the amount of discharged gases requiring procession can significantly be reduced, as well as the residues can be converted into stable inorganic compounds. Further, if transition metals are ionically adsorbed as the catalyst to the ion exchange resins, the ion exchange groups are decomposed at 130 - 300 0 C, while the high molecular skeltons are thermally decomposed at 240 - 300 0 C. Thus, the temperature for the heat decomposition can be lowered to prevent the degradation of the reactor materials. (Kawakami, Y.)

  1. Ion exchange behaviour of citrate and EDTA anions on strong and weak base organic ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askarieh, M.M.; White, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The exchange of citrate and EDTA ions with two strong base and two weak base exchangers is considered. Citrate and EDTA analysis for this work was performed using a colorimetric method developed here. The ions most selectively exchanged on the resins are H 2 cit - and H 2 EDTA 2- , though EDTA is generally less strongly sorbed on strong base resins. In contact with weak base resins, deprotonation of the resin occurs during ion exchange with a noticeable drop in solution pH. Although EDTA sorption can be reversed by nitric acid, citrate ions are significantly held on the resin at low pH. The exchange of citrate can be made reversible if bicarbonate is added to the initial solutions. Alkaline regeneration of exchangers loaded with EDTA proved to be very effective. (author)

  2. Ion exchange fiber by radiation grafting, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Kunio

    1990-01-01

    Radiation grafting is gaining attention as a method for producing high performance materials. This method can be applied to add functions to existing polymer plastics. The author participated in the research program on the production of ion exchange fiber by radiation grafting and its applicability at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment. Consequently, it was clarified that it was possible to introduce the cation exchange group, represented by sulfonic and carboxyl groups, and the anion exchange group, represented by the quarternary ammonium group, to polypropylene fiber available on the market. The ion exchange capacity was able to be controlled by the degree of grafting, i.e. approximately up to 3 meq/g in both strong acid and strong base and approximately up to 5 meq/g in weak acid were obtained. The adsorption performance of ammonia, a representative malodorous substance, was also studied using test cation exchange fiber. The adsorption rate of H type strong acid cation exchange fiber was great, due to the H type having neutral reaction, and the adsorption capacity matched the ion exchange capacity. Although the Cu and Ni types features coordinated adsorption and their adsorption rates were from 1/2 to 1/3 of that of the H type, their adsorption capacities showed increase along with the metal adsorbed. (author)

  3. Ion exchange in ZSM-5 zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.P.; Rees, L.V.C.

    1986-01-01

    The ion exchange properties of Na-ZSM5 have been studied using a number of univalent and divalent cations at 25degC and 65degC. All the univalent cations studied achieved 100 per cent exchange. The thermodynamic affinity sequence Cs > Rb=NH 4 =H 3 O>K>Na>Li was found at both temperatures for a sample with Si/Al=39. Standard enthalpies of exchange ΔH o were calculated using the van't' Hoff isochore and standard entropies of exchange were then calculated from ΔH o and ΔG o . Multivalent cations were unable to achieve 100 per cent exchange. The maximum exchange was found to increase through the series Ca 2+ cations ( 57 Fe enriched) on dehydration and rehydration following sorption and desorption of ethanol. At least 3 sites for Fe 2+ were observed in the dehydrated zeolite. (author)

  4. Ion exchange/adsorbent pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    A decontamination of greater than 99% of the actinides and fission products contained in radioactive waste water can be obtained using ion exchange resins. A system for achieving this result is described in this paper. This ion exchange pilot-plant design is the culmination of five years of study of the decontamination of radioactive waste streams by ion exchange resins and other adsorbents at Mound. In order to maintain maximum flexibility of treatments, this pilot-plant design is a conceptual design with specific flows, resins, and column specifications, but with many optional features and no rigid equipment specifications. This flexibility allows the system to be amenable to almost any radioactive waste stream. Very specific designs can be constructed from this conceptual design for the treatment of any specific waste stream. Operating and capital costs are also discussed. 1 figure, 5 tables

  5. Electrodialytic decontamination of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nott, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Development of a novel electrodialytic decontamination process for the selective removal of radioactive Cs from spent ion exchange resins containing large amounts of Li is described. The process involves passage of a dc electric current through a bed of the spent ion exchange resin in a specially designed electrodialytic cell. The radiocesium so removed from a volume of the spent resin is concentrated onto a much smaller volume of a Cs selective sorbent to achieve a significant radioactive waste volume reduction. Technical feasibility of the electrodialytic resin decontamination process has been demonstrated on a bench scale with a batch of simulated spent ion exchange resin and using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide as the Cs selective sorbent. A volume reduction factor between 10 and 17 has been estimated. The process appears to be economically attractive. Improvements in process economics can be expected from optimization of the process. Other possible applications of the EDRD process have been identified

  6. Modeling of Crystalline Silicotitanate Ion Exchange Columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.

    1999-01-01

    Non-elutable ion exchange is being considered as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removing cesium from Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive waste. Crystalline silicotitanate (CST) particles are the reference ion exchange medium for the process. A major factor in the construction cost of this process is the size of the ion exchange column required to meet product specifications for decontaminated waste. To validate SRS column sizing calculations, SRS subcontracted two reknowned experts in this field to perform similar calculations: Professor R. G. Anthony, Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A ampersand 038;M University, and Professor S. W. Wang, Department of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University. The appendices of this document contain reports from the two subcontractors. Definition of the design problem came through several meetings and conference calls between the participants and SRS personnel over the past few months. This document summarizes the problem definition and results from the two reports

  7. Chromate ion-exchange study for cooling water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    In spite of high chromate selectivity, the ion-exchange process for Cr(IV) recovery from cooling tower blowdown is yet to be commercially popular. Possible degradation of the ion-exchange resin by the oxidative action of Cr(IV) during ion exchange has been considered as the prime obstacle. Resins have been manufactured with fairly acceptable properties to withstand both physical attrition and chemical oxidation. Demonstrated during the course of this research is early, gradual Cr(VI) breakthrough during fixed-bed column runs at acidic pH in the presence of competing sulfate and chloride anions. The advantage of high chromate selectivity is essentially lost due to the early Cr(VI) breakthrough because the column runs are always terminated after a pre-determined level of Cr(VI) has appeared in the treated water. Experimental results provide sufficient evidence that this is not due to poor column kinetics or electrolyte penetration. The chromate ion-exchange mechanism has been investigated in order to explain the foregoing anomalies for the chromate-exchange process. The knowledge of chromate ion-exchange mechanism has been used to overcome the shortcoming of gradual Cr(VI) breakthrough. This study shows that: (a) a continuous counter-current ion-exchange system theoretically offers much higher Cr(VI) removal capacity compared to conventional single-unit fixed-bed system for any pre-determined level of Cr(VI) breakthrough; (b) by modifying the resin composition, the gradual Cr(VI) breakthrough can be greatly eliminated

  8. Incineration of ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkiainen, M.; Nykyri, M.

    1985-01-01

    Incineration of ion-exchange resins in a fluidized bed was studied on a pilot plant scale at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. Both granular and powdered resins were incinerated in dry and slurry form. Different bed materials were used in order to trap as much cesium and cobalt (inactive tracers) as possible in the bed. Also the sintering of the bed materials was studied in the presence of sodium. When immobilized with cement the volume of ash-concrete is 4 to 22% of the concrete of equal compressive strength acquired by direct solidification. Two examples of multi-purpose equipment capable of incinerating ion-exchange resins are presented. (orig.)

  9. Commercial Ion Exchange Resin Vitrification Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero-Herman, C.A

    2002-01-01

    In the nuclear industry, ion exchange resins are used for purification of aqueous streams. The major contaminants of the resins are usually the radioactive materials that are removed from the aqueous streams. The use of the ion exchange resins creates a waste stream that can be very high in both organic and radioactive constituents. Therefore, disposal of the spent resin often becomes an economic problem because of the large volumes of resin produced and the relatively few technologies that are capable of economically stabilizing this waste. Vitrification of this waste stream presents a reasonable disposal alternative because of its inherent destruction capabilities, the volume reductions obtainable, and the durable product that it produces

  10. Calmodulin-lanthanide ion exchange kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buccigross, J.; O'Donnell, C.; Nelson, D.

    1985-01-01

    A flow dialysis apparatus suitable for the study of high affinity metal binding proteins has been utilized to study calmodulin-metal exchange kinetics. Calmodulin labeled with Eu-155 and Gd-153 was dialyzed against buffer containing various competing metal ions. The rate of metal exchange was monitored by a gamma-ray scintillation detector. The kinetics of exchange are first order, and the rates fall into two categories: Ca (II) and CD (II) in one, and the lanthanides Eu (III), Gd (III), and La (III) in the other

  11. Compositional changes during ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehn, L.E.

    1988-09-01

    Ion irradiation initiates several processes that can alter the composition of the target. This presentation provides an overview of our current understanding of these kinetics processes, which include implantation, sputtering, displacement mixing, radiation-enhanced diffusion, and radiation-induced segregation. The latter two effects can alter the target composition to depths that are substantially greater than the projected ion range. 45 refs., 8 figs

  12. Separation of cesium by ion exchange columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonini, Alberto; Falcon, Marcelo F.; Devida, Claudio A.; Tadey, D.; Vaccaro, Jorge O.; Maset, Elvira

    2003-01-01

    Crystalline silico titanate (CST) has been tested as a selective inorganic ion exchanger to separate Cs 137 from the residual fission product s solution of the Mo 99 plant. The tests are described in detail and show decontamination factors higher than 6000 and a good elution yield

  13. Radiation effects on ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwer, T.E.; Goldstein, M.; Pillay, K.K.S.

    1977-11-01

    An extensive literature review and data compilation has been completed on the radiation-damage of ion exchange resins. The primary goal of the study has been to review the available literature on ion exchange materials used in, as well as those with potential for use in, the nuclear fuel and waste reprocessing areas. The physical and chemical properties of ion exchangers are reviewed. Experimental parameters useful in characterizing the effects of radiation on synthetic ion exchange resins are identified or defined. In compiling the diverse types of data, an effort was made to present the experimental data or experimentally based parameters in a format that would be useful for inter-comparing radiation effects on resins. When subject to radiation there are various general trends or qualitative effects displayed by the different types of resins. These radiation-trends and effects have been formulated into qualitative statements. The present day level of understanding of the behavior of resins under ionizing radiation is too limited to justify quantitative predictive modeling. The limitations and deficiencies of the literature are discussed and the experimentation needed to achieve quantitative modeling are outlined. 14 figs., 108 references

  14. Radiation effects on ion exchange materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangwer, T.E.; Goldstein, M.; Pillay, K.K.S.

    1977-11-01

    An extensive literature review and data compilation has been completed on the radiation-damage of ion exchange resins. The primary goal of the study has been to review the available literature on ion exchange materials used in, as well as those with potential for use in, the nuclear fuel and waste reprocessing areas. The physical and chemical properties of ion exchangers are reviewed. Experimental parameters useful in characterizing the effects of radiation on synthetic ion exchange resins are identified or defined. In compiling the diverse types of data, an effort was made to present the experimental data or experimentally based parameters in a format that would be useful for inter-comparing radiation effects on resins. When subject to radiation there are various general trends or qualitative effects displayed by the different types of resins. These radiation-trends and effects have been formulated into qualitative statements. The present day level of understanding of the behavior of resins under ionizing radiation is too limited to justify quantitative predictive modeling. The limitations and deficiencies of the literature are discussed and the experimentation needed to achieve quantitative modeling are outlined. 14 figs., 108 references.

  15. Charge exchange in ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bransden, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    Charge exchange reactions in which electrons are transferred from one ion (or atom) to another during a collision have been studied both as interesting examples of rearrangement collisions and because of important applications in plasma physics. This article reviews the modern theory developed for use at non-relativistic energies, but excluding the thermal and very low energy region. (author)

  16. Thermal Analysis of LANL Ion Exchange Column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    This document reports results from an ion exchange column heat transfer analysis requested by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The object of the analysis is to demonstrate that the decay heat from the Pu-238 will not cause resin bed temperatures to increase to a level where the resin significantly degrades

  17. Incineration of spent ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Chiaki

    1990-01-01

    It is a pressing need to reduce radioactive waste which is generated from the maintenance and operation of a nuclear power plant. Incineration of low level combustible solid waste such as polyethylene seats, paper and others have been successfully performed since 1984 at the Shimane Nuclear Power Station. Furthermore, for extending incineration treatment to spent ion exchange resin, the incineration test was carried out in 1989. However, as the cation exchange resin contains sulfur and then incineration generates SOx gases, so the components of this facility will be in a corrosive environment. We surveyed incineration conditions to improve the corrosive environment at the exhaust gas treatment system. This paper includes these test results and improved method to incinerate spent ion exchange resin. (author)

  18. On the mechanism of ion exchange in zirconium phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearfield, A.; Frianeza, T.N.

    1978-01-01

    α-titanium phosphate, Ti(HPO 4 ) 2 .H 2 O, was found to form two sodium ion exchanged phases. A half exchanged phase of ideal composition TiNaH(PO 4 ) 2 .4H 2 O formed first. However, before all of the titanium phosphate was converted to this phase a second phase of higher Na + content formed. Thus, a three phase solid existed until sufficient sodium ion uptake (approximately 5.5 meq/g) produced only the two exchanged phases. Finally, the half exchanged phase was converted to the more highly loaded one and this latter phase existed from 6 to 8 meq/g of Na + uptake. Severe disordering of the crystal lattice during exchange is proposed to explain this unusual exchange behavior. A broad range of titanium phosphate-zirconium phosphate solid solutions was found to form. Their behavior towards Na + -H + exchange was determined and interpreted on the basis of the known behavior of the pure phases. Mixed Ti-Zr solid solutions of their pyrophosphates were obtained at elevated temperatures. (author)

  19. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1990-02-01

    Over the last seven years, Low Oxidation State Metal Ion reagents (LOMI) have been used to decontaminate the 100 MW(e) Steam Generating Heavy Water Ractor (SGHWR) at Winfrith. The use of these reagents has resulted in a dilute ionic solution containing activation products which are produced by corrosion of metallic components in the reactor. It has been demonstrated that the amount of activity in the solution can be reduced using organic ion exchanger resins. These resins consist of a cross linked polystyrene with sulphonic acid or quaternary ammonium function groups and can be successfully immobilised in blended cement systems. The formulation which has been developed is produced from a 9 to 1 blend of ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) containing 28% ion exchange resin in the water saturated form. If 6% Microsilica is added to the blended cement the waste loading can be increased to 36 w/o. (author)

  20. Ion exchange for treatment of industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Daudinot, Aurora Maria; Ge Leyva, Midalis

    2016-01-01

    The acid leaching and ammoniacal carbonate technologies of laterite respectively, are responsible for the low quality of life of the local population, the big deforested areas due to the mining tilling, the elevated contents of solids in the air and waters, as well as the chemical contamination by metals presence, the acidity or basicity of the effluents of both industries, that arrive through the river and the bay to aquifer's mantle. The ion exchange resins allow ions separation contained in low concentrations in the solutions, where the separation of these elements for solvents, extraction or another chemical methods would be costly. Technological variants are proposed in order to reduce the impact produced on the flora and the fauna, by the liquid effluents of nickel industry, by means of ion exchange resins introduction as well as the recuperation of metals and their re incorporation to the productive process. (Author)

  1. Rapid ion-exchange separations of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usuda, Shigekazu

    1988-01-01

    For the purpose of studying short-lived actinide nuclides, three methods for rapid ion exchange separation of actinide elements with mineral acid-alcohol mixed media were developed: anion exchange with nitric acid-methyl alcohol mixed media to separate the transplutonium and rare earth elements from target material, U or Pu and Al catcher foils; anion exchange with hydrochloric acid-methyl alcohol media to separate Am+Cm, Bk and Cf+Fm from the target, catcher foils and major fission products; and cation exchange with hydrochloric acid-methyl alcohol media and with concentrated hydrochloric acid to separate the transplutonium elements as a group from the rare earths after eliminating the large amounts of U, Al, Cu, Fe etc. The methods enable one to perform rapid and effective separation at elevated temperature (90 deg C) and immediate source preparation for alpha-ray spectrometry. (author) 47 refs.; 10 figs

  2. Field experiment on multicomponent ion exchange in a sandy aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerg, P.L.; Christensen, T.H.

    1990-01-01

    A field experiment is performed in a sandy aquifer in order to study ion exchange processes and multicomponent solute transport modeling. An injection of groundwater spiked with sodium and potassium chloride was performed over a continuous period of 37 days. The plume is monitored by sampling 350 filters in a spatial grid. The sampling aims at establishing compound (calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride) breakthrough curves at various filters 15 to 100 m from the point of injection and areal distribution maps at various cross sections from 0 to 200 m from the point of injection. A three-dimensional multicomponent solute transport model will be used to model the field experiments. The chemical model includes cation exchange, precipitation, dissolution, complexation, ionic strength and the carbonate system. Preliminary results from plume monitoring show that the plume migration is relatively well controlled considering the scale and conditions of the experiment. The transverse dispersion is small causing less dilution than expected. The ion exchange processes have an important influence on the plume composition. Retardation of the injected ions is substantial, especially for potassium. Calcium exhibits a substantial peak following chloride due to release from the ion exchange sites on the sediment. (Author) (8 refs., 5 figs., tab.)

  3. An Empirical Formula From Ion Exchange Chromatography and Colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven D.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a detailed procedure for finding an empirical formula from ion exchange chromatography and colorimetry. Introduces students to more varied techniques including volumetric manipulation, titration, ion-exchange, preparation of a calibration curve, and the use of colorimetry. (JRH)

  4. Poster 29. Modelling of ion exchange processes in ultrapure water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, A.; Torstenfelt, B.; Fejes, P.; Foutch, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    The ion exchange process of the Reactor Water Clean-up (RWCU) system has been studied to better use the maximum possible exchange capacity of the ion exchange resin. Laboratory data have been correlated with computer simulations of the ion exchange process. Data were correlated using a mixed-bed ion exchange model for ultralow ionic concentrations developed at Oklahoma State University. Experimental results of the ion exchange column operation in the concentration range of 10 -3 M boric acid is compared with the simulated performance predicted by the computer model. The model is found to agree reasonably well with the data. (author)

  5. Charge exchange with ion excitation: asymptotic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivakin, I.A.; Karbovanets, M.I.; Ostrovskii, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    There is developed an asymptotic (with respect to the large internuclear separation R) theory for computing the matrix element of the exchange interaction between states of quasimolecules, which is responsible for charge transfer with ion excitation: B + +A→B+A + *. A semiclassical approximation is used, which enables one to apply the theory to processes with the participation of multiply charged ions. The case of s--s transitions for excitation of the ion A + →A + *, where it is appropriate to take into account the distortion of the wave functions of the ion A + by the particle B, is treated separately. Calculations of cross sections and comparison with the results of experiments for He + --Cd and Ne + --Mg collisions at thermal energies are given. It is shown that it is impossible to explain the experimental data by the interaction of terms of the quasimolecules at large R only, and a possible mechanism for populating at small R is proposed

  6. 3.5 Radiation stability of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marhol, M.

    1976-01-01

    The main knowledge is summed up of the radiation stability of ion exchangers. No basic changes occur in inorganic ion exchangers with the exception of the exchange capacity at doses of up to 10 9 rad. This also applies to coal-based ion exchangers. Tables are given showing the changes in specific volume, exchange capacity and weight of different types of organic ion exchangers in dependence on the radiation dose. The effects are discussed of the structure of organic cation and anion exchangers, polymeric strong basic anion exchangers, polycondensate anion exchangers and ion exchange membranes on their radiation stability. General experimental procedures are given for laboratory tests of the radiation stability of exchangers. (L.K.)

  7. Porous solid ion exchange wafer for immobilizing biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Michelle B.; Hestekin, Jamie A.; Lin, YuPo J.; St. Martin, Edward J.; Snyder, Seth W.

    2007-12-11

    A porous solid ion exchange wafer having a combination of a biomolecule capture-resin and an ion-exchange resin forming a charged capture resin within said wafer. Also disclosed is a porous solid ion exchange wafer having a combination of a biomolecule capture-resin and an ion-exchange resin forming a charged capture resin within said wafer containing a biomolecule with a tag. A separate bioreactor is also disclosed incorporating the wafer described above.

  8. Charge exchange processes involving iron ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phaneuf, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A review and evaluation is given of the experimental data which are available for charge exchange processes involving iron ions and neutral H, H 2 and He. Appropriate scaling laws are presented, and their accuracy estimated for these systems. A bibliography is given of available data sources, as well as of useful data compilations and review articles. A procedure is recommended for providing single approximate formulae to the fusion community to describe total cross sections for electron capture by partially-stripped Fe/sup q+/ ions in collisions with H, H 2 and He, based on the scaling relationships suggested by Janev and Hvelplund

  9. 21 CFR 173.21 - Perfluorinated ion exchange membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Perfluorinated ion exchange membranes. 173.21... ion exchange membranes. Substances identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as ion exchange membranes intended for use in the treatment of bulk quantities of liquid food under the...

  10. Ion exchange properties of carboxylate bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, A.M.A.; Hassan, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Bagasse fibers were chemically modified using three different reactions: esterification using monochloro acetic acid, esterification using succinic anhydride, and oxidation using sodium periodate and sodium chlorite to prepare cation exchanger bearing carboxylic groups. Bagasse was crosslinked using epichlorohydrin before chemical modification to avoid loss of its constituents during the chemical modification. The structure of the prepared derivatives was proved using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and chemical methods. The ability of the prepared bagasse cation exchangers to adsorb heavy metal ions (Cu +2 , Ni +2 , Cr +3 , Fe +3 ), on a separate basis or in a mixture of them, at different metal ion concentration was tested. Thermal stability of the different bagasse derivative was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)

  11. Chromatographic separation process with pellicular ion exchange resins that can be used for ion or isotope separation and resins used in this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carles, M.; Neige, R.; Niemann, C.; Michel, A.; Bert, M.; Bodrero, S.; Guyot, A.

    1989-01-01

    For separation of uranium, boron or nitrogen isotopes, an isotopic exchange is carried out betwen an isotope fixed on an ion exchange resin and another isotope of the same element in the liquid phase contacting the resin. Pellicular resins are used comprising composite particulates with an inert polymeric core and a surface layer with ion exchange groups [fr

  12. PRTR ion exchange vault water removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, J.E.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents the removal of radiologically contaminated water from the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange vault. Approximately 57,000 liters (15,000 gallons) of water had accumulated in the vault due to the absence of a rain cover. The water was removed and the vault inspected for signs of leakage. No evidence of leakage was found. The removal and disposal of the radiologically contaminated water decreased the risk of environmental contamination

  13. Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes in hydraulic cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Kalb, P.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    Work has been conducted to investigate the solidification of ion exchange resin wastes with portland cements. These efforts have been directed toward the development of acceptable formulations for the solidification of ion exchange resin wastes and the characterization of the resultant waste forms. This paper describes formulation development work and defines acceptable formulations in terms of ternary phase compositional diagrams. The effects of cement type, resin type, resin loading, waste/cement ratio and water/cement ratio are described. The leachability of unsolidified and solidified resin waste forms and its relationship to full-scale waste form behavior is discussed. Gamma irradiation was found to improve waste form integrity, apparently as a result of increased resin crosslinking. Modifications to improve waste form integrity are described. 3 tables

  14. Method of pyrolysis for spent ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Yoshiyuki; Matsuda, Masami; Kawamura, Fumio; Yusa, Hideo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the generation of noxious sulfur oxide and ammonia on the pyrolysis for spent ion-exchange resins discharged from nuclear power plants. Method: In the case where the pyrolysis is made for the cationic exchange resins having sulfonic acids as the ion-exchange group, alkali metals or alkaline earth metals capable of reacting with sulfonic acid groups to form solid sulfates are previously deposited by way of ion-exchange reactions prior to the pyrolysis. In another case of the anionic exchange resins having quarternary ammonium groups as the ion-exchange groups, halogenic elements capable of reacting with the ammonium groups to form solid ammonium salts are deposited to the ion-exchange resins through ion-exchange reactions prior to the pyrolysis. As a result, the amount of the binders used can be reduced, and this method can be used in a relatively simple processing facility. (Horiuchi, T.)

  15. Method of burning ion-exchange resin contaminated with radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shigenori.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To process spent ion exchange resins to reduce their volume, without increasing the load on a off-gas system and in a stable state and at the same time not leaving any uncombusted portions. Method: The water slurries of the ion exchange resins contaminated with radioactive materials is dehydrated or dry combusted to reduce the water content. A binder is then added to solidify the ion exchange resin. The solidified ion exchange resins are then combusted in a furnace. This prevents the ion exchange resin from being dispersed by air and combustion gases. Furthermore, the solidified ion exchange resins in the form of small pellets burn from the surface inwards. Moreover the binder is carbonized by the combustion heat and promotes combustion to convert the ion exchange resins into a solid mass, making sure that no uncombusted portion is left. (Takahashi, M.)

  16. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

  17. Microbial treatment of ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouznetsov, A.; Kniazev, O.

    2001-01-01

    A bioavailability of ion exchange resins to a microbial destruction as one of the alternative methods of compacting used ionites from the nuclear fuel manufacturing cycle enterprises has been investigated. The bio-destruction was studied after a preliminary chemical treatment or without it. A sensitivity of the ion exchange resins (including highly acidic cationite KU-2-8) to the microbial destruction by heterotrophic and chemo-litho-trophic microorganisms under aerobic conditions was shown in principle. The biodegradation of the original polymer is possible in the presence of the water soluble fraction of the resin obtained after its treatment by Fenton reagent and accelerated in the presence of Mn-ions in optimal concentration 1-2 g of Mn per liter of medium. Thus, the process of bio-destruction of ionite polymer by heterotrophic microorganisms can be compared with the bio-destruction of lignin or humic substances. The optimum parameters of bio-destruction and microorganisms used must be different for resins with different functional groups. (authors)

  18. Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    Solidification media investigated included portland type I, portland type III and high alumina cements, a proprietary gypsum-based polymer modified cement, and a vinyl ester-styrene thermosetting plastic. Samples formulated with hydraulic cement were analyzed to investigate the effects of resin type, resin loading, waste-to-cement ratio, and water-to-cement ratio. The solidification of cation resin wastes with portland cement was characterized by excessive swelling and cracking of waste forms, both after curing and during immersion testing. Mixed bed resin waste formulations were limited by their cation component. Additives to improve the mechanical properties of portland cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were evaluated. High alumina cement formulations dislayed a resistance to deterioration of mechanical integrity during immersion testing, thus providing a significant advantage over portland cements for the solidification of resin wastes. Properties of cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were examined. An experiment was conducted to study the leachability of 137 Cs, 85 Sr, and 60 Co from resins modified in portland type III and high alumina cements. The cumulative 137 Cs fraction release was at least an order of magnitude greater than that of either 85 Sr or 60 Co. Release rates of 137 Cs in high alumina cement were greater than those in portland III cement by a factor of two.Compressive strength and leach testing were conducted for resin wastes solidified with polymer-modified gypsum based cement. 137 Cs, 85 Sr, and 60 Co fraction releases were about one, two and three orders of magnitude higher, respectively, than in equivalent portland type III cement formulations. As much as 28.6 wt % dry ion exchange resin was successfully solidified using vinyl ester-styrene compared with a maximum of 25 wt % in both portland and gypsum-based cement

  19. Ion Exchange Properties of Georgian Natural Zeolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimer Tsitsishvili

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ion-exchange properties of natural zeolites of Georgia with a relatively low Si/Al ratio have been studied: analcimes are characterized by selectivity series: Na+>K+>Ag+>NH4+>Ca+2>Sr+2>Li+; for phillipsites selectivity sequences are different for calcium- and potassium forms; selectivity sequence for scolecite is: Sr+2>Ba+2>Rb+>Ca+2>Cs+>K+>NH4+>Na+>Mg+2>Li+>Cd+2>Cu+2> Mn+2> Zn+2>Co+2>Ni+2.

  20. Properties of the Carboxylate ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, Bert; Dario, Maarten; Boren, Hans; Torstenfelt, Boerje; Puigdomenech, Ignasi; Johansson, Claes

    2002-09-01

    Weakly acidic, carboxylic resin has been selected, together with strong base anion resins, for water purification at the Forsmark 1 and 2 reactors. For the strong (but not the weak) ion exchange resin the Nuclear Power Inspectorate has given permission to dispose the spent resins in the SFR 1 (the Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste). This report gives a review of the carboxylic resins and comes to the conclusion that the resins are very stable and that there should not exist any risks for increased leaching of radionuclides from SFR 1 if these resins are disposed (compared to the strong resins)

  1. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1990-09-01

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions eg LOMI can be achieved using organic ion exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilised in cement based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% ordinary Portland cement 84% gg blast furnace slag, 6% microsilica with a water cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This formulation was successfully scaled up to 200 litres giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the product's properties. (author)

  2. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1990-09-01

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions eg LOMI can be achieved using organic ion exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilised in cement based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% ordinary Portland cement, 84% gg blast furnace slag, 6% microsilica with a water cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This formulation was successfully scaled up to 200 litres giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the products' properties. (author)

  3. Biodegradation of ion-exchange media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowerman, B.S.; Clinton, J.H.; Cowdery, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate further the potential for ion-exchange media (resin beads or powdered filter media) to support biological growth. A mixed microbial culture was grown from resin wastes obtained from the BNL HFBR by mixing the resin with a nutrient salt solution containing peptone and yeast extract. Bacterial and fungal growths appeared in the solution and on the resins after 7 to 10 days incubation at 337/degree/C. The mixed microbial cultures were used to inoculate several resin types, both irradiated and unirradiated. 12 refs., 5 tabs

  4. Anisotropic microporous supports impregnated with polymeric ion-exchange materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Dwayne; Babcock, Walter C.; Tuttle, Mark

    1985-05-07

    Novel ion-exchange media are disclosed, the media comprising polymeric anisotropic microporous supports containing polymeric ion-exchange or ion-complexing materials. The supports are anisotropic, having small exterior pores and larger interior pores, and are preferably in the form of beads, fibers and sheets.

  5. Ion exchange separation of rare earths. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nghi, Nguyen danh; Matous, K.

    1977-01-01

    The optimal conditions of separating selected rare earths by two ion exchange chromatography using Ostion KS cation exchange resin were studied. The effect of acetic acid concentration in the sorption solution was investigated. The elution process was studied in dependence on the concentration of Na 2 H 2 EDTA, on the total concentration of EDTA 4- ion, on elution agent flow, and on temperature. The optimal conditions were determined by evaluating integral elution curves and changes in acid concentration for systems Y-Pr, La-Pr, Er-Pr, Eu-Pr as follows: The sorption solution requires the presence of Na 2 H 2 EDTA of 0.03M in concentration. The basic elution solution was prepared in the following way: 0.183M Na 2 Mg 2 EDTA, 9.6x10 -3 M Na 2 H 2 EDTA, 3.84x10 -3 M CH 3 COOH, 2.30x10 -2 M CH 3 COONH 4 , 2.30x10 -2 M (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . Approximate pH 5.7 to 6.0. The optimal elution solution was prepared by diluting the basic solution so that the total concentration of EDTA 4- equalled 0.075M. The optimal flow was determined to be 0.86 ml.cm -2 .min -1 at a temperature of 55 degC. (author)

  6. Multicomponent liquid ion exchange with chabazite zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Byers, C.W.

    1993-10-01

    In spite of the increasing commercial use of zeolites for binary and multicomponent sorption, the understanding of the basic mass-transfer processes associated with multicomponent zeolite ion-exchange systems is quite limited. This study was undertaken to evaluate Na-Ca-Mg-Cs-Sr ion exchange from an aqueous solution using a chabazite zeolite. Mass-transfer coefficients and equilibrium equations were determined from experimental batch-reactor data for single and multicomponent systems. The Langmuir isotherm was used to represent the equilibrium relationship for binary systems, and a modified Dubinin-Polyani model was used for the multicomponent systems. The experimental data indicate that diffusion through the microporous zeolite crystals is the primary diffusional resistance. Macropore diffusion also significantly contributes to the mass-transfer resistance. Various mass-transfer models were compared to the experimental data to determine mass-transfer coefficients. Effective diffusivities were obtained which accurately predicted experimental data using a variety of models. Only the model which accounts for micropore and macropore diffusion occurring in series accurately predicted multicomponent data using single-component diffusivities. Liquid and surface diffusion both contribute to macropore diffusion. Surface and micropore diffusivities were determined to be concentration dependent

  7. Nafion®/ODF-silica composite membranes for medium temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Treekamol, Yaowapa; Schieda, Mauricio; Robitaille, Lucie; MacKinnon, Sean M.; Mokrini, Asmae; Shi, Zhiqing; Holdcroft, Steven; Schulte, Karl I.; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2014-01-01

    A series of composite membranes were prepared by dispersing fluorinated polyoxadiazole oligomer (ODF)-functionalized silica nanoparticles in a Nafion matrix. Both melt-extrusion and solvent casting processes were explored. Ion exchange capacity

  8. Ion-Exchange Processes and Mechanisms in Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrail, B.P.; Icenhower, J.P.; Darab, J.G.; Shuh, D.K.; Baer, D.R.; Shutthanandan, V.; Thevuthasan, S.; Engelhard, M.H.; Steele, J.L.; Rodriguez, E.A.; Liu, P.; Ivanov, K.E.; Booth, C.H.; Nachimuthu, P.

    2001-01-01

    [14,15]. Renewed interest in alkali ion exchange reactions has come about because of interest in development of durable Na-rich silicate glasses for immobilization of low-activity waste (LAW) at Hanford, Washington [16] and high-level wastes in China [17]. In reactive transport simulations of a LAW glass disposed in a shallow subsurface facility, Chen, McGrail, and Engel [18] showed that ion-exchange reactions increased the radionuclide release rate by over two orders of magnitude when compared with simulations where ion exchange was excluded. Sheng, Luo, and Tang [17] conducted static tests in a simulated groundwater and showed that alkali ion exchange was the dominant release mechanism over a large temperature range. Although the significance of alkali ion exchange reactions in long-term disposal system performance has now been recognized, the fundamental processes and mechanisms controlling the exchange reactions are still remarkably poorly understood, especially with regard to how glass structure affects alkali ion exchange kinetics. Experimental studies of Na release from various simple silicate glasses are numerous [19-23]. However, in all previous studies of which we are aware, no attempt was made to distinguish between M + release through alkali exchange versus matrix dissolution. The release rate of alkali in all of the early work was convoluted by contributions from matrix dissolution, which dominates in dilute solutions. Also, none of the previous studies attempted to define the relationship, if any, between glass structure (composition) and the kinetics of the ion exchange reaction. The motivation behind this Environmental Management Science Project (EMSP) is to develop a better understanding of how glass structure impacts sodium ion exchange so that improved glasses can be developed. Development of low ion-exchange rate glasses may also permit engineers to use higher loadings in nuclear waste glasses, which would result in substantial savings in

  9. Application to ion exchange study of an interferometry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platzer, R.

    1960-01-01

    The numerous experiments carried out on ion exchange between clay suspensions and solutions have so far been done by studying the equilibrium between the two phases; by this method it is very difficult to obtain the kinetic properties of the exchange reactions. At method consisting of observation with an interferential microscope using polarised white light shows up the variations in concentration which take place during the ion exchange between an ionic solution and a montmorillonite slab as well as between an ionic solution and a grain of organic ion exchanger. By analysing the results it will be possible to compare the exchange constants of organic ion exchangers with those of mineral ion exchangers. (author) [fr

  10. The mechanism of ion exchange on ammonium 12-molybdophosphate (AMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeyens, J.C.A.; McDougall, G.J.; Smit, J. van R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews some published and unpublished data on the ion-exchange properties of AMP. The three NH 4 + ions are only partially exchanged for large monovalent ions. In the case of NH 4 + /K + exchange, the energy lost by the breaking of H bonds between the NH 4 + ions and anionic cage oxygen atoms beyond the point of maximum exchange is no longer compensated for by bond strengthening in the anion due to contraction of the cage. With Rb + , Cs + and T1 + , limited convertibility results from the lattice expansion required to accommodate these larger ions. During exchange, part of the cations pass through the anionic cages, thereby causing considerable lattice disorder. The maximum exchange capacity of AMP for the alkali metal ions is not a simple function of cation radius. (author)

  11. Electrospun Zeolite/Cellulose Acetate Fibers for Ion Exchange of Pb2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel N. Tran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ion exchange capability of electrospun cellulose acetate (CA fibers containing zeolite A nanoparticles is reported. Solid and porous CA fibers were used to make a zeolite-embedded filter paper, which was then used to ion exchange Na+ with Cu2+ and Pb2+. The composite Linde Type A (LTA zeolite CA fibers exchanged 0.39 mmol/g more Pb2+ than LTA nanoparticles in the solid CA fibers. These fibers could provide a simple and effective method for heavy metal ion removal in water.

  12. Complexation ion-exchange chromatography of some metal ions on papers impregnated with Ti(IV)-based inorganic ion exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S D; Gupta, R

    2000-02-01

    The chromatographic behavior of 40 metal ions is studied on titanium (IV) arsenate, titanium (IV) phosphate-, titanium (IV) molybdate-, titanium(IV) tungstate-, and titanium(IV) selenite-impregnated papers in 0.1M oxalic, citric, and tartaric acid as mobile phases. Similar studies are carried out on Whatman No. 1 papers for comparison. The ion-exchange capacity of these papers is determined, and their selectivity for different cations is discussed. The mechanism of migration is explained in terms of ion-exchange, precipitation, and adsorption. The prediction of elution sequence from RF values is also checked. The average Ri is found to be almost linearly dependent on the charge of the metal ions. The effect of the pKa of complexing acids on average RF values of 3d series metal ions is explained. A number of binary and ternary separations are achieved.

  13. A review of the radiation stability of ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive literature survey on the radiation stability of synthetic organic ion exchangers was published in this journal (Vol. 97, No. 1.). This paper is a brief review of the major findings of this survey along with similar information on synthetic inorganic ion exchangers. The primary goal of this literature survey is to review present knowledge on the effects of ionizing radiations on synthetic ion exchange materials used in radiochemical processing. The information available in the literature shows some general trends in observed qualitative effects by different types of organic and inorganic ion exchange materials. (author)

  14. 309 plutonium recycle test reactor ion exchanger vault deactivitation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.W.

    1996-03-01

    This report documents the deactivation of the ion exchanger vault at the 309 Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) Facility in the 300 Area. The vault deactivation began in May 1995 and was completed in June 1995. The final site restoration and shipment of the low-level waste for disposal was finished in September 1995. The ion exchanger vault deactivation project involved the removal and disposal of twelve ion exchangers and decontaminating and fixing of residual smearable contamination on the ion exchanger vault concrete surfaces

  15. The Quantitative Ion Exchange Separation of Uranium from Impurities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Narayanan, Usha

    1995-01-01

    .... This procedure involve adsorption of uranium onto Bio-Rad AG 1X8 or MP-1 ion exchange resins in 8 M HCl, separation of uncomplexed or weakly complexed matrix ions with an 8 M HCl wash, and subsequent...

  16. Separation of uranium from sodium carbonate - sodium bicarbonate eluate by ion exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakane, Kohji; Hirotsu, Takahiro; Fujii, Ayako; Katoh, Shunsaku; Sugasaka, Kazuhiko

    1982-01-01

    The ion exchange method was used for separating uranium from the eluate (0.5 N Na 2 CO 3 -0.5 N NaHCO 3 ) that was obtained in the extraction process of uranium from natural sea water by using the titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent. Uranium in the eluate containing 3 mg/1 uranium was adsorbed by ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400), and was eluted with the eluant (5 % NaCl-0.5 % Na 2 CO 3 ). The concentration ratio of uranium in the final concentrated-eluate became more than 20 times. The eluting solution to the adsorbent and the eluant to the resin could be repeatedly used in the desorption-ion exchange process. Sodium carbonate was consumed at the desorption step, and sodium bicarbonate was consumed at the ion exchange step. The concentration ratio of uranium was found to decrease as chloride ion in the eluate increased. (author)

  17. Separation of uranium from sodium carbonate-sodium bicarbonate eluate by ion exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakane, Kohji; Hirotsu, Takahiro; Fujii, Ayako; Katoh, Shunsaku; Sugasaka, Kazuhiko

    1982-01-01

    The ion exchange method was used for separating uranium from the eluate (0.5 N Na 2 CO 3 -0.5 N NaHCO 3 ) that was obtained in the extraction process of uranium from natural sea water by using the titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent. Uranium in the eluate containing 3 mg/l uranium was adsorbed by ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400), and was eluted with the eluent (5% NaCl-0.5% Na 2 CO 3 ). The concentration ratio of uranium in the final concentrated-eluate became more than 20 times. The eluting solution to the adsorbent and the eluant to the resin could be repeatedly used in the desorption-ion exchange process. Sodium carbonate was consumed at the desorption step, and sodium bicarbonate was consumed at the ion exchange step. The concentration ratio of uranium was found to decrease as chloride ion in the eluate increased. (author)

  18. Electrodeionization 2: the migration of nickel ions adsorbed in a flexible ion-exchange resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoor, P.B.; Veen, ter W.R.; Janssen, L.J.J.

    2001-01-01

    The removal of nickel ions from a low cross-linked ion-exchange resin using an applied electrical potential gradient was studied. The potential gradient across a bed of ion-exchange particles, in which nickel ions were absorbed, was varied by two methods. One involved a change of cell voltage across

  19. Exchange scattering of quasiparticles by positive ion in He3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehdel'shtejn, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    The difference in the mobility of negative and positive ions in normal 3 He at low temperatures is discussed. The mobility mechanisms for the ions of different sign are qualitatively different since the positive ion can exchange quasiparticles with the helium atoms from the ice-like shell surrounding the ion. A study of the mobility in a magnetic field may yield quantitative information on the magnitude of the exchange interaction. A calculation for the exchange scattering model is carried out and it is shown that a logarithmic contribution to the positive ion mobility μsub(+)(T) appears which is analogous to the Kondo effect

  20. On the mechanism of ion exchange in zirconium phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kullberg, L.; Clearfield, A.

    1981-01-01

    An equilibrium study of the Na + -Cs + -H + exchange on crystalline α-zirconium phosphate has been carried out. Isotherms for the ion exchange have been determined and phases formed during the exchange have been identified. The surface groups of the exchanger were found to greatly prefer cesium to sodium. For exchange in the interior, cesium was found to be preferred to sodium for 0 to 50% of exchange, while sodium is slightly preferred to cesium for the second half of exchange. The influence of surface equilibria on the total exchange mechanism is discussed. (author)

  1. Treatment of spent ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghattas, N.K.; Ikladious, N.E.; Eskander, S.B.

    1981-01-01

    PMMA was studied with the aim to evaluate its usefulness as an incorporation medium for the final containment of spent ion-exchange resins. The study of the effect of water content (ranging from 25 to 100%) of the incorporated resin into PMMA on the compression strength of the final solid products shows that with the increasing water content the compression strength of the final products decreases sharply. Hardness of the final products follows nearly the same trend of compression strength. Increasing gamma irradiation doses, up to 7.77x10 7 rad, PMMA shows increase in compression strength and hardness for small doses and then decreases with increasing irradiation dose due to the increase in polymerization process and the degradation of the incorporation medium

  2. Effects of ionizing radiation on modern ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.; Pillay, K.K.S.

    1993-10-01

    We review published studies of the effects of ionizing radiation on ion exchange materials, emphasizing those published in recent years. A brief overview is followed by a more detailed examination of recent developments. Our review includes styrene/divinylbenzene copolymers with cation-exchange or anion-exchange functional groups, polyvinylpyridine anion exchangers, chelating resins, multifunctional resins, and inorganic exchangers. In general, strong-acid cation exchange resins are more resistant to radiation than are strong-base anion exchange resins, and polyvinylpyridine resins are more resistant than polystyrene resins. Cross-linkage, salt form, moisture content, and the surrounding medium all affect the radiation stability of a specific exchanger. Inorganic exchangers usually, but not always, exhibit high radiation resistance. Liquid ion exchangers, which have been used so extensively in nuclear processing applications, also are included

  3. Contact isotopic- and contact ion-exchange between two adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzl, K.; Mohan, R.; Haimerl, M.

    1975-01-01

    The kinetics of contact ion exchange processes between an ion exchange membrane and resin ion exchange beads, stirred in pure water, was investigated. A general criterion was derived, which indicates whether diffusion of the ions between the intermingling electric double layers or the collision frequency between the two adsorbents is the rate dermining step. Since the latter process proved to be rate controlling under our experimental conditions, the corresponding rate equations were derived under various initial and boundary conditions. Experimentally, the kinetics of contact isotopic exchange of Cs + - and Na + -ions as well as of the reverse contact ion exchange process of Cs + -versus Na + -ions were investigated by using Na 22 and Cs 137 radioisotopes. The experiments reveal in quantitative accord with the theory that the rate of collision controlled contact ion exchange processes depends mainly on the 'exchange coefficient', the separation factor and the collision frequency. While the latter two quantities were determined independently by separate experiments, the 'exchange coefficient' was evaluated from a contact isotopic exchange experiment. (orig.) [de

  4. TECHNICAL COMPARISON OF CANDIDATE ION EXCHANGE MEDIA FOR SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE (SCIX) APPLICATIONS IN SUPPORT OF SUPPLEMENTAL LAW PRETREATMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, A.A.; Thorson, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    At-tank supplemental pretreatment including both filtration and small column ion exchange is currently under evaluation to facilitate salt waste retrieval and processing in the Hanford tank farms. Spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) resin is the baseline ion exchange resin for use in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). This document provides background and technical rationale to assist in determining whether spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) is also the appropriate ion exchange resin for supplemental LAW pretreatment processes and compares sRF with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) as potential supplemental pretreatment ion exchange media.

