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Sample records for composes organo-phosphores tricoordines

  1. Contribution to the study of the {sup 31}P, {sup 1}H spin spin coupling constant N. M. R. in three co-ordinated phosphorus compounds. Influence of the bond orientation and of the nature of the substituent around the phosphorus atom; Contribution a l'etude des constantes de couplage {sup 31}P, {sup 1}H en R.M.N. dans les composes organo-phosphores tricoordines. Influence des facteurs geometriques et de la nature des substituants au niveau du phosphore

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    Robert, J.B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    In order to investigate the influence of the configuration at the phosphorus atom and the influence of the substituents attached to the phosphorus atom on the J{sub PH} spin spin coupling constant, we have performed the NMR spectrum analysis of some three coordinated organo-phosphorus compounds. The studied coupling constants are {sup 3}J{sub PH} through P-O-C-H and P-C-C-H fragments and {sup 2}J{sub PH} through P-C-H fragment. The results clearly show that on the NMR time scale, in all the studied compounds (1,3,2-dioxaphospholanes, 1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinanes, 3-phospha-cyclopentene and 4-phosphorinanone) there is no inversion of the bonds around phosphorous. This conclusion held also for secondary phosphines. For a given geometry of the bonds joining the P and H atoms, and a given disposition of the bonds around the phosphorus atom, there is only a little influence of the nature of the substituents on the J{sub PH} spin coupling constants. The geometrical dependence of the {sup 3}J{sub PH} cannot be explained by a 'Karplus law'. There is an influence of the bond disposition around phosphorus. In the case of the {sup 2}J{sub P-C-H}, one can plot a curve {sup 2}J{sub P-C-H} = f({alpha}) (0{<=} {alpha} {<=} 180), {alpha} denote the dihedral angle of the two plane defined the first one by the P, C and H atoms, and the second one by the P-C bond together with the three-fold axis of the bond around phosphorus assuming a regular pyramidal arrangement. The function {sup 2}J{sub P-C-H} = f({alpha}) has two maxima, one for {alpha} = 0 degrees and the other for {alpha} = 180 degrees, and also a minimum for {alpha} = 110 degrees. (author) [French] Ce travail consiste en l'analyse par resonance magnetique nucleaire des constantes de couplage phosphore-proton dans des derives organo-phosphores tricoordines dans un double but: examen de la stabilite des liaisons au niveau du phosphore et etude de l'influence de la disposition des liaisons et de la nature de

  2. N.M.R. study of organo-phosphorus compounds: non equivalence of methylenic protons in the {alpha} position of an asymmetric phosphorus atom. Application to study of coupling constants J{sub P,H} and J{sub H,H}; R.M.N. de composes organo-phosphores: non equivalence de protons methyleniques en {alpha} d'un phosphore asymetrique. Application a l'etude des constantes de couplage J{sub P,H} et J{sub H,H}

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    Albrand, J.P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Non-equivalent methylenic protons, with respect to an asymmetric center, have been observed in the n.m.r. spectra of some three- and tetra-coordinated phosphorus compounds. The analysis of these spectra yield the following results: in the studied secondary phosphines, the inversion rate at the phosphorus atom is slow on the n.m.r. time scale; the geminal coupling constant, for a free-rotating methylene group attached to a phosphorus atom, is negative; in phosphines the non equivalence of methylenic protons reveals two {sup 2}J{sub P-C-H} coupling constants which differ by about 5 Hz. This result is in agreement with previous studies on cyclic phosphines. In phosphine oxides, the {sup 2}J{sub P-C-H} values are negative. The {sup 3}J{sub H-P-C-H} coupling constant is positive in both phosphines and phosphine oxides. In phosphines, the non-equivalent methylenic protons exhibit two nearly equal values for this coupling constant. (author) [French] La non-equivalence de protons methyleniques observee dans quelques composes phosphores tricoordines et tetracoordines a apporte les resultats suivants, concernant la stereochimie et les constantes de couplage dans ces composes: dans les phosphines secondaires, la structure pyramidale des liaisons issues du phosphore est fixe a l'echelle de temps de mesure de la R.M.N.; la constante de couplage {sup 2}J{sub H-C-H}, pour un methylene en libre rotation en {alpha} d'un atome de phosphore, est negative; dans les phosphines etudiees, la non-equivalence. observee pour les protons methyleniques s'accompagne d'une difference importante (5 Hz) entre les deux constantes de couplage {sup 2}J{sub P-C-H} determinees par l'analyse; ce resultat est en accord avec la stereospecificite deja observee pour ce couplage dans les phosphines cycliques. Les valeurs observees pour {sup 2}J{sub P-C-H} dans les oxydes de phosphines sont negatives. Les valeurs de la constante de couplage {sup 3}J{sub H-P-C-H}, dans les phosphines

  3. The Free Tricoordinated Silyl Cation Problem

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    Čičak, H.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As the importance and abundance of silicon in our environment is large, it has been thought that silicon might take the place of carbon in forming a host of similar compounds and silicon-based life. However, until today there is no experimental evidence for such a hypothesis and carbon is still unique among the elements in the vast number and variety of compounds it can form. Also, the corresponding derivatives of the two elements show considerable differences in their chemical properties.The essential debate concerning organosilicon chemistry relates to the existence of the free planar tricoordinated silyl cations in condensed phase (R3Si+, in analogy to carbocations (R3C+ which have been known and characterized as free species. Although silyl cations are thermodynamically more stable than their carbon analogs, they are very reactive due to their high inherent electrophilicity and the ability of hypervalent coordination. On the other hand, stabilization by inductive and hyperconjugative effects and larger steric effects of carbocations make them less sensitive to solvation or other environmental effects than silyl cations. Hence, observation of free silyl cations in the condensed phase proved extremely difficult and the actual problem is the question of the degree of the (remaining silyl cation character.The first free silyl cation, trimesitylsilyl cation, and in analogy with it tridurylsilyl cation, were synthesized by Lambert et al. Free silyl cations based on analogy to aromatic ions (homocyclopropenylium and tropylium have also been prepared. However, in these silyl cations the cationic character is reduced by internal π -conjugation. Čičak et al. prepared some silyl-cationic intermediates (Me3Si--CH≡CR+in solid state. With the help of quantum-mechanical calculations it was concluded that these adducts have much more silyl cation than carbocation character.

  4. Role of Tricoordinate Al Sites in CH3ReO3/Al2O3 Olefin Metathesis Catalysts.

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    Valla, Maxence; Wischert, Raphael; Comas-Vives, Aleix; Conley, Matthew P; Verel, René; Copéret, Christophe; Sautet, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Re2O7 supported on γ-alumina is an alkene metathesis catalyst active at room temperature, compatible with functional groups, but the exact structures of the active sites are unknown. Using CH3ReO3/Al2O3 as a model for Re2O7/Al2O3, we show through a combination of reactivity studies, in situ solid-state NMR, and an extensive series of DFT calculations, that μ-methylene structures (Al-CH2-ReO3-Al) containing a Re═O bound to a tricoordinated Al (AlIII) and CH2 bound to a four-coordinated Al (AlIVb) are the precursors of the most active sites for olefin metathesis. The resting state of CH3ReO3/Al2O3 is a distribution of μ-methylene species formed by the activation of the C-H bond of CH3ReO3 on different surface Al-O sites. In situ reaction with ethylene results in the formation of Re metallacycle intermediates, which were studied in detail through a combination of solid-state NMR experiments, using labeled ethylene, and DFT calculations. In particular, we were able to distinguish between metallacycles in TBP (trigonal-bipyramidal) and SP (square-pyramidal) geometry, the latter being inactive and detrimental to catalytic activity. The SP sites are more likely to be formed on other Al sites (AlIVa/AlIVa). Experimentally, the activity of CH3ReO3/Al2O3 depends on the activation temperature of alumina; catalysts activated at or above 500 °C contain more active sites than those activated at 300 °C. We show that the dependence of catalytic activity on the Al2O3 activation temperature is related to the quantity of available AlIII-defect sites and adsorbed H2O.

  5. Small Composers

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    Holgersen, Sven-Erik; Bruun, Peter; Tjagvad, Mette

    2018-01-01

    The present chapter discusses roles and responsibilities of the collaborating partners in a creative music workshop called Small Composers. The aim is to be attentive to a number of potential alterations implicated by the collaborating partners’ different backgrounds. The following questions guid...... and responsibilities of the collaborating partners become visible through the practice? How do the professional identities of the teacher and the musicians become visible and what are the implications for the workshop as a musical community of practice?...... the study: What expectations do the class teacher and the professional musicians have to the creative practice, i.e. to the collaboration and to the musical outcome? To which extent do the collaborating partners share a common understanding of the aim, content and method of the workshop? How do the roles...

  6. My Career: Composer

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    Morganelli, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about his career as a composer and offers some advice for aspiring composers. The author works as a composer in the movie industry, creating music that supports a film's story. Other composers work on television shows, and some do both television and film. The composer uses music to tell the audience what kind of…

  7. Composers in the Community

    OpenAIRE

    O'Farrell, Anne-Marie; O'Connell, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    Today’s ever-changing contexts of music and music education demand that composers are increasingly required to be an artistic voice for the communities in which they live and work. Yet much teaching of composing in third-level institutions in Ireland, while developing a high level of musical craftsmanship, often fail to promote the vital connection between those skills and the social and civic contexts in which many composers work. The aim of this project was to enhance the learning experienc...

  8. Composing constraint solvers

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    P. Zoeteweij (Peter)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstractComposing constraint solvers based on tree search and constraint propagation through generic iteration leads to efficient and flexible constraint solvers. This was demonstrated using OpenSolver, an abstract branch-and-propagate tree search engine that supports a wide range of relevant

  9. Towards Composable Concurrency Abstractions

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    Janwillem Swalens

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, many different programming models for managing concurrency in applications have been proposed, such as the actor model, Communicating Sequential Processes, and Software Transactional Memory. The ubiquity of multi-core processors has made harnessing concurrency even more important. We observe that modern languages, such as Scala, Clojure, or F#, provide not one, but multiple concurrency models that help developers manage concurrency. Large end-user applications are rarely built using just a single concurrency model. Programmers need to manage a responsive UI, deal with file or network I/O, asynchronous workflows, and shared resources. Different concurrency models facilitate different requirements. This raises the issue of how these concurrency models interact, and whether they are composable. After all, combining different concurrency models may lead to subtle bugs or inconsistencies. In this paper, we perform an in-depth study of the concurrency abstractions provided by the Clojure language. We study all pairwise combinations of the abstractions, noting which ones compose without issues, and which do not. We make an attempt to abstract from the specifics of Clojure, identifying the general properties of concurrency models that facilitate or hinder composition.

  10. Composers on stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    A trend on the scene of contemporary music is composers going on stage, performing their pieces themselves. Within a discourse of popular music, this is more the rule than exception, but when it comes to the context of contemporary scored music, the historical and aesthetic context differs...... to rise the following questions: What happens to the status of the author, when he suddenly (re-)appears on stage? How is this appearance to be understood in both a contemporary and historical context: Is it the musical virtuous appearing again, are we witnessing musical works turning......, and something quite different is undergoing. This paper intends to discuss three examples of performances in which the composer’s appearance on stage was an important part of the piece, - both when it came to the role as a performer and as an individual person – as representer and presenter. The paper intends...

  11. The Rubato Composer Music Software

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    Milmeister, Gerard; Thalmann, Florian

    2009-01-01

    The Rubato Composer system is open to arbitrary extension and is freely available under the GPL license. This title gives an introduction to the theory of module categories and the theory of denotators, as well as the design of a software system, called Rubato Composer, which is an implementation of the category-theoretic concept framework.

  12. Composing Music with Complex Networks

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    Liu, Xiaofan; Tse, Chi K.; Small, Michael

    In this paper we study the network structure in music and attempt to compose music artificially. Networks are constructed with nodes and edges corresponding to musical notes and their co-occurrences. We analyze sample compositions from Bach, Mozart, Chopin, as well as other types of music including Chinese pop music. We observe remarkably similar properties in all networks constructed from the selected compositions. Power-law exponents of degree distributions, mean degrees, clustering coefficients, mean geodesic distances, etc. are reported. With the network constructed, music can be created by using a biased random walk algorithm, which begins with a randomly chosen note and selects the subsequent notes according to a simple set of rules that compares the weights of the edges, weights of the nodes, and/or the degrees of nodes. The newly created music from complex networks will be played in the presentation.

  13. Composing and decomposing data types

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    Bahr, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    data types and to define extensible functions on data types in an ad hoc manner. The implementation makes essential use of closed type families in Haskell. The use of closed type families instead of type classes comes with a set of trade-offs, which we review in detail. Finally, we show that our......Wouter Swierstra's data types à la carte is a technique to modularise data type definitions in Haskell. We give an alternative implementation of data types à la carte that offers more flexibility in composing and decomposing data types. To achieve this, we refine the subtyping constraint, which...... is at the centre of data types à la carte. On the one hand this refinement is more general, allowing subtypings that intuitively should hold but were not derivable beforehand. This aspect of our implementation removes previous restrictions on how data types can be combined. On the other hand our refinement is more...

  14. Organists and organ music composers.

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    Foerch, Christian; Hennerici, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    Clinical case reports of patients with exceptional musical talent and education provide clues as to how the brain processes musical ability and aptitude. In this chapter, selected examples from famous and unknown organ players/composers are presented to demonstrate the complexity of modified musical performances as well as the capacities of the brain to preserve artistic abilities: both authors are active organists and academic neurologists with strong clinical experience, practice, and knowledge about the challenges to play such an outstanding instrument and share their interest to explore potentially instrument-related phenomena of brain modulation in specific transient or permanent impairments. We concentrate on the sites of lesions, suggested pathophysiology, separate positive (e.g., seizures, visual or auditory hallucinations, or synesthesia [an involuntary perception produced by stimulation of another sense]) and negative phenomena (e.g., amusia, aphasia, neglect, or sensory-motor deficits) and particularly address aspects of recent concepts of temporary and permanent network disorders. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Research on BOM based composable modeling method

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    Zhang, M.; He, Q.; Gong, J.

    2013-01-01

    Composable modeling method has been a research hotpot in the area of Modeling and Simulation for a long time. In order to increase the reuse and interoperability of BOM based model, this paper put forward a composable modeling method based on BOM, studied on the basic theory of composable modeling

  16. The composing process in technical communication

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    Masse, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The theory and application of the composing process in technical communications is addressed. The composing process of engineers, some implications for composing research for the teaching and research of technical communication, and an interpretation of the processes as creative experience are also discussed. Two areas of technical communications summarized concern: the rhetorical features of technical communications, and the theoretical background for a process-based view, a problem-solving approach to technical writing.

  17. Composing Dances with Children: An Instructional Model.

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    Morin, Francine

    2001-01-01

    Presents a three-component instructional model to helpdance and movement educators compose dances with children. The paper discusses how to develop and expand the compositional base,select aesthetic content for children's dances, and compose dances using a sequential process. A curriculum theme, "The Praries," is used to illustrate the…

  18. Adolescents' Dialogic Composing with Mobile Phones

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    Warner, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This 14-month study examined the phone-based composing practice of three adolescents. Given the centrality of mobile phones to youth culture, the researcher sought to create a description of the participants' composing practices with these devices. Focal participants were users of Twitter and Instagram, two social media platforms that are usually…

  19. Student Composed Case Study in Adolescent Psychology.

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    McManus, John L.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a variation of the case study method where adolescent psychology students composed hypothetical cases, proposed solutions to problems, and surveyed other groups regarding case dilemmas and adolescent issues. (Author/JDH)

  20. Systems and Methods for Composable Analytics

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    2014-04-29

    release; distribution is unlimited. This report is based on studies performed at Lincoln Laboratory, a federally funded research and development...approaches. Some of the industries that could benefit from Composable Analytics include pharmaceuticals, health care, insurance, actuaries , and

  1. Rectenna composed of a circular microstrip antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, K.; Ohgane, T.; Ogawa, Y.

    1986-01-01

    One of the big problems in the SPS system is reradiation of the harmonic waves generated by the rectifying diode. The authors proposed the use of a circular microstrip antenna (CMSA), since the CMSA has no higher resonance-harmonic of integer multiple of the dominant resonance frequency. However, characteristics of a large rectenna array of CMSA's have not been clarified. This paper is concerned with the absorption efficiency of the rectenna composed of the CMSA. The efficiency is estimated explicitly using an infinite array model. The results show that the absorption efficiency of the infinite rectenna array composed of the CMSA is 100%. Also, this paper considers the effect of the losses of the composed of the CMSA is 100%. Also, this paper considers the effect of the losses of the CMSA. 4 references, 4 figures.

  2. An Area Efficient Composed CORDIC Architecture

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    AGUIRRE-RAMOS, F.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a composed architecture for the CORDIC algorithm. CORDIC is a widely used technique to calculate basic trigonometric functions using only additions and shifts. This composed architecture combines an initial coarse stage to approximate sine and cosine functions, and a second stage to finely tune those values while CORDIC operates on rotation mode. Both stages contribute to shorten the algorithmic steps required to fully execute the CORDIC algorithm. For comparison purposes, the Xilinx CORDIC logiCORE IP and previously reported research are used. The proposed architecture aims at reducing hardware resources usage as its key objective.

  3. An Analysis of Composability and Composition Anomalies

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    Bergmans, Lodewijk; Tekinerdogan, B.; Nagy, I.; Aksit, Mehmet

    2003-01-01

    The separation of concerns principle aims at decomposing a given design problem into concerns that are mapped to multiple independent software modules. The application of this principle eases the composition of the concerns and as such supports composability. Unfortunately, a clean separation (and

  4. Enhancing Memory in Your Students: COMPOSE Yourself!

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    Rotter, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    The essence of teaching is, in fact, creating new memories for your students. The teacher's role is to help students store the correct information (memories) in ways that make recall and future access and use likely. Therefore, choosing techniques to enhance memory is possibly the most critical aspect of instructional design. COMPOSE is an acronym…

  5. Studies in Composing Hydrogen Atom Wavefunctions

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    Putnam, Lance Jonathan; Kuchera-Morin, JoAnn; Peliti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    We present our studies in composing elementary wavefunctions of a hydrogen-like atom and identify several relationships between physical phenomena and musical composition that helped guide the process. The hydrogen-like atom accurately describes some of the fundamental quantum mechanical phenomen...

  6. Composing for Digital Publication: Rhetoric, Design, Code

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    Eyman, Douglas; Ball, Cheryl E.

    2014-01-01

    The authors discuss the state of digital publication with the claim that, at this historical moment, nearly all composition is digital composition. But, as a field, composition studies has not yet made that shift completely explicit in the discussions of composing processes and writing pedagogies. A deeper engagement with this very rapid shift in…

  7. Reusing and Composing Components : Problems and Solutions

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    Aksit, Mehmet; Tekinerdogan, B.

    Building software from reusable components is considered important in reducing development costs. Object-oriented languages such as C++, Smalltalk and Java, however, are not capable of expressing certain aspects of applications in a composable way. Software engineers may experience difficulties in

  8. Composing chaotic music from the letter m

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    Sotiropoulos, Anastasios D.

    Chaotic music is composed from a proposed iterative map depicting the letter m, relating the pitch, duration and loudness of successive steps. Each of the two curves of the letter m is based on the classical logistic map. Thus, the generating map is xn+1 = r xn(1/2 - xn) for xn between 0 and 1/2 defining the first curve, and xn+1 = r (xn - 1/2)(1 - xn) for xn between 1/2 and 1 representing the second curve. The parameter r which determines the height(s) of the letter m varies from 2 to 16, the latter value ensuring fully developed chaotic solutions for the whole letter m; r = 8 yielding full chaotic solutions only for its first curve. The m-model yields fixed points, bifurcation points and chaotic regions for each separate curve, as well as values of the parameter r greater than 8 which produce inter-fixed points, inter-bifurcation points and inter-chaotic regions from the interplay of the two curves. Based on this, music is composed from mapping the m- recurrence model solutions onto actual notes. The resulting musical score strongly depends on the sequence of notes chosen by the composer to define the musical range corresponding to the range of the chaotic mathematical solutions x from 0 to 1. Here, two musical ranges are used; one is the middle chromatic scale and the other is the seven- octaves range. At the composer's will and, for aesthetics, within the same composition, notes can be the outcome of different values of r and/or shifted in any octave. Compositions with endings of non-repeating note patterns result from values of r in the m-model that do not produce bifurcations. Scores of chaotic music composed from the m-model and the classical logistic model are presented.

  9. MELEC: Meta-Level Evolutionary Composer

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    Andres Calvo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic algorithms (GA’s are global search mechanisms that have been applied to many disciplines including music composition. Computer system MELEC composes music using evolutionary computation on two levels: the object and the meta. At the object-level, MELEC employs GAs to compose melodic motifs and iteratively refine them through evolving generations. At the meta-level, MELEC forms the overall musical structure by concatenating the generated motifs in an order that depends on the evolutionary process. In other words, the structure of the music is determined by a geneological traversal of the algorithm’s execution sequence. In this implementation, we introduce a new data structure that tracks the execution of the GA, the Genetic Algorithm Traversal Tree, and uses its traversal to define the musical structure. Moreover, we employ a Fibonacci-based fitness function to shape the melodic evolution.

  10. Gene Composer in a structural genomics environment.

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    Lorimer, Don; Raymond, Amy; Mixon, Mark; Burgin, Alex; Staker, Bart; Stewart, Lance

    2011-09-01

    The structural genomics effort at the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID) requires the manipulation of large numbers of amino-acid sequences and the underlying DNA sequences which are to be cloned into expression vectors. To improve efficiency in high-throughput protein structure determination, a database software package, Gene Composer, has been developed which facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their underlying gene sequences. With its modular workflow design and numerous graphical user interfaces, Gene Composer enables researchers to perform all common bioinformatics steps used in modern structure-guided protein engineering and synthetic gene engineering. An example of the structure determination of H1N1 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase PB2 subunit is given.

  11. Improvisation: Performer as Co-composer

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    Kyle Schick

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Elements of musical improvisation have been present throughout the medieval, renaissance, and baroque eras, however, improvisation had the most profound recorded presence in the baroque era. Improvisation is inherently a living practice and leaves little documentation behind for historians to study, but however elusive, it is still important to trace where instances of this improvised art appear throughout the eras listed above. It is also interesting to trace what role improvisation would later have in realizing the Baroque ideals of emotional expression, virtuosity, and individuality. This paper seeks to focus on a few of the best documented mediums of improvisation within each era. During the medieval period, improvisation took on the form of improvised counterpoint against a plainsong. In the renaissance, improvised harmony of faburden and the contenance angloise is this paper’s selected example. In the Baroque, this study seeks to describe several areas where improvisation appears such as the art of improvised accompaniment from figured bass symbols, the practice of expressive ornamentation on a written melody, and improvised vocal embellishments and cadenzas of the da capo aria. A final aim of this research is to provide examples to clarify the definition of improvisation as the degree to which the composer of a musical work has given control of its realization to the performer. Treatises and ear witness accounts of improvised musical forms provided primary sources. Other sources used in this research included writings on performance practices of different historical eras and writings on the changing relationship between the composer and the performer. This paper also consults writings on how improvised music was perceived historically as opposed to composed music.

  12. William Byrd: Political and Recusant Composer

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    Ariel Foshay Bacon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Amidst the pendulum of political and religious upheaval that pervaded England throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth century, William Byrd stands as one of the best loved and lauded composers. Byrd succeeded in the secular and sacred realms, contributing great works to the Anglican Church, popularizing the English madrigal and producing prolific amounts of sacred music. However, in a time where one’s religious beliefs were often linked with political loyalty, Byrd defied his monarch’s established and enforced Protestant religion, composing politically charged music for recusant use in clandestine Catholic Church services. His themes were aligned with the Jesuit mission and his texts were often drawn from the lips of martyred Catholics at the gallows; their last words forever immortalized by Byrd for the furthering of the Jesuit cause and the Counter-Reformation. The examination of sources by prominent Byrd scholars, an analyses of Byrd’s ‘political’ compositions and a study of the social and historical background are used to place Byrd within the appropriate context, prove his recusant and political leanings, and analyze his precarious relationship with the English monarch, Elizabeth I. It is shown that Byrd could not have proceeded with his recusant practices, personally or musically, had it not been for his status as a composer, as well as Byrd’s shrewdness in procuring diplomatic relationships with high persons at court and with Queen Elizabeth I through the Chapel Royal. Finally, Byrd’s success at writing for the Anglican Church service and popular secular music showcased his ability to take a moderate stance in situations that benefitted his status with the crown

  13. Clasp Together: Composing for Mind and Machine

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    J. Harry Whalley

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper will explore questions of agency, control and interaction and the embodied nature of musical performance in relation to the use of human-computer interaction (HCI, through the experimental work Clasp Together (beta 2 for small ensemble and live electronics by J. Harry Whalley. This practice-led research is situated at the intersection of music neurotechnology for sound synthesis and brain-computer interfaces (BCI, and explores the use of neural patterns from Electroencephalography (EEG as a control instrument. The composition departed from the traditional composer/performer paradigm by including both non-instrumental physical gestures and cognitive or emotive instructions integrated into the score.

  14. Q&A: The AI composer

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    Spinney, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Computer scientist Luc Steels uses artificial intelligence to explore the origins and evolution of language. He is best known for his 1999-2001 Talking Heads Experiment, in which robots had to construct a language from scratch to communicate with each other. Now Steels, who works at the Free University of Brussels (VUB), has composed an opera based on the legend of Faust, with a twenty-first-century twist. He talks about Mozart as a nascent computer programmer, how music maps onto language, and the blurred boundaries of a digitized world.

  15. [Mental disease in two classical music composers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempelakos, L; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E; Ploumpidis, D

    2012-01-01

    A study οn two neglected classical music composers suffering a not syphilitic mental disease, is attempted here, syphilis of the central nervous system being frequent in that time. A brief overview on the psychiatric ailments of many great composers reveals suicide attempts and more or less severe depression following external events. The issue of a possible relationship between mental disease and (musical) creativity can be discussed, as mood swings and a certain tendency to melancholia are frequent features of a talented brain (a fact that can also be detected in their works). The first case presented here is Hans Rott from Austria, the beloved student of Anton Bruckner, who was considered to be at least equal to his famous classmate Gustav Mahler. The great expectations of his teacher and his friends suddenly came to an end, when he suffered a crisis of schizophrenia and was hospitalized in an insane asylum in Lower Austria. The tragic psychiatric adventure of the young musician lasted almost four years. He was diagnosed as a case of "hallucinatory insanity" and "persecution mania" by the medical staff, before dying of tuberculosis, aged only 26, and having completed only one symphony and several smaller works. His name came again on surface only a century after his death, when in 1989 his Symphony in E Major was discovered and premiered with great success, permitting to its creator a posthumous recognition, among Bruckner and Mahler. The second case of mental illness is that of the Armenian Komitas Vardapet. He was an orphan who grew up in theological schools and became a monk and later a priest, though he spent some years in Berlin in order to develop his musical skills. He is considered to be an authority of Armenian ecclesiastic music, introducing polyphony in the Armenian Church's music and collecting numerous traditional songs from all parts of Armenia. In 1915, during the Armenian genocide he was deported, tortured but finally saved, due to interventions

  16. Stereochemistry of substitution at trico-ordinate phosphorus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John; Dahl, Otto

    1984-01-01

    A series of reactions of ring-substituted 1,3,2-dioxaphospholanes, 1,3,2-oxazaphospholanes, 1,2-oxaphospholes, and phosphetanes bearing the leaving groups Cl, OR, or NR2 on phosphorus, with the nucleophiles HCl, MeO-, MeOH, PhOH, Me2NH, Et2NH, and [CH 2]5NH have been studied. N.m.r. signals (1H a...

  17. Composing across Modes: A Comparative Analysis of Adolescents' Multimodal Composing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Blaine E.

    2017-01-01

    Although the shift from page to screen has dramatically redefined conceptions of writing, very little is known about how youth compose with multiple modes in digital environments. Integrating multimodality and multiliteracies theoretical frameworks, this comparative case study examined how urban twelfth-grade students collaboratively composed…

  18. Railway Station Role in Composing Urban Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Conticelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite railway infrastructure was the structural framework on which modern European States were developed, contributing to unify territories and to the establishment of Nations, right from the beginning, the relationship between railway and city has been characterized by physical, functional and social conflicts, mainly because of a lack of integration between infrastructural and urban policies, which have been produced strong conflicts during decades. These critical situations have concentrated on the railway stations surrounding areas, which have started symbolizing the main conflicts that are taking place inside the cities.Similarly to what happened in the XIX century, today railway is a strategic infrastructure for the European territory development, thanks to the introduction of high speed transport systems and the promotion of rail transport as a more sustainable transportation system, which can quickly connect metropolitan central areas, more and more impenetrable by private vehicles, and key functions centres for the contemporary urban systems.In this framework, railway stations are becoming public places representing a complex society which is more and more dedicated to motion; thus they offer an unmissable chance not only to carry out urban development and spatial cohesion policies, but also to compose old tensions caused by the sharing of physical space, which is more and more scarce and valuable, and by ghettoization phenomena which have been produced at local scale, between rail infrastructure and the surrounding urban context. Today, such conflicts are growing and they are involving many actors who express a lot of different interests, needs and expectations, relating to the station areas’ destiny.Starting from the analysis of some conflicting situations between rail stations and the surrounding areas which have took place until today, this paper investigates some recent renewal interventions on Italian and European main railway

  19. A Framework For Efficient Homomorphic Universally Composable Commitments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Bernardo Machado

    Commitment schemes are a fundamental primitive in modern cryptography, serving as a building block for a myriad of complex protocols and applications. Universally composable commitment schemes are of particular interest, since they can be seamlessly combined with other universally composable...

  20. Electric motors with linear and composed displacement; Moteurs electriques a mouvement lineaire et compose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kant, M. [Acdemie Europeenne des Sciences, 75 - Paris (France)

    2004-02-01

    The development of robotics and the replacement of complex mechanical gears by 'electronic axes' has led to the development of motors combining rotation and translation movements (linear rotating motors) and more generally of motors capable to perform multi-directional movements (composed displacement motors). This article presents this kind of motors: 1 - general presentation: theoretical recalls, possible configurations of electric motors, evolution; 2 - linear motor: configuration, basic operating principle, main differences between linear and rotating motors; 3 - special effects: end effects (finished length, finished width), penetration effect, resulting magnetic field configuration inside the air gap; 4 - motors with two mechanical degrees of freedom (rotation-translation); 5 - motors with three mechanical degrees of freedom (spherical motors); 6 - optimization of open magnetic circuit motors; 7 - different industrialized structures; 8 - applications; 9 - mathematical appendix. (J.S.)

  1. Birth Location, Migration and Clustering of Important Composers: Historical Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol; O’Hagan, John

    2010-01-01

    and 1899. This information is compiled from the large, Grove Music Online (2009) encyclopedia. There is also some discussion of the biases evident in choosing “significant” composers. The data show a marked level ofmigration of important composers going back many centuries suggesting that the phenomenon......This article examines the 522 most important composers in the last 800 years, as identified by Charles Murray (2003), in terms of their birth location and migration. It also examines detailed patterns of migration and tendencies to cluster in certain cities for those composers born between 1750...

  2. Alexia Without Agraphia in a Composer. Technical Report No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Tedd; And Others

    The case study of a 78-year-old music composer who had had a stroke revealed that he had a severe reading disturbance, a well-preserved writing ability, and no appreciable aphasia. He continued to read music and to compose. His text and music reading performance under different conditions suggested that this unusual dissociation (alexia without…

  3. Collaborative Composing in High School String Chamber Music Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine collaborative composing in high school string chamber music ensembles. Research questions included the following: (a) How do high school string instrumentalists in chamber music ensembles use verbal and musical forms of communication to collaboratively compose a piece of music? (b) How do selected variables…

  4. FeelSound: Collaborative Composing of Acoustic Music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.; Hakvoort, M.C.; Hakvoort, Michiel; van der Vet, P.E.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2009-01-01

    FeelSound is a multi-user application for collaboratively composing music in an entertaining way. Up to four composers can jointly create acoustic music on a top-projection multitouch sensitive table. The notes of an acoustic instrument are represented on a harmonic table and, by drawing shapes on

  5. Grammar for College Writing: A Sentence-Composing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgallon, Don; Killgallon, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Across America, in thousands of classrooms, from elementary school to high school, the time-tested sentence-composing approach has given students tools to become better writers. Now the authors present a much anticipated sentence-composing grammar worktext for college writing. This book presents a new and easier way to understand grammar: (1) Noun…

  6. How Composers Approach Teaching Composition: Strategies for Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randles, Clint; Sullivan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Composition pedagogy is explored from the perspective of a composer and a music teacher educator in this article. The primary goal is to help practicing music teachers develop strategies that will encourage students to create original music. The authors provide reflection about the process of helping students compose on the basis of personal…

  7. An Approach for Composing Services Based on Environment Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Cai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Service-oriented computing is revolutionizing the modern computing paradigms with its aim to boost software reuse and enable business agility. Under this paradigm, new services are fabricated by composing available services. The problem arises as how to effectively and efficiently compose heterogeneous services facing the high complexity of service composition. Based on environment ontology, this paper introduces a requirement-driven service composition approach. We propose the algorithms to decompose the requirement, the rules to deduct the relation between services, and the algorithm for composing service. The empirical results and the comparison with other services’ composition methodologies show that this approach is feasible and efficient.

  8. Mechanics and properties of composed materials and structures

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas; Altenbach, Holm

    2014-01-01

    This volume details the latest trends in characterization and developments of composed materials and structures, including textile composites, sandwich plates, hollow sphere structures, reinforced concrete as well as classical fibre reinforced materials.

  9. Stroke, music, and creative output: Alfred Schnittke and other composers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagvazdin, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Alfred Schnittke (1934-1998), a celebrated Russian composer of the twentieth century, suffered from several strokes which affected his left cerebral hemisphere. The disease, however, did not diminish his musical talent. Moreover, he stated that his illness in a way facilitated his work. The composer showed amazingly high productivity after his first and second injuries of the central nervous system. The main topic of this chapter is the effect of strokes on Schnittke's output, creativity, and style of music. A brief biography of the composer with the chronology of his brain hemorrhages is included. In addition, the influence of cerebrovascular lesions on creative potential of other prominent composers such as Benjamin Britten, Jean Langlais, Vissarion Shebalin, Igor Stravinsky, and Ira Randall Thompson is discussed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. XVII CENTURY TURKISH DIVAN POETS WHOSE WORKS HAVE BEEN COMPOSED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Nuri PARMAKSIZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical Turkish poetry and classical Turkish music have been inseparable art branches for centuries. The best examples of music and poems created in the same periods have been the most prominent proof of this. One of these periods without doubt have been 17th century. It has been observed that composers demand divan poetry of 17thand 18thcentury greatly. Mystical poems constitute most of the poems composed in these centuries. Almost all of the poems in the divans of some mystic divan poets have been composed. In this study, the poets in the mentioned century have been determined and then the poems in the new and previous repertoires of these poets have been tried to reveal with screening and comparasion methods .

  11. Composed planar Hall effect sensors with dual-mode operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Mor

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a composed planar Hall effect sensor with two modes of operation: (a an ON mode where the composed sensor responds to magnetic field excitations similarly to the response of a regular planar Hall effect sensor, and (b an OFF mode where the response is negligible. The composed planar Hall effect sensor switches from the OFF mode to the ON mode when it is exposed to a magnetic field which exceeds a certain threshold determined by the sensor design. The features of this sensor make it useful as a switch triggered by magnetic field and as a sensing device with memory, as its mode of operation indicates exposure to a magnetic field larger than a certain threshold without the need to be activated during the exposure itself.

  12. A Time-Composable Operating System for the Patmos Processor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziccardi, Marco; Schoeberl, Martin; Vardanega, Tullio

    2015-01-01

    . The Patmos time-predictable microprocessor used in the T-CREST project employs performance-enhancing hardware while keeping the system analyzable. Time composability, at both hardware and software level, is a considerable aid to reducing the integration costs of complex applications. A time......In the last couple of decades we have witnessed a steady growth in the complexity and widespread of real-time systems. In order to master the rising complexity in the timing behaviour of those systems, rightful attention has been given to the development of time-predictable computer architectures......, we extend an existing time-composable operating system, TiCOS, to make best use of advanced Patmos hardware features in the pursuit of time composability....

  13. Composers on Stage: Ambiguous Authorship in Contemporary Music Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, workflows within the field of contemporary classical music have changed drastically. Increasingly, composers are active in the process of creating and co-creating performances, not only the auditory dimensions but also the visual design and theatrical staging. The practice has...... but involving themselves in other ways. The article explores the ambivalent authorship at stake in these performances, arguing that they appear to be projects that reveal the processes of musical performance in ways that undermine the Romantic idea of the composer while concurrently celebrating that very same...

  14. Page composer to translate binary electrical data to optical form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, G. A.; Cosentino, L. S.

    1975-01-01

    Composer converts binary data to optical form for storage as hologram. Device consists of an array of deformable metal membranes controlled by MOSFET's. Device is fast, produces high contrast ratios, does not degrade with extended use, and can be addressed from diverse angles.

  15. Slow fusion of liposomes composed of membrane-spanning lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, MGL; vanBreemen, J; Konings, WN; Driessen, AJM; Wilschut, J; Elferink, Marieke G.L.

    1997-01-01

    The fusion characteristics of large unilamellar liposomes composed of bipolar tetraether lipids extracted from the thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, was investigated. These lipids span the entire membrane and form single monolayer liposomes in aqueous media [Elferink, M.G.L., de Wit,

  16. The Poetics of Computers: Composing Relationships with Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Bernadette; Reiss, Donna; Selfe, Cynthia L.; Young, Art

    2003-01-01

    Describes a course with three primary goals: to help students reflect on the complex relationship between humans and technology; to reflect on students' responsibility for shaping this relationship in contemporary contexts; and to provide opportunities within which to practice composing this relationship in personal terms. Concludes that in such…

  17. Teaching Effective Communication Skills with ACE: Analyzing, Composing, & Evaluating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Lisa Gueldenzoph; Shwom, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Most business communication classes teach students to use a writing process to compose effective documents. Students practice the process by applying it to various types of writing with various purposes-reports, presentations, bad news letters, persuasive memos, etc. However, unless students practice that process in other contexts outside of the…

  18. Composable security in the bounded-quantum-storage model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.D.C. Wehner (Stephanie); J. Wullschleger

    2007-01-01

    htmlabstractWe present a simplified framework for proving sequential composability in the quantum setting. In particular, we give a new, simulation-based, definition for security in the bounded-quantum-storage model, and show that this definition allows for sequential composition of protocols.

  19. When Did Classic Composers Make Their Best Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franses, Philip Hans

    2016-01-01

    This Research Note shows that classic composers created their best works when they were at a similar age when creators in other domains did their best work, namely when they were at an age that represented around 60% of their life span. This finding is very similar to earlier results for painters and authors.

  20. Creativity and Composing: The Composition Teacher as Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wess, Robert C.

    1985-01-01

    Proposes that teachers use their own writing as a teaching tool. Discusses both the left-brain logical, rational approach and the right-brain intuitive approach to invention and states that in composing their own methods and materials, instructors can stress both patterns of creativity by illustrating how each complements the other. (EL)

  1. Non-Logical Discourse: Key to the Composing Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Richard C.

    One niche in which scholars have not looked for keys to the composing process is the sometimes illusory but vital area of nonlogical discourse, which includes fantasy, hallucination, dream, reverie, vision, trance, and meditation. Abundant evidence exists about the genesis, importance, and use of nonlogical discourse, but this evidence comes…

  2. Composing with New Technology: Teacher Reflections on Learning Digital Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, David L.; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2015-01-01

    This study explores teachers' reflections on their learning to compose with new technologies in the context of teacher education and/or teacher professional development. English language arts (ELA) teachers (n = 240) in 15 courses learned to use digital video (DV), completed at least one DV group project, and responded to open-ended survey…

  3. Component Composability Issues in Object-Oriented Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aksit, Mehmet; Tekinerdogan, B.

    1997-01-01

    Building software from reusable components is considered important in reducing development costs. Object-oriented languages such as C++, Smalltalk and Java, however, are not capable of expressing certain aspects of applications in a composable way. Software engineers may experience difficulties in

  4. The Nigerian Art Music Composer, His Training, Vocal Compositions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The music arena has undergone some changes within the past decades in Nigeria; partly due to contact of Nigerians with music of the other world cultures and due to intercultural borrowings within Nigeria. This trend has been a masterminding force in the shaping of the musical arena in Nigeria with the art music composer ...

  5. The Creative Studio Practice of Contemporary Dance Music Sampling Composers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Morey

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to investigate some of the considerations that inform and help to determine the creative studio practice of contemporary sampling composers. Collaborative writing and production, specifically the co-opted collaboration implicit in using samples, will be assessed to consider those aspects of the production process which the participants consider to be authorial. These considerations include acts of listening, selecting and editing. In examining these matters this paper places emphasis on how sampling composers actively constrain their options in order to promote a creative relationship with their musical material. Techniques such as, firstly, traditional sample manipulation, secondly, the use of a sample as an initial building block for a composition from which the sample is then removed and, finally, live performance in the studio which is subsequently cut up and treated as a sample, will be discussed. Case studies, in the form of semi-structured interviews with sampling composers, will be drawn upon to assess approaches to and views about these forms of studio composition.

  6. Composing the theme of city to be diverse and sustainable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiranegara, H. W.

    2018-01-01

    To give a path for developing a city needs a theme. City’s goal stated in a document of a spatial plan were too broad and insufficient detail in giving a direction. To make more detail and precise, every city has to compose a city theme. It is developed based on the potential, the uniqueness, the excellence, and the sustainability of its human resources, natural resources, and man-made resources. An integration among the three of resources which have the highest score become a theme of the city. The aim of this research was to formulate the conceptual framework to compose a city theme. The research design was the interview survey in Banda Aceh, Banjarmasin, and Kupang. Informants were the government officials, academics, figures, the private sector and public who considered related to the intended information being collected. Having set the conceptual framework, the interview directed to check the implementation in realities. The result was that the conceptual framework could accommodate the phenomenon of composing the theme of the city. Yet, it was a preliminary in nature and needed more research to get a complete result.

  7. Sequential optimality conditions for composed convex optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, Radu Ioan; Csetnek, Ernö Robert; Wanka, Gert

    2008-06-01

    Using a general approach which provides sequential optimality conditions for a general convex optimization problem, we derive necessary and sufficient optimality conditions for composed convex optimization problems. Further, we give sequential characterizations for a subgradient of the precomposition of a K-increasing lower semicontinuous convex function with a K-convex and K-epi-closed (continuous) function, where K is a nonempty convex cone. We prove that several results from the literature dealing with sequential characterizations of subgradients are obtained as particular cases of our results. We also improve the above mentioned statements.

  8. The clinician's guide to composing effective business plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Alan B; Blondell, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    In today's challenging healthcare environment, clinicians need to understand the fundamentals of financial analysis, which are the underpinnings of their clinical programs, especially when seeking administrative support for new initiatives. The business plan for new clinical program initiatives is composed of diverse elements such as the mission statement, market and competitive analyses, operations plan, and financial analysis. Armed with a basic knowledge of financial analysis of clinical programs, as well as forward-looking analysis of an initiative's added value, the healthcare provider can work much more effectively with administration in developing or creating new healthcare program initiatives.

  9. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF COMPOSING A REFERENCE BOOK OF REGIONAL TOPONYMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyin Dmitriy Yuryevich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the linguistic issues of composing a reference book of regional toponyms – a genre that requires special consideration in national lexicography. The assortment of these issues gave the possibility to carry out complex description of regional toponyms on the basis of semantic, functional, and orpthologuos criteria that let unify the names of Volgograd region settlements that are registered in various documents. The significance of the composed reference book is determined by several factors – the presence of local subsystems of geographical names in Russian toponymy; the inconsistency of current orthography norms on using capital letter in compound proprius names and fused-with-hyphen spelling of toponyms and off-toponym derivations; the lack of linguistically justified explanation of peculiarities of grammatical norms in the field of proper names use. The reference book of regional toponyms is based on the object description (toponymic vocabulary, principles of lexical units selection (description of spelling and grammatical properties of toponyms, encyclopedic information, the glossary (full list of toponyms of Volgograd region, typical article. The articles in the reference book are arranged in lexicographical zones with grammatical and semantic markers, lexicographical illustrations, other lexicographical labels, word etymology including. The reference book on Volgograd region toponymy is addressed to executive and administration authorities, journalists, regional ethnographers.

  10. Domain-Specific Languages for Composing Signature Discovery Workflows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Ferosh; Gray, Jeff; Wynne, Adam S.; Liu, Yan (Jenny); Baker, Nathan A.

    2012-10-23

    Domain-agnostic signature discovery entails investigation across multiple scientific disciplines. The breadth and cross-disciplinary nature of this work requires that existing executables be integrated with new capabilities into workflows, representing a wide range of user tasks. An algorithm may be written in multiple programming languages for various hardware platforms, and so workflow composition requires integrating executables from any number of remote hosts. This raises an engineering issue on how to generate web service wrappers for these heterogeneous executables and to compose them into a scientific workflow environment (e.g., Taverna). In this paper, we introduce two simple Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) to automate these processes. Our Service Description Language (SDL) describes key elements of a signature discovery service and automatically generates its implementation code. The Workflow Description Language (WDL) describes the pipeline of services and generates deployable artifacts for the Taverna workflow management system. We demonstrate our approach with a real-world workflow composed of services wrapping remote executables.

  11. Formation and reinforcement of clusters composed of C60 molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurosu Shunji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We carry out two experiments: (1 the formation of clusters composed of C60 molecules via self-assembly and (2 the reinforcement of the clusters. Firstly, clusters such as fibres and helices composed of C60 molecules are produced via self-assembly in supercritical carbon dioxide. However, C60 molecules are so weakly bonded to each other in the clusters that the clusters are broken by the irradiation of electron beams during scanning electron microscope observation. Secondly, UV photons are irradiated inside a chamber in which air is filled at 1 atm and the above clusters are placed, and it was found that the clusters are reinforced; that is, they are not broken by electron beams any more. C60 molecules located at the surface of the clusters are oxidised, i.e. C60On molecules, where n = 1, 2, 3 and 4, are produced according to time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. It is supposed that oxidised C60 molecules at the surface of the clusters may have an important role for the reinforcement, but the actual mechanism of the reinforcement of the clusters has not yet been clearly understood and therefore is an open question.

  12. Music and the Nature: Input of the Czech Composers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Vaclav; Nemcova, Lidmila

    2014-05-01

    Extraordinary occasions for art of any kind - music, creative graphic and plastic arts, literature (classic, modern incl. science fiction), theatre, cinema, etc. - exist to harmonise individual personal interests with those of the humanity well-being and of the Nature and also to cultivate individual spirituality and the appropriate values. Arts can be applied as irreplaceable means for making any human being better, for improving his sense for solidarity and for increasing his ethical sensibility. An interest for the art should be cultivated already since the childhood. - How much of inspiration for numerous composers all over the world has been given by the Nature, how much of inspiration for people who by listening to such a music are increasing nobility of their behaviour as well as their friendly approach to the Nature. - Many classical music works have been written with a strong inspiration by the Nature itself from the past until today. The actual Year of the Czech Music gives the possibility to present the most famous Czech composers inspired by the Nature (selected examples only): Bedřich Smetana (1824 - 1884): At the sea shore - a concert etude for piano inspired by his stay in Göteborg (Sweden); Vltava (Moldau) - a symphonic poem from the cycle "My country" inspired by the river crossing Bohemia from the South to Prague; From the Bohemian woods and meadows - another symphonic poem from the same cycle. Antonín Dvořák (1841 - 1904): V přírodě (In the Nature) - a work for orchestra Leoš Janáček (1854 - 1928): Příhody li\\vsky Bystrou\\vsky (The Cunning Little Vixen) - an opera situated mostly in a forest. Josef Bohuslav Foerster (1859-1951): Velké širé rodné lány (Big large native fields) - a choir for men singers inspired by the nature in the region where the composer as a boy from Prague was visiting his grand-father. Vítězslav Novák (1870 - 1949): In Tatra mountains - a symphonic poem expressing the author's passion for the famous

  13. COMPOSE-HPC: A Transformational Approach to Exascale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernholdt, David E [ORNL; Allan, Benjamin A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Armstrong, Robert C. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Chavarria-Miranda, Daniel [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Dahlgren, Tamara L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Elwasif, Wael R [ORNL; Epperly, Tom [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Foley, Samantha S [ORNL; Hulette, Geoffrey C. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Krishnamoorthy, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Prantl, Adrian [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Panyala, Ajay [Louisiana State University; Sottile, Matthew [Galois, Inc.

    2012-04-01

    The goal of the COMPOSE-HPC project is to 'democratize' tools for automatic transformation of program source code so that it becomes tractable for the developers of scientific applications to create and use their own transformations reliably and safely. This paper describes our approach to this challenge, the creation of the KNOT tool chain, which includes tools for the creation of annotation languages to control the transformations (PAUL), to perform the transformations (ROTE), and optimization and code generation (BRAID), which can be used individually and in combination. We also provide examples of current and future uses of the KNOT tools, which include transforming code to use different programming models and environments, providing tests that can be used to detect errors in software or its execution, as well as composition of software written in different programming languages, or with different threading patterns.

  14. Large-scale Ising-machines composed of magnetic neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizushima, Koichi; Goto, Hayato; Sato, Rie

    2017-10-01

    We propose Ising-machines composed of magnetic neurons, that is, magnetic bits in a recording track. In large-scale machines, the sizes of both neurons and synapses need to be reduced, and neat and smart connections among neurons are also required to achieve all-to-all connectivity among them. These requirements can be fulfilled by adopting magnetic recording technologies such as race-track memories and skyrmion tracks because the area of a magnetic bit is almost two orders of magnitude smaller than that of static random access memory, which has normally been used as a semiconductor neuron, and the smart connections among neurons are realized by using the read and write methods of these technologies.

  15. [The naphtha composing characteristics of geoherbs of Atractylodes lancea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan-ping; Liu, Jun-ying; Ji, Li; Huang, Lu-qi

    2002-11-01

    To find the chemical diversity and characteristics of A. lancea on two levels--individuals and populations, and to discover the chemical essentials for forming geoherbs. 47 rhizomes of A. lancea were collected in 7 populations, and 6 naphtha components (1. elemol, 2. hinesol, 3. beta-eudesmol, 4. atractylone, 5. atractylodin, 6. atractylenolid I) in the rhizomes were determined by GC-MS combination. Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis were carried out by SPSS. Cluster Analysis of the 6 main components indicated that the chemical components of geoherbs were different from those of the non-geonerbs of A. lancea. Other analysis showed as follows: 1. The general oil of geoberbs were lower than that of non-geoherbs(P naphtha composing characteristics of geoherbs was the special proportionment sale, viz. atractylone: hinesol: beta-eudesmol: atractylodin being(0.70~2.00):(0.04~0.35):(0.09~0.40):1.

  16. Fruit for dessert. How people compose healthier meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, T; van der Horst, K; Siegrist, M

    2013-01-01

    The present study assessed whether factual nutritional information on portion sizes helps consumers to select healthier meals. 124 people were invited to serve themselves lunch from a 'fake food buffet' containing 55 replica food items. Participants in the control group were instructed to serve themselves a meal, as they would normally eat from the given selections (control). Participants in the second condition were asked to select a healthy, balanced meal (instruction). People in the third group were also instructed to select a healthy meal, but in addition, they received nutrition information (instruction+information). The results suggest that participants in the instruction and instruction+information condition chose fewer sweets and desserts (F((2,121))=6.91, P<.05) but more fruits (F((2,121))=5.16, P<.05). This led to overall healthier meals than in the control group. All other food categories, including vegetables, were not altered. No difference was found between the two experimental groups. The results indicate that factual nutrition information does not help consumers compose healthier meals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Coaxial nanocable composed by imogolite and carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez, M.; González, R. I.; Munoz, F.; Valdivia, J. A.; Rogan, J.; Kiwi, M. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago, 7800024 (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología, CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago, 9170124 (Chile)

    2015-12-31

    The discovery and development of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) at the beginning of the 1990s has driven a major part of solid state research. The electronic properties of the CNTs have generated a large number of ideas, as building coaxial nanocables. In this work we propose a possible type of such nanocables, which is formed by three nanostructures: two conducting CNTs, where one of them is covered by an insulator (an inorganic oxide nanotube: the imogolite aluminosilicate). The theoretical calculations were carried out using the density functional tight-binding formalism, by means of the DFTB+ code. This formalism allows to calculate the band structure, which compares favorably with DFT calculations, but with a significantly lower computational cost. As a first step, we reproduce the calculations of already published results, where the formation of a nanocable composed by one CNT and the imogolite as an insulator. Afterwards, we simulate the band structure for the proposed structure to study the feasibility of the coaxial nanocable. Finally, using classical MD simulations, we study the possible mechanisms of formation of these nanocables.

  18. Composing Cardinal Direction Relations Basing on Interval Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Jia, Haiyang; Liu, Dayou; Zhang, Changhai

    Direction relations between extended spatial objects are important commonsense knowledge. Skiadopoulos proposed a formal model for representing direction relations between compound regions (the finite union of simple regions), known as SK-model. It perhaps is currently one of most cognitive plausible models for qualitative direction information, and has attracted interests from artificial intelligence and geographic information system. Originating from Allen first using composition table to process time interval constraints; composing has become the key technique in qualitative spatial reasoning to check the consistency. Due to the massive number of basic directions in SK-model, its composition becomes extraordinary complex. This paper proposed a novel algorithm for the composition. Basing the concepts of smallest rectangular directions and its original directions, it transforms the composition of basic cardinal direction relations into the composition of interval relations corresponding to Allen's interval algebra. Comparing with existing methods, this algorithm has quite good dimensional extendibility, that is, it can be easily transferred to the tridimensional space with a few modifications.

  19. Computational design of synthetic gene circuits with composable parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchisio, M A; Stelling, J

    2008-09-01

    In principle, novel genetic circuits can be engineered using standard parts with well-understood functionalities. However, no model based on the simple composition of these parts has become a standard, mainly because it is difficult to define signal exchanges between biological units as unambiguously as in electrical engineering. Corresponding concepts and computational tools for easy circuit design in biology are missing. Taking inspiration from (and slightly modifying) ideas in the 'MIT Registry of Standard Biological Parts', we developed a method for the design of genetic circuits with composable parts. Gene expression requires four kinds of signal carriers: RNA polymerases, ribosomes, transcription factors and environmental 'messages' (inducers or corepressors). The flux of each of these types of molecules is a quantifiable biological signal exchanged between parts. Here, each part is modeled independently by the ordinary differential equations (ODE) formalism and integrated into the software ProMoT (Process Modeling Tool). In this way, we realized a 'drag and drop' tool, where genetic circuits are built just by placing biological parts on a canvas and by connecting them through 'wires' that enable flow of signal carriers, as it happens in electrical engineering. Our simulations of well-known synthetic circuits agree well with published computational and experimental results. The code is available on request from the authors.

  20. Composable Analytic Systems for next-generation intelligence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBona, Phil; Llinas, James; Barry, Kevin

    2015-05-01

    Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (LM ATL) is collaborating with Professor James Llinas, Ph.D., of the Center for Multisource Information Fusion at the University at Buffalo (State of NY), researching concepts for a mixed-initiative associate system for intelligence analysts to facilitate reduced analysis and decision times while proactively discovering and presenting relevant information based on the analyst's needs, current tasks and cognitive state. Today's exploitation and analysis systems have largely been designed for a specific sensor, data type, and operational context, leading to difficulty in directly supporting the analyst's evolving tasking and work product development preferences across complex Operational Environments. Our interactions with analysts illuminate the need to impact the information fusion, exploitation, and analysis capabilities in a variety of ways, including understanding data options, algorithm composition, hypothesis validation, and work product development. Composable Analytic Systems, an analyst-driven system that increases flexibility and capability to effectively utilize Multi-INT fusion and analytics tailored to the analyst's mission needs, holds promise to addresses the current and future intelligence analysis needs, as US forces engage threats in contested and denied environments.

  1. Langmuir monolayers composed of single and double tail sulfobetaine lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Gavin; Gee, Anthony P; Arnold, Thomas; Edler, Karen J; Lewis, Simon E

    2016-07-15

    Owing to structural similarities between sulfobetaine lipids and phospholipids it should be possible to form stable Langmuir monolayers from long tail sulfobetaines. By modification of the density of lipid tail group (number of carbon chains) it should also be possible to modulate the two-dimensional phase behaviour of these lipids and thereby compare with that of equivalent phospholipids. Potentially this could enable the use of such lipids for the wide array of applications that currently use phospholipids. The benefit of using sulfobetaine lipids is that they can be synthesised by a one-step reaction from cheap and readily available starting materials and will degrade via different pathways than natural lipids. The molecular architecture of the lipid can be easily modified allowing the design of lipids for specific purposes. In addition the reversal of the charge within the sulfobetaine head group relative to the charge orientation in phospholipids may modify behaviour and thereby allow for novel uses of these surfactants. Stable Langmuir monolayers were formed composed of single and double tailed sulfobetaine lipids. Surface pressure-area isotherm, Brewster Angle Microscopy and X-ray and neutron reflectometry measurements were conducted to measure the two-dimensional phase behaviour and out-of-plane structure of the monolayers as a function of molecular area. Sulfobetaine lipids are able to form stable Langmuir monolayers with two dimensional phase behaviour analogous to that seen for the well-studied phospholipids. Changing the number of carbon tail groups on the lipid from one to two promotes the existence of a liquid condensed phase due to increased Van der Waals interactions between the tail groups. Thus the structure of the monolayers appears to be defined by the relative sizes of the head and tail groups in a predictable way. However, the presence of sub-phase ions has little effect on the monolayer structure, behaviour that is surprisingly different to

  2. Trends, Vibes, and Energies: Building on Students' Strengths in Visual Composing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtyka, Faith

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the composing practices of two members of a social sorority who use visual images on the media of Tumblr and YouTube to teach potential new members about the kind of sorority experience they will have. From interviews with these composers and analyses of the artifacts they create, I distill three composing principles used to…

  3. The Movement of Air, the Breath of Meaning: Aurality and Multimodal Composing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selfe, Cynthia L.

    2009-01-01

    Rhetoric and composition's increasing attention to multimodal composing involves challenges that go beyond issues of access to digital technologies and electronic composing environments. As a specific case study, this article explores the history of aural composing modalities (speech, music, sound) and examines how they have been understood and…

  4. Composing art songs based on Igbo traditional music:concept and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composing modern African art music from the African stock has drawn the attention of many African and non-African composers and scholars alike in recent times. The common interest to decipher the creative concept and process of the new works emerging from the attempts of African composers at creative continuum of ...

  5. 16 CFR 303.24 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.24 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products composed thereof may be...

  6. Sheet music by mind: Towards a brain-computer interface for composing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinegger, Andreas; Wriessnegger, Selina C; Muller-Putz, Gernot R

    2015-08-01

    Providing brain-computer interface (BCI) users engaging applications should be one of the main targets in BCI research. A painting application, a web browser and other applications can already be controlled via BCI. Another engaging application would be a music composer for self-expression. In this work, we describe Brain Composing: A BCI controlled music composing software. We tested and evaluated the implemented brain composing system with five volunteers. Using a tap water-based electrode biosignal amplifier further improved the usability of the system. Three participants reached accuracies above 77% and were able to copy-compose a given melody. Results of questionnaires support that our brain composing system is an attractive and easy way to compose music via a BCI.

  7. Cultural identity in Bahamian art music: The expression of four Bahamian composers. Panel discussion at the International Symposium on Composers of African and Afro-Caribbean Descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright, Carleton Leroy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a transcription of the presentations delivered by participants of the session: Cultural Identity in Bahamian Art Music: The Expression of Four Bahamian Composers. Edward Bethel moderated the session, which featured Bahamian composers Cleophas Adderley, Audrey Dean-Wright, Christian Justilien, and K. Quincy Parker. They discussed their work, focusing on their compositional style and how or if cultural identity is a strong component in their work. Featured compositions contain hyperlinks to audio/video-recorded examples. Composer and moderator biographies are included, and more information may be found in the Symposium brochure.

  8. The Brain Functional State of Music Creation: an fMRI Study of Composers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Xingxing; He, Hui; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-07-23

    In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the functional networks in professional composers during the creation of music. We compared the composing state and resting state imagery of 17 composers and found that the functional connectivity of primary networks in the bilateral occipital lobe and bilateral postcentral cortex decreased during the composing period. However, significantly stronger functional connectivity appeared between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the right angular gyrus and the bilateral superior frontal gyrus during composition. These findings indicate that a specific brain state of musical creation is formed when professional composers are composing, in which the integration of the primary visual and motor areas is not necessary. Instead, the neurons of these areas are recruited to enhance the functional connectivity between the ACC and the default mode network (DMN) to plan the integration of musical notes with emotion.

  9. Microstructural musical linguistics: composers' pulses are liked most by the best musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clynes, M

    1995-06-01

    Western music is a combination of notated structure plus microstructure. Composers' pulses, as precise microstructural functions, were tested with five groups of subjects of graded musical proficiency: (1) 10 famous artists including Vladimir Ashkenazy, Yehudi Menuhin, Paul Badura-Skoda and others; (2) 14 Julliard School of Music graduate students; (3) 19 Manhattan School of Music graduate students; (4) 51 Australian conservatory students; and (5) 41 non-music students (total, 135 subjects). Composers' pulses consist of combined amplitude and timing warps specific to each composer--the composer's pulse matrix. Each subject listened to and scored 40 versions of 10 short music examples (not selected by the author) of eight bars each, composed by Beethoven, Mozart, Haydn and Schubert, performed by computer, in which composers' pulses, as developed by Clynes (1983, 1985a,b, 1986, 1987), were incorporated in a two-level hierarchic pulse configuration, and interchanged. Each example was heard with the pulses of those four composers in turn, in quasi-random sequence, one performance thus incorporating the "right" pulse and three the "wrong" ones. Results show dramatically that the greater the musical proficiency, the more marked the preference for the "right" pulse (p help non-musicians also to better understand composers' pulses. A theory of music as a double stream is introduced. The results suggest that the composers' pulse matrices posited by Clynes as a first approximation are in fact appropriately meaningful. Brain function aspects of the meaningful discrimination of such tiny time differences are discussed.

  10. Composing Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, John; Ellerby, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Describes writing assignments based on several readings on the ethical quagmire of pornography. Suggests that exploratory writing grounded in the texture of students' lives is an antidote to abstract, theoretical pronouncements. Urges returning to an ethics developed in a community of writers who begin with values already given but who form an…

  11. Composable Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling and Power Management for Dataflow Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, Kees; She, Dongrui; Milutinovic, A.; Molnos, Anca; Lopez, S.

    2010-01-01

    Composability means that the behaviour of an application, including its timing, is not affected by the absence or presence of other applications. It is required to be able to design, test, and verify applications independently. In this paper we de﬿ne composable dynamic voltage and frequency scaling

  12. Are Composers Different? Historical Evidence on Conflict-induced Migration (1816-1997)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol

    2012-01-01

    also find that conflict-induced migration intensity is considerably higher for composers than for the overall population and demonstrate that the share of composers in the overall population drops due to the incidence of war. We further find that the observed outmigration substantially diminishes...

  13. Compose*: a Language- and Platform-Independent Aspect Compiler for Composition Filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roo, Arjan; Hendriks, M.F.H.; Havinga, W.K.; Durr, P.E.A.; Bergmans, Lodewijk

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents Compose*, a compilation and execution framework for the Composition Filters model. The Composition Filters model is designed to improve the composability of object-based programs. It is claimed that this approach is largely language-independent, and has previously been applied to

  14. A Great Igbo Liturgical Music Composer: The Lives and Works of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Msgr. Ezenduka (Late), it was he who sings well and meaningfully. As a great Igbo liturgical music composer, he composed over; eighty liturgical music colossally, for Catholics throughout the Igbo speaking dioceses of Nigeria, through which the devout lives of millions of people were transformed. The Vatican II (1962 1965) ...

  15. Transforming Experience: Negotiations of Sexual Identity in the Composing Processes of Gay Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Negotiating meaning, knowledge, and identity is fundamental to composing processes. These negotiations occur both individually and socially for writers. Sexual identity is an intrinsic part of these negotiations, but is often overlooked by researchers. This study explored the phenomenon of negotiating sexual identity in the composing processes of…

  16. Making Judgements: Investigating the Process of Composing and Receiving Peer Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConlogue, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have argued that tutor feedback is failing to support students' progression. The potential for peer feedback, i.e. feedback composed by peer assessors, to support learning has been under researched. The aim of this paper was to explore a case study of a peer assessor composing and receiving peer feedback. The paper reports a case…

  17. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may be...

  18. Piano and composition profoessor receives his 10th American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers award

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Kent Holliday of Blacksburg, professor of piano and composition in Virginia Tech's Department of Music in the College of Liberal Arts and Human Sciences, has been honored with an American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP) ASCAPLUS 2007 Award.

  19. Perfect Hiding and Perfect Binding Universally Composable Commitment Schemes with Constant Expansion Factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2002-01-01

    Canetti and Fischlin have recently proposed the security notion universal composability for commitment schemes and provided two examples. This new notion is very strong. It guarantees that security is maintained even when an unbounded number of copies of the scheme are running concurrently, also ...... versions. These are the rst schemes to show that constant expansion factor, perfect hiding, and perfect binding can be obtained for universally composable commitments.......Canetti and Fischlin have recently proposed the security notion universal composability for commitment schemes and provided two examples. This new notion is very strong. It guarantees that security is maintained even when an unbounded number of copies of the scheme are running concurrently, also...... it guarantees non-malleability, resilience to selective decommitment, and security against adaptive adversaries. Both of their schemes uses (k) bits to commit to one bit and can be based on the existence of trapdoor commitments and non-malleable encryption. We present new universally composable commitment...

  20. Bibliography on plutonium and its compounds; Bibliographie sur le plutonium et ses composes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirian, J.; Choquet, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Collection of bibliographical references on plutonium and its principal compounds from 1942 to end of 1957. (author) [French] Compilation de references bibliographiques sur le plutonium et ses principaux composes de 1942 a fin 1957. (auteur)

  1. Experimental realization of suspended atomic chains composed of different atomic species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettini, Jefferson; Ugarte, Daniel [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Sato, Fernando; Galvao, Douglas Soares [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin; Coura, Pablo Zimmerman; Dantas, Socrates de Oliveira [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Fisica

    2006-07-01

    We report high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and molecular dynamics results of the first experimental test of suspended atomic chains composed of different atomic species formed from spontaneous stretching of metallic nanowires. (author)

  2. Composable Mission Framework for Rapid End-to-End Mission Design and Simulation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here is the Composable Mission Framework (CMF)?a model-based software framework that shall enable seamless continuity of mission design and...

  3. The Composer's Program Note for Newly Written Classical Music: Content and Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Diana M; Bennett, Dawn; Stevenson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    In concerts of western classical music the provision of a program note is a widespread practice dating back to the 18th century and still commonly in use. Program notes tend to inform listeners and performers about historical context, composer biographical details, and compositional thinking. However, the scant program note research conducted to date reveals that program notes may not foster understanding or enhance listener enjoyment as previously assumed. In the case of canonic works, performers and listeners may already be familiar with much of the program note information. This is not so in the case of newly composed works, which formed the basis of the exploratory study reported here. This article reports the views of 17 living contemporary composers on their writing of program notes for their own works. In particular, the study sought to understand the intended recipient, role and the content of composer-written program notes. Participating composers identified three main roles for their program notes: to shape a performer's interpretation of the work; to guide, engage or direct the listener and/or performer; and as collaborative mode of communication between the composer, performer, and listener. For some composers, this collaboration was intended to result in "performative listening" in which listeners were actively engaged in bringing each composition to life. This was also described as a form of empathy that results in the co-construction of the musical experience. Overall, composers avoided giving too much personal information and they provided performers with more structural information. However, composers did not agree on whether the same information should be provided to both performers and listeners. Composers' responses problematize the view of a program note as a simple statement from writer to recipient, indicating instead a more complex set of relations at play between composer, performer, listener, and the work itself. These relations are

  4. In fatal pursuit of immortal fame: Peer competition and early mortality of music composers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan; Kavetsos, Georgios

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the impact of peer competition on longevity using a unique historical data set of 144 prominent music composers born in the 19th century. We approximate for peer competition measuring (a) the number or (b) the share of composers located in the same area and time, (c) the time spent in one of the main cities for classical music, and (d) the quality of fellow composers. These measures suggest that composers' longevity is reduced, if they located in agglomerations with a larger group of peers or of a higher quality. The point estimates imply that, all else equal, a one percent increase in the number of composers reduces composer longevity by ∼ 7.2 weeks. Our analysis showed that the utilized concentration measures are stronger than the personal factors in determining longevity, indicating that individuals' backgrounds have minimal impact on mitigating the effect of experienced peer pressure. The negative externality of peer competition is experienced in all cities, fairly independent of their population size. Our results are reaffirmed using an instrumental variable approach and are consistent throughout a range of robustness tests. In addition to the widely known economic benefits associated with competition, these findings suggest that significant negative welfare externalities exist as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Can You Feel It?: Evaluation of Affective Expression in Music Generated by MetaCompose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scirea, Marco; Eklund, Peter; Togelius, Julian

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes an evaluation conducted on the MetaCompose music generator, which is based on evolutionary computation and uses a hybrid evolutionary technique that combines FI-2POP and multi-objective optimization. The main objective of MetaCompose is to create music in real-time that can...... express different mood-states. The experiment presented here aims to evaluate: (i) if the perceived mood experienced by the participants of a music score matches intended mood the system is trying to express and (ii) if participants can identify transitions in the mood expression that occur mid......-piece. Music clips including transitions and with static affective states were produced by MetaCompose and a quantitative user study was performed. Participants were tasked with annotating the perceived mood and moreover were asked to annotate in real-time changes in valence. The data collected confirms...

  6. A Quantitative Study of Chromaticism: Changes Observed in Historical Eras and Individual Composers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Perttu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Music historians have observed informally that Western music became increasingly chromatic between roughly 1600 and 1900. This view is tested formally, and the results are shown to be consistent with the standard view. Music historians have similarly assumed that the music of major composers such as Mozart and Beethoven became increasingly chromatic over their respective lifetimes. Measurements of chromaticism in both theme-based and opus-based samples are shown to be inconsistent with these intuitions. At face value, the results of this study affirm that Western art music has become more chromatic over time, but that five major composers' use of chromatic tones changed little (quantitatively over the course of their careers. Repercussions for stylistic interpretations of these composers are discussed.

  7. Prefabricated floor panels composed of fiber reinforced concrete and a steel substructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lárusson, Lárus H.; Fischer, Gregor; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a study on prefabricated composite and modular floor deck panels composed of relatively thin fiber reinforced concrete slabs connected to steel substructures. The study focuses on the design, manufacturing, structural improvements and behavior of the floor systems during...... element.The activities described in this paper are an extension of previous work where composite floor panels composed of light gauge steel joists were integrally cast with a thin-walled Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) slab. The main focus of the present study was to revise and improve the design...

  8. Western classical music development: a statistical analysis of composers similarity, differentiation and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a statistical analysis that captures similarities and differences between classical music composers with the eventual aim to understand why particular composers 'sound' different even if their 'lineages' (influences network) are similar or why they 'sound' alike if their 'lineages' are different. In order to do this we use statistical methods and measures of association or similarity (based on presence/absence of traits such as specific 'ecological' characteristics and personal musical influences) that have been developed in biosystematics, scientometrics, and bibliographic coupling. This paper also represents a first step towards a more ambitious goal of developing an evolutionary model of Western classical music.

  9. Musical tradition, insurrection, and resurrection: the life and legacy of composer/bassist Charles Mingus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, E K

    1999-01-01

    Charles Mingus was perhaps the foremost straight-ahead jazz upright bassist and composer of his generation, blending the inspirational influences of gospel, jazz improvisation, and art music leanings into a unique style all his own. His demise from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in his fifth decade robbed the world of one of the great creative voices of American music. Aspects of Mingus' life, his career as a bassist, bandleader, and composer, and his neuromuscular illness are discussed, emphasizing his legacy for the disparate fields of jazz and neurology.

  10. Historical Patterns Based on Automatically Extracted Data: the Case of Classical Composers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol; O'Hagan, John

    2012-01-01

    application that automatically extracts and processes information was developed to generate data on the birth location, occupations and importance (using word count methods) of over 12,000 composers over six centuries. Quantitative measures of the relative importance of different types of music...... and of the different music instruments over the centuries were also generated. Finally quantitative indicators of the importance of different cities over the different centuries in the lives of these composers are constructed. A range of interesting findings emerge in relation to all of these aspects of the lives...

  11. MO-A-BRD-05: Evaluation of Composed Lung Ventilation with 4DCT and Image Registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, K; Bayouth, J [University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Reinhardt, J; Christensen, G; Zhao, B [University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Ding, K [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Regional pulmonary function can be derived using fourdimensional computed tomography (4DCT) combined with deformable image registration. However, only peak inhale and exhale phases have been used thus far while the lung ventilation during intermediate phases is not considered. In our previous work, we have investigated the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of lung ventilation and its dependence on respiration effort. In this study, composed ventilation is introduced using all inspiration phases and compared to direct ventilation. Both methods are evaluated against Xe-CT derived ventilation. Methods: Using an in-house tissue volume preserving deformable image registration, unlike the direct ventilation method, which computes from end expiration to end inspiration, Jacobian ventilation maps were computed from one inhale phase to the next and then composed from all inspiration steps. The two methods were compared in both patients prior to RT and mechanically ventilated sheep subjects. In addition, they wereassessed for the correlation with Xe-CT derived ventilation in sheep subjects. Annotated lung landmarks were used to evaluate the accuracy of original and composed deformation field. Results: After registration, the landmark distance for composed deformation field was always higher than that for direct deformation field (0IN to 100IN average in human: 1.03 vs 1.53, p=0.001, and in sheep: 0.80 vs0.94, p=0.009), and both increased with longer phase interval. Direct and composed ventilation maps were similar in both sheep (gamma pass rate 87.6) and human subjects (gamma pass rate 71.9),and showed consistent pattern from ventral to dorsal when compared to Xe-CT derived ventilation. Correlation coefficient between Xe-CT and composed ventilation was slightly better than the direct method but not significant (average 0.89 vs 0.85, p=0.135). Conclusion: More strict breathing control in sheep subjects may explain higher similarity between direct and composed ventilation

  12. Memory controllers for real-time embedded systems predictable and composable real-time systems

    CERN Document Server

    Akesson, Benny

    2012-01-01

      Verification of real-time requirements in systems-on-chip becomes more complex as more applications are integrated. Predictable and composable systems can manage the increasing complexity using formal verification and simulation.  This book explains the concepts of predictability and composability and shows how to apply them to the design and analysis of a memory controller, which is a key component in any real-time system. This book is generally intended for readers interested in Systems-on-Chips with real-time applications.   It is especially well-suited for readers looking to use SDRAM memories in systems with hard or firm real-time requirements. There is a strong focus on real-time concepts, such as predictability and composability, as well as a brief discussion about memory controller architectures for high-performance computing. Readers will learn step-by-step how to go from an unpredictable SDRAM memory, offering highly variable bandwidth and latency, to a predictable and composable shared memory...

  13. Creative Thinking for 21st Century Composing Practices: Creativity Pedagogies across Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sohui; Carpenter, Russell

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the corpus of literature on creative thinking and applied creativity in higher education to help composition teacher-scholars and writing center practitioners improve the application of creativity in written, visual, and multimodal composing practices. From studies of creative thinking investigated across…

  14. Writing as Embodied, College Football Plays as Embodied: Extracurricular Multimodal Composing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifenburg, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Recent explorations position multimodality as a largely curricular practice wherein the body typically is not figured as a potential mode of meaning making. Such a projection not only fails to acknowledge extracurricular uses of such a rhetoric but also fails to acknowledge the role of the body in and especially for composing. In hopes of…

  15. Impairment and Distress Judgments of Symptoms Composing Childhood Externalizing and Internalizing Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Andrew J.; Watson, David C.

    2009-01-01

    The pattern of perceived dysfunction associated with symptoms composing the externalizing childhood disorder syndrome was compared to the pattern characterizing the internalizing syndrome. In Study 1, undergraduate students (N = 205) judged the social impairment, academic/occupational impairment and personal distress associated with symptoms from…

  16. The Instant Composers Pool: Music Notation and the Mediation of Improvising Agency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, F.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413334295

    2016-01-01

    This article relates the recent development of a “relational musicology” to debates about participatory art and relational aesthetics. I present results from an ethnographic study of the Dutch improvising music collective the Instant Composers Pool, founded in 1967 and still performing. With a

  17. Composing across Multiple Media: A Case Study of Digital Video Production in a Fifth Grade Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranker, Jason

    2008-01-01

    This is a qualitative case study of two students' composing processes as they developed a documentary video about the Dominican Republic in an urban, public middle school classroom. While using a digital video editing program, the students moved across multiple media (the Web, digital video, books, and writing), drawing semiotic resources from…

  18. International Symposium on Composers of African and Afro-Caribbean descent: Veni, vidi, vici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw, Paul

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sharing a history similar to that of its Caribbean neighbours, yet endowed with greater economic and logistic liquidity, Nassau, The Bahamas’ capital city (on the island of New Providence, seemed the best venue for the first International Symposium on Composers of African & Afro-Caribbean Descent, held on February 21, 2013.

  19. Flipping the Composing Process: Collaborative Drafting and Résumé Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Abram

    2016-01-01

    This article argues for a flipped learning approach to business and professional communication composing processes. Flipped learning sequences can scaffold more robust engagement with prewriting activities and support opportunities for in-class collaborative and facilitated drafting exercises. These types of learning experiences offer numerous…

  20. Production of Macedonian contemporary music composers: stimulative measures for new musical works

    OpenAIRE

    Zelenkovska Leshkova, Stefanija; Islam, Aida

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the impact of cultural policies on the production of contemporary Macedonian music works. This situation is aspecting through stimulative measures undertaken by the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Macedonia through four Competitions in the past two years 2014/2015. Keywords: Macedonian contemporary composers, musical art works, stimulative measures.

  1. Universally composable zero-knowledge arguments and commitments from signature cards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Hofheinz (Dennis); J. Müller-Quade; D. Unruh

    2007-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the Universal Composability framework many cryptographic tasks cannot be built from scratch. Additional \\helping" functionalities are needed to realise zero-knowledge or bit commitment. However, all the additional functionalities presented in the literature so far have to be

  2. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps. 300.29 Section 300.29 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION... inserted, may be used in the stamp, tag, label, or mark of identification of such product: (1) Where the...

  3. Geographic Clustering and Productivity: An Instrumental Variable Approach for Classical Composers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol

    2013-01-01

    It is difficult to estimate the impact of geographic clustering on productivity because of endogeneity issues. I use birthplace-cluster distance as an instrumental variable for the incidence of clustering of prominent classical composers born between 1750 and 1899. I find that geographic clusteri...

  4. A Particle Swarm Optimization Approach to Composing Serial Test Sheets for Multiple Assessment Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Peng-Yeng; Chang, Kuang-Cheng; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Hwang, Gwo-Haur; Chan, Ying

    2006-01-01

    To accurately analyze the problems of students in learning, the composed test sheets must meet multiple assessment criteria, such as the ratio of relevant concepts to be evaluated, the average discrimination degree, difficulty degree and estimated testing time. Furthermore, to precisely evaluate the improvement of student's learning performance…

  5. A service based component model for composing and exploring MPSoC platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg-Hansen, Anders Sejer; Madsen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an abstract service based modelling method for use in performance estimation and design space exploration of Multi Processor System On Chip (MPSoC) based systems. The method provides the infrastructure for composing abstract hardware and software models of stream based systems...

  6. Suggest-Choose-Plan-Compose: A Strategy to Help Students Learn to Write

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesendanger, Katherine Davis; Perry, Jeannine Rajewski; Braun, Gretchen

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a strategy to support students' development of creative writing and construction of text in a sequential manner. The goal of the Suggest-Choose-Plan-Compose (SCPC) strategy is to improve students' ability to create a story by helping them clarify their thoughts as they generate and organize ideas and basic story elements.…

  7. The Role of Composing Process and Coherence/Cohesion in FFL Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetis, Veda Aslim

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role of composing process and knowledge about coherence/cohesion in French foreign language writing skill. Research sample consists of 35 Turkish students studying French language teaching at a Turkish university. The participants were first given a test containing of three parts in order to determine their…

  8. STABILITY AND PROTON-PERMEABILITY OF LIPOSOMES COMPOSED OF ARCHAEAL TETRAETHER LIPIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, Marieke G.L.; Wit, Janny G. de; Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Konings, Wil N.

    1994-01-01

    Liposomes composed of tetraether lipids originating from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius were analyzed for their stability and proton permeability from 20 degrees C up to 80 degrees C. At room temperature, these liposomes are considerably more stable and have a much lower

  9. Spatial Stories with Nomadic Narrators: Affect, Snapchat, and Feeling Embodiment in Youth Mobile Composing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    While the vast majority of scholarship on mobile media, social semiotics, and multimodality highlights work done "behind" the screen, few studies have considered the embodied processes of youth composing "with" and "through" mobile technology. This study, drawn from a larger critical qualitative connective…

  10. Composing for the Left Hand: Writing Activities for the Intermediate Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Robert W.

    This paper cites descriptions, by professional writers, of two stages in the composing process that appear to correspond with the two modes of mental activity separately controlled by the hemispheres of the brain. The stage of writing a first draft involves unconscious, personal, irrational, intuitive writing which may be called "writing for the…

  11. Onset of superradiant instabilities in the composed Kerr-black-hole–mirror bomb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Hod

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It was first pointed out by Press and Teukolsky that a system composed of a spinning Kerr black hole surrounded by a reflecting mirror may develop instabilities. The physical mechanism responsible for the development of these exponentially growing instabilities is the superradiant amplification of bosonic fields confined between the black hole and the mirror. A remarkable feature of this composed black-hole–mirror-field system is the existence of a critical mirror radius, rmstat, which supports stationary (marginally-stable field configurations. This critical (‘stationary’ mirror radius marks the boundary between stable and unstable black-hole–mirror-field configurations: composed systems whose confining mirror is situated in the region rmrmstat are unstable (that is, there are confined field modes which grow exponentially over time. In the present paper we explore this critical (marginally-stable boundary between stable and explosive black-hole–mirror-field configurations. It is shown that the innermost (smallest radius of the confining mirror which allows the extraction of rotational energy from a spinning Kerr black hole approaches the black-hole horizon radius in the extremal limit of rapidly-rotating black holes. We find, in particular, that this critical mirror radius (which marks the onset of superradiant instabilities in the composed system scales linearly with the black-hole temperature.

  12. Exact natural frequencies of plane structures composed of slender elastic curved members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A. K.; Howson, W. P.

    1994-08-01

    Exact finite elements form the basis of a new and convenient procedure for converging with certainty upon the required natural frequencies of any plane structure composed of slender elastic curved members of constant radius. Solution of the inherent transcendental eigenvalue problem is achieved through a variation on the powerful Wittrick-Williams algorithm. Two illustrative examples are included.

  13. Bending elasticity modulus of giant vesicles composed of aeropyrum pernix k1 archaeal lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Julia; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika; Iglič, Aleš; Bivas, Isak

    2015-03-26

    Thermally induced shape fluctuations were used to study elastic properties of giant vesicles composed of archaeal lipids C25,25-archetidyl (glucosyl) inositol and C25,25-archetidylinositol isolated from lyophilised Aeropyrum pernix K1 cells. Giant vesicles were created by electroformation in pure water environment. Stroboscopic illumination using a xenon flash lamp was implemented to remove the blur effect due to the finite integration time of the camera and to obtain an instant picture of the fluctuating vesicle shape. The mean weighted value of the bending elasticity modulus kc of the archaeal membrane determined from the measurements meeting the entire set of qualification criteria was (1.89 ± 0.18) × 10-19 J, which is similar to the values obtained for a membrane composed of the eukaryotic phospholipids SOPC (1.88 ± 0.17) × 10-19 J and POPC (2.00 ± 0.21) ´ 10-19 J. We conclude that membranes composed of archaeal lipids isolated from Aeropyrum pernix K1 cells have similar elastic properties as membranes composed of eukaryotic lipids. This fact, together with the importance of the elastic properties for the normal circulation through blood system, provides further evidence in favor of expectations that archaeal lipids could be appropriate for the design of drug delivery systems.

  14. Laplace type problems for a lattice with cell composed by two triangles and one hexagon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Stoka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We solve a Laplace type problem for a lattice of the Euclidean plane with cell composed by two triangles and one hexagon. We compute the probability that a segment of random position and constant length intersects a side of the lattice.

  15. Chinese Readers Can Perceive a Word Even When It's Composed of Noncontiguous Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guojie; Pollatsek, Alexander; Li, Yugang; Li, Xingshan

    2017-01-01

    This study explored whether readers could recognize a word composed of noncontiguous characters (a "cross-character word") in Chinese reading. All 3 experiments employed Chinese 4-character strings ABCD, where both AB and CD were 2-character words. In the cross-character word condition, AC was a word but in the control condition, AC was…

  16. Bending Elasticity Modulus of Giant Vesicles Composed of Aeropyrum Pernix K1 Archaeal Lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Genova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermally induced shape fluctuations were used to study elastic properties of giant vesicles composed of archaeal lipids C25,25-archetidyl (glucosyl inositol and C25,25-archetidylinositol isolated from lyophilised Aeropyrum pernix K1 cells. Giant vesicles were created by electroformation in pure water environment. Stroboscopic illumination using a xenon flash lamp was implemented to remove the blur effect due to the finite integration time of the camera and to obtain an instant picture of the fluctuating vesicle shape. The mean weighted value of the bending elasticity modulus kc of the archaeal membrane determined from the measurements meeting the entire set of qualification criteria was (1.89 ± 0.18 × 10−19 J, which is similar to the values obtained for a membrane composed of the eukaryotic phospholipids SOPC (1.88 ± 0.17 × 10−19 J and POPC (2.00 ± 0.21 ´ 10−19 J. We conclude that membranes composed of archaeal lipids isolated from Aeropyrum pernix K1 cells have similar elastic properties as membranes composed of eukaryotic lipids. This fact, together with the importance of the elastic properties for the normal circulation through blood system, provides further evidence in favor of expectations that archaeal lipids could be appropriate for the design of drug delivery systems.

  17. Author in the Arts: Composing and Collaborating in Text, Music, and the Visual Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerben, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Many disciplines share similar terminology for making: creating, composing, writing, and authoring. The last term authoring, however, is problematic in how it privileges an end goal of individual authority and reward. To interrogate this term, and argue for its importance in future collaborative, interdisciplinary work, this article examines a…

  18. A study of fractional Schrödinger equation composed of Jumarie ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we have derived the fractional-order Schrödinger equation composed of Jumarie fractional derivative. The solution of this fractional-order Schrödinger equation is obtained in terms of Mittag–Leffler function with complex arguments, and fractional trigonometric functions. A few important properties of the ...

  19. Compositional Strategies and Musical Creativity When Composing with Staff Notations versus Graphic Notations among Korean Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auh, Myung-Sook; Walker, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Examines compositional strategies and musical creativity of 38 seventh-grade students in junior high schools in Seoul (Korea) when composing with staff notations (traditional group) versus graphic notations (non-traditional group). Finds that musical creativity levels were judged to be significantly higher in the non-traditional compositions. (CMK)

  20. Residential Interior Design as Complex Composition: A Case Study of a High School Senior's Composing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagorinsky, Peter; Zoss, Michelle; Reed, Patty M.

    2006-01-01

    This research analyzed the composing processes of one high school student as she designed the interiors of homes for a course in interior design. Data included field notes, an interview with the teacher, artifacts from the class, and the focal student's concurrent and retrospective protocols in relation to her design of home interiors. The…

  1. Multimodality: An Illuminating Approach to Unravelling the Complexities of Composing with ICT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Having previously been employed to investigate science and English classrooms and listening in the music classroom, theories of multimodality would appear to have much to contribute to an examination of group composing using Information and Communications Technology (ICT), owing to the multimodal nature of music software and group discourse. This…

  2. Modified Hyperspheres Algorithm to Trace Homotopy Curves of Nonlinear Circuits Composed by Piecewise Linear Modelled Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vazquez-Leal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a homotopy continuation method (HCM for finding multiple operating points of nonlinear circuits composed of devices modelled by using piecewise linear (PWL representations. We propose an adaptation of the modified spheres path tracking algorithm to trace the homotopy trajectories of PWL circuits. In order to assess the benefits of this proposal, four nonlinear circuits composed of piecewise linear modelled devices are analysed to determine their multiple operating points. The results show that HCM can find multiple solutions within a single homotopy trajectory. Furthermore, we take advantage of the fact that homotopy trajectories are PWL curves meant to replace the multidimensional interpolation and fine tuning stages of the path tracking algorithm with a simple and highly accurate procedure based on the parametric straight line equation.

  3. A formal approach for change impact analysis of long term composed services using Probabilistic Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thirumaran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating changes into the logics of composed services dynamically and successfully is a challenge for sustaining a business’ image and profit in the society, especially when the change is expected to be made immediately at low cost. In this paper, we address this challenge by proposing a change impact analysis framework for long term composed services (LCS which: (i enables the business people to implement the changes by themselves through their analysts, (ii reduces cost and time by eliminating the dependence on IT developers once the application services are developed and delivered, (iii ensures effective incorporation of the changes made by using standard methodologies for evaluation – finite state automaton for verifying the runtime compatibilities and change evaluation and probabilistic cellular automaton for impact analysis and prediction. Through the evaluated probability measures and effective incident matching, the knowledge gained by the analyst over his service logics and the efficiency of incorporating changes are increased.

  4. Transparency windows of the plasmonic nanostructure composed of C-shaped and U-shaped resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Ouyang, Min; Tang, Bin; Wang, Zhibing; He, Jun

    2017-02-01

    We in this study investigated numerically the plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) effect on the plasmonic nanostructures composed of C-shaped and U-shaped resonators by using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The PIT effect in the nanosystem stemmed from the near field coupling between the bright and dark modes. The nanostructure composed of three resonators exhibited double PIT effect. And the PIT spectral response of the proposed nanostructures was demonstrated having a dependence on the parameters of the compound plasmonic system such as the widths of C-shaped resonator and U-shaped resonator, the resonators spatial arrangement and the edge-to-edge distance between the adjacent resonators. The electric and magnetic field distributions of certain resonance wavelengths were also given to discuss the underlying physics. The resonator design strategy opens up a rich pathway to develop the building block of systems for all optical switching, plasmonic sensing applications.

  5. SH wave propagation in joined half-spaces composed of elastic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaona; Shu, Haisheng; Zhou, Haiyong; Zhao, Lei; Liu, Ru; An, Shuowei; Zhu, Jie

    2017-12-01

    Based on the effective-medium theory, the propagation of a shear horizontal (SH) wave in joined half-spaces composed of elastic metamaterials (EMMs) is investigated. From the dispersion relations, the effects of negative effective-medium parameters on the properties of a SH wave traveling near the interface are analyzed in detail. It is found that a SH wave can always appear and travel along the interface under specific effective-parameter combinations no matter whether the effective transverse wave velocity is imaginary or real. This is significantly different from the classical case (joined half-spaces composed of natural media), and the existence of these SH interfacial wave modes may have important impacts on EMM-based SH wave manipulation, especially wave isolation and object protection.

  6. Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath composed largely of epithelioid histiocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath (GCTTS) is a relatively uncommon lesion. GCTTS composed largely epithelioid histiocytes are very rare. In the literature, the author could not find such cases. A 73-year-old man presented with a mass of right thumb, and resection of the mass was performed. Grossly, the mass was encapsulated and yellowish, and measured 1.5 x 2 x 2 cm. Microscopically, the mass was composed of cellular and hypocellular zones. The former was composed of spindle cells and osteoclast-like giant cells, while the latter of epithelioid clear histiocytes. The area of the former was 20%, and the latter 80%. Pigment was seen in the former elements. Mitotic figures were seen in 3/per 30 high power fields (HPFs) in the former element and 2/per 30 HPFs in the latter element. Histochemically, the pigment was hemosiderin positive with Prussian blue staining. Immunohistochemically, both the elements were negative for cytokeratin (CK) CE1/3, CK CAM5.2, CEA, HMB45, alpha-smooth muscle antigen, p53, CD10, TTF-1, and CDX2. Both the elements were positive for CD68 and Ki-67 (cellular element 30% and hypocellular element 20%). The histiocytes of the hypocellular element and osteoclast-like giant cell of the cellular element were positive for CD45. S100-protein positive Langerhans cells and CD45-positive lymphocytes were scattered. The pathological diagnosis was GCTTS. In the author's experience, GCTTS composed largely epithelioid histiocytes are very rare. In the literature, the author could not find such cases. Thus, the author reports herein this case.

  7. Performers, Composers, Scores and Editions: Commentary on Huisman, Gingras, Dhondt, and Leman (2017)

    OpenAIRE

    Dorottya Fabian

    2017-01-01

    Reflecting on a study that examines the impact of various editions on the speed of learning and performance errors, this short paper notes the crudeness of western music notation and how musicians cope with deciphering the composer's musical intentions. Drawing on parallels with practitioners who specialize in historically informed performance and tend to favor playing from manuscripts and facsimiles, I argue that although performing editions are useful, proper education regarding the meaning...

  8. Gene composer: database software for protein construct design, codon engineering, and gene synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorimer, Don; Raymond, Amy; Walchli, John; Mixon, Mark; Barrow, Adrienne; Wallace, Ellen; Grice, Rena; Burgin, Alex; Stewart, Lance

    2009-04-21

    To improve efficiency in high throughput protein structure determination, we have developed a database software package, Gene Composer, which facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their codon engineered synthetic gene sequences. With its modular workflow design and numerous graphical user interfaces, Gene Composer enables researchers to perform all common bio-informatics steps used in modern structure guided protein engineering and synthetic gene engineering. An interactive Alignment Viewer allows the researcher to simultaneously visualize sequence conservation in the context of known protein secondary structure, ligand contacts, water contacts, crystal contacts, B-factors, solvent accessible area, residue property type and several other useful property views. The Construct Design Module enables the facile design of novel protein constructs with altered N- and C-termini, internal insertions or deletions, point mutations, and desired affinity tags. The modifications can be combined and permuted into multiple protein constructs, and then virtually cloned in silico into defined expression vectors. The Gene Design Module uses a protein-to-gene algorithm that automates the back-translation of a protein amino acid sequence into a codon engineered nucleic acid gene sequence according to a selected codon usage table with minimal codon usage threshold, defined G:C% content, and desired sequence features achieved through synonymous codon selection that is optimized for the intended expression system. The gene-to-oligo algorithm of the Gene Design Module plans out all of the required overlapping oligonucleotides and mutagenic primers needed to synthesize the desired gene constructs by PCR, and for physically cloning them into selected vectors by the most popular subcloning strategies. We present a complete description of Gene Composer functionality, and an efficient PCR-based synthetic gene assembly procedure with mis-match specific endonuclease

  9. Gene Composer: database software for protein construct design, codon engineering, and gene synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mixon Mark

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To improve efficiency in high throughput protein structure determination, we have developed a database software package, Gene Composer, which facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their codon engineered synthetic gene sequences. With its modular workflow design and numerous graphical user interfaces, Gene Composer enables researchers to perform all common bio-informatics steps used in modern structure guided protein engineering and synthetic gene engineering. Results An interactive Alignment Viewer allows the researcher to simultaneously visualize sequence conservation in the context of known protein secondary structure, ligand contacts, water contacts, crystal contacts, B-factors, solvent accessible area, residue property type and several other useful property views. The Construct Design Module enables the facile design of novel protein constructs with altered N- and C-termini, internal insertions or deletions, point mutations, and desired affinity tags. The modifications can be combined and permuted into multiple protein constructs, and then virtually cloned in silico into defined expression vectors. The Gene Design Module uses a protein-to-gene algorithm that automates the back-translation of a protein amino acid sequence into a codon engineered nucleic acid gene sequence according to a selected codon usage table with minimal codon usage threshold, defined G:C% content, and desired sequence features achieved through synonymous codon selection that is optimized for the intended expression system. The gene-to-oligo algorithm of the Gene Design Module plans out all of the required overlapping oligonucleotides and mutagenic primers needed to synthesize the desired gene constructs by PCR, and for physically cloning them into selected vectors by the most popular subcloning strategies. Conclusion We present a complete description of Gene Composer functionality, and an efficient PCR-based synthetic gene

  10. Composer Recognition based on 2D-Filtered Piano-Rolls

    OpenAIRE

    Velarde, Gissel; Weyde, Tillman; Cancino Chacón, Carlos; Meredith, David; Grachten, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method for music classification based on the use of convolutional models on symbolic pitch-time representations (i.e. piano-rolls) which we apply to composer recognition. An excerpt of a piece to be classified is first sampled to a 2D pitch-time representation which is then subjected to various transformations, including convolution with predefined filters (Morlet or Gaussian) and classified by means of support vector machines. We combine classifiers based on different pitch repr...

  11. Geometry of Prismatic Tensegrity Constructions Composed of Three and Four-strut Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejníková, Tatiana

    2014-11-01

    In the paper there is described geometry of double layer tensegrity constructions composed of prismatic cells with rhombic configuration of three or four strut bases so-called prismatic Tensegrity constructions. There are described bi-dimensional assemblies creating double layer grids of three or four-strut cells with a node-on-node junction. The grids can be planar, of one or two curvature constructions.

  12. Geometry of Prismatic Tensegrity Constructions Composed of Three and Four-strut Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olejníková Tatiana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the paper there is described geometry of double layer tensegrity constructions composed of prismatic cells with rhombic configuration of three or four strut bases so-called prismatic Tensegrity constructions. There are described bi-dimensional assemblies creating double layer grids of three or four-strut cells with a node-on-node junction. The grids can be planar, of one or two curvature constructions.

  13. Alphons Diepenbrock and the European world of composers at the fin-de-siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Leeuw Gerard

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article consists of three parts. In the first part the author gives a survey of the large artistic renewal that took place in the Netherlands around 1900. Special attention is given to "de beweging van Tachtig"(the movement of the "Tachtigers", a renewal movement in literature in which the composer Alphons Diepenbrock was involved. In the second part a short description of the life and work of this most important Dutch composer of the end of the nineteenth century is given. In his early years Diepenbrock orientated himself to composers like Wagner, especially around the First World War (in which the Netherlands remained a neutral country, and he became a fervent admirer of French art. His music is a unique synthesis of Wagner's chromaticism, the word-bound rhythms of plain-chant and the polyphonic music of the old Flemish schools of Ockeghem and Josquin. In the third part the author deals with a couple of Diepenbrock's (artistic contacts. There are highlights on Mahler, Schönberg and Debussy, primarily based on their correspondence.

  14. Genesis and evolution of the sonnet (chahar-pare composing in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bbagher Sadrinia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Persian "Sonnets" (chahar-pare or "continuous quatrains" are already mentioned briefly here and there but the emergence, evolution and the influence of the modern ottoman poetry on the inclination of Persian poets to this new poetic form have not been thoroughly discussed yet. The author of this paper, while studying the origin of this form of poetry by referring to its currency in French literature, seeks to answer the following questions: 1 – Did the Iranian poets compose sonnets under the influence of European and especially French literature? 2 – How much did the ottoman modern poetry influence the inclination of Iranian poets to this form? 3 –When did sonnet composing begin exactly and who first composed his poem in this form?    It seems that there is no doubt about the idea that this form of sonnets or continuous quatrains as a new form in Persian poetic was borrowed from the European and especially French literature, but it is disputable whether the Iranians received this form and its special rhyme scheme directly from Europeans or they got accustomed with it through an intermediary language?    From the viewpoint of the author these continuous quatrains were first considered by modern Turkish poets of Tanzimat and constitutional Revolution period such as Akif Paşa (1316 AH, and later Ibrahim Şinasi (d. 1871 CE, Ziya Paşaa (d. 1881 CE, Namik Kemal (d. 1888 CE and the poets of the next generation such as Recaizade Ekrem Beik (d. 1914 CE and Abdülhak Hamit Tarhan (d. 1937 CE Tevfik Fikret (d. 1915 CE who were familiar with french poetry and literature (Habib, 1340: 95 then this form entered Iranian literature via Turkish language and literature. On the one hand the distant priority of the Turkish modernist poets in using this form and on the other hand the familiarity of the first Iranian sonnet-composer poets such as Ja’far Xamene’i, Lahuti and Taqi Raf’at with the modern ottoman poetry and literature confirms

  15. Genesis and evolution of the sonnet (chahar-pare composing in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bbagher Sadrinia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Persian "Sonnets" (chahar-pare or "continuous quatrains" are already mentioned briefly here and there but the emergence, evolution and the influence of the modern ottoman poetry on the inclination of Persian poets to this new poetic form have not been thoroughly discussed yet. The author of this paper, while studying the origin of this form of poetry by referring to its currency in French literature, seeks to answer the following questions: 1 – Did the Iranian poets compose sonnets under the influence of European and especially French literature? 2 – How much did the ottoman modern poetry influence the inclination of Iranian poets to this form? 3 –When did sonnet composing begin exactly and who first composed his poem in this form?    It seems that there is no doubt about the idea that this form of sonnets or continuous quatrains as a new form in Persian poetic was borrowed from the European and especially French literature, but it is disputable whether the Iranians received this form and its special rhyme scheme directly from Europeans or they got accustomed with it through an intermediary language?    From the viewpoint of the author these continuous quatrains were first considered by modern Turkish poets of Tanzimat and constitutional Revolution period such as Akif Paşa (1316 AH, and later Ibrahim Şinasi (d. 1871 CE, Ziya Paşaa (d. 1881 CE, Namik Kemal (d. 1888 CE and the poets of the next generation such as Recaizade Ekrem Beik (d. 1914 CE and Abdülhak Hamit Tarhan (d. 1937 CE Tevfik Fikret (d. 1915 CE who were familiar with french poetry and literature (Habib, 1340: 95 then this form entered Iranian literature via Turkish language and literature. On the one hand the distant priority of the Turkish modernist poets in using this form and on the other hand the familiarity of the first Iranian sonnet-composer poets such as Ja’far Xamene’i, Lahuti and Taqi Raf’at with the modern

  16. Looking into the minds of Bach, Haydn and Beethoven: Classification and generation of composer-specific music

    OpenAIRE

    Herremans, Dorien; Martens, David; Sörensen, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a number of musical features are extracted from a large music database, which are consequently used to build three composer classification models. The first two models, an if-then ruleset and a decision tree, result in an understanding of the style differences between Bach, Haydn and Beethoven. The third model, a logistic regression model, gives the probability that a piece is composed by a certain composer. This model is integrated in the objective function of a previously deve...

  17. A novel silica alumina-based backfill material composed of coal refuse and fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Sun, Henghu

    2012-04-30

    In this paper, a systematic study was conducted to investigate a novel silica alumina-based backfill material composed of coal refuse and fly ash. The coal refuse and fly ash had different properties under various thermal activation temperatures (20 °C, 150 °C, 350 °C, 550 °C, 750 °C and 950 °C). It is known that a thermal activation temperature ranging from 20 °C to 950 °C significantly increases the flowability and pozzolanic properties of the coal refuse; however, the flowability of fly ash decreases when the activation temperature is higher than 550 °C because of a severe agglomeration phenomenon on its surface. An optimal design for this backfill material was determined to include an activated portion composed of 5% coal refuse at 750 °C and 15% fly ash at 20 °C. This combination yields the best performance with excellent flowability, a high compressive strength and a low bleeding rate. The microanalysis results corresponded well with the performance tests at different activation conditions. In the coal refuse, kaolinite peaks began to decrease because of their transformation into metakaolin at 550 °C. Chlorite peaks disappeared at 750 °C. Muscovite peaks decreased at 750 °C and disappeared at 950 °C. During this process, muscovite 2M(1) gradually dehydroxylated to muscovite HT. Furthermore, this paper examined the environmental acceptance and economic feasibility of this technology and found that this silica alumina-based backfill material composed of coal refuse and fly ash not only meets EPA requirements but also has several advantages in industry feasibility when compared with hydraulic backfill, rock backfill and paste backfill. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. An extracellular fungal polysaccharide composed of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucuronic acid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, P R; Sandford, P A; Burton, K A; Cadmus, M C; Jeanes, A

    1976-02-01

    The black yeast-like fungus NRRL YB-4163, now tentatively identified as Rhinocladiella elatior Mangenot, has been found to produce an extracellular microbial polysaccharide composed mainly of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucuronic acid residues. Polysaccharide (PS) YB-4163, when isolated in good yield as the neutral potassium salt, dissolves readily in water to produce extremely viscous solutions, which form stable foams and emulsions. By depolymerizing PS YB-4163 with [14C]methanol-HCl, the polysaccharide can be both identified and quantitated radiochemically by determining the individual [14C]methyl glycosides after their separation by paper chromatography. When the methyl glycosides of PS YB-4163 were reduced with NaB3H4, only the methyl glycosides of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-[6-3H]glucose were found. Analysis of the monosaccharide released from carboxyl-reduced PS YB-4163 by acid hydrolysis or methanolysis also showed 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucuronic acid to be the main constituent. Previously, the only polysaccharides known to be composed entirely or hexosaminuronic acid have been cellular products from pathogens. Of these, the antigenic polysaccharide (SPSA) from Staphylococcus aureus is composed entirely of 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucuronic acid, but its amino groups are substituted equally with acetyl and N-acetylalanyl groups. The specific optical rotation of PS YB-4163, [alpha]20D -75 degrees (c 0.5, water), is similar to that of SPSA (-91 degrees), and suggests beta-D-linkages that must be either (1 leads to 3) or (1 leads to 4).

  19. Interaction between Promoters Mn/Fe, Sulfate, and Zirconia in Accordingly Composed Alkane Isomerization Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Jentoft, F.; Hahn, A.; Wild, U.; Klose, B.; Jentoft, R.; Ressler, T.; Schlögl, R.; Häßner, C.; Köhler, K.

    2004-01-01

    Interaction between Promoters Mn/Fe, Sulfate, and Zirconia in Accordingly Composed Alkane Isomerization Catalysts F.C. Jentoft, A. Hahn, U. Wild, B.S. Klose, R.E. Jentoft, T. Ressler, R. Schlögl Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute, Max Planck Society, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin, Germany C. Häßner, K. Köhler Anorganisch-Chemisches Institut, Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstr. 4, 85747 Garching, Germany Introduction Promotion of sulfated zirconia (SZ) with man...

  20. Interaction between Promoters Mn/Fe, Sulfate, and Zirconia in Accordingly Composed Alkane Isomerization Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Jentoft, Friederike C.; Hahn, Alexander; Wild, Ute; Klose, Barbara S.; Jentoft, Rolf E.; Ressler, Thorsten; Schlögl, Robert; Häßner, Christian; Köhler, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    Interaction between Promoters Mn/Fe, Sulfate, and Zirconia in Accordingly Composed Alkane Isomerization Catalysts F.C. Jentoft, A. Hahn, U. Wild, B.S. Klose, R.E. Jentoft, T. Ressler, R. Schlögl Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute, Max Planck Society, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin, Germany C. Häßner, K. Köhler Anorganisch-Chemisches Institut, Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstr. 4, 85747 Garching, Germany Introduction Promotion of sulfated zi...

  1. Composing hope through collage: A community-based intervention for cancer survivors living with lymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roanne Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Secondary lymphedema after cancer may result in distress, yet few interventions exist to support coping skills in this population. As part of a community-based intervention, we piloted the use of creative practices to promote active orientations to hope. A total of 19 participants completed the workshops; 11 collaged. The main themes address the collage processes as well as their content. The former addresses sub-themes such as selecting/composing. The latter includes sub-themes related to movement depicted in the collages. Collages and their associated discussions concretized hoping as an active and accessible process for participants living with two chronic illnesses.

  2. Performers, Composers, Scores and Editions: Commentary on Huisman, Gingras, Dhondt, and Leman (2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorottya Fabian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on a study that examines the impact of various editions on the speed of learning and performance errors, this short paper notes the crudeness of western music notation and how musicians cope with deciphering the composer's musical intentions. Drawing on parallels with practitioners who specialize in historically informed performance and tend to favor playing from manuscripts and facsimiles, I argue that although performing editions are useful, proper education regarding the meaning of notation practices and compositional styles might better serve musicians. This enables each generation to construct its own understanding of the music, and of the contradictory and insufficiently specified demands of the score.

  3. Gestion thermique des composants d’électronique de puissance - Utilisation du diamant CVD

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhongda

    2012-01-01

    L’augmentation de la densité de puissance des convertisseurs d’énergie électrique nécessite une gestion thermique toujours plus performante. La thermique devient même l’élément dimensionnant de ces convertisseurs et est au centre des préoccupations des concepteurs. Le diamant présente des propriétés physico-chimiques exceptionnelles particulièrement adaptées à la gestion thermique des composants semi-conducteurs de l’électronique de puissance. C’est en effet le meilleur matériau isolant et co...

  4. Optimization of global model composed of radial basis functions using the term-ranking approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Peng; Tao, Chao, E-mail: taochao@nju.edu.cn; Liu, Xiao-Jun [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-03-15

    A term-ranking method is put forward to optimize the global model composed of radial basis functions to improve the predictability of the model. The effectiveness of the proposed method is examined by numerical simulation and experimental data. Numerical simulations indicate that this method can significantly lengthen the prediction time and decrease the Bayesian information criterion of the model. The application to real voice signal shows that the optimized global model can capture more predictable component in chaos-like voice data and simultaneously reduce the predictable component (periodic pitch) in the residual signal.

  5. Hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance of a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Na; Li, Hongxu [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Rare and Precious Metals Green Recycling and Extraction, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao, Yazhao [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Xiaoming, E-mail: liuxm@ustb.edu.cn [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Rare and Precious Metals Green Recycling and Extraction, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-04-05

    Highlights: • Cementitious material was designed according to [SiO{sub 4}] polymerization degree of raw materials. • The cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag yields excellent physical and mechanical properties. • Amorphous C–A–S–H gel and rod-like ettringite are predominantly responsible for the strength development. • Leaching toxicity and radioactivity tests show the cementitious material is environmentally acceptable. - Abstract: Calcium silicate slag is an alkali leaching waste generated during the process of extracting Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} from high-alumina fly ash. In this research, a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was developed, and its mechanical and physical properties, hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance were investigated. The results show that an optimal design for the cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was determined by the specimen CFSC7 containing 30% calcium silicate slag, 5% high-alumina fly ash, 24% blast furnace slag, 35% clinker and 6% FGD gypsum. This blended system yields excellent physical and mechanical properties, confirming the usefulness of CFSC7. The hydration products of CFSC7 are mostly amorphous C–A–S–H gel, rod-like ettringite and hexagonal-sheet Ca(OH){sub 2} with small amount of zeolite-like minerals such as CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}·4H{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}·H{sub 2}O. As the predominant hydration products, rod-like ettringite and amorphous C–A–S–H gel play a positive role in promoting densification of the paste structure, resulting in strength development of CFSC7 in the early hydration process. The leaching toxicity and radioactivity tests results indicate that the developed cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag is environmentally acceptable. This study points out a promising direction for the proper utilization of calcium silicate slag in large quantities.

  6. Composer Recognition based on 2D-Filtered Piano-Rolls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velarde, Gissel; Weyde, Tillman; Cancino Chacón, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method for music classification based on the use of convolutional models on symbolic pitch-time representations (i.e. piano-rolls) which we apply to composer recognition. An excerpt of a piece to be classified is first sampled to a 2D pitch-time representation which is then subjected......, transposition and amount of information. On discriminating between Haydn and Mozart string quartet movements, our best classifier reaches state-of-the-art performance in leave-one-out cross validation....

  7. Conflict-induced Migration of Composers: An Individual-level Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan

    2013-01-01

    Research on the causes of conflict-induced migration is hindered by the lack of adequately disaggregated data. The underlying study overcomes this problem by employment of historical data on 164 prominent classical composers born after 1800. We analyze the impact of war on the probability...... percent. The results imply that conflict impacts the migration intensity with a lag of approximately one year. Furthermore, the choice of a destination country is significantly affected by the incidence of war and less efficient from a career’s point of view during war. Finally, we find heterogeneous...

  8. DESAIN DAN IMPLEMENTASI SOFTWARE RINGTONE COMPOSER DAN RINGTONE CONVERTER PADA HANDPHONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Gunadi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ringtone Monophonic have a different form in writing, depends on kind or type of its mobile phone. For example for Siemens c1(1/16 d1(1/8 but for Nokia 16c1 8d1 so, to input the ringtones from Siemens mobile phone to Nokia mobile phone needs a converter. Deterministic Finite Automata (DFA from language and automata theory with logical method can be used to convert ringtone which DFA will be used to check the ringtone that had been entered (it can be compose by own or open it from a text file and logical method is used for changing pattern or writing ringtone between different kinds of mobile phone by changing and fiting the writing pattern of the tap, octave and source ringtone to be writing pattern of the tap, octave and target ringtone through the iteration process as much as the ringtone had been entered. Finally, this research software can be used to convert and compose the ringtone for four different types of mobile phone such as Ericsson, Nokia, Samsung and Siemens. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Ringtone monophonic mempunyai suatu pola atau bentuk penulisan yang berbeda antara jenis handphone yang satu dengan jenis handphone yang lainnya, sebagai contoh untuk Siemens c1(1/16 d1(1/8 sedangkan Nokia 16c1 8d1 sehingga untuk memasukkan ringtone jenis handphone Siemens ke jenis handphone Nokia diperlukan suatu konversi. Deterministic Finite Otomata (DFA dari teori bahasa dan otomata beserta metode logika dapat digunakan untuk melakukan konversi ringtone, dimana DFA digunakan untuk melakukan pemeriksaan terhadap ringtone yang diinputkan (dengan membuat ringtone sendiri (compose atau membuka ringtone dari text file dan metode logika digunakan untuk melakukan pengubahan pola atau penulisan ringtone dari jenis handphone yang satu ke jenis handphone lainnya dengan mengubah dan menyesuaikan pola penulisan ketukan, oktav dan nada ringtone sumber menjadi pola penulisan ketukan, oktav dan nada ringtone tujuan melalui proses iterasi sebanyak jumlah nada

  9. Efficient Authorization of Rich Presence Using Secure and Composed Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Chou, Wu

    This paper presents an extended Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) model for efficient authorization of rich presence using secure web services composed with an abstract presence data model. Following the information symmetry principle, the standard RBAC model is extended to support context sensitive social relations and cascaded authority. In conjunction with the extended RBAC model, we introduce an extensible presence architecture prototype using WS-Security and WS-Eventing to secure rich presence information exchanges based on PKI certificates. Applications and performance measurements of our presence system are presented to show that the proposed RBAC framework for presence and collaboration is well suited for real-time communication and collaboration.

  10. Modeling of river bed deformation composed of frozen sediments with increasing environmental temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Debolskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to investigation of the influence of river flow and of the temperature rise on the deformation of the coastal slopes composed of permafrost with the inclusion of ice layer. The method of investigation is the laboratory and mathematical modeling. The laboratory experiments have shown that an increase in water and air temperature changes in a laboratory analogue of permafrost causes deformation of the channel even without wave action, i.e. at steady-state flow and non-erosive water flow velocity. The previously developed model of the bed deformation was improved to account for long-term changes of soil structure with increasing temperature. The three-dimensional mathematical model of coastal slopes thermoerosion of the rivers flowing in permafrost regions, and its verification was based on the results of laboratory experiments conducted in the hydraulic tray. Analysis of the results of mathematical and laboratory modeling showed that bed deformation of the rivers flowing in the permafrost zone, significantly different from the deformation of channels composed of soils not susceptible to the influence of the phase transition «water-ice», and can occur even under the non-erosive velocity of the water flow.

  11. Magnetic properties of mosaic nanocomposites composed of nickel and cobalt nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo-Sepúlveda, S.; Corona, R.M. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Av. Ecuador 3493, 9170124 Santiago (Chile); Altbir, D. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Av. Ecuador 3493, 9170124 Santiago (Chile); Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA), 9170124 Santiago (Chile); Escrig, J., E-mail: juan.escrig@usach.cl [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Av. Ecuador 3493, 9170124 Santiago (Chile); Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA), 9170124 Santiago (Chile)

    2016-10-15

    Mosaic nanocomposites composed of nickel and cobalt nanowires arranged in different configurations were investigated using Monte Carlo simulations and a simple model that considers single-domain structures including length corrections due to the shape anisotropy. Our results showed that for an ordered array both the coercivity and the remanence decrease linearly as a function of the concentration of nickel nanowires. Besides, we obtained that the magnetic properties of an array of a certain hard magnetic material (cobalt) will not change, unless we have more than 50% of nanowires of other soft magnetic material (nickel) in the array. In principle the second material could be other soft magnetic material, but could also be a nonmagnetic material or could even be a situation in which some of the pore arrays were not filled by electrodeposition. Therefore, our results allow us to predict the behavior of magnetic mosaic nanocomposites that are promising candidates for functional electrodes, sensors, and model catalysts. - Highlights: • Mosaic nanocomposites composed of magnetic nanowires were investigated. • Magnetic properties can be adjusted by varying the concentration of nanowires. • Our results allow us to predict the behavior of magnetic mosaic nanocomposites.