  5. Waste treatment by selective mineral ion exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polito, Aurelie

    2007-01-01

    STMI, subsidiary company of the AREVA Group with over 40 years in the D and D business, has been continuously innovating and developing new decontamination techniques, with the objectives of achieving more efficient decontaminations on a growing spectrum of media. In the field of liquid waste treatment, STMI manufactures uses and commercialises selective inorganic ion exchangers (RAN). These are hydrated synthetic inorganic compounds prepared from very pure raw materials. Different types of RANs (POLYAN, OXTAIN, Fe-Cu, Fe-CoK, Si-Fe-CoK) can be used to trap a large number of radioactive elements in contaminated effluents. Different implementations could be applied depending on technical conditions. STMI's offers consist in building global solution and preliminary design of installation either in dispersed form (batch) or in column (cartridge filtration). Those products are used all over the world not only in the nuclear business (Canada, US, Belgium, France...) but also in other fields. Indeed, it provides competitive solutions to many domains of application especially water pollution control, liquid waste treatment in the nuclear business by decreasing the activity level of waste. The following paper will focus on the theoretical principle of the mineral exchanger, its implementation and the feed back collected by STMI. (author)

  6. The effect of organic ion-exchange resin on properties of heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivčík, J.; Vladařová, J.; Hadrava, J.; Černín, A.; Brožová, Libuše

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 14, - (2010), s. 179-184 ISSN 1944-3994. [Membrane Science and Technology Conference of Visegrad Countries /4./ PERMEA 2009, 07.07.2009-11.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA4/116 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : heterogeneous ion-exchange membrane * membrane modification * particle size of distribution Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 0.752, year: 2010

  7. Pyrolysis of Spent Ion Exchange Resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braehler, Georg; Slametschka, Rainer

    2012-09-01

    Ion exchangers (IEX in international language) are used to remove radionuclides from the primary coolant in all nuclear power stations with a water cooling circuit. This is done by continuously removing a volume of coolant from the primary circuit and passing it through coolers, filters and the ion exchange beds. Cation and anion exchangers, in the form of coarse-grained resin beads in pressurized-water reactors and as finely ground powdered resins in boiling water reactors, are used. The trend for new power stations is to exploit all the possibilities for avoiding the generation of contaminated liquids and then to clean, as far as possible, the solutions that are nevertheless generated using ion exchange for it to be possible to dispose of them as non-radioactive waste. This relieves the burden on evaporator facilities, or means that these can even be dispensed with entirely. Regeneration is possible in principle, but little use is made of it. As the regeneration usual in conventional technologies is not employed in nuclear power stations, it is necessary to dispose of this material as radioactive waste. On the international level, a great number of processes are offered that are intended to meet the relevant national regulations, and these will be discussed in brief with their advantages and disadvantages. The aim is then to find a process which reduces the volume, yields an inert or mineralized product, works at temperatures of no more than approximately 600 deg. C and can be run in a simple facility. Originally, the pyrolysis process was developed to treat liquid organic waste from reprocessing. A typical application is the decomposition of spent solvent (TBP, tributyl phosphate, mixed with kerosene). In this process TBP is pyrolyzed together with calcium hydroxide in a fluidized bed facility at temperatures of around 500 deg. C, the calcium hydroxide reacts with the phosphate groups directly to form calcium pyrophosphate which contains all the radioactivity

  8. Types of organic materials present in CEGB waste streams and possible encapsulation processes for organic ion-exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haighton, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    The organic composition of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes is discussed. Work underway in the development of immobilising binders for organic ion exchange resins found in radioactive wastes and in the encapsulation of these ion exchangers is presented. (U.K.)

  9. Development of heat resistant ion exchange resin. First Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, Teruo; Shindo, Manabu

    1995-01-01

    In nuclear power stations, as a means of maintaining the soundness of nuclear reactors, the cleaning of reactor cooling water has been carried out. But as for the ion exchange resin which is used as the cleaning agent in the filtrating and desalting facility in reactor water cleaning system, since the heat resistance is low, high temperature reactor water is cooled once and cleaned, therefore large heat loss occurs. If the cleaning can be done at higher temperature, the reduction of heat loss and compact cleaning facilities become possible. In this study, a new ion exchange resin having superior heat resistance has been developed, and the results of the test of evaluating the performance of the developed ion exchange resin are reported. The heat loss in reactor water cleaning system, the heat deterioration of conventional ion exchange resin, and the development of the anion exchange resin of alkyl spacer type are described. The outline of the performance evaluation test, the experimental method, and the results of the heat resistance, ion exchange characteristics and so on of C4 resin are reported. The with standable temperature of the developed anion exchange resin was estimated as 80 - 90degC. The ion exchange performance at 95degC of this resin did not change from that at low temperature in chloride ions and silica, and was equivalent to that of existing anion exchange resin. (K.I.)

  10. Development of heat resistant ion exchange resin. First Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, Teruo; Shindo, Manabu [Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Sendai (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    In nuclear power stations, as a means of maintaining the soundness of nuclear reactors, the cleaning of reactor cooling water has been carried out. But as for the ion exchange resin which is used as the cleaning agent in the filtrating and desalting facility in reactor water cleaning system, since the heat resistance is low, high temperature reactor water is cooled once and cleaned, therefore large heat loss occurs. If the cleaning can be done at higher temperature, the reduction of heat loss and compact cleaning facilities become possible. In this study, a new ion exchange resin having superior heat resistance has been developed, and the results of the test of evaluating the performance of the developed ion exchange resin are reported. The heat loss in reactor water cleaning system, the heat deterioration of conventional ion exchange resin, and the development of the anion exchange resin of alkyl spacer type are described. The outline of the performance evaluation test, the experimental method, and the results of the heat resistance, ion exchange characteristics and so on of C4 resin are reported. The with standable temperature of the developed anion exchange resin was estimated as 80 - 90degC. The ion exchange performance at 95degC of this resin did not change from that at low temperature in chloride ions and silica, and was equivalent to that of existing anion exchange resin. (K.I.).

  11. Rupture Loop Annex (RLA) ion exchange vault entry and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    This engineering report documents the entry and characterization of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located near the 309 Building's Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns were found in the vault. Some of which contained transuranics, Cs 137, and Co 60. The characterization information is necessary for future vault cleanout and column disposal

  12. Oxidation of cyclohexane catalyzed by metal-ion-exchanged zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sökmen, Ilkay; Sevin, Fatma

    2003-08-01

    The ion-exchange rates and capacities of the zeolite NaY for the Cu(II), Co(II), and Pb(II) metal ions were investigated. Ion-exchange equilibria were achieved in approximately 72 h for all the metal ions. The maximum ion exchange of metal ions into the zeolite was found to be 120 mg Pb(II), 110 mg Cu(II), and 100 mg Co(II) per gram of zeolite NaY. It is observed that the exchange capacity of a zeolite varies with the exchanged metal ion and the amount of metal ions exchanged into zeolite decreases in the sequence Pb(II) > Cu(II) > Co(II). Application of the metal-ion-exchanged zeolites in oxidation of cyclohexane in liquid phase with visible light was examined and it is observed that the order of reactivity of the zeolites for the conversion of cyclohexane to cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol is CuY > CoY > PbY. It is found that conversion increases by increase of the empty active sites of a zeolite and the formation of cyclohexanol is favored initially, but the cyclohexanol is subsequently converted to cyclohexanone.

  13. Removal of some heavy metals from industrial waste water using polyacrylamide ferric antimonate as new ion exchange material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Aryan, Y.F.A.

    2011-01-01

    Composite ion exchangers consist of one or more ion exchangers combined with another material, which can be inorganic or organic and may it be an ion exchanger. The reason for manufacturing a composite material is to produce a granular material, with sufficient strength for column use, from ion exchangers that do not form, or only form weak, granules themselves. Attempts in this study are focused to prepare composite ion exchangers for treatment of wastewater. Heavy metals when present in water in concentrations exceeding the permitted limits are injurious to the health. Hence, it is very important to treat such waters to remove the metal ions present before it is supplied for any useful purpose. Therefore, many investigations have studied to develop more effective process to treat such waste stream. Ion-exchange has been widely adopted in heavy metal containing wastewater and most of the ion-exchangers (i.e. ion-exchange media) currently being used are commercially mass-produced organic resins.Therefore, the main aim of this work is directed to find the optimum conditions for removal of some heavy metals from industrial waste water.1-Preparation of polyacrylamide ferric antimonate composite.2-Characterization of the prepared exchanger using IR spectra, X-ray diffraction pattern, DTA and TG analyses.3-Chemical stability, capacity and equilibrium measurements will be determined on the materials using at different conditions (ph heating temperature and reaction temperature).4-Kinetic studies of some heavy metals.5-Ion exchange isotherm.6-Breakthrough curves for removal of the investigated metal ions on the prepared exchanger under certain condition.

  14. Preparation of the Hexacyanoferrate Ion Exchanger Matrix to Concentrate 137Cs from Sea Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdahayu Makmur

    2007-01-01

    Preparation of the hexacyanoferrate ion exchanger matrix to concentrate 137 Cs from large volume sea water has been done. The Pre-concentration is needed because 137 Cs concentration in sea water is too low. The hexacyanoferrate ion exchanger matrix can be prepared by performing the reaction of 10 gram silica gel with potassium hexacyanoferrate on concentration variation of 0.0025 M - 0.04 M and copper chloride on concentration variation of 0.005 M - 0.08 M. The volume of each reagent was 25 ml. The performance of the ion exchanger matrix depends on the chemical compositions both of the mixtures, it was expected that no remaining Fe ion and free Cu from the initial reagent. The final effluent will analyzed for Fe and Cu using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. The optimal molar composition ration for potassium hexacyanoferrate and copper chloride was 0.5 for 10 gram silica gel. (author)

  15. Study on actinoid isolation by antimonide ion exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, Masamichi [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Kubota, Masumitsu; Yamagishi, Isao

    1996-01-01

    To establish a containment of long-life nuclides and an effective reduction of waste volume is important to reduce the loadings on the natural environment. Chemical isolation of radioactive nuclides from wastes was attempted by using inorganic ion exchanger with high specificity and thermal stability. In this study, titanium antimonide was used as an ion exchanger to investigate the adsorption of trivalent metallic ions according to Kielland plot curves. When the ionic equivalent fraction (X-bar{sub M}) was around 0.005, Kielland plot curve of either of 3-valent metallic ions was bent, suggesting the exchanger had two different adsorption sites. The slope of the curve became smaller as an elevation of temperature. These results show that the ion radius was decreased resulting from partial elimination of the hydrated water of ion and thus, the steric conditions around the exchange site might be improved. (M.N.)

  16. Sm isotope composition and Sm/Eu ratio determination in an irradiated 153Eu sample by ion exchange chromatography-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry combined with double spike isotope dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, M.; Isnard, H.; Gourgiotis, A.; Stadelmann, G.; Gautier, C.; Mialle, S.; Nonell, A.; Chartier, F.

    2011-01-01

    Within the framework of the research undertaken by the French Atomic Energy Commission on transmutation of long-lived radionuclides, targets of highly enriched actinides and fission products were irradiated in the fast neutron reactor Phenix. Precise and accurate measurements of the isotopic and elemental composition of the enriched elements are therefore required. In order to obtain the uncertainties of several per mil and to reduce handling time and exposure to analyst on radioactive material, the on-line coupling of ion exchange chromatography with quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been associated with the technique of the double spike isotope dilution. We present in this paper the results obtained on an irradiated sample of Europium oxide powder (enriched at 99.13% in 153 Eu). After irradiation of around 5 mg of Eu 2 O 3 powder the theoretical calculations predict the formation of several micrograms of gadolinium and samarium isotopes. In relation to the very high activity of the sample after irradiation and the very low quantity of Sm formed, the on-line ion exchange chromatography separation of Gd, Sm and Eu before Sm isotope ratio measurements has been developed for the quantification of the 152 Sm/ 153 Eu ratio. These on-line measurements were associated with the double spike isotope dilution technique after calibration of a 147 Sm/ 151 Eu spike solution. The external reproducibility of Sm isotopic ratios was determined to be around 0.5% (2 σ) resulting in a final uncertainty on the 152 Sm/ 153 Eu ratio of around 1% (2 σ). These on-line measurements present therefore a robust and high-throughput alternative to the thermal-ionisation mass spectrometry technique used so far in combination with off-line chromatographic separation, particularly in nuclear applications where characterisation of high activity sample solutions is required. (authors)

  17. Thermodynamics of ion exchange equilibrium for some uni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study on thermodynamics of ion exchange equilibrium for uni-univalent Cl-/I-, Cl-/Br-, and uni-divalent Cl-/SO42-, Cl-/C2O42- reaction systems was carried out using ion exchange resin Indion FF-IP. The equilibrium constant K was calculated by taking into account the activity coefficient of ions both in solution as well as ...

  18. Rod-shaped ion exchanger useful for purifying liquids or recovering components from liquids comprises a metal wire core surrounded by an ion-exchange resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, C.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Rod-shaped ion exchanger comprises a metal wire core surrounded by an ion-exchange resin. Independent claims are also included for: (1) a module comprising a housing with an inlet and outlet and one or more ion exchangers as above; (2) a process for producing an ion exchanger as above, comprising

  19. Application of ion exchange processes for the treatment of radioactive waste and management of spent ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the ion exchange technologies currently used and under development in nuclear industry, in particular for waste management practices, along with the experience gained in their application and with the subsequent handling, treatment and conditioning of spent ion exchange media for long term storage and/or disposal. The increased role of inorganic ion exchangers for treatment of radioactive liquid waste, both in nuclear power plant operations and in the fuel reprocessing sector, is recognised in this report. The intention of this report is to consolidate the previous publications, document recent developments and describe the state of the art in the application of ion exchange processes for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste and the management of spent ion exchange materials

  20. Ion exchange nonwoven fabric chemical filter. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Hideaki

    2000-01-01

    This report outlined the characteristics of EPIX filter and its complex with activated carbon to eliminate organic compounds from solvent. Elimination performance of this filter was determined using an ion chromatographic analyzer. EPIX filter showed high performance to eliminate trace amount of ionic compounds. The rate of elimination was both 99% or more for NH 3 and SO 2 in an early phase of filtration. Release of dust as well as impurities was significantly reduced by the use of EPIX filter. Gases once adsorbed on the filter were not released even at an elevated temperature of atmosphere. Combined use of non-woven fabrics was possible. For EPIX filter, there are three kinds; strong acid cation exchange filter and strong/weak basic anion filters. The weak basic anion filter has been applied to the conventional apparatus in wafer makers because the filter was very effective for selective boron trapping. When polyethyleneterephthalate was used as the base polymer, radical groups produced on the polymer were co-polymerized with monomer substances. The lifetime of filter was estimated on a base of gas concentration and wind velocity to determine the time to replace with a new one. Furthermore, the loss of pressure became less than a half when EPIX filter was used. (M.N.)

  1. Uranium refining process using ion exchange membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Akira

    1977-01-01

    As for the method of refining uranium ore being carried out in Europe and America at present, uranium ore is roughly refined at the mine sites to yellow cake, then this is transported to refineries and refined by dry method. This method has the following faults, namely the number of processes is large, it requires expensive corrosion-resistant materials because of high temperature treatment, and the impurities in uranium tend to increase. On the other hand, in case of EXCER method, treatment is carried out at low temperature, and high purity uranium can be obtained, but the efficiency of electrolytic reduction process is extremely low, and economically infeasible. In the wet refining method called PNC process, uranium tetrafluoride is produced from uranium ore without making yellow cake, therefore the process is rationalized largely, and highly economical. The electrolytic reduction process in this method was developed by Asahi Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. by constructing the pilot plant in Ningyotoge Mine. The ion exchange membrane, the electrodes, and the problems concerning the process and the engineering for commercial plants were investigated. The electrolytic reduction process, the pilot plant, the development of the elements of electrolytic cells, the establishment of analytical process, the measurement of the electrolytic characteristics, the demonstration operation, and the life time of the electrolytic diaphragm are reported. (Kako, I.)

  2. Pyrolysis of spent ion-exchanger resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slametschka, Rainer; Braehler, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Initial tests have shown that ion exchangers (IEX) can be decomposed by pyrolysis with very good results, yielding an inert and chemically resistant product. No additives are necessary. The main constituent of the product, the pyrolysis residues or ash, is carbon. It has been discovered that the entire radioactive inventory remains in the pyrolysis residues during pyrolysis of the IEX. This is achieved by relatively low process temperatures that prevent highly volatile nuclides such as the caesium nuclides from passing into the gaseous phase. Sintered metal filters in pyrolysis plant ensure that even the radioactivity bonded to the dust remains in the pyrolysis residues. In addition to the radionuclides, the main constituents of the residue are carbon from the original polystyrene matrix and sulphur from the functional groups. The pyrolysis residues form a flowable solid material and not a melt. It is thus easy to handle and can be compacted or cemented, depending on the requirements for interim and permanent storage. Any further constituents such as inorganic filter materials or even other organic materials do not interfere with the process, they are dried, calcined or also pyrolysed. (orig.)

  3. Ion exchange fiber prepared by radiation grafting, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Hideaki; Fujiwara, Kunio; Fujii, Toshiaki; Takai, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Atsushi

    1991-01-01

    Ion exchange fiber prepared by radiation grafting has the capabilities for wide application as high performance materials. Extensive studies were made to evaluate the ion exchange fiber prepared by radiation grafting for removing some toxic or malodorous gases, continuing from the previous work (presented in Ebara Engng. Review, No. 146), in which the ability of removing ammonia with cation exchange fiber was investigated. The results of this study can be summarized by the following conclusions: (1) Methods of evaluating the ability of removing ammonia, acetaldehyde, and some lower fatty acids in low concentration were established, (2) Besides being effective for the removal of acidic or basic gases, neutral gas such as acetaldehyde can also be removed by adding some functional compounds to the ion exchange fiber, and (3) Ion exchange fiber prepared by radiation grafting is effective as a deodorizing filter. (author)

  4. Study of kinetics, equilibrium and isotope exchange in ion exchange systems Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamberg, K.; Plicka, J.; Calibar, J.; Gosman, A.

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics of ion exchange in the Nasup(+)-Mgsup(2+)-strongly acidic cation exchanger system in a batch stirred reactor was studied. The samples of exchangers OSTION KS (containing DVB in the range of 1.5 - 12%) and AMBERLITE IR 120 for experimental work were used; the concentration of the aqueous nitrate solution was always 0.2M. The Nernst-Planck equation for description of diffusion of ions in a particle was used. The values of diffusion coefficients of magnesium ions in the exchangers and their dependence on the content of DVB were obtained by evaluating the experimental data and using the self-diffusion coefficients of sodium. (author)

  5. Gadolinium-hydrogen ion exchange of zirconium phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. C.; Power, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The Gd(+3)/H(+) ion exchange on a commercial zirconium phosphate ion exchanger was investigated in chloride, sulfate, and phosphate solutions of Gd(+3) at gadolinium concentrations of 0.001 to 1 millimole per cc and in the pH range of 0 to 3.5. Relatively low Gd(+3) capacities, in the range of 0.01 to 0.1 millimole per g of ion exchanger were found at room temperature. A significant difference in Gd(+3) sorption was observed, depending on whether the ion exchanger was converted from initial conditions of greater or lesser Gd(+3) sorption than the specific final conditions. Correlations were found between decrease in Gd(+3) capacity and loss of exchanger phosphate groups due to hydrolysis during washing and between increase in capacity and treatment with H3PO4. Fitting of the experimental data to ideal ion exchange equilibrium expressions indicated that each Gd(+3) ion is sorbed on only one site of the ion exchanger. The selectivity quotient was determined to be 2.5 + or - 0.4 at room temperature on gadolinium desorption in chloride solutions.

  6. Ion exchange kinetics of alkaline earths on Zr(IV) arsenosilicate cation exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, K.G.; Agrawal, S.; Varshney, K.

    1984-01-01

    A new approach based on the Nernst-Planck equations was applied to study the ion exchange kinetics for the exchange reactions of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) with H + -ions at various temperatures on the zirconium(IV) arsenosilicate phase. Under the conditions of particle diffusion, the rate of exchange was found to be independent of the metal ion concentration at and above 0.1 M in aqueous medium. Energy and entropy of activation were determined and found to vary linearly with the ionic radii and mobilities of alkaline earths, a unique feature observed for an inorganic ion exchanger. The results are useful for predicting the ion exchange processes occurring on the surface of an inorganic material of the type studied. (author)

  7. Oxygen exchange and transport in dual phase ceramic composite electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, John; Téllez, Helena; Ishihara, Tatsumi; Kilner, John A

    2015-01-01

    Composites consisting of a perovskite-based electronic or mixed conductor with a fluorite-structured ionic conductor are often used as electrodes in solid oxide electrochemical energy conversion devices. After sintering the materials, there is often evidence for inter-reaction between the two phases, or inter-diffusion of cations or impurities between the two phases. We studied the (18)O exchange properties of a composite consisting of CGO and LSCF in a 50 : 50 ratio. High resolution ToF-SIMS mapping reveals that the (18)O fraction at the very outer surface of grains of the CGO phase is much higher than expected from D* and k* values for the single-phase parent material. Surface compositional analysis by ToF-SIMS and low energy ion scattering (LEIS) spectroscopy suggests that the surfaces of the CGO grains in the composite do not show the impurities which typically segregate to the surface in single-phase CGO. Thus, the "cleaning" of impurities from the CGO surface by dissolution into the perovskite phase may be one explanation for the apparent enhanced surface exchange for CGO in these composites.

  8. Study of kinetics, equilibrium and isotope exchange in ion exchange systems Pt. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plicka, J.; Stamberg, K.; Cabicar, J.; Gosman, A.

    1986-01-01

    The description of kinetics of ion exchange in ternary system was based upon three Nernst-Planck equations, each of them describing the particle diffusion flux of a given counterion as an independent process. For experimental verification, the strongly acidic cation exchanger OSTION KS 08 the shallow-bed technique, and 0.2 mol x dm -3 aqueous nitrate solutions were chosen. The kinetics of ion exchange in the system of cations Na + - Mg 2+ - UO 2 2+ was studied. The values of diffusion coefficients obtained by evaluating of kinetics of isotope exchange and binary ion exchange were used for calculation. The comparison of calculated exchange rate curves with the experimental ones was made. It was found that the exchanging counterions were affected by each other. (author)

  9. Bovine plasma protein fractionation by ion exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moure, F; Rendueles, M; Díaz, M

    2004-12-01

    An ion exchange chromatography process was developed to separate the main protein fractions of bovine blood plasma using a composite material, Q-HyperD resin, and a gel material, DEAE-Sepharose. The experiments were carried out at semipreparative scale. It was necessary to establish analytical methods of electrophoresis and HPLC to identify the fractionated proteins. Results show that these materials are able to adequately fractionate different protein groups from the raw blood plasma. This method may be used to avoid chemical fractionation using agents such as ethanol or PEG and, thus, decrease protein denaturation of the different fractions to be used for research or pharmaceutical purposes. The Q-HyperD resin presents a better retention capacity for plasma protein than DEAE-Sepharose under the experimental conditions employed.

  10. Viscosity calculations of simulated ion-exchange resin waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheon Woo; Park, Jong Kil; Lee, Kyung Ho; Lee, Myung Chan; Song, Myung Jae; BRUNELOT, Pierre

    2000-01-01

    An induction cold crucible melter (CCM) located in the NETEC-KEPCO has been used to vitrify simulated ion-exchange resin. During vitrification, the CCM operations were tightly constrained by glass viscosity as an important process parameter. Understanding the role of viscosity and quantifying viscosity is highly required in the determination of optimized feed formulations and in the selection of the processing temperature. Therefore, existing process models of glass viscosity based on a relationship between the glass composition, its structure polymerization, and the temperature were searched and adapted to our borosilicate glass systems. Calculated data using a viscosity model based on calculation of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) were in good agreement with the measured viscosity data of benchmark glasses

  11. Design of systems for handling radioactive ion exchange resin beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.A.; Story, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    The flow of slurries in pipes is a complex phenomenon. There are little slurry data available on which to base the design of systems for radioactive ion exchange resin beads and, as a result, the designs vary markedly in operating plants. With several plants on-line, the opportunity now exists to evaluate the designs of systems handling high activity spent resin beads. Results of testing at Robbins and Meyers Pump Division to quantify the behavior of resin bead slurries are presented. These tests evaluated the following slurry parameters; resin slurry velocity, pressure drop, bead degradation, and slurry concentration effects. A discussion of the general characteristics of resin bead slurries is presented along with a correlation to enable the designer to establish the proper flowrate for a given slurry composition and flow regime as a function of line size. Guidelines to follow in designing a resin handling system are presented

  12. Ion exchange resins as high-dose radiation dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, A.; Dessouki, A.; El-Assay, N.B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reports on the possibility of using various types of ion exchange resins as high-dose radiation dosimeters, by analysis of the decrease in exchange capacity with absorbed dose. The resins studied are Sojuzchim-export-Moscow Cation Exchanger KU-2 and Anion Exchanger AV-17 and Merck Cation Exchanger I, and Merck Anion Exchangers II and III. Over the dose range 1 to 100 kGy, the systems show linearity between log absorbed dose and decrease in resin ion exchange capacity. The slope of this response function differs for the different resins, depending on their ionic form and degree of cross-linking. The radiation sensitivity increases in the order KU-2; Exchanger I; AV-17; Exchanger II; Exchanger III. Merck resins with moisture content of 21% showed considerably higher radiation sensitivity than those with 2 to 3% moisture content. The mechanism of radiation-induced denaturing of the ion exchanger resins involves cleavage and decomposition of functional substituents, with crosslinking playing a stabilizing role, with water and its radiolytic products serving to inhibit radical recombination and interfering with the protection cage effect of crosslinking. (author)

  13. Electrochemically Controlled Ion-exchange Property of Carbon Nanotubes/Polypyrrole Nanocomposite in Various Electrolyte Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Daiwon [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Zhu, Chengzhou [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2920 United States; Fu, Shaofang [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2920 United States; Du, Dan [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2920 United States; Engelhard, Mark H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Lin, Yuehe [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2920 United States

    2016-09-15

    The electrochemically controlled ion-exchange properties of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT)/electronically conductive polypyrrole (PPy) polymer composite in the various electrolyte solutions have been investigated. The ion-exchange behavior, rate and capacity of the electrochemically deposited polypyrrole with and without carbon nanotube (CNT) were compared and characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It has been found that the presence of carbon nanotube backbone resulted in improvement in ion-exchange rate, stability of polypyrrole, and higher anion loading capacity per PPy due to higher surface area, electronic conductivity, porous structure of thin film, and thinner film thickness providing shorter diffusion path. Chronoamperometric studies show that electrically switched anion exchange could be completed more than 10 times faster than pure PPy thin film. The anion selectivity of CNT/PPy film is demonstrated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  14. Evaluation of ferrocyanide anion exchange resins regarding the uptake of Cs+ ions and their regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Hui Jun; Mooon, Jei Kwon; Jung, Chong Hun; Chung, Won Yang

    2008-01-01

    Ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin was prepared and the prepared ion exchange resins were tested on the ability to uptake Cs + ion. The prepared ion exchange resins were resin-KCoFC, resin-KNiFC, and resin-KCuFC. The three tested ion exchange resins showed ion exchange selectivity on the Cs + ion of the surrogate soil decontamination solution, and resin- KCoFC showed the best Cs + ion uptake capability among the tested ion exchange resins. The ion exchange behaviors were explained well by the modified Dubinin-Polanyi equation. A regeneration feasibility study of the spent ion exchange resins was also performed by the successive application of hydrogen peroxide and hydrazine. The desorption of the Cs + ion from the ion exchange resin satisfied the electroneutrality condition in the oxidation step; the desorption of the Fe 2+ ion in the reduction step could also be reduced by adding the K + ion

  15. Application of pressurized ion exchange to separations of transplutonium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.O.

    1980-01-01

    High-pressure ion exchange chromatography, used first for nucleic acid separations, was applied to the production of the heavier actinides, particularly the transcurium elements. Its use at the TRU plant is described. Future developments are considered briefly

  16. Overview of technologies to reprocess ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrish, V.M.; Chernikova, N.P.; Ivanets, V.G.

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with overview of technologies for reprocessing of ion-exchange resins and determining the most optimal solutions for Ukraine. The technologies for cementations, thermal reprocessing, bituminization and deep decontamination are considered.

  17. Triple-membrane reduces need for ion exchange regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcour, H.

    1989-01-01

    Triple-membrane water treatment systems are comprised of ultrafiltration units for pretreatment, electrodialysis reversal primary demineralizers, reverse osmosis secondary demineralizers, portable ion exchange unit polishing demineralizers, and ultraviolet sterilizers. The triple-membrane process is designed to provide an unprecedented degree of pretreatment to maximize efficiency, durability and reliability of the reverse osmosis, whilst reducing the required regeneration frequency of the ion exchange demineralizer by one to two orders of magnitude. (author)

  18. A Simple Apparatus for Fast Ion Exchange Separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsahl, K.

    1964-09-01

    An apparatus suitable for very fast ion exchange group separations in radiochemistry has been elaborated. The apparatus which consists of a system of glass tubes with pistons driven by the same force, allows the exact adjustment of influent solutions to a long series of ion-exchange columns. The practical application of the apparatus to the simultaneous separation of six groups of trace elements in the neutron activation analysis of biological material is described

  19. Inorganic ion exchangers. Application to liquid effluent processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozol, M.

    1983-10-01

    Main inorganic ion exchangers used for radioactive liquid effluents presented in this report are: synthetic and natural zeolites, in titanium oxides, titanates, niobates, tantalates, zirconates, some insoluble salts of zirconium, molybdenum and tin, heteropolyacids and polyantimonic acid. Properties of these ion exchangers are described: structure, adsoption, radiation effects and thermal stability, application to waste processing, radioactive waste storage uranium and cesium 137 recovery are evoked [fr

  20. Isotherms of ion exchange on titanates of alkaline metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillina, L.P.; Belinskaya, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    Present article is devoted to isotherms of ion exchange on titanates of alkaline metals. Therefore, finely dispersed hydrated titanates of alkaline metals (lithium, sodium, potassium) with ion exchange properties are obtained by means of alkaline hydrolysis of titanium chloride at high ph rates. Sorption of cations from salts solution of Li 2 SO 4 , NaNO 3 , Ca(NO 3 ) 2 , AgNO 3 by titanates is studied.

  1. A Simple Apparatus for Fast Ion Exchange Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsahl, K

    1964-09-15

    An apparatus suitable for very fast ion exchange group separations in radiochemistry has been elaborated. The apparatus which consists of a system of glass tubes with pistons driven by the same force, allows the exact adjustment of influent solutions to a long series of ion-exchange columns. The practical application of the apparatus to the simultaneous separation of six groups of trace elements in the neutron activation analysis of biological material is described.

  2. Samarium ion exchanged montmorillonite for high temperature cumene cracking reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binitha, N.N.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Nano material Montmorillonite clay is cation exchanged with samarium and its catalytic influence in cumene cracking reaction is investigated. Effect of exchange with sodium ions on further exchange with samarium ions is also noted. Acidity measurements are done using TPD of ammonia. The retention of basic structure is proved from FTIR spectra and XRD patterns. Elemental analysis result shows that samarium exchange has occurred, which is responsible for the higher catalytic activity. Surface area and pore volume remains more or less unaffected upon exchange. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates the enhanced thermal stability on exchanging. Cumene cracking reaction is carried out at atmospheric pressure in a fixed bed glass reactor at 673 K. The predominance of Bronsted acidity is confirmed from high selectivity to benzene. (author)

  3. Comparative study on bromide and iodide ion-isotopic exchange reactions using strongly basic anion exchange resin Duolite A-113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhande, R.S.; Dole, M.H.; Singare, P.U.

    2006-01-01

    Kinetics of ion-isotopic exchange reaction was studied using industrial grade ion exchange resin Duolite A-113. The radioactive isotopes 131 I and 82 Br were used to trace the ion-isotopic exchange reaction. The experiments were performed in the temperature range of 26.0degC to 43.0degC and the concentration of external ionic solution varying from 0.005 M to 0.100 M. For bromide ion-isotopic exchange reaction, the calculated values of specific reaction rate, initial rate of bromide ion exchange, and amount of bromide ions exchanged were obtained higher than that for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction under identical experimental conditions. The observed variation in the results for two ion-isotopic exchange reactions was due to the difference in the ionic size of bromide and iodide ions. (author)

  4. Mixed matrix microporous hollow fibers with ion-exchange functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiyono, R.; Kiyono, R.; Koops, G.H.; Wessling, Matthias; Strathmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    Heterogeneous hollow fiber membranes with cation exchange functionality are prepared using a wet spinning technique. The spinning dope solutions are prepared by dispersing finely ground cation ion-exchange resin (CER) particles in an N-methyl pyrrolidone solution of polysulfone (PSF). The polymer

  5. Thermochemical treatment of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojovan, M.I.; Petrov, G.A.; Dmitriev, S.A.; Trusov, B.G.; Semenov, K.N.; Klimov, V.L.

    2001-01-01

    Spent ion exchange resins (IER) is a principal type of radioactive waste constantly generated by nuclear plants of various functions. The reduction of volume of this waste and its treatment to the forms suitable for long-term disposal is an urgent problem facing the present-day atomic energetics. Nowadays the technological process THOR (Studsvik, Sweden) based on the thermodestruction of IER is the best developed and realized on the industrial scale. Unfortunately, this process requires expensive equipment and great energy consumption for the moisture to be evaporated and thereafter IER to be destroyed by heat. Meanwhile the capability of some elements (Mg, Al, Si, Ti etc.) has long been known and practical use found for active interaction with water in combustion regime. This property of the metals has been used in the development of new technology of treatment of IERs in SIA ''Radon''. Wet IER is mixed with powder metal fuel (PMF) which represents a mixture of metal powder, a quantity of burning activator and some technological additives. On initiation, the mixture of IER with PMF burns without extra energy supply to generate enough heat for the moisture to be evaporated and products of IER decomposition to be destroyed and evaporated. To burn out the products of IER evaporation the air is used. The thermodynamic simulation data and the results of experiments using a pilot plant show that radionuclides contained in IER are chemically bound in ash residue consisting of metal oxides, spinel, silicates, etc. According to the experimental data, radionuclides in amounts of 90% or more of Cs-137 and up to 95% of Sr-90 and Co-60 are fixed in the ash residue. The residue volume is several times less than the initial volume of IER. Concentrations of hazard gases in off-gases do not exceed maximum permissible ones accepted in different countries. The technological process is easy to perform, it does not require sophisticated equipment and great energy consumption which

  6. Isotopic exchange reaction between barium ion and tri barium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgin, G.B.; Cetin, I.

    1982-01-01

    Heterogeneous exchange reaction of tri barium phosphate in barium chloride solution has been studied using 133 Ba as a tracer. The results show that the exchange fraction increases as barium chloride concentration increases for different mole ratio of the exchange ion on the solid surface and in the solution. The phenomenon was studied with respect to the previous treatment of the precipitate leading to different crystal sizes and the effect of reaction time. (author)

  7. Leaching studies on ion exchange resins immobilized in bitument matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche Filho, C.E.; Chandra, U.; Villalobos, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    To study radionuclide leaching from bitumen waste forms, many samples of bitumen mixed with ion-exchange resin labelled with 134 Cs were prepared. The resins used in the tests were nuclear grade mixed cationic/anionic bead resins. Different bittumen types were assayed: two destilled and to oxidized bitumens. Laboratory to scale samples, with surface/volume ratio (S/V) = 1, were molded to 5 cm diameter and 10 cm height. The composition of the mixtures were: 30, 40, 50 and 60% by weight of dried resin with bitumen. The leachant was deionized water with a leachant volume to sample surface rario of about 8 cm. Leached fractions were collected according to the recommendation of ISO method, with complete exchange of leachant beckers after each sampling. The volume collected for analysis was one liter. Marinelli were used for counting in a Ge(Li) detector. Up to now, results of 250 days have been accumulated. Samples prepared with distilled bitumen have shown a diffusion coefficient of the order of 10 -14 cm 2 /sec and those prepared with oxidized bitumen yielded a diffusion coefficient of the order of 10 -12 cm 2 /sec. Mathematical models of transport phenomena applied to cylindrical geometry were employed to fit experimental data. (Author) [pt

  8. Ion exchange removal of technetium from salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    Ion exchange methods for removing technetium from waste salt solutions have been investigated by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). These experiments have shown: Commercially available anion exchange resins show high selectivity and capacity for technetium. In column runs, 150 column volumes of salt solution were passed through an ion exchange column before 50% 99 Tc breakthrough was reached. The technetium can be eluted from the resin with nitric acid. Reducing resins (containing borohydride) work well in simple hydroxide solutions, but not in simulated salt solutions. A mercarbide resin showed a very high selectivity for Tc, but did not work well in column operation

  9. Advanced ion exchange resins for PWR condensate polishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, B.; Tsuzuki, S.

    2002-01-01

    The severe chemical and mechanical requirements of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) condensate polishing plant (CPP) present a major challenge to the design of ion exchange resins. This paper describes the development and initial operating experience of improved cation and anion exchange resins that were specifically designed to meet PWR CPP needs. Although this paper focuses specifically on the ion exchange resins and their role in plant performance, it is also recognized and acknowledged that excellent mechanical design and operation of the CPP system are equally essential to obtaining good results. (authors)

  10. Mechanism of ion exchange in zirconium phosphates. 17. Dehydration behavior of lithium ion exchanged phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clearfield, A; Pack, S P; Troup, J M [Ohio Univ., Athens (USA). Dept. of Chemistry

    1977-01-01

    The phases formed by the dehydration of lithium exchanged ..cap alpha..-zirconium phosphate, Zr(HP0/sub 4/).H/sub 2/0, were determined by a combination of X-ray, TGA and DTA studies. Samples containing 10, 20, 30 ..... 100% of theoretical lithium ion capacity were examined. The data are summarized in a phase diagram which however is not an equilibrium diagram because of the slowness of approach to equilibrium. The numerous phases obtained and the ease with which they rearrange indicates a high mobility for the incorporated cations. This suggested that ..cap alpha..-zirconium phosphate may behave as a solid electrolyte and indeed this was demonstrated by having it serve in that capacity in a small sodium sulfur battery.

  11. Treatment of Soil Decontamination Solution by the Cs{sup +} Ion Selective Ion Exchange Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Hui Jun; Kim, Gye Nam; Jung, Chung Hun; Oh, Won Zin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Occasionally, radioactively contaminated soils have been excavated and stored at the temporary storage facility. Cesium as a radionuclide is one of the most toxic elements and it has a long half decay life. During the operation of nuclear facility, soils near the facility would be contaminated with radioactive cesium and it will cause the deleterious effect to human body and environment. In this study, Cs{sup +} ion selective ion exchange resin was prepared by changing the functional group of commercial anion exchange resin for a ferrocyanide ion. Ion exchange capability of using the soil decontamination solution was investigated. We also performed the feasibility test of recycling the spent Cs ion selective ion exchange resin.

  12. Enrichment of 15N by ion exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohwaki, Masao; Ohtsuka, Haruhisa; Nomura, Masao; Okamoto, Makoto; Fujii, Yasuhiko

    1996-01-01

    15 N isotope separation was studied using cation exchange resins which consist of functional groups: sulfonic acid, carboxylic acid and phenol at various concentration of the eluent LiOH. The isotope separation coefficients for these ion exchange resins were observed to be nearly equal, in spite of the large difference in ion exchange characteristics. The effect of flow rate on 15 N isotope separation was also studied, and the results indicate that the operation at high flow rate would be preferable for the industrial process of 15 N enrichment. Based on the preliminary investigations, a continuous operation using a series of ion exchange columns has been carried out in order to achieve high enrichment of 15 N. (author)

  13. The Role of Ion Exchange Membranes in Membrane Capacitive Deionisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanvand, Armineh; Wei, Kajia; Talebi, Sahar; Chen, George Q; Kentish, Sandra E

    2017-09-14

    Ion-exchange membranes (IEMs) are unique in combining the electrochemical properties of ion exchange resins and the permeability of a membrane. They are being used widely to treat industrial effluents, and in seawater and brackish water desalination. Membrane Capacitive Deionisation (MCDI) is an emerging, energy efficient technology for brackish water desalination in which these ion-exchange membranes act as selective gates allowing the transport of counter-ions toward carbon electrodes. This article provides a summary of recent developments in the preparation, characterization, and performance of ion exchange membranes in the MCDI field. In some parts of this review, the most relevant literature in the area of electrodialysis (ED) is also discussed to better elucidate the role of the ion exchange membranes. We conclude that more work is required to better define the desalination performance of the proposed novel materials and cell designs for MCDI in treating a wide range of feed waters. The extent of fouling, the development of cleaning strategies, and further techno-economic studies, will add value to this emerging technique.

  14. Composite proton exchange membrane based on sulfonated organic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitia, Emmanuel Sokiri

    As the world sets its sight into the future, energy remains a great challenge. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is part of the solution to the energy challenge because of its high efficiency and diverse application. The purpose of the PEM is to provide a path for proton transport and to prevent direct mixing of hydrogen and oxygen at the anode and the cathode, respectively. Hence, PEMs must have good proton conductivity, excellent chemical stability, and mechanical durability. The current state-of-the-art PEM is a perfluorosulfonate ionomer, Nafion®. Although Nafion® has many desirable properties, it has high methanol crossover and it is expensive. The objective of this research was to develop a cost effective two-phase, composite PEM wherein a dispersed conductive organic phase preferentially aligned in the transport direction controls proton transport, and a continuous hydrophobic phase provides mechanical durability to the PEM. The hypothesis that was driving this research was that one might expect better dispersion, higher surface to volume ratio and improved proton conductivity of a composite membrane if the dispersed particles were nanometer in size and had high ion exchange capacity (IEC, = [mmol sulfonic acid]/gram of polymer). In view of this, considerable efforts were employed in the synthesis of high IEC organic nanoparticles and fabrication of a composite membrane with controlled microstructure. High IEC, ~ 4.5 meq/g (in acid form, theoretical limit is 5.4 meq/g) nanoparticles were achieved by emulsion copolymerization of a quaternary alkyl ammonium (QAA) neutralized-sulfonated styrene (QAA-SS), styrene, and divinylbenzene (DVB). The effects of varying the counterion of the sulfonated styrene (SS) monomer (alkali metal and QAA cations), SS concentration, and the addition of a crosslinking agent (DVB) on the ability to stabilize the nanoparticles to higher IECs were assessed. The nanoparticles were ion exchanged to acid form. The extent of ion

  15. Ion exchange of natural natrolite in melted salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihian, H.; Nekuei, P.

    2007-01-01

    In this research the ion exchange potential of natrolite towards K + , TI + , Cs +2 , Ca +2 , Ni +2 , Cu 2+ , and Co 2+ in their melted salts was investigated. The effect of temperature, reaction time and zeolite to salt ratio on the exchange relation was studied. The exchange of ca 2+ , Ni 2+ , cu 2+ , and Co 2+ was negligible and was equal to 2.59, 6.29, 3.14 and 5.04 percent respectively whereas the exchange of K + , Tl + , Cs + was relatively high and equal to 82.36,66.67 and 42.98 percent respectively

  16. Haemocompatibility and ion exchange capability of nanocellulose polypyrrole membranes intended for blood purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Natalia; Carlsson, Daniel O.; Hong, Jaan; Larsson, Rolf; Fellström, Bengt; Nyholm, Leif; Strømme, Maria; Mihranyan, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Composites of nanocellulose and the conductive polymer polypyrrole (PPy) are presented as candidates for a new generation of haemodialysis membranes. The composites may combine active ion exchange with passive ultrafiltration, and the large surface area (about 80 m2 g−1) could potentially provide compact dialysers. Herein, the haemocompatibility of the novel membranes and the feasibility of effectively removing small uraemic toxins by potential-controlled ion exchange were studied. The thrombogenic properties of the composites were improved by applying a stable heparin coating. In terms of platelet adhesion and thrombin generation, the composites were comparable with haemocompatible polymer polysulphone, and regarding complement activation, the composites were more biocompatible than commercially available membranes. It was possible to extract phosphate and oxalate ions from solutions with physiological pH and the same tonicity as that of the blood. The exchange capacity of the materials was found to be 600 ± 26 and 706 ± 31 μmol g−1 in a 0.1 M solution (pH 7.4) and in an isotonic solution of phosphate, respectively. The corresponding values with oxalate were 523 ± 5 in a 0.1 M solution (pH 7.4) and 610 ± 1 μmol g−1 in an isotonic solution. The heparinized PPy–cellulose composite is consequently a promising haemodialysis material, with respect to both potential-controlled extraction of small uraemic toxins and haemocompatibility. PMID:22298813

  17. Ion exchanger material based on Titanium phosphate for liquid radioactive waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslova, M.; Gerasimova, L. [Tananaev Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Rare Elements and Mineral Resources, Kola Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Apatity (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    A comparative study of the physicochemical and service properties of samples of Ti(OH) 1.36(HPO4) 1.32 * 2.3H2O sorbent in the finely dispersed and granulated forms, mastered for commercial production, was made. The sorption of Cs and Sr cations from solutions of various, compositions was studied in batch experiments, and the diffusion coefficients of the exchanging ions were determined. The hydrolytic stability of the. sorbents was examined with the aim to determine the optimal operation conditions. Experiments showed that the cation exchangers based on titanium phosphate are the most efficient in removal from liquid radioactive waste of induced radioactive isotopes of corrosion products, which is due to formation of weakly dissociating compounds of nonferrous metal ions with functional groups of the ion exchangers in the sorbent phase. (author)

  18. Composite anode for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Guzman, Rhet C.; Ng, K.Y. Simon; Salley, Steven O.

    2018-03-06

    A composite anode for a lithium-ion battery is manufactured from silicon nanoparticles having diameters mostly under 10 nm; providing an oxide layer on the silicon nanoparticles; dispersing the silicon nanoparticles in a polar liquid; providing a graphene oxide suspension; mixing the polar liquid containing the dispersed silicone nanoparticles with the graphene oxide suspension to obtain a composite mixture; probe-sonicating the mixture for a predetermined time; filtering the composite mixture to obtain a solid composite; drying the composite; and reducing the composite to obtain graphene and silicon.