  12. What to Ask Women Composers: Feminist Fieldwork in Electronic Dance Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Olszanowski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE This article reflects upon the research methods employed for microfemininewarfare (2012, an interactive database documentary that investigates female electronic dance music (EDM artists. The purpose of the documentary is to feature the contributions of women as composers, to show how they came to be composers and to reveal the tactics used to approach significant issues of gender in the male-dominated world of EDM. I highlight the theoretical and methodological processes that went into the making of this documentary, subtitled “exploring women’s space in electronic music”. By constructing “electronic music by women” as a category, two objectives are addressed: first, the visibility of women’s contribution to the musical tradition is heightened; and, second, it allows an exploration of the broadening of discourses about female subjectivity. This article showcases feminist research-creation and friendship-as-method as effective research methods to glean meaningful content when applied to EDM fieldwork.

  13. Prenatal listening to songs composed for pregnancy and symptoms of anxiety and depression: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwebube, Chineze; Glover, Vivette; Stewart, Lauren

    2017-05-08

    Prenatal anxiety and depression are distressing for the expectant mother and can have adverse effects on her fetus and subsequently, her child. This study aimed to determine whether listening to specially composed songs would be an effective intervention for reducing symptoms of prenatal anxiety and depression. Pregnant women were recruited online and randomly assigned to one of two groups: the music group (daily listening to specially composed songs) or control group (daily relaxation) for 12 weeks each. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess symptoms of State and Trait anxiety (Spielberger) and depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)). Trait anxiety was measured as the primary outcome, while State anxiety and depression were the secondary outcomes. 111 participants were randomised to each group. 20 participants in the intervention group and 16 participants in the active control group completed the study. The music group demonstrated lower Trait Anxiety (p = .0001) (effect size 0.80), State Anxiety (p = .02) (effect size 0.64), and EPDS (p = .002) (effect size 0.92) scores at week 12 compared to baseline, by paired t test. There were no such changes in the control group. Though this pilot study had high levels of attrition, the results do suggest that regular listening to relaxing music should be explored further as an effective non-pharmacological means for reducing prenatal anxiety and depression. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02776293 LV-001. Registered 17 May 2016. Retrospectively registered.

  14. Using Docker Compose for the Simple Deployment of an Integrated Drug Target Screening Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Markus

    2017-06-10

    Docker virtualization allows for software tools to be executed in an isolated and controlled environment referred to as a container. In Docker containers, dependencies are provided exactly as intended by the developer and, consequently, they simplify the distribution of scientific software and foster reproducible research. The Docker paradigm is that each container encapsulates one particular software tool. However, to analyze complex biomedical data sets, it is often necessary to combine several software tools into elaborate workflows. To address this challenge, several Docker containers need to be instantiated and properly integrated, which complicates the software deployment process unnecessarily. Here, we demonstrate how an extension to Docker, Docker compose, can be used to mitigate these problems by providing a unified setup routine that deploys several tools in an integrated fashion. We demonstrate the power of this approach by example of a Docker compose setup for a drug target screening platform consisting of five integrated web applications and shared infrastructure, deployable in just two lines of codes.

  15. Menstrual cycle phase alters women's sexual preferences for composers of more complex music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Benjamin D

    2014-06-07

    Over 140 years ago Charles Darwin first argued that birdsong and human music, having no clear survival benefit, were obvious candidates for sexual selection. Whereas the first contention is now universally accepted, his theory that music is a product of sexual selection through mate choice has largely been neglected. Here, I provide the first, to my knowledge, empirical support for the sexual selection hypothesis of music evolution by showing that women have sexual preferences during peak conception times for men that are able to create more complex music. Two-alternative forced-choice experiments revealed that woman only preferred composers of more complex music as short-term sexual partners when conception risk was highest. No preferences were displayed when women chose which composer they would prefer as a long-term partner in a committed relationship, and control experiments failed to reveal an effect of conception risk on women's preferences for visual artists. These results suggest that women may acquire genetic benefits for offspring by selecting musicians able to create more complex music as sexual partners, and provide compelling support for Darwin's assertion 'that musical notes and rhythm were first acquired by the male or female progenitors of mankind for the sake of charming the opposite sex'.

  16. Direct fabrication of hybrid nanofibres composed of SiO2-PMMA nanospheres via electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Shang, Tinghua; Yang, Guang; Jia, Xiaolong; Cai, Qing; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-08-01

    The direct fabrication of hybrid nanofibres composed of poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted SiO2 (SiO2-PMMA) nanospheres via electrospinning was investigated in detail. SiO2-PMMA nanospheres were successfully prepared, with the SiO2 nanospheres synthesized via the Stober method, followed by in situ surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA). Electrospinning was carried out with N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as the solvent to disperse SiO2-PMMA nanospheres. The size of the SiO2 core, the molecular weight of the PMMA shell and the concentration of the SiO2-PMMA/DMF solution all had substantial effects on the morphology and structure of electrospun nanofibres composed of SiO2-PMMA nanospheres. When these determining factors were well-tailored, it was found that one-dimensional necklace-like nanofibres were obtained, with SiO2-PMMA nanospheres aligned one by one along the fibre. The successful fabrication of nanofibres by directly electrospinning the SiO2-PMMA/DMF solution verified that polymer-grafted particles possess polymer-like characteristics, which endowed them with the ability to be processed into desirable shapes and structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A total variation-based approach for composing better pictures in multiple description coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuyuan; Zeng, Bing

    2010-07-01

    One of the important issues in multiple description coding (MDC) for image and video signals is to compose pictures of the "best" quality when more than one description is received at the decoder side. To this goal, a transform-domain overlapping technique combined with some necessary translations in the transform domain is proposed in the popular MDC schemes with staggered quantizers. However, the achievable gain is rather limited. In this paper, we formulate this enhancement problem as a total variation (TV) regularized optimization constrained by the knowledge of the quantization intervals of the DCT coefficients of each composed picture. In this TV-based approach, the transformdomain overlapping technique is used to find the more accurate quantization intervals in which the true DCT coefficients will fall while receiving more than one description. Simulation results demonstrate that such a TV-based enhancement yields a higher quality gain in both objective (e.g. PSNR-based) and subjective (i.e. visual perception) evaluations than using the transform-domain overlapping technique.

  18. Polyelectroylte complex composed of chitosan and sodium alginate for wound dressing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H J; Lee, H C; Oh, J S; Shin, B A; Oh, C S; Park, R D; Yang, K S; Cho, C S

    1999-01-01

    Drug-impregnated polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) sponge composed of chitosan and sodium alginate was prepared for wound dressing application. The morphological structure of this wound dressing was observed to be composed of a dense skin outer layer and a porous cross-section layer by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Equilibrium water content and release of silver sulfadiazine (AgSD) could be controlled by the number of repeated in situ PEC reactions between chitosan and sodium alginate. The release of AgSD from AgSD-impregnated PEC wound dressing in PBS buffer (PH = 7.4) was dependent on the number of repeated in situ complex formations for the wound dressing. The antibacterial capacity of AgSD-impregnated wound dressing was examined in agar plate against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. From the behavior of antimicrobial release and the suppression of bacterial proliferation, it is thought that the PEC wound dressing containing antimicrobial agents could protect the wound surfaces from bacterial invasion and effectively suppress bacterial proliferation. In the cytotoxicity test, cellular damage was reduced by the controlled released of AgSD from the sponge matrix of AgSD-medicated wound dressing. In vivo tests showed that granulation tissue formation and wound contraction for the AgSD plus dihydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) impregnated PEC wound dressing were faster than any other groups.

  19. In vitro evaluation of tissue adhesives composed of hydrophobically modified gelatins and disuccinimidyl tartrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyuki Matsuda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the hydrophobic group content in gelatin on the bonding strength of novel tissue–penetrating tissue adhesives was evaluated. The hydrophobic groups introduced into gelatin were the saturated hexanoyl, palmitoyl, and stearoyl groups, and the unsaturated oleoyl group. A collagen casing was employed as an adherend to model soft tissue for the in vitro determination of bonding strength of tissue adhesives composed of various hydrophobically modified gelatins and disuccinimidyl tartrate. The adhesive composed of stearoyl-modified gelatin (7.4% stearoyl; 10Ste and disuccinimidyl tartrate showed the highest bonding strength. The bonding strength of the adhesives decreased as the degree of substitution of the hydrophobic groups increased. Cell culture experiments demonstrated that fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled 10Ste was integrated onto the surface of smooth muscle cells and showed no cytotoxicity. These results suggest that 10Ste interacted with the hydrophobic domains of collagen casings, such as hydrophobic amino acid residues and cell membranes. Therefore, 10Ste–disuccinimidyl tartrate is a promising adhesive for use in aortic dissection.

  20. How Music Technology Can Make Sound and Music Worlds Accessible to Student Composers in Further Education Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, Leah

    2012-01-01

    I am a composer, producer, pianist and part-time music lecturer at a Further Education college where I teach composing on Music Technology courses at levels 3 (equivalent to A-level) and 4 (Undergraduate/Foundation Degree). A "Music Technology" course, distinct from a "Music" course, often attracts applicants from diverse musical backgrounds; it…

  1. The AppComposer Web application for school teachers: A platform for translating and adapting educational web applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Gil, Luis; Orduna, Pablo; Bollen, Lars; Govaerts, Sten; Holzer, Adrian; Gillet, Dennis; Lopez-de-Ipina, Diego; Garcia-Zubia, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Developing educational apps that cover a wide range of learning contexts and languages is a challenging task. In this paper, we introduce the AppComposer Web app to address this issue. The AppComposer aims at empowering teachers to easily translate and adapt existing apps that fit their educational

  2. Electric Characteristics of Hybrid Polymer Membranes Composed of Two Lipid Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oohira, Koji; Toko, Kiyoshi; Akiyama, Hideyuki; Yoshihara, Hiroshi; Yamafuji, Kaoru

    1995-09-01

    Electric characteristics of hybrid polymer membranes composed of two lipid species were studied, where one lipid species is positively charged in aqueous solution and the other is negatively charged. As a result, it was found that the hybrid membranes responded to taste substances in different ways according to the molar mixing ratio of these two kinds of lipids, and also showed different response characteristics from those of the single-lipid membranes. The membranes with the mixing ratio around 50% exhibited the largest responses to HCl (sourness) and monosodium glutamate (umami). Moreover, good quantitative agreements with the observed data on the response electric potential were obtained using a theory describing both the changes in surface electric potential and surface charge density with taste substances.

  3. Composing difference: The idea of ‘society’ in the teaching of musical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Guanti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aspiration to a universal art, especially to a universal music, is problematic in so far as both are viewed as oases of protection and conservation of quintessential cultural singularities. The cosmopolitan universalism of the Enlightenment, first, and subsequently the exacerbated nationalisms of the 19th century, have deeply affected European culture, down to specific aspects of music education. Undoubtedly, today it would be impossible to teach students to compose in the German, French or Italian style, although it still made sense until the end of World War II. What can, and should, be done instead, is to extrapolate and highlight the salient features of "European musical knowledge”. This knowledge was, and remains, coherent and uniform in its basic linguistic structures, despite any forced emphasis placed on internal differentiations and local articulations.

  4. Chemically deposited nano grain composed MoS(2) thin films for supercapacitor application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, R B; Lokhande, A C; Shelke, A R; Kim, J H; Lokhande, C D

    2017-06-15

    Low temperature soft chemical synthesis approach is employed towards MoS2 thin film preparation on cost effective stainless steel substrate. 3-D semispherical nano-grain composed surface texture of MoS2 film is observed through FE-SEM technique. Electrochemical supercapacitor performance of MoS2 film is tested from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge discharge (GCD) techniques in 1M aqueous Na2SO4 electrolyte. Specific capacitance (Cs) of 180Fg-1 with CV cycling stability of 82% for 1000 cycles is achieved. Equivalent series resistance (Rs) of 1.78Ωcm-2 observed through Nyquist plot shows usefulness of MoS2 thin film for charge conduction in supercapacitor application. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Novel cell penetrating peptides with multiple motifs composed of RGD and its analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarieh, Amir Abbas; Kim, Semi; Lee, Yunhee; Chung, Bong Hyun; Lee, Myung Kyu

    2013-03-08

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been used to transport macromolecules into cells. Most CPPs have properties such as a strong polycationic charge, amphipathic basic, and hydrophobicity. In this study, we designed the peptides with multiple motifs composed of RGD and its analogs to induce integrin-mediated endocytosis as well as endosomal escape by forming an amphipathic helix in acidic endosomes. These peptides were proved less toxic to animal cells than those without acidic residues. Unexpectedly, peptide conjugated liposomes could penetrate into cells regardless of integrins. The replacement of all aspartic acids by glutamic acids did not prevent the peptide-mediated liposome uptake, and the higher basic and leucine contents enhanced the gene silencing activity of siRNA encapsulated in the liposomes. The peptide is considered to be a new type of CPP which can be used for drug delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. In-depth calibration of a Laue lens prototype composed of Fe and Al mosaic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Colin; Barrière, Nicolas; Tomsick, John A.; Hanlon, Lorraine; Boggs, Steven E.; Brejnholt, Nicolai F.; Massahi, Sonny; Von Ballmoos, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The Laue lens is a developing technology for focusing soft gamma-rays, that is based on the principle of Bragg diffraction. A suitable arrangement of diffracting crystals is used to concentrate a set of parallel incoming photons onto a common focal spot. In late 2014, the Laue lens assembly station (LLAS) at UC Berkeley was used to construct a prototype lens segment, consisting of 48 5 x 5mm2 crystals - 36 iron and 12 aluminium. The segment is composed of 8 partial rings, each of which is aligned to diffract an energy between 90 and 130 keV. In December 2015 the prototype was tested and calibrated using the LLAS and results are presented here. The crystal mounting speed, accuracy of crystal position and orientation, and crystal reflectivity are addressed.

  7. Magnetically induced transparency of a quantum metamaterial composed of twin flux qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulga, K V; Il'ichev, E; Fistul, M V; Besedin, I S; Butz, S; Astafiev, O V; Hübner, U; Ustinov, A V

    2018-01-11

    Quantum theory is expected to govern the electromagnetic properties of a quantum metamaterial, an artificially fabricated medium composed of many quantum objects acting as artificial atoms. Propagation of electromagnetic waves through such a medium is accompanied by excitations of intrinsic quantum transitions within individual meta-atoms and modes corresponding to the interactions between them. Here we demonstrate an experiment in which an array of double-loop type superconducting flux qubits is embedded into a microwave transmission line. We observe that in a broad frequency range the transmission coefficient through the metamaterial periodically depends on externally applied magnetic field. Field-controlled switching of the ground state of the meta-atoms induces a large suppression of the transmission. Moreover, the excitation of meta-atoms in the array leads to a large resonant enhancement of the transmission. We anticipate possible applications of the observed frequency-tunable transparency in superconducting quantum networks.

  8. Analisi basata sugli sforzi locali della resistenza a fatica di giunzioni incollate di materiali compositi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Moroni

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Il lavoro prende spunto dai risultati di un’analisi sperimentale del comportamento a fatica di giunzioni incollate di materiali compositi laminati di elevato spessore formati da strati di unidirezionale e di tessuto di fibra di carbonio. I giunti sono stati realizzati in modo tale da saggiare l’influenza della lunghezza di sovrapposizione (da 25,4 mm a 110,8 mm, della forma del giunto (con e senza rastremazione, e della composizione degli aderendi (sostituzione di uno degli aderendi in composito con uno in acciaio. Mediante analisi 2D elastiche con il metodo degli elementi finiti sono state ricavate le distribuzioni degli sforzi all’interno dello strato di adesivo, al fine di individuare un parametro utile alla descrizione del comportamento a fatica in termini di sforzi locali - numero di cicli a rottura. Il ruolo della fase di propagazione viene discusso alla luce di osservazioni dell’avanzamento della frattura, condotta su alcuni dei giunti testati.

  9. Analisi dell’anisotropia microstrutturale in materiali compositi rinforzati con fibre corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dreossi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La microtomografia con luce di sincrotrone si è rivelata una tecnica particolarmente efficace per l’analisi della struttura risultante dalla distribuzione degli orientamenti assunti dalle fibre di rinforzo di compositi rinforzati con fibre di vetro. La ricostruzione dell'immagine tridimensionale ha consentito la visualizzazionedella distribuzione spaziale delle fibre all'interno della matrice polimerica anche nel caso di fibre di piccole dimensioni (diametro medio di 10 micrometri. E' stato quindi possibile misurare le differenze nell'orientamento delle fibre nei differenti strati di un campione utilizzando metodi basati sulla valutazione del Mean Intercept Length (MIL e del fabric tensor. La tecnica descritta è stata applicata a un campione di poliammide 6 rinforzato con il 30% di fibre corte di vetro ricavato da lastra.

  10. On Languages Accepted by P/T Systems Composed of joins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Frisco

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, some studies linked the computational power of abstract computing systems based on multiset rewriting to models of Petri nets and the computation power of these nets to their topology. In turn, the computational power of these abstract computing devices can be understood by just looking at their topology, that is, information flow. Here we continue this line of research introducing J languages and proving that they can be accepted by place/transition systems whose underlying net is composed only of joins. Moreover, we investigate how J languages relate to other families of formal languages. In particular, we show that every J language can be accepted by a log n space-bounded non-deterministic Turing machine with a one-way read-only input. We also show that every J language has a semilinear Parikh map and that J languages and context-free languages (CFLs are incomparable.

  11. A novel floating simulation topology composed of only grounded passive components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce, Erkan

    2010-03-01

    In this article, a novel simulator circuit using two differential voltage current conveyors (DVCCs) and three grounded passive components is suggested. Depending on the passive component selection, the developed topology can realise synthetic floating inductors, floating capacitors and floating frequency dependent negative resistors. It does not suffer from passive component matching constraints. As an application example of the proposed simulation circuit, a voltage-mode multifunction filter for simultaneously providing low-pass, band-pass, high-pass and notch responses from the same structure is given. The suggested filter example is composed of only grounded passive components without requiring critical matching conditions, which is suitable for integration. Further, signal limitations of the simulator circuits are discussed. In order to show the performance of the introduced circuit and verify the claimed ideas, we perform simulations using SPICE.

  12. An exploding N-isocyanide reagent formally composed of anthracene, dinitrogen and a carbon atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joost, Maximilian; Nava, Matthew; Transue, Wesley J; Cummins, Christopher C

    2017-10-17

    Targeted as an example of a compound composed of a carbon atom together with two stable neutral leaving groups, 7-isocyano-7-azadibenzonorbornadiene, CN2A (1, A = C14H10 or anthracene) has been synthesized and spectroscopically and structurally characterized. The terminal C atom of 1 can be transferred: mesityl nitrile oxide reacts with 1 to produce carbon monoxide, likely via intermediacy of the N-isocyanate OCN2A. Reaction of 1 with [RuCl2(CO)(PCy3)2] leads to [RuCl2(CO)(1)(PCy3)2] which decomposes unselectively: in the product mixture, the carbide complex [RuCl2(C)(PCy3)2] was detected. Upon heating in the solid state or in solution, 1 decomposes to A, N2 and cyanogen (C2N2) as substantiated using molecular beam mass spectrometry, IR and NMR spectroscopy techniques.

  13. Strain-Biased PLZT Input Devices (Page Composers) for Holographic Memories and Optical Data Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, H N

    1972-02-01

    PLZT-7/65/35 is a ferroelectric ceramic with strong electrooptic properties and memory; it is switched through transparent electrodes when mechanically strained. Matrix addressed x-y page composers for interfacing electrical and coherent optical systems are being fabricated with PLZT. Switching voltages are 50-300 V. Optical efficiencies greater than 40% have been achieved. Strains near 2.4 x 10(-3) mm/mm permit half-wave retardation switching in 100-micro-thick plates with 80-V read-in and 190-V erase levels (60 Hz hysteresis data). A 128 x 128 element array can operate at 10(7) bits/sec with 10-microsec switching in a row at a time mode. Half-select disturbances affect contrasts. Applications in displays are also feasible.

  14. New Electromagnetic Absorbers Composed of Left-handed and Right-handed Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Weihai; Xu, Shanjia

    2008-08-01

    New double-layered electromagnetic absorbers are presented in this paper. The new absorbers composed of one lossy left-handed material absorbing layer and one impedance matching layer consisted of lossless right-handed material. It is indicated that the reflection loss of below -20dB can be obtained in the frequency range 7GHz 13GHz. Power attenuation achieving -50dB of narrow frequency band electromagnetic absorbers can also be obtained by modulate permittivity of right-handed material. Furthermore, the thickness of the whole absorbing structure is only 2mm, which is particularly helpful in some practical applications. The presented results are of reference significance for accurate design of the new electromagnetic absorbers and of practical prospects for stealth technology.

  15. Broadband acoustic energy confinement in hierarchical sonic crystals composed of rotated square inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakouri, Amir; Xu, Feifei; Fan, Zheng

    2017-07-01

    The propagation of acoustic waves in hierarchical sonic crystals is studied computationally and experimentally. These sonic crystals are composed of a hierarchical order of square inclusions rotated 45° with respect to the square lattice structure. It is shown that these hierarchical sonic crystals are capable of confining acoustic energy over a broad frequency range and at multiple lattice points inside the sonic crystal based on Bragg's scattering effect. Fused deposition modeling additive manufacturing is applied to prepare a finite-sized sample of the hierarchical sonic crystal. Acoustic measurements are conducted on the hierarchical sonic crystal sample in a direct and closely plane-wave field inside an anechoic room. The experimental measurements are in good agreement with the band structure calculated using the finite element method. Potential applications of the hierarchical sonic crystals for acoustic energy harvesting and noise measurements are discussed.

  16. [Fuzzy mathematic quantitative law of composing principle in the study of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Gao, Yue; Xiao, Rui; Zhang, Bo-li

    2009-01-01

    This study is to analyze microcosmic significance of Chinese medicine composing principle "principal, assistant, complement and mediating guide" and it's fuzzy mathematic quantitative law. According to molecular biology and maximal membership principle, fuzzy subset and membership functions were proposed. Using in vivo experiment on the effects of SiWu Decoction and its ingredients on mice with radiation-induced blood deficiency, it is concluded that DiHuang and DangGui belonged to the principal and assistant subset, BaiShao belonged to the contrary complement subset, ChuanXiong belonged to the mediating guide subset by maximal membership principle. It is discussed that traditional Chinese medicine will be consummate medical science when its theory can be described by mathematic language.

  17. JOHN MILTON’S INFLUENCE ON POETS, WRITERS AND COMPOSERS OF HIS PERIOD AND AFTERMATH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Recep TAŞ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available John Milton is doubtless one of the most important and influential poets in English Language and Literature. He has always been a major influence in literature both during his lifetime and after his death. His reputation among the readers and the poets is a known fact since it has been proven that several writers and poets frequently wrote under the influence of this great epic poet. Milton was an artist who had written about various subjects, he was both a poet and a renowned prose writer. As he had something to say about every field of life his admirers and followers were not necessarily from just one category. Many people, including politicians, poets, writers, composers found something valuable in Milton and his works. The purpose of this article is to reevaluate Milton’s controversial works and lay down the influence of Milton on the mentioned figures of the period and aftermath.

  18. Exploring the Multi-Layered Affordances of Composing and Performing Interactive Music with Responsive Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, Anna; Ziemke, Tom

    2017-01-01

    The question motivating the work presented here, starting from a view of music as embodied and situated activity, is how can we account for the complexity of interactive music performance situations. These are situations in which human performers interact with responsive technologies, such as sensor-driven technology or sound synthesis affected by analysis of the performed sound signal. This requires investigating in detail the underlying mechanisms, but also providing a more holistic approach that does not lose track of the complex whole constituted by the interactions and relationships of composers, performers, audience, technologies, etc. The concept of affordances has frequently been invoked in musical research, which has seen a "bodily turn" in recent years, similar to the development of the embodied cognition approach in the cognitive sciences. We therefore begin by broadly delineating its usage in the cognitive sciences in general, and in music research in particular. We argue that what is still missing in the discourse on musical affordances is an encompassing theoretical framework incorporating the sociocultural dimensions that are fundamental to the situatedness and embodiment of interactive music performance and composition. We further argue that the cultural affordances framework, proposed by Rietveld and Kiverstein (2014) and recently articulated further by Ramstead et al. (2016) in this journal, although not previously applied to music, constitutes a promising starting point. It captures and elucidates this complex web of relationships in terms of shared landscapes and individual fields of affordances. We illustrate this with examples foremost from the first author's artistic work as composer and performer of interactive music. This sheds new light on musical composition as a process of construction-and embodied mental simulation-of situations, guiding the performers' and audience's attention in shifting fields of affordances. More generally, we

  19. Delineation of an Optimal Location for Oil Sand Exploration through Transition Probabilities of Composing Lithology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, M.; Jeong, J.; Park, E.; Han, W. S.; Kim, K. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Three-dimensional geostatistical studies of delineating an optimal exploitation location for oil sand in McMurray Formation, Athabasca, Canada were carried out. The area is mainly composed of unconsolidated to semi-consolidated sand where breccia, mud, clay, etc. are associated as alternating layers. For the prediction of the optimal location of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) technique, the conventional approach of cumulating the predicted thickness of the media with higher bitumen bearing possibility (i.e. Breccia and Sand) was pursued. As an alternative measure, mean vertical extension of the permeable media was also assessed based on vertical transition rate of each media and the corresponding optimal location was decided. For the both predictions, 110 borehole data acquired from the study area were analyzed under Markovian transition probability (TP) framework and three-dimensional distributions of the composing media were predicted stochastically through an existing TP based geostatistical model. The effectiveness of the two competing measures (cumulative thickness and mean vertical extension) for SAGD applications was verified through two-dimensional dual-phase flow simulations where high temperature steam was injected in the delineated reservoirs, and the size of steam chamber was compared. The results of the two-dimensional SAGD simulation has shown that the geologic formation containing the highest mean vertical extension of permeable media is more suitable for the development of the oil sand by developing larger size of steam chamber compared to that from the highest cumulative thickness. Given those two-dimensional results, the cumulative thickness alone may not be a sufficient criterion for an optimal SAGD site and the mean vertical extension of the permeable media needs to be jointly considered for the sound selections.

  20. Generation of a patterned co-culture system composed of adherent cells and immobilized nonadherent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazoe, Hironori; Ichikawa, Takashi; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Iwasaki, Yasuhiko

    2016-02-01

    Patterned co-culture is a promising technique used for fundamental investigation of cell-cell communication and tissue engineering approaches. However, conventional methods are inapplicable to nonadherent cells. In this study, we aimed to establish a patterned co-culture system composed of adherent and nonadherent cells. Nonadherent cells were immobilized on a substrate using a cell membrane anchoring reagent conjugated to a protein, in order to incorporate them into the co-culture system. Cross-linked albumin film, which has unique surface properties capable of regulating protein adsorption, was used to control their spatial localization. The utility of our approach was demonstrated through the fabrication of a patterned co-culture consisting of micropatterned neuroblastoma cells surrounded by immobilized myeloid cells. Furthermore, we also created a co-culture system composed of cancer cells and immobilized monocytes. We observed that monocytes enhanced the drug sensitivity of cancer cells and its influence was limited to cancer cells located near the monocytes. Therefore, the incorporation of nonadherent cells into a patterned co-culture system is useful for creating culture systems containing immune cells, as well as investigating the influence of these immune cells on cancer drug sensitivity. Various methods have been proposed for creating patterned co-culture systems, in which multiple cell types are attached to a substrate with a desired pattern. However, conventional methods, including our previous report published in Acta Biomaterialia (2010, 6, 526-533), are unsuitable for nonadherent cells. Here, we developed a novel method that incorporates nonadherent cells into the co-culture system, which allows us to precisely manipulate and study microenvironments containing nonadherent and adherent cells. Using this technique, we demonstrated that monocytes (nonadherent cells) could enhance the drug sensitivity of cancer cells and that their influence had a

  1. Experimental Evolution of a Green Fluorescent Protein Composed of 19 Unique Amino Acids without Tryptophan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara-Kobayashi, Akio; Hitotsuyanagi, Mitsuhiro; Amikura, Kazuaki; Kiga, Daisuke

    2014-04-01

    At some stage of evolution, genes of organisms may have encoded proteins that were synthesized using fewer than 20 unique amino acids. Similar to evolution of the natural 19-amino-acid proteins GroEL/ES, proteins composed of 19 unique amino acids would have been able to evolve by accumulating beneficial mutations within the 19-amino-acid repertoire encoded in an ancestral genetic code. Because Trp is thought to be the last amino acid included in the canonical 20-amino-acid repertoire, this late stage of protein evolution could be mimicked by experimental evolution of 19-amino-acid proteins without tryptophan (Trp). To further understand the evolution of proteins, we tried to mimic the evolution of a 19-amino-acid protein involving the accumulation of beneficial mutations using directed evolution by random mutagenesis on the whole targeted gene sequence. We created active 19-amino-acid green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) without Trp from a poorly fluorescent 19-amino-acid mutant, S1-W57F, by using directed evolution with two rounds of mutagenesis and selection. The N105I and S205T mutations showed beneficial effects on the S1-W57F mutant. When these two mutations were combined on S1-W57F, we observed an additive effect on the fluorescence intensity. In contrast, these mutations showed no clear improvement individually or in combination on GFPS1, which is the parental GFP mutant composed of 20 amino acids. Our results provide an additional example for the experimental evolution of 19-amino-acid proteins without Trp, and would help understand the mechanisms underlying the evolution of 19-amino-acid proteins. (236 words)

  2. Experimental evolution of a green fluorescent protein composed of 19 unique amino acids without tryptophan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara-Kobayashi, Akio; Hitotsuyanagi, Mitsuhiro; Amikura, Kazuaki; Kiga, Daisuke

    2014-04-01

    At some stage of evolution, genes of organisms may have encoded proteins that were synthesized using fewer than 20 unique amino acids. Similar to evolution of the natural 19-amino-acid proteins GroEL/ES, proteins composed of 19 unique amino acids would have been able to evolve by accumulating beneficial mutations within the 19-amino-acid repertoire encoded in an ancestral genetic code. Because Trp is thought to be the last amino acid included in the canonical 20-amino-acid repertoire, this late stage of protein evolution could be mimicked by experimental evolution of 19-amino-acid proteins without tryptophan (Trp). To further understand the evolution of proteins, we tried to mimic the evolution of a 19-amino-acid protein involving the accumulation of beneficial mutations using directed evolution by random mutagenesis on the whole targeted gene sequence. We created active 19-amino-acid green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) without Trp from a poorly fluorescent 19-amino-acid mutant, S1-W57F, by using directed evolution with two rounds of mutagenesis and selection. The N105I and S205T mutations showed beneficial effects on the S1-W57F mutant. When these two mutations were combined on S1-W57F, we observed an additive effect on the fluorescence intensity. In contrast, these mutations showed no clear improvement individually or in combination on GFPS1, which is the parental GFP mutant composed of 20 amino acids. Our results provide an additional example for the experimental evolution of 19-amino-acid proteins without Trp, and would help understand the mechanisms underlying the evolution of 19-amino-acid proteins. (236 words).

  3. Dragging of inertial frames in the composed black-hole–ring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar, E-mail: shaharhod@gmail.com [The Ruppin Academic Center, 40250, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, 91010, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2015-11-19

    A well-established phenomenon in general relativity is the dragging of inertial frames by a spinning object. In particular, due to the dragging of inertial frames by a ring orbiting a central black hole, the angular velocity Ω{sub H}{sup BH-ring} of the black-hole horizon in the composed black-hole–ring system is no longer related to the black-hole angular momentum J{sub H} by the simple Kerr-like (vacuum) relation Ω{sub H}{sup Kerr}(J{sub H})=J{sub H}/2M{sup 2}R{sub H} (here M and R{sub H} are the mass and horizon-radius of the black hole, respectively). Will has performed a perturbative treatment of the composed black-hole–ring system in the regime of slowly rotating black holes and found the explicit relation Ω{sub H}{sup BH-ring}(J{sub H}=0,J{sub R},R)=2J{sub R}/R{sup 3} for the angular velocity of a central black hole with zero angular momentum, where J{sub R} and R are respectively the angular momentum of the orbiting ring and its proper circumferential radius. Analyzing a sequence of black-hole–ring configurations with adiabatically varying (decreasing) circumferential radii, we show that the expression found by Will for Ω{sub H}{sup BH-ring}(J{sub H}=0,J{sub R},R) implies a smooth transition of the central black-hole angular velocity from its asymptotic near-horizon value Ω{sub H}{sup BH-ring}(J{sub H}=0,J{sub R},R→R{sub H}{sup +})→2J{sub R}/R{sub H}{sup 3} (that is, just before the assimilation of the ring by the central black hole), to its final Kerr (vacuum) value Ω{sub H}{sup Kerr}(J{sub H}{sup new})=J{sub H}{sup new}/2M{sup new2}R{sub H}{sup new} [that is, after the adiabatic assimilation of the ring by the central black hole. Here J{sub H}{sup new}=J{sub R}, M{sup new}, and R{sub H}{sup new} are the new parameters of the resulting Kerr (vacuum) black hole after it assimilated the orbiting ring]. We use this important observation in order to generalize the result of Will to the regime of black-hole–ring configurations in which the

  4. Dragging of inertial frames in the composed black-hole-ring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2015-11-15

    A well-established phenomenon in general relativity is the dragging of inertial frames by a spinning object. In particular, due to the dragging of inertial frames by a ring orbiting a central black hole, the angular velocity Ω{sub H}{sup BH-ring} of the black-hole horizon in the composed black-hole-ring system is no longer related to the black-hole angular momentum J{sub H} by the simple Kerr-like (vacuum) relation Ω{sub H}{sup Kerr}(J{sub H}) = J{sub H}/2M{sup 2}R{sub H} (here M and R{sub H} are the mass and horizon-radius of the black hole, respectively). Will has performed a perturbative treatment of the composed black-hole-ring system in the regime of slowly rotating black holes and found the explicit relation Ω{sub H}{sup BH-ring}(J{sub H} = 0, J{sub R}, R) = 2J{sub R}/R{sup 3} for the angular velocity of a central black hole with zero angular momentum, where J{sub R} and R are respectively the angular momentum of the orbiting ring and its proper circumferential radius. Analyzing a sequence of black-hole-ring configurations with adiabatically varying (decreasing) circumferential radii, we show that the expression found by Will for Ω{sub H}{sup BH-ring}(J{sub H} = 0, J{sub R}, R) implies a smooth transition of the central black-hole angular velocity from its asymptotic near-horizon value Ω{sub H}{sup BH-ring}(J{sub H} = 0, J{sub R}, R → R{sub H}{sup +}) → 2J{sub R}/R{sub H}{sup 3} (that is, just before the assimilation of the ring by the central black hole), to its final Kerr (vacuum) value Ω{sub H}{sup Kerr}(J{sub H}{sup new})= J{sub H}{sup new}/2M{sup new2}R{sub H}{sup new} [that is, after the adiabatic assimilation of the ring by the central black hole. Here J{sub H}{sup new} = J{sub R}, M{sup new}, and R{sub H}{sup new} are the new parameters of the resulting Kerr (vacuum) black hole after it assimilated the orbiting ring]. We use this important observation in order to generalize the result of Will to the regime of black-hole-ring configurations

  5. Moving-Map Composers System Version 3.4P Acceptance Test Procedures Developed for the Finnish Air Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trenchard, Michael

    2002-01-01

    ...) Moving-Map Composer (MMC) version 3.4 P software, developed for the Finnish Air Force (FAF). The ATP will be performed on a FAF-owned Digital Alpha computer, currently located at NRL, during the Test Readiness Review...

  6. GIS-Based Data Structure for Geological Mapping of Ceres — One Global Map Composed of 15 Map Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naß, A.; Dawn Mapping Team

    2017-06-01

    Deriving valid statements out of interpretative geological mapping is very time intensive. Another challenge is generating one map composed of several map sheets which presents a geologically-consistent and geometrical/visual comparable content.

  7. Compositional and structural characterization of monolayers and bilayers composed of native pulmonary surfactant from wild type mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernardino de la Serna, Jorge; Hansen, Soren; Berzina, Zane

    2013-01-01

    This work comprises a structural and dynamical study of monolayers and bilayers composed of native pulmonary surfactant from mice. Spatially resolved information was obtained using fluorescence (confocal, wide field and two photon excitation) and atomic force microscopy methods. Lipid mass...

  8. Exploring the Multi-Layered Affordances of Composing and Performing Interactive Music with Responsive Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Einarsson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The question motivating the work presented here, starting from a view of music as embodied and situated activity, is how can we account for the complexity of interactive music performance situations. These are situations in which human performers interact with responsive technologies, such as sensor-driven technology or sound synthesis affected by analysis of the performed sound signal. This requires investigating in detail the underlying mechanisms, but also providing a more holistic approach that does not lose track of the complex whole constituted by the interactions and relationships of composers, performers, audience, technologies, etc. The concept of affordances has frequently been invoked in musical research, which has seen a “bodily turn” in recent years, similar to the development of the embodied cognition approach in the cognitive sciences. We therefore begin by broadly delineating its usage in the cognitive sciences in general, and in music research in particular. We argue that what is still missing in the discourse on musical affordances is an encompassing theoretical framework incorporating the sociocultural dimensions that are fundamental to the situatedness and embodiment of interactive music performance and composition. We further argue that the cultural affordances framework, proposed by Rietveld and Kiverstein (2014 and recently articulated further by Ramstead et al. (2016 in this journal, although not previously applied to music, constitutes a promising starting point. It captures and elucidates this complex web of relationships in terms of shared landscapes and individual fields of affordances. We illustrate this with examples foremost from the first author's artistic work as composer and performer of interactive music. This sheds new light on musical composition as a process of construction—and embodied mental simulation—of situations, guiding the performers' and audience's attention in shifting fields of affordances

  9. Exploring the Multi-Layered Affordances of Composing and Performing Interactive Music with Responsive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, Anna; Ziemke, Tom

    2017-01-01

    The question motivating the work presented here, starting from a view of music as embodied and situated activity, is how can we account for the complexity of interactive music performance situations. These are situations in which human performers interact with responsive technologies, such as sensor-driven technology or sound synthesis affected by analysis of the performed sound signal. This requires investigating in detail the underlying mechanisms, but also providing a more holistic approach that does not lose track of the complex whole constituted by the interactions and relationships of composers, performers, audience, technologies, etc. The concept of affordances has frequently been invoked in musical research, which has seen a “bodily turn” in recent years, similar to the development of the embodied cognition approach in the cognitive sciences. We therefore begin by broadly delineating its usage in the cognitive sciences in general, and in music research in particular. We argue that what is still missing in the discourse on musical affordances is an encompassing theoretical framework incorporating the sociocultural dimensions that are fundamental to the situatedness and embodiment of interactive music performance and composition. We further argue that the cultural affordances framework, proposed by Rietveld and Kiverstein (2014) and recently articulated further by Ramstead et al. (2016) in this journal, although not previously applied to music, constitutes a promising starting point. It captures and elucidates this complex web of relationships in terms of shared landscapes and individual fields of affordances. We illustrate this with examples foremost from the first author's artistic work as composer and performer of interactive music. This sheds new light on musical composition as a process of construction—and embodied mental simulation—of situations, guiding the performers' and audience's attention in shifting fields of affordances. More generally

  10. Microstructure observations on butt joint composed of Nb3Sn CIC conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana, Tetsuhiro; Tokitani, Masayuki; Takahata, Kazuya; Kizu, Kaname; Murakami, Haruyuki

    2017-01-01

    To precisely evaluate a butt joint technology for the JT-60SA CS coils, microstructure observations on the butt joint composed of Nb3Sn CIC conductors were conducted using a FE-SEM. As a sample for the observations, the butt joint sample utilized in the joint resistance measurement was used. During the sample fabrication, the butt joint sample was heated up to about 920 K from room temperature for diffusion bonding after heat treatment for Nb3Sn production. Then, the sample was subjected to the cycles of electromagnetic force in the joint measurement. The observation results indicated that Nb3Sn strands and a copper sheet were butted properly at the interface of the butt joint. In addition, there were hairline cracks in the Nb3Sn layers of the strands near the interface. To investigate a cause of the crack initiation, the stresses generated in the butt joint under same conditions were analyzed using a simple model. As a result, the cracks would occur with an axial compressive stress generated by the butt joint fabrication.

  11. Dictionary of Regional Vocabulary and Informal Toponymes of Novosibirsk: Principles of Arrangement and Stages of Composing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Vladimirovna Livinskaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at presenting scientific experience of the author in composing a "Dictionary of the regional vocabulary and informal toponymes of Novosibirsk" with an anthropocentrically based lexicographical approach (offered in the works by V.V . Morkovkin as a model "from dictionary to a person" viewed as the way to overcome key challenges in building a dictionary of regional vocabulary, that is subjectivity of the authors in formation of the glossary. The four stages of the dictionary creation are characterised: 1 collecting regionally limited words in the Internet (Online Dictionary "Languages of Russian cities", forums; 2 making a survey of residents from other cities to discover regional status of the tentative entries; 3organizing a survey of Novosibirsk residents with the aim to state regional status of the words and present their meaning; 4 database analysis (about 800 units of the regionalism and informal toponymes that helped to verify the regionally limited status of the words and present contexts of their usage. The novelty of the dictionary consists in its content structure: regional vocabulary is presented as regional words (regionalism and informal toponyms. The word entries are presented in two parts – "Regional words" and "Falk toponyms". The author gives samples of the dictionary entries that illustrate the way information is presented in every part.

  12. Preliminary Research on Damping Material Composed of Flexible Porous Material and Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Beomsuk; Okuma, Masaaki; Segawa, Shuhei

    This paper presents a new type of damping material composed of flexible porous material such as polyurethane foam and liquid such as water. This new type of damping material costs less than viscoelastic materials such as Sorbothane, and is anticipated to have a better damping effect. At the same time, installation of the new type of damping material is as easy as that of usual viscoelastic materials. The damping effect of this material on the vibration of a cantilever iron plate is experimentally compared with the one of a viscoelastic material. The damping effect on a rail piece with a length of 1.2m and a weight of 72kg is also experimentally investigated. The experimental results show a good damping effect. The design variables of this new damping material such as the liquid viscosity and the hardness of the porous material are thought to influence the damping effect, consequently are investigated by carrying out vibration testing of a cantilever iron plate (material:SS400, size:300×440×5mm, weight:5.2kg).

  13. Hydrogen template assisted electrodeposition of sub-micrometer wires composing honeycomb-like porous Pb films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherevko, Serhiy; Xing, Xiaoli; Chung, Chan-Hwa

    2011-07-01

    High surface area porous Pb films are electrodeposited using a hydrogen bubble dynamic template. The influence of the experimental parameters on the morphology features such as the pore size, wall thickness, and sub-micrometer size features is investigated. Two structural transformations between sub-micrometer wires and particles obtained by adjusting the HClO4 concentration are observed. At a low HClO4 concentration, the growth of sub-micrometer wires is favored. The deposition of particles or wires covered by particles is observed at higher H+ concentrations. The addition of sodium citrate as an additive facilitates the preservation of Pb in the form of wires. Adjusting the concentration of Pb(ClO4)2·3H2O influences the mass transfer of Pb and affects its morphology. At low concentrations, the deposition of porous Pb films composed of porous wires is shown. The additional deposition of particles on wires is observed at high concentrations. The formation process of honeycomb-like porous structures is revealed by analysis of films deposited during different deposition time. The influence of the current density on the micro and sub-micrometer scale morphologies is presented.

  14. Two-dimensional arbitrarily shaped acoustic cloaks composed of homogeneous parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Vipperman, Jeffrey S.

    2017-10-01

    Acoustic cloaking is an important application of acoustic metamaterials. Although the topic has received much attention, there are a number of areas where contributions are needed. In this paper, a design method for producing acoustic cloaks with arbitrary shapes that are composed of homogeneous parts is presented. The cloak is divided into sections, each of which, in turn, is further divided into two parts, followed by the application of transformation acoustics to derive the required properties for cloaking. With the proposed mapping relations, the properties of each part of the cloak are anisotropic but homogeneous, which can be realized using two alternating layers of homogeneous and isotropic materials. A hexagonal and an irregular cloak are presented as design examples. The full wave simulations using COMSOL Multiphysics finite element software show that the cloaks function well at reducing reflections and shadows. The variation of the cloak properties is investigated as a function of three important geometric parameters used in the transformations. A balance can be found between cloaking performance and materials properties that are physically realizable.

  15. Effects of combined gas composing of ozone and sulfur dioxide on trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouchi, I.; Ohashi, T.; Sawada, T.; Odaira, T.; Hikima, M.; Iwanami, M.

    1974-03-01

    Potted plants 2-3 yrs old were exposed respectively to 15 pphm of ozone, to 45 and 75 pphm of sulfur dioxide, and to a combined gas composed of 16 pphm of ozone and 18 pphm of SO/sub 2/ in an artificially weather controlled room. The damage from ozone consisted mainly of small spots on the surface of grown leaves. The damage appeared earliest on Caroline poplar (9 hr exposure), then on cherry, platanus, and Cersis (18 hr), and did not appear on Acer buergeriana, Quercus myrsinaefolia, Pinus thunbergii and Ginko biloba (60 hr). The symptoms of SO/sub 2/ damage consisted of large necrotic spots between the veins and periphery of grown leaves and of reddish brown spots on grown leaves appearing 6-12 and 12-18 hr after exposure to 75 and 45 pphm, respectively. The damage appeared on all the trees except Acer buergeriana. After exposing trees to the combined gas for 4 days the damage appeared first on Salix babylonica, then on Calorine poplar, followed by platanus, and by cherry (Prunus yedoensis). Damages appeared after 24 hr of 4 days exposure on Pinus thunbergii. The appearance of damage is accelerated by coexposure to ozone and SO/sub 2/. It could not be determined whether the results were additive or multiplicative.

  16. Geometrically Nonlinear Static Analysis of Edge Cracked Timoshenko Beams Composed of Functionally Graded Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeref Doğuşcan Akbaş

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometrically nonlinear static analysis of edge cracked cantilever Timoshenko beams composed of functionally graded material (FGM subjected to a nonfollower transversal point load at the free end of the beam is studied with large displacements and large rotations. Material properties of the beam change in the height direction according to exponential distributions. The cracked beam is modeled as an assembly of two subbeams connected through a massless elastic rotational spring. In the study, the finite element of the beam is constructed by using the total Lagrangian Timoshenko beam element approximation. The nonlinear problem is solved by using incremental displacement-based finite element method in conjunction with Newton-Raphson iteration method. The convergence study is performed for various numbers of finite elements. In the study, the effects of the location of crack, the depth of the crack, and various material distributions on the nonlinear static response of the FGM beam are investigated in detail. Also, the difference between the geometrically linear and nonlinear analysis of edge cracked FGM beam is investigated in detail.

  17. Composing Distributed Services for Selection and Retrieval of Event Data in the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Vinek, E; The ATLAS collaboration; Zhang, Q

    2010-01-01

    TAGs are event-level metadata allowing a quick search for interesting events for further analysis, based on selection criteria defined by the user. They are stored in a file-based format as well as in relational databases. The overall TAG system encompasses a range of web services providing functionality for the required use cases. The data as well as the services are replicated to several ATLAS sites, i.e. inside each service group there exist several concrete deployments, differing only in site-related non-functional attributes. In order to satisfy a user’s request, the above mentioned atomic data sources and web services have to be composed on demand to provide the full functionality. As several instances of each service exist, one service has to be selected out of each group. The overall goal is to maximize the system’s throughput, in order to give to as many users as possible efficient access to the TAGs, while meeting end-to-end quality of service (QoS) requirements. Many approaches can be found to ...

  18. Composing Distributed Services for Selection and Retrieval of Event Data in the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Vinek, E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    TAGs are event-level metadata allowing a quick search for interesting events for further analysis, based on selection criteria defined by the user. They are stored in a file-based format as well as in relational databases. The overall TAG system encompasses a range of web services providing functionality for the required use cases. The data as well as the services are replicated to several ATLAS sites, i.e. inside each service group there exist several concrete deployments, differing only in site-related non-functional attributes. In order to satisfy a user's request, the above mentioned atomic data sources and web services have to be composed on demand to provide the required functionality. As several instances of each service exist, one service has to be selected out of each group. The overall goal is to maximize the system’s throughput, in order to give to as many users as possible efficient access to the TAGs, while meeting end-to-end quality of service (QoS) requirements. Many approaches can be found t...

  19. Intestinal obstruction caused by phytobezoar composed of jaboticaba seeds: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Luís Luporini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bezoar is a cluster of swallowed and undigested material in the gastrointestinal tract which can cause intestinal obstruction. It has multiple subtypes and the phytobezoar (composed of vegetable fiber is the most common. We report a patient admitted with intestinal obstruction caused by impaction of multiples seeds of jaboticaba in the rectum. The treatment included multiple enemas, laxatives and digital maneuvers and it was effective after four days. Only one similar report was found in the literature.Bezoar trata-se de um aglomerado de material deglutido e não digerido no trato gastrointestinal que pode causar quadro de obstrução intestinal. Existem múltiplos subtipos, sendo o mais comum o fitobezoar (composto por fibras vegetais. Foi relatado o caso de uma paciente admitida com quadro de suboclusão intestinal causada por impactação de múltiplos caroços de jabuticaba em reto. O tratamento instituído foi conservador com múltiplos enteroclimas, laxativos e quebra digital, efetivos após quatro dias. Somente um caso semelhante foi encontrado na literatura.

  20. A study of fractional Schrödinger equation composed of Jumarie fractional derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Joydip; Ghosh, Uttam; Sarkar, Susmita; Das, Shantanu

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we have derived the fractional-order Schrödinger equation composed of Jumarie fractional derivative. The solution of this fractional-order Schrödinger equation is obtained in terms of Mittag-Leffler function with complex arguments, and fractional trigonometric functions. A few important properties of the fractional Schrödinger equation are then described for the case of particles in one-dimensional infinite potential well. One of the motivations for using fractional calculus in physical systems is that the space and time variables, which we often deal with, exhibit coarse-grained phenomena. This means infinitesimal quantities cannot be arbitrarily taken to zero - rather they are non-zero with a minimum spread. This type of non-zero spread arises in the microscopic to mesoscopic levels of system dynamics, which means that, if we denote x as the point in space and t as the point in time, then limit of the differentials d x (and d t) cannot be taken as zero. To take the concept of coarse graining into account, use the infinitesimal quantities as (Δ x) α (and (Δ t) α ) with 0 Δ x and (Δ t) α > Δ t. This way of defining the fractional differentials helps us to use fractional derivatives in the study of dynamic systems.

  1. Ultra-large supramolecular coordination cages composed of endohedral Archimedean and Platonic bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Kevin; Zubair, Muhammad; Zhu, Nianyong; Zhou, Xiao-Ping; Fox, Daniel S.; Zhang, Hongzhou; Twamley, Brendan; Lennox, Matthew J.; Düren, Tina; Schmitt, Wolfgang

    2017-05-01

    Pioneered by Lehn, Cram, Peterson and Breslow, supramolecular chemistry concepts have evolved providing fundamental knowledge of the relationships between the structures and reactivities of organized molecules. A particular fascinating class of metallo-supramolecular molecules are hollow coordination cages that provide cavities of molecular dimensions promoting applications in diverse areas including catalysis, enzyme mimetics and material science. Here we report the synthesis of coordination cages with exceptional cross-sectional diameters that are composed of multiple sub-cages providing numerous distinctive binding sites through labile coordination solvent molecules. The building principles, involving Archimedean and Platonic bodies, renders these supramolecular keplerates as a class of cages whose composition and topological aspects compare to characteristics of edge-transitive {Cu2} MOFs with A3X4 stoichiometry. The nature of the cavities in these double-shell metal-organic polyhedra and their inner/outer binding sites provide perspectives for post-synthetic functionalizations, separations and catalysis. Transmission electron microscopy studies demonstrate that single molecules are experimentally accessible.

  2. Realisation de composants tout-fibre passifs bases sur des fibres optiques a deux coeurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob Poulin, Anne C.

    2002-01-01

    Les composants passifs tout-optique sont des elements de choix dans les systemes de communications optiques. Cette these presente l'utilisation experimentale de fibres a deux coeurs dissimilaires pour la realisation de filtres passe-bande. Les fibres a deux coeurs ont la particularite de favoriser un couplage d'un coeur a l'autre a intervalles reguliers lorsque les coeurs sont exactement identiques. Dans le cas ou une legere difference apparait, ce couplage est rapidement reduit a zero. La premiere partie de la these montre comment, par l'emploi d'une geometrie de fibre appropriee, il est possible de compenser cette desyntonisation et de fabriquer des coupleurs 100%. Les filtres obtenus ayant toutefois une largeur de bande trop grande pour les besoins du marche des communications optiques, il est montre dans la deuxieme partie de la these comment, en alliant la technologie des reseaux de Bragg avec celle des coupleurs, il est possible de realiser des filtres operant en transmission et possedant d'excellentes caracteristiques spectrales, toujours avec ces memes fibres a deux coeurs.

  3. Flexible and Transparent Plastic Electrodes Composed of Reduced Graphene Oxide/Polyaniline Films for Supercapacitor Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Ashis K.; Hong, Jongdal [Incheon National Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    In this article, we described about the preparation and electrochemical properties of a flexible energy storage system based on a plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The PET treated with UV/ozone was fabricated with multilayer films composed of 30 polyaniline (PANi)/graphene oxide (GO) bilayers using layerby-layer assembly of positively charged PANi and negatively charged GO. The conversion of GO to the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) in the multilayer film was achieved using hydroiodic acid vapor at 100 .deg. C, whereby PANi structure remained nearly unchanged except a little reduction of doping state. Cyclic voltammetry and charge/discharge curves of 30 PANi/RGO bilayers on PET substrate (shorten to PANi-RGO{sub 30}/PET) exhibited an excellent volumetric capacitance, good cycling stability, and rapid charge/discharge rates despite no use of any metal current collectors. The specific capacitance from charge/discharge curve of the PANi-RGO{sub 30}/PET electrode was found to be 529 F/cm{sup 3} at a current density of 3 A/cm{sup 3}, which is one of the best values yet achieved among carbon-based materials including conducting polymers. Furthermore, the intrinsic electrical resistance of the PANi-RGO{sub 30}/PET electrodes varied within 20% range during 200 bending cycles at a fixed bend radius of 2.2 mm, indicating the increase in their flexibility by a factor of 225 compared with the ITO/PET electrode.

  4. Integration and diversity of the regulatory network composed of Maf and CNC families of transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Hozumi; O'Connor, Tania; Katsuoka, Fumiki; Engel, James Douglas; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2002-07-10

    Recent progress in the analysis of transcriptional regulation has revealed the presence of an exquisite functional network comprising the Maf and Cap 'n' collar (CNC) families of regulatory proteins, many of which have been isolated. Among Maf factors, large Maf proteins are important in the regulation of embryonic development and cell differentiation, whereas small Maf proteins serve as obligatory heterodimeric partner molecules for members of the CNC family. Both Maf homodimers and CNC-small Maf heterodimers bind to the Maf recognition element (MARE). Since the MARE contains a consensus TRE sequence recognized by AP-1, Jun and Fos family members may act to compete or interfere with the function of CNC-small Maf heterodimers. Overall then, the quantitative balance of transcription factors interacting with the MARE determines its transcriptional activity. Many putative MARE-dependent target genes such as those induced by antioxidants and oxidative stress are under concerted regulation by the CNC family member Nrf2, as clearly proven by mouse germline mutagenesis. Since these genes represent a vital aspect of the cellular defense mechanism against oxidative stress, Nrf2-null mutant mice are highly sensitive to xenobiotic and oxidative insults. Deciphering the molecular basis of the regulatory network composed of Maf and CNC families of transcription factors will undoubtedly lead to a new paradigm for the cooperative function of transcription factors.

  5. Novel coprocessed excipients composed of lactose, HPMC, and PVPP for tableting and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, SongTao; Li, JinZhi; Lin, Xiao; Feng, Yi; Kou, Xiang; Babu, Sreehari; Panicucci, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    New coprocessed excipients composed of α-lactose monohydrate (a filler), HPMC E3 (a binder), and PVPP (a superdisintegrant) were developed by spray drying in this study to improve the tableting properties of lactose. Factors affecting the properties of the coprocessed excipients were investigated by a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial design. These factors include lactose grade (90 M, 200 M, and 450 M), percentage of HPMC (3.5%, 7.0%, and 10.5%), and percentage of PVPP (0% and 3.5%). The results show that the compactability of the excipients could be significantly improved by increasing either the percentage of HPMC or the primary particle size of lactose. The addition of 3.5% PVPP had little effect on the compactability, but significantly improved the disintegration ability. The developed coprocessed excipients have much lower yield pressures and much higher working efficiency during tableting compared to the main raw material (α-lactose monohydrate). These improvements are mainly attributed to the addition of HPMC and the proximately 30% amorphous lactose formed during process. Both HPMC and amorphous lactose were homogeneously distributed on the surface of the secondary particles, maximizing their effect. Furthermore, the low hygroscopicity and high glass transition temperature of HPMC led to a high yield. The drug loading capacity of the newly coprocessed excipients is also excellent. In summary, the tri-component coprocessed excipients investigated are promising and worthy of further development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Tunable plasmon-induced transparency in plasmonic metamaterial composed of three identical rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuchen; Ding, Pei; Fan, Chunzhen

    2017-10-01

    We numerically investigated the plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) effect in a three-dimensional plasmonic metamaterial composed of three identical rings. It is illustrated that the PIT effect appears as a result of the destructive interference between the electric dipole and the quadrupole resonance mode. By tuning gap distance, radius or rotation angle of the metamaterial, the required transmission spectra with a narrow sharp transparency peak can be realized. In particular, it is found that an on-to-off amplitude modulation of the PIT transparency window can be achieved by moving or rotating the horizontal ring. Two dips move to high frequency and low frequency regions, respectively, in the transmission spectra by moving the horizontal ring, namely, the width of transmission peak becomes larger. With the rotation of horizontal ring, both width and position of transmission peak are kept invariant. Our designed structure achieved a maximum group index of 352 in the visible frequency range, which has a significant slow light effect. Moreover, the PIT effect is explained based on the classical two-oscillator theory, which is in well agreement with the numerical results. It indicates our proposed structure and theoretical analysis may open up avenues for the tunable control of light in highly integrated optical circuits.

  7. Low-velocity collision behaviour of clusters composed of sub-millimetre sized dust aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisset, J.; Heißelmann, D.; Kothe, S.; Weidling, R.; Blum, J.

    2017-07-01

    Context. The experiment results presented apply to the very first stages of planet formation, when small dust aggregates collide in the protoplanetary disc and grow into bigger clusters. In 2011, before flying on the REXUS 12 suborbital rocket in 2012, the Suborbital Particle and Aggregation Experiment (SPACE) performed drop tower flights. We present the results of this first microgravity campaign. Aims: The experiments presented aim to measure the outcome of collisions between sub-mm sized protoplanetary dust aggregate analogues. We also observed the clusters formed from these aggregates and their collision behaviour. Methods: The experiments were performed at the drop tower in Bremen. The protoplanetary dust analogue materials were micrometre-sized monodisperse and polydisperse SiO2 particles prepared into aggregates with sizes between 120 μm and 250 μm. One of the dust samples contained aggregates that were previously compacted through repeated bouncing. During three flights of 9 s of microgravity each, individual collisions between aggregates and the formation of clusters of up to a few millimetres in size were observed. In addition, the collisions of clusters with the experiment cell walls leading to compaction or fragmentation were recorded. Results: We observed collisions amongst dust aggregates and collisions between dust clusters and the cell aluminium walls at speeds ranging from about 0.1 cm s-1 to 20 cm s-1. The velocities at which sticking occurred ranged from 0.18 to 5.0 cm s-1 for aggregates composed of monodisperse dust, with an average value of 2.1 ± 0.9 cm s-1 for reduced masses ranging from 1.2 × 10-6 to 1.8 × 10-3 g with an average value of 2.2+16-2.1 × 10-4 g. The velocities at which bouncing occurred ranged from 1.9 to 11.9 cm s-1 for the same aggregates with an average of 5.9 ± 3.2 cm s-1 for reduced masses ranging from 2.1 × 10-6 to 2.4 × 10-4 with an average of 7.8 ± 2.4 × 10-5 g. The velocities at which fragmentation occurred

  8. Interaction of aerosol particles composed of protein and saltswith water vapor: hygroscopic growth and microstructural rearrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mikhailov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of aerosol particles composed of the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA and the inorganic salts sodium chloride and ammonium nitrate with water vapor has been investigated by hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA experiments complemented by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Köhler theory calculations (100-300nm particle size range, 298K, 960hPa. BSA was chosen as a well-defined model substance for proteins and other macromolecular compounds, which constitute a large fraction of the water-soluble organic component of air particulate matter. Pure BSA particles exhibited deliquescence and efflorescence transitions at 35% relative humidity ( and a hygroscopic diameter increase by up to 10% at 95% in good agreement with model calculations based on a simple parameterisation of the osmotic coefficient. Pure NaCl particles were converted from near-cubic to near-spherical shape upon interaction with water vapor at relative humidities below the deliquescence threshold (partial surface dissolution and recrystallisation, and the diameters of pure NH4NO3 particles decreased by up to 10% due to chemical decomposition and evaporation. Mixed NaCl-BSA and NH4NO3-BSA particles interacting with water vapor exhibited mobility equivalent diameter reductions of up to 20%, depending on particle generation, conditioning, size, and chemical composition (BSA dry mass fraction 10-90%. These observations can be explained by formation of porous agglomerates (envelope void fractions up to 50% due to ion-protein interactions and electric charge effects on the one hand, and by compaction of the agglomerate structure due to capillary condensation effects on the other. The size of NH4NO3-BSA particles was apparently also influenced by volatilisation of NH4NO3, but not as much as for pure salt particles, i.e. the protein inhibited the decomposition of NH4NO3 or the evaporation of the decomposition products NH3 and HNO3. The

  9. Acoustic Constraints and Musical Consequences: Exploring Composers' Use of Cues for Musical Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schutz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Emotional communication in music is based in part on the use of pitch and timing, two cues effective in emotional speech. Corpus analyses of natural speech illustrate that happy utterances tend to be higher and faster than sad. Although manipulations altering melodies show that passages changed to be higher and faster sound happier, corpus analyses of unaltered music paralleling those of natural speech have proven challenging. This partly reflects the importance of modality (i.e., major/minor, a powerful musical cue whose use is decidedly imbalanced in Western music. This imbalance poses challenges for creating musical corpora analogous to existing speech corpora for purposes of analyzing emotion. However, a novel examination of music by Bach and Chopin balanced in modality illustrates that, consistent with predictions from speech, their major key (nominally “happy” pieces are approximately a major second higher and 29% faster than their minor key pieces (Poon and Schutz, 2015. Although this provides useful evidence for parallels in use of emotional cues between these domains, it raises questions about how composers “trade off” cue differentiation in music, suggesting interesting new potential research directions. This Focused Review places those results in a broader context, highlighting their connections with previous work on the natural use of cues for musical emotion. Together, these observational findings based on unaltered music—widely recognized for its artistic significance—complement previous experimental work systematically manipulating specific parameters. In doing so, they also provide a useful musical counterpart to fruitful studies of the acoustic cues for emotion found in natural speech.

  10. Characteristics of wasteform composing of phosphate and silicate to immobilize radioactive waste salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwan-Seo; Cho, In-Hak; Eun, Hee Chul; Kim, In-Tae; Cho, Yong Zun; Lee, Han-Soo

    2011-03-01

    In the radioactive waste management, metal chloride wastes from a pyrochemical process is one of problematic wastes not directly applicable to a conventional solidification process. Different from a use of minerals or a specific phosphate glass for immobilizing radioactive waste salts, our research group applied an inorganic composite, SAP (SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3)-P(2)O(5)), to stabilize them by dechlorination. From this method, a unique wasteform composing of phosphate and silicate could be fabricated. This study described the characteristic of the wasteform on the morphology, chemical durability, and some physical properties. The wasteform has a unique "domain-matrix" structure which would be attributed to the incompatibility between silicate and phosphate glass. At higher amounts of chemical binder, "P-rich phase encapsulated by Si-rich phase" was a dominant morphology, but it was changed to be Si-rich phase encapsulated by P-rich phase at a lower amount of binder. The domain and subdomain size in the wasteform was about 0.5-2 μm and hundreds of nm, respectively. The chemical durability of wasteform was confirmed by various leaching test methods (PCT-A, ISO dynamic leaching test, and MCC-1). From the leaching tests, it was found that the P-rich phase had ten times lower leach-resistance than the Si-rich phase. The leach rates of Cs and Sr in the wasteform were about 10(-3)g/m(2)· day, and the leached fractions of them were about 0.04% and 0.06% at 357 days, respectively. Using this method, we could stabilize and solidify the waste salt to form a monolithic wasteform with good leach-resistance. Also, the decrease of waste volume by the dechlorination approach would be beneficial in the final disposal cost, compared with the present immobilization methods for waste salt.

  11. Resting network is composed of more than one neural pattern: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T-W; Northoff, G; Wu, Y-T

    2014-08-22

    In resting state, the dynamics of blood oxygen level-dependent signals recorded by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) showed reliable modular structures. To explore the network property, previous research used to construct an adjacency matrix by Pearson's correlation and prune it using stringent statistical threshold. However, traditional analyses may lose useful information at middle to moderate high correlation level. This resting fMRI study adopted full connection as a criterion to partition the adjacency matrix into composite sub-matrices (neural patterns) and investigated the associated community organization and network features. Modular consistency across subjects was assessed using scaled inclusivity index. Our results disclosed two neural patterns with reliable modular structures. Concordant with the results of traditional intervention, community detection analysis showed that neural pattern 1, the sub-matrix at highest correlation level, was composed of sensory-motor, visual associative, default mode/midline, temporal limbic and basal ganglia structures. The neural pattern 2 was situated at middle to moderate high correlation level and comprised two larger modules, possibly associated with mental processing of outer world (such as visuo-associative, auditory and sensory-motor networks) and inner homeostasis (such as default-mode, midline and limbic systems). Graph theoretical analyses further demonstrated that the network feature of neural pattern 1 was more local and segregate, whereas that of neural pattern 2 was more global and integrative. Our results suggest that future resting fMRI research may take the neural pattern at middle to moderate high correlation range into consideration, which has long been ignored in extant literature. The variation of neural pattern 2 could be relevant to individual characteristics of self-regulatory functions, and the disruption in its topology may underlie the pathology of several neuropsychiatric illnesses

  12. GEODYNAMICS AS WAVE DYNAMICS OF THE MEDIUM COMPOSED OF ROTATING BLOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Vikulin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The geomedium block concept envisages that stresses in the medium composed of rotating blocks have torque and thus predetermine the medium's energy capacity (in terms of [Ponomarev, 2008]. The present paper describes the wave nature of the global geodynamic process taking place in the medium characterized by the existence of slow and fast rotation strain waves that are classified as a new type of waves. Movements may also occur as rheid, superplastic and/or superfluid motions and facilitate the formation of vortex geological structures in the geomedium.Our analysis of data on almost 800 strong volcanic eruptions shows that the magma chamber’s thickness is generally small, about 0.5 km, and this value is constant, independent of the volcanic process and predetermined by properties of the crust. A new magma chamber model is based on the idea of 'thermal explosion’/‘self-acceleration' manifested by intensive plastic movements along boundaries between the blocks in conditions of the low thermal conductivity of the geomedium. It is shown that if the solid rock in the magma chamber is overheated above its melting point, high stresses may occur in the surrounding area, and their elastic energy may amount to 1015 joules per 1 km3 of the overheated solid rock. In view of such stresses, it is possible to consider the interaction between volcano’s magma chambers as the migration of volcanic activity along the volcanic arc and provide an explanation of the interaction between volcanic activity and seismicity within the adjacent parallel arcs.The thin overheated interlayer/magma chamber concept may be valid for the entire Earth's crust. In our hypothesis, properties of the Moho are determined by the phase transition from the block structure of the crust to the nonblock structure of the upper mantle.

  13. Development of Safeguards System Simulator Composed of Multi-Functional Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Ihara, Hitoshi

    Due to the large plutonium (Pu) throughput and high burn-up fuel in an advanced reprocessing facility, we are faced with the inevitable increasing burden of nuclear material accountancy (NMA) to meet the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards criteria. A large volume of sampling analysis and inspectors' activities result in a great cost for facility operation. Therefore, it is increasingly important to evaluate a cost-effective performance for the safeguards system. In order to design an advanced safeguards system, we have initiated the development of a safeguards system simulator. The simulator is composed of several interrelated cores and a separate core is planned to develop. The NMA core is a near-real-time accounting (NRTA) code that had been originally developed more than ten years ago and has been improved on an objective-driven pre- and post-processor. A multivariate and multi-scale core based on a principle component analysis with a wavelet technique has been developed to provide an algorithm of process monitoring. The time and frequency decomposition was verified to be an effective technique to detect an abnormal event. In addition, a multiple optimization core has been developed with a fuzzy-linear-programming technique to investigate the cost-effective performance of the conceptual safeguards system. It is shown that a combination of flow-meter and non-destructive assay can be applied to the system in a cost-effective manner. In the future, a virtual design core will be developed to support a walk-through and three dimensional visible plant model.

  14. Anatomy and physiology of neurons composing the commissural ring nerve of the cricket, Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, K A; Bollins, J P; Govind, C K

    2000-03-01

    The commissural ring nerve (RN) of the cricket Acheta domesticus links together the two cercal motor nerves of the terminal abdominal ganglion. It contains the axons of almost 100 neurons including two bilateral clusters of eight to 13 ventrolateral neurons and approximately 75 neurons with midline somata within the terminal abdominal ganglion. The ventrolateral neurons have an ipsilateral dendritic arborization within the dorsal neuropil of the ganglion and their axons use the RN as a commissure in order to enter the contralateral nerves of the tenth ganglionic neuromere. In contrast, most midline neurons have bifurcating axons projecting bilaterally into the neuropil of the ganglion as well as into the RN where they often branch extensively before entering the contralateral tenth nerves. Most RN neurons have small, non-spiking somata with spike initiation zones distant from the soma. Many midline neurons also produce double-peaked spikes in their somata, indicative of multiple spike initiation zones. Spontaneous neuronal activity recorded extracellularly from the RN reveals several units, some with variable firing patterns, but none responding to sensory stimuli. The RN is primarily composed of small (50 nm diameter) axon profiles with a few large (0.5-1 microm diameter) profiles. Occasionally, profiles of nerve terminals containing primarily small clear vesicles and a few large dense vesicles are observed. These vesicles can sometimes be clustered about an active zone. We conclude that the primary function of the RN is to serve as a peripheral nerve commissure and that its role as a neurohemal organ is negligible. J. Exp. Zool. 286:350-366, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Open-label observational study of the homeopathic medicine Passiflora Compose for anxiety and sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villet, Stéphanie; Vacher, Véronique; Colas, Aurélie; Danno, Karine; Masson, Jean-Louis; Marijnen, Philippe; Bordet, Marie-France

    2016-02-01

    Anxiety and sleep disorders (SDS) are frequently treated with psychotropic drugs. Health authorities in France have been advised to improve access to alternative treatments such as homeopathic medicines. Our aim was to describe the socio-demographic characteristics and clinical progression of patients prescribed homeopathic medicine Passiflora Compose (PC) for anxiety and/or SDS. This was an open-label, observational study. Randomly selected general practitioners (GPs) known to prescribe homeopathic medicines recruited consecutive patients (≥18-years) prescribed PC. The following data were recorded at inclusion by the GP: socio-demographic data and anxiety severity (Hamilton anxiety rating scale or HAM-A); and by the patients: level of anxiety (STAI Spielberger self-assessment questionnaire) and SDS (Jenkins sleep scale or JSS). Anxiety and SDS were reassessed after 4 weeks of treatment using the same scales. A total of 639 patients (mean age: 46.3 ± 17.5 years; 78.6% female) were recruited by 98 GPs. Anxiety was present in 85.4% (HAM-A) and 93.3% (Spielberger State) at inclusion (mean scores: 17.8 ± 8.91 and 54.59 ± 11.69, respectively) and SDS was present in 74.0% (mean score: 15.24 ± 5.28). A total of 401 (62.7%) patients received PC alone and 167 (26.1%) PC + psychotropics. After 4 weeks, mean anxiety scores decreased by more than 7, 12 and 6 points (HAM-A, Spielberger State and Trait respectively), and SDS score by more than 4 points (JSS). Anxiety and/or SDS improved significantly in patients included on this study. PC could be an alternative to the use of psychotropic drugs for first intention treatment of anxiety and SDS. Further studies are needed to confirm those results. Copyright © 2015 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Thermo-electrical properties of composite semiconductor thin films composed of nanocrystalline graphene-vanadium oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hye-Mi; Um, Sukkee

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an experimental comparative study involving the characterization of the thermo-electrical and structural properties of graphene-based vanadium oxide (graphene-VOx) composite thin films on insulating and conducting surfaces (i.e., fused quartz and acrylic resin-impregnated graphite) produced by a sol-gel process via dipping-pyrolysis. A combination of FE-SEM and XPS analyses revealed that the graphene-VOx composite thin films (coated onto fused quartz) exhibiting the microstructure of 2-graded nanowire arrays with a diameter of 40-80 nm were composed of graphene, a few residual oxygen-containing functional groups (i.e., C-O and C=O), and the VO2 Magnéli phase. The temperature-dependent electrical resistance measured on the as-deposited thin films clearly demonstrated that the graphene-VOx composite nanowire arrays thermally grown on fused quartz act as a semiconductor switch, with a transition temperature of 64.7 degrees C in the temperature range of -20 degrees C to 140 degrees C, resulting from the contributions of graphene and graphene oxides. In contrast, the graphene-VOx composite thin films deposited onto acrylic resin-impregnated graphite exhibit a superlinear semiconducting property of extremely low electrical resistance with negative temperature coefficients (i.e., approximately four orders of magnitude lower than that of the fused quartz), despite the similar microstructural and morphological characteristics. This difference is attributed to the synergistic effects of the paramagnetic metal feature of the tightly stacked nanowire arrays consisting of hexagonal V2O3 on the intrinsic electrical properties of the acrylic resin-impregnated graphite substrate, as revealed by FE-SEM, EDX, AFM, and XRD measurements. Although the thermo-sensitive electrical properties of the graphene-VOx composite thin films are very substrate specific, the applicability of graphene sheets can be considerably effective in the formation of highly planar arrays

  17. Les fluctuations supraconductrices dans le compose praseodyme-cerium-oxyde de cuivre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Jacques

    Ce travail etudie les fluctuations supraconductrices dans le compose supraconducteur a haute temperature critique dope aux electrons Pr2-xCe xCuO4+delta. La technique utilisee pour sonder ces fluctuations est le transport electrique DC dans le plan ab. Il s'agit, a notre connaissance, de la premiere etude de ce type dans la classe generale des supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique dopes aux electrons et, plus particulierement, dans Pr2-xCe xCuO4+delta. De plus, l'etude est effectuee pour trois regimes de dopage, soit sous-dope x = 0.135, dopage optimal x = 0.15 et surdope x = 0.17. Les echantillons etudies sont des couches minces d'epaisseur plus grande que 100 nm crues par ablation laser. Les mesures electriques DC effectuees dans ce travail sont la resistance en reponse lineaire et les courbes IV en reponse non lineaire en fonction de la temperature. La mise en oeuvre experimentale de ces mesures a necessite une grande attention au filtrage et aux effets de chauffage a haut courant. Nous montrons que, sans cette attention, les donnees experimentales sont toujours erronees dans le regime pertinent pour nos echantillons. Les resultats pour le dopage optimal x = 0.15 sont expliques de facon tres convaincante dans le cadre de fluctuations purement 2D. D'abord, le regime des fluctuations gaussiennes est tres bien decrit par le modele d'Aslamazov-Larkin en deux dimensions. Ensuite, le regime de fluctuations critiques, se trouvant a plus basse temperature que le regime gaussien, est tres bien decrit par la physique 2D de Kosterlitz-Thouless. Dans cette analyse, les deux regimes ont des temperatures critiques coherentes entre elles, ce qui semble confirmer ce scenario 2D. Une analyse des donnees dans le cadre de fluctuations 3D est exploree mais donne des conclusions incoherentes. Les resultats pour les autres dopages sont qualitativement equivalents avec le dopage optimal et permettent donc une explication purement 2D. Par contre, contrairement au dopage optimal

  18. Formation of Core-Shell Nanoparticles Composed of Magnetite and Samarium Oxide in Magnetospirillum magneticum Strain RSS-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoshige, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Yoshikata; Kobayashi, Hideki; Yanagisawa, Keiichi; Nagaoka, Yutaka; Shimamura, Shigeru; Mizuki, Toru; Inoue, Akira; Maekawa, Toru

    2017-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) synthesize magnetosomes composed of membrane-enveloped magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) particles in the cells. Recently, several studies have shown some possibilities of controlling the biomineralization process and altering the magnetic properties of magnetosomes by adding some transition metals to the culture media under various environmental conditions. Here, we successfully grow Magnetospirillum magneticum strain RSS-1, which are isolated from a freshwater environment, and find that synthesis of magnetosomes are encouraged in RSS-1 in the presence of samarium and that each core magnetic crystal composed of magnetite is covered with a thin layer of samarium oxide (Sm2O3). The present results show some possibilities of magnetic recovery of transition metals and synthesis of some novel structures composed of magnetic particles and transition metals utilizing MTB.

  19. Guidelines for Composing and Assessing a Paper on Treatment of Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogduk, Nikolai; Kennedy, David J; Vorobeychik, Yakov; Engel, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Authors, readers, and editors share a common focus. Authors want to publish their work. Readers want to see high-quality, new information. Referees and editors serve to ensure that authors provide valid conclusions based on the quality of information that readers want.Common to each of these roles are instructions to authors. However, these are typically written in an uninspiring, legalistic style, as if they are a set of rules that authors must obey if they expect to get published. This renders the instructions boring and oppressive, if not forbidding. Yet they need not be so, if they are set in context.Instructions to authors can be cast in a way as to reflect common purpose. They can remind authors what perceptive readers want to see in a paper and, thereby, prompt authors to include all necessary information. If cast in this way, instructions to authors are not a set of rules by which to satisfy publishers; they become guidelines for the etiquette of communication between authors and their readers.Against this background, the present article has been composed to serve several purposes. Foremost, it amplifies instructions to authors beyond the conventional technicalities such as headings, layout, font size, and line spacing. It prescribes the type of information that should be communicated and explains the reasons for those recommendations. Doing so not only informs authors about what to write, but also informs readers and referees about what to look for in a good paper. Secondarily, the article publicizes examples of errors and deficiencies of manuscripts submitted to the Journal in the past that have delayed their acceptance and publication, which could have been avoided had the forthcoming recommendations been followed. The recommendations also reprise the elements taught in courses conducted by the Spine Intervention Society in their extended program on evidence-based medicine. Doing so underscores that instructions for authors are not a procedural

  20. Radiation synthesis and characteristic of IPN hydrogels composed of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and Kappa-Carrageenan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren Jing E-mail: janeren2000@sohu.com; Zhang Yanqun; Li Jiuqiang; Ha Hongfei

    2001-09-01

    A new system of IPN hydrogels composed of diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC) and natural macromolecule, Kappa-Carrageenan (KC) were prepared by {gamma}-irradiation. Their gel fraction and swelling behavior were studied. Elemental analysis and gel strength measurement results showed that there was an amount of KC that remained in the gels and the gel strength was enhanced obviously.

  1. Feed conversion, survival and development, and composition of four insect species on diets composed of food by-products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Broekhoven, Van Sarah; Huis, Van Arnold; Loon, Van J.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from byproducts of food

  2. Cultural Diversity: Resources for Music Educators in Selected Works of Three Contemporary African-American Classical Composers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunjung; Keith, Laura J.

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary African-American classical composers Cedric Adderley, John Lane, and Trevor Weston intertwine strands of culture and individual experience to produce musical works whose distinct designs offer cultural resources that music educators can use to integrate diversity into instructional settings. Of special interest is their ability to…

  3. Anti-inflammatory and osteogenesis of complex particles composed of ceric oxide and bioglass on repair of rabbit femoral defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai HUANG

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the anti-inflammatory and osteogenesis of the complex particles composed of ceric oxide and bioglass implanted into rabbit femoral defects.Methods The bilateral penetrating femoral condylar defects of 6mm in diameter were made in 6 adult New Zealand White rabbits,bioglass particles and complex particles composed of ceric oxide and bioglass were randomly implanted into the left or right condylar defect.Animals were sacrificed at 2 and 4 weeks after operation(3 each,specimens from defect sites were harvested for histological examination to observe the inflammatory reaction and calculate the ratio of new bone and grafts on the defect area.Results No inflammatory reaction was found in the defect area filled with bioglass particles or complex particles composed of ceric oxide and bioglass.New bone was observed in the defects 2 weeks after operation,and no significant difference on the bone formation rate existed between the two materials(P > 0.05.The osteogenesis of both materials was more obvious in the 4th week than in the 2nd week(P 0.05.No obvious degradation of the grafts implanted into the defect area occurred in the 4th week compared with that in the 2nd week(P > 0.05.Conclusion The complex particles composed of ceric oxide and bioglass has anti-inflammatory activity and similar osteogenesis to normal bioglass particles,and may be used in the repair of bone defects.

  4. A Randomized Rounding Approach for Optimization of Test Sheet Composing and Exposure Rate Control in Computer-Assisted Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chu-Fu; Lin, Chih-Lung; Deng, Jien-Han

    2012-01-01

    Testing is an important stage of teaching as it can assist teachers in auditing students' learning results. A good test is able to accurately reflect the capability of a learner. Nowadays, Computer-Assisted Testing (CAT) is greatly improving traditional testing, since computers can automatically and quickly compose a proper test sheet to meet user…

  5. Effective Beginning Handwriting Instruction: Multi-Modal, Consistent Format for 2 Years, and Linked to Spelling and Composing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Beverly; Abbott, Robert D.; Berninger, Virginia W.

    2017-01-01

    In Study 1, the treatment group (N = 33 first graders, M = 6 years 10 months, 16 girls) received Slingerland multi-modal (auditory, visual, tactile, motor through hand, and motor through mouth) manuscript (unjoined) handwriting instruction embedded in systematic spelling, reading, and composing lessons; and the control group (N = 16 first graders,…

  6. Composing and Performing in the Key Stage 3 Classroom: A Study using Multi-Trait, Multi-Method Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    "Music is both a creative and a performing art" (Hallam, 2006, p. 70). Many musicians and music educators maintain that composing and performing, although related, are essentially different aspects of musical activity. In the professional musical sphere, composition and performance are almost invariably separated; academic studies have…

  7. Body Parts, the Water Cycle, Plants, and Dolphins: Adventures in Primary-Grade Whole-Class Composing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolden, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the author's personal experiences leading primary grades in whole-class composing. Together they created songs inspired by topics the students were exploring in their homeroom classes. The author systematically describes the songwriting process they employed, identifying specific challenges encountered along the way. The…

  8. Exact natural frequencies for out-of-plane motion of plane structures composed of curved beam members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howson, W. P.; Jemah, A. K.; Zhou, J. Q.

    1995-06-01

    Exact finite elements form the basis of a new and convenient procedure for converging with certainty upon any required natural frequency of out-of-plane motion of any plane structure composed of slender elastic curved members. Solution of the inherent transcendental eigenvalue problem is achieved through a variation on the powerful Wittrick-Williams algorithm. Two illustrative examples are included.

  9. Methodology of Artistic Identification on the Path of the Comprehension of Composer's Works in a Piano Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleshkina, Elena Anatolyevna; Scherbakova, Anna Iosifovna; Korsakova, Irina Anatolyevna; Slavina, Elena Vladimirovna; Kazakova, Irina Sergeevna

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the reflection on the problem of the "immersion" in the artistic world of a composer's creative work in a piano class in the beginning of the 21st century. The wealth and diversity of the music material for piano players determine the new quality of understanding music and set high goals and objectives for a…

  10. Applying the Levels of Conceptual Interoperability Model in Support of Integratability, Interoperability, and Composability for System-of-Systems Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Tolk

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Levels of Conceptual Interoperability Model (LCIM was developed to cope with the different layers of interoperation of modeling and simulation applications. It introduced technical, syntactic, semantic, pragmatic, dynamic, and conceptual layers of interoperation and showed how they are related to the ideas of integratability, interoperability, and composability. The model was successfully applied in various domains of systems, cybernetics, and informatics.

  11. SU-E-T-327: The Update of a XML Composing Tool for TrueBeam Developer Mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Y; Mao, W; Jiang, S [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To introduce a major upgrade of a novel XML beam composing tool to scientists and engineers who strive to translate certain capabilities of TrueBeam Developer Mode to future clinical benefits of radiation therapy. Methods: TrueBeam Developer Mode provides the users with a test bed for unconventional plans utilizing certain unique features not accessible at the clinical mode. To access the full set of capabilities, a XML beam definition file accommodating all parameters including kV/MV imaging triggers in the plan can be locally loaded at this mode, however it is difficult and laborious to compose one in a text editor. In this study, a stand-along interactive XML beam composing application, TrueBeam TeachMod, was developed on Windows platforms to assist users in making their unique plans in a WYSWYG manner. A conventional plan can be imported in a DICOM RT object as the start of the beam editing process in which trajectories of all axes of a TrueBeam machine can be modified to the intended values at any control point. TeachMod also includes libraries of predefined imaging and treatment procedures to further expedite the process. Results: The TeachMod application is a major of the TeachMod module within DICOManTX. It fully supports TrueBeam 2.0. Trajectories of all axes including all MLC leaves can be graphically rendered and edited as needed. The time for XML beam composing has been reduced to a negligible amount regardless the complexity of the plan. A good understanding of XML language and TrueBeam schema is not required though preferred. Conclusion: Creating XML beams manually in a text editor will be a lengthy error-prone process for sophisticated plans. A XML beam composing tool is highly desirable for R and D activities. It will bridge the gap between scopes of TrueBeam capabilities and their clinical application potentials.

  12. Semi-interpenetrating polymer networks composed of silk fibroin and poly(ethylene glycol) for wound dressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, HaeYong; Yeo, Joo-hong; Lee, Kwang-gill [Applied Sericulture and Apiculture Division, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Suwon 441100 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Chul; Na, Hee Sam [Department of Microbiology and Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Won, Young Ho [Department of Dermatology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Chong Su [School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151742 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: chocs@plaza.snu.ac.kr

    2008-09-01

    Semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (SIPNs) composed of silk fibroin (SF) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were prepared by photopolymerization of a PEG macromer in the presence of SF to improve the mechanical properties of SF sponge as wound dressing. The morphological structure of the SF/PEG SIPNs was observed to be composed of an interconnected microporous surface and a cross-sectional area. SF/PEG SIPNs showed non-cytotoxicity evaluated by a cell proliferation method using L929 fibroblasts. Wound contraction treated with SF/PEG SIPNs sponges was faster than that of Vaseline gauze as a control. Histological observation confirmed that the deposition of collagen in the dermis was organized by covering the wound area with SF/PEG SIPNs. The above results indicated that SF/PEG SIPNs could be used as wound dressing.

  13. Study on The Application of Composed TiO2-diatomite in The Removal of Phenol in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Li, J.

    2017-10-01

    As an environmentally friendly pollution control technology, TiO2 photocatalytic technology has a broad prospect in the field of environmental protection. In this paper, composed nano-TiO2–diatomite were prepared by depositing TiO2 nanoparticles on the surface of diatomite microparticles. The nano-TiO2/diatomite composed photocatalyst is used to remove phenol in water in a specific designed reaction box under 4 different operation factors such as different reaction time, different pollutant concentration, different UV light powers and different amount of catalytic powder. The experimental results indicate that the phenol removal percentages are influenced by the reaction time most significantly, the second is the phenol concentration, the next one is the photocatalyst amount and the UV light powers’ effect is quite limited. Tthe degradation of phenol typically slows down at the reaction time about 30 or 60 minutes. Besides that, the phenol removal kinetic removal rates were also investigated.

  14. Reversed thermo-switchable molecular sieving membranes composed of two-dimensional metal-organic nanosheets for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuerui; Chi, Chenglong; Zhang, Kang; Qian, Yuhong; Gupta, Krishna M.; Kang, Zixi; Jiang, Jianwen; Zhao, Dan

    2017-02-01

    It is highly desirable to reduce the membrane thickness in order to maximize the throughput and break the trade-off limitation for membrane-based gas separation. Two-dimensional membranes composed of atomic-thick graphene or graphene oxide nanosheets have gas transport pathways that are at least three orders of magnitude higher than the membrane thickness, leading to reduced gas permeation flux and impaired separation throughput. Here we present nm-thick molecular sieving membranes composed of porous two-dimensional metal-organic nanosheets. These membranes possess pore openings parallel to gas concentration gradient allowing high gas permeation flux and high selectivity, which are proven by both experiment and molecular dynamics simulation. Furthermore, the gas transport pathways of these membranes exhibit a reversed thermo-switchable feature, which is attributed to the molecular flexibility of the building metal-organic nanosheets.

  15. Caratterizzazione microstrutturale e prove di resilienza su giunti Friction Stir Welding e Linear Friction Welding di compositi a matrice metallica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Merlin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In questo studio sono stati caratterizzati giunti Friction Stir Welding e Linear Friction Welding su compositi a matrice in lega di alluminio e rinforzo particellare ceramico. Il processo FSW è stato applicato a due compositi ottenuti con processo fusorio, quindi estrusi e trattati termicamente T6: AA6061/20%vol.Al2O3p e AA7005/10%vol.Al2O3p. I giunti LFW sono stati invece realizzati su un composito con matrice in lega di alluminio e rinforzo particellare in carburo di silicio, ottenuto mediante metallurgia delle polveri, quindi forgiato e trattato termicamente T4: AA2124/25%vol.SiCp. Sono stati esaminati gli effetti della saldatura sullecaratteristiche microstrutturali dei giunti, avvalendosi di tecniche di microscopia ottica con analisi di immagine e di microscopia elettronica in scansione (SEM con microsonda a dispersione di energia (EDS. Sono state quindi condotte prove di resilienza con pendolo strumentato Charpy. Lo studio dei meccanismi di danneggiamento è stato effettuato mediante analisi al SEM delle superfici di frattura. Entrambi i processi di saldatura hanno portato a giunti sostanzialmente esenti da difetti. La microstruttura dei cordoni è risultata dipendente sia dalle caratteristiche microstrutturali iniziali dei compositi considerati, sia dalla tipologia di processo di saldatura. Nel caso dei compositi AA6061/20%Al2O3p e AA7005/10%Al2O3p saldati FSW si è osservato un sostanziale incremento di resilienza, rispetto al materiale base, in conseguenza dell’affinamento dei grani della matrice, della riduzione della dimensione media delle particelle di rinforzo e della loro spigolosità, indotte dal processo di saldatura. Il composito AA2124/25%SiCp saldato LFW ha presentato valori di resilienza confrontabili con quelli del materiale base, in conseguenza, soprattutto, dei limitati effetti della saldatura su dimensione e distribuzione delle particelle di rinforzo.

  16. Feed Conversion, Survival and Development, and Composition of Four Insect Species on Diets Composed of Food By-Products

    OpenAIRE

    Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; van Broekhoven, Sarah; van Huis, Arnold; van Loon, Joop J. A.

    2015-01-01

    A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from byproducts of food manufacturing and formulated such as to vary in protein and fat content. These were offered to newly hatched Argentinean cockroaches, black soldier flies, yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two speci...

  17. Production of Metal-Free Composites Composed of Graphite Oxide and Oxidized Carbon Nitride Nanodots and Their Enhanced Photocatalytic Performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Yeon; Oh, Junghoon; Park, Sunghee; Shim, Yeonjun; Park, Sungjin

    2016-04-04

    A novel metal-free composite (GN) composed of two types of carbon-based nanomaterials, graphite oxide (GO) and 2D oxidized carbon nitride (OCN) nanodots was produced. Chemical and morphological characterizations reveal that GN contains a main component of GO with well-dispersed 2D OCN nanodots. GN shows enhanced photocatalytic performance for degrading an organic pollutant, Rhodamine B, under visible light. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Novel Mitochondrial Complex II Isolated from Trypanosoma cruzi Is Composed of 12 Peptides Including a Heterodimeric Ip Subunit*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Jorge; Mogi, Tatsushi; Mineki, Shigeru; Takashima, Eizo; Mineki, Reiko; Hirawake, Hiroko; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Ōmura, Satoshi; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial respiratory enzymes play a central role in energy production in aerobic organisms. They differentiated from the α-proteobacteria-derived ancestors by adding noncatalytic subunits. An exception is Complex II (succinate: ubiquinone reductase), which is composed of four α-proteobacteria-derived catalytic subunits (SDH1-SDH4). Complex II often plays a pivotal role in adaptation of parasites in host organisms and would be a potential target for new drugs. We p...

  19. A case study of the composing processes of three Bilkent first-year students in a test-taking situation

    OpenAIRE

    Akada, Tijen Kargıoğlu

    1994-01-01

    Ankara : Institute of Humanities and Letters of Bilkent University, 1994. Thesis (Master's) -- -Bilkent University, 1994. Includes bibliographical references leaves 49-51 This descriptive case study was an empirical investigation of the composing processes of students in a test-taking situation. The subjects were 3 volunteer EFL (English as a foreign language) first-year students at Bilkent University, which is an English-medium university in Turkey. The data were collected from dire...

  20. Classification of three composers' popular songs using feature vectors based on the musical score information

    OpenAIRE

    Deguchi, Sachiko; Mikamoto, Shohei; Kurose, Yoshinobu

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the extraction of features from three composers' songs and the classification of the songs by applying the NN rule with several feature vectors. The features are extracted from the score database that was built by inputting the musical score information. This research uses several 3-dimensional feature vectors that consist of the features of 5-note patterns, notes in a musical scale, intervals in a scale, and 3-note patterns in a scale. Each axis of the feature space repr...

  1. Computer Instruction in Handwriting, Spelling, and Composing for Students with Specific Learning Disabilities in Grades 4 to 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W; Nagy, William; Tanimoto, Steve; Thompson, Rob; Abbott, Robert D

    2015-02-01

    Effectiveness of iPad computerized writing instruction was evaluated for 4 th to 9 th graders ( n =35) with diagnosed specific learning disabilities (SLDs) affecting writing: dysgraphia (impaired handwriting), dyslexia (impaired spelling), and oral and written language learning disability (OWL LD) (impaired syntax composing). Each of the 18 two-hour lessons had multiple learning activities aimed at improving subword - (handwriting), word - (spelling), and syntax - (sentence composing) level language skills by engaging all four language systems (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) to create a functional writing system. To evaluate treatment effectiveness, normed measures of handwriting, spelling, and composing were used with the exception of one non-normed alphabet writing task. Results showed that the sample as a whole improved significantly from pretest to posttest in three handwriting measures, four spelling measures, and both written and oral syntax construction measures. All but oral syntax was evaluated with pen and paper tasks, showing that the computer writing instruction transferred to better writing with pen and paper. Performance on learning activities during instruction correlated with writing outcomes; and individual students tended to improve in the impaired skill associated with their diagnosis. Thus, although computers are often used in upper elementary school and middle school in the United States (US) for accommodations (alternatives to pen and paper) for students with persisting SLDs affecting writing, this study shows computers can also be used for Tier 3 instruction to improve the writing skills of students in grades 4 to 9 with history of persisting writing disabilities.

  2. Dielectric and electro-optic studies of a bimesogenic liquid crystal composed of bent-core and calamitic units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, R.; Panov, V. P.; Vij, J. K.; Shanker, G.; Tschierske, C.; Merkel, K.; Kocot, A.

    2014-09-01

    A bimesogen, BR1, composed of a bent-core and calamitic unit, linked laterally via a flexible spacer is investigated by dielectric and electro-optic techniques. X-ray results show the presence of clusters in the nematic phase, and the cluster size is of the order of the thickness of a single layer. The splitting of the small-angle scattering Δχ/2/ is about 50°, which indicates SmC like clusters with a significant tilt of the molecules in the quasilayers. The sign reversal of the dielectric anisotropy Δɛ' is observed as a function of frequency; the behavior is rather similar to that exhibited by the conventional dual frequency nematics, composed of a calamitic mesogen, with the exception that it occurs at much lower frequencies in this material. Interestingly, as the bimesogen enters its nematic phase, the average permittivity decreases as the temperature is lowered. This indicates the onset of antiparallel association of some of the dipoles in the system, and this type of association is much more prominent in BR1 in comparison to other bent-core liquid crystalline systems composed of the same bisbenzoate core unit. The analysis of the dielectric spectra using the Maier-Meier model confirms the onset of an antiparallel correlation of dipoles occurring at the isotropic to nematic phase transition temperature. Additionally these results support a model of the cluster where the transverse dipole moments in the neighboring layers are antiparalleled to each other.

  3. Computer Instruction in Handwriting, Spelling, and Composing for Students with Specific Learning Disabilities in Grades 4 to 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Nagy, William; Tanimoto, Steve; Thompson, Rob; Abbott, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Effectiveness of iPad computerized writing instruction was evaluated for 4th to 9th graders (n=35) with diagnosed specific learning disabilities (SLDs) affecting writing: dysgraphia (impaired handwriting), dyslexia (impaired spelling), and oral and written language learning disability (OWL LD) (impaired syntax composing). Each of the 18 two-hour lessons had multiple learning activities aimed at improving subword- (handwriting), word- (spelling), and syntax- (sentence composing) level language skills by engaging all four language systems (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) to create a functional writing system. To evaluate treatment effectiveness, normed measures of handwriting, spelling, and composing were used with the exception of one non-normed alphabet writing task. Results showed that the sample as a whole improved significantly from pretest to posttest in three handwriting measures, four spelling measures, and both written and oral syntax construction measures. All but oral syntax was evaluated with pen and paper tasks, showing that the computer writing instruction transferred to better writing with pen and paper. Performance on learning activities during instruction correlated with writing outcomes; and individual students tended to improve in the impaired skill associated with their diagnosis. Thus, although computers are often used in upper elementary school and middle school in the United States (US) for accommodations (alternatives to pen and paper) for students with persisting SLDs affecting writing, this study shows computers can also be used for Tier 3 instruction to improve the writing skills of students in grades 4 to 9 with history of persisting writing disabilities. PMID:25378768

  4. Cationic niosomes an effective gene carrier composed of novel spermine-derivative cationic lipids: effect of central core structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opanasopit, Praneet; Leksantikul, Lalita; Niyomtham, Nattisa; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Yingyongnarongkul, Boon-Ek

    2017-05-01

    Cationic niosomes formulated from Span 20, cholesterol (Chol) and novel spermine-based cationic lipids of multiple central core structures (di(oxyethyl)amino, di(oxyethyl)amino carboxy, 3-amino-1,2-dioxypropyl and 2-amino-1,3-dioxypropyl) were successfully prepared for improving transfection efficiency in vitro. The niosomes composed of spermine cationic lipid with central core structure of di(oxyethyl)amino revealed the highest gene transfection efficiency. To investigate the factors affecting gene transfection and cell viability including differences in the central core structures of cationic lipids, the composition of vesicles, molar ratio of cationic lipids in formulations and the weight ratio of niosomes to DNA. Cationic niosomes composed of nonionic surfactants (Span20), cholesterol and spermine-based cationic lipids of multiple central core structures were formulated. Gene transfection and cell viability were evaluated on a human cervical carcinoma cell line (HeLa cells) using pDNA encoding green fluorescent protein (pEGFP-C2). The morphology, size and charge were also characterized. High transfection efficiency was obtained from cationic niosomes composed of Span20:Chol:cationic lipid at the molar ratio of 2.5:2.5:0.5 mM. Cationic lipids with di(oxyethyl)amino as a central core structure exhibited highest transfection efficiency. In addition, there was also no serum effect on transfection efficiency. These novel cationic niosomes may constitute a good alternative carrier for gene transfection.

  5. Dielectric and electro-optic studies of a bimesogenic liquid crystal composed of bent-core and calamitic units

    OpenAIRE

    Vij, Jagdish

    2014-01-01

    PUBLISHED A bimesogen, BR1, composed of a bent-core and calamitic unit, linked laterally via a flexible spacer is investigated by dielectric and electro-optic techniques. X-ray results show the presence of clusters in the nematic phase, and the cluster size is of the order of the thickness of a single layer. The splitting of the small-angle scattering Δχ/2 is about 50°, which indicates SmC like clusters with a significant tilt of the molecules in the quasilayers. The sign reversal of the d...

  6. Tunable photocatalytic selectivity of hollow TiO2 microspheres composed of anatase polyhedra with exposed {001} facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengwei; Yu, Jiaguo; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2010-09-01

    A fluoride mediated self-transformation method is proposed for the synthesis of hollow TiO(2) microspheres (HTS) composed of anatase polyhedra with exposed ca. 20% {001} facets. Importantly, HTS exhibit tunable photocatalytic selectivity in decomposing azo dyes in water. The fluorinated HTS show preferential decomposition of methyl orange (MO) in comparison to methylene blue (MB). In contrast, the surface-modified HTS by either NaOH washing or calcinations at 600 degrees C favor decomposition of MB over MO. The surface chemistry and the surface structure at the atomic level are key factors in tuning the adsorption selectivity and, consequently, photocatalytic selectivity of HTS toward azo dyes.

  7. Donor-acceptor type blends composed of black phosphorus and C60 for solid-state optical limiters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Makai; Huang, Shutong; Dong, Ningning; Liu, Zhiwei; Gan, Fan; Wang, Jun; Chen, Yu

    2017-12-15

    Novel donor-acceptor blends composed of black phosphorus (BP) as an electron donor and C60 as an electron acceptor have been prepared and successfully embedded into a non-optically active poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) matrix producing a BP:C60/PMMA film. In contrast to C60, BP and non-annealed BP:C60 blends, annealed BP:C60 blends show a significantly enhanced optical limiting response due to the thermal-induced intermolecular charge transfer effect between BP and C60.

  8. An Electrically Conductive and Organic Solvent Vapors Detecting Composite Composed of an Entangled Network of Carbon Nanotubes Embedded in Polystyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Olejnik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A composite composed of electrically conductive entangled carbon nanotubes embedded in a polystyrene base has been prepared by the innovative procedure, when the nonwoven polystyrene filter membrane is enmeshed with carbon nanotubes. Both constituents are then interlocked by compression molding. The mechanical and electrical resistance testing show that the polymer increases nanotube network mechanical integrity, tensile strength, and the reversibility of electrical resistance in deformation cycles. Another obvious effect of the supporting polymer is the reduction of resistance temperature dependence of composite and the reproducibility of methanol vapor sensing.

  9. Guiding Young Composers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Don

    2011-01-01

    Composition is learned by discovering that musical ideas can be experienced in a variety of ways, and that new musical ideas can be created by reconfiguring learned materials in new contexts. The act of imagining, defining, and communicating unique musical ideas awakens in young people a dormant part of their brains, unlocking an awareness of the…

  10. Composing for Energy Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schick, Lea

    Rising energy consumption, access to fossil fuels, and not least climate issues have put energy infrastructures on the agenda in many parts of the world. How to redesign electricity infrastructures in ways that ensure stable, affordable and ‘clean’ energy production? Denmark has set the ambitious...... goal to show the world that it is possible to replace all fossil fuels (including for transport and heating) with renewable energy, primarily wind, and thus become CO2–neutral before 2050. An integral part of a ‘green transition’ in Demark, and in many other countries, is a so-called smart grid, which...... can handle distributed energy production and ensure ‘flexible electricity consumption’. The smart energy infrastructure should ensure that electricity is consumed as the wind blows and it thus designates new forms of involvement of end users. Whereas the current electricity infrastructure has been...

  11. Composing Interfering Abstract Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    system by discussing how our core shared memory protocol framework is capable of expressing safe, typeful message-passing idioms . Next, we briefly...ends with discussions of expressiveness , related work, and conclusions. 1.1 Preliminaries: Language Overview Our language supports fork/join concurrency...the expressiveness of the full language , how we can model some high-level synchronization mechanisms, and clarify modularity gains when compared to

  12. The Devil's Composer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter Ole; Laurberg, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Research and interview-based text concerning the art, music and life of controversial 60s psychedelic cult figure Bobby Beausoleil. The article traces Beausoleil's personal story and offers a historical analysis of his most recent musical and artistic output (1980-2013)....

  13. Image color reduction method for color-defective observers using a color palette composed of 20 particular colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a color enhancement method that uses a color palette especially designed for protan and deutan defects, commonly known as red-green color blindness. The proposed color reduction method is based on a simple color mapping. Complicated computation and image processing are not required by using the proposed method, and the method can replace protan and deutan confusion (p/d-confusion) colors with protan and deutan safe (p/d-safe) colors. Color palettes for protan and deutan defects proposed by previous studies are composed of few p/d-safe colors. Thus, the colors contained in these palettes are insufficient for replacing colors in photographs. Recently, Ito et al. proposed a p/dsafe color palette composed of 20 particular colors. The author demonstrated that their p/d-safe color palette could be applied to image color reduction in photographs as a means to replace p/d-confusion colors. This study describes the results of the proposed color reduction in photographs that include typical p/d-confusion colors, which can be replaced. After the reduction process is completed, color-defective observers can distinguish these confusion colors.

  14. The Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Graft Copolymers Composed of γ-PGA Backbone and Oligoesters Pendant Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecień, Iwona; Radecka, Iza; Kowalczuk, Marek; Jelonek, Katarzyna; Orchel, Arkadiusz; Adamus, Grażyna

    2017-10-01

    The novel copolymers composed of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) and oligoesters have been developed. The structures of the obtained copolymers including variety of end groups were determined at the molecular level with the aid of electrospray ionization multistage mass spectrometry (ESI-MSn). The fragmentation experiment performed for the selected sodium adducts of the copolymers confirmed that the developed methods lead to the formation of graft copolymers composed of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) backbone and oligoesters pendant chains. Moreover, it was established that fragmentation of selected sodium adducts of graft copolymers proceeded via random breakage of amide bonds along the backbone and ester bonds of the oligoesters pendant chains. Considering potential applications of the synthesized copolymers in the area of biomaterials, the hydrolytic degradation under laboratory conditions and in vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed. The ESI-MSn technique applied in this study has been proven to be a useful tool in structural studies of novel graft copolymers as well as their degradation products. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Void and cavity determination in micro-PIXE analysis of composed material using binocular detectors: A computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami Hatam, Ebrahim

    2017-08-01

    This study presents a new method to determine the location, size and depth of the pores in the material that is based on the asymmetry in the X-ray yield induced by proton micro-beam acquired in samples by a pair of X-ray detectors. Most of the samples have cavities within their structures that may affect the quantitative elemental concentration. Although, there are several methods to measure the porosity that are based on a physical fact. Here, we demonstrate a study that is based on the lack of X-ray absorption induced by proton along the void region. In fact, we have different X-ray absorption along the sample which results in asymmetry X-ray yield in two spectrometers positioned at backward of the probing beam. The presented approach introduces an asymmetry factor of the X-ray intensity in each of the detector to obtain an image asymmetry map. Our calculation was employed on silicon-based devices to estimate the size of the proposed cavity and the localized depth of the hole in composed material in micro-PIXE analysis. It was deduced that the presented approach is sensitive to the depth and the size of the hole in the composed material.

  16. The construction of 3D-engineered tissues composed of cells and extracellular matrices by hydrogel template approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsusaki, Michiya; Yoshida, Hiroaki; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2007-06-01

    The three-dimensional (3D)-engineered tissues composed of only cells and extracellular matrices (ECM) were constructed by the hydrogel template approach. The disulfide-crosslinked poly(gamma-glutamic acid) hydrogels were prepared as a template hydrogel. These template hydrogels were easily decomposed under physiological conditions using reductants such as cysteine, glutathione and dithiothreitol by cleavage of disulfide crosslinkage to thiol groups. The decomposed polymers are soluble in cell culture medium. The cleaving of disulfide bond was determined by UV-vis and FT-IR spectroscopies. We successfully prepared the 3D-engineered tissues (thickness/diameter, 2mm/1cm) composed of mouse L929 fibroblast cells and ECM by the decomposition of only the template hydrogel with cysteine after 10 days 3D-cell culture on/in the template hydrogel. The size and thickness of the 3D-engineered tissues was completely transferred from the template hydrogel. The cultured L929 cells viability in the obtained engineered tissues was confirmed by a culture test, WST-1 method and LIVE/DEAD staining assay. The engineered tissue was self-standing and highly dense composite of the cultured cells and collagen produced by the cells. This hydrogel template approach may be useful as a new class of soft-tissue engineering technology to substitute a synthetic polymer scaffold to the ECM scaffold produced from the cultured cells.

  17. Student Appropriation of Writing Lessons through Hybrid Composing Practices: Direct, Diffuse, and Indirect Use of Teacher-Offered Writing Tools in an ESL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranker, Jason

    2009-01-01

    This is a qualitative case study (conducted in an urban, public school classroom in the United States) of the collaborative composing processes of two groups of first-grade students designated as English Language Learners (ELLs) as they wrote in a writing workshop context. I focused on a specific type of the students' hybrid composing practices:…

  18. A Comparison of the Approaches of Generalizability Theory and Item Response Theory in Estimating the Reliability of Test Scores for Testlet-Composed Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guemin; Park, In-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Previous assessments of the reliability of test scores for testlet-composed tests have indicated that item-based estimation methods overestimate reliability. This study was designed to address issues related to the extent to which item-based estimation methods overestimate the reliability of test scores composed of testlets and to compare several…

  19. Three-Dimensional Porous Particles Composed of Curved, Two-Dimensional, Nano-Sized Layers for Li-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushin, Gleb; Evanoff, Kara; Magasinski, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Thin Si films coated on porous 3D particles composed of curved 2D graphene sheets have been synthesized utilizing techniques that allow for tunable properties. Since graphene exhibits specific surface area up to 100 times higher than carbon black or graphite, the deposition of the same mass of Si on graphene is much faster in comparison -- a factor which is important for practical applications. In addition, the distance between graphene layers is tunable and variation in the thickness of the deposited Si film is feasible. Both of these characteristics allow for optimization of the energy and power characteristics. Thicker films will allow higher capacity, but slower rate capabilities. Thinner films will allow more rapid charging, or higher power performance. In this innovation, uniform deposition of Si and C layers on high-surface area graphene produced granules with specific surface area (SSA) of 5 sq. m/g.

  20. Test equipment for a flywheel energy storage system using a magnetic bearing composed of superconducting coils and superconducting bulks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, M.; Matsue, H.; Yamashita, T.; Hasegawa, H.; Nagashima, K.; Maeda, T.; Matsuoka, T.; Mukoyama, S.; Shimizu, H.; Horiuchi, S.

    2016-05-01

    Energy storage systems are necessary for renewable energy sources such as solar power in order to stabilize their output power, which fluctuates widely depending on the weather. Since ‘flywheel energy storage systems’ (FWSSs) do not use chemical reactions, they do not deteriorate due to charge or discharge. This is an advantage of FWSSs in applications for renewable energy plants. A conventional FWSS has capacity limitation because of the mechanical bearings used to support the flywheel. Therefore, we have designed a superconducting magnetic bearing composed of a superconducting coil stator and a superconducting bulk rotor in order to solve this problem, and have experimentally manufactured a large scale FWSS with a capacity of 100 kWh and an output power of 300 kW. The superconducting magnetic bearing can levitate 4 tons and enables the flywheel to rotate smoothly. A performance confirmation test will be started soon. An overview of the superconducting FWSS is presented in this paper.

  1. Informative, Compare and Contrast, and Persuasive Essay Composing of Fifth and Seventh Graders: Not All Essay Writing Is the Same.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Matt; Berninger, Virginia

    2016-07-01

    Typically developing writers in fifth (n = 110, M = 10 years 8 months) or seventh (n = 97, M = 12 years 7 months) grade wrote informative, compare and contrast, and persuasive essays for which the content was held constant-two mountains with a history of volcanic eruption. Relevant background knowledge was provided by reading text and showing colorful illustrations to the students before writing each genre. Results showed considerable variability between genre pairs within and across individual writers in content quality, organization quality, and length. Results, which support multiple expository genres, are consistent with prior research showing multiple genres (narrative vs. expository or even within narrative). Results are discussed in reference to the importance of assessing multiple genres in inferring composing expertise as emphasized by Olinghouse and colleagues.

  2. Long-wavelength optical properties of a plasmonic crystal composed of end-to-end nanorod dimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Q. Yu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We theoretically investigate the long-wavelength optical properties of a plasmonic crystal composed of end-to-end gold nanorod dimers. The strong coupling between incident light and the electron oscillations inside the nanorods gives rise to a plasmon polariton, which can be analogous to the phonon polariton in an ionic crystal. Huang-Kun-like equations are employed to explore the underlying physical mechanism for both symmetrical and asymmetrical geometries. In the long wavelength limit, the macroscopic dielectric response of the proposed structure is deduced analytically. The polariton dispersion curve shows a typical anticrossing profile in the strong coupling regime and adjacent branches are separated by a Rabi splitting. The resultant polaritonic stop band is validated by the numerical simulations.

  3. Bose–Einstein condensation and liquid–gas phase transition in strongly interacting matter composed of α particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satarov, L. M.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Motornenko, A.; Vovchenko, V.; Mishustin, I. N.; Stoecker, H.

    2017-12-01

    Systems of Bose particles with both repulsive and attractive interactions are studied using the Skyrme-like mean-field model. The phase diagram of such systems exhibits two special lines in the chemical potential-temperature plane: one line which represents the first-order liquid–gas phase transition with the critical end point, and another line which represents the onset of Bose–Einstein condensation. The calculations are made for strongly interacting matter composed of α particles. The phase diagram of this matter is qualitatively similar to that observed for the atomic 4He liquid. The sensitivity of the results to the model parameters is studied. For weak interaction coupling, the critical point is located at the Bose-condensation line.

  4. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehring, Tobias; Haendchen, Vitus; Duhme, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    -of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our......Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State...... with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components....

  5. Effective Beginning Handwriting Instruction: Multi-modal, Consistent Format for 2 Years, and Linked to Spelling and Composing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Beverly; Abbott, Robert D; Berninger, Virginia W

    2017-02-01

    In Study 1, the treatment group ( N = 33 first graders, M = 6 years 10 months, 16 girls) received Slingerland multi-modal (auditory, visual, tactile, motor through hand, and motor through mouth) manuscript (unjoined) handwriting instruction embedded in systematic spelling, reading, and composing lessons; and the control group ( N =16 first graders, M = 7 years 1 month, 7 girls) received manuscript handwriting instruction not systematically related to the other literacy activities. ANOVA showed both groups improved on automatic alphabet writing from memory; but ANCOVA with the automatic alphabet writing task as covariate showed that the treatment group improved significantly more than control group from the second to ninth month of first grade on dictated spelling and recognition of word-specific spellings among phonological foils. In Study 2 new groups received either a second year of manuscript ( N = 29, M = 7 years 8 months, 16 girls) or introduction to cursive (joined) instruction in second grade ( N = 24, M = 8 years 0 months, 11 girls) embedded in the Slingerland literacy program. ANCOVA with automatic alphabet writing as covariate showed that those who received a second year of manuscript handwriting instruction improved more on sustained handwriting over 30, 60, and 90 seconds than those who had had only one year of manuscript instruction; both groups improved in spelling and composing from the second to ninth month of second grade. Results are discussed in reference to mastering one handwriting format before introducing another format at a higher grade level and always embedding handwriting instruction in writing and reading instruction aimed at all levels of language.