  19. New sorbents and ion exchangers for nuclear waste solution remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearfield, A.; Peng, G.Z.; Cahill, R.A.; Bellinghausen, P.; Aly, H.I.; Scott, K.; Wang, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    There is now a concerted effort underway to clean up the accumulated nuclear wastes as the major sites around the country. Because of the complexity of the mixtures in the holding tanks highly specific exchangers are required to fulfill a multitude of desired tasks. These include removal of Cs + , Sr 2+ , Tc, Actinides and possible recovery of rare and precious metals. No one exchanger or sequestrant can accomplish these tasks and a variety of exchangers in a multistep process will be required. The behavior of a number of inorganic ion exchangers in a multistep process will be required. The behavior of a number of inorganic ion exchangers and new organo-inorganic exchangers towards Cs + , Sr 2+ and rare-earth ions in acid and basic media will be described. Preliminary data on the effect of high levels of sodium nitrate on the uptake of these ions will also be presented, as well as the changes observed in selectivity in simulated waste solutions. A possible separation scheme based on these data will be described

  20. Thermal and chemical stabilities of some synthesized inorganic ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Naggar, I.M.; Abou-Mesalam, M.M.; El-Shorbagy, M.M.; Shady, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Chromium and cerium titanate as inorganic ion exchange materials were synthesized by the reaction of potassium chromate or ammonium eerie nitrate with titanium tetrachloride with molar ratio equal unity. The crystal system of both chromium and cerium titanates were determined and set to be monoclinic and orthorhombic system's, respectively. The chemical composition of both chromium and cerium titanates was determined by X-ray fluorescence technique and based on the data obtained with other different techniques. A molecular formula for chromium and cerium titanates as Cr 2 Ti 12 O 27 . 13H 2 O and Ce 2 Ti 3 O 10 . 7.46H 2 O, respectively, was proposed. Thermal stabilities of both ion exchangers were investigated at different heating temperatures. Also the stability of chromium and cerium titanates for chemical attack was studied in different media. The data obtained showed high thermal and chemical stabilities of chromium and cerium titanate ion exchangers compared with the same group of ion exchange materials. The ion exchange capacities of chromium and cerium titanates at different heating temperature were also investigated

  1. Thermal and chemical stabilities of some synthesized inorganic ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, I.M.; Abou-Mesalam, M. M.; El-Shorbagy, M.M.; Shady, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Chromium and cerium titanate as inorganic ion exchange materials were synthesized by the reaction of potassium chromate or ammonium ceric nitrate with titanium tetrachloride with molar ratio equal unity. The crystal system of both chromium and cerium titanates were determined and set to be monoclinic and orthorhombic systems, respectively. The chemical composition of both chromium and cerium titanates were determined by X-ray fluorescence technique and based on the data obtained with other different techniques. We can proposed molecular formula for chromium and cerium titanates as Cr 2 Ti 1 2O27. 13H 2 O and Ce 2 ThO10. 7.46 H 2 O, respectively. Thermal stability of both ion exchangers was investigated at different heating temperatures. Also the stability of chromium and cerium titanates for chemical attack was studied in different media. The data obtained showed high thermal and chemical stabilities of chromium and cerium titanate ion exchangers compared to the same group of ion exchange materials. The ion exchange capacities of chromium and cerium titanates at different heating temperature were investigated

  2. THERMODYNAMICS OF ION-EXCHANGED NATURAL CLINOPTILOLITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural clinoptilolite from Castle Creek, Idaho, and its cation-exchanged variants (Na-Cpt, NaK-Cpt, K-Cpt, and Ca-Cpt) were studied by high-temperature calorimetry. The hydration enthalpy for all clinoptilolites is about -30 kJ/mol H2O (liquid water reference state) at 25 C. T...

  3. Formulation study on immobilization of spent ion exchange resins in polymer cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Lili; Lin Meiqiong; Bao Liangjin; Fan Xianhua

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a formulation of cement-solidified spent radioactive ion exchange resin form. The solidified form consists of a sort of composite cement, epoxide resin emulsion, and spent ion exchange resins. The composite cement is made up of quick-setting sulphoaluminate cement, silica powder, zeolite, and fly ash in the proportion 1:0.05:0.10:0.05. Sixteen combinations of composite cement, epoxide resin emulsion and mixed anion-cation exchange resins are selected according to a three-factors-four-levels normal design table with the compression strength as the evaluation criterion. The resulted formulation is as follows: the mass ratio of polymer emulsion to composite cement is 0.55:1, the loading of mixed anion-cation exchange resins is 0.3, and the anionic-to-cationic exchange resins ratio is 2:1. The polymer cement solidified forms were tested after 28 d curing for Cs + and Sr 2+ leaching rates, pH and conductivity of the leaching water, and radiation-resistant property in addition to their compressive strength. The measurement results indicate that the performance of thus prepared solidified forms can meet the requirements of the National Standard GB14569.1-93 for near earth's surface disposal of low radioactive waste. (authors)

  4. Radionuclide separations in the nuclear fuel cycle development and application of micro and meso porous inorganic ion-exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, C.S.; Luca, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: From the mining of uranium-containing ores to the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, separations technologies play a crucial role in determining the efficiency and viability of the nuclear fuel cycle. With respect to proposed Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles (ANFC), the integral role of separations is no different with solvent extraction and pyroelectrometalurgical processing dominating efforts to develop a sustainable and publicly acceptable roadmap for nuclear power in the next 100 years. An often forgotten or overlooked separation technology is ion-exchange, more specifically, inorganic ion-exchangers. This is despite the fact that these materials offer the potential advantages of process simplicity; exceptional selectivity against high background concentrations of competing ions; and the possibility of a simple immobilization route for the separated radionculides. ANSTO's principal interest in inorganic ion-exchange materials in recent years has been the development of an inorganic ion-exchanger for the pretreatment of acidic legacy 9 Mo production waste to simultaneously remove radiogenic cesium and strontium. Radiogenic cesium and strontium comprise the majority of activity in such waste and may offer increased ease in the downstream processing to immobilise this waste in a Synroc wasteform. With the reliance on separations technologies in all current ANFC concepts, and the recent admission of ANSTO to the European Commissions EUROPART project, the development of new inorganic ion-exchangers has also expanded within our group. This presentation will provide a background of the fundamentals of inorganic and composite inorganic-organic ion-exchange materials followed by specific discussion of some selected inorganic and composite ion-exchange materials being developed and studied at ANSTO. The detailed structural and ion-exchange chemistry of these materials will be discussed and note made of how such materials could benefit any of the

  5. Minor Actinide Separations Using Ion Exchangers Or Ionic Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.; Visser, A.; Bridges, N.

    2011-01-01

    This project seeks to determine if (1) inorganic-based ion exchange materials or (2) electrochemical methods in ionic liquids can be exploited to provide effective Am and Cm separations. Specifically, we seek to understand the fundamental structural and chemical factors responsible for the selectivity of inorganic-based ion-exchange materials for actinide and lanthanide ions. Furthermore, we seek to determine whether ionic liquids can serve as the electrolyte that would enable formation of higher oxidation states of Am and other actinides. Experiments indicated that pH, presence of complexants and Am oxidation state exhibit significant influence on the uptake of actinides and lanthanides by layered sodium titanate and hybrid zirconium and tin phosphonate ion exchangers. The affinity of the ion exchangers increased with increasing pH. Greater selectivity among Ln(III) ions with sodium titanate materials occurs at a pH close to the isoelectric potential of the ion exchanger. The addition of DTPA decreased uptake of Am and Ln, whereas the addition of TPEN generally increases uptake of Am and Ln ions by sodium titanate. Testing confirmed two different methods for producing Am(IV) by oxidation of Am(III) in ionic liquids (ILs). Experimental results suggest that the unique coordination environment of ionic liquids inhibits the direct electrochemical oxidation of Am(III). The non-coordinating environment increases the oxidation potential to a higher value, while making it difficult to remove the inner coordination of water. Both confirmed cases of Am(IV) were from the in-situ formation of strong chemical oxidizers.

  6. Radiocarbon detection by ion charge exchange mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotchkis, Michael; Wei, Tao

    2007-01-01

    A method for detection of radiocarbon at low levels is described and the results of tests are presented. We refer to this method as ion charge exchange mass spectrometry (ICE-MS). The ICE-MS instrument is a two stage mass spectrometer. In the first stage, molecular interferences which would otherwise affect radiocarbon detection at mass 14 are eliminated by producing high charge state ions directly in the ion source (charge state ≥2). 14 N interference is eliminated in the second stage by converting the beam to negative ions in a charge exchange cell. The beam is mass-analysed at each stage. We have built a test apparatus consisting of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source and a pair of analysing magnets with a charge exchange cell in between, followed by an electrostatic analyser to improve the signal to background ratio. With this apparatus we have measured charge exchange probabilities for (C n+ → C - ) from 4.5 to 40.5 keV (n = 1-3). We have studied the sources of background including assessment of limits for nitrogen interference by searching for negative ions from charge exchange of 14 N ions. Our system has been used to detect 14 C in enriched samples of CO 2 gas with 14 C/ 12 C isotopic ratio down to the 10 -9 level. Combined with a measured sample consumption rate of 4 ng/s, this corresponds to a capability to detect transient signals containing only a few μBq of 14 C activity, such as may be obtained from chromatographic separation. The method will require further development to match the sensitivity of AMS with a gas ion source; however, even in its present state its sensitivity is well suited to tracer studies in biomedical research and drug development

  7. Composite anion-exchangers modified with nanoparticles of hydrated oxides of multivalent metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseva, T. V.; Kolomiets, E. O.; Dzyazko, Yu. S.; Scherbakov, S.

    2018-02-01

    Organic-inorganic composite ion-exchangers based on anion exchange resins have been obtained. Particles of one-component and two-component modifier were embedded using the approach, which allows us to realize purposeful control of a size of the embedded particles. The approach is based on Ostwald-Freundlich equation, which was adapted to deposition in ion exchange matrix. The equation was obtained experimentally. Hydrated oxides of zirconium and iron were applied to modification, concentration of the reagents were varied. The embedded particles accelerate sorption, the rate of which is fitted by the model equation of chemical reactions of pseudo-second order. When sorption of arsenate ions from very diluted solution (50 µg dm-3) occurs, the composites show higher distribution coefficients comparing with the pristine resin.

  8. Influence of exchange reactions in salt melts on cathodic reduction of nitrate ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prisyazhnyj, V.D.; Chernukhin, S.I.; Kirillov, S.A.; Safronova, I.M.; Zayats, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    Potentiodynamical method has been used to investigate the process of cathodic reduction of nitrate ion in the melts of ternary mutual systems K + , Li + /NO 3- , Dsup(n-) and K + , B 2 + /NO 3 , Dsup(n-) (where B 2 + -Ba 2 + , Sr 2 + , Ca 2 + , and Dsup(n-)-Fsup(-), Cl - , Br - , SO 4- ). The investigations show, that the anion reduction depends on nitrate ion centration of two-charge metals. Influence of the composition of the first and second spheres of the nitrate ion ionic environment on electrode process parameters according to the value of free exchange energy is shown

  9. Electrodialytic separation of alkali-element ions with the aid of ion-exchange membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurskii, V.S.; Moskvin, L.N.

    1988-01-01

    Electrodialytic separation of ions bearing charges of the same sign with the aid of ion-exchange membranes has been examined in the literature in relation to the so-called ideal membranes, which do not exhibit selectivity with respect to one ion type in ion exchange. It has been shown that separation on such membranes is effective only for counterions differing in size of charge. A matter of greater importance from the practical standpoint is the possibility of using electrodialysis for separating ions bearing like charges and having similar properties, including ionic forms of isotopes of the same element. In this paper they report a comparative study of ion separation, with reference to the Cs-Na pair, by electrodialysis through various types of cation-exchange membranes. Changes of the solution concentration in the cathode compartment were monitored by measurement of 22 Na and 137 Cs activities

  10. The use of fibrous ion exchangers in gold hydrometallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautzmann, R. M.; Sampaio, C. H.; Cortina, J. L.; Soldatov, V.; Shunkevich, A.

    2002-10-01

    This article examines a family of ion-exchange fibers, FIBAN, containing primary and secondary amine groups. These ion exchangers have a fiber diameter of 20 40 Μm, high osmotic and mechanic stability, a high rate of adsorption and regeneration, and excellent dynamic characteristics as filtering media. Inparticular, this article discusses the use of FIBAN fibrous ion exchangers in the recovery of gold cyanide andbase-metal cyanides (copper and mercury) from mineral-leaching solutions. The influence of polymer structure and water content on their extraction ability is described, along with key parameters of gold hydrometallurgy such as extraction efficiency, selectivity, pH dependence, gold cyanide loading, kinetics, and stripping.

  11. Evaluation of electrochemical ion exchange for cesium elution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bontha, J.D.; Kurath, D.E.; Surma, J.E.; Buehler, M.F.

    1996-04-01

    Electrochemical elution was investigated as an alternative method to acid elution for the desorption of cesium from loaded ion exchange resins. The approach was found to have several potential advantages over existing technologies, in particular, electrochemical elution eliminates the need for addition of chemicals to elute cesium from the ion exchange resin. Also, since, in the electrochemical elution process the eluting solution is not in direct contact with the ion exchange material, very small volumes of the eluting solution can be used in a complete recycle mode in order to minimize the total volume of the cesium elute. In addition, the cesium is eluted as an alkaline solution that does not require neutralization with caustic to meet the tank farm specifications. Other advantages include easy incorporation of the electrochemical elution process into the present cesium recovery schemes

  12. Ion exchange in the 1980's in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddey, T.B.S.

    1981-01-01

    In South Africa ion exchange plants have been modified into very sophisticated plants. This article looks at the development of- and application of resins and their manufacturing. At first it looks into how the equipment side has developed and changed in the last twenty years. High purity water production, desalination, waste water treatment and other applications of ion exchange in mineral recovery, like uranium, gold and base metals, and in chemical areas, like sugar processing, catalysis, tartaric acid and soda ash, are also discussed. Klipfontein Organic Products is setting up a plant to manufacture the whole range of ion exchange resins and thus to make SA needs to be independent of overseas suppliers of resin

  13. Modality analysis of anchored ion exchange tower using Ansys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Liang; Lei Zeyong

    2008-01-01

    Ion exchange towers are exposed to serious damage in the event of earthquakes. It is very necessary to study the seismic resistance of ion exchange tower. A finite element model of anchored ion exchange tower was made by Ansys. The first 10 ranks of inherent frequencies were made out, and three-dimensional main vibratory model figures were drawn out. The maximal stress along x-axis and y-axis and the main displacement were found at the bottom part of the wall of tower junction with the pillars. It is concluded that the breakage of tower wall easily occurs at the bottom part of the wall of tower junction with the pillars. Therefore, it is very important to reinforce the junction of the tower body, and the strengthening plate should lie near the bottom of wall. (authors)

  14. Ion Exchange Kinetics of some Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solutions onto Poly(Acrylic Acid-Acrylo nitrle) Potassium Titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shorbagy, M.M.; El-Sadek, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Composite inorganic-organic absorbers represent a group of inorganic ion exchangers modified using binding organic materials for preparation of larger size particles heaving higher granular strength. Such modification of originally powdered or microcrystalline inorganic ion exchangers makes their application in peaked beds possible-modified polyacrylonitrile (PAN) has been used as a universal binding polymer for a number of inorganic ion exchangers. The kinetic of ion exchange and sorption capacity of such composite absorbers is not influenced by the binding polymer mentioned above. These composites have been tested for separation and concentration of various contaminants from aqueous solutions. Their high selectivity and sorption efficiency are advantageous for treatment of various industrial waste waters. Removal of natural or artificial and the heavy metals, Pb, Cd and Zn ions. the influence of initial metal ion concentration and ph on metal ion removal has been studied. The process was found to follow a first order rate kinetics. The intra-particle diffusion of ions through pores in the adsorbent was to be the main rate limiting step. The selectivity order towards the ions was Pb(II) > Cd(II) > Zn(II)

  15. Recovery of boric acid from ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The recovery of boric acid from an anion exchange resin is improved by eluting the boric acid with an aqueous solution of ammonium bicarbonate. The boric acid can be readily purified and concentrated by distilling off the water and ammonium bicarbonate. This process is especially useful for the recovery of boric acid containing a high percentage of 10 B which may be found in some nuclear reactor coolant solutions. 10 claims

  16. Ultrafiltration Membrane Fouling and the Effect of Ion Exchange Resins

    KAUST Repository

    Jamaly, Sanaa

    2011-12-01

    Membrane fouling is a challenging process for the ultrafiltration membrane during wastewater treatment. This research paper determines the organic character of foulants of different kinds of wastewater before and after adding some ion exchange resins. Two advanced organic characterization methods are compared in terms of concentration of dissolved organic carbons: The liquid chromatography with organic carbon (LC-OCD) and Shimadzu total organic carbon (TOC). In this study, two secondary wastewater effluents were treated using ultrafiltration membrane. To reduce fouling, pretreatment using some adsorbents were used in the study. Six ion exchange resins out of twenty were chosen to compare the effect of adsorbents on fouling membrane. Based on the percent of dissolved organic carbon’s removal, three adsorbents were determined to be the most efficient (DOWEX Marathon 11 anion exchange resin, DOWEX Optipore SD2 polymeric adsorbent, and DOWEX PSR2 anion exchange), and three other ones were determined to the least efficient (DOWEX Marathon A2 anion exchange resin, DOWEX SAR anion exchange resin, and DOWEX Optipore L493 polymeric adsorbent). Organic characterization for feed, permeate, and backwash samples were tested using LC-OCD and TOC to better understand the characteristics of foulants to prevent ultrafiltration membrane fouling. The results suggested that the polymeric ion exchange resin, DOWEX SD2, reduced fouling potential for both treated wastewaters. All the six ion exchange resins removed more humic fraction than other organic fractions in different percent, so this fraction is not the main for cause for UF membrane fouling. The fouling of colloids was tested before and after adding calcium. There is a severe fouling after adding Ca2+ to effluent colloids.

  17. Ionization and charge exchange in atom collision with multicharged ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presnyakov, L.P.; Uskov, D.B.

    1984-01-01

    Single-electron ionization and charge exchange are considered in collisions of an atom with an ion of charge Z> or =3 and at velocities v>Z -1 /sup // 3 . The approach is based on the Keldysh quasiclassical method. The ionization and charge exchange processes are described within the framework of a single formalism. Effects of rotation and translation are taken into account. The calculated total and partial cross sections agree well with the available experimental data. OFF

  18. Bench-Scale Studies with Argentine Ion Exchange Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero-Herman, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), as well as international atomic energy commission, facilities use ion exchange materials for purification of aqueous streams in the nuclear industry. Unfortunately, the use of the ion exchange materials creates a waste stream that can be very high in both organic and radioactive constituents. Therefore, disposal of the spent resins often becomes an economic problem because of the large volumes of resin produced and the relatively few technologies that are capable of economically stabilizing this waste. Vitrification of this waste stream presents a reasonable disposable alternative because of its inherent destruction capabilities, the volume reductions obtainable, and the durable product that it produces

  19. Treatment of radioactive wastewaters by chemical precipitation and ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Begovich, J.M.; Brown, C.H. Jr.; Campbell, D.O.; Collins, E.D.

    1987-01-01

    Precipitation and ion exchange methods are being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to decontaminate wastewaters containing small amounts of 90 Sr and 137 Cs while minimizing waste generation. Distribution coefficients have been determined for strontium and cesium as functions of Ca, Na, and Mg concentrations from bench- and pilot-scale data for ion exchange resins and zeolites using actual wastewaters. Models have been used to estimate the total amount of waste that would be generated at full-scale operation. Based on these data, four process flowsheets are being tested at full-scale. 14 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs

  20. Rupture loop annex ion exchange RLAIX vault deactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, J.E.; Harris, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This engineering report documents the deactivation, stabilization and final conditions of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located northwest of the 309 Building`s Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns, piping debris, and column liquid were removed from the vault, packaged and shipped for disposal. The vault walls and floor were decontaminated, and portions of the vault were painted to fix loose contamination. Process piping and drains were plugged, and the cover blocks and rain cover were installed. Upon closure,the vault was empty, stabilized, isolated.

  1. Inorganic ion exchangers based on manganese and potassium for recovery and removal of pollutant metals of aqueous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Jacinete Lima dos

    2001-01-01

    This work presents a study on the synthesis, characterization and ion exchange properties of inorganic ion exchangers based on manganese and potassium. The ion exchangers were synthesized by calcination of the mixture of manganese(II) oxalate and potassium oxalate and were characterized by granulometer distribution analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopic. From the data obtained in characterization it was observed that exist two distinguished groups of these materials. The first group belong to ion exchangers with up to 30% w/w potassium and the second group formed by the ion exchangers with more than 30% w / w of content of potassium in their compositions. The studies of adsorption of these materials showed that the adsorption of Cd 2+ is a function of the following parameters as pH, concentration of Cd 2+ , time of contact between the ion exchangers the concentration of the Cd 2+ solution and the interference of other ions like Ni 2+ . The great pH of adsorption for these materials occur in pH 9, the study of the influence of the cadmium concentration in the adsorption showed that for a group of exchangers the adsorption decreases with the increase of cadmium concentration and for the other group the adsorption increases with the increase of cadmium concentration. The kinetics of adsorption occur in a contact time between the ion exchangers and the Cd 2+ solutions relatively short, at about 15 minutes is necessary to establish the equilibrium. The presence of Ni 2+ as interfering ion decreases the adsorption of cadmium of 99,7% to 65%. These inorganic ion exchangers showed be good exchangers for Cd 2+ . (author)

  2. Waste separation and pretreatment using crystalline silicotitanate ion exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadros, M.E.; Miller, J.E. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anthony, R.G. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-10-01

    A new class of inorganic ion exchangers called crystalline silicotitanates (CSTs) has been developed jointly by Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A&M University to selectively remove Cs and other radionuclides from a wide spectrum of radioactive defense wastes. The CST exhibits high selectivity and affinity for Cs and Sr under a wide range of conditions. Tests show it can remove part-per-million concentrations of Cs{sup +} from highly alkaline, high-sodium simulated radioactive waste solutions modeled after those at Hanford, Oak Ridge, and Savannah River. The materials exhibit ion exchange properties based on ionic size selectivity. Specifically, crystalline lattice spacing is controlled to be highly selective for Cs ions even in waste streams containing very high (5 to 10 M) concentrations of sodium. The CST technology is being demonstrated with actual waste at several DOE facilities. The use of inorganic ion exchangers. The inorganics are more resistant to chemical, thermal, and radiation degradation. Their high selectivities result in more efficient operations offering the possibility of a simple single-pass operation. In contrast, regenerable organic ion exchangers require additional processing equipment to handle the regeneration liquids and the eluant with the dissolved Cs.

  3. Silver nanocluster formation in ion-exchanged glasses by annealing, ion beam and laser beam irradiation: An EXAFS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglin, G.; Cattaruzza, E.; Gonella, F.; Polloni, R.; D'Acapito, F.; Colonna, S.; Mattei, G.; Maurizio, C.; Mazzoldi, P.; Padovani, S.; Sada, C.; Quaranta, A.; Longo, A.

    2003-01-01

    Extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis is used to determine the silver local environment in silicate glasses doped by the Ag-alkali ion-exchange process, followed by different treatments, namely, ion irradiation, thermal annealing in reducing atmosphere, laser irradiation. The obtained results indicate that metal nanocluster composites with different cluster structures may be formed with these multistep methodologies, pointing out the role of the preparation parameters in giving rise to different features. Lattice parameters and cluster diameter were determined by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction

  4. Specific ion effects on membrane potential and the permselectivity of ion exchange membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geise, Geoffrey M; Cassady, Harrison J; Paul, Donald R; Logan, Bruce E; Hickner, Michael A

    2014-10-21

    Membrane potential and permselectivity are critical parameters for a variety of electrochemically-driven separation and energy technologies. An electric potential is developed when a membrane separates electrolyte solutions of different concentrations, and a permselective membrane allows specific species to be transported while restricting the passage of other species. Ion exchange membranes are commonly used in applications that require advanced ionic electrolytes and span technologies such as alkaline batteries to ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis, but membranes are often only characterized in sodium chloride solutions. Our goal in this work was to better understand membrane behaviour in aqueous ammonium bicarbonate, which is of interest for closed-loop energy generation processes. Here we characterized the permselectivity of four commercial ion exchange membranes in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and ammonium bicarbonate. This stepwise approach, using four different ions in aqueous solution, was used to better understand how these specific ions affect ion transport in ion exchange membranes. Characterization of cation and anion exchange membrane permselectivity, using these ions, is discussed from the perspective of the difference in the physical chemistry of the hydrated ions, along with an accompanying re-derivation and examination of the basic equations that describe membrane potential. In general, permselectivity was highest in sodium chloride and lowest in ammonium bicarbonate solutions, and the nature of both the counter- and co-ions appeared to influence measured permselectivity. The counter-ion type influences the binding affinity between counter-ions and polymer fixed charge groups, and higher binding affinity between fixed charge sites and counter-ions within the membrane decreases the effective membrane charge density. As a result permselectivity decreases. The charge density and polarizability

  5. Specific ion effects on membrane potential and the permselectivity of ion exchange membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.

    2014-08-26

    © the Partner Organisations 2014. Membrane potential and permselectivity are critical parameters for a variety of electrochemically-driven separation and energy technologies. An electric potential is developed when a membrane separates electrolyte solutions of different concentrations, and a permselective membrane allows specific species to be transported while restricting the passage of other species. Ion exchange membranes are commonly used in applications that require advanced ionic electrolytes and span technologies such as alkaline batteries to ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis, but membranes are often only characterized in sodium chloride solutions. Our goal in this work was to better understand membrane behaviour in aqueous ammonium bicarbonate, which is of interest for closed-loop energy generation processes. Here we characterized the permselectivity of four commercial ion exchange membranes in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and ammonium bicarbonate. This stepwise approach, using four different ions in aqueous solution, was used to better understand how these specific ions affect ion transport in ion exchange membranes. Characterization of cation and anion exchange membrane permselectivity, using these ions, is discussed from the perspective of the difference in the physical chemistry of the hydrated ions, along with an accompanying re-derivation and examination of the basic equations that describe membrane potential. In general, permselectivity was highest in sodium chloride and lowest in ammonium bicarbonate solutions, and the nature of both the counter- and co-ions appeared to influence measured permselectivity. The counter-ion type influences the binding affinity between counter-ions and polymer fixed charge groups, and higher binding affinity between fixed charge sites and counter-ions within the membrane decreases the effective membrane charge density. As a result permselectivity decreases. The

  6. Ion exchange and liquid column chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, H.F.

    1980-01-01

    Major accomplishments in liquid chromatography for the past two years and reported in journals available to December 31, 1979 are reviewed. Emphasis has been placed on principles and methodology with some representative examples of application included. Applications are illustrated in two rather lenghtly tables, one covering inorganic ions and the other covering organic compounds. 544 references, 8 books, and 15 reviews are listed in the bibliography

  7. Inorganic ion composition in Tardigrada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Larsen, Kristine Wulff; Jørgensen, Aslak

    2013-01-01

    are indicative of a powerful ion-retentive mechanism in Tardigrada. Moreover, our data indicate that cryptobiotic tardigrades contain a large fraction of unidentified organic osmolytes, the identification of which is expected to provide increased insight into the phenomenon of cryptobiosis....

  8. Application of Some Synthesized Polymeric Composite Resins for Removal of Some Metal Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zahhhar, A.A.; Abdel-Aziz, H.M.; Siyam, T.

    2005-01-01

    The ion-exchange and sorption characteristic of new polymeric composite resins, prepared by gamma radiation were experimentally studied. The composite resins shows high uptake for Co(II) and Eu(III) ions in aqueous solutions in wide range of ph. The selectivity of the resins to Co (II) or Eu (III) species in the presence of some competing ions and complexing agents (as Na + , Fe 3+ , EDTA Na 2 , etc.) was compared. Various factors that could affect the sorption behaviors of metal ions (Co (II) and Eu (III)) on the prepared polymeric composite resins were studied such as ionic strength, Contact time, volume mass ratio

  9. Ion exchange filter transition plan for BWRs and PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Susan; McElrath, Joel; Varnam, Jeremie; Giannelli, Joseph F.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis and quantification of reactor water, feedwater, and chemical and volume control system (CVCS) soluble metals and radioisotopes are essential for monitoring species that impact fuel performance, steam generator and heat exchanger performance, mitigation of stress corrosion cracking of reactor piping and internals, radiation fields and ensuring that dose mitigation techniques are effective. Soluble species in the CVCS, feedwater, reactor water and other process sample streams are usually collected on ion exchange membranes after the sample has passed through a 0.45 or 0.1 μm membrane filter. Cationic species are predominantly of interest. Most nuclear plants currently use cation exchange membranes from Toray Industries, Inc. In September 2012, it was reported that Toray Industries, Inc. would discontinue the manufacturing of cation exchange membranes at the end of 2012. Similar reports were received concerning ion exchange membranes manufactured by Pall Corporation. These reports prompted several plants and utilities to begin evaluating other products from various vendors to replace their current ion exchange membranes in preparation for a transition. With this possible change having a potential impact on the water chemistry analyses that are important for monitoring fuel reliability and corrosion and dose control, an initial scoping evaluation of ion exchange membrane availability from various vendor and plant experiences was conducted. Recommended approaches were provided to close identified gaps and reduce burden on nuclear plant chemistry laboratories. Additional work required in 2014, includes an independent laboratory review of membrane performance and in-plant demonstrations. These demonstrations and evaluations will assist the industry by providing the technical input needed to manage a change in membrane use so that preferred processes and media can be identified to minimize any adverse impacts on chemistry analyses that support chemistry control

  10. Electrically switched cesium ion exchange. FY 1997 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilga, M.A.; Orth, R.J.; Sukamto, J.P.H.

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes the Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) separation technology being developed as an alternative to ion exchange for removing radionuclides from high-level waste. Progress in FY 1997 for specific applications of ESIX is also outlined. The ESIX technology, which combines ion exchange and electrochemistry, is geared toward producing electroactive films that are highly selective, regenerable, and long lasting. During the process, ion uptake and elution can be controlled directly by modulating the potential of an ion exchange film that has been electrochemically deposited onto a high surface area electrode. This method adds little sodium to the waste stream and minimizes the secondary wastes associated with traditional ion exchange techniques. Development of the ESIX process is well underway for cesium removal using ferrocyanides as the electroactive films. Films having selectivity for perrhenate (a pertechnetate surrogate) over nitrate also have been deposited and tested. Based on the ferrocyanide film capacity, stability, rate of uptake, and selectivity shown during performance testing, it appears possible to retain a consistent rate of removal and elute cesium into the same elution solution over several load/unload cycles. In batch experiments, metal hexacyanoferrate films showed high selectivities for cesium in concentrated sodium solutions. Cesium uptake was unaffected by Na/Cs molar ratios of up to 2 x 10 4 , and reached equilibrium within 18 hours. During engineering design tests using 60 pores per inch, high surface area nickel electrodes, nickel ferrocyanide films displayed continued durability. losing less than 20% of their capacity after 1500 load/unload cycles. Bench-scale flow system studies showed no change in capacity or performance of the ESIX films at a flow rate up to 13 BV/h, the maximum flow rate tested, and breakthrough curves further supported once-through waste processing. 9 refs., 24 figs

  11. Development of a High-Throughput Ion-Exchange Resin Characterization Workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun; Dermody, Daniel; Harris, Keith; Boomgaard, Thomas; Sweeney, Jeff; Gisch, Daryl; Goltz, Bob

    2017-06-12

    A novel high-throughout (HTR) ion-exchange (IEX) resin workflow has been developed for characterizing ion exchange equilibrium of commercial and experimental IEX resins against a range of different applications where water environment differs from site to site. Because of its much higher throughput, design of experiment (DOE) methodology can be easily applied for studying the effects of multiple factors on resin performance. Two case studies will be presented to illustrate the efficacy of the combined HTR workflow and DOE method. In case study one, a series of anion exchange resins have been screened for selective removal of NO 3 - and NO 2 - in water environments consisting of multiple other anions, varied pH, and ionic strength. The response surface model (RSM) is developed to statistically correlate the resin performance with the water composition and predict the best resin candidate. In case study two, the same HTR workflow and DOE method have been applied for screening different cation exchange resins in terms of the selective removal of Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , and Ba 2+ from high total dissolved salt (TDS) water. A master DOE model including all of the cation exchange resins is created to predict divalent cation removal by different IEX resins under specific conditions, from which the best resin candidates can be identified. The successful adoption of HTR workflow and DOE method for studying the ion exchange of IEX resins can significantly reduce the resources and time to address industry and application needs.

  12. Mass and Heat Transfer in Ion-Exchange Membranes Applicable to Solid Polymer Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otteroey, M

    1996-04-01

    In this doctoral thesis, an improved emf method for determination of transference numbers of two counter ions in ion-exchange membranes is presented. Transference numbers were obtained as a continuous function of the composition. The method avoids problems with diffusion by using a stack of membranes. Water transference coefficients in ion-exchange membranes is discussed and reversible and irreversible water transfer is studied by emf methods. Efforts were made to get data relevant to the solid polymer fuel cell. The results support the findings of other researchers that the reversible water transfer is lower than earlier predicted. A chapter on the conductivity of ion-exchange membranes establishes a method to separate the very thin liquid layers surrounding the membranes in a stack. Using the method it was found that the conductivity is obtained with high accuracy and that the liquid layer in a membrane stack can contribute significantly to the total measured resistance. A four point impedance method was tested to measure the conductivity of membranes under fuel cell conditions. Finally, there is a discussion of reversible heat effects and heat transfer in ion-exchange membranes. 155 refs., 45 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. Separation of uranium from sodium carbonate - sodium bicarbonate eluate by ion exchange method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakane, Kohji; Hirotsu, Takahiro; Fujii, Ayako; Katoh, Shunsaku; Sugasaka, Kazuhiko (Government Industrial Research Inst., Shikoku, Takamatsu (Japan))

    1982-09-01

    The ion exchange method was used for separating uranium from the eluate (0.5 N Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-0.5 N NaHCO/sub 3/) that was obtained in the extraction process of uranium from natural sea water by using the titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent. Uranium in the eluate containing 3 mg/1 uranium was adsorbed by ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400), and was eluted with the eluant (5 % NaCl-0.5 % Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/). The concentration ratio of uranium in the final concentrated-eluate became more than 20 times. The eluting solution to the adsorbent and the eluant to the resin could be repeatedly used in the desorption-ion exchange process. Sodium carbonate was consumed at the desorption step, and sodium bicarbonate was consumed at the ion exchange step. The concentration ratio of uranium was found to decrease as chloride ion in the eluate increased.

  14. Separation of uranium from sodium carbonate-sodium bicarbonate eluate by ion exchange method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakane, K.; Hirotsu, T.; Fujii, A.; Katoh, S.; Sugasaka, K. (Government Industrial Research. Inst., Shikoku, Takamatsu (Japan))

    1982-01-01

    The ion exchange method was used for separating uranium from the eluate (0.5 N Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-0.5 N NaHCO/sub 3/) that was obtained in the extraction process of uranium from natural sea water by using the titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent. Uranium in the eluate containing 3 mg/l uranium was adsorbed by ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400), and was eluted with the eluent (5% NaCl-0.5% Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/). The concentration ratio of uranium in the final concentrated-eluate became more than 20 times. The eluting solution to the adsorbent and the eluant to the resin could be repeatedly used in the desorption-ion exchange process. Sodium carbonate was consumed at the desorption step, and sodium bicarbonate was consumed at the ion exchange step. The concentration ratio of uranium was found to decrease as chloride ion in the eluate increased.

  15. Composite media for ion processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Nick R [Blackfoot, ID; Wood, Donald J [Peshastin, WA; Todd, Terry A [Aberdeen, ID; Sebesta, Ferdinand [Prague, CZ

    2009-12-08

    Composite media, systems, and devices for substantially removing, or otherwise processing, one or more constituents of a fluid stream. The composite media comprise a plurality of beads, each having a matrix substantially comprising polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and supporting one or more active components which are effective in removing, by various mechanisms, one or more constituents from a fluid stream. Due to the porosity and large surface area of the beads, a high level of contact is achieved between composite media of the present invention and the fluid stream being processed. Further, the homogeneity of the beads facilitates use of the beads in high volume applications where it is desired to effectively process a large volume of flow per unit of time.

  16. Copper Removal from A-01 Outfall by Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oji, L.N.

    1999-01-01

    Chelex100, a commercially available ion exchange resin, has been identified in this study as having a significant affinity for copper and zinc in the A-01 outfall water. Removal of copper and zinc from A-01 outfall water will ensure that the outfall meets the state of South Carolina's limit on these heavy metals

  17. Ion exchange technology in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    The application of ion exchange has been expanded to various parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. Major applications are in uranium production facilities, nuclear power plants, spent fuel reprocessing and waste treatment. Furthermore, application to isotope separation has been under development. The appendix contains a compilation of resin data. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 6 chapters in this technical document

  18. Thermal Analysis for Ion-Exchange Column System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Si Y.; King, William D.

    2012-12-20

    Models have been developed to simulate the thermal characteristics of crystalline silicotitanate ion exchange media fully loaded with radioactive cesium either in a column configuration or distributed within a waste storage tank. This work was conducted to support the design and operation of a waste treatment process focused on treating dissolved, high-sodium salt waste solutions for the removal of specific radionuclides. The ion exchange column will be installed inside a high level waste storage tank at the Savannah River Site. After cesium loading, the ion exchange media may be transferred to the waste tank floor for interim storage. Models were used to predict temperature profiles in these areas of the system where the cesium-loaded media is expected to lead to localized regions of elevated temperature due to radiolytic decay. Normal operating conditions and accident scenarios (including loss of solution flow, inadvertent drainage, and loss of active cooling) were evaluated for the ion exchange column using bounding conditions to establish the design safety basis. The modeling results demonstrate that the baseline design using one central and four outer cooling tubes provides a highly efficient cooling mechanism for reducing the maximum column temperature. In-tank modeling results revealed that an idealized hemispherical mound shape leads to the highest tank floor temperatures. In contrast, even large volumes of CST distributed in a flat layer with a cylindrical shape do not result in significant floor heating.

  19. Increasing selectivity of a heterogeneous ion-exchange membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivčík, J.; Neděla, D.; Hadrava, J.; Brožová, Libuše

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 12 (2015), s. 3160-3166 ISSN 1944-3994. [International Conference on Membrane and Electromembrane Processes - MELPRO 2014. Prague, 18.05.2014-21.05.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : ion-exchange membrane * selectivity * permselectivity Subject RIV: JP - Industrial Processing Impact factor: 1.272, year: 2015

  20. Loading ion exchange resins with uranium for HTGR fuel kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.; Greene, C.W.

    1976-12-01

    Uranium-loaded ion exchange beads provide an excellent starting material in the production of uranium carbide microspheres for nuclear fuel applications. Both strong-acid (sulfonate) and weak-acid (carboxylate) resins can be fully loaded with uranium from a uranyl nitrate solution utilizing either a batch method or a continuous column technique

  1. Sorption of Molecular Oxygen by Metal-Ion Exchanger Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysanov, V. A.; Plotnikova, N. V.; Kravchenko, T. A.

    2018-03-01

    Kinetic features are studied of the chemisorption and reduction of molecular oxygen from water by metal-ion exchanger nanocomposites that differ in the nature of the dispersed metal and state of oxidation. In the Pd equilibrium sorption coefficient for oxygen dissolved in water ranges from 20 to 50, depending on the nature and oxidation state of the metal component.

  2. Device for processing regenerative wastes of ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Osamu; Ebara, Katsuya; Shindo, Toshikazu; Takahashi, Sankichi

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the operation and maintenance of a processing device by dividing radioactive wastes produced in the regenerative process of ion exchange resin into a regenerated usable recovery liquid and wastes. Constitution: Sulfuric acid is recovered by a diffusion dialysis method from wastes containing sulfuric acid that are generated in the regenerative process of cation-exchange resin and also caustic soda is recovered by the diffusion dialysis method from wastes containing caustic soda that are generated in the regenerative process of anion-exchange resin. The sulfuric acid and caustic soda thus recovered are used for the regeneration of ion-exchange resin. A concentrator is provided for concentrating the sulfuric acid and caustic soda water solution to concentration suitable for the regeneration of these ion-exchange resins. Also provided is a recovery device for recovering water generated from the concentrator. This device is of so simple a constitution that its operation and maintenance can be performed very easily, thereby greatly reducing the quantity of waste liquid required to be stored in drums. (Takahashi, M.)

  3. Isotope effects in ion-exchange equilibria in aqueous and mixed solvent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    Isotope effects in ion-exchange equilibria in aqueous and mixed solvents are analyzed in terms of the general features of ion-exchange equilibria and of isotope effects in chemical equilibria. The special role of solvent fractionation effects in ion-exchange equilibria in mixed solvents is pointed out. The various situations arising in isotope fractionation in ion exchange in mixed solvents due to solvent fractionation effects are theoretically discussed. The experimental data on lithium isotope effects in ion-exchange equilibria in mixed solvents are shown to conform to the above situations. The limitations of ion-exchange equilibria in mixed solvents for isotope fractionation are pointed out. 3 tables

  4. Co2+ ion exchange with NaY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, I.; Solache-Rios, M.; Bulbulian, S.; Bosch, P.

    1993-01-01

    Co 2+ ion exchange from aqueous cobalt chloride-sodium chloride solutions with NaY zeolite has been investigated. The effect of contact time on the sorption of Co 2+ by dehydrated Y zeolite at 150 degrees C is unusual. A fast sorption uptake is observed in which 1.73 mequiv/g of zeolite of Na + ions is replaced by cobalt ions, followed by a desorption process where the uptake decreases to 1.56 mequiv/g of zeolite. This behavior is explained by the location and coordination of cobalt in Y zeolite sites. It is suggested that the maximum uptake corresponds to cobalt ions being simultaneously in two sites; tetrahedrally coordinated in the sodalite units and octahedrally coordinated in the large cavities. It is also suggested that the desorption process is a consequence of a reaction between Cl - ions and the tetrahedral species. 20 refs., 4 figs

  5. Comparative study on ion-isotopic exchange reaction kinetics by application of tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhande, R.S.; Singare, P.U.

    2007-01-01

    The radioactive isotopes 131 I and 82 Br were used to trace the ion-isotopic exchange reactions using industrial grade ion exchange resins Amberlite IRA-400. The experiments were performed to understand the effect of temperature and concentration of ionic solution on kinetics of exchange reactions. Both the exchange reactions were greatly influenced by rise in temperature, which result in higher percentage of ions exchanged. For bromide ion-isotopic exchange reactions, the calculated values of specific reaction rate/min -1 , and amount of ions exchanged/mmol were obtained higher than that for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reactions under identical experimental conditions. The observed variation in the results for two ion-isotopic exchange reactions was due to the difference in the ionic size of bromide and iodide ions. (orig.)

  6. Improvements in and relating to ion-exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heal, H.G.

    1975-01-01

    It has been found that the relatively expensive ion exchange materials normally used can be extensively replaced by relatively inexpensive material comprised of long-weathered basalt. This has been found to effect rapid and efficient ion exchange with a capacity comparable with, and in some cases greater than, the usual artificial materials. The basalt should contain at least 50% by weight of particles of size below 3cm mesh. Olivine basalt has proved particularly effective. Examples given include removal of Cu and Co, application to water softening, and to the removal of 137 Cs from milk. Other applications mentioned include removal of Ca, 90 Sr, Pb, Zn, Hg, Ni, and Cr, extraction of metal ions from seawater, purification of industrial effluents, etc. (U.K.)

  7. Study of mechanical and physicochemical properties of cementated spent ion-exchange-resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patek, P.

    1981-09-01

    As first part of a study on the possibilities, to immobilize spent ion exchange resins, for final disposal, the dependence of compressive strength from the composition of cement - resin mixtures was detected. Powdered resins, bead resins and ashes from the incinerator plant and several cement brands were examinated. As result an area was defined in the three-phase diagram of cement, resins and water, in which the following leach tests will be performed. (author)

  8. Metal hydride compositions and lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Kwo; Nei, Jean

    2018-04-24

    Heterogeneous metal hydride (MH) compositions comprising a main region comprising a first metal hydride and a secondary region comprising one or more additional components selected from the group consisting of second metal hydrides, metals, metal alloys and further metal compounds are suitable as anode materials for lithium ion cells. The first metal hydride is for example MgH.sub.2. Methods for preparing the composition include coating, mechanical grinding, sintering, heat treatment and quenching techniques.

  9. Inorganic ion exchangers in industrial and nuclear waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manosso, Helena C.; Forbicini, Christina A.L.G.O.

    2000-01-01

    Zirconium and titanium phosphates have been used as inorganic ion exchangers for many years. Their characteristics, as high exchange capacity and ionizing and oxidizing reagents resistance, among others, have made them suitable for the treatment of wastes, mostly the radioactive ones. Due to its granulometry, zirconium phosphate (Zr P) must be prepared on an inert support, or it can be synthesized , as well as titanium phosphate, with modifiers, to promote better distribution of the exchanger over the support surface and to enlarge the cavities of their crystal lattice. The prepared exchangers were analyzed by electronic sweep microscopy. The studies on cesium and chromium sorption were made by using radioactive tracer technique, with Cs-134 and Cr-51 radioisotopes. The sorption of cesium in Zr P and Ti P was about 95%, but chromium showed very low sorption in the studied conditions, indicating the necessity of more experiments varying pH and temperature of the solutions. (author)

  10. Separation of seven arsenic species by ion-pair and ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Hansen, Sven Hedegaard

    1992-01-01

    Arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonate, dimethylarsinate, arsenobetaine, arsenocholine and the tetramethylarsonium ion were subjected to ion-exchange and ion-pair reversed phase HPLC. The ion exchange method was superior in selectivity and time of analysis for the arsenic anions. The ammonium ions...... used for the ion-pair method only resulted in separation of some of the anionic arsenic compounds. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used for on-line arsenic-specific detection....

  11. Properties of grafted polymer metal complexes as ion exchangers and its electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Arnaouty, M.B.; Abdel Ghaffar, A.M.; Eid, M.

    2011-01-01

    The polyelectrolyte has been prepared as a potential proton exchanger polymer by grafting of acrylic acid/acrylamide and acrylic acid/acrylonitrile comonomer onto low density polyethylene film via gamma radiation. The influence of grafting percent on the electrical conductivity was studied. The resulting polymers were then characterized by evaluating their physico-chemical properties such as ion exchange capacity, and electrical conductivity as a function of grafting yield. The grafted films at different compositions was characterized by FTIR, TGA and SEM. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the grafted film at grafting % (191) and monomer concentration ratio 50:50 for (LDPE-g-AAc/AAm) was found to be more than that for (LDPE-g-AAc/AN). The electrical conductivity was found to be greatly affected by the comonomer composition where it increased as the degree of grafting increased for all grafted films. After alkaline treatment with 3% KOH, the electrical conductivity of the grafted films found to be increased. The presence of potassium as counter ion maximized the electrical conductivity of the grafted films. The electrical conductivity of Cu-membrane complexes was higher than that of both Co and Ni complexes. The electrical conductivity increases by increasing both Cu ions content and temperature

  12. Small-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Hanford Tank 241-AN-102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, N.M.