  6. Electrochemical H2O2biosensor composed of myoglobin on MoS2nanoparticle-graphene oxide hybrid structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jinho; Lee, Taek; Bapurao G, Bharate; Jo, Jinhee; Oh, Byung-Keun; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2017-07-15

    In this research, the electrochemical biosensor composed of myoglobin (Mb) on molybdenum disulfide nanoparticles (MoS 2 NP) encapsulated with graphene oxide (GO) was fabricated for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). Hybrid structure composed of MoS 2 NP and GO (GO@MoS 2 ) was fabricated for the first time to enhance the electrochemical signal of the biosensor. As a sensing material, Mb was introduced to fabricate the biosensor for H 2 O 2 detection. Formation and immobilization of GO@MoS 2 was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Immobilization of Mb, and electrochemical property of biosensor were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and amperometric i-t measurements. Fabricated biosensor showed the electrochemical signal enhanced redox current as -1.86μA at an oxidation potential and 1.95μA at a reduction potential that were enhanced relative to those of electrode prepared without GO@MoS 2 . Also, this biosensor showed the reproducibility of electrochemical signal, and retained the property until 9 days from fabrication. Upon addition of H 2 O 2 , the biosensor showed enhanced amperometric response current with selectivity relative to that of the biosensor prepared without GO@MoS 2 . This novel hybrid material-based biosensor can suggest a milestone in the development of a highly sensitive detecting platform for biosensor fabrication with highly sensitive detection of target molecules other than H 2 O 2 . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Construction of tissue-engineered cornea composed of amniotic epithelial cells and acellular porcine cornea for treating corneal alkali burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hailang; Lu, Yongbo; Wu, Tiantian; Zhang, Mi; Zhang, Yongjie; Jin, Yan

    2013-09-01

    Although acellular corneas have been reported to be a potential substitute for allogeneic cornea transplantation to treat corneal injury, severe corneal injury is hard to repair due to inflammation and neovascularization. The use of the amniotic membrane as a graft in ocular surface reconstruction has become widespread because of the anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties of amniotic epithelial cells (AECs). Our objective was to construct a tissue-engineered cornea (TEC) composed of an acellular porcine cornea (APC) and AECs to repair severe corneal injury. Corneal cells were completely removed from the prepared APC, and the microstructure, mechanical properties, and stability of a natural porcine cornea (NPC) was maintained. In vitro, MTT and flow cytometry analyses showed that the APC did not negatively affect cell viability and apoptosis. In vivo, corneal pocket and subcutaneous transplantation demonstrated that the APC was incapable of trigging accepted immune response. AECs isolated from the human amniotic membrane have proliferation potential and present healthy morphology before 6 passages. After 7 days of culture on the surface of the APC, the AECs were stratified into 5-6 layers. We found that the AECs reconstituted the basement membrane that had been disrupted by the decellularization process. ELISA results showed that after culturing the TEC, the culture medium contained anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic growth factors, such as MIF, IL6, Fas-L, and PDEF. Finally, the results of lamellar keratoplasty to treat an alkali burn showed that the transplanted TEC was transparent and completely inoculated into the host cornea. However, the transplanted APC was degraded due to host rejection. Therefore, we conclude that a TEC composed of AECs and an APC holds great potential for the repair of severe corneal injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. DNA association-enhanced physical stability of catanionic vesicles composed of ion pair amphiphile with double-chain cationic surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung; Chang, Chien-Hsiang

    2014-09-01

    Physical stability control of vesicle/DNA complexes is a key issue for the development of catanionic vesicles composed of ion pair amphiphile (IPA) as DNA carriers. In this work, physical stability characteristics of the complexes of DNA with positively charged catanionic vesicles composed of an IPA and a double-chain cationic surfactant, dihexadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DHDAB), were explored. It was found that in water, the mixed IPA/DHDAB catanionic vesicles became stable when the mole fraction of DHDAB (xDHDAB) was increased up to 0.5. The improved physical stability of the vesicles with a high xDHDAB could be related to the enhanced electrostatic interaction between the vesicles. When the catanionic vesicles interacted with DNA, excellent physical stability was detected for the vesicle/DNA complexes especially with a high xDHDAB. However, this could not be fully explained by the electrostatic interaction effect, and the role of molecular packing within the vesicular bilayers was apparently important. The corresponding Langmuir monolayer study demonstrated that the molecular packing of mixed IPA/DHDAB layers became ordered with DNA association due to inhibited desorption of the positively charged moiety of the IPA. Moreover, the DNA association-induced improvement in the molecular packing of the mixed IPA/DHDAB layers became pronounced with increased xDHDAB. The results imply that one can fabricate catanionic vesicle/DNA complexes with excellent physical stability through the improved molecular packing in the IPA vesicular bilayers with DHDAB addition and DNA association. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Imaging of caspase-3 activation by a novel FRET probe composed of CFP and DsRed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Juquiang; Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Bifeng; Luo, Qingming

    2006-01-01

    Caspases-3 is a kind of cysteine proteases and plays an important role in cell apoptosis. It has been reported that caspase-3 activation can be real-time detected in living cells by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between an enhanced cyan fluorescent protein and enhanced yellow fluorescent protein. However, the large spectral overlap between cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) emission and the highly sensitivity to pH of YFP restricted their detecting sensitivity and reliability. CFP and red fluorescent protein (DsRed) possess superb wavelength separation of donor and acceptor emission spectra and DsRed was insensitive to pH, so the FRET probe composed of CFP and DsRed would be more suitable for imaging caspase-3 activation than the FRET probe composed of CFP and YFP. We constructed a vector that encoded CRS (caspase-3 recognition site) fused with CFP and DsRed (CFP-CRS-DsRed). In CFP-CRS-DsRed expressing tumor cells, FRET from CFP to DsRed could be detected. In the Clinical applications of cancer chemotherapy, cisplatin is one of the most broadly used drugs. It was already confirmed that caspase-3 was activated in HeLa cell treated by cisplatin. When the cells were stimulated with cisplatin, we found that the FRET efficient was remarkably decreased and then disappeared. It indicated that actived caspase-3 cleaved the CFP-CRS-DsRed fusion protein at CRS site. Thus, the FRET probe of CFP-CRS-DsRed could sensitively and reliably monitor caspase-3 activation in living cell. This probe will be highly useful for rapid-screening potential drugs that may target the apoptotic process and for imaging tumors in vivo.

  10. A novel liquid/liquid extraction process composed of surfactant and acetonitrile for purification of polygalacturonase enzyme from Durio zibethinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Yazid; Azmira, Farhana; Hussin, Muhaini; Sarker, Zaidul Islam

    2015-07-01

    Polygalacturonase is one of the important enzymes used in various industries such as food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, pulp and paper. A novel liquid/liquid extraction process composed of surfactant and acetonitrile was employed for the first time to purify polygalacturonase from Durio zibethinus. The influences of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, concentrations of acetonitrile and composition of surfactant/acetonitrile on partitioning behavior and recovery of polygalacturonase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of pH of system and crude load on purification fold and yield of purified polygalacturonase were studied. The results of the experiment indicated the polygalacturonase was partitioned into surfactant top rich phase with impurities being partitioned into acetonitrile bottom rich phase in the novel method of liquid/liquid process composed of 23% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 19% (w/w) acetonitrile, at 55.6% of TLL (tie line length) crude load of 25% (w/w) at pH 6.0. Recovery and recycling of components also was measured in each successive step of liquid/liquid extraction process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the method with a high purification factor of 14.3 and yield of 97.3% while phase components were also recovered and recycled above 95%. This study demonstrated that the novel method of liquid/liquid extraction process can be used as an efficient and economical extraction method rather than the traditional methods of extraction for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of diseases, drugs, and chemicals on the creativity and productivity of famous sculptors, classic painters, classic music composers, and authors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolf, Paul L

    2005-01-01

    ... music composers, and authors. To emphasize the importance of a modern clinical chemistry laboratory and hematology coagulation laboratory in interpreting the basis for the creativity and productivity of various artists...

  12. An artificial photosynthesis anode electrode composed of a nanoparticulate photocatalyst film in a visible light responsive GaN-ZnO solid solution system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yoshihiko Imanaka; Toshihisa Anazawa; Toshio Manabe; Hideyuki Amada; Sachio Ido; Fumiaki Kumasaka; Naoki Awaji; Gabriel Sánchez-santolino; Ryo Ishikawa; Yuichi Ikuhara

    2016-01-01

    ... and environmental technology. The key component for the higher efficiency of this reaction system is the anode electrode, generally composed of a photocatalyst formed on a glass substrate from electrically conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO...

  13. Freestanding membrane composed of micro-ring array with ultrahigh sidewall aspect ratio for application in lightweight cathode arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lanlan [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Liu, Hongzhong, E-mail: hzliu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Jiang, Weitao, E-mail: wtjiang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Gao, Wei [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disasters and Environment, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen, Bangdao [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Li, Xin [Department of Microelectronics, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Ding, Yucheng [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); An, Ningli [Department of Packaging Engineering, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: A freestanding multilayer ultrathin nano-membrane (FUN-membrane) with a micro-ring array (MRA), in which the dimension of each micro-ring is 3 μm in diameter, 2 μm in height and sub-100 nm in sidewall thickness is successfully fabricated, as shown in the SEM image of figure (a). Due to the MRA with ultrahigh aspect ratio of dielectric-metal sidewall, the FUN-membrane can be transferred to either rigid or flexible substrate to be used as the cathode for lightweight display panel, as shown in the schematic of figure (b). - Highlights: • Exploring a new fabrication method for the freestanding ultrathin nano-membrane (FUN-membrane). • FUN-membrane is composed of micro-ring array with ultrahigh aspect ratio of the insulator-metal sidewall. • The sharp metal edge of each micro-ring is preferred to be served as the micro-emitter. - Abstract: A freestanding multilayer ultrathin nano-membrane (FUN-membrane) with a micro-ring array (MRA) is successfully fabricated through the controllable film deposition. Each micro-ring of FUN-membrane is 3 μm in diameter, 2 μm in height and sub-100 nm in sidewall thickness, demonstrating an ultrahigh sidewall aspect ratio of 20:1. In our strategy, a silica layer (200 nm in thickness), a chromium transition layer (5 nm-thick) and a gold layer (40 nm-thick), were in sequence deposited on patterned photoresist. After removal of the photoresist by lift-off process, a FUN-membrane with MRA was peeled off from the substrate, where the gold layer acted as a protecting layer to prevent the MRA from fracture. The FUN-membrane was then transferred to a flexible polycarbonate (PC) sheet coated with indium tin oxide (ITO) layer, which was then used as a flexible and lightweight cathode. Remarkably, the field emission effect of the fabricated FUN-membrane cathode performs a high field-enhancement factor of 1.2 × 10{sup 4} and a low turn-on voltage of 2 V/μm, indicating the advantages of the sharp metal edge of MRA. Due

  14. Ovaries of the white worm (Enchytraeus albidus, Annelida, Clitellata) are composed of 16-celled meroistic germ-line cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbisz, Anna Z; Chajec, Łukasz; Brąszewska-Zalewska, Agnieszka; Kubrakiewicz, Janusz; Świątek, Piotr

    2017-06-01

    The paired ovaries of E. albidus are like a bunch of grapes and are composed of clearly separated units, syncytial germ cysts (clusters), which are surrounded by a thin layer of somatic cells. Each cyst maintains the connection with the ovary by an extended stalk that is composed of somatic cells. The spatial architecture of the germ-line cysts found in E. albidus is the same as in other clitellate annelids that have been studied to date. As a rule, germ cells are located at the cyst periphery and each has only one ring canal that connects it to the common and centrally located cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore. Here we present data about the F-actin and microtubular cytoskeleton and some molecular components of the germ-line cysts. We show that the ring canals have an inner rim that is enriched with microfilaments and proteins that contain phosphotyrosine. The microtubules form a loose network in the cytoplasm of the oocyte and nurse cells; moreover, some of them pass through the ring canals to the cytophore. Numerous microtubules are also located in the somatic cells. The germ-line cysts in E. albidus ovaries consist of 16 cells, which is the lowest known number of interconnected germ cells within clitellate annelids. During oogenesis, the fate of interconnected germ cells differentiates and only one cell develops as the future egg, while the other 15 become nurse cells. This differentiation means ovary meroism. The nurse cells gather cell organelles and storage material that then pass through the ring canals and cytophore moving towards the growing oocyte. At the end of oogenesis, the vitellogenic oocyte surrounds the siblings' cells together with the cytophore and engulfs their remnants into the ooplasm. No morphological or molecular markers of the apoptosis of the nurse cells were found. Moreover, the nurse cells did not undergo polyploidisation. The measured DNA level was 4C, which indicates that these cells are not highly-specialised. Copyright © 2017

  15. Known symptoms and diseases of a number of classical European composers during 17th and 20th century in relation with their artistic musical expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Zuskin, Eugenija; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Janev-Holcer, Natasa; Rudan, Pavao; Milosević, Milan

    2011-12-01

    Medical history and relationship to the medical conditions as well as to the music creativity and productivity of some of the classical European composers have been described. In this review article we analyzed their illnesses as well as association between physical or mental diseases and their creativity and adaptability to disease. Some classical composers suffered from organic diseases, while others complained of mental disturbances. However, in spite of their disorders, the intensity of their creativity mostly remained unchanged.

  16. Reception of Stevan Stojanović Mokranjac’s composing creativity in the musical life of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Austro-Hungarian period

    OpenAIRE

    Paćuka Lana

    2014-01-01

    With the arrival of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, Bosnia and Herzegovina encountered Western European social trends, which affected the shaping of musical life physiognomy in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. In this extremely intricate relationship between national and pro-European-oriented cultural trends, Serbian composer Stevan Stojanović Mokranjac had a special position as a unique musical phenomenon, since he was a composer whose music...

  17. Reason for high strength and good ductility in dual phase steels composed of soft ferrite and hard martensite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Daisuke; Ikeda, Gosuke; Park, Myeong-heom; Shibata, Akinobu; Tsuji, Nobuhiro

    2017-07-01

    Dual phase (DP) steels in which the microstructures are composed of a soft ferrite phase and a hard martensite phase are known to show good strain-hardening, high strength and large elongation, but reasons for their superior mechanical properties are still unclear. In the present study, two types of DP structures, having either networked martensite or isolated martensite were fabricated in a low-carbon steel by different heat treatment routes, and their tensile deformation behavior was analyzed using the digital image correlation (DIC) technique. It was revealed that the DP specimens having networked martensite microstructures showed a better strength-ductility balance than the DP specimens with isolated martensite structures. The microscopic DIC analysis of identical areas showed that the strain distribution within the DP microstructures was not uniform and the plastic strain was localized in soft ferrite grains. The strain localized regions tended to detour around hard martensite but eventually propagated across the martensite. It was found also from the DIC analysis that the degree of strain partitioning between ferrite and martensite in the networked DP structure was lower than that in the isolated DP structure. The deformation became more homogeneous when the hard phase (martensite) was connected to form a network structure, which could be one of the reasons for the better strength-ductility balance in the networked DP structure compared to that in the isolated DP structure.

  18. Readying Cavalli's operas for the classroom: textbooks, editions, and the teaching of a non-canonic composer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Holzer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available My title pays homage to a recent volume of essays edited by Ellen Rosand and devoted to the scholarship and performance of Francesco Cavalli’s operas. Yet if love of wordplay inspired it, coincidence confirmed it. The volume appeared in print just months after my own foray into editing, albeit of a very different kind. I had been asked to prepare one of the volumes of The Oxford Anthology of Western Music, specifically the part that deals with Baroque music. As its title suggests, the anthology accompanies The Oxford History of Western Music: College Edition, the one-volume abridgement of Richard Taruskin’s five-volume behemoth prepared by Christopher H. Gibbs. I was charged with assembling scores of the works discussed therein and writing commentary on them, based on Taruskin’s own in the larger text. While I was left free to do as I pleased with the latter, such was not the case with the former. Thus music after 1700 occupies more pages than that before 1700, and the earlier repertory features some notable lacunae. That one of the biggest is Francesco Cavalli comes as no surprise, for in the course of the more than 3,800 pages of Taruskin’s original the composer receives exactly three sentences.

  19. Investigation of Annealing and Blend Concentration Effects of Organic Solar Cells Composed of Small Organic Dye and Fullerene Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser A. M. Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using coumarin 6 (C6 as a small organic dye, for light harvesting and electron donation, with fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM, acting as an electron acceptor, by spin-coating technique. We have investigated thermal annealing and blend concentration effects on light harvesting, photocurrent, and performance parameters of the solar cells. In this work, we introduced an experimental method by which someone can easily detect the variation in the contact between active layer and cathode due to thermal annealing after cathode deposition. We have showed, in this work, unusual behavior of solar cell composed of small organic molecules under the influence of thermal annealing at different conditions. This behavior seemed uncommon for polymer solar cells. We try from this work to understand device physics and to locate a relationship between production parameters and performance parameters of the solar cell based on small organic molecules.

  20. Numerical analysis of complex impedance and microwave absorption of metamaterials composed of split cut wires on grounded dielectric substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jun-Hee; Liu, Tian; Kim, Sung-Soo

    2014-06-01

    The microwave absorption of metamaterials composed of split cut wire (SCW) on grounded dielectric substrate has been investigated on the basis of equivalent transmission line circuit. S-parameters (S 11 and S 21) and input impedance are numerically simulated with variations of the thickness and dielectric loss of the substrate and the geometry of the SCW. Magnetic resonance resulting from antiparallel currents between SCW and ground plane was observed at the frequency of minimum reflection loss. The simulated resonance frequency and reflection loss can be explained well on the basis of the circuit theory of an LC resonator. Analysis of the input impedance of the high impedance surface has shown that perfect absorption can be obtained at the optimized impedance-matching condition, which is dependent on SCW width, thickness and the dielectric loss of the substrate. Better insight into the absorption mechanism of metamaterial absorbers can be attained through the parametric analysis on complex impedance of SCW and its relationship with reflection loss.

  1. Dual-band microwave absorption properties of metamaterial absorber composed of split ring resonator on carbonyl iron powder composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jun-Hee; Ryu, Yo-Han; Kim, Sung-Soo

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the dual-band absorption properties of metamaterial absorbers composed of a split ring resonator (SRR) on a grounded magnetic substrate. Polymer composites of carbonyl iron powders (CIP) of high permeability and magnetic loss were used as the substrate material. Computational tools were used to model the interaction between electromagnetic waves and materials with the SRR structure. For perpendicular polarization with an electric field (E) perpendicular to the SRR gap, dualband absorption peaks are predicted in the simulation result of reflection loss. Magnetic resonance resulting from antiparallel currents between the SRR and the ground plane is observed at the frequencies of two absorption peaks. The first strong absorption peak at the lower frequency (3.3 GHz) is due to magnetic resonance at the wire part of the SRR. The second absorption peak at the higher frequency (7.2 GHz) is due to magnetic resonance at the SRR split gap. The decreased capacitance with increased gap spacing moves the second absorption frequency to higher frequencies, while the first absorption peak is invariant with gap spacing. In the case of dual gaps at the opposite sides of the SRR, a single absorption peak is predicted due to the elimination of low-frequency resonance. For parallel polarization with the E-field parallel to the SRR gap, a single absorption peak is predicted, corresponding to magnetic resonance at the SRR wire.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. The HU regulon is composed of genes responding to anaerobiosis, acid stress, high osmolarity and SOS induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Oberto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Escherichia coli heterodimeric HU protein is a small DNA-bending protein associated with the bacterial nucleoid. It can introduce negative supercoils into closed circular DNA in the presence of topoisomerase I. Cells lacking HU grow very poorly and display many phenotypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed the transcription profile of every Escherichia coli gene in the absence of one or both HU subunits. This genome-wide in silico transcriptomic approach, performed in parallel with in vivo genetic experimentation, defined the HU regulon. This large regulon, which comprises 8% of the genome, is composed of four biologically relevant gene classes whose regulation responds to anaerobiosis, acid stress, high osmolarity, and SOS induction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The regulation a large number of genes encoding enzymes involved in energy metabolism and catabolism pathways by HU explains the highly pleiotropic phenotype of HU-deficient cells. The uniform chromosomal distribution of the many operons regulated by HU strongly suggests that the transcriptional and nucleoid architectural functions of HU constitute two aspects of a unique protein-DNA interaction mechanism.

  3. A simple expression for the normal spectral emittance of open-cell foams composed of optically thick and smooth struts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guévelou, Simon; Rousseau, Benoit; Domingues, Gilberto; Vicente, Jérôme

    2017-03-01

    A set of 96 open-cell foams with growing porosities (0.35-0.95) and growing pore nominal diameters (0.4-2.6 mm) was artificially generated to firmly connect their normal spectral emittances to their textural features. This work is strictly focused on foams that are composed of opaque struts with optically smooth surfaces. To compute the normal spectral emittances, a Monte Carlo Ray Tracing code was carefully used through an indirect method based on Kirchhoff's laws. The Monte Carlo Ray Tracing code considers the complex refractive index of the solid phase constituting the struts foams. Particular attention is therefore paid to performing the calculation with absorption indices (0.5-8) that preserve the opacity of each strut. From a thorough analysis of the ray transport within all the foams, where the Representative Elementary Volumes used for computing the homogenized radiative properties were known beforehand, a general and simple law is established that connects the normal spectral emittance, on the one hand, and the open porosity and the complex index of refraction, on the other hand. In the field of the thermal conversion of solar energy, for example, the new law gives relevant insight on the radiative performance of highly porous foams that are virtually coated with materials that are known for possessing an undeniable spectral selectivity when they are shaped as dense samples.

  4. Carbon hybrid fillers composed of carbon nanotubes directly grown on graphene nanoplatelets for effective thermal conductivity in epoxy composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lan; Park, Ji Sun; Lim, Yun-Soo; Lee, Churl Seung; Shin, Kwonwoo; Moon, Ho Jun; Yang, Cheol-Min; Lee, Young Sil; Han, Jong Hun

    2013-03-26

    Carbon nanomaterials are generally used to promote the thermal conductivity of polymer composites. However, individual graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) or carbon nanotubes (CNTs) limit the realization of the desirable thermal conductivity of the composite in both through- and in-plane directions. In this work, we present the thermal conductivity enhancement of the epoxy composite with carbon hybrid fillers composed of CNTs directly grown on the GNP support. The composite with 20 wt% hybrid filler loading showed 300% and 50% through-plane thermal conductivity improvements in comparison with the individual CNTs and GNPs, respectively. Moreover, it showed an enhanced thermal conductivity of up to 12% higher than that of the simply mixed GNP and CNT fillers. In more detail, hybrid fillers, whose CNTs were synthesized on the GNP support (Support C, Fe/Mo-MgO:GNP=1:0.456) for 60 min via chemical vapor deposition process, presented the highest through-plane thermal conductivity of 2.41 W m(-1) K(-1) in an epoxy composite.

  5. Multiple magnetic resonance and microwave absorption of metamaterial absorbers composed of double split ring resonators on grounded carbonyl iron composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jun-Hee; Kim, Sung-Soo

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates the triple-band absorption properties of metamaterial absorbers composed of a double split ring resonator (DSRR) on a grounded magnetic substrate of carbonyl iron powders. Computational tools are used to model the interaction between electromagnetic waves and the metamaterial structure. For perpendicular polarization with the electric field perpendicular to the SRR gap, triple-band absorption peaks are predicted in the simulation result of reflection loss. Magnetic resonance resulting from antiparallel currents between the upper DSRR and the lower ground plane is identified at the frequencies of the absorption peaks. The orientation of the two resonators influences the absorption characteristics, especially in the second and third peaks where the coupling between the inner SRR and outer SRR is strong. The current density distribution indicates that the two resonators oriented in the same direction achieve reduced coupling between them, which results in two absorption frequencies close to each other. For parallel polarization with the electric field parallel to the SRR gap, this study predicts dual-band absorption peaks corresponding to the magnetic resonance at the SRR wire.

  6. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed particles composed of NaCl and water-soluble organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorai, Suman; Wang, Bingbing; Tivanski, Alexei; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric aging of naturally emitted marine aerosol often leads to formation of internally mixed particles composed of sea salts and water-soluble organic compounds of anthropogenic origin. Mixing of sea salt and organic components has profound effects on the evolving chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of the resulted particles, which are poorly understood. Here, we have studied chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of laboratory generated NaCl particles mixed with malonic acid (MA) and glutaric acid (GA) at different molar ratios using micro-FTIR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray elemental microanalysis. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed NaCl and organic acid particles were distinctly different from pure components and varied significantly with the type and amount of organic compound present. Experimental results were in a good agreement with the AIM modeling calculations of gas/liquid/solid partitioning in studied systems. X-ray elemental microanalysis of particles showed that Cl/Na ratio decreased with increasing organic acid component in the particles with MA yielding lower ratios relative to GA. We attribute the depletion of chloride to the formation of sodium malonate and sodium glutarate salts resulted by HCl evaporation from dehydrating particles.

  7. Essential questions: accuracy, errors and user perceptions in a drag/drop user-composable electronic health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senathirajah, Yalini; Kaufman, David; Bakken, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    In previous work we have described the creation and user testing of a drag/drop user-composable electronic health record, MedWISE. Any new design poses new potential problems; here we discuss the accuracy, potential for new types of errors, and user reactions to the approach, including their perceptions of ease of use and usefulness. Our results come from a mixed methods laboratory study with 18 clinicians at a large academic medical center. 12 used MedWISE and 6 used the conventional system. MedWISE users had comparable assessment accuracy to use of the conventional system, low (1/10) risk of diagnosis momentum error, and overall favorable and even enthusiastic user perception. 10/12 said the system eased their cognitive process, Ease of use and usefulness were rated 3.79 and 4.00 on a 5-point Likert scale. Users were unconcerned about the possibility of increased errors due to their trust in colleagues and system similarities to current practice. After first describing the issues, we suggest a method to elucidate risks in innovative and current systems.

  8. Determining Methane Leak Locations and Rates with a Wireless Network Composed of Low-Cost, Printed Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. J.; Kim, B.; Zhang, Y.; Ng, T. N.; Beck, V.; Ganguli, A.; Saha, B.; Daniel, G.; Lee, J.; Whiting, G.; Meyyappan, M.; Schwartz, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    We will present our progress on the development of a wireless sensor network that will determine the source and rate of detected methane leaks. The targeted leak detection threshold is 2 g/min with a rate estimation error of 20% and localization error of 1 m within an outdoor area of 100 m2. The network itself is composed of low-cost, high-performance sensor nodes based on printed nanomaterials with expected sensitivity below 1 ppmv methane. High sensitivity to methane is achieved by modifying high surface-area-to-volume-ratio single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with materials that adsorb methane molecules. Because the modified SWNTs are not perfectly selective to methane, the sensor nodes contain arrays of variously-modified SWNTs to build diversity of response towards gases with adsorption affinity. Methane selectivity is achieved through advanced pattern-matching algorithms of the array's ensemble response. The system is low power and designed to operate for a year on a single small battery. The SWNT sensing elements consume only microwatts. The largest power consumer is the wireless communication, which provides robust, real-time measurement data. Methane leak localization and rate estimation will be performed by machine-learning algorithms built with the aid of computational fluid dynamics simulations of gas plume formation. This sensor system can be broadly applied at gas wells, distribution systems, refineries, and other downstream facilities. It also can be utilized for industrial and residential safety applications, and adapted to other gases and gas combinations.

  9. Powders, composed of chlorine-releasing agent acrylic resin mixtures or based on peroxygen compounds, for spills of body fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, D; Wilson, M

    1992-08-01

    The use of powders, composed of a mixture of a chlorine-releasing agent with highly absorbent acrylic resin, for disinfecting body fluid spills was evaluated by laboratory tests. 'Encap' and 'Red Z' were found to absorb rapidly up to 200 ml of water to form a semi-solid gel. When experimental formulations containing 1%, 5% and 10% available chlorine were evaluated by a standardized surface test, those containing 10% gave the best results. The ease and rate of absorption of fluids by these formulations decreased as the fluid consistency increased and they seem more suitable for watery spills than for blood. The use of a powder based on peroxygen compounds ('Virkon') for disinfecting contaminated spills was evaluated by laboratory tests and hospital trials. Laboratory tests showed that 'Virkon' is strongly and rapidly bactericidal. In hospital ward trials by nurses using 'Virkon' on both natural and artificial spills, 60 of 62 contact plates pressed on to decontaminated surfaces proved negative, and no unpleasant fumes were generated when 'Virkon' was applied to urine. In another trial, 1% 'Virkon' solution proved very effective in decontaminating mortuary tables. Antiviral activity was not tested.

  10. A novel nanosensor composed of aptamer bio-dots and gold nanoparticles for determination of thrombin with multiple signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Lan; Cao, Shu-Ping; Zhang, Li; Li, Qiu-Hong; Liu, Zhi-Chao; Liang, Ru-Ping; Qiu, Jian-Ding

    2016-11-15

    Thrombin is a crucial multifunctional enzyme involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Its detection is of great importance. In this work, a novel bio-dots nanosensor for detection of thrombin with colorimetric, fluorometric and light-scattering signals is developed. This nanosensor is composed of thrombin-binding aptamer bio-dots (TBA-dots) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), where TBA-dots serve as fluorometric reporter and AuNPs function as multiple roles as colorimetric reporter, light scattering reporter and fluorescence quencher. TBA-dots retain inherent structures of aptamer to specifically interact with thrombin and simultaneously induce the aggregation of AuNPs. The mechanism of the sensing system is based on distance-dependent aggregation of AuNPs and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The nanosensor needs no further surface functionalization required for the as-prepared bio-dots and AuNPs, which provides a sensitive method for the selective detection of thrombin with a detection limit as low as 0.59nM. In addition, it provides a brand new perspective for bio-dots and its potential use in bioanalysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Core–shell composite particles composed of biodegradable polymer particles and magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Chiemi; Ushimaru, Kazunori [Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Horiishi, Nanao [Bengala Techno Laboratory, 9-5-1006, 1-1 Kodai, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki 216-0007 (Japan); Tsuge, Takeharu [Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Kitamoto, Yoshitaka, E-mail: kitamoto.y.aa@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Core–shell composite particles with biodegradability and superparamagnetic behavior were prepared using a Pickering emulsion for targeted drug delivery based on magnetic guidance. The composite particles were composed of a core of biodegradable polymer and a shell of assembled magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. It was found that the dispersibility of the nanoparticles is crucial for controlling the core–shell structure. The addition of a small amount of dispersant into the nanoparticle's suspension could improve the dispersibility and led to the formation of composite particles with a thin magnetic shell covering a polymeric core. The composite particles were also fabricated with a model drug loaded into the core, which was released via hydrolysis of the core under strong alkaline conditions. Because the core can also be biodegraded by lipase, this result suggests that the slow release of the drug from the composite particles should occur inside the body. - Highlights: • Core−shell composites with biodegradability and magnetism are prepared. • O/W emulsion stabilized by iron oxide nanoparticles is utilized for the preparation. • The nanoparticle's dispersibility is crucial for controlling the composite structure. • Composites loading a model drug are also prepared. • The model drug is released with decomposition of the composites.

  12. Multiple cytokeratin-negative malignant tumors composed only of rhabdoid cells in the renal pelvis: a sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    The author presents a unique case of multiple cytokeratin-negative malignant tumors consisting only of rhabdoid cells in the renal pelvis. A 54-year-old man complained of hematuria. A transurethral endoscopic examination revealed multiple papillary tumors, and transurethral resection of the bladder tumors was performed. Pathologically, they were ordinary papillary urothelial transitional cell carcinomas. Imaging modalities revealed multiple tumors of the right renal pelvis, and nephrectomy was performed. Grossly, three polypoid tumors measuring 2-4 cm were present in the pelvis. Histologically, they were composed only of malignant cells with rhabdoid features. There were no elements of transitional cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the pelvic tumors were positive for vimentin and Ki-67 antigen (labeling=40%). They were negative for pancytokeratins (AE1/3, CAM5.2, KL-1 and polyclonal wide), 34βE12, cytokeratin (CK) 5/6, CK7, CK8, CK14, CK18, CK19, CK20, melanosome, EMA, CEA, desmin, S100 protein, α-smooth muscle actin, myoglobin, myogenin, CD34, p53 protein, p63, CD3, CD20, CD30, CD45, CD45RO, chromograin, synaptophysin, CD56, CD68, and KIT. NSE and PDGFRA were focally present, but this appeared nonspecific. Namely, the pelvic tumors expressed only vimentin. The author speculates that the pelvic multiple malignant “rhabdoid” tumors are not sarcomas but urothelial “rhabdoid” carcinoma with complete loss of CKs. PMID:23573320

  13. Some properties of LVL composed of poplar and beech veneer and possibilities of their application for window frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Vladislav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper was a research of physical and mechanical properties of LVL composed of peeled poplar veneers in core layers and only outer layers of beech peeled veneers, so as the examination of window frame glue joint strength produced of this material. LVL boards have been hot pressed in industrial conditions, using appropriate phenol formaldehyde (PP adhesive. Samples for corner window frame glue joint strength testing were glued with PVAc D4 class adhesive. Statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences both in moisture content and density of LVL boards regarding their thickness, while in the case of hardness this difference did not exist. Examinations of LVL glue line shear strength showed that both phenol formaldehyde (PP and PVAc D4 class adhesives fulfilled standard requirements. The results of corner window frame double tenon glue joint strength produced from combined poplar-beech veneer LVL indicated that such material could be used to produce window frame corner joint, strong enough to withstand the additional load, without an increase of the cross section.

  14. Entangled state teleportation through a couple of quantum channels composed of XXZ dimers in an Ising- XXZ diamond chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, M.; de Souza, S. M.; Rojas, Onofre

    2017-02-01

    The quantum teleportation plays an important role in quantum information process, in this sense, the quantum entanglement properties involving an infinite chain structure is quite remarkable because real materials could be well represented by an infinite chain. We study the teleportation of an entangled state through a couple of quantum channels, composed by Heisenberg dimers in an infinite Ising-Heisenberg diamond chain, the couple of chains are considered sufficiently far away from each other to be ignored the any interaction between them. To teleporting a couple of qubits through the quantum channel, we need to find the average density operator for Heisenberg spin dimers, which will be used as quantum channels. Assuming the input state as a pure state, we can apply the concept of fidelity as a useful measurement of teleportation performance of a quantum channel. Using the standard teleportation protocol, we have derived an analytical expression for the output concurrence, fidelity, and average fidelity. We study in detail the effects of coupling parameters, external magnetic field and temperature dependence of quantum teleportation. Finally, we explore the relations between entanglement of the quantum channel, the output entanglement and the average fidelity of the system. Through a kind of phase diagram as a function of Ising-Heisenberg diamond chain model parameters, we illustrate where the quantum teleportation will succeed and a region where the quantum teleportation could fail.

  15. Blue-to-red chromatic sensor composed of gold nanoparticles conjugated with thermoresponsive copolymer for Thiol sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Takeshi; Ookubo, Kouki; Komuro, Naoya; Shimizu, Tokuo; Uehara, Nobuo

    2007-10-23

    We describe the first determination of thiol compounds with gold nanocomposites composed of gold nanoparticles and thermoresponsive copolymers having polyamino groups. The gold nanocomposites, which are used as a chromatic sensor, reveal chromatic change from blue to red with thermal stimuli, heating followed by cooling the solution. The blue-to-red chromatic change results from disassembly of the gold nanocomposites, which arises from shrinkage of the thermoresponsive copolymers bound to the gold nanoparticle surfaces due to the phase transition induced by thermal stimuli. The disassembly is inhibited by addition of thiol compounds through displacement of the adhered thermoresponsive copolymers. The detached copolymers no longer influence morphological change of the gold nanocomposites. Corresponding with increase of concentration of the thiol compounds, a solution of the gold nanocomposites after the thermal stimuli shows chromatic change, which was quantified with the a* value in L*a*b* chromatic coordinates. A linear relationship between the a* value and concentration of cysteine, examined as a bio-important thiol, is obtained below 7x10(-6) mol dm(-3), estimating a detection limit defined as 3sigma of the blank to be 2.8x10(-7) mol dm(-3). The chromatic sensor of the gold nanocomposites is applied to the determination of cysteine in commercial supplements containing ascorbic acid, which seriously interferes with redox-based determination of cysteine. Analytical results obtained with the chromatic sensor are identical to those obtained with HPLC.

  16. Agronomic, morphogenic and structural characteristics of Marandu grass in silvopastoral systems composed of babassu palm and grass monoculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Cláudia Rodrigues

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the agronomic, morphogenic and structural characteristics of palisadegrass (Urochloa brizantha in silvopastoral systems (SSP’s composed of babassu palms (Attalea speciosa and grass monoculture in the Pre-Amazon region of the state of Maranhão, Brazil. The study followed a completely randomized design, with the arrangement in split plots with six replicates for the evaluation of agronomic characteristics and 30 repetitions for the morphogenic and structural characteristics. The plots were divided into pasture environments with different palm densities (monoculture, 80, 131, 160 palms.ha-¹, and the subplots were divided into the different seasons (rainy and dry. Total forage production was affected (P 0.05 by pastoral system during the rainy season, but in the dry period, higher responses were obtained in SSPs. Overall, SSPs with 80 palms.ha-¹ favored the agronomic characteristics of pastures. Morphogenic and structural characteristics were favored by increasing palm densities. Leaf senescence and duration were not affected by the system.

  17. Preparation of porous solids composed of layered niobate walls from colloidal mixtures of niobate nanosheets and polystyrene spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Nobuyoshi; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

    2007-09-01

    Macroporous solids with crystalline layered walls were fabricated from colloidal mixtures of size-controlled niobate nanosheets and polystyrene spheres. The macroporous solids, obtained after burning off the spheres, were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The obtained structures strongly depended on the lateral dimension L of the nanosheets used. When small nanosheets (L=100 nm) were used, partly ordered macroporous solids with interconnected pores were obtained, whereas sponge-like random macroporous structures were obtained with larger nanosheets (L=190 and 270 nm). Peapod-like hollow structures were obtained when we used small (L=190 nm) and very large (L=3 microm) nanosheets at the same time. The microstructure of the pore walls was controllable by changing the calcination conditions. The walls were composed of propylammonium/K(4)Nb(6)O(17) intercalation compound which has a layered structure with exchangeable cations in the interlayer space, stable up to 350 degrees C for 6 h on calcination. The walls were converted to crystalline K(8)Nb(18)O(49) after calcination at 500 degrees C for 6 h.

  18. Proteomic analysis of a rare urinary stone composed of calcium carbonate and calcium oxalate dihydrate: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Kiyoko; Matsuta, Yosuke; Moriyama, Manabu; Yasuda, Makoto; Chishima, Noriharu; Yamaoka, Noriko; Fukuuchi, Tomoko; Miyazawa, Katsuhito; Suzuki, Koji

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the matrix protein of a rare urinary stone that contained calcium carbonate. A urinary stone was extracted from a 34-year-old male patient with metabolic alkalosis. After X-ray diffractometry and infrared analysis of the stone, proteomic analysis was carried out. The resulting mass spectra were evaluated with protein search software, and matrix proteins were identified. X-ray diffraction and infrared analysis confirmed that the stone contained calcium carbonate and calcium oxalate dihydrate. Of the identified 53 proteins, 24 have not been previously reported from calcium oxalate- or calcium phosphate-containing stones. The protease inhibitors and several proteins related to cell adhesion or the cytoskeleton were identified for the first time. We analyzed in detail a rare urinary stone composed of calcium carbonate and calcium oxalate dihydrate. Considering the formation of a calcium carbonate stone, the new identified proteins should play an important role on the urolithiasis process in alkaline condition. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  19. HS 2231+2441: an HW Vir system composed of a low-mass white dwarf and a brown dwarf★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, L. A.; Damineli, A.; Rodrigues, C. V.; Pereira, M. G.; Jablonski, F.

    2017-12-01

    HW Vir systems are rare evolved eclipsing binaries composed of a hot compact star and a low-mass main sequence star in a close orbit. These systems provide a direct way to measure the fundamental properties, e.g. masses and radii, of their components, hence they are crucial in studying the formation of subdwarf B stars and low-mass white dwarfs, the common-envelope phase and the pre-phase of cataclysmic variables. Here, we present a detailed study of HS 2231+2441, an HW Vir type system, by analysing BVRCIC photometry and phase-resolved optical spectroscopy. The spectra of this system, which are dominated by the primary component features, were fitted using non-local thermodynamic equilibrium models providing an effective temperature Teff = 28 500 ± 500 K, surface gravity log g = 5.40 ± 0.05 cm s-2 and helium abundance log (n(He)/n(H)) = -2.52 ± 0.07. The geometrical orbit and physical parameters were derived by simultaneously modelling the photometric and spectroscopic data using the Wilson-Devinney code. We derive two possible solutions for HS 2231+2441 that provide the component masses: M1 = 0.19 M⊙ and M2 = 0.036 M⊙ or M1 = 0.288 M⊙ and M2 = 0.046 M⊙. Considering the possible evolutionary channels for forming a compact hot star, the primary of HS 2231+2441 probably evolved through the red-giant branch scenario and does not have a helium-burning core, which is consistent with a low-mass white dwarf. Both solutions are consistent with a brown dwarf as the secondary.

  20. Feed Conversion, Survival and Development, and Composition of Four Insect Species on Diets Composed of Food By-Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, Dennis G A B; van Broekhoven, Sarah; van Huis, Arnold; van Loon, Joop J A

    2015-01-01

    A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from by-products of food manufacturing and formulated such as to vary in protein and fat content. These were offered to newly hatched Argentinean cockroaches, black soldier flies, yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two species are potentially interesting as a feed ingredient, while the latter two are considered edible for humans. Feed conversion efficiency, survival, development time, as well as chemical composition (nitrogen, phosphorus, and fatty acids), were determined. The Argentinean cockroaches and the black soldier flies converted feed more efficiently than yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two were also more efficient than conventional production animals. On three of the four diets yellow mealworms and house crickets had a feed conversion efficiency similar to pigs. Furthermore, on the most suitable diet, they converted their feed as efficiently as poultry, when corrected for edible portion. All four species had a higher nitrogen-efficiency than conventional production animals, when corrected for edible portion. Offering carrots to yellow mealworms increased dry matter- and nitrogen-efficiency and decreased development time. Diet affected survival in all species but black soldier flies, and development time was strongly influenced in all four species. The chemical composition of Argentinean cockroaches was highly variable between diets, for black soldier flies it remained similar. The investigated species can be considered efficient production animals when suitable diets are provided. Hence, they could form a sustainable alternative to conventional production animals as a source of feed or food.

  1. Feed Conversion, Survival and Development, and Composition of Four Insect Species on Diets Composed of Food By-Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; van Broekhoven, Sarah; van Huis, Arnold; van Loon, Joop J. A.

    2015-01-01

    A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from by-products of food manufacturing and formulated such as to vary in protein and fat content. These were offered to newly hatched Argentinean cockroaches, black soldier flies, yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two species are potentially interesting as a feed ingredient, while the latter two are considered edible for humans. Feed conversion efficiency, survival, development time, as well as chemical composition (nitrogen, phosphorus, and fatty acids), were determined. The Argentinean cockroaches and the black soldier flies converted feed more efficiently than yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two were also more efficient than conventional production animals. On three of the four diets yellow mealworms and house crickets had a feed conversion efficiency similar to pigs. Furthermore, on the most suitable diet, they converted their feed as efficiently as poultry, when corrected for edible portion. All four species had a higher nitrogen-efficiency than conventional production animals, when corrected for edible portion. Offering carrots to yellow mealworms increased dry matter- and nitrogen-efficiency and decreased development time. Diet affected survival in all species but black soldier flies, and development time was strongly influenced in all four species. The chemical composition of Argentinean cockroaches was highly variable between diets, for black soldier flies it remained similar. The investigated species can be considered efficient production animals when suitable diets are provided. Hence, they could form a sustainable alternative to conventional production animals as a source of feed or food. PMID:26699129

  2. Feed Conversion, Survival and Development, and Composition of Four Insect Species on Diets Composed of Food By-Products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis G A B Oonincx

    Full Text Available A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from by-products of food manufacturing and formulated such as to vary in protein and fat content. These were offered to newly hatched Argentinean cockroaches, black soldier flies, yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two species are potentially interesting as a feed ingredient, while the latter two are considered edible for humans. Feed conversion efficiency, survival, development time, as well as chemical composition (nitrogen, phosphorus, and fatty acids, were determined. The Argentinean cockroaches and the black soldier flies converted feed more efficiently than yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two were also more efficient than conventional production animals. On three of the four diets yellow mealworms and house crickets had a feed conversion efficiency similar to pigs. Furthermore, on the most suitable diet, they converted their feed as efficiently as poultry, when corrected for edible portion. All four species had a higher nitrogen-efficiency than conventional production animals, when corrected for edible portion. Offering carrots to yellow mealworms increased dry matter- and nitrogen-efficiency and decreased development time. Diet affected survival in all species but black soldier flies, and development time was strongly influenced in all four species. The chemical composition of Argentinean cockroaches was highly variable between diets, for black soldier flies it remained similar. The investigated species can be considered efficient production animals when suitable diets are provided. Hence, they could form a sustainable alternative to conventional production animals as a source of feed or food.

  3. Effect of the ionizing radiation and aging time on total flavonoids contents in Brazilian sugarcane spirit composed with green propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Antonio S.; Alencar, Severino M. de; Tiveron, Ana P.; Prado, Adna; Bergamaschi, Keityane B.; Veiga, Lucimara F. da; Aguiar, Claudio L. de; Baptista, Aparecido S.; Horii, Jorge [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao], e-mail: asbaptis@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: alencar@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: anptiver@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: adprado@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: kbergamas@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: lcfernan@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: claguiar@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: pmatao@gmail.com, e-mail: jhorii@esalq.usp.br; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Propolis is a natural product from vegetable origin, but, this substance, in general, is collected in the beehives. This product is largely known because its heath benefit attributed to its biological properties. On the other hand, Brazilian sugarcane spirit, 'cachaca', is an interesting alcoholic beverage with an increasing importance in the segment in many markets in the world. Therefore, was evaluating the addition of the propolis into cachaca and the effect of ionizing radiation on propolis compounds with biological properties. Samples of cachaca with propolis used in irradiation experiments were prepared from cachaca (40 deg GL) composed with propolis (0.1%). Eight treatments, with four repetitions each, were considered in this study. Three doses of ionizing energy from electron beam and gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co were applied on the cachaca samples, i.e. 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy, with the goal to accelerate the aging time of the cachaca. The sugarcane spirits samples were storage during two periods (immediately after the radiation treatment and 30 months after the treatments) and their flavonoids contents were analyzed. Flavonoids contents in sugarcane spirit were statistically different between both storage time. The samples of cachaca treated with electron beam at 2.0 kGy presented the highest reduction in flavonoids contents, approximately 30.0 % in relation to the first analysis time. In conclusion, the time of storage to promote reduction on the flavonoids contents and the ionizing radiation also promoted reduction on the contents of these compounds, mainly in the first period of storage. (author)

  4. Passive Fluidic Chip Composed of Integrated Vertical Capillary Tubes Developed for On-Site SPR Immunoassay Analysis Targeting Real Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuneyuki Haga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We have successfully developed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR measurement system for the on-site immunoassay of real samples. The system is composed of a portable SPR instrument (290 mm(W x 160 mm(D x 120 mm(H and a microfluidic immunoassay chip (16 mm(W x 16 mm(D x 4 mm(H that needs no external pump system. An integrated vertical capillary tube functions as a large volume (150 μL passive pump and a waste reservoir that has sufficient capacity for several refill operations. An immunoassay was carried out that employed the direct injection of a buffer and a test sample in sequence into a microfluidic chip that included 9 antibody bands and 10 reference reagent bands immobilized in the flow channel. By subtracting a reliable averaged reference sensorgram from the antibody, we effectively reduced the influence of the non-specific binding, and then our chip successfully detected the specific binding of spiked IgG in non-homogeneous milk. IgG is a model antigen that is certain not to be present in non-homogeneous milk, and non-homogeneous milk is a model of real sample that includes many interfering foreign substances that induce non-specific binding. The direct injection of a real sample with no pretreatment enabled us to complete the entire immunoassay in several minutes. This ease of operation and short measuring time are acceptable for on-site agricultural, environmentaland medical testing.

  5. Crystal structure of the enzyme CapF of Staphylococcus aureus reveals a unique architecture composed of two functional domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyafusa, Takamitsu; Caaveiro, Jose M M; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Tsumoto, Kouhei

    2012-05-01

    CP (capsular polysaccharide) is an important virulence factor during infections by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. The enzyme CapF is an attractive therapeutic candidate belonging to the biosynthetic route of CP of pathogenic strains of S. aureus. In the present study, we report two independent crystal structures of CapF in an open form of the apoenzyme. CapF is a homodimer displaying a characteristic dumb-bell-shaped architecture composed of two domains. The N-terminal domain (residues 1-252) adopts a Rossmann fold belonging to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family of proteins. The C-terminal domain (residues 252-369) displays a standard cupin fold with a Zn2+ ion bound deep in the binding pocket of the β-barrel. Functional and thermodynamic analyses indicated that each domain catalyses separate enzymatic reactions. The cupin domain is necessary for the C3-epimerization of UDP-4-hexulose. Meanwhile, the N-terminal domain catalyses the NADPH-dependent reduction of the intermediate species generated by the cupin domain. Analysis by ITC (isothermal titration calorimetry) revealed a fascinating thermodynamic switch governing the attachment and release of the coenzyme NADPH during each catalytic cycle. These observations suggested that the binding of coenzyme to CapF facilitates a disorder-to-order transition in the catalytic loop of the reductase (N-terminal) domain. We anticipate that the present study will improve the general understanding of the synthesis of CP in S. aureus and will aid in the design of new therapeutic agents against this pathogenic bacterium.

  6. Peptides Composed of Alternating L- and D-Amino Acids Inhibit Amyloidogenesis in Three Distinct Amyloid Systems Independent of Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellock, Jackson; Hopping, Gene; Caughey, Byron; Daggett, Valerie

    2016-06-05

    There is now substantial evidence that soluble oligomers are primary toxic agents in amyloid diseases. The development of an antibody recognizing the toxic soluble oligomeric forms of different and unrelated amyloid species suggests a common conformational intermediate during amyloidogenesis. We previously observed a common occurrence of a novel secondary structure element, which we call α-sheet, in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of various amyloidogenic proteins, and we hypothesized that the toxic conformer is composed of α-sheet structure. As such, α-sheet may represent a conformational signature of the misfolded intermediates of amyloidogenesis and a potential unique binding target for peptide inhibitors. Recently, we reported the design and characterization of a novel hairpin peptide (α1 or AP90) that adopts stable α-sheet structure and inhibits the aggregation of the β-Amyloid Peptide Aβ42 and transthyretin. AP90 is a 23-residue hairpin peptide featuring alternating D- and L-amino acids with favorable conformational propensities for α-sheet formation, and a designed turn. For this study, we reverse engineered AP90 to identify which of its design features is most responsible for conferring α-sheet stability and inhibitory activity. We present experimental characterization (CD and FTIR) of seven peptides designed to accomplish this. In addition, we measured their ability to inhibit aggregation in three unrelated amyloid species: Aβ42, transthyretin, and human islet amylin polypeptide. We found that a hairpin peptide featuring alternating L- and D-amino acids, independent of sequence, is sufficient for conferring α-sheet structure and inhibition of aggregation. Additionally, we show a correlation between α-sheet structural stability and inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Design, Surface Treatment, Cellular Plating, and Culturing of Modular Neuronal Networks Composed of Functionally Inter-connected Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanner, Sivan; Bisio, Marta; Cohen, Gilad; Goldin, Miri; Tedesco, Marieteresa; Hanein, Yael; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Barzilai, Ari; Chiappalone, Michela; Bonifazi, Paolo

    2015-04-15

    The brain operates through the coordinated activation and the dynamic communication of neuronal assemblies. A major open question is how a vast repertoire of dynamical motifs, which underlie most diverse brain functions, can emerge out of a fixed topological and modular organization of brain circuits. Compared to in vivo studies of neuronal circuits which present intrinsic experimental difficulties, in vitro preparations offer a much larger possibility to manipulate and probe the structural, dynamical and chemical properties of experimental neuronal systems. This work describes an in vitro experimental methodology which allows growing of modular networks composed by spatially distinct, functionally interconnected neuronal assemblies. The protocol allows controlling the two-dimensional (2D) architecture of the neuronal network at different levels of topological complexity. A desired network patterning can be achieved both on regular cover slips and substrate embedded micro electrode arrays. Micromachined structures are embossed on a silicon wafer and used to create biocompatible polymeric stencils, which incorporate the negative features of the desired network architecture. The stencils are placed on the culturing substrates during the surface coating procedure with a molecular layer for promoting cellular adhesion. After removal of the stencils, neurons are plated and they spontaneously redirected to the coated areas. By decreasing the inter-compartment distance, it is possible to obtain either isolated or interconnected neuronal circuits. To promote cell survival, cells are co-cultured with a supporting neuronal network which is located at the periphery of the culture dish. Electrophysiological and optical recordings of the activity of modular networks obtained respectively by using substrate embedded micro electrode arrays and calcium imaging are presented. While each module shows spontaneous global synchronizations, the occurrence of inter-module synchronization

  8. Quantifying the clean-up of LNAPL lens and LNAPL entrapped in an aquifer composed of fractured permeable formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, H.; Koengeter, J.

    2006-12-01

    This study has originated and motivated by a case history of a comparatively wide scale of kerosene (LNAPL) contamination in an aquifer composed of a fractured permeable formation. Presently, parts of the LNAPL are entrapped within the top layers of the aquifer, and other parts are incorporated with LNAPL lens on top of the flowing groundwater. The study develops conceptual, mathematical and numerical models for simulating the aquifer and LNAPL lens clean-up by a pump-and-treat procedure. The numerical simulations identify the importance of mechanisms of dissolution of the entrapped LNAPL ganglia and the LNAPL lens by films of contact. Clean-up of the LNAPL lens is also affected by mixing in fracture intersections located at the interface LNAPL-groundwater. Dimensionless parameters governing all involved processes are identified and their effects in different ranges are quantified. The clean-up of the LNAPL lens is mainly affected by the mobility number and the fracture segment orientation. These parameters also determine the depth of penetration of the organic solutes into the aquifer. Clean-up of the entrapped LNAPL is mainly affected by the dimensionless interphase mass transfer coefficient. The simulations indicate that at low mobility numbers rates of LNAPL lens clean-up may be faster or slower than clean-up of the LNAPL entrapped within the top layers of the aquifer, depending on the value of the interphase mass transfer coefficient. At high mobility numbers the clean- up rates of the LNAPL lens are always slower than those of the LNAPL entrapped within the top layers of the aquifer.

  9. Bacterial colonization and endotoxin content of a new renal dialysis water system composed of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Moulin, G C; Coleman, E C; Hedley-Whyte, J

    1987-06-01

    We measured endotoxin and bacterial levels in tap water, in water purified by reverse osmosis, and in dialysate samples over a 4-month period in a new 10-bed renal dialysis unit. Water treated by reverse osmosis is conducted to the 10 stations through 111 m of piping composed of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). All determinations were made prior to the opening of the unit and after the system was purged for 35 h with all bedside station taps open. Formaldehyde disinfection of the piping system was attempted with a recommended protocol after 11 weeks by feeding 2.5 liters of 37% formaldehyde (0.85%, vol/vol) into the delivery system. Prior to water purging, 24 ng of endotoxin per ml was detected. This level decreased to 2.0 ng of endotoxin after the purging. Levels of endotoxin remained below 1.0 ng of endotoxin per ml throughout the duration of the study. In contrast, the level of viable microorganisms recovered from the treated water was approximately 3.5 X 10(4) CFU/100 ml. Even after disinfection of the system, there was no significant decrease in culturable bacteria from the water even though endotoxin levels were lower. Species isolated from the renal dialysis system were predominately pseudomonads, whereas species isolated from the tap water were Bacillus and Flavobacterium species. ABS provides a surface suitable for long-term colonization and growth of bacteria. Currently recommended decontamination protocols are ineffective in removing potentially pathogenic bacteria from ABS pipes and thus constitute an increased risk to patients undergoing dialysis.

  10. Novel Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Composed of the Postfusion and Prefusion Conformations of the F Glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimica, Velasco; Boigard, Hélène; Bhatia, Bipin; Fallon, John T; Alimova, Alexandra; Gottlieb, Paul; Galarza, Jose M

    2016-06-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of severe respiratory disease in infants and children and represents an important global health burden for the elderly and the immunocompromised. Despite decades of research efforts, no licensed vaccine for RSV is available. We have developed virus-like particle (VLP)-based RSV vaccines assembled with the human metapneumovirus (hMPV) matrix protein (M) as the structural scaffold and the RSV fusion glycoprotein (F) in either the postfusion or prefusion conformation as its prime surface immunogen. Vaccines were composed of postfusion F, prefusion F, or a combination of the two conformations and formulated with a squalene-based oil emulsion as adjuvant. Immunization with these VLP vaccines afforded full protection against RSV infection and prevented detectable viral replication in the mouse lung after challenge. Analyses of lung cytokines and chemokines showed that VLP vaccination mostly induced the production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), a marker of the Th1-mediated immune response, which is predominantly required for viral protection. Conversely, immunization with a formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) vaccine induced high levels of inflammatory chemokines and cytokines of the Th2- and Th17-mediated types of immune responses, as well as severe lung inflammation and histopathology. The VLP vaccines showed restricted production of these immune mediators and did not induce severe bronchiolitis or perivascular infiltration as seen with the FI-RSV vaccine. Remarkably, analysis of the serum from immunized mice showed that the VLP vaccine formulated using a combination of postfusion and prefusion F elicited the highest level of neutralizing antibody and enhanced the Th1-mediated immune response. Copyright © 2016 Cimica et al.

  11. A Low-Molecular-Weight Gelator Composed of Pyrene and Fluorene Moieties for Effective Charge Transfer in Supramolecular Ambidextrous Gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Samala Murali Mohan; Dorishetty, Pramod; Augustine, George; Deshpande, Abhijit P; Ayyadurai, Niraikulam; Shanmugam, Ganesh

    2017-11-28

    Charge-transfer (CT) gel materials obtained from low-molecular-weight (LMW) compounds through a supramolecular self-assembly approach have received fascinating attention by many researchers because of their interesting material property and potential applications. However, most of the CT gel materials constructed were of organogels while the construction of CT gels in the form of a hydrogel is a challenge because of the solubility issue in water, which considerably limits the use of CT hydrogels. Herein, for the first time, we report a new LMW gelator [Nα-(fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl)-Nε-(δ-butyric-1-pyrenyl)-l-lysine, (FmKPy)], composed of two functional moieties such as fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl and pyrene, which not only parade both hydro and organo (ambidextrous) supramolecular gel formation but also exhibit CT ambidextrous gels when mixed with an electron acceptor such as 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF). This finding is significant as the established CT organogelator in the literature did not form an organogel in the absence of an electron acceptor or lose their gelation property upon the addition of the acceptor. CT between pyrene and TNF was confirmed by the color change as well as the appearance of the CT band in the visible region of the absorption spectrum. CT between FmKPy and TNF was supported by the solvent dilution method using tetrahydrofuran as the gel breaker and pyrene fluorescence quenching in the case compound containing pyrene and TNF. The morphology of FmKPy ambidextrous gels indicates the fibrous nature while the self-assembled structure is primarily stabilized by π-π stacking among fluorenyl and pyrenyl moieties and hydrogen bonding between amide groups. The FmKPy-TNF CT ambidextrous gel retains the fibrous nature; however, the size of the fibers changed. In FmKPy-TNF CT gels, TNF is intercalated between pyrene moieties in the self-assembled structure as confirmed by fluorescence quenching and powder X-ray diffraction. The Fm

  12. Reception of Stevan Stojanović Mokranjac’s composing creativity in the musical life of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Austro-Hungarian period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paćuka Lana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the arrival of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, Bosnia and Herzegovina encountered Western European social trends, which affected the shaping of musical life physiognomy in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. In this extremely intricate relationship between national and pro-European-oriented cultural trends, Serbian composer Stevan Stojanović Mokranjac had a special position as a unique musical phenomenon, since he was a composer whose musical talent imposed itself as an authority in strengthening the national musical expression and serving as a guideline for numerous BH artists.

  13. Hygroscopic behavior and chemical composition evolution of internally mixed aerosols composed of oxalic acid and ammonium sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although water uptake of aerosol particles plays an important role in the atmospheric environment, the effects of interactions between components on chemical composition and hygroscopicity of particles are still not well constrained. The hygroscopic properties and phase transformation of oxalic acid (OA and mixed particles composed of ammonium sulfate (AS and OA with different organic to inorganic molar ratios (OIRs have been investigated by using confocal Raman spectroscopy. It is found that OA droplets first crystallize to form OA dihydrate at 71 % relative humidity (RH, and further lose crystalline water to convert into anhydrous OA around 5 % RH during the dehydration process. The deliquescence and efflorescence point for AS is determined to be 80.1 ± 1.5 % RH and 44.3 ± 2.5 % RH, respectively. The observed efflorescence relative humidity (ERH for mixed OA ∕ AS droplets with OIRs of 1 : 3, 1 : 1 and 3 : 1 is 34.4 ± 2.0, 44.3 ± 2.5 and 64.4 ± 3.0 % RH, respectively, indicating the elevated OA content appears to favor the crystallization of mixed systems at higher RH. However, the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH of AS in mixed OA ∕ AS particles with OIRs of 1 : 3 and 1 : 1 is observed to occur at 81.1 ± 1.5 and 77 ± 1.0 % RH, respectively. The Raman spectra of mixed OA ∕ AS droplets indicate the formation of ammonium hydrogen oxalate (NH4HC2O4 and ammonium hydrogen sulfate (NH4HSO4 from interactions between OA and AS in aerosols during the dehydration process on the time scale of hours, which considerably influence the subsequent deliquescence behavior of internally mixed particles with different OIRs. The mixed OA ∕ AS particles with an OIR of 3 : 1 exhibit no deliquescence transition over the RH range studied due to the considerable transformation of (NH42SO4 into NH4HC2O4 with a high DRH. Although the hygroscopic growth of mixed OA

  14. Epidemiology of Peripheral Neuropathy: An Indian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Sweety; Pandit, Alak; Ganguly, Goutam; Das, Shyamal Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is a common disorder and presents as diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to physicians and neurologists. In epidemiological studies from India from various regions the overall prevalence of PN varied from 5 to 2400 per 10,000 population in various community studies. India is composed of a multiethnic, multicultural population who are exposed to different adverse environmental factors such as arsenic and lead. Use of different chemotherapeutic agents with propensity to affect peripheral nerves, increasing methods of diagnosis of connective tissue disorders and use of immunomodulating drugs, growing aging population is expected to change the spectrum and burden of peripheral neuropathy in the community. The other important aspect of peripheral neuropathies is in terms of the geographical and occupational distribution especially of toxic neuropathies like arsenic which is common in eastern belt; lead, mercury and organo-phosphorous compounds where occupational exposures are major sources. Inflammatory neuropathies either due to vasculitis or G B Syndrome, chronic inflammatory polyradiculopathies are another major group of neuropathies which is increasing due to increase longevity of Indian subjects and immunological impairment, also adds to morbidity of the patients and are potentially treatable. Leprous neuropathy is common in India and although its frequency is significantly decreasing because of national control program yet pure neuritic form still remains a cause of concern and similar is the case with another infective cause like diptheric neurpathy. Thus this article is an attempt to cover major categories and also highlight the areas where further studies are needed. PMID:28904445

  15. The Effects of High Scientific Literacy, Self-Efficacy, and Achievement Motivation on Teachers' Ability to Compose Effective Tests: Case Study from Manado, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poluakan, Cosmas

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine the effects of high scientific literacy, self-efficacy, and achievement motivation on teachers' ability to compose effective tests. It was conducted among junior high school science teachers in Manado, North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia, from April to September 2011, using a cross-sectional survey design.…

  16. Advances in Components for Active and Passive Airborne Sensors (Progres des Composants pour les Systemes des Detection Active et Passive Aeroportes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    D.R.Bates Ai RAPPORT D’EVALUATION TECHNIQUE Lcs Progr~s des Composants pour Capteurs Actifs et Passifs Aroport&s Confidrence de sp~cialistes de ’AGARD, Bath...range-finding laser radar, which can penetrate smoke or fog, to examine the vertical profile of the hills ahead of the aircraft. It then computes the

  17. Growth performance and feed conversion efficiency of three edible mealworm species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on diets composed of organic by-products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhoven, van S.; Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Huis, van A.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Insects receive increasing attention as an alternative protein-rich food source for humans. Producing edible insects on diets composed of organic by-products could increase sustainability. In addition, insect growth rate and body composition, and hence nutritional quality, can be altered by diet.

  18. Nanotube formation through the continuous one-dimensional fusion of hollow nanocapsules composed of layer-by-layer poly(lactic acid) stereocomplex films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Kenta; Kida, Toshiyuki; Ogawa, Yuji; Arikawa, Yuuya; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2010-06-23

    Hollow nanocapsules composed of a poly(lactic acid)s (PLAs) stereocomplex can be fabricated by a combination of the layer-by-layer assembly technique and the silica template method. These hollow capsules one-dimensionally fuse together to generate novel PLA nanotubes. The formation of nanotubes was affected by the molecular weights of PLAs constituting the hollow capsules.

  19. Reduction of protein adsorption to a solid surface by a coating composed of polymeric micelles with a glass-like core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofs, B.; Brzozowska, A.; de Keizer, A.; Norde, W.; Stuart, Martien A. Cohen

    2008-01-01

    Adsorption studies by optical reflectometry show that complex coacervate core micelles (C3Ms) composed of poly([4-(2-amino-ethylthio)-butylene]hydrochloride)(49)-block-poly(ethylene oxide)(212) and poly([4-(2carboxy-ethylthio)-butylene] sodium salt)(47)-block-poly(ethylene oxide)(212) adsorb in

  20. Reduction of protein adsorption to a solid surface by a coating composed of polymeric micelles with a glass-like core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofs, P.S.; Brzozowska, A.M.; Keizer, de A.; Norde, W.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Adsorption studies by optical reflectometry show that complex coacervate core micelles (C3Ms) composed of poly([4-(2-amino-ethylthio)-butylene] hydrochloride)49-block-poly(ethylene oxide)212 and poly([4-(2-carboxy-ethylthio)-butylene] sodium salt)47-block-poly(ethylene oxide)212 adsorb in equal

  1. Writing an Independently Composed Sentence by Spanish-Speaking Children with and without Poor Transcription Skills: A Writing-Level Match Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Eduardo; Crespo, Patricia; Bermúdez, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to analyze the impact of transcription skills of Spanish writers when writing an independently composed sentence within a writing-level design. The free-writing sentence task from the "Early Grade Writing Assessment" (Jiménez, in press) was used to examine the production, accuracy, speed, syntactic…

  2. Degradation, intra-articular retention and biocompatibility of monospheres composed of [PDLLA-PEG-PDLLA]-b-PLLA multi-block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandker, Maria J.; Duque, Luisa F.; Redout, Everaldo M.; Chan, Alan; Que, Ivo; Löwik, Clemens W G M; Klijnstra, Evelien C.; Kops, Nicole; Steendam, Rob; van Weeren, René|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628550; Hennink, Wim E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070880409; Weinans, Harrie

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the use of microspheres with a narrow particle size distribution (‘monospheres’) composed of biodegradable poly(DL-lactide)-PEG-poly(DL-lactide)-b-poly(L-lactide) multiblock copolymers that are potentially suitable for local sustained drug release in articular joints.

  3. Degradation, intra-articular retention and biocompatibility of monospheres composed of [PDLLA-PEG-PDLLA]-b-PLLA multi-block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandker, Maria J; Duque, Luisa F; Redout, Everaldo M; Chan, Alan; Que, Ivo; Löwik, Clemens W G M; Klijnstra, Evelien C; Kops, Nicole; Steendam, Rob; van Weeren, Rene; Hennink, Wim E; Weinans, Harrie|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/087198622

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the use of microspheres with a narrow particle size distribution ('monospheres') composed of biodegradable poly(DL-lactide)-PEG-poly(DL-lactide)-b-poly(L-lactide) multiblock copolymers that are potentially suitable for local sustained drug release in articular joints.

  4. Development of low cost pulmonary surfactants composed of a mixture of lipids or lipids-peptides using higher aliphatic alcohol or soy lecithin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukitake, Ko; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Kawahara, Masato; Nakahara, Hiromichi; Shibata, Osamu; Lee, Sannamu

    2008-10-15

    The artificial pulmonary surfactant composition in the present study is characterized by a lipid mixture system composed of higher aliphatic alcohol, egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (egg PC), soy lecithin and higher aliphatic acid as the major components or a peptide-lipid mixture system composed of a combination of the lipid mixture system to which a peptide is added. Three peptides with amphiphilic surface-staying, membrane spanning, and both properties were designed and synthesized. The evaluation of pulmonary surfactant assay was performed by a hysteresis curve drawn upon the measurement for the surface tension-area curve with the Wilhelmy surface tensometer in vitro and the recovery of lung compliance for the pulmonary surfactant-deficient rat models in vivo. Lipid-mixture systems composed of octadecanol or soy lecithins containing no peptide were favorable hysteresis curves as compared with commercially available Surfacten, but were not prominent. The peptide-lipid mixture systems composed of a combination of the lipid mixture of alkyl alcohol or soy lecithin to which peptides designed were added were desirable hysteresis curves similar to Surfacten and amphiphilic Hel 13-5 peptide-lipids mixture systems were much more effective than the lipid mixture system. Particularly, the recovery of lung compliance treated with hydrogenated soy lecithin-fractionated soy lecithin PC70-palmitic acid-peptide Hel 13-5 (40:40:17.5:2.5, w/w) was comparable to that with Surfacten. Because the artificial pulmonary surfactant compositions of this study can be prepared at lower costs, they are useful for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome and acute respiratory distress syndrome as well as for inflammatory pulmonary diseases, dyspnea caused by asthma, etc.

  5. Self-Templated Synthesis of Co- and N-Doped Carbon Microtubes Composed of Hollow Nanospheres and Nanotubes for Efficient Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sung Hoon; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2017-03-01

    A facile, self-templated strategy for the synthesis of Co- and N-doped carbon microtubular structures composed of nanoscale hollow spheres and nanotubes is proposed. Cobalt oxalate microtubes serve simultaneously as the solid cobalt precursor for the in situ conversion reaction to metal-organic framework and self-templates for the 1D tubular structure. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. User-composable Electronic Health Record Improves Efficiency of Clinician Data Viewing for Patient Case Appraisal: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senathirajah, Yalini; Kaufman, David; Bakken, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Challenges in the design of electronic health records (EHRs) include designing usable systems that must meet the complex, rapidly changing, and high-stakes information needs of clinicians. The ability to move and assemble elements together on the same page has significant human-computer interaction (HCI) and efficiency advantages, and can mitigate the problems of negotiating multiple fixed screens and the associated cognitive burdens. We compare MedWISE-a novel EHR that supports user-composable displays-with a conventional EHR in terms of the number of repeat views of data elements for patient case appraisal. The study used mixed-methods for examination of clinical data viewing in four patient cases. The study compared use of an experimental user-composable EHR with use of a conventional EHR, for case appraisal. Eleven clinicians used a user-composable EHR in a case appraisal task in the laboratory setting. This was compared with log file analysis of the same patient cases in the conventional EHR. We investigated the number of repeat views of the same clinical information during a session and across these two contexts, and compared them using Fisher's exact test. There was a significant difference (puser-composable EHR (14.6 percent) and conventional EHR (72.6 percent). Users of conventional EHRs repeatedly viewed the same information elements in the same session, as revealed by log files. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that conventional systems require that the user view many screens and remember information between screens, causing the user to forget information and to have to access the information a second time. Other mechanisms (such as reduction in navigation over a population of users due to interface sharing, and information selection) may also contribute to increased efficiency in the experimental system. Systems that allow a composable approach that enables the user to gather together on the same screen any desired information elements

  7. MetaCompose: A Compositional Evolutionary Music Composer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scirea, Marco; Togelius, Julian; Eklund, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a compositional, extensible framework for music composition and a user study to systematically evaluate its core components. These components include a graph traversal-based chord sequence generator, a search-based melody generator and a pattern-based accompaniment generator....... An important contribution of this paper is the melody generator which uses a novel evolutionary technique combining FI-2POP and multi-objective optimization. A participant-based evaluation overwhelmingly confirms that all current components of the framework combine effectively to create harmonious, pleasant...

  8. MetaCompose: A Compositional Evolutionary Music Composer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scirea, Marco; Togelius, Julian; Eklund, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a compositional, extensible framework for music composition and a user study to systematically evaluate its core components. These components include a graph traversal-based chord sequence generator, a search-based melody generator and a pattern-based accompaniment generator...

  9. Growth performance and feed conversion efficiency of three edible mealworm species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on diets composed of organic by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Broekhoven, Sarah; Oonincx, Dennis G A B; van Huis, Arnold; van Loon, Joop J A

    2015-02-01

    Insects receive increasing attention as an alternative protein-rich food source for humans. Producing edible insects on diets composed of organic by-products could increase sustainability. In addition, insect growth rate and body composition, and hence nutritional quality, can be altered by diet. Three edible mealworm species Tenebrio molitor L., Zophobas atratus Fab. and Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer were grown on diets composed of organic by-products originating from beer brewing, bread/cookie baking, potato processing and bioethanol production. Experimental diets differed with respect to protein and starch content. Larval growth and survival was monitored. Moreover, effects of dietary composition on feed conversion efficiency and mealworm crude protein and fatty acid profile were assessed. Diet affected mealworm development and feed conversion efficiency such that diets high in yeast-derived protein appear favourable, compared to diets used by commercial breeders, with respect to shortening larval development time, reducing mortality and increasing weight gain. Diet also affected the chemical composition of mealworms. Larval protein content was stable on diets that differed 2-3-fold in protein content, whereas dietary fat did have an effect on larval fat content and fatty acid profile. However, larval fatty acid profile did not necessarily follow the same trend as dietary fatty acid composition. Diets that allowed for fast larval growth and low mortality in this study led to a comparable or less favourable n6/n3 fatty acid ratio compared to control diets used by commercial breeders. In conclusion, the mealworm species used in this study can be grown successfully on diets composed of organic by-products. Diet composition did not influence larval protein content, but did alter larval fat composition to a certain extent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Selective transformation of carbon dioxide into lower olefins with a bifunctional catalyst composed of ZnGa2O4 and SAPO-34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoliang; Wang, Mengheng; Zhou, Cheng; Zhou, Wei; Cheng, Kang; Kang, Jincan; Zhang, Qinghong; Deng, Weiping; Wang, Ye

    2017-12-06

    A bifunctional catalyst composed of ZnGa2O4 with a spinel structure and molecular sieve SAPO-34 catalyses the direct conversion of CO2 to C2-C4 olefins with a selectivity of 86% and a CO2 conversion of 13% at 370 °C. The oxygen vacancies on ZnGa2O4 surfaces are responsible for CO2 activation, forming a methanol intermediate, which is then converted into C2-C4 olefins in SAPO-34.

  11. Prince of zeta by Petar Konjović: Opera in five/four acts on the 125th anniversary of the composer's birth

    OpenAIRE

    Mosusova Nadežda

    2008-01-01

    Petar Konjović (Čurug, May 5, 1883 - Belgrade, October 1, 1970) stands out among Serbian composers as an author of instrumental and vocal compositions. Studies at the Prague Conservatory (1904-1906) acquainted Konjović with Czech music, Wagner's opus, and the Russian national-romantic school, which contributed to the evolution of his talent for both music and stage, enabling him to express his ideas more explicitly in operatic works. It was in the Prague that the second opera - Prince of Zeta...

  12. Moving-Map Composer Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Develops, tests, and transitions software and algorithms to perform database design, data compression, change detection, data fusion, archival, retrieval,...

  13. Valve Corporation: Composing Internal Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd R. Zenger

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Discussions of the Valve Corporation are always enlightening. The skeptic wonders how much is rhetoric and recruiting ploy and how much is real. Is there clear evidence that this organizational design actually works – that it is efficient in this setting? While revenues per employee are quite remarkable, cause and effect are unclear. Is “boss-less-ness” the cause of high sales per employee or simply the result of high sales per employee, fueled from earlier success? The same question could be asked of Google’s unusual organizational approach. Is Google’s success the result of its extensive autonomy granted to employees, or is its past success the enabling cause of such autonomy? Such questions, of course, are empirically unanswerable here. I therefore set them aside and assume this organizational specimen is efficient – well-suited to its environment – and proceed with further commentary.

  14. Universality in the relaxation dynamics of the composed black-hole-charged-massive-scalar-field system: The role of quantum Schwinger discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Hod

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The quasinormal resonance spectrum {ωn(μ,q,M,Q}n=0n=∞ of charged massive scalar fields in the charged Reissner–Nordström black-hole spacetime is studied analytically in the large-coupling regime qQ≫Mμ (here {μ,q} are respectively the mass and charge coupling constant of the field, and {M,Q} are respectively the mass and electric charge of the black hole. This physical system provides a striking illustration for the validity of the universal relaxation bound τ×T≥ħ/π in black-hole physics (here τ≡1/ℑω0 is the characteristic relaxation time of the composed black-hole-scalar-field system, and T is the Bekenstein–Hawking temperature of the black hole. In particular, it is shown that the relaxation dynamics of charged massive scalar fields in the charged Reissner–Nordström black-hole spacetime may saturate this quantum time-times-temperature inequality. Interestingly, we prove that potential violations of the bound by light scalar fields are excluded by the Schwinger-type pair-production mechanism (a vacuum polarization effect, a quantum phenomenon which restricts the physical parameters of the composed black-hole-charged-field system to the regime qQ≪M2μ2/ħ.

  15. Investigation of solute permeation across hydrogels composed of poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic acid) and poly(ethylene glycol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj Singh, Thakur Raghu; Woolfson, A David; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2010-07-01

    Swelling kinetics and solute permeation (theophylline, vitamin B(12) and fluorescein sodium) of hydrogels composed of poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic acid) (PMVE/MA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) are presented. The effects of PMVE/MA and PEG 10 000 content on swelling behaviour (percentage swelling, the type of diffusion and swelling rate constant) were investigated in 0.1 m phosphate buffer. Network parameters, such as average molecular weight between crosslinks (M(c)) and crosslink density, were evaluated. The percentage swelling and M(c) of hydrogels increased with decrease in PMVE/MA content, where the water diffusion mechanism into the hydrogels was Class-II type. In contrast, increase in PMVE/MA content caused an increase in the crosslink density. Permeation of theophylline, vitamin B(12) and fluorescein sodium, with increasing hydrodynamic radii, was studied through the equilibrium swollen hydrogels composed of PMVE/MA and PEG. In general, the permeability and diffusion coefficients of all three solutes decreased with increase in the PMVE/MA content. In addition, permeability and diffusion coefficient values increased with decreases in the hydrodynamic radii of the solute molecules. The hydrogels have shown a change in swelling behaviour, crosslink density, M(c) and solute permeation with change in PMVE/MA content, thus suggesting a potential application in controlled drug-delivery systems.

  16. A high-sensitive ultraviolet photodetector composed of double-layered TiO{sub 2} nanostructure and Au nanoparticles film based on Schottky junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huan; Qin, Pei [School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Yi, Guobin, E-mail: ygb702@163.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Zu, Xihong [School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Zhang, Li, E-mail: zhangli2368@126.com [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Hong, Wei; Chen, Xudong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou, 510275 (China)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, a Schottky-type ultraviolet (UV) photodetector based on double-layered nanostructured TiO{sub 2}/Au films was fabricated. Double-layered titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanostructures composed of one layer of TiO{sub 2} nano-flowers on one layer of TiO{sub 2} nanorods on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) pre-coated glass substrates were synthesized via a convenient hydrothermal method using titanium butoxide and hydrochloric acid as the starting precursor, without involving the use of any other surfactants and catalysts. A granular-shaped thin-layer of Au film using vacuum sputter coating technique was subsequently deposited on TiO{sub 2} for the formation of Schottky-type photodetector. The as-fabricated Schottky device showed various photocurrent responses when irradiated with different wavelength of UV light. This suggests that the newly-developed photodetectors have promising potential for identifying different UV light wavelengths. - Highlights: • A novel double-layered TiO{sub 2} nanostructure was synthesized by a simple method. • An UV photodetector composed of TiO{sub 2} and Au was designed and fabricated. • The preparation method of TiO{sub 2}/Au UV photodetector was simple and convenient. • The UV photodetector based on TiO{sub 2}/Au showed excellent sensitivity to UV light.

  17. A 5.9 tesla conduction-cooled coil composed of a stack of four single pancakes wound with YBCO wide tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Sadanori; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Tosaka, Taizo; Tasaki, Kenji; Urata, Masami; Ioka, Shigeru; Ishii, Yusuke

    2013-11-01

    We have been developing a conduction-cooled coil wound with YBCO-coated conductors for HTS applications. Previously, we have fabricated a coil composed of a stack of 12 single pancakes wound with 4 mm-wide YBCO tapes. This coil had a central magnetic field as high as 5.1 T at 10 K under conduction-cooled conditions. In the present study, we fabricated and tested a coil composed of a stack of four single pancakes wound with 12 mm-wide YBCO tapes. The total size of the coil and the Jc value of the tapes were almost the same as those of the former coil. At 77 K, the voltage-current characteristics showed a high n-value of 24, confirming that the coil had no degradation. Furthermore, in a conduction-cooled configuration at 20 K to 60 K, the coil showed a high n-value of over 20. At 20 K, the central magnetic field reached 5.9 T at 903 A, which is 1.3-times higher than that of the former coil.

  18. Zeolite-zeolite composite composed of Y zeolite and single-crystal-like ZSM-5 zeolite: Fabricated by a process like “big fish swallowing little one”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Meng; Li, Peng [Research Centre of Energy Chemical & Catalytic Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Zheng, Jiajun, E-mail: zhengjiajun@tyut.edu.cn [Research Centre of Energy Chemical & Catalytic Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Liu, Yujian [SINOPEC Research Institute of Petroleum Processing, Beijing, 100083 (China); Kong, Qinglan [Research Centre of Energy Chemical & Catalytic Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Tian, Huiping [SINOPEC Research Institute of Petroleum Processing, Beijing, 100083 (China); Li, Ruifeng, E-mail: rfli@tyut.edu.cn [Research Centre of Energy Chemical & Catalytic Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Zeolite-zeolite composite composed of Y and ZSM-5 zeolite was prepared using depolymerized Y as partial nutrients for the growth of ZSM-5. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption measurement and Thermogravimetric analysis (TG). Chemical equilibrium at the solution-crystal interface was changed because of the partially depolymerized Y zeolite, the conditions necessary for the growth of ZSM-5 were therefore obtained. ZSM-5 zeolite crystals nucleated and grew on the interface, and Y zeolite crystals were then gradually swallowed by the growing single-crystal-like ZSM-5. - Graphical abstract: Y zeolite crystals in the hydrothermal system were partially depolymerized and an ambience in favor of the formation of ZSM-5 was formed, and ZSM-5 zeolite crystals nucleated and grew up on the external surfaces of Y zeolite crystals. As a consequence, Y zeolite crystals were swallowed by single-crystal-like ZSM-5. - Highlights: • Zeolite composite is composed by Y zeolite and single-crystal-like ZSM-5. • A composite material formed by a process like “big fish swallowing little one”. • Ratio of two zeolites in the as-synthesized sample can be adjusted.

  19. An artificial photosynthesis anode electrode composed of a nanoparticulate photocatalyst film in a visible light responsive GaN-ZnO solid solution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Yoshihiko; Anazawa, Toshihisa; Manabe, Toshio; Amada, Hideyuki; Ido, Sachio; Kumasaka, Fumiaki; Awaji, Naoki; Sánchez-Santolino, Gabriel; Ishikawa, Ryo; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2016-10-01

    The artificial photosynthesis technology known as the Honda-Fujishima effect, which produces oxygen and hydrogen or organic energy from sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide, is an effective energy and environmental technology. The key component for the higher efficiency of this reaction system is the anode electrode, generally composed of a photocatalyst formed on a glass substrate from electrically conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO). To obtain a highly efficient electrode, a dense film composed of a nanoparticulate visible light responsive photocatalyst that usually has a complicated multi-element composition needs to be deposited and adhered onto the FTO. In this study, we discovered a method for controlling the electronic structure of a film by controlling the aerosol-type nanoparticle deposition (NPD) condition and thereby forming films of materials with a band gap smaller than that of the prepared raw material powder, and we succeeded in extracting a higher current from the anode electrode. As a result, we confirmed that a current approximately 100 times larger than those produced by conventional processes could be obtained using the same material. This effect can be expected not only from the materials discussed (GaN-ZnO) in this paper but also from any photocatalyst, particularly materials of solid solution compositions.

  20. A novel aqueous micellar two-phase system composed of surfactant and sorbitol for purification of pectinase enzyme from Psidium guajava and recycling phase components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Murshid, Fara Syazana; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini

    2015-01-01

    A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of a surfactant and sorbitol was employed for the first time to purify pectinase from Psidium guajava. The influences of different parameters, including the type and concentration of the surfactant and the concentration and composition of the surfactant/sorbitol ratio, on the partitioning behavior and recovery of pectinase were investigated. Moreover, the effects of system pH and the crude load on purification fold and the yield of purified pectinase were studied. The experimental results indicated that the pectinase was partitioned into surfactant-rich top phase, and the impurities were partitioned into the sorbitol-rich bottom phase with the novel method involving an ATPS composed of 26% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 23% (w/w) sorbitol at 54.2% of the TLL crude load of 20% (w/w) at pH 6.0. The enzyme was successfully recovered by this method with a high purification factor of 15.2 and a yield of 98.3%, whereas the phase components were also recovered and recycled at rates above 96%. This study demonstrated that this novel ATPS method can be used as an efficient and economical alternative to the traditional ATPS for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme.

  1. A Novel Aqueous Micellar Two-Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Sorbitol for Purification of Pectinase Enzyme from Psidium guajava and Recycling Phase Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Fara Syazana; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini

    2015-01-01

    A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of a surfactant and sorbitol was employed for the first time to purify pectinase from Psidium guajava. The influences of different parameters, including the type and concentration of the surfactant and the concentration and composition of the surfactant/sorbitol ratio, on the partitioning behavior and recovery of pectinase were investigated. Moreover, the effects of system pH and the crude load on purification fold and the yield of purified pectinase were studied. The experimental results indicated that the pectinase was partitioned into surfactant-rich top phase, and the impurities were partitioned into the sorbitol-rich bottom phase with the novel method involving an ATPS composed of 26% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 23% (w/w) sorbitol at 54.2% of the TLL crude load of 20% (w/w) at pH 6.0. The enzyme was successfully recovered by this method with a high purification factor of 15.2 and a yield of 98.3%, whereas the phase components were also recovered and recycled at rates above 96%. This study demonstrated that this novel ATPS method can be used as an efficient and economical alternative to the traditional ATPS for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme. PMID:25756051

  2. The effects of diseases, drugs, and chemicals on the creativity and productivity of famous sculptors, classic painters, classic music composers, and authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Paul L

    2005-11-01

    Many myths, theories, and speculations exist as to the exact etiology of the diseases, drugs, and chemicals that affected the creativity and productivity of famous sculptors, classic painters, classic music composers, and authors. To emphasize the importance of a modern clinical chemistry laboratory and hematology coagulation laboratory in interpreting the basis for the creativity and productivity of various artists. This investigation analyzed the lives of famous artists, including classical sculptor Benvenuto Cellini; classical sculptor and painter Michelangelo Buonarroti; classic painters Ivar Arosenius, Edvard Munch, and Vincent Van Gogh; classic music composer Louis Hector Berlioz; and English essayist Thomas De Quincey. The analysis includes their illnesses, their famous artistic works, and the modern clinical chemistry, toxicology, and hematology coagulation tests that would have been important in the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases. The associations between illness and art may be close and many because of both the actual physical limitations of the artists and their mental adaptation to disease. Although they were ill, many continued to be productive. If modern clinical chemistry, toxicology, and hematology coagulation laboratories had existed during the lifetimes of these various well-known individuals, clinical laboratories might have unraveled the mysteries of their afflictions. The illnesses these people endured probably could have been ascertained and perhaps treated. Diseases, drugs, and chemicals may have influenced their creativity and productivity.

  3. Méthodes spécifiques de caractérisation et de commande de composants grand gap en environnement variable

    OpenAIRE

    Grezaud, Romain; Ayel, François; Rouger, Nicolas; Crebier, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Afin d'évaluer précisément et avec une grande flexibilité l'impact du point de fonctionnement et de la température sur les performances en commutation des composants grand gap (CGG), nous proposons une méthode spécifique de caractérisation basée sur l'architecture d'un hacheur série fonctionnant en mode pulsé. Une simulation électrothermique montre que le stress thermique dû à cette méthode est considérablement réduit comparé à la méthode du double pulse, permettant ainsi une caractérisation ...

  4. Core–Shell Structure and Aggregation Number of Micelles Composed of Amphiphilic Block Copolymers and Amphiphilic Heterografted Polymer Brushes Determined by Small-Angle X-ray Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymusiak, Magdalena [Department; Kalkowski, Joseph [Department; Luo, Hanying [Department; Donovan, Alexander J. [Department; Zhang, Pin [Department; Liu, Chang [Department; Shang, Weifeng [Department; Irving, Thomas [Department; Herrera-Alonso, Margarita [Department; Liu, Ying [Department; Department

    2017-08-16

    A large group of functional nanomaterials employed in biomedical applications, including targeted drug delivery, relies on amphiphilic polymers to encapsulate therapeutic payloads via self-assembly processes. Knowledge of the micelle structures will provide critical insights into design of polymeric drug delivery systems. Core–shell micelles composed of linear diblock copolymers poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL), poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLA), as well as a heterografted brush consisting of a poly(glycidyl methacrylate) backbone with PEG and PLA branches (PGMA-g-PEG/PLA) were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements to gain structural information regarding the particle morphology, core–shell size, and aggregation number. The structural information at this quasi-equilibrium state can also be used as a reference when studying the kinetics of polymer micellization.

  5. Core–Shell Structure and Aggregation Number of Micelles Composed of Amphiphilic Block Copolymers and Amphiphilic Heterografted Polymer Brushes Determined by Small-Angle X-ray Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymusiak, Magdalena; Kalkowski, Joseph; Luo, Hanying; Donovan, Alexander J.; Zhang, Pin; Liu, Chang; Shang, Weifeng; Irving, Thomas; Herrera-Alonso, Margarita; Liu, Ying (JHU); (IIT); (UIC)

    2017-08-31

    A large group of functional nanomaterials employed in biomedical applications, including targeted drug delivery, relies on amphiphilic polymers to encapsulate therapeutic payloads via self-assembly processes. Knowledge of the micelle structures will provide critical insights into design of polymeric drug delivery systems. Core–shell micelles composed of linear diblock copolymers poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL), poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLA), as well as a heterografted brush consisting of a poly(glycidyl methacrylate) backbone with PEG and PLA branches (PGMA-g-PEG/PLA) were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements to gain structural information regarding the particle morphology, core–shell size, and aggregation number. The structural information at this quasi-equilibrium state can also be used as a reference when studying the kinetics of polymer micellization.

  6. Diagrams of the variations in the free energy of formation of metallic compounds (1960); Diagrammes de variations d'energie libre de formation des composes metalliques (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darras, R.; Loriers, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The variations in the standard free energy {delta}G produced during the formation of the principal simple metallic compounds have been calculated as a function of the temperature from recently published data, and are presented in convenient diagram form. Their usefulness in metallurgy is illustrated by some possible applications. (author) [French] Les variations d'energie libre standard {delta}G intervenant lors de la formation des principaux composes metalliques simples ont ete calculees, en fonction de la temperature, d'apres les donnees recentes de la litterature et rassemblees sous forme de diagrammes d'utilisation commode. Leur interet certain en metallurgie est concretise par quelques exemples d'applications possibles. (auteur)

  7. Identification of a mosaic transposable element of Paracoccus marcusii composed of insertion sequence ISPmar4 (ISAs1 family) and an IS1247a-driven transposable module (TMo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuplewska, Magdalena; Bartosik, Dariusz

    2009-03-01

    A sacB-based trap plasmid was used to clone a mosaic transposable element (TE) in the carotenoid producer Paracoccus marcusii OS22. This element is composed of an insertion sequence (IS) ISPmar4 (ISAs1 family), which contains an inserted functional transposable module (TMo) generated by a copy of IS1247a (of the IS1380 family). Besides IS1247a sequences, the TMo also contains the 3'-end region of a putative alpha/beta hydrolase gene, whose expression might be activated from the P(2) promoter of IS1247a. The identification of this novel TE provides evidence that transposition of TMos may change an IS into a more complex element resembling noncomposite transposons.

  8. An experimental approach aiming the production of a gas mixture composed of hydrogen and methane from biomass as natural gas substitute in industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraussler, Michael; Schindler, Philipp; Hofbauer, Hermann

    2017-08-01

    This work presents an experimental approach aiming the production of a gas mixture composed of H 2 and CH 4 , which should serve as natural gas substitute in industrial applications. Therefore, a lab-scale process chain employing a water gas shift unit, scrubbing units, and a pressure swing adsorption unit was operated with tar-rich product gas extracted from a commercial dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification plant. A gas mixture with a volumetric fraction of about 80% H 2 and 19% CH 4 and with minor fractions of CO and CO 2 was produced by employing carbon molecular sieve as adsorbent. Moreover, the produced gas mixture had a lower heating value of about 15.5MJ·m -3 and a lower Wobbe index of about 43.4MJ·m -3 , which is similar to the typical Wobbe index of natural gas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Manipulating femtosecond pulse shape using liquid crystals infiltrated one-dimensional graded index photonic crystal waveguides composed of coupled-cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathollahi Khalkhali, T.; Bananej, A.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the transmission of a 10-femtosecond pulse through an ordinary and graded index coupled-cavity waveguide, using finite-difference time-domain and transfer matrix method. The ordinary structure is composed of dielectric/liquid crystal layers in which four defect layers are placed symmetrically. Next, we introduce a graded structure based on the ordinary system in which dielectric refractive index slightly increases with a constant step value from the beginning to the end of the structure while liquid crystal layers are maintained unchanged. Simulation results reveal that by applying an external static electric field and controlling liquid crystal refractive index in graded structure, it is possible to transmit an ultrashort pulse with negligible distortion and attenuation.

  10. Parts per billion-level detection of benzene using SnO2/graphene nanocomposite composed of sub-6 nm SnO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan-Li; Li, Hui-Hua; Kong, Ling-Tao; Liu, Jin-Yun; Jin, Zhen; Li, Wei; Jia, Yong; Liu, Jin-Huai; Huang, Xing-Jiu

    2012-07-29

    In the present work, the SnO(2)/graphene nanocomposite composed of 4-5 nm SnO(2) nanoparticles was synthesized using a simple wet chemical method for ppb-level detection of benzene. The formation mechanism of the nanocomposite was investigated systematically by means of simultaneous thermogravimetry analysis, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy cooperated with transmission electron microscopy observations. The SnO(2)/graphene nanocomposite showed a very attractive improved sensitivity to toxic volatile organic compounds, especially to benzene, compared to a traditional SnO(2). The responses of the nanocomposite to benzene were a little higher than those to ethanol and the detection limit reached 5 ppb to benzene which is, to our best knowledge, far lower than those reported previously. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. DEVELOPING SKILLS OF COMPOSING A PARAGRAPH AS A STRUCTURAL ELEMENT OF AN ENGLISH-LANGUAGE WRITTEN TEXT WHEN TEACHING WRITING TO LANGUAGE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Odegova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author explores the concept of paragraph as a means of logically structuring a written text; outlines the principles of arranging a body paragraph; examines the functions of a topic sentence, supporting sentences and a concluding one; identifies the specific skills of writing a paragraph; offers a set of activities aimed at mastering the specified skills in the context of developing English-language competence in writing. The suggested sequence of activities presupposes step-by-step practice in writing sentences of the types mentioned with the gradual transition to composing complete paragraphs. Special attention is paid to pair and group work for the purpose of lessening the adverse effects of writing-related stress.

  12. Probing charge transfer in a novel class of luminescent perovskite-based heterostructures composed of quantum dots bound to RE-activated CaTiO3 phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Crystal S.; Liu, Haiqing; Han, Jinkyu; Wang, Lei; Yue, Shiyu; Brennan, Nicholas A.; Wong, Stanislaus S.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the synthesis and structural characterization of novel semiconducting heterostructures composed of cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) attached onto the surfaces of novel high-surface area, porous rare-earth-ion doped alkaline earth titanate micron-scale spherical motifs, i.e. both Eu-doped and Pr-doped CaTiO3, composed of constituent, component nanoparticles. These unique metal oxide perovskite building blocks were created by a multi-pronged synthetic strategy involving molten salt and hydrothermal protocols. Subsequently, optical characterization of these heterostructures indicated a clear behavioral dependence of charge transfer in these systems upon a number of parameters such as the nature of the dopant, the reaction temperature, and particle size. Specifically, 2.7 nm diameter ligand-functionalized CdSe QDs were anchored onto sub-micron sized CaTiO3-based spherical assemblies, prepared by molten salt protocols. We found that both the Pr- and Eu-doped CaTiO3 displayed pronounced PL emissions, with maximum intensities observed using optimized lanthanide concentrations of 0.2 mol% and 6 mol%, respectively. Analogous experiments were performed on Eu-doped BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 motifs, but CaTiO3 still performed as the most effective host material amongst the three perovskite systems tested. Moreover, the ligand-capped CdSe QD-doped CaTiO3 heterostructures exhibited effective charge transfer between the two individual constituent nanoscale components, an assertion corroborated by the corresponding quenching of their measured PL signals.We report on the synthesis and structural characterization of novel semiconducting heterostructures composed of cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) attached onto the surfaces of novel high-surface area, porous rare-earth-ion doped alkaline earth titanate micron-scale spherical motifs, i.e. both Eu-doped and Pr-doped CaTiO3, composed of constituent, component nanoparticles. These unique metal oxide perovskite

  13. Writing an Independently Composed Sentence by Spanish-Speaking Children With and Without Poor Transcription Skills: A Writing-Level Match Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Eduardo; Crespo, Patricia; Bermúdez, Ivana

    The main objective of this research was to analyze the impact of transcription skills of Spanish writers when writing an independently composed sentence within a writing-level design. The free-writing sentence task from the Early Grade Writing Assessment (Jiménez, in press) was used to examine the production, accuracy, speed, syntactic complexity, quality, and fluency of children with poor transcription skills (PTS). The results showed that there were significant differences between children with PTS and peers who had good transcription skills. The PTS group members were less accurate, slower, and less fluent or even dysfluent. Furthermore, their sentences were less complex and contained lower quality content. These results suggest that transcription skills play a crucial role in early written expression in Spanish, and poor transcription abilities hamper the acquisition and normal development of sentence composition.

  14. Modelos de Composição e Percepção de Xenakis: Concret PH e o Pavilhão Philips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Rossetti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda os modelos de composição e percepção de Xenakis. Segundo o próprio compositor, seu modelo de composição é baseado em distintas formalizações iniciais (estruturas fora-do-tempo, cujo objetivo é gerar dados musicais (estruturas no-tempo, tendo muitas vezes como referência o novo paradigma da ciência moderna do século XX. Por outro lado, a questão da sensibilidade musical é abordada por Xenakis a partir de um viés fundamentado na fenomenologia. Para ilustrar esta dualidade em seu processo criativo, abordaremos analiticamente o processo composicional de sua obra eletroacústica Concret PH (1958 e sua difusão no interior do Pavilhão Philips, cuja concepção de espacialidade se dá a partir do conceito de “gesto eletrônico”. Para a discussão teórica sobre seu modelo perceptivo, trazemos algumas considerações sobre espaço e tempo originárias de Kant e Merleau-Ponty. Já para a análise de Concret PH, nos reportaremos ao modelo de representação sonora de Gabor e ao conceito de trama de Xenakis, além de análises espectrais.

  15. Controlled self-assembling structures of ferrocene-dipeptide conjugates composed of Ala-Pro-NHCH2CH2SH chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriuchi, Toshiyuki; Nishiyama, Taiki; Tayano, Yoshiki; Hirao, Toshikazu

    2017-05-18

    Bioorganometallic ferrocene-dipeptide conjugates with the Ala-Pro-cysteamine chain, Fc-L-Ala-L-Pro-NHCH2CH2SH (2) and Fc-L-Ala-D-Pro-NHCH2CH2SH (4) (Fc=ferrocenoyl), were prepared by the reduction of the ferrocene-dipeptide conjugates, Fc-L-Ala-L-Pro-cystamine-L-Pro-L-Ala-Fc (1) or Fc-L-Ala-D-Pro-cystamine-D-Pro-L-Ala-Fc (3), respectively. Control of the self-assembling structures of the ferrocene-dipeptide conjugates was demonstrated by changing the chirality of the amino acid. The molecular structure of 2 composed of the L-Ala-L-Pro-NHCH2CH2SH chain confirmed the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bond of N-H⋯N pattern between the NH of cysteamine moiety and the nitrogen of Pro moiety. Furthermore, intermolecular hydrogen bonds between NH (Ala) and CO (Pro of another molecule) and between NH (cysteamine) and CO (the ferrocenoyl moiety of another molecule) were formed, wherein each molecule is connected to four neighboring molecules by continuous intermolecular hydrogen bonds to form the hydrogen-bonded molecular assembling structure. On the contrary, the left-handed helical assembly through an intermolecular hydrogen-bonding network of 15-membered intermolecularly hydrogen-bonded ring between NH (Ala) and CO (the ferrocenoyl moiety of another molecule) and between NH (the cysteamine moiety of another molecule) and CO (Ala) was observed in the crystal packing of 4 composed of the L-Ala-D-Pro-NHCH2CH2SH chain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficacy of a coating composed of chitosan from Mucor circinelloides and carvacrol to control Aspergillus flavus and the quality of cherry tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Evandro L; Sales, Camila V; de Oliveira, Carlos E V; Lopes, Laênia A A; da Conceição, Maria L; Berger, Lúcia R R; Stamford, Thayza C M

    2015-01-01

    Cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) fruits are susceptible to contamination by Aspergillus flavus, which may cause the development of fruit rot and significant postharvest losses. Currently there are significant drawbacks for the use of synthetic fungicides to control pathogenic fungi in tomato fruits, and it has increased the interest in exploring new alternatives to control the occurrence of fungal infections in these fruits. This study evaluated the efficacy of chitosan (CHI) from Mucor circinelloides in combination with carvacrol (CAR) in inhibiting A. flavus in laboratory media and as a coating on cherry tomato fruits (25°C, 12 days and 12°C, 24 days). During a period of storage, the effect of coatings composed of CHI and CAR on autochthonous microflora, as well as on some quality characteristics of the fruits such as weight loss, color, firmness, soluble solids, and titratable acidity was evaluated. CHI and CAR displayed MIC valuesof 7.5 mg/mL and 10 μL/mL, respectively, against A. flavus. The combined application of CHI (7.5 or 3.75 mg/mL) and CAR (5 or 2.5 μL/mL) strongly inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of A. flavus. The coating composed of CHI (3.75 mg/mL) and CAR (2.5 or 1.25 μL/mL) inhibited the growth of A. flavus in artificially contaminated fruits, as well as the native fungal microflora of the fruits stored at room or low temperature. The application of the tested coatings preserved the quality of cherry tomato fruits as measured by some physicochemical attributes. From this, composite coatings containing CHI and CAR offer a promising alternative to control postharvest infection caused by A. flavus or native fungal microflora in fresh cherry tomato fruits without negatively affecting their quality over storage.

  17. A Novel Aqueous Two Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Xylitol for the Purification of Lipase from Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) Seeds and Recycling of Phase Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2015-06-17

    Lipase is one of the more important enzymes used in various industries such as the food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, and pulp and paper sectors. A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of surfactant and xylitol was employed for the first time to purify lipase from Cucurbita moschata. The influence of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, and the composition of the surfactant/xylitol mixtures on the partitioning behavior and recovery of lipase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of system pH and crude load on the degree of purification and yield of the purified lipase were studied. The results indicated that the lipase was partitioned into the top surfactant rich phase while the impurities partitioned into the bottom xylitol-rich phase using an aqueous two phase system composed of 24% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 20% (w/w) xylitol, at 56.2% of tie line length (TLL), (TTL is one of the important parameters in this study and it is determined from a bimodal curve in which the tie-line connects two nodes on the bimodal, that represent concentration of phase components in the top and bottom phases) and a crude load of 25% (w/w) at pH 8.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the proposed method with a high purification factor of 16.4 and yield of 97.4% while over 97% of the phase components were also recovered and recycled. This study demonstrated that the proposed novel aqueous two phase system method is more efficient and economical than the traditional aqueous two phase system method for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme lipase.

  18. A Novel Aqueous Two Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Xylitol for the Purification of Lipase from Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Seeds and Recycling of Phase Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Amid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipase is one of the more important enzymes used in various industries such as the food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, and pulp and paper sectors. A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of surfactant and xylitol was employed for the first time to purify lipase from Cucurbita moschata. The influence of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, and the composition of the surfactant/xylitol mixtures on the partitioning behavior and recovery of lipase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of system pH and crude load on the degree of purification and yield of the purified lipase were studied. The results indicated that the lipase was partitioned into the top surfactant rich phase while the impurities partitioned into the bottom xylitol-rich phase using an aqueous two phase system composed of 24% (w/w Triton X-100 and 20% (w/w xylitol, at 56.2% of tie line length (TLL, (TTL is one of the important parameters in this study and it is determined from a bimodal curve in which the tie-line connects two nodes on the bimodal, that represent concentration of phase components in the top and bottom phases and a crude load of 25% (w/w at pH 8.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the proposed method with a high purification factor of 16.4 and yield of 97.4% while over 97% of the phase components were also recovered and recycled. This study demonstrated that the proposed novel aqueous two phase system method is more efficient and economical than the traditional aqueous two phase system method for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme lipase.

  19. Prince of zeta by Petar Konjović: Opera in five/four acts on the 125th anniversary of the composer's birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosusova Nadežda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Petar Konjović (Čurug, May 5, 1883 - Belgrade, October 1, 1970 stands out among Serbian composers as an author of instrumental and vocal compositions. Studies at the Prague Conservatory (1904-1906 acquainted Konjović with Czech music, Wagner's opus, and the Russian national-romantic school, which contributed to the evolution of his talent for both music and stage, enabling him to express his ideas more explicitly in operatic works. It was in the Prague that the second opera - Prince of Zeta - was conceived, with new musical vividness and dramatic appeal (first version composed 1906-1926, the second and final 1929-1939, followed by Koštana (1928, Peasants (1951 and Fatherland (1960. Konjović's mature operas are characterized by his masterful handling of form, both in close-ups and in detail, as well as his deeply individual assimilation of musical folklore into his work. The Prince of Zeta is not to be understood as a folk opera, but some main themes are directly derived from folk music, precisely from the Montenegrin folk songs quoted in the Mokranjac's Ninth Garland and treated in Konjović's post-romantic, almost expressionistic way, interwoven with some Italianate leitmotifs, so as to present the opera's two worlds, Montenegrin and Venetian. In the process of forming Konjović's operatic style, with vocal parts based mainly on the principle of declamation, the opera Prince of Zeta (first performed in Belgrade, 1929, conducted by Lovro von Matačić proved to be a work of great impact. Hardly anyone grasped then the wide sweep of inspiration which allowed the composer to set and to solve several important problems connected with music drama, essential also in his subsequent stage works. First of all, Konjović had to handle in his own way the verbal drama the prototype of his opera, Maxim Crnojević by the Serbian poet Laza Kostić (1841-1910. Permission came from the playwright in the first decade of the 1900, Prince of Zeta being partly

  20. Precise Synthesis of Block Polymers Composed of Three or More Blocks by Specially Designed Linking Methodologies in Conjunction with Living Anionic Polymerization System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Hirao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the successful development of two specially designed linking methodologies in conjunction with a living anionic polymerization system for the synthesis of novel multiblock polymers, composed of three or more blocks, difficult to be synthesized by sequential polymerization. The first methodology with the use of a new heterofunctional linking agent, 2-(4-chloromethylphenylethyldimethylchlorosilane (1, was developed for the synthesis of multiblock polymers containing poly(dimethylsiloxane (PDMS blocks. This methodology is based on the selective reaction of the chain-end silanolate anion of living PDMS, with the silyl chloride function of 1, and subsequent linking reaction of the resulting ω-chain-end-benzyl chloride-functionalized polymer with either a living anionic polymer or living anionic block copolymer. With this methodology, various multiblock polymers containing PDMS blocks, up to the pentablock quintopolymer, were successfully synthesized. The second methodology using an α-phenylacrylate (PA reaction site was developed for the synthesis of multiblock polymers composed of all-vinyl polymer blocks. In this methodology, an α-chain-end-PA-functionalized polymer or block copolymer, via the living anionic polymerization, was first prepared and, then, reacted with appropriate living anionic polymer or block copolymer to link the two polymer chains. As a result, ACB (BCA, BAC (CAB, (ABn, (ACn, ABA, ACA, BCB, and ABCA multiblock polymers, where A, B, and C were polystyrene, poly(2-vinylpyridine, and poly(methyl methacrylate segments, could be successfully synthesized. The synthesis of triblock copolymers, BAB, CAC, and CBC, having molecular asymmetry in both side blocks, was also achieved. Furthermore, the use of living anionic polymers, derived from many other monomers, categorized as either of styrene, 2-vinylpyridine, or methyl methacrylate in monomer reactivity, in the linking methodology enabled the number of

  1. The Ovary of Tubifex tubifex (Clitellata, Naididae, Tubificinae Is Composed of One, Huge Germ-Line Cyst that Is Enriched with Cytoskeletal Components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Z Urbisz

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the ovary organization and oogenesis in Tubificinae have revealed that their ovaries are small polarized structures that are composed of germ cells in subsequent stages of oogenesis that are associated with somatic cells. In syncytial cysts, as a rule, each germ cell is connected to the central cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore, via only one stable intercellular bridge (ring canal. In this paper we present detailed data about the composition of germ-line cysts in Tubifex tubifex with special emphasis on the occurrence and distribution of the cytoskeletal elements. Using fixed material and live cell imaging techniques, we found that the entire ovary of T. tubifex is composed of only one, huge multicellular germ-line cyst, which may contain up to 2,600 cells. Its architecture is broadly similar to the cysts that are found in other clitellate annelids, i.e. a common, anuclear cytoplasmic mass in the center of the cyst and germ cells that are connected to it via intercellular bridges. The cytophore in the T. tubifex cyst extends along the long axis of the ovary in the form of elongated and branched cytoplasmic strands. Rhodamine-coupled phalloidin staining revealed that the prominent strands of actin filaments occur inside the cytophore. Similar to the cytophore, F-actin strands are branched and they are especially well developed in the middle and outermost parts of the ovary. Microfilaments are also present in the ring canals that connect the germ cells with the cytophore in the narrow end of the ovary. Using TubulinTracker, we found that the microtubules form a prominent network of loosely and evenly distributed tubules inside the cytophore as well as in every germ cell. The well-developed cytoskeletal elements in T. tubifex ovary seem to ensure the integrity of such a huge germ-line cyst of complex (germ cells-ring canals-cytophore organization. A comparison between the cysts that are described here and other well-known female

  2. Effects of transcription ability and transcription mode on translation: Evidence from written compositions, language bursts and pauses when students in grades 4 to 9, with and without persisting dyslexia or dysgraphia, compose by pen or by keyboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott F. Beers

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the effects of transcription on translation products and processes of adolescent students in grades 4 to 9 with and without persisting specific language disabilities in written language (SLDs—WL. To operationalize transcription ability (handwriting and spelling and transcription mode (by pen on digital tablet or by standard US keyboard, diagnostic groups contrasting in patterns of transcription ability were compared while composing autobiographical (personal narratives by handwriting or by keyboarding: Typically developing students (n=15, students with dyslexia (impaired word reading and spelling, n=20, and students with dysgraphia (impaired handwriting, n=19. They were compared on seven outcomes: total words composed, total composing time, words per minute, percent of spelling errors, average length of pauses, average number of pauses per minute, and average length of language bursts. They were also compared on automaticity of transcription modes—writing the alphabet from memory by handwriting or keyboarding (they could look at keys. Mixed ANOVAs yielded main effects for diagnostic group on percent of spelling errors, words per minute, and length of language burst. Main effects for transcription modes were found for automaticity of writing modes, total words composed, words per minute, and length of language bursts; there were no significant interactions. Regardless of mode, the dyslexia group had more spelling errors, showed a slower rate of composing, and produced shorter language bursts than the typical group. The total number of words, total time composing, words composed per minute, and pauses per minute were greater for keyboarding than handwriting, but length of language bursts was greater for handwriting. Implications of these results for conceptual models of composing and educational assessment practices are discussed.

  3. Chlorpyrifos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    these techniques require technically skilled labor for their operational usage besides being time- consuming, expensive and cannot be used for continuous monitoring. Though, to some extent the biological techniques such as immunoassays and biosensors have also been tried for the determination of organo-phosphorous ...

  4. Validation of the k-filtering technique for a signal composed of random-phase plane waves and non-random coherent structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. W. Roberts

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations of astrophysical magnetic fields have shown the presence of fluctuations being wave-like (propagating in the plasma frame and those described as being structure-like (advected by the plasma bulk velocity. Typically with single-spacecraft missions it is impossible to differentiate between these two fluctuations, due to the inherent spatio-temporal ambiguity associated with a single point measurement. However missions such as Cluster which contain multiple spacecraft have allowed for temporal and spatial changes to be resolved, using techniques such as k filtering. While this technique does not assume Taylor's hypothesis it requires both weak stationarity of the time series and that the fluctuations can be described by a superposition of plane waves with random phases. In this paper we test whether the method can cope with a synthetic signal which is composed of a combination of non-random-phase coherent structures with a mean radius d and a mean separation λ, as well as plane waves with random phase.

  5. Three-layer microfibrous peripheral nerve guide conduit composed of elastin-laminin mimetic artificial protein and poly(L-lactic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinoki, Sachiro; Nakayama, Midori; Moritan, Toshiyuki; Yamaoka, Tetsuji

    2014-07-01

    We developed a microfibrous poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) nerve conduit with a three-layered structure to simultaneously enhance nerve regeneration and prevent adhesion of surrounding tissue. The inner layer was composed of PLLA microfiber containing 25% elastin-laminin mimetic protein (AG73-(VPGIG)30) that promotes neurite outgrowth. The thickest middle layer was constructed of pure PLLA microfibers that impart the large mechanical stremgth to the conduit. A 10% poly(ethylene glycol) was added to the outer layer to prevent the adhesion with the surrounding tissue. The AG73-(VPGIG)30 composisting of an elastin-like repetitive sequence (VPGIG)30 and a laminin-derived sequence (RKRLQVQLSIRT: AG73) was biosynthesized using Escherichia coli. The PLLA microfibrous conduits were fabricated using an electrospinning procedure. AG73-(VPGIG)30 was successfully mixed in the PLLA microfibers, and the PLLA/AG73-(VPGIG)30 microfibers were stable under physiological conditions. The PLLA/AG73-(VPGIG)30 microfibers enhanced adhesion and neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells. The electrospun microfibrous conduit with a three-layered structure was implanted for bridging a 2.0-cm gap in the tibial nerve of a rabbit. Two months after implantation, no adhesion of surrounding tissue was observed, and the action potential was slightly improved in the nerve conduit with the PLLA/AG73-(VPGIG)30 inner layer.

  6. Design and Realization of a Three Degrees of Freedom Displacement Measurement System Composed of Hall Sensors Based on Magnetic Field Fitting by an Elliptic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and realization of a three degrees of freedom (DOFs displacement measurement system composed of Hall sensors, which is built for the XYθz displacement measurement of the short stroke stage of the reticle stage of lithography. The measurement system consists of three pairs of permanent magnets mounted on the same plane on the short stroke stage along the Y, Y, X directions, and three single axis Hall sensors correspondingly mounted on the frame of the reticle stage. The emphasis is placed on the decoupling and magnetic field fitting of the three DOFs measurement system. The model of the measurement system is illustrated, and the XY positions and θZ rotation of the short stroke stage can be obtained by decoupling the sensor outputs. A magnetic field fitting by an elliptic function-based compensation method is proposed. The practical field intensity of a permanent magnet at a certain plane height can be substituted for the output voltage of a Hall sensors, which can be expressed by the elliptic function through experimental data as the crucial issue to calculate the three DOFs displacement. Experimental results of the Hall sensor displacement measurement system are presented to validate the proposed three DOFs measurement system.