    2000-01-01

    The pretreatment process for BNFL, Inc.'s Hanford River Protection Project is to provide decontaminated low activity waste and concentrated eluate streams for vitrification into low and high activity waste glass, respectively. The pretreatment includes sludge washing, filtration, precipitation, and ion exchange processes to remove entrained solids, cesium, transuranics, technetium, and strontium. The cesium (Cs-137) and technetium (Tc-99) ion exchange removal is accomplished by using SuperLig 644, and 639 resins from IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork, Utah. The resins were shown to selectively remove cesium and technetium (as anionic pertechnetate ) from alkaline salt solutions. The efficiency of ion exchange column loading and elution is a complex function involving feed compositions, equilibrium and kinetic behavior of ion exchange resins, diffusion, and the ionic strength and pH of the aqueous solution. A previous experimental program completed at the Savannah River Tech nology Center2 demonstrated the conceptualized flow sheet parameters with an Envelope C sample from Hanford Tank 241-AN-107. Those experiments also included determination of Cs and Tc batch distribution coefficients by SuperLig 644 and 639 resins and demonstration of small-scale column breakthrough and elution. The experimental findings were used in support of preliminary design bases and pretreatment flow sheet development by BNFL, Inc

  13. Studies on Some Physical, Chemical and Sorption Properties of Some Inorganic ion Exchangers and Their Application to Radioactive Isotopes Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sweify, F.H.; Shehata, M.K.K.; El-Shazly, E.A.A.

    1999-01-01

    In the present work, amorphous zirconium phosphate, zirconium titanium phosphate and ceric tungstate have been synthesised. Solubility of the prepared ion exchangers in different media has been examined. These media were mineral acids, aqueous solutions of organic acids: oxalic, citric and tartaric as well as ammonium and potassium carbonate solutions of different molarities. I.R. analysis is applied on some samples of the prepared ion exchangers. Sorption behaviour of different metal ion species, of elements of nuclear significance on the prepared ion exchangers has been studied from aqueous media of different compositions and concentration under different experimental conditions. The studied metal ions are, Ce(III) and Eu(III), as representative for the trivalent lanthanides, Co(II), Zr(IV), Nb(V), Hf(IV), Te(IV), Ce(IV), Th(IV) and U(V I). Optimization of the conditions for the isolation and separation of the desired element species highlighted

  14. Application of radioactive tracers in upgradation of industrial grade ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhande, R.S.; Singare, P.U.

    1998-01-01

    The exchange rates of ion exchange are determined by application of 131 I as a tracer isotope. The exchange study carried out in this investigation deals with understanding the effectiveness of ion exchange resin (in iodide form) Amberlite IRA-400 at different concentrations of potassium iodide solution (electrolyte) with temperature of solution varying from 27-48 degC by keeping amount of ion exchange resin constant (1.0 g). The exchange study is also carried out by varying amount of ion exchange resins, for fixed temperature (27.0 degC) and for fixed concentration of potassium iodide solution (0.005 M). (author)

  15. The changes in the microstructure of ion-exchanged clays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nartowska Edyta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three natural bentonites and their monoionic forms were investigated by the X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. SEM photographs were analysed using the Photoshop CS4 software and the pore parameters were calculated. The parameters were compared to a interplanar spacing d001 value changes between different homoionic forms. The results suggest the connection between the type of exchangeable cation with the structural parameters of the pores and physicomechanical parameters of the soil, therefore the ion exchange method could be used for controlling soil properties corresponding to their suitability for use in the industry.

  16. Regenerating ion-exchangers used in uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, T.; Espenscheid, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    The process claimed restores the ion exchange capacity of a strong base anion exchange resin used for recovering uranium from solutions used to leach uranium from subterranean formations. The resin is eluted with hydrochloric acid to remove uranium in the form of uranyl carbonate anions. It is then washed with a solution containing 0.5 to 100 g/l of sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, or mixtures of both carbonate and bicarbonate until it is free of materials which are either soluble in the solution or react with the solution

  17. Modeling Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index Using Time Series Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayo, W. S.; Urrutia, J. D.; Temple, J. M. F.; Sandoval, J. R. D.; Sanglay, J. E. A.

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to develop a time series model of the Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index and its volatility using the finite mixture of ARIMA model with conditional variance equations such as ARCH, GARCH, EG ARCH, TARCH and PARCH models. Also, the study aimed to find out the reason behind the behaviorof PSEi, that is, which of the economic variables - Consumer Price Index, crude oil price, foreign exchange rate, gold price, interest rate, money supply, price-earnings ratio, Producers’ Price Index and terms of trade - can be used in projecting future values of PSEi and this was examined using Granger Causality Test. The findings showed that the best time series model for Philippine Stock Exchange Composite index is ARIMA(1,1,5) - ARCH(1). Also, Consumer Price Index, crude oil price and foreign exchange rate are factors concluded to Granger cause Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index.

  18. Study on rare earths complexes separation by means of different type of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubicka, H.

    1990-01-01

    The applicability of different types of ion exchangers for purification and separation of rare earths complexes has been examined. The experimental work has been carried out on 14 chelating ion exchangers. The investigation results proved the great usefulness chelating ion exchangers especially of amino acid and phosphorus-type. Application of that type ion exchangers in column chromatographic process gave the excellent rare earths separation as well as enabled to obtain their preparates of high purity. 218 refs, 21 figs, 27 tabs

  19. Swelling behavior of ion exchange resins incorporated in tri-calcium silicate cement matrix: I. Chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neji, M.; Bary, B.; Le Bescop, P.; Burlion, N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the first part of a theoretical and experimental work aiming at modeling the chemo-mechanical behavior of composites made up of ion exchange resins (IER) solidified in a tri-calcium silicate cement paste (C_3S). Because of ion exchange processes, the volume change of the IER may cause internal pressures leading to the degradation of the material. In this study, a predictive modeling is developed for describing the chemical behavior of such material. It is based on thermodynamic equilibria to determine the evolution of the ion exchange processes, and the potential precipitation of portlandite in the composite. In parallel, a phenomenological study has been set up to understand chemical phenomena related to the swelling mechanisms. The model created has been finally implemented in a finite elements software; the simulation of a laboratory test has been performed and the results compared to experimental data. - Highlights: • Ion exchange theory to model the swelling behavior of Ion exchange resin. • Experimental phenomenon analysis about Chemo-mechanical interaction between IER and cement paste matrix. • Chemo-Transport modeling on a composite material made with IER embedded into cement paste matrix.

  20. Organic and inorganic ion exchangers as catalysts for the heterogeneous alkylation of aromatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J; Widdecke, H [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Chemische Technologie

    1979-06-01

    Ion exchangers have advantages over low molecular for use in industrial alkylation reactions. The reactivity and selectivity behaviour of the polymeric catalysts was found to be markedly influenced by the structure of the polymeric matrix as well as the type and number of the functional groups. In this connection many similarities between inorganic ion exchangers (zeolites) and organic ion exchange resins were detected.

  1. Ion exchange equilibrium for some uni-univalent and uni-divalent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    KEY WORDS: Duolite A-102 D ion exchange resin, Equilibrium constant, Endothermic ion exchange reaction,. Enthalpy, Thermodynamic study. INTRODUCTION. For proper selection of ion exchange resin in a particular technical application, it is essential to have adequate knowledge regarding their physical and chemical ...

  2. Method of separating radioactive nuclides from ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazunori; Saikoku, Masami; Taneta, Daisuke; Yagi, Takuro.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to safely process radioactive nuclides from spent ion exchange resins by using existent processing facilities. Method: Ion exchange resins in aqueous medium are at first placed to the ultrasonic wave irradiation site and put into such a state where clads and resins are easily separatable from each other by weakening the bonding force between them. Since the clads are magnetic material such as Fe 3 O 4 or NiFe 2 O 4 , the clads can be collected in the direction of the magnetic force by exerting the magnetic field simultaneously. The collected clads are transported by means of the aqueous medium to a collecting tank by removing the effect of magnetic field, for example, by interrupting the current supply to the electromagnet. Finally, they were subjected to stabilization and fixation into inorganic hardening agent such as cement hardener. Thus, processions can be made safely by using existent facilities. (Takahashi, M.)

  3. Calcium isotope fractionation in ion-exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.A.; Papanastassiou, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Significant fractionation of the isotopes of calcium has been observed during elution through short ion-exchange columns packed with Dowex 50W-X8 resin. A double isotopic tracer was used to provide correction for instrumental fractionation effects. The absolute 40 Ca/ 44 Ca ratio is determined by this method to 0.05% and provides a measure of the fractionation of all Ca isotopes. It is found that the lighter isotopes are preferentially retained by the resin, with variations in 40 Ca/ 44 Ca between the first and last fractions of up to 1.1%. An estimate of the separation factor between batch solute and resin gives epsilon = 2.1 x 10 -4 . Details of the chemical or physical mechanisms causing isotope fractionation of Li, Na, Ca, and other elements during ion-exchange chromatography are not yet clear

  4. Operating experience with ion exchanger beds in CIRUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, V.N.; Hajra, P.

    1977-01-01

    Operating experience with the ion exchanger beds in CIRUS reactor is narrated. Ion exchangers are provided for demineralisation of make up water and purification of closed loop water circuits. Exhaustion of resin is assessed on the basis of CO 2 concentration in the helium vent gas of the heavy water system. It is recommended that valves in the resin columns for rod handling bays be located outside the enclosure and each bed to reduce man-rem consumption during maintenance. Repeated backwash of the bed reduces chocking of water space with resin fines. Preventive maintenance avoids leakage past valves. Active resin from the resin beds is removed by hydraulic transfer method. (M.G.B.)

  5. Ion exchange and luminescence of Eu3+ in Nafion membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petushkov, A.A.; Shilov, S.M.; Pak, V.N.

    2006-01-01

    Dehydration of Nafion perfluorosulphonic membranes at 110 deg C results in a significant reduction of their void space volume, the accessibility of sulphonic groups and the total exchange capacity towards Eu 3+ cations. Nevertheless, the ion exchange sorption of Eu 3+ takes place in accordance with stoichiometric ratio [-SO 3 H]/[Eu 3+ ]=3. The membranes thermal pretreatment also affects noticeably the spectroscopic features of the fastened Eu 3+ ions, such as the relationship between the intensities of the hypersensitive 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 and magnetic dipolar 5 D 0 → 7 F 1 transitions, the excited state life time, as well as the luminescence quenching in the course of water adsorption

  6. Charge exchange in collisions of beryllium with its ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Dalgarno, Alexander; Côté, Robin; Bodo, Enrico

    2011-11-14

    Close-coupling calculations of the resonance and near resonance charge exchange in ion-atom collisions of Be at low and intermediate energies are presented. Accurate ab initio calculations are carried out of the Born-Oppenheimer potentials and the non-adiabatic couplings that are due to the finite nuclear masses and drive the near resonance charge exchange. We show that the near resonance charge exchange cross section follows Wigner's threshold law of inelastic processes for energies below 10(-8) eV and that the zero temperature rate constant for it is 4.5 × 10(-10) cm(3) s(-1). At collision energies much larger than the isotope shift of the ionization potentials of the atoms, we show that the near resonance charge exchange process is equivalent to the resonance charge exchange with cross sections having a logarithmic dependence. We also investigate the perturbation to the charge exchange process due to the non-adiabatic interaction to an electronic excited state. We show that the influence is negligible at low temperatures and still small at intermediate energies despite the presence of resonances.

  7. Studies on the ion-exchange behavior of chromium ferrocyanide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, W U; Srivastava, S K; Singh, Raj Pal; Kumar, Satish [Roorkee Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1977-01-01

    The sorption of univalent, bivalent and trivalent ions has been studied on chromium ferrocyanide gel. The distribution of various metal cations were determined by shaking the exchanger (0.1 g) and 20 ml of 0.005M metal ion solution of pH 2-3, until equilibrium was attained. The concentration of Pb/sup 2 +/, Cu/sup 2 +/, Mn/sup 2 +/, Ni/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/ and Al/sup 3 +/ were determined by EDTA, ZrO/sup 2 +/, Th/sup 4 +/, UO/sup 2 +/ and Fe/sup 2 +/ were estimated spectrophotometrically and radiometric methods were used for Rb/sup +/, Cs/sup +/, Tl/sup +/, Ag/sup +/, Zn/sup 2 +/, Co/sup 2 +/, Cd/sup 2 +/, Hg/sup 2 +/ and Fe/sup 3 +/ metal ions. The distribution coefficients of various univalent, bivalent and trivalent metal ions (0.002M) were also determined as a function of NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ and HNO/sub 3/ concentrations and pH. The studies reveal a high sorption capacity for Cs/sup +/, Tl/sup +/, Ag/sup +/, Cu/sup 2 +/, Zn/sup 2 +/, Cd/sup 2 +/, Fe/sup 3 +/ and Th/sup 4 +/. The sorption of monovalent cations show purely ion exchange mechanism while the uptake of bivalent and trivalent cations is non-equivalent in nature. Single elution of Rb/sup +/, Cs/sup +/ and Tl/sup +/ has been performed from the columns of this exchanger and the recovery is almost complete in all the cases. Cu/sup 2 +/ and Ag/sup +/ get completely adsorbed on the gel column and their elution is not possible probably due to the formation of some new solid phases. Depending on the Ksub(d) values of the metal ions, a large number of separations of radiochemical as well as analytical importance can be performed on the columns of this exchanger material. It is apparent from the Ksub(d) values that a number of separations as Hg/sup 2 +/ from Mg/sup 2 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/ and Pb/sup 2 +/; Mg/sup 2 +/ from Mn/sup 2 +/: Fe/sup 3 +/ from Al/sup 3 +/; and Th/sup 4 +/ from ZrO/sup 2 +/ can be performed on the columns of this exchanger.

  8. Thermodynamics of ion-exchange on ferric antimonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, J.P.; Muktawat, K.P.S.

    1981-01-01

    A simple approach to ion-exchange equilibria on ferric antimonate has been applied. The values of selectivity coefficients for Ba 2+ , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ and Sr 2+ have been measured using equilibrium experiments at constant ionic strength and at different temperatures from 20 to 60 0 C. The thermodynamic equilibrium constant and values of ΔG 0 , ΔH 0 and ΔS 0 are reported. (author)

  9. Inclusion of radioactive ion-exchange resins into inorganic binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epimakhov, V.N.; Olejnik, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    The paper is devoted to inclusion of the radioactive ion-exchange resins into the portland, slag-portland and alumina cements. The degree of filling the solidified products achieves 7-10, 12 and 18.9-19.7% correspondingly under conservation of sufficient strength (not less 5 MPa). The coefficient of waste volume increasing during solidification does not exceed 1.5 under consideration of addition of 10 mass % of clay into aluminia cement [ru

  10. Exchange interpretation of anomalous back angle heavy ion elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1977-10-01

    Anomalous back angle oscillations in the angular distributions obtained in the elastic scattering of 16 O + 28 Si and 12 C + 28 Si have been interpreted in terms of an elastic cluster transfer comparable to that observed in other heavy ion reactions. The calculations appear to at least qualitatively explain the data with respect to the existence and phase of the back angle oscillations. The results indicate that an exchange mechanism may play an important role in the oscillations

  11. Momentum transfer in relativistic heavy ion charge-exchange reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Khan, F.; Khandelwal, G. S.

    1991-01-01

    Relativistic heavy ion charge-exchange reactions yield fragments (Delta-Z = + 1) whose longitudinal momentum distributions are downshifted by larger values than those associated with the remaining fragments (Delta-Z = 1, -2,...). Kinematics alone cannot account for the observed downshifts; therefore, an additional contribution from collision dynamics must be included. In this work, an optical model description of collision momentum transfer is used to estimate the additional dynamical momentum downshift. Good agreement between theoretical estimates and experimental data is obtained.

  12. Separation of organic ion exchange resins from sludge - engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    This engineering study evaluates the use of physical separation technologies to separate organic ion exchange resin from KE Basin sludge prior to nitric acid dissolution. This separation is necessitate to prevent nitration of the organics in the acid dissolver. The technologies under consideration are: screening, sedimentation, elutriation. The recommended approach is to first screen the Sludge and resin 300 microns then subject the 300 microns plus material to elutriation

  13. Separation of organic ion exchange resins from sludge -- engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1998-08-25

    This engineering study evaluates the use of physical separation technologies to separate organic ion exchange resin from KE Basin sludge prior to nitric acid dissolution. This separation is necessitate to prevent nitration of the organics in the acid dissolver. The technologies under consideration are: screening, sedimentation, elutriation. The recommended approach is to first screen the Sludge and resin 300 microns then subject the 300 microns plus material to elutriation.

  14. Recovery of tretrachloroaurate through ion exchange with Dowex 11 resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alguacil, F.J.

    1998-01-01

    The recovery of the tretrachloroaurate complex by the anionic ion exchange resin Dowex 11 has been studied. The kinetics of gold adsorption were dependent of both gold and resin concentrations and temperature. The adsorption isotherm can be described by the expression Q=kC''n. The loaded resin could be eluted by an acidic thiourea solution at 20 degree centigree. After several adsorption-elution cycles there is not any apparent loss in the adsorption properties of the resin. (Author) 6 refs

  15. Yttrium and rare earths separation by ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinatti, D.G.; Ayres, M.J.G.; Ribeiro, S.; Silva, G.L.J.P.; Silva, M.L.C.P.; Martins, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    The experimental results of yttrium and rare earths separation from Brazilian xenotime are presented. The research consist in five stage: 1) Preparation of yttrium, erbium and lutetium standard solutions, from solubilization of pure oxides 2) yttrium and rare earths separation by ion exchange chromatrography 3) Separation and recovery of EDTA 4) Precipitation and calcination and 4) Analytical control of process. (C.G.C.) [pt

  16. Synthesis of ion-exchange resin for selective thorium and uranyl ions sorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, Konstantin; Sachkov, Victor

    2017-11-01

    In this work, the method of ion-exchange resin synthesis selective to radionuclides (uranium and thorium) is presented. The method includes synthesis of polymeric styrene-divinylbenzene macroporous matrix with size of 0.1-0.2 mm, and its subsequent transformation by nitration and then reduction by tin (II) chloride. For passivation of active primary amines partially oxidation by oxygen from air is used. Obtained ion-exchange resin has ratio of sorption sum U+Th to sorption sum of other total rare-earth elements as 1:1.88 at ratio of solid to liquid phase 1:200. The proposed method of ion-exchange resin synthesis is scaled-up for laboratory reactors with volume of 5 and 50 liters.

  17. Ion exchange properties of zeolite-containing catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koval' chuk, L V; Takhtarova, G N; Topchieva, K V [Moskovskii Gosudarstvennyi Univ. (USSR). Kafedra Fizicheskoi Khimii

    1975-03-01

    In the paper the reaction of sodium ion exchange for ammonium cations, cations of calcium and lanthanum in the amorphous aluminium silicate Na/sub 0,856/(AlO/sub 2/)(SiO/sub 2/)/sub 9,831/, zeolite Na/sub 1/(AlO/sub 2/)(SiO/sub 2/)/sub 2,33/ and zeolite containing catalyst Na/sub 1,09/(AlO/sub 2/)(SiOsub(2))/sub 7,93/ were studied; exchange isotherms of sodium for ammonium, calcium and lanthanium are presented. Results received in the study indicate high selectivity of zeolite for calcium and lanthanum cations in comparison with amorphous aluminium silicate and also display electroselectivity effect. The highest separation coefficient takes place for lanthanum in the sodium exchange in zeolite.

  18. Ion exchange resin fouling of molybdenum in recovery uranium processess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guowei; Zhao Guirong

    1990-09-01

    The relationship between anion exchange resin fouling and molybdic acid polymerization was studied. By using potentiometer titration and laser-Raman spectroscopy the relationship of molybdic acid polymerization and the pH value of solution or the molybdenum concentration was determined. It was shown that as the concentration of initial molybdenum in solution decreases from 0.2 mol/L to 0.5 mmol/L, the pH value of starting polymerization decreased from 6.5 to 4.5. The experimental results show that the fouling of 201 x 7 resin in the acidic solution is mainly caused by the adsorbing of Mo 3 O 26 4- ion and occupying the exchange radical site of the resin. Under the leaching conditions the molybdenum and phosphate existing in the leaching liquor can form 12-molybdo-phosphate ion. It also leads to resin fouling. The molybdenum on the fouled resin can synergically be desorbed by mixed desorbents containing ammonium hydroxide and ammonium sulfate. The desorbed resin can be used for uranium adsorption and the desorbed molybdenum can be recovered by ion exchange method

  19. Radiation effects on ion exchange materials used in waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation damage to process materials used in radioactive waste management has been a topic of little interest in the past. In recent years, as a result of the increasing number of accidents reported in the open literature, there has been some desire to examine the radiation decomposition of ion exchange materials and its consequences to the interim and long-term management of radioactive wastes. Extensive literature surveys and some confirmatory laboratory investigations conducted conclusively demonstrate that radiation damage to ion exchangers has the potential to cause problems of corrosion, elution of adsorbed ionic species, generation of flammable and explosive gaseous products and agglomeration of particulates to form rigid monoliths. This paper is an overview of present knowledge and a presentation of the results of our investigations of this phenomenon. The distinct lack of systematic studies to evaluate the problems of radiation damage to process materials used in the consolidation and isolation of high specific activity radionuclides still leaves considerable gaps in our knowledge of the processes and consequences of radiation effects on ion exchangers used in radioactive waste management

  20. Gaseous anion chemistry. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange in mono- and dialcohol alkoxide ions: ionization reactions in dialcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, J.R.; Agosta, W.C.; Field, F.H.

    1980-01-01

    The subject of this work is H-D exchange in certain gaseous anions using D 2 as the exchanging agent. The anions involved are produced from ethylene glycol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,4-butanediol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol. Spectra and postulated ionization reactions for these mono- and dialcohols are given. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange occurs in the (M - 1) - and (2M - 1) - ions of ethylene glycol, 1,3-propanediol, and 1,4-butanediol. The amount of exchange occurring is 3-8 times greater in (2M - 1) - than in (M - 1) - . The amount of H-D exchange occurring in ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol is small or zero in the (2M - 1) - ions and in the (M - 1) - ion for 1-butanol [the only (M - 1) - ion which could be examined experimentally]. The amount of exchange occurring in the (2M - 1) - and (M - 1) - ions from ethylene glycol is not affected by the total pressure or composition of the reaction mixture in the ionization chamber of the mass spectrometer. A novel hydrogen-bridging mechanism is suggested to account for the observed exchange occurring in the dialcohols

  1. Studies of Vitrification of Ion-Exchange Resins. A Joint USA-Argentina Collaborative Work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, N.D.; Herman, C.A.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Sundaram, S.K.; Perez, J.M.; Hoeffner, S.L.; Russo, D.O.; Sterba, M.

    2003-01-01

    Under the Science and Technology Implementing Arrangement for Cooperation on Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management (JCCRM), the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) is helping to transfer waste treatment technology to international atomic energy commissions.As part of the JCCRM, DOE has established a collaborative research agreement with the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Cnea).The Cnea is investigating treatment and disposal options for organic ion exchange resins currently stored at two nuclear power plants in the Republic of Argentina.The major hazards of the ion exchange resins are their organic composition and the contaminants that are present on the resins after purification processes.The principal contaminants are usually the radioactive species that are removed.For these studies, actual non-radioactive resins from Argentina's Embalse and Atucha plants were tested.The glass produced during the runs was durable was measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT).The product had a predictable, mostly amorphous composition throughout the demonstrations; though there was some evidence of the formation of clinopyroxene crystals.The immobilized product represented an approximately 70% volume reduction from the simulated Argentine ion exchange resin (i.e., a reduction from the volume of as-stored wet resin to the volume of the ultimate borosilicate glass product).For all runs, the radioactive surrogate retention was near 100%

  2. Modeling the ion transfer and polarization of ion exchange membranes in bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnisch, Falk; Warmbier, Robert; Schneider, Ralf; Schröder, Uwe

    2009-06-01

    An explicit numerical model for the charge balancing ion transfer across monopolar ion exchange membranes under conditions of bioelectrochemical systems is presented. Diffusion and migration equations have been solved according to the Nernst-Planck Equation and the resulting ion concentrations, pH values and the resistance values of the membrane for different conditions were computed. The modeling results underline the principle limitations of the application of ion exchange membranes in biological fuel cells and electrolyzers, caused by the inherent occurrence of a pH-gradient between anode and cathode compartment, and an increased ohmic membrane resistance at decreasing electrolyte concentrations. Finally, the physical and numerical limitations of the model are discussed.

  3. Charge-exchange collisions of multiply charged ions with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grozdanov, T.P.; Janev, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of electron transfer between neutral atoms and multiply charged ions is considered at low and medium energies. It is assumed that a large number of final states are available for the electron transition so that the electron-capture process is treated as a tunnel effect caused by the strong attractive Coulomb field of the multicharged ions. The electron transition probability is obtained in a closed form using the modified-comparison-equation method to solve the Schroedinger equation. An approximately linear dependence of the one-electron transfer cross section on the charge of multicharged ion is found. Cross-section calculations of a number of charge-exchange reactions are performed

  4. Ion Exchange Temperature Testing with SRF Resin - 12088

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, R.L.; Rinehart, D.E.; Brown, G.N.; Peterson, R.A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Ion exchange using the Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (SRF) resin has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection for use in the Pretreatment Facility of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and for potential application in an at-tank deployment for removing Cs-137. Recent proposed changes to the WTP ion exchange process baseline indicate that higher temperatures (50 deg. C) to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues prior to reaching the ion exchange columns may be required. Therefore, it is important to understand the behavior of SRF resin performance under the conditions expected with the new equipment and process changes. This research examined the impact of elevated temperature on resin loading and resin degradation during extended solution flow at elevated temperature (45 deg., 50 deg., 55 deg., 60 deg., 65 deg., 75 deg. C). Testing for extended times at elevated temperatures showed that the resin does degrade and loading capacity is reduced at and above 45 deg. C. Above 60 deg. C the resin appears to not load at all. It was observed that the resin disintegrated at 75 deg. C until not much was left and partially disintegrated at 65 deg. C, which caused the column to plug in both tests after ∼336 hours. The results indicate that WTP will lose resin loading capacity if the ion exchange process is performed above 25 deg. C, and the resin will disintegrate above 65 deg. C. Therefore, WTP will have a restricted operating range of temperatures to perform the ion exchange process with this resin. PNNL and WTP are currently evaluating the operating limits of the resin in further detail. Aging in 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} also caused the resin to lose capacity above 25 deg. C and to completely dissolve at 55 deg. C. Again, WTP will have a restricted operating range of temperatures when eluting the resin with nitric acid in order to maintain resin loading capacity and avoid disintegration of the resin

  5. Pilot scale ion exchange column study for reducing radioactivity discharges to environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kore, S.G.; Yadav, V.K.; Sonar, N.L.; Valsala, T.P.; Narayan, J.; Sharma, S.P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Dani, U.; Vishwaraj, I.

    2013-01-01

    Low level liquid waste (LLW) is generated during operation of Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS). Chemical co-precipitation is the treatment method used for decontamination of this waste with respect to radionuclide prior to discharge to environment. Further polishing of effluent from the treated LLW was planned using ion exchange column to reduce the discharges to the environment In view of this ion exchange column study was carried out in the laboratory using in-house prepared cobalt ferrocyanide (COFC) based composite resin. Based on the encouraging results obtained in the lab studies, pilot scale study was carried out in the plant. Decontamination factor (DF) of 14-15 was obtained with respect to Cs isotopes and overall DF of 2-5 was obtained with respect to gross beta activity. (author)

  6. Cement solidification of spent ion exchange resins produced by the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaouen, C.; Vigreux, B.

    1988-01-01

    Cement solidification technology has been applied to spent ion exchange resins for many years in countries throughout the world (at reactors, research centers and spent fuel reprocessing plants). Changing specifications for storage of radioactive waste have, however, confronted the operators of such facilities with a number of problems. Problems related both to the cement solidification process (water/cement/resin interactions and chemical interactions) and to its utilization (mixing, process control, variable feed composition, etc.) have often led waste producers to prefer other, polymer-based processes, which are very expensive and virtually incompatible with water. This paper discusses research on cement solidification of ion exchange resins since 1983 and the development of application technologies adapted to nuclear service conditions and stringent finished product quality requirements

  7. Systematic generation of buffer systems for pH gradient ion exchange chromatography and their application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröner, Frieder; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2013-04-12

    pH gradient protein separations are widely used techniques in the field of protein analytics, of which isoelectric focusing is the most well known application. The chromatographic variant, based on the formation of pH gradients in ion exchange columns is only rarely applied due to the difficulties to form controllable, linear pH gradients over a broad pH range. This work describes a method for the systematic generation of buffer compositions with linear titration curves, resulting in well controllable pH gradients. To generate buffer compositions with linear titration curves an in silico method was successfully developed. With this tool, buffer compositions for pH gradient ion exchange chromatography with pH ranges spanning up to 7.5 pH units were established and successfully validated. Subsequently, the buffer systems were used to characterize the elution behavior of 22 different model proteins in cation and anion exchange pH gradient chromatography. The results of both chromatographic modes as well as isoelectric focusing were compared to describe differences in between the methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sr2+ and Cs+ ion exchange properties of KLn(PO3)4: Ln = Ce and Eu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samatha, B.; Achary, S.N.; Tyagi, A.K.; Ramkumar, Jayshree; Chandramouleeswaran, S.

    2014-01-01

    With the aim to study the potential of layered phosphates as ion exchangers two stoichiometric compositions as KLn(PO 3 ) 4 with Ln = Ce and Eu were prepared by solid state reaction and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction method. The Cs + and Sr 2+ exchange properties of both materials were investigated using standard solutions of Sr 2 + or Cs + in low acidic aqueous medium

  9. Possibility of sorption purification of chromium comprising waste waters of galvanic production by inorganic ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaynakov, S.A.; Likov, E.P.; Bortun, A.I.; Belyukov, V.N.

    1986-01-01

    Present work is devoted to possibilities of sorption purification of chromium comprising waste waters of galvanic production by inorganic ion exchangers. Thus, the comparative study of sorption of chromium ions on anion exchanger A B-17 and on inorganic ion exchangers on the basis of hydrated titanium and zirconium dioxides in static and dynamic conditions is conducted. The influence of chromium ions concentration, solutions acidity (ph=1÷12) and presence of base electrolyte on sorption is studied. The state of chromium ions sorbed by inorganic ion exchangers is studied by means of infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopy. It is defined that inorganic sorbents could be used for chromium extraction from different solutions.

  10. Operation and control of ion-exchange processes for treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emelity, L.A.

    1967-01-01

    A manual dealing with the application of ion-exchange materials to the treatment of radioactive wastes and reviewing the facilities currently using this method. This book is one of three commissioned by the IAEA on the principal methods of concentrating radioactive wastes. The content of this document is: (i) Historical review related to removal of radioactivity; (ii) Principles of ion exchange (iii) Ion-exchange materials; (iv) Limitations of ion exchangers; (v) Application of ion exchange to waste processing; (vi) Operational procedures and experiences; (vii) Cost-of-treatment by ion-exchange. The document also gives a list of producers of ion-exchange material and defines some relevant terms. 101 refs, 31 figs, 27 tabs

  11. Preparation of inorganic ion exchangers with high selectivity for lithium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, Takao

    2004-01-01

    Development of ion exchangers that show large lithium isotope effects is hoped for to establish highly efficient chromatographic processes of lithium isotope separation. In this paper, preparation, characterization, ion exchange properties, and lithium isotope selectivity of inorganic materials that have been and still are being studied by my research group at Sophia University are reviewed. They include manganese oxides-based ion exchangers, antimonic acids and titanium/zirconium phosphates-based ion exchangers. As a result, the lithium isotope separation effects that were one order of magnitude larger than those of organic ion exchangers were obtained. Some inorganic ion exchangers were found to show ion exchange rates more than comparable to those of organic ones. (author)

  12. Operation and control of ion-exchange processes for treatment of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emelity, L A [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1967-12-01

    A manual dealing with the application of ion-exchange materials to the treatment of radioactive wastes and reviewing the facilities currently using this method. This book is one of three commissioned by the IAEA on the principal methods of concentrating radioactive wastes. The content of this document is: (i) Historical review related to removal of radioactivity; (ii) Principles of ion exchange (iii) Ion-exchange materials; (iv) Limitations of ion exchangers; (v) Application of ion exchange to waste processing; (vi) Operational procedures and experiences; (vii) Cost-of-treatment by ion-exchange. The document also gives a list of producers of ion-exchange material and defines some relevant terms. 101 refs, 31 figs, 27 tabs.

  13. Ion-exchange behaviour of hydrous zirconia in mixed solvents: capacity and kinetics of exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misak, N.Z.; Ghoneimy, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    The capacity of the Li + form of hydrous zirconia for Na + and Cs + increases in the presence of methanol. This may be due to the greater stability of Li + in methanol/water than in pure water and to dehydration of Na + and Cs + and their stronger interaction with the exchange sites, which may facilitate their replacing Li + . The ion-exchange capacity of zirconia for NO 3 - , Cl - and Br - is almost the same in aqueous solution and is not affected by addition of up to 90% (v/v) methanol, which probably shows that these anions are electrostatically bound in zirconia without specific interactions. The internal diffusion coefficients of the Na + /H + and Cl - /OH - systems decrease in the presence of alcohol: the decrease is highest with methanol and similar for ethanol and propan-2-ol. This is discussed in the light of ion solvation and alcohol penetration inside zirconia. (author)

  14. Characteristics of resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Tetsurou (Nitto Denko Corp., Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan)); Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu

    1989-09-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of resin floc dispersion. The factors related to resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index in addition to the measurement of physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin. The effect of adsorption of iron oxide and polymer electrolyte and of ion exchange were determined. In addition, considered floc dispersion with adsorbing iron oxide, it was assumed that the amount and filling ratio of resin floc were related to summation and multiplication of surface electric charge respectively. An experimental expression was obtained for simulation of the change of specific settle volume of resin floc by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author).

  15. Characteristics of resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tetsurou; Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu.

    1989-01-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of resin floc dispersion. The factors related to resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index in addition to the measurement of physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin. The effect of adsorption of iron oxide and polymer electrolyte and of ion exchange were determined. In addition, considered floc dispersion with adsorbing iron oxide, it was assumed that the amount and filling ratio of resin floc were related to summation and multiplication of surface electric charge respectively. An experimental expression was obtained for simulation of the change of specific settle volume of resin floc by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author)

  16. Respective influence of thermodynamic, hydrodynamic and diffusion factors on ion exchanger operation. Application to the ion exchanger NYMPHEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoud, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nymphea is an annular ion exchanger, with a resin bed 30 centimeter-thick, used for purification of the water from the spent fuel storage pool at La Hague reprocessing plant. Very low concentration solutions (10 -12 eq/l for cobalt) are purified by Nymphea, and parameter must be extrapolated from the range 0.01 - 0.0001 eq/l to very low concentrations. A model is developed, describing ion state inside the grains. The limiting step in Nymphea operation is external diffusion. Diffusion time is determined by mean grain size which should be accurately defined for extrapolation of results from monodispersed distribution (often the case in laboratories) to polydispersed (often the case in industry). Operation of an ion exchanger can be simulated for any ion number in solution. In steady state condition of concentration pool purification increases with flow rate. Simulation in transient operation allows the determination of all the concentrations in function of time and hence to calculate the time to reach the maximum permissible concentration for cobalt. This time depends upon calcium pollution (by fuel can dissolution, atmospheric pollution) which is not accurately known [fr

  17. Ag clustering investigation in laser irradiated ion-exchanged glasses by optical and vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trave, E., E-mail: enrico.trave@unive.it [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca' Foscari University of Venezia, Dorsoduro 2137, I-30123 Venezia (Italy); Cattaruzza, E.; Gonella, F.; Calvelli, P. [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca' Foscari University of Venezia, Dorsoduro 2137, I-30123 Venezia (Italy); Quaranta, A. [Department of Materials Engineering and Industrial Technologies, University of Trento, via Mesiano 77, I-38050 Povo (Italy); Rahman, A.; Mariotto, G. [Department of Computer Science, University of Verona, Strada le Grazie 15, 37134 Verona (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We modify the properties of Ag{sup +} exchanged glasses by thermal and laser treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The induced microstructural changes are analyzed by optical and Raman spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag-based species in the glass show a peculiar PL activity in the UV-Vis range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Raman and OA analysis allow for determining the Ag cluster size evolution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laser processing leads to different cluster formation and fragmentation mechanisms. - Abstract: Ion exchange process is widely used to dope silicate glass layers with silver for several applications, ranging from light waveguide to nanostructured composite glass fabrication. The silver-doped structure and its physical properties depend on the preparation parameters as well as on subsequent treatments. In particular, laser irradiation of the ion exchanged glasses has been demonstrated to be an effective tool to control cluster size and size distribution. Nevertheless, a complete comprehension of the basic phenomena and a systematic characterization of these systems are still lacking. In this paper, an extended optical characterization is presented for soda-lime glass slides, doped with silver by Ag{sup +}-Na{sup +} ion exchange, thermally treated and irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser beam at different wavelengths, and for different energy density. The samples were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques, namely, optical absorption, photoluminescence and micro-Raman analysis. The availability of all these characterization techniques allowed pointing out a suitable scenario for the Ag clustering evolution as a function of the ion exchange, annealing and laser irradiation parameters.

  18. Charge exchange spectroscopy as a fast ion diagnostic on TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delabie, E.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Hellermann, M. G. von; Nielsen, S. K.; Marchuk, O.

    2008-01-01

    An upgraded charge exchange spectroscopy diagnostic has been taken into operation at the TEXTOR tokamak. The angles of the viewing lines with the toroidal magnetic field are close to the pitch angles at birth of fast ions injected by one of the neutral beam injectors. Using another neutral beam for active spectroscopy, injected counter the direction in which fast ions injected by the first beam are circulating, we can simultaneously measure a fast ion tail on the blue wing of the D α spectrum while the beam emission spectrum is Doppler shifted to the red wing. An analysis combining the two parts of the spectrum offers possibilities to improve the accuracy of the absolute (fast) ion density profiles. Fast beam modulation or passive viewing lines cannot be used for background subtraction on this diagnostic setup and therefore the background has to be modeled and fitted to the data together with a spectral model for the slowing down feature. The analysis of the fast ion D α spectrum obtained with the new diagnostic is discussed.

  19. Ra/Ca separation by ion exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores Mendoza, J.

    1990-01-01

    Ra/Ca separation by ion exchange. The objective of this work was to acquire knowledge of the chromatographic behaviour of the alkaline earth cations calcium, barium and radium and the obtention of well-defined alpha spectra of 226 Ra. Three cationic ion exchange resins (Dower 50 W-X8, AG 50W-XB and Merck I) and three complexing agents (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, citric acid and tartaric acid) at various pH values have been investigated. The three types of ions are fixed on the resins at pH 4.8; calcium is eluted at pH between 5 and 6 depending on the resin; barium and radium are eluted at pH values from 8 to 11. Radium is also eluted with a 2 M nitric acid solution, from which it can be electrodeposited on a stainless steel disk potassium fluoride as electrolyte at pH 14. The electrolysis is conducted for 18 hours with a current of mA. Under these conditions high resolution alpha spectra were obtained for 226 Ra, which was practically free from radioactive contaminants (Author)

  20. Kinetic study of heavy metal ions removal by ion exchange in batch conical air spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Zewail

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spouted bed contactor is a hybrid of fixed and fluidized bed contactors, which retains the advantages of each with good hydrodynamic conditions. The aim of the present study is to investigate the performance of a batch conical air spouted vessel for heavy metal removal by strong cation exchange resins (AMBERJET 1200 Na. The effect of various parameters such as type of heavy metal ions (Ni+2 and Pb+2, contact time, superficial air velocity and initial heavy metal ion concentration on % heavy metal ion removal has been investigated. It has been found that under optimum conditions 98% and 99% removal of Ni+2 and Pb+2 were achieved respectively. Several kinetic models were used to test the experimental data and to examine the controlling mechanism of the sorption process. The present results of Ni+2 and Pb+2 well fit pseudo second order kinetic model with a high correlation coefficient. Both film diffusion and intra-particle diffusion contribute to the ion exchange process. The present study revealed that spouted bed vessel may provide an effective alternative for conducting ion exchange reactions.

  1. Effect of calcium/sodium ion exchange on the osmotic properties and structure of polyelectrolyte gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horkay, Ferenc; Basser, Peter J; Hecht, Anne-Marie; Geissler, Erik

    2015-12-01

    We discuss the main findings of a long-term research program exploring the consequences of sodium/calcium ion exchange on the macroscopic osmotic and elastic properties, and the microscopic structure of representative synthetic polyelectrolyte (sodium polyacrylate, (polyacrylic acid)) and biopolymer gels (DNA). A common feature of these gels is that above a threshold calcium ion concentration, they exhibit a reversible volume phase transition. At the macroscopic level, the concentration dependence of the osmotic pressure shows that calcium ions influence primarily the third-order interaction term in the Flory-Huggins model of polymer solutions. Mechanical tests reveal that the elastic modulus is practically unaffected by the presence of calcium ions, indicating that ion bridging does not create permanent cross-links. At the microscopic level, small-angle neutron scattering shows that polyacrylic acid and DNA gels exhibit qualitatively similar structural features in spite of important differences (e.g. chain flexibility and chemical composition) between the two polymers. The main effect of calcium ions is that the neutron scattering intensity increases due to the decrease in the osmotic modulus. At the level of the counterion cloud around dissolved macroions, anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering measurements made on DNA indicate that divalent ions form a cylindrical sheath enveloping the chain, but they are not localized. Small-angle neutron scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering provide complementary information on the structure and interactions in polymer solutions and gels. © IMechE 2015.

  2. Nitrate and Perchlorate removal from groundwater by ion exchange; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burge, S; Halden, R

    1999-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a small scale ion exchange unit (Krudico, Inc of Auborn, IA) for removal of nitrate and perchlorate from groundwater at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Site 300. The unit was able to treat 3,600 gallons of Site 300 groundwater, at an average influent concentration of 100 mg/L NO(sub 3)(sup -) before breakthrough occurred. The unit contained 2.5 ft(sup 3) of Sybron SR-7 resin. Seventy gallons of regeneration waste were generated (water treated to waste ratio of 51:1). The effluent concentration was about 20 mg/L NO(sub 3)(sup -), which is equivalent to a treatment efficiency of at least 80%. There are several options for implementing this technology at Site 300. A target well, in the 817 area, has been selected. It has a 3 to 4 gpm flow rate, and concentrations of 90 mg/L NO(sub 3)(sup -) and 40(micro)g/L perchlorate. The different treatment options include ion exchange treatment of nitrate only, nitrate and perchlorate, or perchlorate only. Option 1: For the treatment of nitrate only, this unit will be able to treat 3,700 gallons of water before regeneration is required. If both columns of the ion exchange unit are used, 7,400 gallons could be treated before the columns will need to be regenerated (producing 140 gallons of waste, per cycle or every 1.5 days). The effluent nitrate concentration is expected to be about 17 mg/L. Annual operation and maintenance costs are estimated to be$0.14 per gallon of water treated. Option 2: If only perchlorate is to be removed with ion exchange at the 817 area, a smaller unit should be considered. A 55 gallon canister filled with ion exchange resin should be able to reduce perchlorate concentrations in the groundwater from 40(micro)g/L to non-detect levels for three years before the resin would need to be replaced. The contaminant-laden resin would be disposed of as hazardous waste. It is not practical to regenerate the resin because of the extreme difficulty of

  3. Mechanism of central ion exchange between ytterbium(3) and neodymium(3) diethylenetriaminepentaacetate in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitenko, S.I.; Martynenko, L.I.; Pechurova, N.I. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    1984-11-01

    Kinetics and exchange mechanism in the NdL/sup 2 -/Yb/sup 3 +/ system, where L/sup 5 -/ is diethylene triaminepentaacetate-ion, are studied spectrophotometrically. It is shown that in the pH range of 4.0-4.5 the exchange occurs according to dissociative mechanism with the formation of biprotonated intermediate complexes. In the pH 4.5-5.0 range the formation of monoprotonated inermediates is possible. At pH values of 5.0-6.0 the exchange is mainly performed according to the associative mechanism with the formation of biprotonated intermediate complexes. In the pH 4.5-5.0 range the formation of monoprotonated intermediates is possible. At pH values of 5.0-6.0 the exchange is mainly performed according to the associative mechanism. It is found that under conditions of the experiment the binuclear complex of the ((YbL)Nd)/sup +/ composition is the association mechanism exchange product. It is also formed in the case of mixing YbL/sup 2 -/ and Nd/sup 3 +/. Rate constants of exchange according to dissociative mechanism and constant of intraspheric isomerization ((NdL)Yb)/sup +/ ..-->.. ((YbL)Nd)/sup +/ are calculated. Stability constants of ((NdL)Yb)/sup +/ and ((YbL)Nd)/sup +/ are determined.

  4. Electrochemical ion-exchange for medium active liquid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridger, N.J.; Turner, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    Electrochemical ion-exchange has already been demonstrated to be a robust, effective process for the treatment of active liquid wastes -with high decontamination and volume reduction factors, and only a low energy requirement. The primary aim of this new programme is to scale up this process - initially to 0.1m 3 /h, and ultimately to 1 3 m/h. A new 0.4m 2 electrode module has been designed and constructed, together with 3m 3 feed tanks for the first phase of this work. Further development work is also being carried out on alternative electrode designs and fabrication methods, as well as new exchange media (including inorganic absorbers and organic chelating resins) in order to optimize selectivity performance. (author)

  5. Ion exchange in ultramarine blue. Studies using radioactive tracers (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goenvec, H.