  7. Characteristics of glass ionomer cements composed of glass powders in CaO-SrO-ZnO-SiO₂ system prepared by two different synthetic routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ill Yong; Ohtsuki, Chikara; Coughlan, Aisling; Placek, Lana; Wren, Anthony W; Towler, Mark R

    2013-12-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are composed of an acid degradable glass, polyacrylic acid and water. Sol-gel processing to prepare the glass phase has certain advantages, such as the ability to employ lower synthesis temperatures than melt quenching and glasses that are reported to have higher purity. A previous study reported the effects of glass synthesis route on GIC fabrication. However, in that study, the sol-gel derived glass exhibited a reduced concentration of cations. This study investigates increasing the cation content of a sol-gel derived glass, 12CaO.4SrO.36ZnO.48SiO2 (molar ratio) by heating before aging to reduce dissolution of cations. This glass was prepared by both sol-gel and melt-quenched routes. GICs were subsequently prepared using both glasses. The resultant cement based on the sol-gel derived glass had a shorter working time than the cement based on the melt-quenched one. Contrary to this, setting time was considerably longer for the cement based on the sol-gel derived glass than for the cement based on the melt-quenched one. The cements based on the sol-gel derived glass were stronger in both compression and biaxial flexure than the cements prepared from the melt-quenched glass. The differences in setting and mechanical properties were associated with both cation content in the glass phase and the different surface area of the resultant cements.

  8. Prediction of the properties and thermodynamics of formation for energetic nitrogen-rich salts composed of triaminoguanidinium cation and 5-nitroiminotetrazolate-based anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weihua; Yan, Qingli; Li, Jinshan; Cheng, Bibo; Shao, Yuling; Xia, Xuelan; Xiao, Heming

    2012-08-15

    Density functional theory and volume-based thermodynamics calculations were performed to study the effects of different substituents and linkages on the densities, heats of formation (HOFs), energetic properties, and thermodynamics of formation for a series of energetic nitrogen-rich salts composed of triaminoguanidinium cation and 5-nitroiminotetrazolate anions. The results show that the -NO(2), -NF(2), or -N(3) group is an effective substituent for increasing the densities of the 5-nitroiminotetrazolate salts, whereas the effects of the bridge groups on the density are coupled with those of the substituents. The substitution of the group -NH(2), -NO(2), -NF(2), -N(3), or the nitrogen bridge is helpful for increasing the HOFs of the salts. The calculated energetic properties indicate that the -NO(2), -NF(2), -N(3), or -N=N- group is an effective structural unit for improving the detonation performance for salts. The thermodynamics of formation of the salts show that all the salts may be synthesized easily by the proposed reactions. The structure-property relationships provide basic information for the molecular design of novel high-energy salts. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A recombinant chimeric protein composed of human and mice-specific CD4+and CD8+T-cell epitopes protects against visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, V T; Duarte, M C; Lage, D P; Costa, L E; Carvalho, A M R S; Mendes, T A O; Roatt, B M; Menezes-Souza, D; Soto, M; Coelho, E A F

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a recombinant chimeric protein (RCP), which was composed of specific CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell epitopes to murine and human haplotypes, was evaluated as an immunogen against Leishmania infantum infection in a murine model. BALB/c mice received saline were immunized with saponin or with RCP with or without an adjuvant. The results showed that RCP/saponin-vaccinated mice presented significantly higher levels of antileishmanial IFN-γ, IL-12 and GM-CSF before and after challenge, which were associated with the reduction of IL-4 and IL-10 mediated responses. These animals showed significant reductions in the parasite burden in all evaluated organs, when both limiting dilution and quantitative real-time PCR techniques were used. In addition, the protected animals presented higher levels of parasite-specific nitrite, as well as the presence of anti-Leishmania IgG2a isotype antibodies. In conclusion, the RCP/saponin vaccine could be considered as a prophylactic alternative to prevent against VL. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Antinociceptive and Antihyperalgesic Activity of a Traditional Maya Herbal Preparation Composed of Pouteria Campechiana, Chrysophyllum Cainito, Citrus Limonum, and Annona Muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Ortiz-Andrade, Rolffy; Sanchez-Recillas, Amanda; Flores-Guido, José Salvador; Ramírez Camacho, Mario A

    2017-03-01

    Preclinical Research The purpose of this work was to assess the antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic properties of an herbal preparation, composed of four vegetal species: Pouteria campechiana (P. campechiana), Chrysophyllum cainito (C. cainito), Citrus limonum (C. limonum), and Annona muricata (A. muricata), that is commonly used in combination (PCCA) in traditional Mayan medicine for the treatment of diabetes and pain. An ethanolic extract of PCCA was prepared at a ratio of 1:1:1:1 for each plant. The systemic antinociceptive effect of PCCA extract (50-600 mg/kg, p.o.) was dose-dependent in the rat formalin (1%) producing 66% antinociceptive response at 400 mg/kg, p.o. A concentration-dependent antinociceptive effect of the PCCA extract (20-160 mg/paw) was also demonstrated in the rat capsaicin (0.2%) test. The PCCA extract (100-400 mg/kg, p.o.) had antihyperalgesic effects in alloxan diabetic rats. These findings demonstrate the antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic effects of PCCA and supports the use of the plant extracts in Mayan folk medicine. Drug Dev Res 78 : 91-97, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Inductance and resistance measurement method for vessel detection and coil powering in all-surface inductive heating systems composed of outer squircle coils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli Tayfun Kilic

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigate a method proposed for vessel detection and coil powering in an all-surface inductive heating system composed of outer squircle coils. Besides conventional circular coils, coils with different shapes such as outer squircle coils are used for and enable efficient all-surface inductive heating. Validity of the method, which relies on measuring inductance and resistance values of a loaded coil at different frequencies, is experimentally demonstrated for a coil with shape different from conventional circular coil. Simple setup was constructed with a small coil to model an all-surface inductive heating system. Inductance and resistance maps were generated by measuring coil’s inductance and resistance values at different frequencies loaded by a plate made of different materials and located at various positions. Results show that in an induction hob for various coil geometries it is possible to detect a vessel’s presence, to identify its material type and to specify its position on the hob surface by considering inductance and resistance of the coil measured on at least two different frequencies. The studied method is important in terms of enabling safe, efficient and user flexible heating in an all-surface inductive heating system by automatically detecting the vessel’s presence and powering on only the coils that are loaded by the vessel with predetermined current levels.

  12. Novel bone substitute composed of chitosan and strontium-doped α-calcium sulfate hemihydrate: Fabrication, characterisation and evaluation of biocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yirong; Zhou, Yilin [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Yang, Shenyu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Li, Jiao Jiao [Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Research Unit, School of AMME, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Li, Xue; Ma, Yunfei; Hou, Yilong; Jiang, Nan; Xu, Changpeng; Zhang, Sheng [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Zeng, Rong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Tu, Mei, E-mail: tumei@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Yu, Bin, E-mail: yubinol@163.com [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China)

    2016-09-01

    Calcium sulfate is in routine clinical use as a bone substitute, offering the benefits of biodegradability, biocompatibility and a long history of use in bone repair. The osteoconductive properties of calcium sulfate may be further improved by doping with strontium ions. Nevertheless, the high degradation rate of calcium sulfate may impede bone healing as substantial material degradation may occur before the healing process is complete. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel composite bone substitute composed of chitosan and strontium-doped α-calcium sulfate hemihydrate in the form of microcapsules, which can promote osteogenesis while matching the natural rate of bone healing. The developed microcapsules exhibited controlled degradation that facilitated the sustained release of strontium ions. In vitro testing showed that the microcapsules had minimal cytotoxicity and ability to inhibit bacterial growth. In vivo testing in a mouse model showed the absence of genetic toxicity and low inflammatory potential of the microcapsules. The novel microcapsules developed in this study demonstrated suitable degradation characteristics for bone repair as well as favourable in vitro and in vivo behaviour, and hold promise for use as an alternative bone substitute in orthopaedic surgery. - Highlights: • Chitosan + Sr-doped α-calcium sulfate hemihydrate microcapsules were synthesised. • The novel composite microcapsules had potential application as a bone substitute. • The microcapsules showed controlled degradation and release of strontium ions. • The microcapsules showed in vitro biocompatibility by cytotoxicity test. • The microcapsules showed in vivo biocompatibility in a mouse model.

  13. Universality in the relaxation dynamics of the composed black-hole-charged-massive-scalar-field system: The role of quantum Schwinger discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, Shahar

    2015-01-01

    The quasinormal resonance spectrum $\\{\\omega_n(\\mu,q,M,Q)\\}_{n=0}^{n=\\infty}$ of charged massive scalar fields in the charged Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black-hole spacetime is studied {\\it analytically} in the large-coupling regime $qQ\\gg M\\mu$ (here $\\{\\mu, q\\}$ are respectively the mass and charge coupling constant of the field, and $\\{M,Q\\}$ are respectively the mass and electric charge of the black hole). This physical system provides a striking illustration for the validity of the universal relaxation bound $\\tau \\times T \\geq \\hbar/\\pi$ in black-hole physics (here $\\tau\\equiv 1/\\Im\\omega_0$ is the characteristic relaxation time of the composed black-hole-scalar-field system, and $T$ is the Bekenstein-Hawking temperature of the black hole). In particular, it is shown that the relaxation dynamics of charged massive scalar fields in the charged Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black-hole spacetime may {\\it saturate} this quantum time-times-temperature inequality. Interestingly, we prove that potential violations of the bou...

  14. Application of `resistivity image profiling` to landslide problem for the site composed mostly of hard rocks; Hiteiko eizoho no jisuberi chosa eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikita, K.; Kikuchi, H. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-10-01

    The boundary between weathered rocks and unaffected rocks that was a cause of landslide in the middle hard rock area was studied with application of resistivity image profiling. The surveyed site located at the end of the moderately inclined plateau that also occupied the end of the small ridge facing the alluvial low land along rivers. The geological structure is composed of clayslate, a base rock, covered by volcano extrusive made from puzzolana and loam. The clayslate has been weathered to deep area and easily destroyable. However, the rock structure remained and the unaffected rocks gradually substituted for the weathered rocks with the depth becoming large starting from the surface. The depth and horizontal propagation of the weathered rock area that directly or indirectly causes the landslide was investigated. Using the difference in resistivity between weathered rock and unaffected rock areas as criterion, the data obtained in the site survey were analyzed with computer based on the resistivity image profiling. In this computer analysis, after execution of terrain correction the linear filter method was applied to obtain actual resistivity distribution of soil. As a result of this study, the boundary between weathered rocks and unaffected rocks was identified by the resistivity distribution, and the coverage of the landslide area was also found. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Build Less Code, Deliver More Science: An Experience Report on Composing Scientific Environments using Component-based and Commodity Software Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorton, Ian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Computational Sciences and Math Division; Liu, Yan [Concordia University Montreal, Quebec, (Canada).; Lansing, Carina S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Computational Sciences and Math Division; Elsethagen, Todd O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Computational Sciences and Math Division; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Computational Sciences and Math Division

    2013-07-17

    Modern scientific software is daunting in its diversity and complexity. From massively parallel simulations running on the world’s largest supercomputers, to visualizations and user support environments that manage ever growing complex data collections, the challenges for software engineers are plentiful. While high performance simulators are necessarily specialized codes to maximize performance on specific supercomputer architectures, we argue the vast majority of supporting infrastructure, data management and analysis tools can leverage commodity open source and component-based technologies. This approach can significantly drive down the effort and costs of building complex, collaborative scientific user environments, as well as increase their reliability and extensibility. In this paper we describe our experiences in creating an initial user environment for scientists involved in modeling the detailed effects of climate change on the environment of selected geographical regions. Our approach composes the user environment using the Velo scientific knowledge management platform and the MeDICi Integration Framework for scientific workflows. These established platforms leverage component-based technologies and extend commodity open source platforms with abstractions and capabilities that make them amenable for broad use in science. Using this approach we were able to deliver an operational user environment capable of running thousands of simulations in a 7 month period, and achieve significant software reuse.

  16. Recycling of cementitious scrap inert in the manufacture of fiber composite materials; Riciclo dei materiali inerti cementizi per la produzione di materiali compositi fibrosi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buccolieri, G. [Lecce Univ. (Italy). Dipt. Scienza dei Materiali; De Luca, F.; De Stefano, L. [Ente Nazionale per l' Energia Elettrica, Brindisi (Italy). Area Ambiente; Paglietti, F. [ECOTEC Srl, Rome (Italy); Plescia, P. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome (Italy). Istituto Trattamento Minerali

    1999-04-01

    The disposal of cementitious scrap materials, coming from demolition and construction actives, it is a problem of enormous environmental impact, either for the quantities in play, either for the lack of the fit sites to receive them. In the present work is described a recycling technology of such residual for the production of fiber composites, as thermo acoustical insulating materials or fiber-reinforced, that could be applied also to the cement-asbestos like the eter nit. In this case, inertization and re-use of refusal, also otherwise classified like special or dangerous according to his state of preservation, is archived. [Italian] Lo smaltimento dei materiali inerti cementizi, derivanti da attivita' di demolizione e costruzione, e' un problema di enorme rilevanza ambientale, sia per i quantitativi in gioco sia per la mancanza di siti a riceverli. Nel presente lavoro e' descritta una metodologia di riciclo di tali residui per la produzione di materiali compositi fibrosi, come isolanti termoacustici e fibrorinforzanti, che puo' essere applicata anche al cemento animato tipo eternit. In questo caso si ottiene anche l'inertizzazione ed il riutilizzo di un rifiuto altrimenti classificato come speciale o pericoloso a seconda del suo stato di conservazione.

  17. Vaccination of dogs with six different candidate leishmaniasis vaccines composed of a chimerical recombinant protein containing ribosomal and histone protein epitopes in combination with different adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poot, J; Janssen, L H M; van Kasteren-Westerneng, T J; van der Heijden-Liefkens, K H A; Schijns, V E J C; Heckeroth, A

    2009-07-16

    Chimerical protein "Q", composed of antigenic ribosomal and histone sequences, in combination with live BCG is a promising canine leishmaniasis vaccine candidate; one of the few vaccine candidates that have been tested successfully in dogs. Unfortunately, live BCG is not an appropriate adjuvant for commercial application due to safety problems in dogs. In order to find a safe adjuvant with similar efficacy to live BCG, muramyl dipeptide, aluminium hydroxide, Matrix C and killed Propionibacterium acnes in combination with either E. coli- or baculovirus-produced recombinant JPCM5_Q protein were tested. Groups of five or seven dogs were vaccinated with six different adjuvant-antigen combinations and challenged with a high dose intravenous injection of Leishmania infantum JPC strain promastigotes. All candidate vaccines proved to be safe, and both humoral and cellular responses to the recombinant proteins were detected at the end of the prime-boost vaccination scheme. However, clinical and parasitological data obtained during the 10 month follow-up period indicated that protection was not induced by either of the six candidate vaccines. Although no direct evidence was obtained, our data suggest that live BCG may have a significant protective effect against challenge with L. infantum in dogs.

  18. Intracellular Environment-Responsive Stabilization of Polymer Vesicles Formed from Head-Tail Type Polycations Composed of a Polyamidoamine Dendron and Poly(L-lysine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Kono

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available For the development of effective drug carriers, nanocapsules that respond to micro-environmental changes including a decrease in pH and a reductive environment were prepared by the stabilization of polymer vesicles formed from head-tail type polycations, composed of a polyamidoamine dendron head and a poly(L-lysine tail (PAMAM dendron-PLL, through the introduction of disulfide bonds between the PLL tails. Disulfide bonds were successfully introduced through the reaction of Lys residues in the PAMAM dendron-PLL polymer vesicles with 2-iminothiolane. The stabilization of PAMAM dendron-PLL polymer vesicles was confirmed by dynamic light scattering measurements. In acid-base titration experiments, nanocapsules cross-linked by disulfide bonds had a buffering effect during the cellular uptake process. The PAMAM dendron-PLL nanocapsules were used to incorporate the fluorescent dyes rhodamine 6G and fluorescein as a drug model. Cationic rhodamine 6G was generally not released from the nanocapsules because of the electrostatic barrier of the PLL membrane. However, the nanocapsules were destabilized at high glutathione concentrations corresponding to intracellular concentrations. Rhodamine 6G was immediately released from the nanocapsules because of destabilization upon the cleavage of disulfide bonds. This release of rhodamine 6G from the nanocapsules was also observed in HeLa cells by laser confocal microscopy.

  19. Preparation and evaluation of nanoparticles composed of thiolated methylated pyridinyl chitosan as a new strategy for bucal drug delivery of insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Zolfagharnia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The purpose of this study is about the preparation and evaluation of nanoparticles composed of thiolated methylated pyridinyl chitosan (TMPC which are made P.E.C method, for bucal drug delivery of insulin.Materials and Methods: First of all have to synthesize methylated pyridinyl chitosan and then for (TMPC L-cysteine should be attached to methylated pyridinyl chitosan by the formation amid bounds. After of synthesis the (TMPC nanoparticles were made and insulin loaded on them. The percentage of entrapment efficiency which was calculated for a nanoparticle which loaded by insulin is about to 91+2.6%.Results: The release of insulin from nanoparticles was studied in vitro in Phosphate buffer solution (PBS pH 6.8. After 240 minutes 71.3% of insulin released from (TMPC and after 360 minutes 72.9% of insulin was released. By considering the specifications of nanoparticles which leads us to this result that the Zeta potential is 28.3 mv, poly dispersity index (pdi is 0.33 and the size of the particles is about to 268 nm.Conclusion: this study suggests that thiolated methylated pyridinyl chitosan can act as a potential enhancer for bucal delivery of insulin.

  20. Spatial transport and spectral transfer of solar wind turbulence composed of Alfvén waves and convective structures II: numerical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Schmidt

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available This work follows the paper titled "Spatial transport and spectral transfer of solar wind turbulence composed of Alfvén waves and convective structures I: The theoretical model", and deals with the detailed physics and numerical solution of a two-component solar wind model, consisting of small-scale Alfvén waves and convected structures. In particular, we present numerical results which qualitatively reflect many of the observed features of the radial and spectral evolution of the turbulent energies, the residual energy, the cross-helicity and Alfvén-ratio in high-speed solar wind streams. These features are the following: the formation of a characteristic "inclined eye", which evolves between the energy spectra displayed over the frequency axis and tends to close in the radial development of the spectra, a steepening of all spectra towards Kolmogorov-like f-5/3 spectra, the development of the normalized cross-helicity towards a constant not much less than one and the formation of a "trough" form of the Alfvén ratio with a z-shaped left boundary, By weighting special terms in the equations differently, we can also cast light on the physical role of parametric conversion model terms, wave-structure scattering model terms, nonlinear terms, spherical expansion terms and their effects on the radial evolution of turbulent energies in high-speed solar wind streams.

  1. Outcomes of eyes with lesions composed of >50% blood in the Comparison of Age-related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaweel, Michael M; Daniel, Ebenezer; Martin, Daniel F; Mittra, Robert A; Grunwald, Juan E; Lai, Michael M; Melamud, Alexander; Morse, Lawrence S; Huang, Jiayan; Ferris, Frederick L; Fine, Stuart L; Maguire, Maureen G

    2015-02-01

    To compare baseline characteristics, treatment frequency, visual acuity (VA), and morphologic outcomes of eyes with >50% of the lesion composed of blood (B50 group) versus all other eyes (Other group) enrolled in the Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT). Prospective cohort study within a multicenter randomized clinical trial. CATT patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Treatment for the study eye was assigned randomly to either ranibizumab or bevacizumab and to 3 different dosing regimens over a 2-year period. Reading center graders evaluated baseline and follow-up morphology in color fundus photographs, fluorescein angiography (FA), and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Masked examiners tested VA. Morphologic features and VA at 1 and 2 years. The B50 group consisted of 84 of 1185 (7.1%) patients enrolled in CATT. Baseline lesion characteristics differed between groups. In the B50 group, choroidal neovascularization size was smaller (0.73 vs 1.83 disc areas [DA]; P 50% blood can be managed similarly to those with less or no blood. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. In vivo lifetime and anti-cancer efficacy of doxorubicin-loaded nanogels composed of cinnamoyl poly (β-cyclodextrin) and cinnamoyl Pluronic F127.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Dong Youl; Kim, Jin-Chul

    2017-04-01

    Nanogel composed of rhodamine B isothiocyanate-labeled cinnamoyl polymeric β cyclodextrin and cinnamoyl Pluronic F127 was prepared by taking advantage of their self-assembling property in aqueous phase. The in vivo lifetime of the nanogel in the blood circulation system of hairless mouse was determined by fluorescence imaging method using rhodamine B isothiocyanate as a fluorescence probe, and it was more than 192 h. The in vivo clearance of doxorubicin loaded in the nanogel was observed by the same fluorescence imaging method. Doxorubicin loaded in the nanogel was cleared from the blood circulation system more slowly than free drug, indicating that the in vivo lifetime of the anti-cancer drug was prolonged by the nanogel. The fluorescence of doxorubicin was detected from the mouse even 200 h after the doxorubicin-loaded nanogel was intravenously injected into a mouse. According to the histological study of tumor tissue, the in vivo tumor growth-inhibiting efficacy of doxorubicin loaded in the nanogel was higher than that of free drug, possibly because of its longer in vivo lifetime.

  3. Comparison of shock wave therapy and nutraceutical composed of Echinacea angustifolia, alpha lipoic acid, conjugated linoleic acid and quercetin (perinerv) in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, Angela; Maccagnano, Giuseppe; Tafuri, Silvio; Fiore, Alessandra; Pesce, Vito; Moretti, Biagio

    2015-06-01

    Even though the initial treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is conservative, knowledge of the clinical effects of supplements and of some methods of physiotherapy is still preliminary. Many biological mechanisms can support the administration of shock wave therapy (ESWT) or of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) based nutraceutical, conjugated linoleic acid (GLA), anti-oxidants and Echinacea angustifolia for CTS. The shock waves reduce the nerve compression, produce an anti-inflammatory action, and accelerate the regeneration of neuropathy. ALA and GLA induce antioxidant protective actions, reduce inflammation, promote neuroregeneration, and decrease pain. The Echinacea modulates the endogenous cannabinoid system.The aim of study is to verify the efficiency of shock wave therapy versus nutraceutical composed of ALA, GLA, and Echinacea in CTS. Sixty patients were enrolled in this study and they were randomly assigned to one of two treatments. Both groups showed significant improvements in pain, symptoms' severity and functional scores, and electrodiagnostic results until the sixth month. We verified a trend to a better pain regression in the nutraceutical group. The presence of the medicinal Echinacea represents an added value to the antioxidant effect in ALA and GLA, which can justify this result. ESWT or the association of ALA, GLA, and Echinacea proved to be two effective treatments for controlling symptoms and improving the evolution of CTS. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Evaluation of the methylene blue addition in binary polymeric systems composed by poloxamer 407 and Carbopol 934P using quality by design: rheological, textural, and mucoadhesive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Mariana Volpato; Borghi-Pangoni, Fernanda Belincanta; Ferreira, Sabrina Barbosa de Souza; Bruschi, Marcos Luciano

    2016-12-01

    This study describes the investigation about the physicochemical behavior of methylene blue (Mb) addition to systems containing poloxamer 407 (Polox), Carbopol 934P (Carb), intended to be locally used by photodynamic therapy. A factorial design 2 3 (plus center point) was used to analyze the rheological, mucoadhesive and textural properties of the preparations. Systems containing the lower concentrations of Polox (15 and 17.5%, w/w) exhibited pseudoplastic flow and low degrees of rheopexy. On the other hand, at higher Polox concentration (20%, w/w) the systems display plastic flow and thixotropy. Carb and Mb exhibited a negative influence for the consistency and flow behavior index, due to the interaction between them. For most of the formulations, the increase of Polox and Mb content significantly increased storage modulus, loss modulus and dynamic viscosity. The systems display a sol-gel transition temperature, existing as a liquid at room temperature and gel at 29-37 °C. Increasing the temperature and the polymer concentration, the compressional properties of systems significantly increased. The mucoadhesion was noted to all formulations, except to systems composed by 15% (w/w) of Polox. The analyses enabled to understand and predict the performance of formulations and the polymer-Mb interactions, tailoring to the suit systems (Polox/Carb/Mb): 17.5/0.50/0.20 and 20/0.15/0.25.

  5. Molecular complex composed of β-cyclodextrin-grafted Chitosan and pH-sensitive amphipathic peptide for enhancing cellular cholesterol efflux under acidic pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takechi-Haraya, Yuki; Tanaka, Kento; Tsuji, Kohei; Asami, Yasuo; Izawa, Hironori; Shigenaga, Akira; Otaka, Akira; Saito, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Kohsaku

    2015-03-18

    Excess of cholesterol in peripheral cells is known to lead to atherosclerosis. In this study, a molecular complex composed of β-cyclodextrin-grafted chitosan (BCC) and cellular cholesterol efflux enhancing peptide (CEEP), synthesized by modifying pH sensitive amphipathic GALA peptide, is introduced with the eventual aim of treating atherosclerosis. BCC has a markedly enhanced ability to induce cholesterol efflux from cell membranes compared to β-cyclodextrin, and the BCC-CEEP complex exhibited a 2-fold increase in cellular cholesterol efflux compared to BCC alone under weakly acidic conditions. Isothermal titration calorimetry and fluorescence spectroscopy measurements demonstrated that the random coil structure of CEEP at neutral pH converted to the α-helical structure at acidic pH, resulting in a three-order larger binding constant to BCC (K = 3.7 × 10(7) at pH 5.5) compared to that at pH 7.4 (K = 7.9 × 10(4)). Such high-affinity binding of CEEP to BCC at acidic pH leads to the formation of 100-nm-sized aggregate with positive surface charge, which would efficiently interact with cell membranes and induce cholesterol efflux. Since the cholesterol efflux ability of HDL is thought to be impaired under acidic environments in advanced atherosclerotic lesions, the BCC-CEEP complex might serve as a novel nanomaterial for treating atherosclerosis.

  6. Efficacy of a Solution Composed by Verbascoside, Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Sodium Hyaluronate in the Treatment of Chemotherapy-induced Oral Mucositis in Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardellini, Elena; Amadori, Francesca; Schumacher, Richard Fabian; D'Ippolito, Carmelita; Porta, Fulvio; Majorana, Alessandra

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a solution composed by verbascoside, polyvinylpyrrolidone, and sodium hyaluronate (Mucosyte) in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositi (OM). Patients between 5 and 18 years receiving chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and with OM grade 1 or 2 were randomized in group A (treated with Mucosyte, 3 mouthwashes/d per 8 d) and group B (treated with placebo, ie, an inert water-based solution, 3 mouthwashes/d per 8 d). The OM scoring was performed at day 1 (diagnosis of OM-T0), after 3 days of treatment (T1), and at day 8 (T2). Pain was evaluated through the visual analog scale with the same timing of OM measurement. A total of 56 patients were included (28 patients per group). Group A experienced a statistically significant decline of OM at T2 (P=0.0038); a statistically significant difference in pain reduction between 2 groups both at T1 and at T2 (P<0.005) was observed. The use of Mucosyte mouthwashes in children with chemotherapy-induced OM may be recommended as supportive therapy.

  7. Biodistribution and photodynamic effects of polyvinylpyrrolidone-hypericin using multicellular spheroids composed of normal human urothelial and T24 transitional cell carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandepitte, Joachim; Roelants, Mieke; Cleynenbreugel, Ben Van; Hettinger, Klaudia; Lerut, Evelyne; van Poppel, Hendrik; de Witte, Peter A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-hypericin is a potent photosensitizer that is used in the urological clinic to photodiagnose with high-sensitivity nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). We examined the differential accumulation and therapeutic effects of PVP-hypericin using spheroids composed of a human urothelial cell carcinoma cell line (T24) and normal human urothelial (NHU) cells. The in vitro biodistribution was assessed using fluorescence image analysis of 5-μm cryostat sections of spheroids that were incubated with PVP-hypericin. The results show that PVP-hypericin accumulated to a much higher extent in T24 spheroids as compared to NHU spheroids, thereby reproducing the clinical situation. Subsequently, spheroids were exposed to different PDT regimes with a light dose ranging from 0.3 to 18J/cm2. When using low fluence rates, only minor differences in cell survival were seen between normal and malignant spheroids. High light fluence rates induced a substantial difference in cell survival between the two spheroid types, killing ~80% of the cells present in the T24 spheroids. It was concluded that further in vivo experiments are required to fully evaluate the potential of PVP-hypericin as a phototherapeutic for NMIBC, focusing on the combination of the compound with methods that enhance the oxygenation of the urothelium.

  8. Fabrication of porous chitosan membranes composed of nanofibers by low temperature thermally induced phase separation, and their adsorption behavior for Cu2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wang; Li, Jixiang; Tu, Jianbing; Yang, Hongqin; Chen, Qinhui; Liu, Haiqing

    2017-12-15

    Low temperature thermally induced phase separation (LT-TIPS) of chitosan solution was developed to fabricate porous chitosan membranes (p-CSMs), which were composed of short nanofibers with diameter of 40-60nm. Compared to the conventional acetic acid/water solvent, a mixed solvent of acetic acid/ethanol/water was used to prepare chitosan solution. The effect of solvent composition, quenching temperature and time, and coagulant on the p-CSM morphology were systematically explored. The optimum conditions for fabricating p-CSM was to quench 2% chitosan/2% acetic acid in water/ethanol (70/30) at -20°C for 12h, followed by coagulating in 1% Na2CO3 in water/ethanol (50/50). The p-CSM was an effective adsorbent for Cu2+ and had a Langmuir adsorption capacity of 2.57mmol/g, which is close to the adsorption capacity of natural and electrospun chitosan nanofibers. The p-CSM maintained 90% adsorption efficiency for Cu2+ even after six cycles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Three-layer microfibrous peripheral nerve guide conduit composed of elastin-laminin mimetic artificial protein and poly(L-lactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiro eKakinoki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We developed a microfibrous poly(L-lactic acid (PLLA nerve conduit with a three-layered structure to simultaneously enhance nerve regeneration and prevent adhesion of surrounding tissue. The inner layer was composed of PLLA microfiber containing 25% elastin-laminin mimetic protein (AG73-(VPGIG30 that promotes neurite outgrowth. The thickest middle layer was constructed of pure PLLA microfibers that impart the large mechanical stremgth to the conduit. A 10% poly(ethylene glycol was added to the outer layer to prevent the adhesion with the surrounding tissue. The AG73-(VPGIG30 composisting of an elastin-like repetitive sequence (VPGIG30 and a laminin-derived sequence (RKRLQVQLSIRT: AG73 was biosynthesized using Escherichia coli. The PLLA microfibrous conduits were fabricated using an electrospinning procedure. AG73-(VPGIG30 was successfully mixed in the PLLA microfibers, and the PLLA/AG73-(VPGIG30 microfibers were stable under physiological conditions. The PLLA/AG73-(VPGIG30 microfibers enhanced adhesion and neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells. The electrospun microfibrous conduit with a three-layered structure was implanted for bridging a 2.0-cm gap in the tibial nerve of a rabbit. Two months after implantation, no adhesion of surrounding tissue was observed, and the action potential was slightly improved in the nerve conduit with the PLLA/AG73-(VPGIG30 inner layer.

  10. Synthesis of nanoparticles composed of silver and silver chloride for a plasmonic photocatalyst using an extract from a weed Solidago altissima (goldenrod)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vemu Anil; Uchida, Takashi; Mizuki, Toru; Nakajima, Yoshikata; Katsube, Yoshihiro; Hanajiri, Tatsuro; Maekawa, Toru

    2016-03-01

    Phytosynthesis of nanomaterials is advantageous since it is economical, ecofriendly, and simple, and, what is more, in the synthetic protocols, nontoxic chemicals and biocompatible materials are used. Here, a green synthetic methodology of nanoparticles (NPs) composed of silver (Ag) and silver chloride (AgCl) NPs is developed using a leaf extract of Solidago altissima as a reducing agent for the first time. Utilization of a terrestrial weed for the synthesis of Ag and AgCl NPs is a novel environmentally friendly approach considering that no toxic chemicals, external halide source, or elaborate experimental procedures are included in the process. The optical properties and elemental compositions of as-synthesized Ag and AgCl NPs are well characterized, and the degradation of an organic dye, i.e., rhodamine B (RhB), is investigated using the Ag and AgCl NPs. We find that degradation of RhB is effectively achieved thanks to both surface plasmon resonance and semiconductor properties of Ag and AgCl NPs. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering and antibacterial activities are also examined. The present approach to the synthesis of NPs using a weed may encourage the utilization of hazardous plants for the creation of novel nanomaterials.

  11. A novel chemotherapy drug-free delivery system composed of three therapeutic aptamers for the treatment of prostate and breast cancers in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnous, Khalil; Danesh, Noor Mohammad; Ramezani, Mohammad; Yazdian-Robati, Rezvan; Alibolandi, Mona; Taghdisi, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-08-01

    In this study, a novel chemotherapy drug-free DNA nanocomplex composed of three therapeutic aptamers (IDA, AS1411 and apMNK2F) was designed for treatment of cancer cells. For MTT assay, PC-3 and 4T1 cells (target cells) and CHO cells (nontarget cells) were treated with apMNK2F-AS1411-IDA complex (DNA nanocomplex), as well as AS1411, IDA and apMNK2F alone. Internalization of apMNK2F-AS1411-IDA complex was analyzed by fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry analysis. In the last step, the presented DNA nanocomplex was applied for prohibition of tumor growth in vivo. The results of internalization assay verified that the developed apMNK2F-AS1411-IDA complex was remarkably internalized into PC-3 and 4T1 cells, but not into CHO cells. The results of internalization assay was confirmed by MTT assay. apMNK2F-AS1411-IDA complex was more cytotoxic in PC-3 and 4T1 cells (target) and less cytotoxic in CHO cells (nontarget). Also, the DNA nanocomplex could effectively suppress the growth of tumors in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Magnetic study of solid uranium-fluorine complexes; Contribution a l'etude magnetique de composes fluores solides de l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianoux, A.J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-06-01

    A study of the magnetic susceptibility of uranium V fluorine complexes and of the magnetic resonance of fluorine atoms in uranium VI fluorine complexes has made it possible to put forward a structural model for these compounds for which it is impossible, because of the lack of suitable single crystals for X-ray diffraction work, to deduce the exact position of the fluorine atoms. It is shown that it is difficult to interpret the paramagnetism of uranium fluorides, because the uranium ions are in low-symmetry sites. A theoretical study of the magnetism of the U{sup V} ion in complex fluorides of the type M{sub 3}UF{sub 8} (M = NH{sub 4}, Na, Rb, Cs) leads to an interpretation based on a trigonal deformation of the eight fluorine atom structure surrounding the uranium atom. By applying a Hamiltonian spin formalism and making a systematic use of group theory, it is possible to present the susceptibility calculations very concisely. Study of the resonance and of the relaxation of the fluorine atoms in powdered uranium VI complex fluorides suggests a structural model in the case of NaUF{sub 7}. It is shown that the shape of the magnetic resonance absorption lines is strongly affected by the presence of large anisotropic chemical shifts. In the model proposed here, six fluorine atoms are linked to the uranium, atom by strongly covalent bonds in a deformed UF{sub 6} octahedral structure; the seventh fluorine atom remains ionic. The occurrence of a rotational movement of the octahedron is confirmed by a study of the longitudinal relaxation of the fluorine atoms, the activation energy being 0.46 eV. (author) [French] L'etude de la susceptibilite magnetique de complexes fluores d'uranium V et la resonance magnetique des fluors dans des complexes fluores d'uranium VI permettent de proposer un modele structural pour ces composes, ou la diffraction des rayons X, en l'absence de monocristaux convenables, est incapable de preciser la position des atomes de

  13. Fluctuations Magnetiques des Gaz D'electrons Bidimensionnels: Application AU Compose Supraconducteur LANTHANE(2-X) Strontium(x) Cuivre OXYGENE(4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Pierre

    Nous presentons une etude des fluctuations magnetiques de la phase normale de l'oxyde de cuivre supraconducteur La_{2-x}Sr _{x}CuO_4 . Le compose est modelise par le Hamiltonien de Hubbard bidimensionnel avec un terme de saut vers les deuxiemes voisins (modele tt'U). Le modele est etudie en utilisant l'approximation de la GRPA (Generalized Random Phase Approximation) et en incluant les effets de la renormalisation de l'interaction de Hubbard par les diagrammes de Brueckner-Kanamori. Dans l'approche presentee dans ce travail, les maximums du facteur de structure magnetique observes par les experiences de diffusion de neutrons sont associes aux anomalies 2k _{F} de reseau du facteur de structure des gaz d'electrons bidimensionnels sans interaction. Ces anomalies proviennent de la diffusion entre particules situees a des points de la surface de Fermi ou les vitesses de Fermi sont tangentes, et conduisent a des divergences dont la nature depend de la geometrie de la surface de Fermi au voisinage de ces points. Ces resultats sont ensuite appliques au modele tt'U, dont le modele de Hubbard usuel tU est un cas particulier. Dans la majorite des cas, les interactions ne determinent pas la position des maximums du facteur de structure. Le role de l'interaction est d'augmenter l'intensite des structures du facteur de structure magnetique associees a l'instabilite magnetique du systeme. Ces structures sont souvent deja presentes dans la partie imaginaire de la susceptibilite sans interaction. Le rapport d'intensite entre les maximums absolus et les autres structures du facteur de structure magnetique permet de determiner le rapport U_ {rn}/U_{c} qui mesure la proximite d'une instabilite magnetique. Le diagramme de phase est ensuite etudie afin de delimiter la plage de validite de l'approximation. Apres avoir discute des modes collectifs et de l'effet d'une partie imaginaire non-nulle de la self-energie, l'origine de l'echelle d'energie des fluctuations magnetiques est examinee

  14. Organisms Composing an Experimental Coral Reef Community from Mo'orea, French Polynesia, Exhibit Taxon-Specific Net Production: Net Calcification Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulson A. Lantz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Current research on coral reefs seeks to link the responses to anthropogenic stressors (such as global warming and ocean acidification [OA] among differing functional levels of biological organization. While experimental studies have identified ex situ taxon-specific responses to OA and global warming, isolating and connecting these effects in situ at the community-level has proved difficult. The difficulties arise from the large number of naturally varying parameters affecting corals reefs, such as light intensity and seawater residence time that affect net community production and calcification. To control variation in seawater residence time and allow light intensity to vary naturally, experimental outer reef (17-m depth benthic communities composed of calcified algae, corals, and reef pavement were constructed in large outdoor flumes in Mo'orea, French Polynesia. Net community production (P, net community calcification (G, the ratio of P/G (P/Gratio, and slope of P regressed on G (P/Gslope were calculated for the communities, and concurrently for the constituent members under the same temperature, light, and flow conditions. P and G, for both the communities and constituent members, were correlated positively with light intensity, whereas P/Gratio and P/Gslope were unaffected by light intensity. P/Gratios and P/Gslopes exhibited values that were specific to each community member. These results suggest that the P/Gratio and P/Gslope may be unaffected by natural variability in light intensity and could serve as useful metrics to relate responses at the taxon and community level, which is an important step in assessing the effects of environmental changes on coral reefs.

  15. Perspectives on testicular sex cord-stromal tumors and those composed of both germ cells and sex cord-stromal derivatives with a comparison to corresponding ovarian neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lawrence M; Lyu, Bingjian; Cheng, Liang

    2017-07-01

    Sex cord-stromal tumors (SCSTs) are the second most frequent category of testicular neoplasms, accounting for approximately 2% to 5% of cases. Both genetic and epigenetic factors account for the differences in frequency and histologic composition between testicular and ovarian SCSTs. For example, large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor and intratubular large cell hyalinizing Sertoli cell neoplasia occur in the testis but have not been described in the ovary. In this article, we discuss recently described diagnostic entities as well as inconsistencies in nomenclature used in the recent World Health Organization classifications of SCSTs in the testis and ovary. We also thoroughly review the topic of neoplasms composed of both germ cells and sex cord derivatives with an emphasis on controversial aspects. These include "dissecting gonadoblastoma" and testicular mixed germ cell-sex cord stromal tumor (MGC-SCST). The former is a recently described variant of gonadoblastoma that sometimes is an immediate precursor of germinoma in the dysgenetic gonads of patients with a disorder of sex development. Although the relationship of dissecting gonadoblastoma to the previously described undifferentiated gonadal tissue is complex and not entirely resolved, we believe that it is preferable to continue to use the term undifferentiated gonadal tissue for those cases that are not neoplastic and are considered to be the precursor of classical gonadoblastoma. Although the existence of testicular MGC-SCST has been challenged, the most recent evidence supports its existence; however, testicular MGC-SCST differs significantly from ovarian examples due to both genetic and epigenetic factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Injectable and biodegradable composite bone filler composed of poly(propylene fumarate) and calcium phosphate ceramic for vertebral augmentation procedure: An in vivo porcine study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Chin; Hsu, Li-Ho; Sumi, Shoichiro; Yang, Kai-Chiang; Yang, Shu-Hua

    2017-11-01

    Despite its common usage in vertebral augmentation procedures (VAPs), shortcomings of commercial polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) still remain. Accordingly, injectable and biodegradable composite cements, which are composed of poly(propylene fumarate)/α-tricalcium/hydroxyapatite (PPF/α-TCP/HAP) and PPF/tetracalcium phosphate/dicalcium phosphate (PPF/TtCP/DCP), were developed. A porcine model was used and cylindrical holes in critical size were created at the center of the lateral cortex of vertebral bodies of the lumbar spine. A fixed volume of testing materials and PMMA were randomly injected into the defects. Results showed that both composite groups had a comparable radiolucency as PMMA but a significantly lower setting temperature. Histological inspections revealed new bone formation and remodeling along the border of the two composite cements. New bone substitution and irregular sclerotic bone mantles were found along the composite cements but not in the PMMA group. Radiological and histological changes were observed in the two composite groups and these modifications were diminished along the block boundaries. These findings imply gradual substitution of decomposed composite by new bone formation, which could not be found around the PMMA block. Comparing PPF/α-TCP/HAP with the PPF/TtCP/DCP cement block, smaller particles that were spreading out were observed in the TtCP/DCP group, which represents rapid degradability. In conclusion, the composite cements have advantages such as a low setting temperature, radio-opacity, biodegradability, and osteoconductivity. The injectable PPF/calcium phosphate ceramic composite has the potential to be used in VAPs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2232-2243, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Optical studies on Zn-doped lead chalcogenide (PbSe){sub 100−x}Zn{sub x} thin films composed of nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashraf, Md. Tanweer [Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Jamia Millia Islamia (JMI), New Delhi-25 (India); Salah, Numan A. [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Rafat, M. [Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Jamia Millia Islamia (JMI), New Delhi-25 (India); Zulfequar, M. [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-25 (India); Khan, Zishan H., E-mail: zishan_hk@yahoo.co.in [Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Jamia Millia Islamia (JMI), New Delhi-25 (India)

    2016-08-01

    The effect of laser-Irradiation on the optical properties of Zn-doped PbSe thin films composed of nanoparticles has been studied. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigations suggest the formation of nanoparticles of average size of 50 nm for all the studied Zn compositions. XRD studies show that the as-prepared thin films are polycrystalline in nature. The formation of nanoparticles of Zn-doped PbSe has been confirmed by indexing the crystal planes as observed in the XRD spectra. The addition of Zn in (PbSe){sub 100−x}Zn{sub x} thin films result in the blue shift in photoluminescence spectra, this blue shift is associated with the narrowing of the band gap. Optical absorption measurements reveal a direct band gap for the present samples, which decreases on increasing the Zn content. The same trend has also been observed for the samples irradiated with laser. Further, the calculated values of Urbach energy are found to increase with the increase in Zn contents for the as-prepared as well as laser-irradiated samples. All the above observations agree well with the results of optical band gap and suggest that the decrease in band gap may be due to increase in band tails, defects and particle size. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles of Zn doped (PbSe){sub 100−x}Zn{sub x} lead chalcogenides have been synthesized. • Effect of laser irradiation on optical properties of (PbSe){sub 100−x}Zn{sub x} has been studied. • A blue shift in PL spectra is obtained on Zn incorporation.

  18. Antibody Production and Th1-biased Response Induced by an Epitope Vaccine Composed of Cholera Toxin B Unit and Helicobacter pylori Lpp20 Epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Chen, Zhongbiao; Ye, Jianbin; Ning, Lijun; Luo, Jun; Zhang, Lili; Jiang, Yin; Xi, Yue; Ning, Yunshan

    2016-06-01

    The epitope vaccine is an attractive potential for prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Lpp20 is one of major protective antigens which trigger immune response after H. pylori invades host and has been considered as an excellent vaccine candidate for the control of H. pylori infection. In our previous study, one B-cell epitope and two CD4(+) T-cell epitopes of Lpp20 were identified. In this study, an epitope vaccine composed of mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and these three identified Lpp20 epitopes were constructed to investigate the efficacy of this epitope vaccine in mice. The epitope vaccine including CTB, one B-cell, and two CD4(+) T-cell epitopes of Lpp20 was constructed and named CTB-Lpp20, which was then expressed in Escherichia coli and used for intraperitoneal immunization in BALB/c mice. The immunogenicity, specificity, and ability to induce antibodies against Lpp20 and cytokine secretion were evaluated. After that, CTB-Lpp20 was intragastrically immunized to investigate the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy in infected mice. The results indicated that the epitope vaccine CTB-Lpp20 possessed good immunogenicity and immunoreactivity and could elicit specific high level of antibodies against Lpp20 and the cytokine of IFN-γ and IL-17. Additionally, CTB-Lpp20 significantly decreased H. pylori colonization in H. pylori challenging mice, and the protection was correlated with IgG, IgA, and sIgA antibody and Th1-type cytokines. This study will be better for understanding the protective immunity of epitope vaccine, and CTB-Lpp20 may be an alternative strategy for combating H. pylori invasion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effect of the incorporation of date pits and orange pulp in rations composed of wheat straw and concentrate on the blood biochemical parameters of Ouled Djellal breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lakhdara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four lambs of Ouled Djellal breeding from the region of Constantine, Algeria, were assigned randomly into 4 groups, the mean initial weights within the groups, ranged between 37.6±4.27 and 39.8±5.41 kg, to investigate the effect of the incorporation of two by-products of food industry, fresh orange pulp, ground date pits in rations composed of wheat straw as roughage, and concentrate as supplement. Four feeding groups were formed, the first group (T1 was fed with wheat straw and concentrate (60%/40%, the second group (T2 with wheat straw and orange pulp (60%/40%, for group 3 and 4 (T3-T4, the diet consisted on a mixture of 60% wheat straw and date pits at a ratio of (80 to 20% as a roughage in addition to 40% orange pulp for T3 and 40% concentrate for T4. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein before morning feeding. Values of animal's plasma levels of Ca, glucose, proteins and urea were measured using a UV spectrophotometer. There was no significant difference in all the diets for Ca value, Ca values varied between 8.37 and 10.74 mg/Dl. T4 showed the highest value. Glucose blood content was similar for all the animals with no significant differences. While a very significant difference <0.001 was observed in blood proteins level in T3 and T4 comparing to the other groups. When date pits were incorporated in the diet containing wheat straw and concentrate, a very significant difference on urea blood content of lambs was observed (P<0.001.

  20. On-chip highly sensitive saliva glucose sensing using multilayer films composed of single-walled carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles, and glucose oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is very important for human health to rapidly and accurately detect glucose levels in biological environments, especially for diabetes mellitus. We proposed a simple, highly sensitive, accurate, convenient, low-cost, and disposable glucose biosensor on a single chip. A working (sensor electrode, a counter electrode, and a reference electrode are integrated on a single chip through micro-fabrication. The working electrode is functionalized through a layer-by-layer (LBL assembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs and multilayer films composed of chitosan (CS, gold nanoparticles (GNp, and glucose oxidase (GOx to obtain high sensitivity and accuracy. The glucose sensor has following features: (1 direct electron transfer between GOx and the electrode surface; (2 on-a-chip; (3 glucose detection down to 0.1 mg/dL (5.6 μM; (4 good sensing linearity over 0.017–0.81 mM; (5 high sensitivity (61.4 μA/mM-cm2 with a small reactive area (8 mm2; (6 fast response; (7 high reproducibility and repeatability; (8 reliable and accurate saliva glucose detection. Thus, this disposable biosensor will be an alternative for real time tracking of glucose levels from body fluids, e.g. saliva, in a noninvasive, pain-free, accurate, and continuous way. In addition to being used as a disposable glucose biosensor, it also provides a suitable platform for on-chip electrochemical sensing for other chemical agents and biomolecules.

  1. Cell-Adhesive Matrices Composed of RGD Peptide-Displaying M13 Bacteriophage/Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) Nanofibers Beneficial to Myoblast Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong Cheol; Lee, Jong Ho; Jin, Linhua; Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Chuntae; Hong, Suck Won; Oh, Jin Woo; Han, Dong-Wook

    2015-10-01

    Recently, there has been considerable effort to develop suitable scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Cell adhesion is a prerequisite for cells to survive. In nature, the extracellular matrix (ECM) plays this role. Therefore, an ideal scaffold should be structurally similar to the natural ECM and have biocompatibility and biodegradability. In addition, the scaffold should have biofunctionality, which provides the potent ability to enhance the cellular behaviors, such as adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. This study concentrates on fabricating cell-adhesive matrices composed of RGD peptide-displaying M13 bacteriophage (RGD-M13 phage) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, PLGA) nanofibers. Long rod-shaped M13 bacteriophages are non-toxic and can express many desired proteins on their surface. A genetically engineered M13 phage was constructed to display RGD peptides on its surface. PLGA is a biodegradable polymer with excellent biocompatibility and suitable physicochemical property for adhesive matrices. In this study, RGD-M13 phage/PLGA hybrid nanofiber matrices were fabricated by electrospinning. The physicochemical properties of these matrices were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and contact angle measurement. In addition, the cellular behaviors, such as the initial attachment, proliferation and differentiation, were analyzed by a CCK-8 assay and immunofluorescence staining to evaluate the potential application of these matrices to tissue engineering scaffolds. The RGD-M13 phage/PLGA nanofiber matrices could enhance the cellular behaviors and promote the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. These results suggest that the RGD-M13 phage/PLGA nanofiber matrices are beneficial to myoblast differentiation and can serve as effective tissue engineering scaffolds.

  2. SU-C-213-01: 3D Printed Patient Specific Phantom Composed of Bone and Soft Tissue Substitute Plastics for Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehler, E; Sterling, D; Higgins, P [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: 3D printed phantoms constructed of multiple tissue approximating materials could be useful in both clinical and research aspects of radiotherapy. This work describes a 3D printed phantom constructed with tissue substitute plastics for both bone and soft tissue; air cavities were included as well. Methods: 3D models of an anonymized nasopharynx patient were generated for air cavities, soft tissues, and bone, which were segmented by Hounsfield Unit (HU) thresholds. HU thresholds were chosen to define air-to-soft tissue boundaries of 0.65 g/cc and soft tissue-to-bone boundaries of 1.18 g/cc based on clinical HU to density tables. After evaluation of several composite plastics, a bone tissue substitute was identified as an acceptable material for typical radiotherapy x-ray energies, composed of iron and PLA plastic. PET plastic was determined to be an acceptable soft tissue substitute. 3D printing was performed on a consumer grade dual extrusion fused deposition model 3D printer. Results: MVCT scans of the 3D printed heterogeneous phantom were acquired. Rigid image registration of the patient and the 3D printed phantom scans was performed. The average physical density of the soft tissue and bone regions was 1.02 ± 0.08 g/cc and 1.39 ± 0.14 g/cc, respectively, for the patient kVCT scan. In the 3D printed phantom MVCT scan, the average density of the soft tissue and bone was 1.01 ± 0.09 g/cc and 1.44 ± 0.12 g/cc, respectively. Conclusion: A patient specific phantom, constructed of heterogeneous tissue substitute materials was constructed by 3D printing. MVCT of the 3D printed phantom showed realistic tissue densities were recreated by the 3D printing materials. Funding provided by intra-department grant by University of Minnesota Department of Radiation Oncology.

  3. Classical image treatment of a geometry composed of a circular conductor partially merged in a dielectric cylinder and related problems in electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, D.

    2005-07-01

    The classical treatment of the Laplace equation by electrical inversion is used to obtain analytical expressions for the two-dimensional perturbed electrostatic fields in the presence of a two-phase 2D object. The geometry of the two-phase object is composed of two overlapping infinitely long cylinders Ca and Cb of radii a and b, respectively, intersecting at a vertex angle \\frac{\\pi}{2} . The composite inclusion has the shape resembling a 2D snowman type of object with a conducting cylinder Ca partly protruded into the dielectric cylinder Cb with a dielectric constant different from that of the host medium. The mathematical problem with this inclusion in the electrostatic environment is formulated in terms of electric potentials (and complex potentials as well) with the mixed Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions at the boundary of the hybrid object. General expressions for the perturbed electrostatic fields in the two phases are obtained in a straightforward fashion using Kelvin's inversion together with shift and reflection properties of harmonic functions. The general results are exploited to derive solutions for the hybrid object embedded in (i) a transverse or a longitudinal uniform field and (ii) a field generated by a dipole. The dipole coefficients are extracted directly from the exact solutions in a fairly simple manner. The plots of the normalized polarizabilities (derived from dipole coefficients) for the imposed uniform field show that the polarizability in the longitudinal direction is greater or less than the transverse polarizability depending on the dielectric constants of the composite body and the host medium. The equipotential plots generated using the exact solutions also show fascinating field patterns. An interesting connection between the present solutions and the cyclic groups in abstract algebra is outlined as well in the appendix.

  4. Structural study and crystallography of the major compound of anhydrous cement: tri-calcium silicate; Etude structurale et cristallographie du compose majoritaire du ciment anhydre: le silicate tricalcique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noirfontaine, M.N. de

    2000-01-01

    Anhydrous (Portland) cement is mainly composed of a synthetic material, the clinker, whose major compound is tri-calcium silicate (Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5}), often referred as C{sub 3}S with the compact oxides notations, C = CaO et S = SiO{sub 2}. The polymorphism of C{sub 3}S, still not well known, is the main subject of the thesis. Various crystal structures (rhombohedral R, monoclinic M1, M2, M3 and triclinic T1, T2, T3) can be found, depending on temperature and impurities. The only known structures are T1, M1 and M3, involving large unit cells with an orientational disorder of silicate tetrahedra. The single crystal studies exhibit no clear relation between the various polymorphs. Starting from known results from literature single crystal experiments, we establish the metric and structural relations between the different structures. Averaged structures for the T1, M1 and M3 polymorphs are proposed, together with all the matrices of transformation between the unit cells. We also introduce new 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D structural units, which make easier the understanding of the structures of C{sub 3}S, with the result of a better description of the orientational disorder. The effects of impurities on the structure are discussed. In industrial clinkers, impurities stabilize mainly M1 and M3 monoclinic forms. We propose a space group (Pc) and two structural models (a superstructure and an approximate averaged structure) for the M1 form. All the models are validated on synthetic compounds (M3, M2, M1 et T1) and industrial clinkers analysed by X-Ray powder diffraction with Rietveld analysis. (author)

  5. The effects of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on the health status and tissue lipid profiles of male Japanese quail (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Donaldson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective The current study aimed to investigate the impact of high-fat diets composed of different animal and vegetable fat sources on serum metabolic health markers in Japanese quail, as well as the overall lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the edible bird tissues following significantly increased dietary lipid supplementation. Methods Fifty seven male quail were divided into six groups and fed either a standard diet or a diet enriched with one of five different fats (22% coconut oil, lard, palm oil, soybean oil, or sunflower oil for 12 weeks. The birds were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test following the feeding period, after which they were euthanized and blood, liver, breast, and thigh muscle samples collected. Total fat content and fatty acid profiles of the tissue samples, as well as serum uric acid, triglyceride, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase, and total bilirubin concentrations were assessed. Results High-fat diet feeding had no significant effects on the glucose tolerance of the birds. Dietary fatty acid profiles of the added fats were reflected in the lipid profiles of both the liver and breast and thigh muscle tissues, indicating successful transfer of dietary fatty acids to the edible bird tissues. The significantly increased level of lipid inclusion in the diets of the quail used in the present study was unsuccessful in increasing the overall lipid content of the edible bird tissues. Serum metabolic health markers in birds on the high-fat diets were not significantly different from those observed in birds on the standard diet. Conclusion Thus, despite the various high-fat diets modifying the fatty acid profile of the birds’ tissues, unlike in most mammals, the birds maintained a normal health status following consumption of the various high-fat diets.

  6. Efficacy of the application of a coating composed of chitosan and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil to control Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger in grapes (Vitis labrusca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Nereide Serafim Timóteo; Athayde Aguiar, Ana Júlia Alves; de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos; Veríssimo de Sales, Camila; de Melo E Silva, Silvanda; Sousa da Silva, Rosana; Stamford, Thayza Christina Montenegro; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the combined application of chitosan (CHI) and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OV) in the inhibition of Rhizopus stolonifer URM 3728 and Aspergillus niger URM 5842 on laboratory media and on grapes (Vitis labrusca L.) and its influence on the physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the fruits during storage (25 °C, 12 days and 12 °C, 24 days). The application of mixtures of different CHI and OV concentrations (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration - MIC, 1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC) inhibited the mycelial growth of the test fungi. The application of CHI and OV at sub-inhibitory concentrations (CHI 1/2 MIC + OV 1/4 MIC; CHI 1/2 MIC + OV 1/2 MIC) inhibited spore germination and caused morphological changes in fungal spores and mycelia, in addition to inhibiting the growth of the assayed fungi strains in artificially infected grapes as well as the autochthonous mycoflora of grapes stored at both room and cold temperature. In general, the application of a coating composed of CHI and OV at sub-inhibitory concentrations preserved the quality of grapes as measured by their physical and physicochemical attributes, while some of their sensory attributes improved throughout the assessed storage time. These results demonstrate the potential of the combination of CHI and OV at sub-inhibitory concentrations to control post-harvest pathogenic fungi in fruits, in particular, R. stolonifer and A. niger in grapes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Incertitude dans les mesures de courant : un obstacle dans la caractérisation des composants en électronique de puissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjah, E.; Barbaroux, J.; Perret, R.

    1993-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to clarify the need for the most accurate current measurement applied to the characterization of the power electronic components. The focus is on the behaviour of the normally used high quality high bandwidth current transformers and other sensors to a fast varying high di/dt test current furnished by a new developed test current generator. In this paper after explaining the new strategy of the test generator, different current transformers are tested and characterized and a detailed comparative experimental study is carried out using a non-inductive shunt as the reference. Finally some general remarks and the necessary precautions and different measurement problems are listed and discussed. Le but de cet article est d'essayer de lever les obstacles rencontrés lors des mesures de courant servant à la caractérisation des composants en électronique de puissance. Nous nous sommes penchés sur les différences entre les réponses de quelques capteurs de haute qualité. Après une brève explication du principe d'un générateur de courant de test spécialement conçu pour cette étude, nous comparons les réponses de plusieurs transformateurs de courant par rapport à un shunt aselfique pris pour référence. Enfin nous abordons les différents aspects concernant les précautions qu'il est nécessaire de prendre pour réaliser ce type de mesure.