    1963-05-01

    A study has been made of the exchange reaction between the constituent sodium in ultramarine blue, and silver in the form of a silver nitrate solution; an attempt hat been made to define the influence of the solvent of the silver nitrate on the kinetics of the exchange reaction. Five solvents have been used: water, methanol, ethanol, n-propanol and acetone. The reaction rates are controlled by a diffusion process inside the ultramarine grains, whatever the solvent used. It seems that the solvated ionic radius of the diffusing ion is one of the factors influencing the rate of reaction. Furthermore, the solvated ionic radius varies with temperature; this variation is different for each solvent and should explain the differences observed in the activation energies. (author) [fr

  6. Ion-Exchange Chromatography: Basic Principles and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Philip M; Rochfort, Keith D; O'Connor, Brendan F

    2017-01-01

    Ion-Exchange Chromatography (IEC) allows for the separation of ionizable molecules on the basis of differences in charge properties. Its large sample-handling capacity, broad applicability (particularly to proteins and enzymes), moderate cost, powerful resolving ability, and ease of scale-up and automation have led to it becoming one of the most versatile and widely used of all liquid chromatography (LC) techniques. In this chapter, we review the basic principles of IEC, as well as the broader criteria for selecting IEC conditions. By way of further illustration, we outline basic laboratory protocols to partially purify a soluble serine peptidase from bovine whole brain tissue, covering crude tissue extract preparation through to partial purification of the target enzyme using anion-exchange chromatography. Protocols for assaying total protein and enzyme activity in both pre- and post-IEC fractions are also described.

  7. Leaching studies on ion exchange resins immobilized in bitumen matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche Filho, C.E.; Chandra, U.; Villalobos, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Many samples of bitumen mixed with ion exchange resin labelled with 134 Cs were prepared to study radionuclide leaching from bitumen waste forms. The resins used in tests were nuclear grade mixed cationic/aniocic bead resins. Different bitumen types were assayed: two distilled and two oxidized bitumens. Leached fractions were collected accordingly to the recommendation of ISO method, with complete exchange of leachant after each sampling. The volume collected for analysis was one liter. Marinelli beckers were used to improve counting efficiency in a Ge(Li) detector. The diffusion coefficients for samples prepared with distilled and oxidized bitumens were obtained. Mathematical models of transport phenomena applied to cylindrical geometry was employed to fit experimental data aiming to explain leaching mechanism and predict the long time behavior of immobilized radionuclides. (M.C.K.) [pt

  8. Anisotropic exchange interaction for magnetic ion pairs in insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passeggi, M.C.G.

    1975-12-01

    The sources of possible contributions to the magnetic anisotropy for a pair of orbitally non degenerate magnetic ions are investigated. The problem being formulated with the help of the operator form of perturbation theory and irreducible tensor operators. Apart from the usual dipole-dipole effective interaction, mainly induced by the electronic spin-spin dipole coupling corrected by covalency, other mechanisms mediated by the spin-orbit coupling appear. These are a consequence of an appropriate description of the spin-orbit operators for a system which allows for delocalization of the magnetic electrons. A process similar to that known as pseudodipolar appears from contributions in which spin orbit combined with the Coulomb repulsion and with one-electron interactions (acting analogously as for the ''kinetic exchange'') produce compensating effects in third and fourth order, respectively. However, this effect does not appear to be describable in terms of the phenomenological exchange, as is usually assumed. (Passeggi, M.C.G.)

  9. Cesium ion exchange using actual waste: Column size considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, K.P.

    1996-04-01

    It is presently planned to remove cesium from Hanford tank waste supernates and sludge wash solutions using ion exchange. To support the development of a cesium ion exchange process, laboratory experiments produced column breakthrough curves using wastes simulants in 200 mL columns. To verify the validity of the simulant tests, column runs with actual supernatants are being planned. The purpose of these actual waste tests is two-fold. First, the tests will verify that use of the simulant accurately reflects the equilibrium and rate behavior of the resin compared to actual wastes. Batch tests and column tests will be used to compare equilibrium behaviors and rate behaviors, respectively. Second, the tests will assist in clarifying the negative interactions between the actual waste and the ion exchange resin, which cannot be effectively tested with simulant. Such interactions include organic fouling of the resin and salt precipitation in the column. These effects may affect the shape of the column breakthrough curve. The reduction in column size also may change the shape of the curve, making the individual effects even more difficult to sort out. To simplify the evaluation, the changes due to column size must be either understood or eliminated. This report describes the determination of the column size for actual waste testing that best minimizes the effect of scale-down. This evaluation will provide a theoretical basis for the dimensions of the column. Experimental testing is still required before the final decision can be made. This evaluation will be confined to the study of CS-100 and R-F resins with NCAW simulant and to a limited extent DSSF waste simulant. Only the cesium loading phase has been considered

  10. Vitrification of cesium-contaminated organic ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, T.N. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    Vitrification has been declared by the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Savannah River Site currently uses a sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from a wastewater solution created from the processing of nuclear fuel. This process has several disadvantages such as the formation of a benzene waste stream. It has been proposed to replace the precipitation process with an ion exchange process using a new resorcinol-formaldehyde resin developed by Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC). Preliminary tests, however, showed that problems such as crust formation and a reduced final glass wasteform exist when the resin is placed in the melter environment. The newly developed stirred melter could be capable of overcoming these problems. This research explored the operational feasibility of using the stirred tank melter to vitrify an organic ion exchange resin. Preliminary tests included crucible studies to determine the reducing potential of the resin and the extent of oxygen consuming reactions and oxygen transfer tests to approximate the extent of oxygen transfer into the molten glass using an impeller and a combination of the impeller and an external oxygen transfer system. These preliminary studies were used as a basis for the final test which was using the stirred tank melter to vitrify nonradioactive cesium loaded organic ion exchange resin. Results from this test included a cesium mass balance, a characterization of the semi-volatile organic compounds present in the off gas as products of incomplete combustion (PIC), a qualitative analysis of other volatile metals, and observations relating to the effect the resin had on the final redox state of the glass

  11. Properties of the Carboxylate ion exchange resins; Karboxylatjonbytarmassans egenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, Bert; Dario, Maarten [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden); Boren, Hans [Linkoepings Univ. (Sweden); Torstenfelt, Boerje [Swedpower, Stockholm (Sweden); Puigdomenech, Ignasi; Johansson, Claes [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-09-01

    Weakly acidic, carboxylic resin has been selected, together with strong base anion resins, for water purification at the Forsmark 1 and 2 reactors. For the strong (but not the weak) ion exchange resin the Nuclear Power Inspectorate has given permission to dispose the spent resins in the SFR 1 (the Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste). This report gives a review of the carboxylic resins and comes to the conclusion that the resins are very stable and that there should not exist any risks for increased leaching of radionuclides from SFR 1 if these resins are disposed (compared to the strong resins)

  12. Incineration of ion exchange resins using concentric burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukasawa, T.; Chino, K.; Kawamura, F.; Kuriyama, O.; Yusa, H.

    1985-01-01

    A new incineration method, using concentric burners, is studied to reduce the volume of spent ion exchange resins generated from nuclear power plants. Resins are ejected into the center of a propane-oxygen flame and burned within it. The flame length is theoretically evaluated by the diffusion-dominant model. By reforming the burner shape, flame length can be reduced by one-half. The decomposition ratio decreases with larger resin diameters due to the loss of unburned resin from the flame. A flame guide tube is adapted to increase resin holding time in the flame, which improves the decomposition ratio to over 98 wt%

  13. Immobilization of ion-exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions, can be achieved using organic ion-exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilized in cement-based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% ordinary Portland cement, 84% gg blast furnace slag, 6% microsilica with a water/cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This formulation was successfully scaled up to 200 litres, giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the product's properties. 26 tabs., 22 figs., 29 refs

  14. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1989-03-01

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions eg LOMI can be achieved using organic ion exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilised in cement based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% Ordinary Portland Cement 84% gg Blast Furnace Slag, 6% Microsilica with a water cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This information was successfully scaled up to 200 litres giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the product's properties. (author)

  15. Treatment of spent ion exchange resins IAEA research coordination programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balu, K.; Bhatia, S.C.; Wattal, P.K.; Chanana, N.

    1981-09-01

    Spent ion-exchange resins arising from steam condensate systems, reactor coolant clean-up systems and rad-waste procession, are considered as a specific solid waste management problem. This is the second report on the product characterisation with respect to thermal properties, flammability, bio-organic degradation and leaching behaviours. All these studies are based on polyester-styrene polymer as a matrix for fixation of these spent Ix-resins. Choice of this matrix was dealt with in the first report. (author)

  16. Modified ion exchange resins - synthesis and properties. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doescher, F.; Klein, J.; Pohl, F.; Widdecke, H.

    1982-01-22

    Sulfomethylated resins are prepared by polymer analogous reactions, starting from macroporous poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) matrices. Different reaction paths are discussed and used in the synthesis. Sulfomethylation can be achieved by reaction of a chloromethylated resin with dimethyl sulfide and sodium sulfonate or alternatively by oxidation of polymer-bound thiol groups. Both methods give high conversions as shown by IR spectra and titration of the sulfonic acid groups. Poly(1-(4-hydroxysulfomethylphenyl)ethylene) (3) is obtained by reaction of poly(1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylene) (2) resin with formaldehyde/sodium sulfonate. The thermal stability, catalytic activity, and ion exchange equilibria of the sulfomethylated resin are investigated.

  17. Distribution of Components in Ion Exchange Materials Taken from the K East Basin and Leaching of Ion Exchange Materials by Nitric/Hydrofluoric Acid and Nitric/Oxalic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Rinehart, D.E.; Hoopes, F.V.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory tests were performed to examine the efficacy of mixed nitric/hydrofluoric acid followed by mixed nitric/oxalic acid leach treatments to decontaminate ion exchange materials that have been found in a number of samples retrieved from K East (KE)Basin sludge. The ion exchange materials contain organic ion exchange resins and zeolite inorganic ion exchange material. Based on process records, the ion exchange resins found in the K Basins is a mixed-bed, strong acid/strong base material marketed as Purolite NRW-037. The zeolite material is Zeolon-900, a granular material composed of the mineral mordenite. Radionuclides sorbed or associated with the ion exchange material can restrict its disposal to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The need for testing to support development of a treatment process for K Basin sludge has been described in Section 4.2 of ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process'' (Flament 1998). Elutriation and washing steps are designed to remove the organic resins from the K Basin sludge. To help understand the effects of the anticipated separation steps, tests were performed with well-rinsed ion exchange (IX) material from KE Basin floor sludge (sample H-08 BEAD G) and with well-rinsed IX having small quantities of added KE canister composite sludge (sample KECOMP). Tests also were performed to determine the relative quantities of organic and inorganic IX materials present in the H-08 K Basin sludge material. Based on chemical analyses of the separated fractions, the rinsed and dry IX material H-08 BEAD G was found to contain 36 weight percent inorganic material (primarily zeolite). The as-received (unrinsed) and dried H-08 material was estimated to contain 45 weight percent inorganic material

  18. Lead titanate nanotubes synthesized via ion-exchange method: Characteristics and formation mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Liang; Cao Lixin; Li Jingyu; Liu Wei; Zhang Fen; Zhu Lin; Su Ge

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Lead titanate nanotubes PbTi 3 O 7 were firstly synthesized by ion-exchange method. → Sodium titanate nanotubes have ion exchangeability. → Lead titanate nanotubes show a distinct red shift on absorption edge. - Abstract: A two-step method is presented for the synthesis of one dimensional lead titanate (PbTi 3 O 7 ) nanotubes. Firstly, titanate nanotubes were prepared by an alkaline hydrothermal process with TiO 2 nanopowder as precursor, and then lead titanate nanotubes were formed through an ion-exchange reaction. We found that sodium titanate nanotubes have ion exchangeability with lead ions, while protonated titanate nanotubes have not. For the first time, we distinguished the difference between sodium titanate nanotubes and protonated titanate nanotubes in the ion-exchange process, which reveals a layer space effect of nanotubes in the ion-exchange reaction. In comparison with sodium titanate, the synthesized lead titanate nanotubes show a narrowed bandgap.

  19. Ion-exchange equilibrium of N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid on a strong anionic exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinglan; Ke, Xu; Zhang, Xudong; Zhuang, Wei; Zhou, Jingwei; Ying, Hanjie

    2015-09-15

    N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) is a high value-added product widely applied in the food industry. A suitable equilibrium model is required for purification of Neu5Ac based on ion-exchange chromatography. Hence, the equilibrium uptake of Neu5Ac on a strong anion exchanger, AD-1 was investigated experimentally and theoretically. The uptake of Neu5Ac by the hydroxyl form of the resin occurred primarily by a stoichiometric exchange of Neu5Ac(-) and OH(-). The experimental data showed that the selectivity coefficient for the exchange of Neu5Ac(-) with OH(-) was a non-constant quantity. Subsequently, the Saunders' model, which took into account the dissociation reactions of Neu5Ac and the condition of electroneutrality, was used to correlate the Neu5Ac sorption isotherms at various solution pHs and Neu5Ac concentrations. The model provided an excellent fit to the binary exchange data for Cl(-)/OH(-) and Neu5Ac(-)/OH(-), and an approximate prediction of equilibrium in the ternary system Cl(-)/Neu5Ac(-)/OH(-). This basic information combined with the general mass transfer model could lay the foundation for the prediction of dynamic behavior of fixed bed separation process afterwards. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Oxidative degradation of low and intermediate level Radioactive organic wastes 2. Acid decomposition on spent Ion-Exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghattas, N.K.; Eskander, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    The present work provides a simplified, effective and economic method for the chemical decomposition of radioactively contaminated solid organic waste, especially spent ion - exchange resins. The goal is to achieve volume reduction and to avoid technical problems encountered in processes used for similar purposes (incineration, pyrolysis). Factors efficiency and kinetics of the oxidation of the ion exchange resins in acid medium using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant, namely, duration of treatment and the acid to resin ratio were studied systematically on a laboratory scale. Moreover the percent composition of the off-gas evolved during the decomposition process was analysed. 3 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Oxidative degradation of low and intermediate level Radioactive organic wastes 2. Acid decomposition on spent Ion-Exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghattas, N K; Eskander, S B [Radioisotope dept., atomic energy authority, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    The present work provides a simplified, effective and economic method for the chemical decomposition of radioactively contaminated solid organic waste, especially spent ion - exchange resins. The goal is to achieve volume reduction and to avoid technical problems encountered in processes used for similar purposes (incineration, pyrolysis). Factors efficiency and kinetics of the oxidation of the ion exchange resins in acid medium using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant, namely, duration of treatment and the acid to resin ratio were studied systematically on a laboratory scale. Moreover the percent composition of the off-gas evolved during the decomposition process was analysed. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Kinetic study of ion exchange in phosphoric acid chelating resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brikci-Nigassa, Mounir; Hamouche, Hafida

    1995-11-01

    Uranium may be recovered as a by product of wet phosphoric acid using a method based on specific ion exchange resins. These resins called chelates contain amino-phosphonic functional groups. The resin studied in this work is a purolite S-940; uranium may be loaded on this resin from 30% P2O5 phosphoric acid in its reduced state. The influence of different parameters on the successive steps of the process have been studied in batch experiments: uranium reduction, loading and oxydation. Uranium may be eluted with ammonium carbonate and the resin regeneration may be done with hydrochloric acid.Ferric ions reduce the effective resin capacity considerably and inert fixation conditions are proposed to enhance uranium loading

  3. ION EXCHANGE SUBSTANCES BY SAPONIFICATION OF ALLYL PHOSPHATE POLYMERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J.

    1959-04-14

    An ion exchange resin having a relatively high adsorption capacity tor uranyl ion as compared with many common cations is reported. The resin comprises an alphyl-allyl hydrogen phosphate polymer, the alphyl group being either allyl or a lower alkyl group having up to 5 carbon atoins. The resin is prepared by polymerizing compounds such as alkyl-diallyl phosphate and triallyl phosphate in the presence of a free radical generating substance and then partially hydrolyzing the resulting polymer to cause partial replacement of organic radicals by cations. A preferred free radical gencrating agent is dibenzoyl peroxide. The partial hydrolysis is brought about by refluxing the polymer with concentrated aqueous NaOH for three or four hours.

  4. Electrically switched cesium ion exchange. FY 1996 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilga, M.A.; Orth, R.J.; Sukamto, J.P.H.; Schwartz, D.T.; Haight, S.M.; Genders, D.

    1996-12-01

    An electrochemical method for metal ion separations, called Electrically Switched Ion Exchange, is described. Direct oxidation and reduction of an electroactive film attached to an electrode surface is used to load and unload the film with alkali metal cations. The electroactive films under investigation are Ni hexacyanoferrates, which are deposited on the surface by applying an anodic potential to a Ni electrode in a solution containing the ferricyanide anion. Reported film preparation procedures were modified to produce films with improved capacity and stability. Electrochemical behavior of the derivatized electrodes were investigated using cyclic voltammetry and chronocoulometry. The films show selectivity for Cs in concentrated sodium solutions. Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor changes in oxidation state of the film and imaging experiments have demonstrated that the redox reactions are spatially homogenous across the film. Requirements for a bench scale unit were identified

  5. The selectivity of zirconium phosphate for caesium in electrochemical ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lain, M.J.

    1988-11-01

    The properties of amorphous zirconium phosphate are investigated as an inorganic ion exchanger for use in liquid waste treatment by electrochemical ion exchange. Experiments to determine and increase the selectivity for caesium exchange over sodium are discussed, including various pulsed waveforms and studies with rotating membranes. Automation of a sampling system with pH and atomic absorption measurements is described. (author)

  6. Study of Aging ion exchange membranes used in separation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellakhal, N.; Ghalloussi, R.; Dammak, L.

    2009-01-01

    Presently, the most important application of ion exchange membranes (IEM) is the electrodialysis. This technique consists of a membrane separation using a series of anion exchange membranes alternately and cations, often used for the desalination of brackish water. These membranes are confronted with problems of aging. Indeed, the more they are used more physical and chemical properties will change. A comparative study of the behavior of both EMI and new but the same treatment is carried out by measuring a magnitude transfer characteristic: ion permeability. Ionic permeability is a physical quantity can have an idea about the selectivity of the membrane towards the charged species and the p orosity o f the membrane. It is a transport of ions (cations + anions) through the membrane. Thus, determining the ion permeability is to determine the diffusion flux of a strong electrolyte through a membrane separating two compartments (one containing electrolytes and other water initially ultrapure who will gradually electrolyte through the membrane). The measurement technique used is that by conductimetric detection because of the ease of its implementation and its accuracy. Thus, the variation of the concentration of the electrolyte is continuously monitored by measuring the conductivity of the solution diluted with time. The curves s = f (t) MEA and MEC new and used varying concentration of the electrolyte membranes show that let in less waste of strong electrolyte (NaCl and HCl) than new ones. This can be explained by: - The functional sites are combined with polyvalent ions present even in trace amounts in the solution process and become inactive. The membrane loses its hydrophilic character and turns into a film almost hydrophobic. - The chemical attacks and electrodialysis operations have degraded and eliminated much of the fixed sites leading to the same effects on the hydrophilic membrane. - These two assumptions have been reinforced by the extent of exchange

  7. New ion exchange resin designs and regeneration procedures yield improved performance for various condensate polishing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najmy, S.W.

    2002-01-01

    Condensate polishing is an application with many different design and operational aspects. The past decade has brought new challenges for improved water quality with respect to both soluble and insoluble contaminants. Nonetheless, the endeavors to understand the compositional complexities of the ion exchange resin bead and the convoluted dynamics of ion exchange chemistry and chemical engineering mechanisms occurring within the mixed bed condensate polisher have brought new ideas and expectations for ion exchange resin in deep-bed condensate polishers than ever before. The new products and procedures presented here are a collaboration of a great deal of effort on the part of researchers, consultants, system engineers, station chemists, lab technicians and others. The studies discussed in this paper unequivocally demonstrate the merits of: 1. A specially designed cation resin to achieve greater than 95% insoluble iron removal efficiency, 2. A less-separable mixed resin for improved control of reactor water sulfate in BWR primary cycles, 3. Applying increased levels of regeneration chemicals and retrofitting the service vessels with re-mixing capability to improve the operation of deep-bed condensate polishers in PWR secondary cycles. (authors)

  8. Treatment of low-activity-level process wastewaters by continuous countercurrent ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.; Watson, J.S.; Robinson, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    A mobile pilot-scale continuous countercurrent ion-exchange (CCIX) system is being operated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the treatment of wastewaters that contain predominantly calcium sodium, and magnesium bicarbonates and are slightly contaminated with 90 Sr and 137 Cs radioisotopes. A demonstration study is being conducted to evaluate the near-steady-state performance and feasibility of a pilot-scale CCIX column for the selective removal of strontium from wastewater. Test results show that the process removes strontium sufficiently from the wastewater to permit discharge while significantly reducing the volume of secondary waste generation. CCIX has the potential for effective use in several applications; however, it has not been frequently utilized by industries to date. The CCIX system could offer an economical alternative for decontamination of wastewaters containing trace amounts of contaminants prior to discharge into the environment. This paper discusses (a) application of the Thomas model for predicting breakthrough curves from ion exchange column tests, (b) methods for scaleup of experimental small-scale ion-exchange columns to industrial-scale columns, and (c) methods for predicting effluent compositions in a CCIX system. 20 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Electrodeionization 1: migration of nickel ions absorbed in a rigid, macroporous cation-exchange resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoor, P.B.; Veen, ter W.R.; Janssen, L.J.J.

    2001-01-01

    The removal of nickel ions from a packed bed of ion-exchange material under an applied potential is studied. This process involves the use of an electrodialysis type cell in which the centre compartment is filled with a packed bed of ion-exchange particles. The bed width, concentration of nickel in

  10. Ion-Isotopic Exchange Reaction Kinetics using Anion Exchange Resins Dowex 550A LC and Indion-930A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.U. Singare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the characterization of ion exchange resins Dowex 550A LC and Indion-930A based on kinetics of ion-isotopic exchange reactions for which the short lived radioactive isotopes 131I and 82Br were used as a tracers. The study was performed for different concentration of ionic solution varying from 0.001 mol/L to 0.004 mol/L and temperature in the range of 30.0 °C to 45.0 °C. The results indicate that as compared to bromide ion-isotopic exchange reaction, iodide exchange reaction take place at the faster rate. For both the ion-isotopic exchange reactions, under identical experimental conditions, the values of specific reaction rate increases with increase in the ionic concentration and decreases with rise in temperature. It was observed that at 35.00C, 1.000 g of ion exchange resins and 0.002 mol/L labeled iodide ion solution for iodide ion-isotopic exchange reaction, the values of specific reaction rate (min-1, amount of ion exchanged (mmol, initial rate of ion exchange (mmol/min and log Kd were 0.270, 0.342, 0.092 and 11.8 respectively for Dowex 550A LC resin, which was higher than the respective values of 0.156, 0.241, 0.038 and 7.4 as that obtained for Indion-930A resins. From the results, it appears that Dowex 550A LC resins show superior performance over Indion-930A resins under identical experimental conditions.

  11. Crystalline silicotitanates--new ion exchanger for selective removal of cesium and strontium from radwastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosch, R.G.; Klavetter, E.A.; Stephens, H.P.; Brown, N.E.; Anthony, R.G.

    1996-08-01

    A new class of inorganic ion exchange material called crystalline silicotitanates (CST) has been developed for radioactive waste treatment in a collaborative effort between Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A ampersand M University. The Sandia National Laboratories Laboratory Directed Research and Development program provided the initial funding for this effort and this report summarizes the rapid progress that was achieved. A wide range of compositions were synthesized, evaluated for cesium (Cs) removal efficiency, and a composition called TAM-5 was developed that exhibits high selectivity and affinity for Cs and strontium (Sr). Tests show it can remove parts per million concentrations of Cs + from highly alkaline, high-sodium, simulated radioactive waste solutions modeled after those at Hanford, Oak Ridge, and Savannah River. In experiments with solutions that simulate highly alkaline Hanford defense wastes, the crystalline silicotitanates exhibit distribution coefficients for Cs + of greater than 2,000 ml/g, and distribution coefficients greater than 10,000 ml/g for solutions adjusted to a pH between 1 and 10. In addition, the CSTs were found to exhibit distribution coefficients for Sr + greater than 100,000 ml/g and for plutonium of 2,000 ml/g from simulated Hanford waste. The CST crystal structure was determined and positions of individual atoms identified using x-ray and neutron diffraction. The structural information has permitted identification of the ion exchange sites and provided insights into the strong effect of pH on Cs ion exchange. Information on the synthesis, composition, and structure of CST is considered proprietary and is not discussed in this report

  12. Evaluation of Ion Exchange Materials in K Basin Floor Sludge and Potential Solvents for PCB Extraction from Ion Exchange Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, A.J.; Klinger, G.S.; Bredt, P.R.

    1998-01-01

    Approximately 73 m 3 of heterogeneous solid material, ''sludge,'' (upper bound estimate, Packer 1997) have accumulated at the bottom of the K Basins in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. This sludge is a mixture of spent fuel element corrosion products, ion exchange materials (organic and inorganic), graphite-based gasket materials, iron and aluminum metal corrosion products, sand, and debris (Makenas et al. 1996, 1997). In addition, small amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found. These small amounts are significant from a regulatory standpoint. Ultimately, it is planned to transfer the K Basins sludge to the Hanford double shell tanks (DSTs). Chemical pretreatment is required to address criticality issues and the destruction or removal of PCBs before the K Basin sludge can be transferred to the DSTs. Eleven technologies have been evaluated (Papp 1997) as potential pretreatment methods. Based on the evaluations and engineering studies and limited testing, Fluor Daniel Hanford recommended solvent washing of the K Basin sludge, followed by nitric acid dissolution and, potentially, peroxide addition (FDH 1997). The solvent washing (extraction) and peroxide addition would be used to facilitate PCB removal and destruction. Following solvent extraction, the PCBs could be distilled and concentrated for disposal as a low-level waste. The purpose of the work reported here was to continue investigating solvent extraction, first by better identifying the ion exchange materials in the actual sludge samples and then evaluating various solvents for removing the PCBs or possibly dissolving the resins. This report documents some of the process knowledge on ion exchange materials used and spilled in the K Basins and describes the materials identified from wet sieving KE Basin floor and canister sludge and the results of other analyses. Several photographs are included to compare materials and illustrate material behavior. A summary of previous tests on solvent

  13. Influence of some factors on kinetics of boron ions sorption by inorganic anion exchanger of MNG type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leont'eva, G.V.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to the influence of particle size of anion exchanger and boron ion concentration on boron sorption from the solution of the following composition (kg/m 3 ): Na + -71.3; K + - 1.9; Ca 2+ - 43.8; Mg 2+ - 5.7; B 2 O 3 -0.32-1.50; Cl - - 204.6, SO 4 2- - 0.02, CO 3 2+ - 0.40; HCO 3 - - 1.74; pH=8.1; density - 1225 kg/m 3 . Increase of dispersivity of ion-exchange material promotes the elevation of sorption rate. Increase of boron ion concentration in the solution leads to exchange capacity growth and reduction of latent period of nucleation; this results to increase of sorption rate

  14. Retention Behaviour of Copper, Zinc, Cadmium and Lead Ions on Synthesized Zirconium Titanate Ion Exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, I.M.; Abdel-Galil, E.A.; Moustafa, M.E.; Mahmoud, M.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Zr(IV) titanate as inorganic ion exchange material has been synthesized and utilized as the adsorbent for the removal of Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ ions from aqueous waste solutions. The experimental data were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. The results suggest that the adsorption of the studied metals Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ ions on Zr(IV) titanate was favourable for the Freundlich isotherm more than Langmuir isotherm. The numerical values of 1/n for the studied metal ions were found to be smaller than the one (1/n L ) was found to be R L > 1 which confirmed that the prepared Zr(IV) titanate unfavourable the Langmuir isotherm. Based on the obtained results, practical separation experiments for the above mentioned cations on Zr(IV) titanate (ZrTi) column from aqueous waste solutions were carried out.

  15. Ion-exchange equilibria and diffusion in engineered backfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soudek, A.; Jahnke, F.M.; Radke, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    Engineered backfill can add confidence to confinement times of high-level nuclear waste stored in geologic media. This paper discusses the design and operation of a unique radial-flow diffusion cell to determine ion migration rates in backfill material under realistic repository conditions. New experimental results were reported for diffusion of CsCl in a background of NaCl into compacted bentonite and bentonite/quartz mixtures. Representation of the measured diffusion rates by the traditional, homogeneous porous-medium model significantly underestimates cesium penetration distances into the backfill. Surface diffusion is suggested as an additional mechanism by which cations transport in swollen montmorillonite; the surface diffusion coefficients for cesium is determined to be approximately 10 -7 cm 2 /s. An electrostatic site-binding model is developed for ion-exchange equilibria on montmorillonite clay. The effect of pH, ionic strength, and specific adsorption are evaluated and compared favorably to new, experimental exchange isotherms measured on disaggregated clay. The electrostatic site-binding model permits a prediction of the influence of backfill compaction on K/sub d/ values. We find that for strongly adsorbing cations, compactions has little effect. However, anions exhibit significant Donnan exclusion with clay compaction. 40 references, 12 figures

  16. Ion exchangers in radioactive waste management: natural Iranian zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilchi, A; Maalek, B; Khanchi, A; Ghanadi Maragheh, M; Bagheri, A; Savoji, K

    2006-01-01

    Five samples of natural zeolites from different parts of Iran were chosen for this study. In order to characterize and determine their structures, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectrometry were carried out for each sample. The selective absorption properties of each zeolite were found by calculating the distribution coefficient (K(d)) of various simulated wastes which were prepared by spiking the radionuclides with (131)I, (99)Mo, (153)Sm, (140)La and (147)Nd. All the zeolite samples used in this study had extremely high absorption value towards (140)La; clinoptolite from Mianeh and analsite from Ghalehkhargoshi showed good absorption for (147)Nd; clinoptolite from Semnan and clinoptolite from Firozkoh showed high absorption for (153)Sm; mesolite from Arababad Tabas showed good absorption for (99)Mo; and finally mesolite from Arababad Tabas, clinoptolite from Semnan and clinoptolite from Firozkoh could be used to selectively absorb (131)I from the stimulated waste which was prepared. The natural zeolites chosen for these studies show a similar pattern to those synthetic ion exchangers in the literature and in some cases an extremely high selectivity towards certain radioactive elements. Hence the binary separation of radioactive elements could easily be carried out. Furthermore, these zeolites, which are naturally occurring ion exchangers, are viable economically and extremely useful alternatives in this industry.

  17. Radiation stability of sodium titanate ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenna, B.T.

    1980-02-01

    Sodium titanate and sodium titanate loaded macroreticular resin are being considered as ion exchangers to remove 90 Sr and actinides from the large volume of defense waste stored at Hanford Site in Washington. Preliminary studies to determine the radiation effect on Sr +2 and I - capacity of these ion-exchange materials were conducted. Samples of sodium titanate powder, sodium titanate loaded macroreticular resin, as well as the nitrate form of macroreticular anion resin were irradiated with up to 2 x 10 9 Rads of 60 Co gamma rays. Sodium titanate cation capacity decreased about 50% while the sodium titanate loaded macroeticular resin displayed a dramatic decrease in cation capacity when irradiated with 10 8 -10 9 Rad. The latter decrease is tentatively ascribed to radiation damage to the organic portion which subsequently inhibits interaction with the contained sodium titanate. The anion capacity of both macroreticular resin and sodium titanate loaded macroreticular resin exhibited significant decreases with increasing radiation exposure. These results suggest that consideration should be given to the potential effects of radiation degradation if column regeneration is to be used. 5 figures, 2 tables

  18. Data quality objectives for Ion Exchange Module (IXM) disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, I.

    1995-01-01

    This Data Quality Objective (DQO) document presents the data needs and accuracy requirements for sampling ion exchange modules at the K Basins, 100 K Area, to determine if there is a hydrogen gas buildup within the modules. This document was produced by PNL, with the assistance of Neptune and Associates, and was partly funded (for facilitator) by DOE-HQ as a demonstration DQO for EM activities. PNL involved a number of PNL, WHC and support contract staff (including external technical consultants) in meetings to define the data needed, along with the necessary accuracy, to resolve issues associated with hydrogen accumulation in Ion Exchange Modules (IXMS) that were generated prior to July 1994 and only have one nuc-fil vent. IXMs generated after July 1994 have multiple nuc-fil vents and do not require sampling. PNL transmitted this DQO to WHC on January 31, 1995. This Supporting Document is to assure that the document is captured into the document retrieval system. WHC review focused on the acceptability of the technical conclusions such that the data collected will meet minimum operational, safety and environmental needs

  19. Synthesis of layered sodium lanthanum selenide through ion exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butts, Laura J.; Strickland, Nicholas; Martin, Benjamin R.

    2009-01-01

    Layered hexagonal KLaSe2 (α-NaFeO 2 -type) was synthesized using the reactive flux method and analyzed by powder XRD to determine its lattice constants (space group R-3m, a = 4.40508(5) A, c = 22.7838(5) A). NaLaSe 2 , which normally crystallizes as a disordered rock salt structure with mixed Na+/La + 3 sites, was synthesized through a solid state ion exchange reaction at 585 deg. C from a 1:3 molar ratio mixture of KLaSe 2 :NaI. The product of this reaction was hexagonally layered NaLaSe 2 (space group R-3m, a = 4.3497(3) A, c = 20.808(2) A) isostructural to KLaSe 2 . This product was analyzed by comparison with members of the set of solid solutions Na (1-x) K (x) LaSe 2 to confirm that the extent ion exchange in this reaction was complete. Cubic (disordered) NaLaSe 2 was also reacted with KI to yield the poorly crystalline hexagonally layered product with the approximate formula Na 0.79 K 0.21 LaSe 2

  20. Low-level liquid waste decontamination by ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.O.; Lee, D.D.; Dillow, T.A.

    1991-12-01

    Improved processes are being developed to treat contaminated liquid wastes that have been and continue to be generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Both inorganic and organic ion-exchange methods have given promising results. Nickel and cobalt hexacyanoferrate(2) compounds are extremely selective for cesium removal, with distribution coefficients in excess of 10 6 and remarkable insensitivity to competition from sodium and potassium. They tend to lose effectiveness at pH > ∼11, but some formulations are useful for limited periods of time up to pH ∼13. Sodium titanate is selective for strontium removal at high pH. The separations are so efficient that simple batch processes can yield large decontamination factors while generating small volumes of solid waste. A resorcinol-based resin developed at the Savannah River Site gave superior cesium removal, compared with other organic ion exchangers; the distribution coefficient was limited primarily by competition from potassium and was nearly independent of sodium. The optimum pH was ∼12.5. It was much less effective for strontium removal, which was limited by competition from sodium. 8 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs

  1. Junction Potentials Bias Measurements of Ion Exchange Membrane Permselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, Ryan S; Flotron, Sophie; Zhu, Shan; Call, Douglas F; Coronell, Orlando

    2018-04-17

    Ion exchange membranes (IEMs) are versatile materials relevant to a variety of water and waste treatment, energy production, and industrial separation processes. The defining characteristic of IEMs is their ability to selectively allow positive or negative ions to permeate, which is referred to as permselectivity. Measured values of permselectivity that equal unity (corresponding to a perfectly selective membrane) or exceed unity (theoretically impossible) have been reported for cation exchange membranes (CEMs). Such nonphysical results call into question our ability to correctly measure this crucial membrane property. Because weighing errors, temperature, and measurement uncertainty have been shown to not explain these anomalous permselectivity results, we hypothesized that a possible explanation are junction potentials that occur at the tips of reference electrodes. In this work, we tested this hypothesis by comparing permselectivity values obtained from bare Ag/AgCl wire electrodes (which have no junction) to values obtained from single-junction reference electrodes containing two different electrolytes. We show that permselectivity values obtained using reference electrodes with junctions were greater than unity for CEMs. In contrast, electrodes without junctions always produced permselectivities lower than unity. Electrodes with junctions also resulted in artificially low permselectivity values for AEMs compared to electrodes without junctions. Thus, we conclude that junctions in reference electrodes introduce two biases into results in the IEM literature: (i) permselectivity values larger than unity for CEMs and (ii) lower permselectivity values for AEMs compared to those for CEMs. These biases can be avoided by using electrodes without a junction.

  2. Plasma arc pyrolysis of radioactive ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickles, C.A.; Toguri, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on two ion exchange resins (IRN 77 and IRN 78) which were pyrolysed in a plasma-arc furnace. Both continuous and batch tests were performed. Volume reduction ratios of 10 to 1 and 10 to 3.5 were achieved for IRN 78 and IRN 77 respectively. The product of the resin pyrolysis was a char which contained the radioactive elements such as cobalt. The off-gases consisted of mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide. There was a relatively small amount of dust in the off-gases. At the present time radioactive ion exchange resign is being kept in storage. The volume of this waste is increasing and it is important that the volume be reduce. The volume reduction ratio should be of the order of ten-to-one. Also, it is required that the radioactive elements can be collected or fixed in a form which could easily be disposed of. Plasma arc treatment offers considerable potential for the processing of the waste

  3. FTIR study of carbon monoxide adsorption on ion-exchanged X, Y and mordenite type zeolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. HERCIGONJA

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work Fourier transform infrared (FTIR study has been applied to study the adsorption of carbon monoxide on transition metal (Mn+, Co2+, Ni2+ ion-exchanged zeolites type Y, X and mordenites. The adsorption of CO at room temperature produces overlapping IR absorption bands in the 2120–2200 cm-1 region. The frequency of the band around 2200 cm-1 is found to be dependent not only on the charge-balancing transition metal cation, but also on the framework composition. The frequencies of the band near 1600 cm-1 was found to be dependent on the Si/Al ratio of the investigated zeolites.

  4. Kinetics of solid-phase in ion exchange on tin hydrogen phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kislitsyn, M.N.; Ketsko, V.A.; Yaroslavtsev, A.B.

    2004-01-01

    Solid state reactions in mixture of tin hydrogen phosphate and alkali metal (M=Na, K, Cs) chlorides have been studied both in the mode of polythermal heating and at a fixed temperature, using data of X-ray phase and thermogravimetric analyses. In the range 400-750 Deg C solid state ion exchange reactions occur in the systems studied and yield mono-- and dialkali phosphates MHSn(PO 4 ) 2 and M 2 Sn(PO 4 ) 2 . Counter diffusion coefficients for alkali metal cations and protons in the matrices of compositions MHSn(PO 4 ) 2 and M 2 Sn(PO 4 ) 2 have been determined [ru

  5. Mesoporous titanium phosphate molecular sieves with ion-exchange capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, A; Inagaki, S

    2001-01-31

    Novel open framework molecular sieves, titanium(IV) phosphates named, i.e., TCM-7 and -8 (Toyota Composite Materials, numbers 7 and 8), with new mesoporous cationic framework topologies obtained by using both cationic and anionic surfactants are reported. The (31)P MAS NMR, UV-visible absorption, and XANES data suggest the tetrahedral state of P and Ti, and stabilization of the tetrahedral state of Ti in TCM-7/8 is due to the incorporation of phosphorus (at Ti/P = 1:1) vis-à-vis the most stable octahedral state of Ti in the pure mesoporous TiO(2). Mesoporous TCM-7 and -8 show anion exchange capacity due to the framework phosphonium cation and cation exchange capacity due to defective P-OH groups. The high catalytic activity in the liquid-phase partial oxidation of cyclohexene with a dilute H(2)O(2) oxidant supports the tetrahedral coordination of Ti in these materials.

  6. Enhanced DOC removal using anion and cation ion exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Paic, Miguel; Cawley, Kaelin M; Byg, Steve; Rosario-Ortiz, Fernando L

    2016-01-01

    Hardness and DOC removal in a single ion exchange unit operation allows for less infrastructure, is advantageous for process operation and depending on the water source, could enhance anion exchange resin removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Simultaneous application of cationic (Plus) and anionic (MIEX) ion exchange resin in a single contact vessel was tested at pilot and bench scales, under multiple regeneration cycles. Hardness removal correlated with theoretical predictions; where measured hardness was between 88 and 98% of the predicted value. Comparing bench scale DOC removal of solely treating water with MIEX compared to Plus and MIEX treated water showed an enhanced DOC removal, where removal was increased from 0.5 to 1.25 mg/L for the simultaneous resin application compared to solely applying MIEX resin. A full scale MIEX treatment plant (14.5 MGD) reduced raw water DOC from 13.7 mg/L to 4.90 mg/L in the treated effluent at a bed volume (BV) treatment rate of 800, where a parallel operation of a simultaneous MIEX and Plus resin pilot (10 gpm) measured effluent DOC concentrations of no greater than 3.4 mg/L, even at bed volumes of treatment 37.5% greater than the full scale plant. MIEX effluent compared to simultaneous Plus and MIEX effluent resulted in differences in fluorescence intensity that correlated to decreases in DOC concentration. The simultaneous treatment of Plus and MIEX resin produced water with predominantly microbial character, indicating the enhanced DOC removal was principally due to increased removal of terrestrially derived organic matter. The addition of Plus resin to a process train with MIEX resin allows for one treatment process to remove both DOC and hardness, where a single brine waste stream can be sent to sewer at a full-scale plant, completely removing lime chemical addition and sludge waste disposal for precipitative softening processes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Studies of the hydrous titanium oxide ion exchanger. 4. Rate of the isotopic exchange of sodium ions between the exchanger in the Na+ form and aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yasushi; Yamazaki, Hiromichi; Kasuga, Fuminori

    1995-01-01

    The isotopic exchange rate of Na + between hydrous titanium(IV) oxides, precipitated at pH 6 and 13, in the Na + form and aqueous solution of sodium salt was determined radiochemically. The rate in the exchanger precipitated at pH 6 is controlled by the diffusion of Na + in the exchanger particles (particle diffusion). The diffusion coefficient and its activation energy are 1.9 x 10 -11 m 2 s -1 (pH 12, 5.0degC) and 29 kJ mol -1 (pH 12), respectively. The rate in the exchanger precipitated at pH 13 is also controlled by the particle diffusion. The rate is much slower than that in the other; this can be explained by assuming the existence of two kinds of independently diffusing ions (fast and slow species) in the exchanger. The diffusion coefficients are of the order of 10 -12 and 10 -13 m 2 s -1 for the fast and the slow species, respectively. Their activation energies are 48-60 kJ mol -1 at pH 12. The marked difference in kinetics between two exchanges was interpreted in terms of the difference in the acid-base property and in the microstructure of the matrix. (author)

  8. Is the surface oxygen exchange rate linked to bulk ion diffusivity in mixed conducting Ruddlesden-Popper phases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkiewicz, Alex C; Tamimi, Mazin A; Huq, Ashfia; McIntosh, Steven

    2015-01-01

    The possible link between oxygen surface exchange rate and bulk oxygen anion diffusivity in mixed ionic and electronic conducting oxides is a topic of great interest and debate. While a large body of experimental evidence and theoretical analyses support a link, observed differences between bulk and surface composition of these materials are hard to reconcile with this observation. This is further compounded by potential problems with simultaneous measurement of both parameters. Here we utilize separate techniques, in situ neutron diffraction and pulsed isotopic surface exchange, to examine bulk ion mobility and surface oxygen exchange rates of three Ruddlesden-Popper phases, general form A(n-1)A(2)'B(n)O(3n+1), A(n-1)A(2)'B(n)X(3n+1); LaSrCo(0.5)Fe(0.5)O(4-δ) (n = 1), La(0.3)Sr(2.7)CoFeO(7-δ) (n = 2) and LaSr3Co(1.5)Fe(1.5)O(10-δ) (n = 3). These measurements are complemented by surface composition determination via high sensitivity-low energy ion scattering. We observe a correlation between bulk ion mobility and surface exchange rate between materials. The surface exchange rates vary by more than one order of magnitude with high anion mobility in the bulk of an oxygen vacancy-rich n = 2 Ruddlesden-Popper material correlating with rapid oxygen exchange. This is in contrast with the similar surface exchange rates which we may expect due to similar surface compositions across all three samples. We conclude that experimental limitations lead to inherent convolution of surface and bulk rates, and that surface exchange steps are not likely to be rate limiting in oxygen incorporation.

  9. Application of ion-exchange unit in uranium extraction process in China (to be continued)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Chuanwen

    2004-01-01

    The application conditions of five different ion exchange units in uranium milling plant and wastewater treatment plant of uranium mine in China are introduced, including working parameters, existing problems and improvements. The advantages and disadvantages of these units are reviewed briefly. The procedure points to be followed in selecting ion exchange unit are recommended in the engineering design. The primary views are presented upon the application prospects of some ion exchange units in uranium extraction process in China

  10. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility ion exchange module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, T.

    1997-01-01

    The Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) is in need of providing an emergency ion exchange system to remove cesium or strontium from the pool cell in the event of a capsule failure. The emergency system is call the WESF Emergency Ion Exchange System and the packaging is called the WESF ion exchange module (WIXM). The packaging system will meet the onsite transportation requirements for a Type B, highway route controlled quantity package as well as disposal requirements for Category 3 waste

  11. Extraction of Co ions from ion-exchange resin by supercritical carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Min Su; Koh, Moon Sung; Yang, Sung Woo; Park, Kwang Heon; Kim, Hak Won; Kim, Hong Doo

    2005-01-01

    There are a number of liquid treatment processes for eliminating radioactive ionic contaminants in nuclear facilities. One of the most common treatment methods for aqueous streams is the use of ion exchange, which is a well-developed technique that has been employed for many years in the nuclear industry. More specifically speaking, systems that ion exchange method is applied to in nuclear power plants are liquid radioactive waste treatment system, chemical and volume control system, steam generator blowdown treatment system, and service water supply system. During the operation of nuclear power plants, radioactive contaminants such as Co-60, Mn-54, Fe-59 and Cs-137 are contained in liquid radioactive wastes. And the wastes containing small amount of uranium are generated in nuclear fuel cycle facilities. To treat the liquid radioactive waste, we usually install ion exchangers rather than evaporators due to their simplicity and effectiveness, and this trend is increasing. However, the ion exchange process produces large volume of spent organic resin, and has some problems of radiation damage and thermal instability. And the reuse of the resin is limited due to the degradation of ion-exchanging ability. For this reason, were should consider a better method to expand the lifetime of the resin or to reduce the volume of radioactive resin wastes by extracting radioactive contaminants located in the resin. Supercritical fluid CO 2 has many good points as a process solvent that include low viscosity, negligible surface tension, and variable selectivity. And supercritical fluids have physical properties of both liquid and gas such as good penetration with a high dissolution capability. Supercritical fluids have been widely used in extraction, purification, and recovery processes. A number of workers applied supercritical CO 2 solvent for cleaning of precision devices and waste treatments. Since supercritical CO 2 has its mild critical point at 31 and 73.8bar as .deg. C

  12. Ion Exchange Column Tests Supporting Technetium Removal Resin Maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hamm, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Morse, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-12-20

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, currently under construction. The baseline plan for this facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW). Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and sealed in canisters. The LAW glass will be disposed on site. There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Due to the soluble properties of pertechnetate and long half-life of 99Tc, effective management of 99Tc is important. Options are being explored to immobilize the supplemental LAW portion of the tank waste, as well as to examine the volatility of 99Tc during the vitrification process. Removal of 99Tc, followed by off-site disposal has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. A conceptual flow sheets for supplemental LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal will specifically examine removing 99Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. SuperLig® 639 is an elutable ion exchange resin. In the tank waste, 99Tc is predominantly found in the tank supernate as pertechnetate (TcO4-). Perrhenate (ReO4-) has been shown to be a good non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate in laboratory testing for this ion exchange resin. This report contains results of experimental ion exchange distribution coefficient and column resin maturation kinetics testing using the resin SuperLig® 639a to selectively remove perrhenate from simulated LAW. This revision includes results from testing to determine effective resin operating temperature range. Loading tests were performed at 45°C, and the computer modeling was updated to include the temperature effects. Equilibrium contact testing indicated that this batch of

  13. Small Column Ion Exchange Design and Safety Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, T.; Rios-Armstrong, M.; Edwards, R.; Herman, D.

    2011-01-01

    Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) is a transformational technology originally developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM-30) office and is now being deployed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to significantly increase overall salt processing capacity and accelerate the Liquid Waste System life-cycle. The process combines strontium and actinide removal using Monosodium Titanate (MST), Rotary Microfiltration, and cesium removal using Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST, specifically UOP IONSIV(reg s ign)IE-911 ion exchanger) to create a low level waste stream to be disposed in grout and a high level waste stream to be vitrified. The process also includes preparation of the streams for disposal, e.g., grinding of the loaded CST material. These waste processing components are technically mature and flowsheet integration studies are being performed including glass formulations studies, application specific thermal modeling, and mixing studies. The deployment program includes design and fabrication of the Rotary Microfilter (RMF) assembly, ion-exchange columns (IXCs), and grinder module, utilizing an integrated system safety design approach. The design concept is to install the process inside an existing waste tank, Tank 41H. The process consists of a feed pump with a set of four RMFs, two IXCs, a media grinder, three Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), and all supporting infrastructure including media receipt and preparation facilities. The design addresses MST mixing to achieve the required strontium and actinide removal and to prevent future retrieval problems. CST achieves very high cesium loadings (up to 1,100 curies per gallon (Ci/gal) bed volume). The design addresses the hazards associated with this material including heat management (in column and in-tank), as detailed in the thermal modeling. The CST must be size reduced for compatibility with downstream processes. The design addresses material transport into and out of the grinder and

  14. Studies on the application of temperature-responsive ion exchange polymers with whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, Pankaj; Campi, Eva M; De Silva, Kirthi; Woonton, Brad W; Jackson, W Roy; Hearn, Milton T W

    2016-03-18

    Several new types of temperature-responsive ion exchange resins of different polymer composition have been prepared by grafting the products from the co-polymerisation of N-phenylacrylamide, N-iso-propylacrylamide and acrylic acid derivatives onto cross-linked agarose. Analysis of the binding isotherms for these different resins obtained under batch adsorption conditions indicated that the resin based on N-iso-propylacrylamide containing 5% (w/w) N-phenylacrylamide and 5% (w/w) acrylic acid resulted in the highest adsorption capacity, Bmax, for the whey protein, bovine lactoferrin, e.g. 14 mg bovine lactoferrin/mL resin at 4 °C and 62 mg bovine lactoferrin/mL resin at 40 °C, respectively. Under dynamic loading conditions at 40 °C, 94% of the loaded bovine lactoferrin on a normalised mg protein per mL resin basis was adsorbed by this new temperature-responsive ion-exchanger, and 76% was eluted by a single cycle temperature shift to 4 °C without varying the composition of the 10mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer, pH 6.5, or the flow rate. The binding characteristics of these different ion exchange resins with bovine lactoferrin were also compared to results obtained using other resins based on N-isopropylacrylamide but contained N-tert-butylacrylamide rather than N-phenylacrylamide, where the corresponding dynamic capture and release properties for bovine lactoferrin required different temperature conditions of 20 °C and 50 °C, respectively for optimal desorption/adsorption. The cationic protein, bovine lactoperoxidase, was also adsorbed and desorbed with these temperature-responsive resins under similar conditions of changing temperature, whereas the anionic protein, bovine β-lactoglobulin, was not adsorbed under this regime of temperature conditions but instead eluted in the flow-through. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of Electrically Switched Ion Exchange Process for Selective Ion Separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassat, Scot D.; Sukamto, Johanes H.; Orth, Rick J.; Lilga, Michael A.; Hallen, Richard T.

    1999-01-01

    The electrically switched ion exchange (ESIX) process, being developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, provides an alternative separation method to selectively remove ions from process and waste streams. In the ESIX process, in which an electroactive ion exchange film is deposited onto a high surface area electrode, uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the electrochemical potential of the film. This paper addresses engineering issues necessary to fully develop ESIX for specific industrial alkali cation separation challenges. The cycling and chemical stability and alkali cation selectivity of nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) electroactive films were investigated. The selectivity of NiHCF was determined using cyclic voltammetry and a quartz crystal microbalance to quantify ion uptake in the film. Separation factors indicated a high selectivity for cesium and a moderate selectivity for potassium in high sodium content solutions. A NiHCF film with improved redox cycling and chemical stability in a simulated pulp mill process stream, a targeted application for ESIX, was also prepared and tested

  16. Electrodialysis-ion exchange for the separation of dissolved salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baroch, C.J.; Grant, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy generates and stores a significant quantity of low level, high level, and mixed wastes. As some of the DOE facilities are decontaminated and decommissioned, additional and possibly different forms of wastes will be generated. A significant portion of these wastes are aqueous streams containing acids, bases, and salts, or are wet solids containing inorganic salts. Some of these wastes are quite dilute solutions, whereas others contain large quantities of nitrates either in the form of dissolved salts or acids. Many of the wastes are also contaminated with heavy metals, radioactive products, or organics. Some of these wastes are in storage because a satisfactory treatment and disposal processes have not been developed. This report describes the process of electrodialysis-ion exchange (EDIX) for treating aqueous wastes streams consisting of nitrates, sodium, organics, heavy metals, and radioactive species

  17. Ion exchange resins for water purification : properties and characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokhale, A.S.; Mathur, P.K.; Venkateswarlu, K.S.

    1987-01-01

    The report is divided into three sections. The first section contains a general introduction to ion exchange resins used in various processes, the second section describes characteristic properties of the polymer materials and the inter relation between them. This will, in turn, be useful to interpret the data obtained from the various tests carried out on the resins in the laboratory. In the third section of the report, are given the details of each method used for a particular test to be carried out on a routine basis. Each method describes the principle involved, the reagents and apparatus used in the experiment, the actual procedure and calculations and recording of the data. 3 refs. (author)

  18. Design of an ion exchange column for plutonium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, J.A. de; Matsuda, H.T.; Santos Tome Lobao, A. dos; Quesada, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    An ion exchange column design for plutonium recovering from scraps of the MOX fuel elements fabrication is presented. The proposed column is constructed in 304 stainless steel and borosilicate glass provided of heating-jacket and temperature control and pressure relief devices. Safety aspects required for alpha emitters handling have been also considered. The design and construction were performed totally at Brazilian Institute for Energetic and Nuclear Research. The equipment will be used in the plutonium separation step as a part of an installation named Facilidad Alfa at the Centro Atomico de Constituyentes-CNEA/Buenos Aires, where other processes, including dissolution denitration by microwaves and final steps of MOX pellets re-fabrication will be performed. (author). 4 refs, 3 figs

  19. Volume reduction of ion exchange resin by a pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, M.; Funabashi, K.; Uchida, S.; Kikuchi, M.

    1985-01-01

    Volume reduction techniques, such as incineration and acid digestion, of spent ion exchange resins from nuclear power plants are being developed with a view toward reducing radioactive waste volume and also making the final waste form more stable. The authors chose pyrolysis as a technique that can be done at low operating temperatures and low gas flow rates in a reactor vessel. Fundamental experiments were performed to clarify the resin pyrolysis characteristics, and the optimum pyrolysis temperature was determined. Consequently, a pilot plant with a treatment capacity of approx. 50 kg/batch was constructed based on the results. Using the pilot plant, the authors are now performing pyrolysis of the resins and solidification of their residues. This report will give the results of fundamental experiments and pilot plant tests

  20. Advances in the disposal of radioactive ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, S.B.

    1983-01-01

    During the last several years, more stringent regulations have been imposed on the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. In particular, the disposal of high-activity ion exchange resins has been affected by the recent requirements intended to enhance waste stability. High-activity resins must now be either solidified or placed in a ''high-integrity'' container. The allowable levels of free liquids in the containers have also been reduced. Solidification of resins has long been applied at nuclear power stations, but new designs in high-integrity containers and dewatering techniques to enhance the waste stability and ensure regulatory compliance have been developed and are being introduced for use at power stations

  1. Ion exchange and adsorption in nuclear chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, W.W.; Wheelwright, E.J.; Godbee, H.; Mallory, C.W.; Burney, G.A.; Wallace, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear industry involves a number of operations. Uranium ore must first be mined and the uranium recovered from the ore, purified, and concentrated. After the uranium has been enriched and fabricated into fuel elements, it is placed in nuclear reactors where it produces energy, fission products, and transmutation products. Finally, if the fuel cycle is completed, the uranium and useful transmutation products are recovered and separated from each other as well as from the fission products. The uranium may be recycled or used elsewhere, while most of the fission products become waste. Ion exchange finds use in nearly every part of the nuclear fuel cycle; these uses are the subject of this paper

  2. Electrodialysis-ion exchange for the separation of dissolved salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroch, C.J. [Wastren, Inc., Westminster, CO (United States); Grant, P.J. [Wastren, Inc., Hummelstown, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy generates and stores a significant quantity of low level, high level, and mixed wastes. As some of the DOE facilities are decontaminated and decommissioned, additional and possibly different forms of wastes will be generated. A significant portion of these wastes are aqueous streams containing acids, bases, and salts, or are wet solids containing inorganic salts. Some of these wastes are quite dilute solutions, whereas others contain large quantities of nitrates either in the form of dissolved salts or acids. Many of the wastes are also contaminated with heavy metals, radioactive products, or organics. Some of these wastes are in storage because a satisfactory treatment and disposal processes have not been developed. There is considerable interest in developing processes that remove or destroy the nitrate wastes. Electrodialysis-Ion Exchange (EDIX) is a possible process that should be more cost effective in treating aqueous waste steams. This report describes the EDIX process.

  3. Manifestation of exchange effects in heavy-ion interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igashov, S. Yu.; Tchuvil’sky, Yu. M.

    2011-01-01

    Three different approaches to taking into account exchange effects in heavy-ion collisions are studied. Within the first of them, the lowest eigenstates of the Hamiltonian are treated as forbidden states. In the second approach, the eigenstates of the normalization kernel of the resonating-group model that correspond to zero eigenvalues are treated as forbidden states. The third approach takes additionally into account semiforbidden states. The 16 O + 16 O system is considered. A hybrid approach that combines the methods of discrete and continuous mathematics is developed for calculating the widths of narrow resonance states. The resonance width calculated within the approach that takes into account semiforbidden states proves to be sharply different from the widths obtained within traditional approaches.

  4. Advanced integrated solvent extraction and ion exchange systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, P.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction (SX) and ion exchange (IX) systems are a series of novel SX and IX processes that extract and recover uranium and transuranics (TRUs) (neptunium, plutonium, americium) and fission products 90 Sr, 99 Tc, and 137 Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste and that sorb and recover 90 Sr, 99 Tc, and 137 Cs from alkaline supernatant high-level waste. Each system is based on the use of new selective liquid extractants or chromatographic materials. The purpose of the integrated SX and IX processes is to minimize the quantity of waste that must be vitrified and buried in a deep geologic repository by producing raffinates (from SX) and effluent streams (from IX) that will meet the specifications of Class A low-level waste

  5. Low-level liquid waste decontamination by inorganic ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.O.; Lee, D.D.; Dillow, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Improved processes are being developed to treat contaminated liquid wastes that have been and continue to be generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The most serious contaminants are 137 Cs and 90 Sr, and certain inorganic ion-exchange material have given promising results. Nickel and cobalt hexacyanoferrate (II) compounds are extremely selective for cesium removal, with distribution coefficients in excess of 10 6 even in the presence of high cesium and moderate potassium concentrations. Sodium titanate is selective for strontium removal from solutions with high alkali metal concentrations, especially at high pH. These separations are so efficient that one or two stages of simple, batch separation can yield large DFs (∼10 4 ) while still generating small volumes of solid waste

  6. Isotopic exchange kinetics of zinc ions in Zn-A zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radak, V M; Gal, I J; Salai, J J [Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia)

    1976-01-01

    The isotopic exchange kinetics of Zn/sup 2 +/ ions in hydrated Zn-A zeolite of composition (Znsub(5.55)Nasub(0.90)(A10/sub 2/)/sub 12/(Si0/sub 2/)/sub 12/.aq) have been investigated by measuring the fractional attainment of isotopic equilibrium between a ZnCl/sub 2/ solution and a /sup 65/Zn-labelled Zn-A zeolite (30 and 45 ..mu..m particle radii) as a function of time, in the temperature range 25 to 60/sup 0/C. The exchange mechanism is a two-step process which has been resolved, using the Brown-Sherry-Krambeck model (J.Phys.Chem.;75:3846(1971)) into diffusion in the solid particles, with Zn/sup 2 +/ diffusivity of D = 10sup(-3.97 + -0.03) exp(-Esub(D)/RT)m/sup 2/ s/sup -1/, Esub(D) = 67.1 +- 0.5 kJ molee/sup -1/, and an intracrystalline first-order exchange between bound and mobile Zn/sup 2 +/ ions in the network, with a rate constant of k/sub 2/ = 10sup(3.05 +- 0.25) exp(-Esub(k)/RT)s/sup -1/, Esub(k) = 56.5 +- 1.5 kJ mol/sup -1/.

  7. Evaluation of selected ion exchangers for the removal of cesium from MVST W-25 supernate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.L.; Egan, B.Z.; Anderson, K.K.; Chase, C.W.; Mrochek, J.E.; Bell, J.T.; Jernigan, G.E.

    1995-04-01

    The goal of this batch-test equilibration study was to evaluate the effectiveness of certain ion exchangers for removing cesium from supernate taken from tank W-25 of the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These exchangers were selective for removing cesium from alkaline supernatant solutions with high salt concentrations. Since the supernates of evaporator concentrates stored in tanks at the MVST facility have compositions similar to some of those stored in tanks at Hanford, the data generated in this study should prove useful in the overall evaluation of the ion exchangers for applications to Hanford and other US Department of Energy (USDOE) sites. A goal of the waste processing effort at Hanford is to remove enough cesium to ensure that the resulting LLW will meet the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) 10 CFR 61 class A limit for 137 Cs (1 Ci/m 3 or 1 μCi/mL). The separated cesium may be concentrated and vitrified for disposal in the high-level waste repository. The decontaminated effluent would be solidified for near-surface disposal

  8. Separation of zirconium from hafnium by ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felipe, Elaine C.B.; Palhares, Hugo G.; Ladeira, Ana Claudia Q., E-mail: elainecfelipe@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: hugopalhares@gmail.com, E-mail: ana.ladeira@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Zirconium and hafnium are two of the most important metals for the nuclear industry. Hafnium occurs in all zirconium ores usually in the range 2 - 3%. However, for the most nuclear industry applications, it is necessary to use a zirconium of extremely pure level. The current work consists in the separation of zirconium and hafnium by the ion exchange method in order to obtain a zirconium concentrate of high purity. The zirconium and hafnium liquors were produced from the leaching of the Zr(OH){sub 4} and Hf(OH){sub 4} with nitric acid for 24 hours. From these two liquors it was prepared one solution containing 7.5 x 10{sup -2} mol L{sup -1} of Zr and 5.8 x 10{sup -3} mol L{sup -1} of Hf with acidity of 1 M. Ion exchange experiments were carried out in batch with the resins Dowex 50WX4, Dowex 50WX8 100, Dowex 50WX8 50, Amberlite IR-120 and Marathon C at constant temperature 28 deg C. Other variables such as, acidity and agitation were kept constant. The data were adjusted to Langmuir equation in order to calculate the maximum loading capacity (q{sub max}) of the resins, the distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) for Zr and Hf and the separation factor (α{sub Hf}{sup Zr} ). The results of maximum loading capacity (q{sub max}) for Zr and Hf, in mmol g{sup -}1, showed that the most suitable resins for columns experiments are: Dowex 50WX4 50 (q{sub max} Z{sub r} = 2.21, Hf = 0.18), Dowex 50WX8 50 (q{sub max} Zr = 1.89, Hf = 0.13) and Amberlite (q{sub max} Zr = 1.64, Hf = 0.12). However, separations factors, α{sub Hf}{sup Zr}, showed that the resins are not selective. (author)

  9. MODELING CST ION EXCHANGE FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM SCIX BATCHES 1 - 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.

    2011-04-25

    The objective of this work is, through modeling, to predict the performance of Crystalline Silicotitinate (CST) for the removal of cesium from Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) Batches 1-4 (as proposed in Revision 16 of the Liquid Waste System Plan). The scope of this task is specified in Technical Task Request (TTR) 'SCIX Feed Modeling', HLE-TTR-2011-003, which specified using the Zheng, Anthony, Miller (ZAM) code to predict CST isotherms for six given SCIX feed compositions and the VErsatile Reaction and SEparation simulator for Liquid Chromatography (VERSE-LC) code to predict ion-exchange column behavior. The six SCIX feed compositions provided in the TTR represent SCIX Batches 1-4 and Batches 1 and 2 without caustic addition. The study also investigated the sensitivity in column performance to: (1) Flow rates of 5, 10, and 20 gpm with 10 gpm as the nominal flow; and (2) Temperatures of 25, 35, and 45 C with 35 C as the nominal temperature. The isotherms and column predictions presented in this report reflect the expected performance of engineered CST IE-911. This form of CST was used in experiments conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that formed the basis for estimating model parameters (Hamm et al., 2002). As has been done previously, the engineered resin capacity is estimated to be 68% of the capacity of particulate CST without binder.

  10. Electrolyte compositions for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng; Liao, Chen

    2016-03-29

    The invention is directed in a first aspect to an ionic liquid of the general formula Y.sup.+Z.sup.-, wherein Y.sup.+ is a positively-charged component of the ionic liquid and Z.sup.- is a negatively-charged component of the ionic liquid, wherein Z.sup.- is a boron-containing anion of the following formula: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to electrolyte compositions in which the boron-containing ionic liquid Y.sup.+Z.sup.- is incorporated into a lithium ion battery electrolyte, with or without admixture with another ionic liquid Y.sup.+X.sup.- and/or non-ionic solvent and/or non-ionic solvent additive.

  11. Effect of ion exchange on the rate of aerobic microbial oxidation of ammonium in hyporheic zone sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ailan; Liu, Chongxuan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Xu, Fen

    2018-03-01

    Microbially mediated ammonium oxidation is a major process affecting nitrogen transformation and cycling in natural environments. This study investigated whether ion exchange process can affect microbially mediated aerobic oxidation of ammonium in a hyporheic zone (HZ) sediments from the Columbia River at US Department of Energy's Hanford site, Washington State. Experiments were conducted using synthetic groundwater and river water to investigate their effect on ammonium oxidation. Results indicated that ammonium sorption through ion exchange reactions decreased the rate of ammonium oxidation, apparently resulting from the influence of the ion exchange on dissolved ammonium concentration, thus decreasing the bioavailability of ammonium for microbial oxidation. However, with the decrease in dissolved ammonium concentration, the sorbed ammonium released back to aqueous phase, and became bioavailable so that all the ammonium in the suspensions were oxidized. Our results implied a dynamic change in ammonium oxidation rates in an environment such as at HZ where river water and groundwater with different chemical compositions exchange frequently that can affect ammonium sorption and desorption through ion exchange reactions.

  12. Development of electrochemical ion exchange electrodes for the treatment of wastes containing chromium or cesium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manosso, Helena Cristina

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays, environmental preservation using technologies that do not attack it, generating non-toxic residues and reduced volumes, has been discussed. Hazardous effluents, containing metals, as chromium, have been poured in the soils and rivers, degrading the water. Not different are the problems originated from some nuclear activities that generate wastes, as in chemical research laboratories. Although those wastes are not poured in the environment, sometimes they are inadequately stored, what can cause serious accidents. With the purpose of solving this problem, there are some techniques to waste treatment, between them there is the electrochemical ion exchange (EIX). EIX is an advanced process that has advantages over traditional ion exchange and the fact of using the electron as the only reagent, reduces the volume of the solution to be treated. This technique consists of development of an electrode, where an ion exchanger is physically incorporated in an electrode structure with a binder. In this study, cationic resin Amberlite CG-50 and zirconium phosphate have been chosen for the separation of chromium and cesium from waste, respectively. They were chosen because they present high chemical stability in oxidizing media and at ionizing radiation. The quantity of charcoal, graphite and binder used in formulation of electrode have been studied either. Before choosing the best electrode, it was verified sorption percentage of 99,3% for chromium and 99,8% for cesium. The greater advantage of this process is the total elution of chromium as much as cesium, without reagents addition, being possible to reuse the electrode without losing its capacity. Beside on the results, a continuous process for the wastes containing Cr and Cs, using a flux electrolytic cell (CELFLUX) of high retention capacity, was presented. The high efficiency of this cell for both retention and elution, leading to an important reduction of waste volume, and, every more, making possible the

  13. Ion exchange removal of cesium from Hanford tank waste supernates with SuperLigR 644 resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, N.M.; McCabe, D.J.; King, W.D.; Hamm, L.L.

    2002-01-01

    SuperLig R 644 ion exchange resin is currently being evaluated for cesium ( 137 Cs) removal from radioactive Hanford tank waste supernates as part of the River Protection Project. Testing was performed with actual Hanford tank wastes of widely different compositions using two identical ion exchange columns connected in series each containing approximately 5.5-6.5 ml of SuperLig R 644 resin. The ion exchange columns utilized the same resin material that was eluted between the column tests. This was done to demonstrate the performance of the SuperLig R 644 resin for cesium removal from waste samples of different compositions, determine the loading and elution profiles, and to validate design assumptions for full-scale column performances. Decontaminated product solutions generated at the same operating temperature and constant residence times (bed volumes per hour) exhibited the same chemical compositions as their feed samples. The compositions of eluate solutions were generally as expected with the exception of uranium and total organic carbon, which where concentrated by the resin. Development of a pretreatment method for the SuperLig R 644 resin has been critical to successful column operation with different waste solutions. (author)

  14. Use of water as displacing agent in ion exchange chromatographic separation of isotope of boron using weak base ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.K.; Mohanakrishnan, G.; Anand Babu, C.; Krishna Prabhu, R.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to study the feasibility of using weakly basic anion exchange resin for enrichment of isotopes of boron by ion exchange chromatography and water as eluent. The results of experiments carried out to determine total chloride capacity (TCC), strong base capacity (SBC) of the resin at different concentrations of boric acid and enrichment profiles are reported in this paper. (author)

  15. Ion exchange separation of nitrate from uranium compounds and its determination by spectrophotometry and ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, M.A.F.; Atalla, L.T.; Abrao, A.

    1985-11-01

    A procedure for the separation of nitrate from uranium compounds by retaintion of uranyl ion on a cationic ion exchanger and its determination in the effluent is described. Nitrate is analysed by the spectrometric method with 1-phenol-2,4-dissulphonic acid. This determination covers the 1 to 10 μg NO - 3 /mL range and requires an amount of 10 to 100 μg NO - 3 . The main interference is uranium (VI) due its own intense yellow color. This difficulty is overcome by the complete separation of UO 2 ++ with the cationic resin. Alternatively, the ion chromatography technique is used for the determination of nitrate in the effluent of the cationic resin. The determination was easily made by the comparison of the nitrate peak hights of the analyte and the standard solutions. The ion chromatography method is very sensitive (0,3 μg NO - 3 /mL), reproducible and suitable for routine analysis and permits the determination of fraction of part per million of nitrate in uranium. The results of nitrate determination using both spectrophotometric and ion chromatography techniques are compared. The method is being routinely applied for the quality control of uranium compounds in the fuel cycle, specially uranium oxide, ammonium diuranate, uranium peroxide and ammonium uranyl tricarbonate. (Author) [pt

  16. Isotopic exchange rate of cobalt ions between hydrous tin(IV) oxide and aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yasushi; Yamazaki, Hiromichi; Itami, Akira

    1989-01-01

    The isotopic exchange rate of cobalt ions between hydrous tin(IV) oxide ion exchanger and aqueous solutions was radiochemically measured to obtain fundamental data which are useful for elucidating the ion-exchange kinetics of the material for the transition metal elements. The rate can be understood by considering that the cobalt ions were present in the exchanger as three kinds of species: (A 1 ) Free ions which can diffuse in the exchanger particles, (A 2 ) Weakly bound ions to the exchange sites which exchange rapidly with A 1 , and (B) Covalently fixed ions to the exchange sites which exchange very slowly with A 1 . At low fraction of B, the rate is controlled by the diffusion of A 1 with the effective diffusion coefficient, D eff , the values of which depend on the concentration ratios of A 2 to A 1 . When B predominates over the A species, the concentration ratios of B to A 1 affect greatly D eff . The values of D eff and their activation energy(20 kJ/mol) were also estimated

  17. An isotopic method to distinguish between ion exchange and adsorption of diazonium cations of zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohl, M.; Fejes, P.; Horvath, G.

    1984-01-01

    The ion exchange isotherms of two different diazonium cations have been determined on synthetic mordenite and faujasite using 22 Na as radiotracer. Under similar conditions (but with no radiotracer) the isotherms were followed spectrophotometrically so that a comparison between the amounts of ion exchanged and adsorbed cations can be made. (author)

  18. Group IV nanocrystals with ion-exchangeable surface ligands and methods of making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lance M.; Nichols, Asa W.; Chernomordik, Boris D.; Anderson, Nicholas C.; Beard, Matthew C.; Neale, Nathan R.

    2018-01-09

    Methods are described that include reacting a starting nanocrystal that includes a starting nanocrystal core and a covalently bound surface species to create an ion-exchangeable (IE) nanocrystal that includes a surface charge and a first ion-exchangeable (IE) surface ligand ionically bound to the surface charge, where the starting nanocrystal core includes a group IV element.

  19. High-capacity, selective solid sequestrants for innovative chemical separation: Inorganic ion exchange approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.

    1995-01-01

    The approach of this task is to develop high-capacity, selective solid inorganic ion exchangers for the recovery of cesium and strontium from nuclear alkaline and acid wastes. To achieve this goal, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) is collaborating with industry and university participants to develop high capacity, selective, solid ion exchangers for the removal of specific contaminants from nuclear waste streams

  20. Isolation of nitrosylruthenium nitrato complexes by ion exchange and extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Liu, L.

    TBP Levextrel and cation exchange resins were used to separate RuNO nitrato complexes of different nitric acid concentrations. 7402 quaternary ammonium salt Levextrel was used instead of an anionic exchange resin to separate anionic and neutral complex ions. The results indicated that D 3 and D 4 , which can easily be extracted by TBP, were anionic and neutral complex ions

  1. A method for embedding granulated or spent ion-exchanging organic substances in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, H.; Jejes, P.

    1976-01-01

    A method of embedding in concrete a spent ion-exchanging organic substance originating from a scrubbing-circuit of a nuclear reactor Prior to solidification of the mixture, a substance is incorporated therewith said substance being capable of preventing water in the grains of the ion-exchanging substance from penetrating into the solidified product

  2. Nanomaterials-Enhanced Electrically Switched Ion Exchange Process for Water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yuehe; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Jun; Bontha, Jagannadha R.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of our work is to develop an electrically switched ion exchange (ESIX) system based on conducting polymer/carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposites as a new and cost-effective approach for removal of radioactive cesium, chromate, and perchlorate from contaminated groundwater. The ESIX technology combines ion exchange and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible method for the removal of target species from wastewater. In this technique, an electroactive ion exchange layer is deposited on a conducting substrate, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulation of the potential of the layer. ESIX offers the advantages of highly-efficient use of electrical energy combined with no secondary waste generation. Recently, we have improved upon the ESIX process by modifying the conducting substrate with carbon nanotubes prior to the deposition of the electroactive ion exchanger. The nanomaterial-based electroactive ion exchange technology will remove cesium-137, chromate, and perchlorate rapidly from wastewater. The high porosity and high surface area of the electroactive ion exchange nanocomposites results in high loading capacity and minimize interferences for non-target species. Since the ion adsorption/desorption is controlled electrically without generating a secondary waste, this electrically active ion exchange process is a green process technology that will greatly reduce operating costs

  3. Ion composition and temperature in the topside ionosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, L. H.; Dunham, G. S.; Mayr, H. G.

    1967-01-01

    Particle and energy continuity equations derived and solved by computer method ion composition and plasma temperature measured by Explorer XXII PARTICLE and energy continuity equations derived and solved by computer method for ion composition and plasma temperature measured by Explorer XXII

  4. Proceedings of the 5. Symposium on ion exchange held at the Lake Balaton, Hungary, 28-31 May 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajos, P.; Marton, A.

    1986-01-01

    Major trends of ion exchange researches and applications were discussed at the 5th international conference on ion echange held at Lake Balaton, Balatonfuered, Hungary. The 5 plenary lectures and the 98 papers delivered in 4 sessions dealt with theoretical aspects of ion exchange, different types of ion exchange materials including organic and inorganic ones, analytical applications of ion exchange processes, e.g. ion chromatography, HPLC and special technological procedures. Several examples were presented for ion exchange separations of nuclear interest such as the decontamination of radioactive wastes, the radiochemical analysis of the primary coolant, uranium recovery, the application of selective inorganic sorbents. (V.N.)

  5. Independent control of the shape and composition of ionic nanocrystals through sequential cation exchange reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luther, Joseph Matthew; Zheng, Haimei; Sadtler, Bryce; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2009-07-06

    Size- and shape-controlled nanocrystal growth is intensely researched for applications including electro-optic, catalytic, and medical devices. Chemical transformations such as cation exchange overcome the limitation of traditional colloidal synthesis, where the nanocrystal shape often reflects the inherent symmetry of the underlying lattice. Here we show that nanocrystals, with established synthetic protocols for high monodispersity, can be templates for independent composition control. Specifically, controlled interconversion between wurtzite CdS, chalcocite Cu2S, and rock salt PbS occurs while preserving the anisotropic dimensions unique to the as-synthesized materials. Sequential exchange reactions between the three sulfide compositions are driven by the disparate solubilites of the metal ion exchange pair in specific coordinating molecules. Starting with CdS, highly anisotropic PbS nanorods are created, which serve as an important material for studying strong 2-dimensional quantum confinement, as well as for optoelectronic applications. Furthermore, interesting nanoheterostructures of CdS|PbS are obtained by precise control over ion insertion and removal.

  6. Complex ion kinetics. Reaction rates on ion-exchange resins compared to those in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liss, I.B.; Murmann, R.K.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison has been made between the rates in water and on an ion-exchange resin for the aquation of [(NH 3 ) 5 CoOReO 3 ] 2+ and [(H 2 O) 5 CrCl] 2+ and for the 18 O isotopic exchange of water with [(NH 3 ) 5 Co(OH 2 )] 3+ and ReO 4 - . The rate of water exchange on [(NH 3 ) 5 Co(OH 2 )] 3+ was not changed by association with Dowex 50W resins. Aquation of [(NH 3 ) 5 CoOReO 3 ] 2+ and water exchange on ReO 4 - had modified pH dependencies when associated with a resin. With the cobalt complex the rates were faster on the resin in the acidic region and slower on the resin in the basic region. A new term in the rate equation was observed when ReO 4 - was on the resin, first order in H + , while the other terms appear to be unchanged. Aquation of [(H 2 O) 5 CrCl] 2+ was much slower when it was absorbed on the resin. This was related to the known ionic strength effect of the reaction. (auth)

  7. Ion mobility spectrometry-hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry of anions: part 1. Peptides to proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, Gregory C; Khakinejad, Mahdiar; Valentine, Stephen J

    2015-04-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) coupled with hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX)-mass spectrometry (MS) has been used to study the conformations of negatively-charged peptide and protein ions. Results are presented for ion conformers of angiotensin 1, a synthetic peptide (SP), bovine insulin, ubiquitin, and equine cytochrome c. In general, the SP ion conformers demonstrate a greater level of HDX efficiency as a greater proportion of the sites undergo HDX. Additionally, these ions exhibit the fastest rates of exchange. Comparatively, the angiotensin 1 ions exhibit a lower rate of exchange and HDX level presumably because of decreased accessibility of exchange sites by charge sites. The latter are likely confined to the peptide termini. Insulin ions show dramatically reduced HDX levels and exchange rates, which can be attributed to decreased conformational flexibility resulting from the disulfide bonds. For the larger ubiquitin and protein ions, increased HDX is observed for larger ions of higher charge state. For ubiquitin, a conformational transition from compact to more elongated species (from lower to higher charge states) is reflected by an increase in HDX levels. These results can be explained by a combination of interior site protection by compact conformers as well as decreased access by charge sites. The elongated cytochrome c ions provide the largest HDX levels where higher values correlate with charge state. These results are consistent with increased exchange site accessibility by additional charge sites. The data from these enhanced IMS-HDX experiments are described in terms of charge site location, conformer rigidity, and interior site protection.

  8. Transition from the constant ion mobility regime to the ion-atom charge-exchange regime for bounded collisional plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggie, Jonathan; Sternberg, Natalia

    2005-01-01

    A numerical and analytical study of a planar, collisional, direct-current, plasma-wall problem is presented. The fluid model for the problem is first validated by comparing numerical solutions with experimental data for low-pressure (∼0.1 Pa) electrode sheaths with wall potentials on the order of -100 V. For electric potential, ion number density, and ion velocity, good agreement was found between theory and experiment from within the sheath out to the bulk plasma. The frictional drag resulting from ion-neutral collisions is described by a model incorporating both linear and quadratic velocity terms. In order to study the transition from the constant ion mobility regime (linear friction) to the ion-atom charge-exchange collision regime (quadratic friction), the theoretical model was examined numerically for a range of ion temperatures and ion-neutral collision rates. It was found that the solution profiles in the quasineutral plasma depend on the ion temperature. For low ion temperatures they are governed mainly by the ion-atom charge-exchange regime, whereas for high temperatures they are governed by the constant ion mobility regime. Quasineutral plasma models corresponding to these two limiting cases were solved analytically. In particular, an analytical plasma solution is given for the ion-atom charge exchange regime that includes the effects of ion inertia. In contrast to the quasineutral plasma, the sheath is always governed for low to moderate collision rates by the ion-atom charge-exchange regime, independent of the ion temperature. Varying the collision rate, it was shown that when the wall potential is sufficiently high, the sheath cannot be considered collisionless, even if the collision rate is quite small

  9. Praseodymium ion doped phosphate glasses for integrated broadband ion-exchanged waveguide amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, L.F. [School of Textile and Material Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chen, B.J. [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lin, H., E-mail: lhai8686@yahoo.com [School of Textile and Material Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Pun, E.Y.B. [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Effective near-infrared emission (1380-1525 nm) is observed in Pr{sup 3+}-doped phosphate glasses. • Effective bandwidth of {sup 1}D{sub 2} → {sup 1}G{sub 4} transition emission is obtained to be 124 nm. • Channel waveguides have been fabricated by K{sup +}-Na{sup +} ion-exchange method. • Pr{sup 3+}-doped phosphate glasses are promising in developing integrated broadband waveguide amplifier. - Abstract: Effective near-infrared emission covering the fifth optical telecommunication window (1380-1525 nm) has been observed in Pr{sup 3+}-doped phosphate (NMAP) glasses. Judd-Ofelt parameters Ω{sub 2} (6.38 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}), Ω{sub 4} (20.30 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}) and Ω{sub 6} (0.40 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}) indicate a high inversion asymmetrical and strong covalent environment in the optical glasses. The effective bandwidth (Δλ{sub eff}) of the corresponding {sup 1}D{sub 2} → {sup 1}G{sub 4} transition emission is obtained to be 124 nm, and the maximum stimulated emission cross-section (σ{sub em-max}) at 1468 nm is derived to be 1.14 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}. Channel waveguide was fabricated successfully by K{sup +}-Na{sup +} ion-exchange method with mode field diameter of 8.8 μm in the horizontal direction and 6.7 μm in the vertical direction. Broad effective bandwidth, large emission cross-section and perfect thermal ion-exchangeability indicate that Pr{sup 3+}-doped NMAP phosphate glasses are promising in developing integrated broadband waveguide amplifier, especially operating at E- and S-bands which belong to the fifth optical telecommunication window.

  10. Exchange of Th, U and Pu on macroporous ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, M.N.; Mayankutty, P.C.; Pillai, N.S.; Shinde, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    Absorption of Th, U and Pu on macroporous ion exchangers, Amberlyst 15 (cationic) and Amberlyst A-26 (anionic) were studied in nitric acid solutions and the results were found comparable with those on their microreticular counter parts, Dowex 50x8 and Dowex IX4. With a view to evalute the efficiency of Amberlyst A-26 for the final purification of plutonium from the purex process stream, detailed studies conducted to determine the breakthrough capacity of Pu(IV) from 7.2 M nitric acid, elution by 0.5 M nitric acid and the decontamination factors for uranium and zirconium-95. Because of its faster kinetics, Amberlyst A-26 exhibited a much more efficient elution of Pu(IV) by 0.5 M nitric acid than Dowex IX4. (author)

  11. Revised Thermal Analysis of LANL Ion Exchange Column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J

    2006-04-11

    This document updates a previous calculation of the temperature distributions in a Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) ion exchange column.1 LANL operates two laboratory-scale anion exchange columns, in series, to extract Pu-238 from nitric acid solutions. The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has requested an updated analysis to calculate maximum temperatures for higher resin loading capacities obtained with a new formulation of the Reillex HPQ anion exchange resin. The increased resin loading capacity will not exceed 118 g plutonium per L of resin bed. Calculations were requested for normal operation of the resin bed at the minimum allowable solution feed rate of 30 mL/min and after an interruption of flow at the end of the feed stage, when one of the columns is fully loaded. The object of the analysis is to demonstrate that the decay heat from the Pu-238 will not cause resin bed temperatures to increase to a level where the resin significantly degrades. At low temperatures, resin bed temperatures increase primarily due to decay heat. At {approx}70 C a Low Temperature Exotherm (LTE) resulting from the reaction between 8-12 M HNO{sub 3} and the resin has been observed. The LTE has been attributed to an irreversible oxidation of pendant ethyl benzene groups at the termini of the resin polymer chains by nitric acid. The ethyl benzene groups are converted to benzoic acid moities. The resin can be treated to permanently remove the LTE by heating a resin suspension in 8M HNO{sub 3} for 30-45 minutes. No degradation of the resin performance is observed after the LTE removal treatment. In fact, heating the resin in boiling ({approx}115-120 C) 12 M HNO{sub 3} for 3 hr displays thermal stability analogous to resin that has been treated to remove the LTE. The analysis is based on a previous study of the SRS Frames Waste Recovery (FWR) column, performed in support of the Pu-238 production campaign for NASA's Cassini mission. In that study, temperature transients

  12. The selective separation of Cs and Sr ion on the inorganic ion-exchanger zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hun Hwee; Min, Byeog Heon [Hoseo University, Taegu (Korea)

    1998-04-01

    This study shows the selective separation of Cs and Sr ion on the inorganic ion-exchanger zeolites such as clinoptilolite, Y-type CBV760, CBV780 and A-type 3A. The selective separation of Cs and Sr on these zeolites was examined using batch and continuous column experiments. For the selective separation of Cs and Sr from a synthetic wastewater, adsorption rate of Cs increased in the order, clinoptilolite> 3A>> CBV760> CBV780, adsorption rate of Sr increased in the other, 3A>> clinoptilolite> CBV760> CBV780. For the clinoptilolite, the adsorption rate of Cs reached about 96 {approx} 98% within 3h. The adsorption rate of Sr on 3A reached about 99% within 3h. (author). 40 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. 1H and 23Na MAS NMR spectroscopy of cationic species in CO2 selective alkaline earth metal porous silicoaluminophosphates prepared via liquid and solid state ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arévalo-Hidalgo, Ana G.; Dugar, Sneha; Fu, Riqiang; Hernández-Maldonado, Arturo J.

    2012-01-01

    The location of extraframework cations in Sr 2+ and Ba 2+ ion-exchanged SAPO-34 was estimated by means of 1 H and 23 Na MAS NMR spectroscopy and spectral deconvolution. Incorporation of the alkaline earth metal cations onto the SAPO framework was achieved via liquid state ion exchange, coupled partial detemplation/solid-state ion exchange, and combination of both techniques. MAS NMR revealed that the level of ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations near hexagonal prisms (site SI), which are relatively difficult to exchange with the alkaline earth metal due to steric and charge repulsion criteria. In addition, the presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange of otherwise tenacious hydrogen as corroborated by unit cell compositional data as well as enhanced CO 2 adsorption at low partial pressures. The extraframework ammonium species were produced from partial detemplation of the structure-directing agent employed for the SAPO-34 synthesis, tetraethylammonium. - Graphical abstract: MAS NMR was used to elucidate the position the cationic species in alkaline earth metal exchanged silicoaluminophosphates. These species played a significant role during the ion exchange process and, therefore, the materials ultimate CO 2 adsorption performance. Highlights: ► Location of extraframework Sr 2+ or Ba 2+ cations was estimated by means of 1 H and 23 Na MAS NMR. ► Level of Sr 2+ or Ba 2+ ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations. ► Presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange. ► Sr 2+ and Ba 2+ ion exchanged SAPOs are outstanding CO 2 adsorbents.

  14. Influence of ion bombardment induced patterning of exchange bias in pinned artificial ferrimagnets on the interlayer exchange coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmalhorst, Jan; Reiss, Guenter; Hoenik, V. [Thin Films and Nanostructures, Department of Physics, Univ. Bielefeld (Germany); Weis, Tanja; Engel, Dieter; Ehresmann, Arno [Institute of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology, Kassel Univ. (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Artificial ferrimagnets (AFi) have many applications as, e.g., pinned reference electrodes in magnetic tunnel junctions. It is known that the application of ion bombardment induced magnetic patterning with He ions on a single layer reference electrode of magnetic tunnel junctions is possible. For some applications a combination of ion bombardment induced magnetic patterning and artificial ferrimagnets as a reference electrode is desirable. The effect of ion bombardment induced magnetic patterning on pinned artificial ferrimagnets with a Ru interlayer which is frequently used in magnetic tunnel junctions as well as pinned AFis with a Cu interlayer has been tested. Special attention has been given to the question whether the antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling can withstand the ion dose necessary to turn the exchange bias.

  15. Ion exchange equilibrium for some uni-univalent and uni-divalent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study on thermodynamics of ion exchange equilibrium for uni-univalent Cl-/I-, Cl-/Br-, and uni-divalent Cl-/SO42-, Cl-/C2O42- reaction systems was carried out using ion exchange resin Duolite A-102 D. The equilibrium constant K was calculated by taking into account the activity coefficient of ions both in solution as well ...

  16. Coupled acoustic-gravity field for dynamic evaluation of ion exchange with a single resin bead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazaki, Takahiro; Hirawa, Shungo; Harada, Makoto; Okada, Tetsuo

    2010-06-01

    A coupled acoustic-gravity field is efficient for entrapping a particle at the position determined by its acoustic properties rather than its size. This field has been applied to the dynamic observation of ion-exchange reactions occurring in a single resin bead. The replacement of counterions in an ion-exchange resin induces changes in its acoustic properties, such as density and compressibility. Therefore, we can visually trace the advancement of an ion-exchange reaction as a time change in the levitation position of a resin bead entrapped in the field. Cation-exchange reactions occurring in resin beads with diameters of 40-120 microm are typically completed within 100-200 s. Ion-exchange equilibrium or kinetics is often evaluated with off-line chemical analyses, which require a batch amount of ion exchangers. Measurements with a single resin particle allow us to evaluate ion-exchange dynamics and kinetics of ions including those that are difficult to measure by usual off-line analyses. The diffusion properties of ions in resins have been successfully evaluated from the time change in the levitation positions of resin beads.

  17. Ion-exchange equilibrium of Fe3+-Cl- and UO22+-Cl- systems in a porous anion exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko; Kawakami, Fumiaki; Sasaki, Mitsunaga

    1985-01-01

    The ion-exchange equilibrium behavior of complex ions was investigatided in the systems of UO 2 2+ - Cl - and Fe 3+ - Cl - using an anion exchanger. It was performed by examining the dependency of adsorption distribution and selectivity of complexes on the micro structure of ion-exchangers, and temperature-dependency of selectivity. Changes in micropore structure of the ion-exchanger were found to have a significant effect on selectivity; the coefficient of selectivity and the average valence of the adsorbed species increased as the discrete pore ratio used as the index for pore structure decreased. In this study, equilibrium reactions were regarded as a sort of addition reaction for a easier analysis. This analysis based on the concept of addition chemical potential suggested that decreases in the discrete pore ratio were advantageous for the adsorption of complex ion species with higher valence, and average valence of the adsorbed species within the exchanger was shifted to the higher side. For this reason, it is assumed that the coefficient of selectivity became larger with a decrease in the discrete pore ratio. There is also a marked change in the coefficient of selectivity with temperature, and this becomes greater the higher the temperature. The ΔH of the present system accompanying the complex forming reaction is estimated to be 7 to 8 kcal/mol, and this value suggests that the temperature effect of the complex forming reaction contributes greatly to the change in selectivity with temperature. (author)

  18. Accelerated electron exchange between U4+ and UO22+ by foreign metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obanawa, Heiichiro; Onitsuka, Hatsuki; Takeda, Kunihiko

    1990-01-01

    The rate constant of U 4+ -UO 2 2+ electron exchange (k et ) was increased by more than 100 times in the presence of various metal ions. The larger rate constant was observed for the smaller difference of the standard reduction potential strength between metal ion and UO 2 2+ ion (Δμ θ e ). Detailed investigation of the electron exchange reaction in the presence of Mo 5+ suggested that the mechanism of the electron transfer reaction catalyzed by metal ions is the outer-sphere type independent of U-Clcomplex ions. (author)

  19. Pilot plant of continuous ion-exchange in fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botella, T.; Otero de Becerra, J.; Gasos, P.

    1985-01-01

    Research and development on continuous ion-exchange processes has been a major item in hydrometallurgy. This new technology has been under development during the last 15 years in the leading countries at uranium hydrometallurgy. The fluidized bed multi-stage column technique is proven to be the most attractive one, and since 1977 several commercial plants have begun production, some of them with a throughput of 500 cubic meters of pregnant liquour per hour. J.E.N. undertook the study of this new technology for uranium recovery in the early 70's. In 1979 a pilot plant had been installed, based on previous laboratory and smaller pilot plant experience. The plant was designed following JEN's own technology and has been operating successfully at a flow rate of near 0.5 cubic meters per hour. The test runs and the main processing, engineering and operation features are described. At present a demonstation plant is under design, and this installation will provide the necessary know-how for the construction and operation of a commercial scale plant. (author)

  20. Electrochemical ion-exchange for active liquid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.D.; Bridger, N.J.; Jones, C.P.

    1992-10-01

    Electrochemical ion exchange (EIX) has been firmly established as an effective process for the treatment of a wide range of liquid radioactive wastes. Both organic (for low specific activity streams) and inorganic systems (for higher activity wastes) have been demonstrated. A low cost current feeder electrode has also been developed, with a projected lifetime of > 6 years. While cation EIX can be used for the treatment of low salt content streams, combination with anion EIX to control the pH can extend its range of application. At the same time, it is also able to remove activity complexed in an anionic form. AEIX has also demonstrated its ability to remove radionuclides with insoluble hydroxides (eg Co, U and Pu) from both high and low salt content streams. EIX has been successfully scaled-up form the bench-top scale by increasing electrode size by a factor of 11, and then by operating five units in parallel. An improvement in performance of by a factor 3 was observed over a simple increase in area, due to the minimization of edge effects in the larger units. The most significant advantage of EIX is its compactness -with plant sizes of 1000). (Author)

  1. Ion Exchange Resin and Clay Vitrification by Plasma Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz A, Laura V.; Pacheco S, Joel O.; Pacheco P, Marquidia; Monroy G, Fabiola; Emeterio H, Miguel; Ramos F, Fidel

    2006-01-01

    The lack of treatment of a low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILRW) lead us to propose a vitrification process based on a plasma discharge; this technique incorporates LILRW into a matrix glass composed of ceramic clays material. The Mexican Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ), uses an ion exchange resin IRN 150 (styrene-divinilbence copolymer) in the TRIGA MARK III nuclear reactor. The principal objective of this resin is to absorb particles containing heavy metals and low-level radioactive particles. Once the IRN 150 resin filter capacity has been exceeded, it should be replaced and treated as LILRW. In this work, a transferred plasma system was realized to vitrify this resin taking advantage of its high power density, enthalpy and chemical reactivity as well as its rapid quenching and high operation temperatures. In order to characterize the morphological structure of these clay samples, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques were applied before and after the plasma treatment

  2. Application of ion exchange resin in floating drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhye, Abhijeet A; Ambike, Anshuman A; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R; Paradkar, Anant

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the application of low-density ion exchange resin (IER) Tulsion(R) 344, for floating drug delivery system (FDDS), and study the effect of its particle size on rate of complexation, water uptake, drug release, and in situ complex formation. Batch method was used for the preparation of complexes, which were characterized by physical methods. Tablet containing resin with high degree of crosslinking showed buoyancy lag time (BLT) of 5-8 min. Decreasing the particle size of resin showed decrease in water uptake and drug release, with no significant effect on the rate of complexation and in situ complex formation for both preformed complexes (PCs) and physical mixtures (PMs). Thus, low-density and high degree of crosslinking of resin and water uptake may be the governing factor for controlling the initial release of tablet containing PMs but not in situ complex formation. However, further sustained release may be due to in situ complex formation.

  3. Ion-exchange chromatography for the characterization of biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Szabolcs; Beck, Alain; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Guillarme, Davy

    2015-09-10

    Ion-exchange chromatography (IEX) is a historical technique widely used for the detailed characterization of therapeutic proteins and can be considered as a reference and powerful technique for the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of charge heterogeneity. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of theoretical and practical aspects of modern IEX applied for the characterization of therapeutic proteins including monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) and antibody drug conjugates (ADCs). The section on method development describes how to select a suitable stationary phase chemistry and dimensions, the mobile phase conditions (pH, nature and concentration of salt), as well as the temperature and flow rate, considering proteins isoelectric point (pI). In addition, both salt-gradient and pH-gradient approaches were critically reviewed and benefits as well as limitations of these two strategies were provided. Finally, several applications, mostly from pharmaceutical industries, illustrate the potential of IEX for the characterization of charge variants of various types of biopharmaceutical products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Wastewater treatment with ion-exchange chitin membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulenova, A.; Fjeld, R. A.; Visacky, V.

    2001-01-01

    Chitin, poly(N-acetyl-D glucosamine) and chitosan, its deacetylated derivates have recently obtained attention as bio-sorbents, because they shown a great ability to accumulate heavy metals and other pollutants. It was found that recovery of metals is strongly affected by pH. At low acidic pH range 4-5 chitin membrane exhibits better selectivity for lead than for cadmium or zinc. Sorption preference for metals decreases in the order: Pb > Cd > Zn. For uranium, as well for strontium was observed significant increase of recovery at decrease of pH to slightly acidic, close to neutral value. It was shown that chemical behavior of chitin membrane is excellent; ion-exchange nature of chitin was not changed during chitin membrane manufacturing process. Using of chitin membrane instead of chitin flake column brings significant increasing of driving force of the separation process, limited in the case of column experimental design by diffusion coefficient, while in the case of membrane process only by mass transfer coefficient. (authors)

  5. Design of zeolite ion-exchange columns for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Arnold, W.D.; Byers, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory plans to use chabazite zeolites for decontamination of wastewater containing parts-per-billion levels of 90 Sr and 137 Cs. Treatability studies indicate that such zeolites can remove trace amounts of 90 Sr and 137 Cs from wastewater containing high concentrations of calcium and magnesium. These studies who that zeolite system efficiency is dependent on column design and operating conditions. Previous results with bench-scale, pilot-scale, and near-full-scale columns indicate that optimized design of full-scale columns could reduce the volume of spent solids generation by one-half. The data indicate that shortcut scale-up methods cannot be used to design columns to minimize secondary waste generation. Since the secondary waste generation rate is a primary influence on process cost effectiveness, a predictive mathematical model for column design is being developed. Equilibrium models and mass-transfer mechanisms are being experimentally determined for isothermal multicomponent ion exchange (Ca, Mg, Na, Cs, and Sr). Mathematical models of these data to determine the breakthrough curves for different column configurations and operating conditions will be used to optimize the final design of full-scale treatment plant. 32 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Supercritical water oxidation of ion exchange resins: Degradation mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leybros, A.; Roubaud, A. [CEA Marcoule, DEN DTCD SPDE LFSM, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France); Guichardon, P. [Ecole Cent Marseille, F-13451 Marseille 20 (France); Boutin, O. [Aix Marseille Univ, UMR CNRS 6181, F-13545 Aix En Provence 4 (France)

    2010-07-01

    Spent ion exchange resins are radioactive process wastes for which there is no satisfactory industrial treatment. Supercritical water oxidation could offer a viable treatment alternative to destroy the organic structure of resins and contain radioactivity. IER degradation experiments were carried out in a continuous supercritical water reactor. Total organic carbon degradation rates in the range of 95-98% were obtained depending on operating conditions. GC-MS chromatography analyses were carried out to determine intermediate products formed during the reaction. Around 50 species were identified for cationic and anionic resins. Degradation of poly-styrenic structure leads to the formation of low molecular weight compounds. Benzoic acid, phenol and acetic acid are the main compounds. However, other products are detected in appreciable yields such as phenolic species or heterocycles, for anionic IERs degradation. Intermediates produced by intramolecular rearrangements are also obtained. A radical degradation mechanism is proposed for each resin. In this overall mechanism, several hypotheses are foreseen, according to HOO center dot radical attack sites. (authors)

  7. ION EXCHANGE MODELING FOR REMOVAL OF CESIUM FROM HANFORD WASTE USING SUPERLIG 644 RESIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, L

    2004-01-01

    The expected performance of a proposed ion exchange column using SuperLig(reg s ign) 644 resin for the removal of cesium from Hanford high level radioactive alkaline waste is discussed. This report represents a final report on the ability and knowledge with regard to modeling the Cesium-SuperLig(reg s ign) 644 resin ion exchange system. Only the loading phase of the cycle process is addressed within this report. Pertinent bench-scale column tests and batch equilibrium experiments are addressed. The methodology employed and sensitivity analyses are also included (i.e., existing methodology employed is referenced to prior developmental efforts while updated methodology is discussed). Pilot-scale testing is not assessed since no pilot-scale testing was available at the time of this report. Column performance predictions are made considering three selected feed compositions under nominal operating conditions. The sensitivity analyses provided help to identify key parameters that aid in resin procurement acceptance criteria. The methodology and application presented within this report reflect the expected behavior of SuperLig(reg s ign) 644 resin manufactured at the production-scale (i.e, 250 gallon batch size level). The primary objective of this work was, through modeling and verification based on experimental assessments, to predict the cesium removal performance of SuperLig(reg s ign) 644 resin for application in the RPP pretreatment facility

  8. Ion-exchange properties of microporous tungstates: novel adsorbents for nuclear waste management applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, C.S.; Luca, V.; Eddowes, R.C.; Keegan, E.A.; Scales, N.

    2003-01-01

    A hydrothermally prepared tungsten oxide-based phase, ATS-1 (ANSTO Tungstate Sorbent), of nominal composition, Na 0.3 Mo 0.1 W 0.9O3 .χH 2 O, has been shown to display promising selectivity for both Cs + and Sr 2+ cations from acidic simulant, indicative of the Intermediate Level Liquid Waste (ILLW) produced from 99 Mo radioisotope production at the ANSTO site. The development of an inorganic ion-exchanger that displays such selectivity for both Cs + and Sr 2+ in acidic solutions has previously eluded researchers in the field of inorganic ion-exchangers. The ATS-1 adsorbent also displays exquisite selectivity for lead (and polonium) in low to high acidity solutions, and as such is being further investigated as a method to reduce the radiological hazard from 210 Pb and 210 Po during the processing of uranium ore bodies. The adsorption of Cs + , Sr 2+ and Pb 2+ cations by ATS-1 has been extensively investigated with respect to the kinetics of adsorption, capacity and the effect of competing cations viz. Na + , K + . The ATS-1 adsorbent has also been successfully granulated with an inert, organic matrix, which has consequently allowed the study of cation adsorption using more application-based, column separations. The results of these investigations suggest that these materials have potential application in several nuclear waste management issues in Australia at the present

  9. Phosphate recovery from wastewater using engineered superparamagnetic particles modified with layered double hydroxide ion exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenkova-Tuhtan, Asya; Mandel, Karl; Paulus, Anja; Meyer, Carsten; Hutter, Frank; Gellermann, Carsten; Sextl, Gerhard; Franzreb, Matthias; Steinmetz, Heidrun

    2013-10-01

    An innovative nanocomposite material is proposed for phosphate recovery from wastewater using magnetic assistance. Superparamagnetic microparticles modified with layered double hydroxide (LDH) ion exchangers of various compositions act as phosphate adsorbers. Magnetic separation and chemical regeneration of the particles allows their reuse, leading to the successful recovery of phosphate. Based upon the preliminary screening of different LDH ion exchanger modifications for phosphate selectivity and uptake capacity, MgFe-Zr LDH coated magnetic particles were chosen for further characterization and application. The adsorption kinetics of phosphate from municipal wastewater was studied in dependence with particle concentration, contact time and pH. Adsorption isotherms were then determined for the selected particle system. Recovery of phosphate and regeneration of the particles was examined via testing a variety of desorption solutions. Reusability of the particles was demonstrated for 15 adsorption/desorption cycles. Adsorption in the range of 75-97% was achieved in each cycle after 1 h contact time. Phosphate recovery and enrichment was possible through repetitive application of the desorption solution. Finally, a pilot scale experiment was carried out by treating 125 L of wastewater with the particles in five subsequent 25 L batches. Solid-liquid separation on this scale was carried out with a high-gradient magnetic filter (HGMF). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ion Exchange Modeling Of Cesium Removal From Hanford Waste Using Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleman, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hamm, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2007-06-27

    This report discusses the expected performance of spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange resin for the removal of cesium from alkaline Hanford radioactive waste. Predictions of full scale column performance in a carousel mode are made for the Hot Commissioning, Envelope B, and Subsequent Operations waste compositions under nominal operating conditions and for perturbations from the nominal. Only the loading phase of the process cycle is addressed in this report. Pertinent bench-scale column tests, kinetic experiments, and batch equilibrium experiments are used to estimate model parameters and to benchmark the ion-exchange model. The methodology and application presented in this report reflect the expected behavior of spherical RF resin manufactured at the intermediate-scale (i.e., approximately 100 gallon batch size; batch 5E-370/641). It is generally believed that scale-up to production-scale in resin manufacturing will result in similarly behaving resin batches whose chemical selectivity is unaffected while total capacity per gram of resin may vary some. As such, the full-scale facility predictions provided within this report should provide reasonable estimates of production-scale column performance.

  11. Exchange of charges between fast ions and neutral atoms; Change de charges entre ions rapides et atomes neutres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    In this paper, we summarize the most significant theoretical and experimental results obtained so far on the exchange of charges between fast ions and neutral atoms. (author) [French] Dans l'expose qui suit, nous resumons les resultats theoriques et experimentaux interessants obtenus jusqu'a nos jours dans le domaine de l'echange de charges entre ions rapides et atomes neutres. (auteur)

  12. Use of the ion exchange method for determination of stability constants of uranyl ions with three soil humic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Zuyi; Du Jinzhou

    1994-01-01

    The ion exchange equilibrium method proposed by Ardakani and Stevenson has not been widely used to determine the stability constants of metal-soil organic matter complexes. In this paper the Ardakani-Stevenson's method has been modified and the stability constants of uranyl ion complexes with three soil humic acids were determined by using the modified Ardakani-Stevenson's method. (orig.)

  13. Inorganic ion-exchangers for the treatment and disposal of industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasany, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Ion-exchangers can be broadly classified into organic and inorganic ion-exchangers. Inorganic ion-exchangers are stable at high temperatures and radiation dosage, resistant towards oxidizing agents and organic solvents. They are cheap and easy to prepare. Inorganic ion-exchangers, due to their superiority over organic ion-exchangers, have been extensively used for a wide variety of applications including treatment and management of industrial effluents. The criteria governing the division into essential and toxic elements for animal life have been described. The occupational sources of toxic elements and their compounds in the environment have been identified and their tolerance limits prescribed in air, water and food are given. The toxicity and adverse effects of harmful elements and their hazardous compounds are mentioned. Factors influencing sorption of trace elements onto inorganic ion-exchangers are highlighted. Examples of inorganic ion-exchangers are cited where they can be utilized for the treatment of industrial effluents before their safe discharge into waterways and biosphere. (author)

  14. Investigation of the resistance of some naturally occurring and synthetic inorganic ion exchangers against gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilchi, A.; Khanchi, A.; Ghanadi Maragheh, M.; Bagheri, A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of various doses of gamma radiation on the ion-exchange capacity, distribution coefficient values, elution behaviour, physical effect, pH titration and infrared spectra of some synthetic inorganic ion exchangers, namely the cerium substituted phosphates; and naturally occurring inorganic ion exchangers, zeolites from different parts of Iran, have been studied systematically. No significant change has been observed in the ion-exchange capacity (with the exception of CeP(Na), CeP(Di·Na) and zeolite 5 (deposits of arababad talas)), elution behaviour, physical effect, chemical stability and the infrared spectra of the synthetic ion exchangers irradiated up to a total dose of 200 kGy, while a change has been observed in the pH-titration and distribution behaviour. The increase in pH is sharper for irradiated samples with divalent cations than for the normal samples. Furthermore, the K d values, and hence the selectivity towards certain cations increase with the total dose absorbed, reaching its optimum selectivity with the dose of 50-100 kGy. The natural zeolites chosen for these studies, show, similar pattern to those of synthetic ion exchangers, and in some cases an extremely high selectivity toward certain cations, like Be II . These make, zeolites, which are naturally occurring ion exchangers more viable economically, and extremely useful alternative in this industry

  15. Possible mechanisms for the interaction of polymeric composite resins with Cu(II) ions in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zahhhar, A.A.; Abdel-Aziz, H.M.; Siyam, T.

    2005-01-01

    The interaction between the active groups of polymeric composite resins such as Poly(acrylamide-acrylic acid)-ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid disodium salt P(AM-AA)EDTANa 2 , Poly(acrylamide-acrylic acid)- montmorillonite P(AM-AA)-montmorillonite, and Poly(acrylamide-acrylic acid)-potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate P(AM-AA)-KNiHCF, with copper sulfate as a test ion has been studied. The spectroscopic studies show that the mechanism of interaction between polymeric composite resins and copper sulfate is a bond formation between the active groups of polymeric chains and copper ion. The bond formation depends on nature of polymeric chains. It was also found that the amide groups form complexes with hydrated cations, while carboxylate group interact by ion exchange mechanism through complex formation. Montmorillonite and hexacyanoferrate of the resins interact with metal ions by ion exchange mechanism

  16. environmental studies for removal of some radioactive elements using zirconium silicate as inorganic ion exchange material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Aryan, Y.F.A.

    2007-01-01

    inorganic ion exchangers have a good potential than the commonly used organic ones for removal and separation of radionuclides from irradiated nuclear fuel solutions. therefore, the main aim of this work is directed to find the optimum conditions for removal of some radionuclides such as Cs + ,Co 2+ ,and Eu 3+ by the prepared zirconium silicate as cation exchanger. the following items will be involved:-1- preparation of zirconium silicate as a cation exchanger. 2- characterization of the prepared exchanger using IR spectra, X-ray diffraction patterns, DTA and TG analyses. 3-chemical stability, capacity and equilibrium measurements will be determined on the materials using at different conditions (heating temperature and reaction temperature). 4- ion exchange isotherms. 5- breakthrough curves for removal of the investigated metal ions on the prepared exchanger under certain conditions

  17. Intercalation of gaseous thiols and sulfides into Ag+ ion-exchanged aluminum dihydrogen triphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Aki; Saimen, Hiroki; Watanabe, Nobuaki; Kimura, Hitomi; Kobayashi, Ayumi; Nakayama, Hirokazu; Tsuhako, Mitsutomo

    2005-08-02

    Ag(+) ion-exchanged layered aluminum dihydrogen triphosphate (AlP) with the interlayer distance of 0.85 nm was synthesized by the ion-exchange of proton in triphosphate with Ag(+) ion. The amount of exchanged Ag(+) ion depended on the concentration of AgNO(3) aqueous solution. Ag(+) ion-exchanged AlP adsorbed gaseous thiols and sulfides into the interlayer region. The adsorption amounts of thiols were more than those of sulfides, thiols with one mercapto group > thiol with two mercapto groups > sulfides, and depended on the amount of exchanged Ag(+) ion in the interlayer region. The thiols with one mercapto group were intercalated to expand the interlayer distance of Ag(+) ion-exchanged AlP, whereas there was no expansion in the adsorption of sulfide. In the case of thiol with two mercapto groups, there was observed contraction of the interlayer distance through the bridging with Ag(+) ions of the upper and lower sides of the interlayer region.

  18. Evaluation of off-gas characteristics in vitrification process of ion-exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. C.; Kim, H. S.; Yang, K. H.; Yun, C. H.; Hwang, T. W.; Shin, S. W.

    2001-01-01

    The properties of off-gas generated from vitrification process of ion-exchange resin were characterized. Theoretical composition and flow rate of the off-gas were calculated based on chemical composition of resin and it's burning condition inside CCM. The calculated off-gas flow rate was 67.9 Nm 3 /h at the burning rate of 40 kg/h. And the composition of off-gas was evaluated as CO 2 (41.4%), Steam (40.0%), O 2 (13.3%), NO (3.6%), and SO 2 (1.6%) in order. Then, actual flow rate and composition of off-gas were measured during pilot-scale demonstration tests and the results were compared with theoretical values. The actual flow rate of off-gas was about 1.6 times higher than theoretical one. The difference between theoretical and actual flow rates was caused by the in-leakage of air to the system, and the in-leakage rate was evaluated as 36.3 Nm 3 /h. Because of continuous change in the combustion parameters inside CCM, during demonstration tests, the concentration of toxic gases showed wide fluctuation. However, the concentration of CO, a barometer of incompleteness of combustion inside CCM, was stabilized soon. The result showed quasi-equilibrium state was achieved two hours after feeding of resin. (author)

  19. Electrical Resistance and Transport Numbers of Ion-Exchange Membranes Used in Electrodialytic Soil Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    1999-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a recently developed method to decontaminate heavy metal polluted soil using ion-exchange membranes. In this method one side of the ion-exchange membrane is in direct contact with the polluted soil. It is of great importance to know if this contact with the soil...... different electrodialytic soil remediation experiments. The experiments showed that after the use in electrodialytic soil remediation, the ion-exchange membranes had transport numbers in the same magnitude as new membranes. The electrical resistance for six membranes did not differ from that of new...

  20. Ion exchange system design for removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Sapkal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the methodology used to determine the optimal ion-exchange column size to process all separate batchesof feeds from acid mine drainage wastewater.The optimal design ensures the best utilization of resin material and therefore results in a minimum amount of spent resins.Ion exchanger materials have been studied for removing heavy metals from a metal bearing wastes. For the current treatment,a facility has been designed for the removal of heavy metals from the acid mine drainage (AMD waste by the ion-exchange technology.

  1. Scandium sorption by immobilized microdispersed forms of phosporus-containing ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolova, Yu.V.; Kurdyumov, G.M.; Smirnov, A.V.; Mezhirov, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    The possibility to improve considerably kinetics of scandium sorption by phosphate ion exchangers, immobilized into polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers, as compared with granular samples of ion exchangers, was shown. The influence of dispersion degree of immobilized ionite particles on sorption rate was studied. It is ascertained that the ionite grinding to the particle size ≤ 52 μm is sufficient for the rate increase by 1-1.5 orders. A lower swelling of the immobilized ion exchanger is its additional advantage as compared with granular form

  2. Advance in the study of removal of cesium from radioactive wastewater by inorganic ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Songping; Wang Xiaowei; Du Zhihui

    2014-01-01

    The excellent performance in the removal of cesium from radioactive wastewater by inorganic ion exchangers has received extensive attention due to their characteristic physico-chemical features. The paper summarized research progress of removal of cesium by different inorganic ion exchangers such as silicoaluminate, salts of hetero polyacid, hexacyanoferrate, insoluble salts of acid with multivalent metals, insoluble hydrous oxides of multivalent metals and silicotitanate and reviewed several removal systems of cesium by inorganic ion exchangers which might offer China some reference in treatment and disposal of radioactive wastewater. (authors)

  3. Cation immobilization in pyrolyzed simulated spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luca, Vittorio; Bianchi, Hugo L.; Manzini, Alberto C.

    2012-01-01

    Significant quantities of spent ion exchange resins that are contaminated by an assortment of radioactive elements are produced by the nuclear industry each year. The baseline technology for the conditioning of these spent resins is encapsulation in ordinary Portland cement which has various shortcomings none the least of which is the relatively low loading of resin in the cement and the poor immobilization of highly mobile elements such as cesium. The present study was conducted with cationic resin samples (Lewatit S100) loaded with Cs + , Sr 2+ , Co 2+ , Ni 2+ in roughly equimolar proportions at levels at or below 30% of the total cation exchange capacity. Low temperature thermal treatment of the resins was conducted in inert (Ar), or reducing (CH 4 ) gas atmospheres, or supercritical ethanol to convert the hydrated polymeric resin beads into carbonaceous materials that contained no water. This pyrolytic treatment resulted in at least a 50% volume reduction to give mechanically robust spherical materials. Scanning electron microscope investigations of cross-sections of the beads combined with energy dispersive analysis showed that initially all elements were uniformly distributed through the resin matrix but that at higher temperatures the distribution of Cs became inhomogeneous. Although Cs was found in the entire cross-section, a significant proportion of the Cs occurred within internal rings while a proportion migrated toward the outer surfaces to form a crustal deposit. Leaching experiments conducted in water at 25 °C showed that the divalent contaminant elements were very difficult to leach from the beads heated in inert atmospheres in the range 200–600 °C. Cumulative fractional loses of the order of 0.001 were observed for these divalent elements for temperatures below 500 °C. Regardless of the processing temperature, the cumulative fractional loss of Cs in water at 25 °C reached a plateau or steady-state within the first 24 h increasing only

  4. Separation of boron isotopes by ion exchange chromatography: studies with Duolite-162, a type-II resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.K.; Subramanian, R.; Balasubramanian, R.; Mathur, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    The selection of resin plays an important role in the process of separation of boron isotopes by ion exchange chromatography. The determination of (i) ion exchange capacity of Duolite-162 resin for hydroxyl - chloride exchange, (ii) hydroxyl - borate exchange, (iii) isotopic exchange separation factor by batch method and (iv) effect of concentration of boric acid on isotopic exchange separation factor to test the suitability of the above resin for this process are discussed in this report. (author)

  5. Isotopic exchange rate of sodium ions between hydrous metal oxides and aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yasushi; Yamazaki, Hiromichi

    1991-01-01

    To elucidate the kinetics of ion-exchange reaction on hydrous metal oxide, the isotopic exchange rates of sodium ions between hydrous metal oxides such as hydrous tin (IV), niobium (V), zirconium (IV) and titanium (IV) oxides, and aqueous solutions were measured radiochemically and compared with each other. The rate of reaction cannot be understood by an unified view since the rate controlling step differs with the kind of exchangers. The rate constants relevant to each exchanger such as diffusion constants and their activation energies were also determined. (author)

  6. Possibility of ion-exchange column studies using stabilised montmorillonite-H aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platzer, R.; Bittel, R.

    1959-01-01

    The conditions necessary for obtaining stable aggregates of montmorillonite-H, prepared without addition of organic flocculant, is discussed. These aggregates possess the same general ion-exchange properties as montmorillonite-H suspensions, about which many papers have been written. Their insolubility and their stable physical form enable them to be used in columns in exactly the same way as the usual organic ion exchangers. The examples of cation fixation and separation described in this report emphasize the similarities between the properties of this exchanger and those of organic cation-exchange resins, and open up possibilities for the extrapolation of the many investigations carried out on organic exchangers to mineral exchangers of this type. Amongst the essential differences to be remarked, we have shown that the properties of physical stability and chemical exchange remain the same at temperatures up to 300 deg. C, to a first approximation, under very intense γ irradiation. (author) [fr

  7. Modeling ion exchange in clinoptilolite using the EQ3/6 geochemical modeling code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viani, B.E.; Bruton, C.J.

    1992-06-01

    Assessing the suitability of Yucca Mtn., NV as a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste requires the means to simulate ion-exchange behavior of zeolites. Vanselow and Gapon convention cation-exchange models have been added to geochemical modeling codes EQ3NR/EQ6, allowing exchange to be modeled for up to three exchangers or a single exchanger with three independent sites. Solid-solution models that are numerically equivalent to the ion-exchange models were derived and also implemented in the code. The Gapon model is inconsistent with experimental adsorption isotherms of trace components in clinoptilolite. A one-site Vanselow model can describe adsorption of Cs or Sr on clinoptilolite, but a two-site Vanselow exchange model is necessary to describe K contents of natural clinoptilolites

  8. Separation of boron isotopes by ion exchange chromatography: studies on regeneration of strong base anion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.K.; Subramanian, R.; Mathur, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    The optimum conditions for the regeneration of strong base anion exchange resins of type-I and type-II were determined for cost-effective separation of isotopes of boron by ion exchange chromatography where the hydroxyl form of an anion exchange resin is equilibrated with boric acid solution containing mannitol as a complexing reagent. The possibility of using unspent alkali content of the effluent was also exploited. Removal of carbonate impurity from Rayon grade caustic lye (used as regenerant after dilution) and recycling of Ba(OH) 2 was studied to avoid waste disposal problems. (author)

  9. Bituminous solidification, disposal, transport and burial of spent ion-exchange resins. Part of a coordinated programme on treatment of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozes, G.; Kristof, M.

    1983-07-01

    The project dealing with the incorporation of spent ion-exchange resins into bitumen was performed within the Agency coordinated research programme on treatment of spent ion-exchange resins. Physical and chemical properties of commercial ion-exchange resins, bitumens and bituminized resins were studied. It was shown that bitumen with low oil content and with a softening point of 60-70 deg. C are applicable for the incorporation of resins. The final waste form is allowed to contain maximum 50% resin. The comprehensive study of the biological resistance of B-30 bitumen was performed. That showed that any bacteriological attack can be regarded as generally insignificant. A continuously operating technology was realized on a semi-plant scale. The best operating conditions of this technology were determined. On the basis of the experience gained from the experiments a design of the bituminization plant of 50m 3 dry resin/year treatment capacity was proposed

  10. Management of the used ion-exchangers contaminated with C-14 generated by NPP Cernavoda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boteanu, O.; Valeca, M.; Arsene, C.

    2016-01-01

    For the conditioning of ion-exchangers generated from operation of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1, techniques of direct immobilization in cement, bitumen and organic polymers have been experimented. The selected process for conditioning of spent resins is the bituminization. The bituminization process consists of the incorporation in bitumen of the spent resin, at temperatures between 110 and 1200C, and the solidification of the mixture by cooling. The percentage of incorporated spent resin in bitumen is ranged from 40 to 50% dry resin. The advantages of bituminization are: the bitumen is insoluble in water, the bituminization installation is simple, the matrix is not cost expensive, the temperature process is low, bitumen is compatible with wastes having various compositions, and the volume of the final product is smaller. The main disadvantage is that bitumen is combustible, although not easily flammable, and, at high temperature, interaction between bitumen matrix and chemical components, might occur. (authors)

  11. Separation and immobilization of Sr and Cs contained in acidic media by using inorganic ion-exchangers. Literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagishi, Isao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-07-01

    The present study deals with the survey of inorganic ion-exchangers suitable for separation and immobilization of Sr and Cs contained in acidic high-level liquid waste. The stabilities of published waste forms and their preparation processes were evaluated from the standpoint of conversion of exchangers containing Sr and Cs into appropriate waste forms. The essential results are below. (1) For separation and immobilization of Cs, crystalline silicotitanate seems to be the most promising exchanger. Insoluble ferrocyanides and phosphates are not suitable for immobilization without additives. Mordenite is inexpensive and commercially available but it would dissolve in highly acidic media. (2) For selective separation of Sr, there is no promising exchanger up to now. It is necessary either to modify separation condition or to synthesize a novel exchanger. (3) Soluble salts, glasses and ceramics are proposed as a storage or disposal form of separated Sr and Cs. Ceramics sintered by hot-pressing are favorable waste forms of inorganic ion-exchangers but their leachabilities and thermal conductivities are largely influenced by qualities of products. Crystallinity of a sintered exchanger depends on its composition. Exchanges of low Cs contents are often converted into amorphous materials whose chemical stabilities depend on solubilities of components of exchangers. (4) A new exchanger to be synthesized is crystalline and selective toward Sr and Cs. One meq/g is enough for Sr and Cs capacities, which are restricted by thermal and transmutation effects. Composition of the exchanger should be selected from the point of a scenario of separation and disposal. The solubilities of SiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} are low in acidic media and those of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}, in disposal circumstances. (5) Future works are optimization of separation scheme including development of exchangers, simplification of

  12. Wetting of bituminized ion-exchangers under simulated repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalto, H.; Valkiainen, M.

    2001-01-01

    According to the present plans the spent nuclear fuel from four Finnish nuclear power units will be transferred after interim storage to the final disposal site where it will be encapsulated and disposed of in a final repository constructed into the bedrock at a depth of 500 meters. Low and medium level waste generated at nuclear power plants will be finally disposed of in caverns constructed in the bedrock at the power plant site. The safety of the final disposal is based on a multibarrier concept and the degree of safety is estimated by using predictive models. The properties of the waste form are taken into account in the design of the repository construction. Bitumen has been chosen as an immobilisation agent for the wet wastes at Olkiluoto Power Plant, where two BWR units, TVO 1 and TVO 2, have separate bituminization facilities designed by Asea-Atom. Properties of bituminized spent ion-exchange resins from Olkiluoto power plant have been studied by VTT Chemical Technology since the late 70's. These studies have concentrated mainly on determining the long-term behaviour of the bituminization product under the repository conditions. Current interest lies on wetted product as a diffusion barrier. For this purpose a microscopic method for the visualisation of the structure of the wetted product has been developed. The equilibration of the samples in simulated concrete groundwater is currently going on at a temperature of 5-8 deg. C. Preliminary results are presented in this paper. Diffusion experiments have been planned for the further characterising of the wetted product as a release barrier for radionuclides including modelling. (author)

  13. Problems and remedy programme of an ion-exchange filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, M.; Mekhemar, S.

    1994-01-01

    Practical problems of the ion exchange filter of ET-R R-1 reactor are discussed. Remedy program is described. The program includes:- Evaluating the efficiency of the resins. -Discharging of the radio-active resins from the filter - Identification of corrosion and repairing process of the filter vessel - Charging process of the fresh resins. -Evaluating the efficiency of the new resins. Waste radio-active resins were discharged by siphon effect. The chloride content in reactor cooling water decreased from 5.8 ppm to 1.1 ppm after changing the resins. Nevertheless, the chloride content is still much higher than the standard value 0.05 ppm. This is due to the high level of the chloride in the demineralized water produced by the demineralizer, 0.8 ppm. Therefore, it is recommended that the resins of the mixed bed demineralizer be tailored to produce the standard water quality. The filter vessel cannot be quarantined to be in good service condition for a long period. The vessel should be replaced by a new design which would facilitate the process of discharging the radioactive resins and charging the fresh resins. The inner surface of the vessel should be coated or cladded to withstand the aggressive environment of the water. Periodical water chemical analysis is necessary to investigate reactor coolant and filter conditions. The aging effect of the stored water supply to the reactor should be taken into consideration. New demineralized should be installed near the feed water supply tanks so that the stored water could be refreshed. The device save the costs of production of fresh demineralized water. Development of radioactive waste transportation mechanisms and storing are necessary. 12 figs., 4 tabs

  14. The influence of post-annealing treatment on the wettability of Ag+/Na+ ion-exchanged soda-lime glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razzaghi, Ahmad; Maleki, Maniya; Azizian-Kalandaragh, Yashar

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of thermal annealing and the duration of ion-exchange on the wetting parameters of the Ag + /Na + ion-exchanged glasses have been reported. The analysis of wetting angle in different post-annealing temperatures shows that the wetting angle is increased by increasing the annealing temperature. The wetting parameters of Ag + /Na + ion-exchanged glasses at different ion-exchanged periods of time have been also investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–Visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy have been used for determination of surface morphology and composition analysis of the prepared samples. The results of SEM show changes in the surface of the samples for different post-annealing temperatures. The optical characterization using UV–Vis spectroscopy shows an increase in the intensity of the absorption peak with increasing the ion-exchange duration. The FTIR spectroscopy confirms the formation of silver oxide material on the surface of Ag + /Na + ion-exchanged glasses.

  15. The application of synthetic inorganic ion exchangers to analytical chemistry, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Mitsuo

    1974-01-01

    Regarding acidic salts, description is made on the general behaviour of the acidic salts of tetravalent metals and each of zirconium salts, titanium salts, stannic salts, cerium salts, thorium salts, chromium salts, and others. On heteropolyacid salts, ammonium 12-molybdophosphated and phosphorus wolframate are described. On insoluble ferrocyanides, the behaviour of various complex salts is explained. In the discussion on the general behaviour of the acidic salts of tetravalent metals, the ideality of ion exchange, the stability and solubility of the acidic salts, thermal stability and radiation resistance, the ion sieving effect of various acidic salts, and the selectivity of the acidic salts are stated. Zirconium gives a number of acidic salts, such as zirconium phosphate, crystalline zirconium phosphate, zirconium phrophosphate, various polyphosphates of zirconium, zirconium phosphate-silicate, zirconium arsenate, zirconium antimonate, zirconium molybdate, zirconium tungstate, etc. Useful titanium salts for ion exchange are titanium phosphate, titanium aresenate, titanium antimonate, titanium tungstate, titanium molybdate, titanium vanadate, and titanium selenate. The distribution coefficients of metal ions, inorganic-separation of various inorganic ion exchangers, the exchange characteristics of various elements on various ion exchangers, and the selectivity of various inorganic ion-exchangers are tabulated. (Fukutomi, T.)

  16. Enhanced capacity and stability for the separation of cesium in electrically switched ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfic, A.F.; Dickson, S.E.; Kim, Y. [McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Mekky, W. [AMEC NSS, Power and Process America, Toronto (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Electrically switched ion exchange (ESIX) can be used to separate ionic contaminants from industrial wastewater, including that generated by the nuclear industry. The ESIX method involves sequential application of reduction and oxidation potentials to an ion exchange film to induce the respective loading and unloading of cesium. This technology is superior to conventional methods (e.g electrodialysis reversal or reverse osmosis) as it requires very little energy for ionic separation. In previous studies, ESIX films have demonstrated relatively low ion exchange capacities and limited film stabilities over repeated potential applications. In this study, the methodology for the deposition of electro-active films (nickel hexacyanoferrate) on nickel electrodes was modified to improve the ion exchange capacity for cesium removal using ESIX. Cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the ion exchange capacity and stability. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the modified film surfaces. Additionally, the films were examined for the separation of cesium ions. This modified film preparation technique enhanced the ion exchange capacity and improves the film stability compared to previous methods for the deposition of ESIX films. (authors)

  17. Enhanced capacity and stability for the separation of cesium in electrically switched ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfic, A.F.; Dickson, S.E.; Kim, Y.; Mekky, W.

    2015-01-01

    Electrically switched ion exchange (ESIX) can be used to separate ionic contaminants from industrial wastewater, including that generated by the nuclear industry. The ESIX method involves sequential application of reduction and oxidation potentials to an ion exchange film to induce the respective loading and unloading of cesium. This technology is superior to conventional methods (e.g electrodialysis reversal or reverse osmosis) as it requires very little energy for ionic separation. In previous studies, ESIX films have demonstrated relatively low ion exchange capacities and limited film stabilities over repeated potential applications. In this study, the methodology for the deposition of electro-active films (nickel hexacyanoferrate) on nickel electrodes was modified to improve the ion exchange capacity for cesium removal using ESIX. Cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the ion exchange capacity and stability. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the modified film surfaces. Additionally, the films were examined for the separation of cesium ions. This modified film preparation technique enhanced the ion exchange capacity and improves the film stability compared to previous methods for the deposition of ESIX films. (authors)

  18. Determination of γ-hydroxybutyrate in human urine samples by ion exclusion and ion exchange two-dimensional chromatography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junwei; Deng, Zhifen; Zhu, Zuoyi; Wang, Yong; Wang, Guoqing; Sun, Yu-An; Zhu, Yan

    2017-12-15

    A two-dimensional ion chromatography system was developed for the determination of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in human urine samples. Ion exclusion chromatography was used in the first dimensional separation for elimination of urine matrices and detection of GHB above 10mgL -1 , ion exchange chromatography was used in the second dimensional separation via column-switching technique for detection of GHB above 0.08mgL -1 . Under the optimized chromatographic conditions, the ion exclusion and ion exchange chromatography separation system exhibited satisfactory repeatability (RSDchromatography system was convenient and practical for the determination of GHB in human urine samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of ferrocyanide anion exchange resins regarding the uptake of Cs{sup +} ions and their regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Hui Jun; Mooon, Jei Kwon; Jung, Chong Hun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Won Yang [Kangwon University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin was prepared and the prepared ion exchange resins were tested on the ability to uptake Cs{sup +} ion. The prepared ion exchange resins were resin-KCoFC, resin-KNiFC, and resin-KCuFC. The three tested ion exchange resins showed ion exchange selectivity on the Cs{sup +} ion of the surrogate soil decontamination solution, and resin- KCoFC showed the best Cs{sup +} ion uptake capability among the tested ion exchange resins. The ion exchange behaviors were explained well by the modified Dubinin-Polanyi equation. A regeneration feasibility study of the spent ion exchange resins was also performed by the successive application of hydrogen peroxide and hydrazine. The desorption of the Cs{sup +} ion from the ion exchange resin satisfied the electroneutrality condition in the oxidation step; the desorption of the Fe{sup 2+} ion in the reduction step could also be reduced by adding the K{sup +} ion.

  20. New Composite Sorbents for Caesium and Strontium Ions Sorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Kartel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Composite lignocellulose-inorganic sorbents derived from plant residues of agriculture and food industry, modified with ferrocyanides of d-metals and hydrated antimony pentoxide were prepared. Caesium and strontium ions removal from water was tested by radiotracer method. Sorption of heavy metal ions, methylene blue, gelatin, vitamin B12 was also studied.

  1. Extraction and ion exchange equilibrium. A study by means logarith-mic diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente Perez, S.; Alvarez, M.D.; Durand, S.

    1990-01-01

    A general logarithmic mole fraction diagram for the study of distribution equilibria of a) a neutral chemical species between two inmiscible solvents and b) and ionic species between an aqueous phase and ion-exchange resin, is proposed. (Author)

  2. Inorganic ion exchangers and adsorbents for chemical processing in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    The application of inorganic ion exchangers and adsorbents to both waste treatment and the recovery of fission products and actinides were of primary concern at this meeting. The meeting covered the two major fields of fundamental studies and industrial applications

  3. Method of detecting defects in ion exchange membranes of electrochemical cells by chemochromic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Robert Paul; Mohajeri, Nahid

    2016-01-05

    A method of detecting defects in membranes such as ion exchange membranes of electrochemical cells. The electrochemical cell includes an assembly having an anode side and a cathode side with the ion exchange membrane in between. In a configuration step a chemochromic sensor is placed above the cathode and flow isolation hardware lateral to the ion exchange membrane which prevents a flow of hydrogen (H.sub.2) between the cathode and anode side. The anode side is exposed to a first reactant fluid including hydrogen. The chemochromic sensor is examined after the exposing for a color change. A color change evidences the ion exchange membrane has at least one defect that permits H.sub.2 transmission therethrough.

  4. MODELING AN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE SOLUTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.; Hamm, Luther; Aleman, Sebastian; Michael, Johnston

    2008-01-01

    The performance of spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde ion-exchange resin for the removal of cesium from alkaline radioactive waste solutions has been investigated through computer modeling. Cesium adsorption isotherms were obtained by fitting experimental data using a thermodynamic framework. Results show that ion-exchange is an efficient method for cesium removal from highly alkaline radioactive waste solutions. On average, two 1300 liter columns operating in series are able to treat 690,000 liters of waste with an initial cesium concentration of 0.09 mM in 11 days achieving a decontamination factor of over 50,000. The study also tested the sensitivity of ion-exchange column performance to variations in flow rate, temperature and column dimensions. Modeling results can be used to optimize design of the ion exchange system

  5. A conditioning process for ion exchanger resins contaminated with radioactive elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legros, R.; Wiegert, B.; Zeh, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Ion exchanger resins are embedded in a pre-polymer syrup prepared from acrylic monomers having high boiling point. A curing catalyst (a peroxide) and an activation agent (a tertiary amine) are added. 12 examples are given. 9 p

  6. Applications of inorganic ion-exchange materials in managing radioactivity wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jiaheng; Li Xingliang; Li Shoujian

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces the application of abio-ion exchange materials in managing radioactivity wastewater, which would be useful for latter research of new inorganic materials that used in managing radioactivity wastewater. (authors)

  7. Decontamination of spent ion-exchangers contaminated with cesium radionuclides using resorcinol-formaldehyde resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamarchuk, Marina; Egorin, Andrey; Tokar, Eduard; Tutov, Mikhail; Marinin, Dmitry; Avramenko, Valentin

    2017-01-05

    The origin of the emergence of radioactive contamination not removable in the process of acid-base regeneration of ion-exchange resins used in treatment of technological media and liquid radioactive waste streams has been determined. It has been shown that a majority of cesium radionuclides not removable by regeneration are bound to inorganic deposits on the surface and inside the ion-exchange resin beads. The nature of the above inorganic inclusions has been investigated by means of the methods of electron microscopy, IR spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The method of decontamination of spent ion-exchange resins and zeolites contaminated with cesium radionuclides employing selective resorcinol-formaldehyde resins has been suggested. Good prospects of such an approach in deep decontamination of spent ion exchangers have been demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ion Exchange Properties of a Terpolymer Resin Derived from 2, 4-Dihydroxybenzaldehyde, Oxamide and Formaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Tarase

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Terpolymer resins (2,4-DHBOF were synthesized by the condensation of 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and oxamide with formaldehyde in the presence of hydrochloric acid as catalyst, proved to be selective chelation ion exchange terpolymer resins for certain metals. Chelation ion exchange properties of these polymers were studied for Fe+3, Cu+2, Hg+2, Cd+2, Co+2, Zn+2, Ni+2 and Pb+2 ions. A batch equilibrium method was employed in the study of the selectivity of the distribution of a given metal ions between the polymer sample and a solution containing the metal ion. The study was carried out over a wide pH range and in a media of various ionic strengths. The polymer showed a higher selectivity for Fe+3, Cd+2 and Co+2 ions than for Cu+2, Hg+2, Zn+2, Ni+2 and Pb+2 ions.

  9. Characteristics of floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tetsurou; Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu.

    1989-01-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of floc formation. The physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin were measured and the factors related to floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index. It was found that these factors were mixing ratio, nature of resins and particle size of resins. In addition, it was assumed on the bases of these results that the amount of resin floc was related to sum of the surface electric charges of both resins. The filling ratio of resin floc was related to their product by multiplication and an experimental expression was obtained. The specific settle volume of resin floc could then be simulated by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author)

  10. Characteristics of floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Tetsurou (Nitto Denko Corp., Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan)); Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu

    1989-09-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of floc formation. The physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin were measured and the factors related to floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index. It was found that these factors were mixing ratio, nature of resins and particle size of resins. In addition, it was assumed on the bases of these results that the amount of resin floc was related to sum of the surface electric charges of both resins. The filling ratio of resin floc was related to their product by multiplication and an experimental expression was obtained. The specific settle volume of resin floc could then be simulated by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author).

  11. "One-Pot" Ion-Exchange and Mesopore Formation During Desilication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Martin Spangsberg; Hansen, Martin Kalmar; Christensen, Claus Hviid

    2009-01-01

    A desilication protocol using tetramethylammonium hydroxide was applied to zeolite beta. The new route presented here integrates the desilication and ion-exchange post-treatment steps allowing for a subsequent ion-exchange step to be avoided. It is shown that the acidic and highly mesoporous zeol...... zeolite is obtained directly upon calcination. Thus, careful choice of base and post-treatment conditions lead to the fabrication of a hierarchical meso- and microporous structure with completely retained crystallinity. (...

  12. Lawps ion exchange column gravity drain of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Herman, D. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Restivo, M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-28

    Experiments at several different scales were performed to understand the removal of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) ion exchange resin using a gravity drain system with a valve located above the resin screen in the ion exchange column (IXC). This is being considered as part of the design for the Low Activity Waste Pretreatment System (LAWPS) to be constructed at the DOE Hanford Site.

  13. Experimental Ion Exchange Column With SuperLig 639 And Simulant Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, Megan; Nash, C.

    2013-08-26

    SuperLig®639 ion exchange resin was tested as a retrieval mechanism for pertechnetate, through decontamination of a perrhenate spiked 5M Simple Average Na{sup +} Mass Based Simulant. Testing included batch contacts and a three-column ion exchange campaign. A decontamination of perrhenate exceeding 99% from the liquid feed was demonstrated. Analysis of the first formulation of a SBS/WESP simulant found unexpectedly low concentrations of soluble aluminum. Follow-on work will complete the formulation.

  14. Treatment of spent ion-exchange resins for storage and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the experience gained by different countries on storage of spent ion exchange resins, immobilization of them into various matrices and the development of new methods in decomposition and solidification of spent resins. The report contains all the results of the Coordinated Research Programme together with additional data available from countries not participating in this programme. A review of practical industrial experience in treating spent ion exchange resins is given in the annex

  15. Ion-exchanger ultraviolet spectrophotometry for uranium(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waki, H.; Korkisch, J.

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive method based on solid-phase spectrophotometry has been developed for the microdetermination of uranium(VI) in water samples. Uranium is sorbed on the anion-exchanger QAE-Sephadex from thiocyanate solution and the absorbance of the exchanger is measured at 300 nm. This method is about 30 times more sensitive than solution spectrophotometry. Absorption spectra of various metals in the anion-exchanger phase are presented and their interferences discussed. A procedure for the cation-exchange separation of uranium from accompanying elements before spectral measurement of uranium is proposed. (author)

  16. Study of the Fixation and Migration of Radioactive Cations in a Natural Ion-Exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baetsle, L. [Centre d' Etudes de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium)

    1960-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the behaviour of Sr90 and Cs137 on natural ion-exchangers such as lignite and soil. Lignite is a substance which is found in large quantities near the Belgian Nuclear Energy Research Centre (CEN) at Mol and is particularly useful in the processing of radioactive liquid wastes because of its ion-exchange properties. The physical and chemical characteristics of lignite which have a bearing on ion exchange are given in section 1 of this paper. The various ion equilibria which affect the processing of.radioactive liquid wastes are studied in section 2, which also lists the basic factors required for calculating the rate of saturation of a lignite column. The speed of ion migration in the soil is studied along the same lines as for lignite.

  17. Hydration effect on ion exchange resin irradiated by swift heavy ions and gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughattas, I.; Labed, V.; Gerenton, A.; Ngono-Ravache, Y.; Dannoux-Papin, A.

    2018-06-01

    Gamma radiolysis of ion exchange resins (IER) is widely studied since the sixties, as a function of different parameters (resin type, dose, atmosphere, water content …). However, to our knowledge, there are very few data concerning hydrogen emission from anionic and cationic resins irradiated at high Linear Energy Transfers (LET). In the present work, we focus on the influence of hydration on hydrogen emission, in anionic and cationic resins irradiated under inert atmosphere using Swift Heavy Ions (SHI) and gamma irradiations. The radiation chemical yield of molecular hydrogen is nonlinear with water content for both resins. The molecular hydrogen production depends first on the water form in IER (free or linked) and second on the solubility of degradation products. Three steps have been observed: at lower water content where G(H2) is stable, at 50%, G(H2) increases due to reactions between water radiolytic species and the resin functional groups and at high water content, G(H2) decreases probably due to its accumulation in water and its consumption by hydroxyl radicals in the supernatant.

  18. Assessment of commercially available ion exchange materials for cesium removal from highly alkaline wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, K.P.; Kim, A.Y.; Kurath, D.E.

    1996-04-01

    Approximately 61 million gallons of nuclear waste generated in plutonium production, radionuclide removal campaigns, and research and development activities is stored on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. Although the pretreatment process and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include removal of cesium from the aqueous streams. In many cases, after cesium is removed, the dissolved salt cakes and supernates can be disposed of as LLW. Ion exchange has been a leading candidate for this separation. Ion exchange systems have the advantage of simplicity of equipment and operation and provide many theoretical stages in a small space. The organic ion exchange material Duolite trademark CS-100 has been selected as the baseline exchanger for conceptual design of the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM). Use of CS-100 was chosen because it is considered a conservative, technologically feasible approach. During FY 96, final resin down-selection will occur for IPM Title 1 design. Alternate ion exchange materials for cesium exchange will be considered at that time. The purpose of this report is to conduct a search for commercially available ion exchange materials which could potentially replace CS-100. This report will provide where possible a comparison of these resin in their ability to remove low concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions. Materials which show promise can be studied further, while less encouraging resins can be eliminated from consideration

  19. Desalination by electrodialysis with ion-exchange membrane prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seong-Ho; Jeong, Young Han; Ryoo, Jae Jeong; Lee, Kwang-Pill [Department of Chemistry Graduate School, Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea)

    2000-07-01

    Ion-exchange membranes modified with triethylamine [-N(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}){sub 3}] and phosphoric acid (-PO{sub 3}H) groups were prepared by radiation-induced grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto polyolefin nonwavon fabric (PNF) and subsequent chemical modification of poly (GMA) graft chains. The physical and chemical properties of the GMA-grafted PNF and the PNF modified with ion-exchange groups were investigated by SEM and XPS. The ion-exchange capacities of the cation- and anion-exchange membrane were 0.20 and 1.24mmol/g, respectively. The content of cation- and anion exchange group increased with increasing grafting yield (d.g.=100%). Electrical resistance of PNF modified with TEA and -PO{sub 3}H group decreased with increasing ion-exchange group capacities. Application of the graft-type ion-exchange membranes as separators for electrodialysis enabled use to reduce the time required to achieve 85.5% desalination of the 0.5M NaCl solution. (author)

  20. Assessment of commercially available ion exchange materials for cesium removal from highly alkaline wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, K.P.; Kim, A.Y.; Kurath, D.E.

    1996-04-01

    Approximately 61 million gallons of nuclear waste generated in plutonium production, radionuclide removal campaigns, and research and development activities is stored on the Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. Although the pretreatment process and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include removal of cesium from the aqueous streams. In many cases, after cesium is removed, the dissolved salt cakes and supernates can be disposed of as LLW. Ion exchange has been a leading candidate for this separation. Ion exchange systems have the advantage of simplicity of equipment and operation and provide many theoretical stages in a small space. The organic ion exchange material Duolite{trademark} CS-100 has been selected as the baseline exchanger for conceptual design of the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM). Use of CS-100 was chosen because it is considered a conservative, technologically feasible approach. During FY 96, final resin down-selection will occur for IPM Title 1 design. Alternate ion exchange materials for cesium exchange will be considered at that time. The purpose of this report is to conduct a search for commercially available ion exchange materials which could potentially replace CS-100. This report will provide where possible a comparison of these resin in their ability to remove low concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions. Materials which show promise can be studied further, while less encouraging resins can be eliminated from consideration.

  1. Synthesis and ion-exchange properties of cerium(IV) molybdate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.K.; Raj Pal Singh; Sushma Agrawal; Satish Kumar

    1977-01-01

    The synthesis, ion exchange properties, and the separation of a number of cation pairs on the columns of cerium (IV) molybdate is discussed. In order to obtain the product in gel form showing a high exchange capacity and suitable for column operation, preliminary experiments were performed to determine the optimum conditions of precipitation, i.e., the concentration of ceric and molybdate solutions, mixing ratio, pH of precipitation and the order of mixing. Cerium (IV) molybdate, prepared under the optimum conditions of concentration, acidity etc., shows exchange capacity of 0.96 meg per g of exchanger. The sorption of a large number of metal ions has been investigated and the compound shows promising behaviour as cation exchanger. Numerous separations of analytical and radiochemical interest have been performed on the column of this exchanger with great efficiency. (T.G.)

  2. Synthesis and ion-exchange properties of cerium(IV) molybdate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S K; Singh, Raj Pal; Agrawal, Sushma; Kumar, Satish [Roorkee Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1977-01-01

    The synthesis, ion exchange properties, and the separation of a number of cation pairs on the columns of cerium (IV) molybdate is discussed. In order to obtain the product in gel form showing a high exchange capacity and suitable for column operation, preliminary experiments were performed to determine the optimum conditions of precipitation, i.e., the concentration of ceric and molybdate solutions, mixing ratio, pH of precipitation and the order of mixing. Cerium (IV) molybdate, prepared under the optimum conditions of concentration, acidity etc., shows exchange capacity of 0.96 meg per g of exchanger. The sorption of a large number of metal ions has been investigated and the compound shows promising behaviour as cation exchanger. Numerous separations of analytical and radiochemical interest have been performed on the column of this exchanger with great efficiency.

  3. System for processing ion exchange resin regeneration waste liquid in atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onaka, Noriyuki; Tanno, Kazuo; Shoji, Saburo.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To reduce the quantity of radioactive waste to be solidified by recovering and repeatedly using sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide which constitute the ion exchange resin regeneration waste liquid. Structure: Cation exchange resin regeneration waste liquid is supplied to an anion exchange film electrolytic dialyzer for recovering sulfuric acid through separation from impurity cations, while at the same time anion exchange resin regeneration waste liquid is supplied to a cation exchange film electrolytic dialyzer for recovering sodium hydroxide through separation from impurity anions. The sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide thus recovered are condensed by a thermal condenser and then, after density adjustment, repeatedly used for the regeneration of the ion exchange resin. (Aizawa, K.)

  4. A structural study of nepheline hydrate I, an inorganic ion exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, S.

    1985-01-01

    The crystal structures of nepheline hydrates I, Na 3 Al 3 Si 3 O 12 x 2H 2 O, and three compounds produced by ion exchange with aqueous KCl, RbCl and CsCl at 80 degrees C, have been studied using X-ray diffraction methods. This synthetic silicate has a tetrahedral framework with a two-dimensional pore system consisting of perpendicular 8-ring and 6-ring channels. The long-range ordering of Si and Al into adjacent tetrahedra is well developed. Some aspects of the topology, geometry and bonding of the tetrahedral frame are discussed. Related framework types are derived by unit cell twinning of the idealized cristobalite structure. A limit in the ion exchange is observed when about 1/3 of the Na + ions have been replaced. This behaviour is explained by the restricted volume of two Na sites situated in the 6-ring channel. The readily exchangeable ions and water molecules in the 8-ring channels an arrangement which gradually changes when the size of the alkali metal-ion increases. Most K + -exchanged crystals have a unit cell which is determined by the translational symmetry of the framework, while the original Na form has a two-fold superstructure and the Rb + -exchanged form has a five-fold superstructure. Caesium-ion-exchanged crystals have incommensurate structures. The occurrence of superstructures is related to long-range ordering of the species in the 8-ring channels. (author)

  5. Thermal Performance Analysis For Small Ion-Exchange Cesium Removal Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; King, W.

    2009-01-01

    The In-Riser Ion Exchange program focuses on the development of in-tank systems to decontaminate high level waste (HLW) salt solutions at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and the Hanford Site. Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) treatment for cesium removal is a primary in-riser technology for decontamination prior to final waste immobilization in Saltstone. Through this process, radioactive cesium from the salt solution is adsorbed onto the ion exchange media which is packed within a flow-through column. Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) is being considered as the ion exchange media for the application of this technology at both sites. A packed column loaded with media containing radioactive cesium generates significant heat from radiolytic decay. Under normal operating conditions, process fluid flow through the column can provide adequate heat removal from the columns. However, in the unexpected event of loss of fluid flow or fluid drainage from the column, the design must be adequate to handle the thermal load to avoid unacceptable temperature excursions. Otherwise, hot spots may develop locally which could degrade the performance of the ion-exchange media or the temperature could rise above column safety limits. Data exists which indicates that performance degradation with regard to cesium removal occurs with RF at 65C. In addition, the waste supernate solution will boil around 130C. As a result, two temperature limits have been assumed for this analysis. An additional upset scenario was considered involving the loss of the supernate solution due to inadvertent fluid drainage through the column boundary. In this case, the column containing the loaded media could be completely dry. This event is expected to result in high temperatures that could damage the column or cause the RF sorbent material to undergo undesired physical changes. One objective of these calculations is to determine the range of temperatures that should be evaluated during testing with the RF

  6. Chemical exchange between UF6 and UF6- ion in anhydrous hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelet, J.; Luce, M.; Plurien, P.; Rigny, P.

    1975-01-01

    The chemical exchange between UF 6 and the UF 6 - ion is of potential interest for the separation of U isotopes. In this paper, results concerning the value of the separation factor and the kinetics of the homogeneous exchange are given [fr

  7. SOLVENT EFFECTS ON THE HYDRATION OF CYCLOHEXENE CATALYZED BY A STRONG ACID ION-EXCHANGE RESIN .2. EFFECT OF SULFOLANE ON THE REACTION-KINETICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PANNEMAN, HJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    The kinetics of the' hydration of cyclohexene, catalyzed by a strong acid ion-exchange resin, have been studied in a packed bed reactor at temperatures between 353 and 413 K and a pressure of 20 bar. The kinetic rate constants were measured as a function of temperature and solvent composition (0-90

  8. Electrical equivalent circuit of an ion-exchange membrane system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikonenko, Victor V., E-mail: v_nikonenko@mail.r [Membrane Institute, Kuban State University, Krasnodar (Russian Federation); Kozmai, Anton E. [Membrane Institute, Kuban State University, Krasnodar (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-01

    Usually, the current flowing through an electrochemical cell is divided into the faradaic current going to an electrochemical interface reaction, and the current charging electric double layer (EDL). This division leads to the Randles-Ershler equivalent circuit with an EDL capacitance in one branch, and the faradaic impedance in the other, specific for each particular system. However, the physics of the separation of the impedance into faradaic and capacitive components for different electrochemical systems is not sufficiently clear. The most of derivations resulting in the formal construction of the Randles-Ershler or similar equivalent circuits are based on the a priori separation of the electroneutral and the double-layer regions. In this paper, we derive an equation for the impedance of a three-layer system consisted of an ion-exchange membrane and two adjoining diffusion boundary layers (DBL) starting from the Poisson equation. The system is polarized by a constant electric current over which a small sinusoidal signal is applied. The equation shows that the impedance of the considered system can be formally interpreted via an equivalent circuit with a frequency dependent capacitance in one branch and a finite-length Warburg-type impedance in the other. To take into account this dependence, the impedance of the system may be presented as a series connection of five circuits. Three of them are consisted of a geometric capacitance connected in parallel with an ohmic resistance, respectively, for both diffusion layers and for the membrane bulk; the two others being the double-layer capacitance in parallel with the finite-length Warburg impedance for the left and the right interfaces, respectively. The comparison of the impedance spectra calculated within our analytical approach with those obtained by the full numerical solution of the Nernst-Planck-Poisson (NPP) equations shows a good agreement. Different possible situations, which might arise in real systems

  9. Graphene-coated polymeric anion exchangers for ion chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai; Cao, Minyi; Lou, Chaoyan [Department of Chemistry, Xixi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Wu, Shuchao, E-mail: wushch2002@163.com [Zhejiang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, Hangzhou 310007 (China); Zhang, Peimin [Department of Chemistry, Xixi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Zhi, Mingyu [Hangzhou Vocational & Technical College, Hangzhou, 310018 (China); Zhu, Yan, E-mail: zhuyan@zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Xixi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Carbonaceous stationary phases have gained much attention for their peculiar selectivity and robustness. Herein we report the fabrication and application of a graphene-coated polymeric stationary phase for anion exchange chromatography. The graphene-coated particles were fabricated by a facile evaporation-reduction method. These hydrophilic particles were proven appropriate substrates for grafting of hyperbranched condensation polymers (HBCPs) to make pellicular anion exchangers. The new phase was characterized by zeta potentials, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscope. Frontal displacement chromatography showed that the capacities of the anion exchangers were tuned by both graphene amount and HBCPs layer count. The chromatographic performance of graphene-coated anion exchangers was demonstrated with separation of inorganic anions, organic acids, carbohydrates and amino acids. Good reproducibility was obtained by consecutive injections, indicating high chemical stability of the coating. - Highlights: • Graphene-coated polymeric particles were fabricated by a facile method. • Hyperbranched condensation polymers (HBCPs) were grafted from graphene-coated particles to make anion exchangers. • Graphene amount and HBCPs layer count had significant effects on the anion exchange capacities. • Separation of diverse anionic analytes on the anion exchangers was demonstrated. • The prepared anion exchangers exhibited high stability.

  10. Inter- and intra-annular proton exchange in gaseous benzylbenzenium ions (protonated diphenylmethane)

    OpenAIRE

    Kuck, Dietmar; Bäther, Wolfgang

    1986-01-01

    Two distinct proton exchange reactions occur in metastable gaseous benzylbenzenium ions, generated by isobutane chemical ionization of diphenylmethane and four deuterium-labelled analogues. Whereas the proton ring-walk at the benzenium moiety is fast giving rise to a completely random intraannular proton exchange, the interannular proton exchange is surprisingly slow and competes with the elimination of benzene. A kinetic isotope effect of kH/kD= 5 has been determined for the interannular pro...

  11. Antibacterial properties of Ag-exchanged Philippine natural zeolite-chitosan composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taaca, Kathrina Lois M.; Olegario, Eleanor M.; Vasquez, Magdaleno R.

    2017-12-01

    Zeolites are microporous minerals composed of silicon, aluminum and oxygen. These aluminosilicates consist of tetrahedral units which produce open framework structures to generate a system of pores and cavities of molecular dimensions. Zeolites are naturally abundant and can be mined in most parts of the world. In this study, natural zeolites (NaZ) which are locally-sourced here in the Philippines were investigated to determine its properties. An ion-exchange process was utilized, using the zeolite to silver (Ag) solution ratio of 1:20 (w/v), to incorporate Ag into the zeolite framework. Characterizations such as XRD, AAS, and Agar diffusion assay were used to evaluate the properties of the synthesized Ag-exchanged zeolites (AgZ). X-ray diffraction revealed that both NaZ and AgZ have peaks mostly corresponding to the clinoptilolite structure, with some trace peaks of the mordenite and quartz. Absorption spectroscopy revealed that the ion exchange process added about 0.61188g of silver into the zeolite structure. This Ag content was seen to be enough to make the AgZ sample exhibit an antibacterial effect where clearing zones against E. coli and S. aureus were observed in the agar diffusion assay, respectively. The AgZ sample was also tested as ceramic filler to a polymer matrix-chitosan. The diffusion assay revealed presence of antibacterial activity to the polymer composite with AgZ fillers. These results indicate that the Philippine natural zeolite, incorporated with metals such as Ag, can be used as an antibacterial agent and can be developed as a ceramic filler to improve the antibacterial property of composite materials for biomedical application.

  12. Swelling behavior of ion exchange resins incorporated in tri-calcium silicate cement matrix: II. Mechanical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neji, M.; Bary, B.; Le Bescop, P.; Burlion, N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the second part of a study aiming at modelling the mechanical behavior of composites made up of ion exchange resins (IER) solidified in a tri-calcium silicate cement paste (C_3S). Such composites may be subjected to internal pressures due to ion exchange processes between ionic species which are in IER and interstitial solution of the cement paste. The reactive transport model developed in the companion paper is coupled in this study to a multi-scale approach describing the mechanical behavior of the material. It is based on an analogy with thermomechanics for taking in account the IER internal pressures, and on Eshelby-based homogenization techniques to estimate both mechanical and coupling parameters. A laboratory test has been set up to measure the macroscopic strain caused by the swelling phenomenon. The model has been finally implemented in a finite elements software. The simulation of the laboratory tests has been performed and the results have been analyzed and compared to experimental data. - Highlights: • Experimental analysis about mechanical behavior of a composite material. • Chemo-Mechanical-Transport modeling on a composite material made up with IER embedded into cement paste matrix. • Multi-scale modeling.

  13. Sorption-spectroscopic and test methods for the determination of metal ions on the solid-phase of ion-exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savvin, Sergey B; Dedkova, Valentina P; Shvoeva, Ol'ga P

    2000-01-01

    Data on sorption-spectroscopic and test methods for the determination of metal ions on the solid-phase of ion-exchange materials published over the past decade are reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of ion-exchange materials are discussed. The detection limits and selectivity of these techniques are described. The bibliography includes 151 references.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of functional peek for ion-exchange membranes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Luo, H

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The sulfonated and sulfinated polyetheretherketone (SsPEEK) was prepared via a novel method. SsPEEK has two types of functional groups, the functional groups for ion-exchange and the functional groups for further strengthening of the ion...

  15. Charge exchange induced X-ray transitions of hollow ions in laser field ionized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosmej, F.B.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, T.A.; Magunov, A.I.; Skobelev, I.Yu.; Auguste, T.; D'Oliveira, P.; Hulin, S.; Monot, P.

    2000-01-01

    Double electron charge exchange is proposed for the formation of hollow He-like ions when laser field ionized nuclei penetrate into the residual gas. Using transitions from different configurations in hollow ions a method for the determination of the electron temperature in the long lasting recombination phase is developed

  16. Analysis of Ion Composition Estimation Accuracy for Incoherent Scatter Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Ledesma, M.; Diaz, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) is one of the most powerful sounding methods developed to estimate the Ionosphere. This radar system determines the plasma parameters by sending powerful electromagnetic pulses to the Ionosphere and analyzing the received backscatter. This analysis provides information about parameters such as electron and ion temperatures, electron densities, ion composition, and ion drift velocities. Nevertheless in some cases the ISR analysis has ambiguities in the determination of the plasma characteristics. It is of particular relevance the ion composition and temperature ambiguity obtained between the F1 and the lower F2 layers. In this case very similar signals are obtained with different mixtures of molecular ions (NO2+ and O2+) and atomic oxygen ions (O+), and consequently it is not possible to completely discriminate between them. The most common solution to solve this problem is the use of empirical or theoretical models of the ionosphere in the fitting of ambiguous data. More recent works take use of parameters estimated from the Plasma Line band of the radar to reduce the number of parameters to determine. In this work we propose to determine the error estimation of the ion composition ambiguity when using Plasma Line electron density measurements. The sensibility of the ion composition estimation has been also calculated depending on the accuracy of the ionospheric model, showing that the correct estimation is highly dependent on the capacity of the model to approximate the real values. Monte Carlo simulations of data fitting at different signal to noise (SNR) ratios have been done to obtain valid and invalid estimation probability curves. This analysis provides a method to determine the probability of erroneous estimation for different signal fluctuations. Also it can be used as an empirical method to compare the efficiency of the different algorithms and methods on when solving the ion composition ambiguity.

  17. Determination of arsenate in water by anion selective membrane electrode using polyurethane–silica gel fibrous anion exchanger composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Asif Ali, E-mail: asifkhan42003@yahoo.com; Shaheen, Shakeeba, E-mail: shakeebashaheen@ymail.com

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • PU–Si gel is new anion exchanger material synthesized and characterized. • This material used as anion exchange membrane is applied for electroanalytical studies. • The method for detection and determination of AsO{sub 4}{sup 3−} in traces amounts discussed. • The results are also verified from arsenic analyzer. -- Abstract: Polyurethane (PU)–silica (Si gel) based fibrous anion exchanger composites were prepared by solid–gel polymerization of polyurethane in the presence of different amounts of silica gel. The formation of PU–Si gel fibrous anion exchanger composite was characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and elemental analysis. The membrane having a composition of 5:3 (PU:Si gel) shows best results for water content, porosity, thickness and swelling. Our studies show that the present ion selective membrane electrode is selective for arsenic, having detection limit (1 × 10{sup −8} M to 1 × 10{sup −1} M), response time (45 s) and working pH range (5–8). The selectivity coefficient values for interfering ions indicate good selectivity for arsenate (AsO{sub 4}{sup 3−}) over interfering anions. The accuracy of the detection limit results was compared by PCA-Arsenomat.

  18. Three-Dimensional Thermal Modeling Analysis Of CST Media For The Small Ion Exchange Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; King, W.

    2011-01-01

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) project is designed to accelerate closure of High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS tanks store HLW in three forms: sludge, saltcake, and supernate. An in-tank ion exchange process is being designed to treat supernate and dissolved saltcake waste. Through this process, radioactive cesium from the salt solution is adsorbed into Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange media packed within a flow-through column. A packed column loaded with radioactive cesium generates significant heat from radiolytic decay. The waste supernate solution within the ion exchange bed will boil around 120 C. Solution superheating above the boiling point within the column could lead to violent hazardous energy releases. System heating from loaded CST is also of concern in other process modules, such as the waste tank. Due to tank structural integrity concerns, the wall temperature limit for the SRS waste tanks is 100 C. The transfer of cesium-loaded CST to the tank could result in localized hot spots on the tank floor and walls which may exceed this limit. As a result, thermal modeling calculations have been conducted to predict the maximum temperatures achievable both in the column and in the waste tank. As specified in the associated Technical Task Plan, one objective of the present work was to compute temperature distributions within the ion exchange column module under accident scenarios including loss of salt solution flow through the bed and loss of coolant system flow. The column modeling domain and the scope of the calculations in this case were broadened relative to previous two-dimensional calculations to include vertical temperature distributions within the packed bed of ion exchange media as well as the upper column plenum region containing only fluid. The baseline design conditions and in-column modeling domain for the ion-exchange column module are shown in Figure 1. These evaluations assumed the maximum

  19. Ion exchange in sphagnum and its relation to bog ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clymo, R S

    1963-01-01

    In sphagnum cuspidatum unesterified polyuronic acids form 12 percent of the dry weight; in S. acutifolium 25 percent of the dry weight. A good correlation has been found for sphagna between the content of unesterified polyuronic acid and the cation exchange ability, and between cation exchange ability and height of normal habitat above the water table. Anion exchange ability in sphagna is less than 0.0026 m.eq./g. d.w. compared with about 1.2 m.eq./g. d.w. for cations at pH values above 7. In natural conditions the exchange sites are, however, only partly dissociated. The production of new plant material in a bog dependent on rainwater for nurients can be sufficient to maintain the pH below 4.5, but on other than H/sup +/ could be retained in exchangeable form. A greater proportion of polyvalent cations could be retained. The kinetics of cation exchange are consistent with a heterogeneous exchange phase containing regions of high charge density and regions with lower charge density. At equilibrium the proportions of different cations in the exchange phase are largely explicable by a Donnan distribution, but there are notable exceptions. Two estimates based on donnan distribution suggest that with low external pH and/or low cation concentration the apparent concentration of exchange sites may be 2-3 eq./l., falling with rise in pH and/or increase in cation concentration to 0.9 -1.5 eq./l. The apparent dissociation coefficient also varies in these conditions from 2 x 10/sup -3/ to 1 x 10/sup -4/.

  20. Cation mobility in H+/Na+ ion exchange products of acid tantalum and zirconium phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnopol'skij, V.A.; Yaroslavtsev, A.B.

    2000-01-01

    Ionic conductivity of Na + /H + exchange products on acid zirconium phosphate with different substitution degree and on acid tantalum phosphate, where ion exchange occurs via formation of a continuous series of solid solutions, was studied by the method of conductometry. It was ascertained that ionic conductivity decreases monotonously with growth in substitution degree of H + for Na + in acid tantalum phosphate. Anomalous increase in ionic conductivity of ion exchange products on acid zirconium phosphate with a low substitution degree has been detected for the first time. Formation of a double electric layer with a high concentration of cationic defects on the interface surface is the reason for increase in ionic conductivity [ru

  1. High-performance ion-exchange chromatography of alkali metals with conductivity detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Khan, A.R.

    1981-01-01

    High-performance ion-exchange chromatography of alkali metal and ammonium ions was studied using a conductivity meter as detector. Elution with 0.003 N mitric acid gave excellent resolution. Sensitivity levels, for a 200 micro litre injection, vary from 5 ppm for potassium to 0.1 ppm for lithium. A method to decrease retention times by reducing the exchange capacity of the cation exchange column used by loading it with calciumions, without affecting the resolation, has been described. Application of the method to water, soil and uranium dioxide samples has been demonstrated. (author)

  2. Mark-18A Ion Exchange Raffinate Management Strategy & Processing Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-21

    It is desired to recover Cm-244 through Cm-248 from dissolved Mark-18A targets following anion exchange processing to remove the Pu. The Cm will be sent to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for additional R&D. Approximately 5-8 L per quarter of a Mark-18A target will have undergone anion exchange treatment and will contain Cm. A significant portion of this volume of anion exchange raffinate solution is dissolved fission products not desired to be recovered which could be sent to waste. To reduce the amount of material being sent to ORNL, a waste and volume minimization strategy was developed and is described in this report.

  3. Rapid radiochemical ion-exchange separation of iodine from tellurium: a novel radioiodine-132 generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrao, A

    1975-01-01

    Tellurium ions form a soluble cationic complex with thiourea in acid medium. The cationic tellurium-thiourea species is strongly absorbed on a cationic ion exchanger. The retention of tellurium on the resin enables many interesting separation schemes for tellurium from various ions. With special interest, the separation of iodine from tellurium was studied. An efficient and convenient iodine-132 generator is described, in which the radio-iodine is eluted with water or 9 g/1 NaCl, when desired.

  4. A rapid radiochemical ion-exchange separation of iodine from tellurium: a novel radioiodine-132 generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrao, A.

    1975-01-01

    Tellurium ions form a soluble cationic complex with thiourea in acid medium. The cationic tellurium-thiourea species is strongly absorbed on a cationic ion exchanger. The retention of tellurium on the resin enables many interesting separation schemes for tellurium from various ions. With special interest, the separation of iodine from tellurium was studied. An efficient and convenient iodine-132 generator is described, in which the radio-iodine is eluted with water or 9 g/1 NaCL, when desired

  5. A practical method for measuring the ion exchange capacity decrease of hydroxide exchange membranes during intrinsic degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuer, Klaus-Dieter; Jannasch, Patric

    2018-01-01

    In this work we present a practical thermogravimetric method for quantifying the IEC (ion exchange capacity) decrease of hydroxide exchange membranes (HEMs) during intrinsic degradation mainly occurring through nucleophilic attack of the anion exchanging group by hydroxide ions. The method involves measuring weight changes under controlled temperature and relative humidity. These conditions are close to these in a fuel cell, i.e. the measured degradation rate includes all effects originating from the polymeric structure, the consumption of hydroxide ions and the release of water. In particular, this approach involves no added solvents or base, thereby avoiding inaccuracies that may arise in other methods due to the presence of solvents (other than water) or co-ions (such as Na+ or K+). We demonstrate the method by characterizing the decomposition of membranes consisting of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) functionalized with trimethyl-pentyl-ammonium side chains. The decomposition rate is found to depend on temperature, relative humidity RH (controlling the hydration number λ) and the total water content (controlled by the actual IEC and RH).

  6. Desalination by electrodialysis with the ion-exchange membrane prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seong-Ho; Han Jeong, Young; Jeong Ryoo, Jae; Lee, Kwang-Pill E-mail: kplee@kyungpook.ac.kr

    2001-07-01

    Ion-exchange membranes modified with the triethylamine [-N(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}){sub 3}] and phosphoric acid (-PO{sub 3} H) groups were prepared by radiation-induced grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto the polyolefin nonwavon fabric (PNF) and subsequent chemical modification of poly(GMA) graft chains. The physical and chemical properties of the GMA-grafted PNF and the PNF modified with ion-exchange groups were investigated by SEM, XPS, TGA, and DSC. Furthermore, electrochemical properties such as specific electric resistance, transport number of K{sup +}, and desalination were examined. The grafting yield increased with increasing reaction time and reaction temperature. The maximum grafting yield was obtained with 40% (vol.%) monomer concentration in dioxane at 60 deg. C. The content of the cation- and anion-exchange group increased with increasing grafting yield. Electrical resistance of the PNF modified with TEA and -PO{sub 3} H group decreased, while the water uptake (%) increased with increasing ion-exchange group capacities. Transport number of the PNF modified with ion-exchange group were the range of ca. 0.82-0.92. The graft-type ion-exchange membranes prepared by radiation-induced graft copolymerization were successfully applied as separators for electrodialysis. (author)

  7. Characterization of primary coolant purification system samples for assay of spent ion exchanger radionuclide inventor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajin Prasad, S.; Pant, Amar; Sharma, Ranjit; Pal, Sanjit

    2018-01-01

    The primary coolant system water of a research reactor contains various fission and activation products and the water is circulated continuously through ion exchange resin cartridges, to reduce the radioactive ionic impurity present in it. The coolant purification system comprises of an ion exchange cooler, two micro filters, and a battery of six ion exchanger beds, associated valves, piping and instrumentation (Heavy water System Operating manual, 2014). The spent cartridge is finally disposed off as active solid waste which contains predominantly long lived fission and activation products. The heavy water coolant is also used to cool the structural assemblies after passing through primary heat exchanger and a metallic strainer, which accumulates the fission and activation products. When there is a reduction of coolant flow through these strainers, they are removed for cleaning and decontamination. This paper describes the characterization of ion exchange resin samples and liquid effluent generated during ultra sonic decontamination of strainer. The results obtained can be used as a methodology for the assay of the spent ion exchanger cartridges radionuclide inventory, during its disposal

  8. Time evolution of the mass exchange in grazing heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastrukov, S.I.; Deak, F.; Kiss, A.; Seres, Z.

    1989-10-01

    On the basis of a macroscopical approach to the description of two interpenetrating quantum objects, the equations of two-fluid hydrodynamics for the cohesion stage of deeply inelastic heavy-ion collisions are formulated. The elasticity of the ions is analyzed in peripheral mass exchange reactions at intermediate energies. The system of closed equations of Newtonian mechanics, which simultaneously describes the motion of the ions along classical trajectories as well as the mass time evolution during the interaction period are derived and solved. The role of mass exchange in the friction force is discussed. (author) 22 refs.; 2 figs

  9. Evolution of ion-exchange: from Moses to the Manhattan Project to modern times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucy, Charles A

    2003-06-06

    This article explores the history of ion-exchange from records of desalination in the Old Testament and the writings of Aristotle, to the identification of the phenomenon of ion-exchange by two English agricultural chemists, to the invention of suppressed conductivity by Small et al. [Anal. Chem. 54 (1975) 462]. It then focuses on the characteristics of the gradual and continuous evolution of ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity to its current state, with an emphasis on those discoveries that punctuated or revolutionized this evolution.

  10. Design and assembling of a moving bed column to operate with ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca Junior, J.M.; Abrao, A.

    1976-01-01

    A new moving bed column specially designed to operate with ion exchange resins in such peculiar situations where there is gas evolution is reported. The second part reports the use of the column in the preparation of nuclear grade ammonium uranyl tricarbonate (AUTC), from crude uranyl nitrate solution. Uranium-VI is binded into a strong cationic ion exchanger and then eluted with (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 . The final product is crystallized from the eluate by simply cooling down the temperature to 5 0 or by addition of ethanol. Loading of resin with uranyl ion, its elution with ammonium carbonate and the crystallization of AUTC is described [pt

  11. Separation of hemicellulose-derived saccharides from wood hydrolysate by lime and ion exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Zhuang, Jingshun; Fu, Yingjuan; Tian, Guoyu; Wang, Zhaojiang; Qin, Menghua

    2016-04-01

    A combined process of lime treatment and mixed bed ion exchange was proposed to separate hemicellulose-derived saccharides (HDS) from prehydrolysis liquor (PHL) of lignocellulose as value added products. The optimization of lime treatment achieved up to 44.2% removal of non-saccharide organic compounds (NSOC), mainly colloidal substances, with negligible HDS degradation at 0.5% lime level and subsequent neutralization by phosphoric acid. The residual NSOC and calcium ions in lime-treated PHL were eliminated by mixed bed ion exchange. The breakthrough curves of HDS and NSOC showed selective retention toward NSOC, leading to 75% HDS recovery with 95% purity at 17 bed volumes of exchange capacity. In addition, macroporous resin showed higher exchange capacity than gel resin as indicated by the triple processing volume. The remarkable selectivity of the combined process suggested the feasibility for HDS separation from PHL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of inorganic ion exchangers for low and medium activity radioactive effluent decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozol, J.F.; Eymard, S.; Gambade, R.; La Rosa, G.

    1986-01-01

    This study proposes an alternative pretreatment or treatment for low and medium activity liquid wastes, allowing to improve the quality of containment and decrease the cost of storage. Inorganic ion exchangers are used to remove alpha emitters and long lived fission products and concentrate them in a small volume; these exchangers can be converted into a stable matrix by thermal treatment. This treatment, at least for some liquid wastes, don't exclude a complementary decontamination by chemical precipitation. Sludges, arising from precipitation, exempt from alpha emitters and long lived fission products can be stored in a shallow land burial. This study includes two parts: - Measurements of distribution coefficients for the main nuclides in order to choose, for each liquid wastes, the most suitable ion exchanger. - Estimation of performances of selected inorganic ion exchangers, from tests of percolation of genuine effluents

  13. Charge exchange processes of high energy heavy ions channeled in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriamonje, S.; Dural, J.; Toulemonde, M.; Groeneveld, K.O.; Maier, R.; Quere, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The interaction of moving ions with single crystals is very sensitive to the orientation of the incident beam with respect to the crystalline directions of the target. The experiments show that high energy heavy ion channeling deeply modifies the slowing down and charge exchange processes. In this review, we describe the opportunity offered by channeling conditions to study the charge exchange processes. Some aspects of the charge exchange processes with high energy channeled heavy ions are selected from the extensive literature published over the past few years on this subject. Special attention is given to the work performed at the GANIL facility on the study of Radiative Electron Capture (REG), Electron Impact Ionisation (EII), and convoy electron emission. Finally we emphasize the interest of studying resonant charge exchange processes such as Resonant Coherent Excitation (RCE), Resonant Transfer and Excitation (RTE) or Dielectronic Recombination (DR) and the recently proposed Nuclear Excitation by Electron Capture (NEEC)

  14. Preparation of bioconjugates by solid-phase conjugation to ion exchange matrix-adsorbed carrier proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houen, G.; Olsen, D.T.; Hansen, P.R.

    2003-01-01

    A solid-phase conjugation method utilizing carrier protein bound to an ion exchange matrix was developed. Ovalbumin was adsorbed to an anion exchange matrix using a batch procedure, and the immobilized protein was then derivatized with iodoacetic acid N-hydroxysuccinimid ester. The activated......, and immunization experiments with the eluted conjugates showed that the more substituted conjugates gave rise to the highest titers of glutathione antibodies. Direct immunization with the conjugates adsorbed to the ion exchange matrix was possible and gave rise to high titers of glutathione antibodies. Conjugates...... of ovalbumin and various peptides were prepared in a similar manner and used for production of peptide antisera by direct immunization with the conjugates bound to the ion exchanger. Advantages of the method are its solid-phase nature, allowing fast and efficient reactions and intermediate washings...

  15. Charge exchange cross-sections for multiply charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midha, J.M.; Gupta, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    A new empirical relation for charge exchange cross-section has been proposed for different charge states of C, N and O colliding with neutral hydrogen. Results are compared with the experimental data. (Author)

  16. Synthesized cellulose/succinic anhydride as an ion exchanger. Calorimetry of divalent cations in aqueous suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Julio C.P. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Silva Filho, Edson C. [LIMAV, Federal University of Piaui, 64049-550 Teresina, Piaui (Brazil); Santana, Sirlane A.A. [Departamento de Quimica/CCET, Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Av. dos Portugueses S/N, Campus do Bacanga, 65080-540 Sao Luiz, MA (Brazil); Airoldi, Claudio, E-mail: airoldi@iqm.unicamp.br [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-09-20

    Highlights: {yields} Synthetic route based on anhydride melting point. {yields} Cellulosic biopolymer/anhydride as ion exchanger. {yields} Calorimetry of cation exchange at solid/liquid interface. {yields} Favorable thermodynamic data of exchanging process. - Abstract: A synthetic route to a biopolymer/anhydride ion exchanger adds cellulose directly to molten succinic anhydride in a quasi solvent-free procedure. An amount of 3.07 {+-} 0.05 mmol of pendant groups incorporated onto the polymeric structure, which was characterized by elemental analysis, solid state carbon NMR, infrared, X-ray and thermogravimetry. The new polysaccharide is able to exchange cations from aqueous solution through a batchwise methodology, to obtain 2.46 {+-} 0.09 mmol g{sup -1} for divalent cobalt and nickel cations. The net thermal effects obtained from calorimetric titrations gave endothermic values of 3.81 {+-} 0.02 and 2.35 {+-} 0.01 kJ mol{sup -1}. The spontaneity of this ion-exchange process reflected in negative Gibbs energies and also a positive entropic contribution. These thermodynamic data at the solid/liquid interface suggests a favorable ion exchange process for this anchored biopolymer, for cation removal from the environment.

  17. Hydrometallurgical recovery of metal values by the use of ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, I.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presented what had been accomplished to date using Packed Bed Continuous Countercurrent Ion Exchange (CCIX) and proposed plans for more comprehensive systems that include many soluble metals of value. Frontiers of hydrometallurgy cannot be breached until advantage is taken of a multitude of metal ions in solution. The future utilization of hydrometallurgical methodology depends on the success of extraction and separation unit operations and being accepted by mining companies. Examples are presented of CCIX projects in operation and pilot plants tested as proof of the special attractive features of the Chem-Seps CCIX system. An overall plan was presented for processing of sulfide type mineralization, with emphasis on making an effort to get ''complete'' dissolution of all metals of value. Continuous Countercurrent Ion Exchange plays a vital role in hydrometallurical processing because of the need to handle prodigious volumes of solution, tremendous tonnages of salts, and to compensate for poor ion exchange equilibrium. 11 figures. (DP)

  18. Ion temperatures in HIP-1 and SUMMA from charge-exchange neutral optical emission spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch, R. W.; Lauver, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Ion temperatures were obtained from observations of the H sub alpha, D sub alpha, and He 587.6 nm lines emitted from hydrogen, deuterium, and helium plasmas in the SUMMA and HIP-1 mirror devices at Lewis Research Center. Steady state discharges were formed by applying a radially inward dc electric field between cylindrical or annular anodes and hollow cathodes located at the peaks of the mirrors. The ion temperatures were found from the Doppler broadening of the charge-exchange components of spectral lines. A statistical method was developed for obtaining scaling relations of ion temperature as a function of current, voltage, and magnetic flux density. Derivations are given that take into account triangular monochromator slit functions, loss cones, and superimposed charge-exchange processes. In addition, the Doppler broadening was found to be sensitive to the influence of drift on charge-exchange cross section. The effects of finite ion-cyclotron radius, cascading, and delayed emission are reviewed.

  19. Colorimetric detection and removal of radioactive Co ions using sodium alginate-based composite beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Daigeun; Jo, Ara; Yang, Hee-Man; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Lee, Kune-Woo; Lee, Taek Seung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Organic/inorganic hybridized alginate beads were newly synthesized via sol-gel chemistry. • Interaction between the azopyridine and metal ion is the main cause of Co ion detection. • The beads showed improved stability and least leakage of azopyridine during use. • Removal of Co ion was assessed by the ion-exchange of carboxylate groups in alginate. • The beads with dual functions of detection and removal of Co ion were successfully accomplished. - Abstract: We demonstrate a simple method for the visual determination and removal of Co ions using a bead-shaped, capturing probe based on hybridized sodium alginate. For Co ions, the designed protocol consisted of three main constituents: an azopyridine-based Co ion-probe for visual detection; sodium alginate as an adsorbent for the Co ion and a bead construct for removal and structure; silica as a linker for the probe and the alginate, leading to a robust structure. When the composite beads were exposed to Co ions, the yellow color of the beads turned to intensive violet and the color intensity was associated with the Co ion concentration. The color variation was quantified using red-green-blue (RGB) color values that were obtained with a scanner and evaluated with Photoshop. The technique achieved both visual recognition with obvious color change of the beads and efficient removal of the radioactive 60 Co ion. The sensing and removal of any radioactive isotope could be achieved with an appropriate sensing probe, to provide a simple and universal platform for remediation.

  20. Colorimetric detection and removal of radioactive Co ions using sodium alginate-based composite beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Daigeun; Jo, Ara [Organic and Optoelectronic Materials Laboratory, Department of Organic Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Hee-Man; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Lee, Kune-Woo [Decontamination and Decommissioning Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Taek Seung, E-mail: tslee@cnu.ac.kr [Organic and Optoelectronic Materials Laboratory, Department of Organic Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Organic/inorganic hybridized alginate beads were newly synthesized via sol-gel chemistry. • Interaction between the azopyridine and metal ion is the main cause of Co ion detection. • The beads showed improved stability and least leakage of azopyridine during use. • Removal of Co ion was assessed by the ion-exchange of carboxylate groups in alginate. • The beads with dual functions of detection and removal of Co ion were successfully accomplished. - Abstract: We demonstrate a simple method for the visual determination and removal of Co ions using a bead-shaped, capturing probe based on hybridized sodium alginate. For Co ions, the designed protocol consisted of three main constituents: an azopyridine-based Co ion-probe for visual detection; sodium alginate as an adsorbent for the Co ion and a bead construct for removal and structure; silica as a linker for the probe and the alginate, leading to a robust structure. When the composite beads were exposed to Co ions, the yellow color of the beads turned to intensive violet and the color intensity was associated with the Co ion concentration. The color variation was quantified using red-green-blue (RGB) color values that were obtained with a scanner and evaluated with Photoshop. The technique achieved both visual recognition with obvious color change of the beads and efficient removal of the radioactive {sup 60}Co ion. The sensing and removal of any radioactive isotope could be achieved with an appropriate sensing probe, to provide a simple and universal platform for remediation.