  8. As características pós-modernas na obra Rimsky de Gilberto Mendes Postmodern characteristics in the work Rimsky by Brazilian composer Gilberto Mendes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Rocha Pedron Peres

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O pós-modernismo na música ainda busca critérios que permitam sua compreensão, entre eles traços como fragmentação, descontinuidade, citação, justaposição de estilos e pluralismo. O presente estudo visa demonstrar as características pós-modernas na obra Rimsky de Gilberto Mendes por meio da análise de suas referências existentes, tendo em vista os procedimentos que norteiam as composições e os pressupostos pós-modernos. Além da identificação dos elementos paradigmáticos, e para ir além de uma abordagem indutiva (limitante, porque sincrônica, busca-se a identificação da obra em relação ao modernismo (de crítica e de extensão, enfatizando suas diferenças constatadas na sintaxe, na epistemologia e na ideologia. São abordados os limites conceituais que se aproximam e se distanciam do modernismo buscando contribuir na reflexão da arte na atualidade.Postmodernism in music still needs criteria to facilitate its understanding, such as traits like fragmentation, discontinuity, quotation, juxtaposition of styles and pluralism. This study aims at demonstrating the postmodern characteristics in the work Rimsky by Brazilian composer Gilberto Mendes by means of analysing its existing references and having in mind the procedures that organize postmodern assumptions and musical compositions. Besides the identification of paradigmatic elements, and in order to surpass a simply inductive approach (restrictive because of its synchronic nature, it tries to connect the work to modernism (in both criticism and extended fields, emphasizing its differences in syntax, epistemology and ideology. The conceptual limits that make it closer and apart from modernism are discussed as an attempt to contribute to the reflection about the art today.

  9. The influence of pressure on diffusion leading to intermetallic compounds; Influence de la pression sur les diffusions donnant naissance a des composes intermetalliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adda, Y.; Beyeler, M.; Kirianenko, A.; Pernot, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    -ray diffraction study, mainly in the U-Cu system. Experiments in progress seem to show that deviation from stoichiometry cannot be observed in alloys prepared by the classical techniques of fusion. (author) [French] Il a ete montre par A.D. LE CLAIRE, J.L. ZAMBROW et L. CASTLEMAN, que l'application d'une pression uniaxiale parallele a la direction de diffusion peut modifier de facon appreciable la cinetique de croissance des phases intermediaires qui peuvent se former dans cette direction. L'interpretation de ce phenomene prete a discussion, et on essaie donc de l'expliquer par une analyse approfondie des donnees experimentales. Il ressort des etudes microscopiques de la cinetique de croissance des zones, particulierement pour les systemes uranium-cuivre et uranium-nickel, que cette croissance est affectee de maniere similaire par une pression uniaxiale ou par une pression hydrostatique. Par contre, la vitesse de croissance de ces zones augmente en fonction de la pression appliquee pour les systemes uranium-cuivre, uranium-nickel et uranium-aluminium (cet effet etant particulierement marque dans le cas d'uranium-aluminium). Afin de determiner avec precision les limites de la gamme de stabilite des composes intermetalliques, les courbes des caracteristiques de concentration et de penetration ont ete etablies au moyen du micro-analyseur electronique de CASTAING. Les resultats montrent que lorsqu'une diffusion a lieu sans pression exterieure (les couples U-Cu et U-Ni) ou avec une pression a 300 kg/cm{sup 2} (le couple U-Al), la concentration varie de facon notable dans les composes obtenus, ceux-ci etant theoriquement stoechiometriques. On retrouve, par exemple, en traversant la zone de diffusion d'un metal a l'autre, les variations continues suivantes: UCu{sub 4,70} a UCu{sub 5.25} dans le couple U-Cu; UNi{sub 4,75} a UNi{sub 5,25} dans le couple U-Ni; UAl{sub 2,2} a UAl{sub 3,3} dans le couple U-Al. Si l'on applique une pression uni

  10. Amélioration de la bande passante des composants opto-hyperfréquences basés sur des polymères électro-optiques chargés de nanoparticules de TiO2

    OpenAIRE

    Palessonga, Den-God-Frez; El Gibari, Mohammed; Ginestar, Stéphane; Terisse, Hélène; Guiffard, Benoit; Kassiba, Abdelhadi; Li, Hong Wu

    2017-01-01

    .; Les polymères électro-optiques (EO) offrent la possibilité de réaliser des composants opto-hyperfréquences (opto-HF) bas coût avec une large bande passante et une faible tension de commande. Ce papier présente une approche innovante visant à améliorer la bande passante des composants opto-HF basés sur des polymères EO (par exemple le PMMA/DR1) dopés avec des nanoparticules de dioxyde de titane (TiO2).

  11. The role of clay minerals and fulvic acid to the complexation of Na, Mg, and Ca in stream flows from adjacent forested head watersheds composed of different vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terajima, Tomomi; Moriizumi, Mihoko; Nakamura, Tomohiro

    2010-05-01

    In order to understand the complexation and flow process in metal elements under a fresh water environment, discharges of Na, Mg, and Ca were measured in streams of adjacent forested head watersheds composed of coniferous evergreen- and deciduous broad leaf- trees. Total elements (T-Na, T-Mg, and T-Ca) and ions (Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+) in stream flows which passed through 0.45 μm filters were measured with an ICP and Ion-chromatograph. The remainders of total elements and ions were equated with complex compounds. Then the discharges of Si and fulvic acid, which respectively are the representatives of ligands by clay minerals and humic substances, provided the relationship between the compound discharges and the complexation process of the above metal elements. Even if Na, Mg, and Ca are believed to be mostly free ions in fresh water environments, the rates of the compounds to the total elements ranged 10 to 40 % in the coniferous watershed and 20 to 60 % in the deciduous watersheds. The compounds sometimes occupied more than half of the total elements; this was predominant in the deciduous watershed. These mean that the discharge of compounds is not negligible in watershed hydrology. Possible complexation processes in metal elements are #1) Hydration, #2) Adsorption or substitution with clay minerals, #3) Mineral complex, #4) Adsorption with humic substances as represented by fulvic acid, and #5) Chelate with organic acids as oxalate, formic acid, and pyrrole. Under fresh water environments, #2 and #4 must be the most potential processes of the complexation in metal elements. The relationship between the compounds, Si, and fulvic acid, therefore, supplies useful information to presume the status of the compounds. The compounds-Si relations in both watersheds showed linear correlations (r=0.79 to 0.99) for a stream base flow and stream flow in a small rainstorm. The linear correlations, however, occurred only for the stream flow in the compounds-Si relations at a big

  12. Correlation between the structure and infra-red absorption characteristics of mono-deuterated compounds: contribution to the study of organo-magnesium compounds; Correlations entre structure et absorption infrarouge de composes monodeuteries; contribution a l'etude des composes organomagnesiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paillous, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-10-01

    The high sensitivity of the {nu} (C-D) vibration to the variations brought about by the substitution of the carbon attached to the deuterium is shown in the case of organic or organo-metallic mono-deuterated molecules. In particular, syntheses of various mono-deuterated organo-magnesium compounds have been carried out; results are given concerning an infra-red spectrometric examination of these compounds in the range 2100 - 2250 cm{sup -1}. The results show the existence of only one type of deuterated carbon, which suggests that the same carbanion is involved in various ionic associations for the different magnesium-containing compounds. (authors) [French] La grande sensibilite de la vibration {nu} (C-D) aux variations apportees dans la substitution du carbone porteur du deuterium est mise en evidence pour des molecules organiques au organometalliques monodeuteriees. On a notamment realise la synthese de divers composes organomagnesiens monodeuteries; les observations auxquelles ils ont donne lieu en spectrometrie infrarouge, dons la zone 2100 - 2250 cm{sup -1}, sont rapportees; les resultats ne mettent en evidence qu'un seul type de carbone deuterie ce qui suggere I'intervention d'un meme carbanion dans des associations ioniques diverses pour les differents reactifs magnesiens. (auteur)

  13. Study on Formation Mechanism and Ligand-directed Architectural Control of Nanoparticles Composed of Bi, Sb and Te: Toward One-pot Synthesis of Ternary (Bi,Sb)2Te3 Nanobuilding Blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Mai, Nguyen T.; Mott, Derrick; Thuy, Nguyen T. B.; Osaka, Issey; Maenosono, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a study on the formation mechanism of nanoparticles (NPs) composed of bismuth, antimony and tellurium for thermoelectric materials using a modified polyol synthetic route. Our one-pot synthesis technique has proven highly versatile in creating a wide range of different anisotropic NPs such as nanowires (NWs), nanodiscs (NDs), nanoribbons and nanospines (NDs studded on NWs) simply by modifying the capping species or elemental precursor feeding ratio used in the synthesis. Ho...

  14. Propulsion and Energetics Panel Working Group 23 on Guide to the Measurement of the Transient Performance of Aircraft Turbine Engines and Components (Guide pour la mesure des performances en transitoire des turbomachines Aeronautiques et de leurs composants)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    aJrothermodynamique en Iransiloire des turbomachines d’aitonef ou de leurs composants. Nous cvperons qu’il pourra aider les divers utilisatcurs de turbines it gaz ...qui trailait d’autres parattrftrcs en regime permanent qui soni importanis pour revaluation des performam des turbines i gaz . Le present rapport...Transient Performance of Aircraft Turbine Engines and Components (Guide pour la mesure des performances en transitoire des turbomachines

  15. Une approche de réingénierie des systèmes d’information basée sur la génération et l’appariement de spécifications de composants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oualid Khayati

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The full potential of components based approaches is reached when large components collections are available to programmers and designers. Reusing components improves software productivity and quality by decreasing development costs, bug risks and development time. A good reuse-oriented information system development environment must be composed of an appropriate components repository. UML diagrams are generally used to document the various sights of a component (dynamic, structural, etc.. This paper presents a technique for formal specifications generation using UML class diagrams. Then, we propose a specification matching technique applied in domains like information system re-engineering, and in components retrieval.

  16. Reciclar e colar: os papéis do compositor e do intérprete na criação colaborativa Recycling and collaging: the roles of composer and performer inside a collaborative creation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Serale

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a interconexão entre compositor e intérprete no processo de criação colaborativa. Neste processo, exemplificado através da obra Recycling Collaging Sampling de Edson Zampronha, a interação de ambos papeis resulta em um trabalho cuja pertencência e autoria são igualmente compartilhados.This article analyzes the interconnection between composer and performer inside a collaborative creation process. In this process, exemplified through the Edson Zampronha's work Recycling Collaging Sampling, the interaction between both roles results in a work which sense of belonging and authorship are equally shared.

  17. A Taxonomy for Composing Effective Naval Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    ignore individual differences , as well as team-level variables. Consequently, very little is knovA, about the determinants of, or how to train or manage ...8217 -* wnmbeed FILDt GOUP gjg.ROUP Team Perfonrmance;’"Individual Differences ; Ptersonality; I’Mn reerhr aeseultdta-esnlt affects team performance, but...team performance. The second task is to develop a means for clausifying team tasks. Leadership research since the 1950’s illustrates the futility of

  18. An infrared invisibility cloak composed of glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semouchkina, Elena; Werner, Douglas H.; Semouchkin, George B.; Pantano, Carlo

    2010-06-01

    We propose to implement a nonmetallic low-loss cloak for the infrared range from identical chalcogenide glass resonators. Based on transformation optics for cylindrical objects, our approach does not require metamaterial response to be homogeneous and accounts for the discrete nature of elementary responses governed by resonator shape, illumination angle, and inter-resonator coupling. Air fractions are employed to obtain the desired distribution of the cloak effective parameters. The effect of cloaking is verified by full-wave simulations of the true multiresonator structure. The feasibility of cloak fabrication is demonstrated by prototyping glass grating structures with the dimensions characteristic for the cloak resonators.

  19. Composing Identities: Films, Families and Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Stuart C.; Jokisch, Brad D.; Boone, Christopher G.

    2003-01-01

    With this paper, I elaborate the use of the movies "American History X" and "Mi Familia" in classroom settings to highlight issues of ethnicity and the social construction of identity through families and communities. Taken together, these movies draw attention to racial geographies of Los Angeles but in very different ways. I…

  20. Composing the Self: Of Diaries and Lifelogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José van Dijck

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Can lifelogs and blogging be considered the digital counterpart of what used to be paper diaries and diary writing? This article examines three dimensions of this phenomenon in conjunction: the diary/lifelog as a cultural form or genre, as a material and technological object, and as cultural practice. Tracing the transformation of personal logs in the face of new digital technologies, it is argued that lifelogs and blogging are not outcomes but rather signifiers of cultural change, as they both reflect and construct new epistemologies. The current emergence of weblogs indicates a transformation of important cultural notions such as individual and collective, privacy and publicness, and memory and experience.

  1. Implementing and Composing MDSD-Typical DSLs

    OpenAIRE

    Dinkelaker, Tom; Wende, Christian; Lochmann, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    In this document, we have studied two orthogonal approaches of building DSLs and their advantages and disadvantages with respect to MDSD. We show that embedded DSLs can be used to implement a MDSD-typical DSL rapidly. Further, we show that embedded DSLs and aspect-oriented programming can be used in concert. We also discuss how modular language engineering and language composition enables new reuse capabilities among modelling languages with a slightly higher initial development effort.

  2. Art Music by Caribbean Composers: Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangelhoff, Christine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Jamaica is among the Caribbean islands that Columbus claimed for Spain. In response to its rich diversity of peoples: Europeans, Asians, Chinese, Indians and Africans, the motto of Jamaica is: Out of Many, One People."Jamaican music is as varied as the people who inhabit the island... [M]uch folk music retains features and functions of black African music, blended with elements of European (primarily British music" (Lewin & Gordon, 2007-2011. Jamaican musical genres, such as ska, rocksteady, reggae, and dancehall, are popular and influential internationally.The classical music tradition in Jamaica dates back to the 18th century.

  3. Art Music by Caribbean Composers: The Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangelhoff, Christine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The cultural identity of the Bahamas owes much to its West African and British colonial heritages and to its physical proximity to the United States. A combination of African and European elements - rhyming spirituals, anthems, rushin' music at watch-night services, wake and setting-up songs; ringplays, fire dance, jump-in-dance, quadrille music (rake-‘n’-scrape music, goombay, and junkanoo - can be seen in musical traditions throughout the Caribbean, including art music.

  4. Dotty Wotty Collages: Composing with Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Tyree Guyton is a popular local hero in Detroit, although it's taken years for him to reach the elite status he now occupies. He's taken inner-city houses and fields--previously rundown and littered with trash--and created controversial art installations, each with deep meaning beyond the visual. Guyton grew up on Heidelberg and Ellery Streets in…

  5. [Music, composers and psychopathology: the psychiatrist's view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, E

    2011-01-01

    A first reason for the psychiatrist to be interested in music, musicians and their artistic work, comes from the strong biographical and scientific evidence linking mood disorders and in particular, bipolar disorder, to artistic creativity. Moreover, a family association between psychopathology and creativity has been found in several studies. Important changes in mood, but also cognition, personality and behaviour can occur during all phases of manic-depressive illness and these changes have potentially important effects on creativity and productivity. Those changes are usually opposite in mania and depression. Many bipolar artists see emotional turmoil as essential to their creativity, which has therapeutical but also ethical consequences. A second area of interest is the impaired emotional recognition in schizophrenic patients, not only for visual material (faces or contextual scenes) but also for auditive material (voice or music) leading to impaired social interactions in this condition.

  6. Novel Ultrathin Membranes Composed of Organic Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, Vitaly V.; Verspeek, Bram; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, construction of bilayers was an exclusive mission of nature. It requires careful choice of compounds, whose delicate interplay between head group attraction and chain repulsion engenders a truly unique balance over a narrow temperature range. We report the investigation of artific...

  7. A model for composing meat replacers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierlo, Van Klara; Rohmer, Sonja; Lemmen-Gerdessen, van Joke

    2017-01-01

    Current food consumption patterns have a substantial impact on our environment and are thus considered unsustainable. In the context of global warming and a rising world population, shifting from meat towards more plant-based products holds potential to reduce the environmental impact of our food

  8. Music@Microsoft.Windows: Composing Ambience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    It is well known, of course, that all Windows versions except for 3.1 have a brief (four to six second) piece of music indicating that Windows is booted and ready for use. While the music may indicate Windows has booted, it bears no immediately discernable relation to the various uses we might actually put Windows to--working, gaming,…

  9. Comprehending, Composing, and Celebrating Graphic Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calo, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of graphic poetry in classrooms is encouraged as a way to engage students and motivate them to read and write poetry. This article discusses how graphic poetry can help students with their comprehension of poetry while tapping into popular culture. It is organized around three main sections--reading graphic poetry, writing graphic poetry,…

  10. A programming language for composable DNA circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Andrew; Cardelli, Luca

    2009-08-06

    Recently, a range of information-processing circuits have been implemented in DNA by using strand displacement as their main computational mechanism. Examples include digital logic circuits and catalytic signal amplification circuits that function as efficient molecular detectors. As new paradigms for DNA computation emerge, the development of corresponding languages and tools for these paradigms will help to facilitate the design of DNA circuits and their automatic compilation to nucleotide sequences. We present a programming language for designing and simulating DNA circuits in which strand displacement is the main computational mechanism. The language includes basic elements of sequence domains, toeholds and branch migration, and assumes that strands do not possess any secondary structure. The language is used to model and simulate a variety of circuits, including an entropy-driven catalytic gate, a simple gate motif for synthesizing large-scale circuits and a scheme for implementing an arbitrary system of chemical reactions. The language is a first step towards the design of modelling and simulation tools for DNA strand displacement, which complements the emergence of novel implementation strategies for DNA computing.

  11. Similarity, Data Compression and a dead composer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, J.M.A.; van den Berg, D.; Zaytsev, V.

    2015-01-01

    Domenico Scarlatti (1685-1759) is well-known for his 555 keyboard sonatas. Although his work is greatly revered by many professional musicians, some claim that it does not show any compository development. In this paper, his sonatas are clustered by normalized compression distance (NCD), an

  12. Art Music by Caribbean Composers: Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeGrand, Cathleen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Haïti has by far the longest history of independence of any of its Caribbean neighbors, having gained independence from France in 1804. Haïti's tradition of classical music takes root in its colonial heritage. Haïtian classical music, "mizik savant ayisyen," is derived from that "desire to retain European standards while including local features" of indigenous musical traditions (Grenier & Averill, 2007-2011.

  13. Zen and the Art of Composing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Bill

    1981-01-01

    Relates composition to the philosophy of Taoism as performing an activity instinctively and with ease. Illustrates the relationship with examples of students' reactions to particular writing situations. (HTH)

  14. Listening as an Act of Composing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald, Katharine; Roskelly, Hephzibah

    The fact that students have not learned to listen may be the reason some of them cannot write. Listening is an active process requiring the same skills of prediction, hypothesizing, checking, revising, and generalization that reading and writing demand. The following three exercises were designed to make students conscious of themselves as active…

  15. [Experiences with disc lenses composed of silicone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorpik, C; Menapace, R; Scholz, U; Scheidel, W; Grasl, M

    1993-01-01

    Our study presents the results with a silicone disc-lens (Adatomed 90D) over a postoperative period of 18 months. It includes 47 patients, 42 could be reexamined. The implantation was done after continuous circular capsulorhexis and phacoemulsification with a Faulkner-folder directly into the capsular bag. The implantation was sometimes difficult. Skill and experience of the surgeon are required. The IOL springs forth of the implantation forceps, which can lead to traumatization of the capsule and the iris. Three times the posterior capsule ruptured, in two cases the implantation was stopped because of vitreous pressure and the risk of rupturing the capsule. In 6 cases the rim of the anterior capsule ruptured during the implantation. Postoperatively one IOL had a sulcus position, all other IOLs were in the capsular bag. A deposit of viscoelastic substance (Healon) between the IOL and the posterior capsule in 34 cases (72%) was remarkable. In 14 cases (33%) it remained for 18 months. 16 times (38%) regeneratory after-cataract reached the central part of the capsule. The visual disturbance was different, in 6 cases (14%) a YAG-laser-capsulotomy was performed. An influence of the deposit of viscoelastic substance on the development of posterior capsule opacification could not be proved. 17 IOLs (40%) were minimally decentrated upwards. Only 11 cases (26%) had an excellent mydriatic pupillary reaction. The reason is not clear. 10 eyes (24%) developed iridocapsular synechia, 22 eyes (52%) foreign body giant cells and 20 eyes (48%) dispersed pigment on the IOL surface. The giant cells did not diminish.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Composing simulations using persistent software components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, J.V.; Michelsen, R.E.; Powell, D.R.; Upton, S.C.; Thompson, D.R.

    1999-03-01

    The traditional process for developing large-scale simulations is cumbersome, time consuming, costly, and in some cases, inadequate. The topics of software components and component-based software engineering are being explored by software professionals in academic and industrial settings. A component is a well-delineated, relatively independent, and replaceable part of a software system that performs a specific function. Many researchers have addressed the potential to derive a component-based approach to simulations in general, and a few have focused on military simulations in particular. In a component-based approach, functional or logical blocks of the simulation entities are represented as coherent collections of components satisfying explicitly defined interface requirements. A simulation is a top-level aggregate comprised of a collection of components that interact with each other in the context of a simulated environment. A component may represent a simulation artifact, an agent, or any entity that can generated events affecting itself, other simulated entities, or the state of the system. The component-based approach promotes code reuse, contributes to reducing time spent validating or verifying models, and promises to reduce the cost of development while still delivering tailored simulations specific to analysis questions. The Integrated Virtual Environment for Simulation (IVES) is a composition-centered framework to achieve this potential. IVES is a Java implementation of simulation composition concepts developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for use in several application domains. In this paper, its use in the military domain is demonstrated via the simulation of dismounted infantry in an urban environment.

  17. Parenting style and conduct problems in children: Case report of deliberate self poisoning in a Nigerian child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M F Tunde-Ayinmode

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between psychosocially unhealthy parenting styles and child psychopathology has been established. This case report describes how chronic harsh and overbearing paternal parenting style tipped a young boy into deliberate self poisoning with the aid of organo-phosphorous chemicals (rat poison. This report is purposed to increase the interest of physicians and psychiatrists in parenting style research and in how potentially its modification could be a therapeutic and preventive tool.

  18. Meditation on the meaning of the possible place, writing, and thinking back to the future, the text is as experience, composted by literary interstices of the geographical-political compose of the geometries of thought. Keywords: thinking geometries; literature; possible place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Marandola Jr.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Meditation on the meaning of the possible place, writing, and thinking back to the future, the text is as experience, composted by literary interstices of the geographical-political compose of the geometries of thought. t

  19. Meditation on the meaning of the possible place, writing, and thinking back to the future, the text is as experience, composted by literary interstices of the geographical-political compose of the geometries of thought. Keywords: thinking geometries; literature; possible place

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Marandola Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Meditation on the meaning of the possible place, writing, and thinking back to the future, the text is as experience, composted by literary interstices of the geographical-political compose of the geometries of thought. t

  20. Enhanced performance of {l_brace}0 0 1{r_brace} facets dominated mesoporous TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst composed of high-reactive nanocrystals and mesoporous spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wei [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Orient Chemical Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Lu Chunhua, E-mail: lchnjut@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Orient Chemical Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Ni Yaru; Peng Fengping [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Orient Chemical Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Xu Zhongzi, E-mail: xzznjut@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Orient Chemical Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mesoporous {l_brace}0 0 1{r_brace} facets dominated TiO{sub 2} sheets were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High reactive nanocrystals and mesoporous spheres were introduced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High specific surface area was obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The role of N and F species were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The superior structure is very favorable for photocatalysis. - Abstract: {l_brace}0 0 1{r_brace} facets dominated mesoporous anatase TiO{sub 2} sheets composed of mesoporous spheres and high reactive nanocrystals with exposed {l_brace}0 0 1{r_brace} facets were synthesized successfully with NH{sub 4}F as the capping agent by the hydrothermal and heat treatment method. The photocatalyst exhibits a high specific surface area and a higher photocatalytic activity than Degussa P25 and pure TiO{sub 2} nanosheets in the degradation of organic dyes under UV irradiation.

  1. Crystal structure of a hypothetical protein, TTHA0829 from Thermus thermophilus HB8, composed of cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and aspartate-kinase chorismate-mutase tyrA (ACT) domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabayashi, Makoto; Shibata, Naoki; Ishido-Nakai, Emi; Kanagawa, Mayumi; Iio, Yota; Komori, Hirofumi; Ueda, Yasufumi; Nakagawa, Noriko; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Higuchi, Yoshiki

    2016-05-01

    TTHA0829 from Thermus thermophilus HB8 has a molecular mass of 22,754 Da and is composed of 210 amino acid residues. The expression of TTHA0829 is remarkably elevated in the latter half of logarithmic growth phase. TTHA0829 can form either a tetrameric or dimeric structure, and main-chain folding provides an N-terminal cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) domain and a C-terminal aspartate-kinase chorismate-mutase tyrA (ACT) domain. Both CBS and ACT are regulatory domains to which a small ligand molecule can bind. The CBS domain is found in proteins from organisms belonging to all kingdoms and is observed frequently as two or four tandem copies. This domain is considered as a small intracellular module with a regulatory function and is typically found adjacent to the active (or functional) site of several enzymes and integral membrane proteins. The ACT domain comprises four β-strands and two α-helices in a βαββαβ motif typical of intracellular small molecule binding domains that help control metabolism, solute transport and signal transduction. We discuss the possible role of TTHA0829 based on its structure and expression pattern. The results imply that TTHA0829 acts as a cell-stress sensor or a metabolite acceptor.

  2. Room temperature one-step synthesis of microarrays of N-doped flower-like anatase TiO2 composed of well-defined multilayer nanoflakes by Ti anodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenglin; Wang, Mengye; Xie, Kunpeng; Wu, Qi; Sun, Lan; Lin, Zhiqun; Lin, Changjian

    2011-07-01

    Microarrays of N-doped flower-like TiO2 composed of well-defined multilayer nanoflakes were synthesized at room temperature by electrochemical anodization of Ti in NH4F aqueous solution. The TiO2 flowers were of good anatase crystallinity. The effects of anodizing time, applied voltage and NH4F concentration on the flower-like morphology were systematically examined. It was found that the morphologies of the anodized Ti were related to the anodizing time and NH4F concentration. The size and density of the TiO2 flowers could be tuned by changing the applied voltage. The obtained N-doped flower-like TiO2 microarrays exhibited intense absorption in wavelengths ranging from 320 to 800 nm. Under both UV and visible light irradiation, the photocatalytic activity of the N-doped flower-like TiO2 microarrays in the oxidation of methyl orange showed a significant increase compared with that of commercial P25 TiO2 film.

  3. Composing disappearances – the mythical power behind the woman composer question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Chibici-Revneanu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la influencia de una idea, sencilla pero errónea, en la formación de una realidad patriarcal. A partir de los campos de la musicología, mitología, estudios de creatividad y estética feminista, arguye que la idea de que no han existido compositoras de música clásica ha interactuado con el mito del genio, un mito masculino, para perpetuar las premisas falsas pero auto-afirmativas de esta idea.A pesar de que el caso de cada compositora es único y complejo, el análisis de las vidas de Fanny Mendelssohn y Clara Schumann, junto con una breve revisión sobre compositoras mexicanas contemporáneas revelan cómo, aunque ya menos, la división de roles implícita en el mito del genio ha canalizado a las mujeres hacia roles creativos menos importantes. Esto, de manera cíclica, ha servido para asentar la creencia mítica de que el don de la creación musical tiende a ser un atributo masculino.

  4. Monte Carlo simulations of the distributions of intra- and extra-vesicular ions and membrane associated charges in hybrid liposomes composed of negatively charged tetraether and zwitterionic diester phospholipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István P. Sugár

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Here, we model a negatively charged lipid vesicle, composed of a mixture of bipolar tetraether and diester (or diether phospholipid molecules, by a spherical shell that has zero ion permeability. We take into consideration all the charge-charge interactions between intra-vesicular ions, extra-vesicular ions, and membrane lipid associated charges. Monte Carlo simulations result in homogeneous and double-exponential ion distribution, respectively, in the intra- and extra-vesicular space. The extra-vesicular ion concentration close to the membrane surface is proportional to the total amount of the membrane charges (Nm and is independent of the partitioning of the membrane charges between the outer (Nom and inner membrane (Nim surface. This result shows that one should not disregard the effect of the charges on the inner membrane surface when calculating the ion distributions around a charged vesicle. If the partitioning of the membrane charges is not restricted (i.e., lipid flip-flop is allowed, then at different Nm, the Nom/Nim ratio remains constant and the value of Nom/Nim, as a consequence of the interaction between every charges of the model, is close to, but significantly higher than, the ratio of the outer to the inner surface area of the membrane. These results indicate that the amount and the orientation of the negatively-charged tetraether lipids in the membrane are important determinants of membrane properties in tetraether/zwitterionic diester phospholipid liposomes. Finally we compared the results of our discrete charge model and continuous models based on the solutions of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation and pointed out qualitative similarities and sometimes major quantitative differences between these two types of models.

  5. Contribution to the study of the biological properties of compounds labeled with radio-chromium {sup 51}Cr; Contribution a l'etude des proprietes biologiques des composes marques au radiochrome {sup 51}Cr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingrand, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-15

    Among the radioisotopes commonly used in biology and medicine which are controlled Individually in the Radioelement Departement of the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre before being sent to the users, the author has chosen chromium 51 incorporated in inorganic salts or in organic substrates for a study of the biological properties of the compounds. In the first part, he has compared the pathways followed by the radioactive sodium chromate and chromic chloride mixed with blood or given to the whole animal, the object being to determine whether a reduction of hexavalent chromium occurs, both in vitro and in vivo. In the second part, the author has tried to show the validity of using, various substrates labeled with chromium 51, red cells, haemoglobin, plasma proteins and cytochrome c. The results obtained have contributed to underline the interest of using such compounds for biological applications. (author) [French] Parmi les radioisotopes d'utilisation courants en biologie et en medecine qui sont l'objet d'un controle particulier dans le Departement des Radioelements du Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay avant leur diffusion aux utilisateurs, l'auteur a choisi le chrome 51 incorpore a des sels mineraux ou a des substrats organiques, afin d'en etudier les proprietes biologiques. Dans la premiere partie, il a compare le sort du chromate de sodium et du chlorure chromique radioactifs melanges a du sang ou administres a l'animal entier en s'efforcant de mettre en evidence une reduction du chrome hexavalent aussi bien in vitro qu'in vivo. Dans la deuxieme partie, il a cherche a etablir la validite de l'emploi de differents substrats marques au chrome 51, l'hematie, l'hemoglobine, les proteines plasmatiques et le cytochrome c. Les resultats obtenus ont permis de souligner le reel interet des applications biologiques des composes marques par le radioisotope. (auteur)

  6. Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro evaluation of a radio-metal organic framework composed of in vivo generator {sup 166}Dy/{sup 166}Ho and DOTMP as a novel agent for bone marrow ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vosoghi, Sara; Shirvani-Arani, Simindokht; Bahrami-Samani, Ali; Salek, Nafise; Mirerezaei, Ehsan; Jalilian, Amir Reza [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the MOF concept contributed to the preparation of a novel, bone-ablating agent composed of Cu(II) using the in vivo generator {sup 166}Dy/{sup 166}Ho and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetramethylene phosphonic acid (DOTMP). The product was characterized (IR, elemental analysis: CHN, ICM-MS, PIXE, DLS, XRD) and quality-controlled (radio-thin layer chromatography (RTLC)). The stability and in vitro hydroxyapatite binding was checked up to one week at 37 C in human serum. Radio-MOF crystals and colloidal radio-MOF particles were obtained by varying the synthesizing conditions (including pH and temperature), and they had similar IR patterns and similar elemental analysis results. The estimated chemical formula was [1Lu-1Cu-1Cl-1DOTMP] for both. The final product was synthesized at pH = 8 while stirring at room temperature using {sup 166}Dy/{sup 166}Ho-nitrate, CuCl{sub 2}, and DOTMP (yield > 99%, RTLC). Dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements showed particles in the size range of 60 to 100 nm for the resultant radio-MOF particles (RMP). In vitro binding experiments showed acceptable bone-seeking affinity of the prepared formula even after one week of storage in human serum at 37 C. Importantly, this is the first study of the use of the MOF concept to provide a highly-stable organometallic compound containing {sup 166}Dy/{sup 166}Ho in vivo generator for bone marrow ablation.

  7. Efficacy of a novel sanitizer composed of lactic acid and peroxyacetic acid against single strains of nonpathogenic Escherichia coli K-12, Listeria innocua, and Lactobacillus plantarum in aqueous solution and on surfaces of romaine lettuce and spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace Ho, Kai-Lai; Luzuriaga, Diego A; Rodde, Kenneth M; Tang, Shannon; Phan, Cuong

    2011-09-01

    A novel sanitizer composed of lactic acid and peroxyacetic acid (LA-PAA) was developed as an alternative to chlorinated water (CW) for fresh produce processing. Single strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, nonpathogenic Escherichia coli K-12, and Listeria innocua were used to demonstrate the microbial efficacy of LA-PAA. LA-PAA achieved a >7.8-log reduction of L. innocua and L. plantarum suspended in water at 4°C for 20 s, and LA, PAA, and CW achieved reductions of 0.4, 4.8, and 2.7 log, respectively. LA-PAA, when compared with LA, PAA, and CW, enhanced the reduction of L. innocua attached to romaine leaves by >2.2 log, and improved the removal of E. coli attached to spinach leaves by >2.4 log. The exponential improvement in the microbial efficacy of LA-PAA showed synergism between LA and PAA. LA-PAA microbial efficacy was inversely proportional to pH value and directly correlated with residence time and concentration. Despite an improvement in microbial reduction through the addition of surfactant to LA-PAA, the usage of surfactant in washing fresh produce was impeded by excessive foaming during actual processing. Effects of organic matter on the performance of LA-PAA were minimal. External sensory evaluations showed that LA-PAA had no negative effects on the quality of lettuce and tender leaves. Temperature-abuse studies demonstrated that LA-PAA reduced decay by ∼50% when compared with CW. Overall, these results support the premise that LA-PAA has significant potential to be an alternative to CW for fresh produce processing.

  8. Automated Model Generation for Hybrid Vehicles Optimization and Control Création automatique de modèles de composants pour l’optimisation et le contrôle de véhicules hybrides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdonck N.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic optimization of modern powertrains, and hybrids in particular, requires the representation of the system by means of Backward Quasistatic Models (BQM. In contrast, the models used in realistic powertrain simulators are often of the Forward Dynamic Model (FDM type. The paper presents a methodology to derive BQM’s of modern powertrain components, as parametric, steady-state limits of their FDM counterparts. The parametric nature of this procedure implies that changing the system modeled does not imply relaunching a simulation campaign, but only adjusting the corresponding parameters in the BQM. The approach is illustrated with examples concerning turbocharged engines, electric motors, and electrochemical batteries, and the influence of a change in parameters on the supervisory control of an hybrid vehicle is then studied offline, in co-simulation and on an HiL test bench adapted to hybrid vehicles (HyHiL. L’optimisation de l’utilisation des groupes moto-propulseurs (GMP modernes nécessite de modéliser le système de manière quasi-statique avec une logique inverse (“Backward Quasistatic Model” – BQM, en particulier dans le cas des GMP hybrides. Cependant, les modèles utilisés pour la simulation réaliste de ces GMP sont souvent dynamiques à logique directe (“Forward Dynamic Model” – FDM. Cet article présente une méthodologie pour obtenir les BQM des composants de GMP actuels directement issus de la limite quasi-statique des FDM correspondants de manière analytique. Grâce à l’aspect paramétrique de cette procédure, il n’est pas nécessaire de relancer une campagne de simulations après chaque changement du système modélisé: il suffit de modifier les paramètres correspondants dans le BQM. Cette approche est illustrée par trois cas d’étude (moteur turbo, moteur électrique et batterie, et l’effet d’un changement de paramètre sur le contrôle de supervision d’un véhicule hybride est

  9. Polyclonal activation of naïve T cells by urease deficient-recombinant BCG that produced protein complex composed of heat shock protein 70, CysO and major membrane protein-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is known to be only partially effective in inhibiting M. tuberculosis (MTB) multiplication in human. A new recombinant (r) urease-deficient BCG (BCG-dHCM) that secretes protein composed of heat shock protein (HSP)70, MTB-derived CysO and major membrane protein (MMP)-II was produced for the efficient production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) which is an essential element for mycobacteriocidal action and inhibition of neutrophil accumulation in lungs. Methods Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages were differentiated from human monocytes, infected with BCG and autologous T cells-stimulating activity of different constructs of BCG was assessed. C57BL/6 mice were used to test the effectiveness of BCG for the production of T cells responsive to MTB-derived antigens (Ags). Results BCG-dHCM intracellularly secreted HSP70-CysO-MMP-II fusion protein, and activated DC by up-regulating Major Histcompatibility Complex (MHC), CD86 and CD83 molecules and enhanced various cytokines production from DC and macrophages. BCG-dHCM activated naïve T cells of both CD4 and CD8 subsets through DC, and memory type CD4+ T cells through macrophages in a manner dependent on MHC and CD86 molecules. These T cell activations were inhibited by the pre-treatment of Ag-presenting cells (APCs) with chloroquine. The single and primary BCG-dHCM-inoculation produced long lasting T cells responsive to in vitro secondarily stimulation with HSP70, CysO, MMP-II and H37Rv-derived cytosolic protein, and partially inhibited the replication of aerosol-challenged MTB. Conclusions The results indicate that introduction of different type of immunogenic molecules into a urease-deficient rBCG is useful for providing polyclonal T cell activating ability to BCG and for production of T cells responsive to secondary stimulation. PMID:24690183

  10. Livros didáticos de ensino religioso: análise da construção da polêmica no discurso da mídia=Textbooks of religious education: polemics composing analysis at media discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Sampaio Garrido

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo identificar as relações discursivas e os mecanismos utilizados pelas fontes – discursos coletados na imprensa e em sítios especializados – na construção dos pontos de vista apresentados sobre os livros didáticos de ensino religioso e, em decorrência disso, da relação polêmica construída a partir daí. A fundamentação teórica deste trabalho assenta-se majoritariamente nos conceitos de semântica global e interincompreensão constitutiva (MAINGUENEAU, 1997, 2008 e de heterogeneidade discursiva (AUTHIER-REVUZ, 1990, 1998. O corpus de pesquisa constituiu-se de quatro textos, três deles publicados em 2010 e o outro em 2011, sendo duas reportagens e dois artigos de opinião acerca da temática. A partir das análises, pudemos verificar a construção de uma relação polêmica entre uma formação discursiva que contesta o ensino religioso no ensino público brasileiro, sob a justificativa de isso beneficiar a fé cristã. Por outro lado, outra que apoia a continuidade dessa prática por considerá-la importante para a formação do educando e, também, como promotora da diversidade e da igualdade.This text aims to identify the discursive relations and the mechanisms used by sources – discourses gathered at press and specialized sites – in composing of viewpoints presented about the religious education textbooks and, a result of that, of controversial relationship built thereafter. The theoretical foundation of this work rests largely on the concepts of global semantics and constitutive intermisunderstanding (MAINGUENEAU, 1997, 2008 and discursive heterogeneity (AUTHIER-REVUZ, 1990, 1998. The research corpus consisted of four texts, three of which were published in 2010 and another in 2011, two reports and two opinion articles about the subject. From our analysis, we could see the construction of a controversial relationship between a discursive formation that challenges the teaching of religion in

  11. Substratos para produção de mudas de mamoneira compostos por misturas de cinco fontes de matéria orgânica Substrates for castor seedlings production composed by blends of five organic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane de Lourdes Silva de Lima

    2006-06-01

    and poultry litter. Castor seeds cv. BRS 149 Nordestina were planted in plastic bags measuring 17 x 28cm fulfilled with the substrates to be evaluated. Data on height, leaf area and stem diameter were weekly registered between 15 and 43 days after emergence. At the end of the trial shoot and root dry weight were measured. The substrate composed by sand+ peanut hulls + poultry litter + agave mucilage propitiated the best seedlings growth. Poultry litter contributed to chemical enrichment while peanut hulls and agave mucilage gave good aeration and water retention to the substrate.

  12. Compaction processes in granular beds composed of different particle sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, C. A.; Greenaway, M. W.

    2005-12-01

    A piston impacting a granular bed will cause the material to compact; the strength of a granular bed is significant during weak impact relating to piston speeds of 100m/s. The strength associated with the granular structure is described as the intergranular stress; this is the resistance of a granular bed to compaction which can be measured by carefully constructing experiments. The compaction process may then be modeled by solving a hyperbolic system of equations that utilizes these data to close the system. The compaction behavior of a porous material is particle-size dependent; to accurately describe the response of two granular beds that may be of different particle sizes and distributions, it is essential that the intergranular stress is derived for each particle bed. This work uses recent compaction experiments to derive intergranular stress curves for prepressed conventional HMX material that is of nonuniform distribution with a mean diameter of 40μm and a microfine HMX of more uniform distribution of mean diameter speed and extent of compaction can be simply determined through the solution of a quadratic equation. Following this, the assumption is relaxed allowing changes in solid-phase density; a complicated equation of state makes the use of numerical methods mandatory. The speed of steady-state waves in HMX due to low impact compaction can be determined within 2% accuracy using the simple closed solution based on solid incompressibility, which is a function of the initial material porosity and density, piston speed, and the intergranular stress of the granular bed. This analysis reveals the difference between the weak impact response of a coarse nonuniform bed and a fine almost uniform granular bed that are initially loaded to 75% of the theoretical maximum density. The fine particle beds have increased resistance to compaction meaning that the extent of compaction is reduced and the speed of compaction waves are faster. The long-term objective of this research is the study of combustion and detonation in granular beds; a two-phase flow capability is required to simulate this type of problem. A multiphase flow model is utilized to simulate the complete low impact response of HMX that includes gas-phase effects. The time-dependent flow rapidly attains steady-state conditions; these solutions agree with the steady-state solutions of the reduced problem described above. Dissipation due to compaction is analyzed and compared with other dissipative processes within the system.

  13. Art Music by Caribbean Composers: U.S. Virgin Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangelhoff, Christine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Virgin Island music is syncretic, reflecting both African and European heritage. While older traditions including cariso and bamboula are virtually extinct, quelbe is popular throughout the islands, with bands such as Stanley and The Ten Sleepless Nights performing frequently.

  14. Straight eye for the gay guy: composing queerness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the work of Didier Eribon and his theorization of the construction of gay male subjectivity, this article examines different "texts," broadly defined, that grapple specifically with straight men attempting to represent male homosexuality: Norman Mailer's essay, "The Homosexual Villain"; the Bravo reality television series Boy Meets Boy, and Michael Griffith's short story, "Hooper Gets a Perm." These texts represent attempts by straight authors to grapple with queer experience in ways that move the imagination of queers beyond simple stereotypes or uncritical explorations of the sexual "other." In the process of examining these texts, the following questions are addressed: What happens when a straight man attempts to represent a gay man? Does he "get it right," and is such a question even useful? More specifically, what is the value in having straights imagine queerness? Is such an imagining possible? Is such desirable? And, if so, what are the contours of such an imagining-as well as its possibilities and limitations, pedagogically, personally, and politically? Ultimately, I contend that the straight imagining of queerness offers rich potential for mutual understanding; furthermore, attempting to understand what goes into the making of those representations tells us much about how queerness circulates in our culture as a subject, a figure of discussion, contention, and representation.

  15. Composing new understandings of sustainability in the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sophia (Sun Kyung); Britton, Stacey; Haverkos, Kimberly; Kutner, Mel; Shume, Teresa; Tippins, Deborah

    2017-07-01

    The relationship between sustainability and the Anthropocene takes on new meaning in a time of unprecedented human impact on Earth systems. This relationship is at times contested and not well researched but critical in considering how we will respond to environmental challenges of today and the future. Elaborating on the need for new perspectives and nuanced understandings of sustainability, the contributors to this volume draw on posthumanist and "new" feminist materialist methodologies and theoretical lenses to engage readers in ways, which often contrast with prevailing thinking and research. From the cosmopolitics of place in urban Berlin to the watery space of urban wetlands they share research and rich narratives, which illustrate how sustainability is theorized and enacted across a range of diverse educational contexts. Moving beyond the rhetoric of sustainability, the authors invite us to explore innovative ways to engage with new concepts and emerging tensions that are now influencing the fields of education and sustainability.

  16. A glance on love & infidelity in "Captive" composed by Foroogh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Love and amorous relations, infidelity, and disloyalty are inseparable parts of the modern human's life and are considered as social problems in human relations in communities. In conflict of the genders among the people the most conspicuous evidence is "ardent desire for love". Humans get married because of love and ...

  17. Universally composable protocols with relaxed set-up assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barak, Boaz; Canetti, Ran; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2004-01-01

    infrastructure": parties have registered public keys, no single registration authority needs to be fully trusted, and no single piece of information has to be globally trusted and available. In addition, unlike known protocols in the CRS model, the proposed protocols guarantee some basic level of security even...... allow for UC protocols. We answer this question in the affirmative: we propose alternative and relaxed set-up assumptions and show that they suffice for reproducing the general feasibility results for UC protocols in the CRS model. These alternative assumptions have the flavor of a "public-key...

  18. A social study of the technologies composing the green revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Cherlet, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Strictly speaking, the term ‘Green Revolution’ is used to indicate the introduction of improved crop seeds into the agricultural systems of Less Developed Countries (ldcs), starting after wwii and still going on today, but with its major breakthrough during the sixties. It was believed that modern science and technologies —improved crop seeds in particular— would be able to eradicate famine. In this article the metaphor of script, taken from Madeleine Akrich and Bruno Latour, is used to analy...

  19. The relationship between introversion-extroversion and the composing process

    OpenAIRE

    Baysal, Aynur

    1994-01-01

    Ankara : The Institute of Humanities and Letters of Bilkent University, 1994. Thesis (Master's) -- -Bilkent University, 1994. Includes bibliographical references leaves 48-50 The focus on learners in second- and foreign-language learning has revealed that the personality traits of students are related to their success and performance in the target language. Research on personality traits of learners has shown that certain behavioral characteristics may inhibit or foster learning. Thi...

  20. Composes organiques et activités antioxydantes de Ampelocissus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    équivalent de trolox/g) que les racines (34,54 mg d'équivalent de trolox/g). Les composés phénoliques ont contribué pour plus de 91% dans les activités antioxydantes des extraits. Conclusion et applications des résultats : Cette présente étude ...

  1. Affective evolutionary music composition with MetaCompose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scirea, Marco; Togelius, Julian; Eklund, Peter

    2017-01-01

    express different mood-states, which we achieve through a unique combination of a graph traversal-based chord sequence generator, a search-based melody generator, a pattern-based accompaniment generator, and a theory for mood expression. Melody generation uses a novel evolutionary technique combining FI-2...... affective state. This system, which can reliably generate affect-expressive music, can subsequently be integrated in any kind of interactive application (e.g., games) to create an adaptive and dynamic soundtrack....

  2. Master earthquake catalog composed of pre-existing source catalogs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) makes long-term seismic hazard forecasts that are used in building codes. The hazard models usually consider only natural...

  3. How to compose fluid teams as natural born coordinators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Svend Erik; Hansen, Kristian Rune; Hangaard, Mikkel Gylling

    This study applies an agent-based modeling approach to explore how team composition impacts teams’ ability to coordinate. The modeler can explore (1) how the teams’ average rate of behavioral adaptation impacts teams’ ability to coordinate and (2) how the distribution of rates of adaptation withi...

  4. CASAS: A tool for composing automatically and semantically astrophysical services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louge, T.; Karray, M. H.; Archimède, B.; Knödlseder, J.

    2017-07-01

    Multiple astronomical datasets are available through internet and the astrophysical Distributed Computing Infrastructure (DCI) called Virtual Observatory (VO). Some scientific workflow technologies exist for retrieving and combining data from those sources. However selection of relevant services, automation of the workflows composition and the lack of user-friendly platforms remain a concern. This paper presents CASAS, a tool for semantic web services composition in astrophysics. This tool proposes automatic composition of astrophysical web services and brings a semantics-based, automatic composition of workflows. It widens the services choice and eases the use of heterogeneous services. Semantic web services composition relies on ontologies for elaborating the services composition; this work is based on Astrophysical Services ONtology (ASON). ASON had its structure mostly inherited from the VO services capacities. Nevertheless, our approach is not limited to the VO and brings VO plus non-VO services together without the need for premade recipes. CASAS is available for use through a simple web interface.

  5. THE AFRICAN COMPOSER AS A SOCIAL CRITIC Abstract Criticism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    imitch

    hands of some prominent persons, with all these riches all our roads are full of water and potholes. Popular songs like 'Zombi' which became uncomplimentary to the politician, 'Yabees', 'Confusion', 'I no bi thief' by Fela Anikulakpo-Kuti, 'Baba na wa', Akpanigogo' by Joseph Osayomore of Edo State; Mr. President by.

  6. Designing constraints: composing and performing with digital musical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Magnusson, Thor

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates two central terms in Human Computer Interaction (HCI) – affordances and constraints – and studies their relevance to the design and understanding of digital musical systems. It argues that in the analysis of complex systems, such as new interfaces for musical expression (NIME), constraints are a more productive analytical tool than the common HCI usage of affordances. Constraints are seen as limitations enabling the musician to encapsulate a specific search space of bo...

  7. Designing constraints: Composing and performing with digital musical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Thor Magnusson

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates two central terms in Human Computer Interaction (HCI) – affordances and constraints – and studies their relevance to the design and understanding of digital musical systems. It argues that in the analysis of complex systems, such as new interfaces for musical expression (NIME), constraints are a more productive analytical tool than the common HCI usage of affordances. Constraints are seen as limitations enabling the musician to encapsulate a specific search space of bo...

  8. Thin shell vesicles composed of hydrophilic plate-like nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Anand; Wan, Jiandi; Gopinath, Arvind; Stone, Howard

    2011-03-01

    Nanopowders of graphene oxide, montmorillonite and laponite spontaneously delaminate into ultrathin nanoscopic plates when dispersed in water. These plates, which are typically ~ 1 nm thick and microns in lateral dimension, have found many uses as precursors to graphene, ceramics, layer-by-layer structures, and as structural modifiers of nanocomposites. Here we show that mechanical forces due to shear in a narrow gap can assemble hydrophilic plate-like particles on air bubbles, forming stable nanoplated armored bubbles. Translucent inorganic vesicles (vesicles defined here as closed thin-shelled structures with the same liquid inside and outside) of these particles are produced when the nanoplated armored bubbles are exposed to common water-miscible organic liquids and surfactants. These inorganic vesicles are mechanically robust, have walls that are about six nanometres thick, and are perforated with pores of submicron dimensions. We characterize the phenomenon and find that a wetting transition at the scale of the nanoparticles is the primary mechanism of formation. The discovery of these novel inorganic structures raises a wealth of questions of fundamental interest in materials and surface science.

  9. Facile method to align crystalline needles composed of organic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-09-23

    Sep 23, 2017 ... To address this problem by using as little solution (or sus- pension) as possible, the solution should be confined to a small area on the substrate. A hydrophilic area surrounded by a hydrophobic one can confine an aqueous solution, which can be used to produce organic semiconducting single crystals [9].

  10. Colin Rowe: Space as well-composed illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schnoor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Architectural historian Colin Rowe, although well known for his intriguing analytical writings on modern architecture, rarely examined architectural space as a scholarly subject-matter. Historians examining Rowe’s writings rarely refer to the issue of space, either. Anthony Vidler, Werner Oechslin, Alexander Caragonne and others have examined Rowe’s investigations into urban space, his analyses of formal principles in architecture, or his critical stance towards the myths of modernism, but have not singled out architectural space as subject matter. Nevertheless, this paper argues that Rowe is indeed one of the few post-war historians writing in the English language to have conveyed analyses of architectural space, particularly in the volume The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa (1976. The paper examines how Rowe understood architectural space as relevant only when not seen as ‘pure’ but ‘contaminated’ with ambiguity and active character: notions of flatness versus depth and horizontal versus vertical, as well as the overlapping of conflicting scales or whole structural or spatial systems are central for Rowe’s reading of architectural space, which is also always infused with an idea of movement. Further, the paper traces influences of Rowe’s approach beyond the obvious influence by Rudolf Wittkower to Heinrich Wölfflin’s style and method, partially conveyed through the translation of Sigfried Giedion’s writings.

  11. An antifungal coating for dental silicones composed of chlorhexidine nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Sarah J; Nobbs, Angela H; McNally, Lisa M; Barbour, Michele E

    2015-03-01

    The aims of this study were to synthesise a range of chlorhexidine-containing nanoparticles (CHX-NPs), and investigate the feasibility of using these as an antifungal coating for dental silicones. CHX-NPs were precipitated in aqueous reaction by mixing solutions of CHX digluconate with solutions of sodium triphosphate (TP), trimetaphosphate (TMP) or hexametaphosphate (HMP). CHX-NPs were deposited on commercial dental silicones by immersion coating, and these were characterised for hydrophilicity (contact angle) and water uptake (mass change). Soluble CHX elution into artificial saliva was measured using ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Antifungal efficacy against Candida albicans was investigated using a cell proliferation assay. Coating silicones with CHX-NPs did not significantly affect hydrophilicity, as assessed using water contact angle, or water uptake as assessed by mass change following 16 weeks' immersion in artificial saliva. CHX-NP-coated silicone specimens released soluble CHX into artificial saliva. The salt of CHX and the immersion time affected the rate, concentration and duration of CHX release, with CHX-HMP exhibiting a slow, sustained release and CHX-TP and CHX-TMP exhibiting a faster, more concentrated release. C. albicans metabolic activity was inhibited by presence of CHX-HMP-NPs in suspension. CHX-NPs provided a localised, controlled dose of soluble CHX at the surface of dental silicones without adversely affecting hydrophilicity or water uptake. CHX-HMP NPs provided effective antifungal control of C. albicans in a cell proliferation assay. Coating materials with these nanoparticles could be an effective way of delivering low, but clinically relevant, concentrations of chlorhexidine in the oral environment. Denture stomatitis is a common oral infection and is associated with fungal infestation of denture soft lining and obturator materials, which are often silicones such as those used here. Our study suggests that CHX-NPs may be a useful strategy in design of antifungal coatings for these materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Composing Alternatives to a National Security Language Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wible, Scott

    2009-01-01

    President Bush's National Security Language Initiative focuses narrowly on gearing language education to security and military needs. English educators should work with their counterparts in foreign language departments to promote a broader view, one that encourages study of the multiple language groups that currently exist within the United…

  13. Learning Grasp Strategies Composed of Contact Relative Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Robert, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Of central importance to grasp synthesis algorithms are the assumptions made about the object to be grasped and the sensory information that is available. Many approaches avoid the issue of sensing entirely by assuming that complete information is available. In contrast, this paper proposes an approach to grasp synthesis expressed in terms of units of control that simultaneously change the contact configuration and sense information about the object and the relative manipulator-object pose. These units of control, known as contact relative motions (CRMs), allow the grasp synthesis problem to be recast as an optimal control problem where the goal is to find a strategy for executing CRMs that leads to a grasp in the shortest number of steps. An experiment is described that uses Robonaut, the NASA-JSC space humanoid, to show that CRMs are a viable means of synthesizing grasps. However, because of the limited amount of information that a single CRM can sense, the optimal control problem may be partially observable. This paper proposes expressing the problem as a k-order Markov Decision Process (MDP) and solving it using Reinforcement Learning. This approach is tested in a simulation of a two-contact manipulator that learns to grasp an object. Grasp strategies learned in simulation are tested on the physical Robonaut platform and found to lead to grasp configurations consistently.

  14. Composable Framework Support for Software-FMEA Through Model Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Imre; Patricia, Andras; Brancati, Francesco; Rossi, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Performing Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) during software architecture design is becoming a basic requirement in an increasing number of domains; however, due to the lack of standardized early design phase model execution, classic SW-FMEA approaches carry significant risks and are human effort-intensive even in processes that use Model-Driven Engineering.Recently, modelling languages with standardized executable semantics have emerged. Building on earlier results, this paper describes framework support for generating executable error propagation models from such models during software architecture design. The approach carries the promise of increased precision, decreased risk and more automated execution for SW-FMEA during dependability- critical system development.

  15. A New Design Methodology for Composing Complex Digital Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Chu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Continuous growth in the use of multimedia applications on portable devices makes the mobile computer systemshave an increasing complexity. The functionalities of the used SOC chips and silicon intelligent properties in theseportable devices are become complicated and hard to design. Traditional digital circuit designs adopt register transferlevel with timing control methodologies, which focus on the datapath composition, timing control of registers, and thefunctions of combinational circuits. However, the huge amount of control and synchronous signals of the abovecomponents are difficult to design and debug. The timing costs of design and verification are increased dramatically.This paper proposed a new design methodology of digital system, called data-oriented methodology, to deal with theabove problems, by using Bluespec SystemVerilog HDL and the corresponding tools. Instead of conventional timingcontrolmechanism, the data-oriented methodology adopts simple handshaking protocol, blocking transferring, andexplicitly register/FIFO declaration for communicating between adjacent modules. The designs of FDCT/IDCT andpipelined MIPS-like CPU are adopted to compare the design costs of conventional timing-control and data-orientedmethodologies. The chip performance and FPGA proven of these two designs are discussed

  16. A New Design Methodology for Composing Complex Digital Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Chu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Continuous growth in the use of multimedia applications on portable devices makes the mobile computer systems have an increasing complexity. The functionalities of the used SOC chips and silicon intelligent properties in these portable devices are become complicated and hard to design. Traditional digital circuit designs adopt register transfer level with timing control methodologies, which focus on the datapath composition, timing control of registers, and the functions of combinational circuits. However, the huge amount of control and synchronous signals of the above components are difficult to design and debug. The timing costs of design and verification are increased dramatically. This paper proposed a new design methodology of digital system, called data-oriented methodology, to deal with the above problems, by using Bluespec SystemVerilog HDL and the corresponding tools. Instead of conventional timing-control mechanism, the data-oriented methodology adopts simple handshaking protocol, blocking transferring, and explicitly register/FIFO declaration for communicating between adjacent modules. The designs of FDCT/IDCT and pipelined MIPS-like CPU are adopted to compare the design costs of conventional timing-control and data-oriented methodologies. The chip performance and FPGA proven of these two designs are discussed

  17. Facile method to align crystalline needles composed of organic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By placing a polydimethylsiloxane block on a glass substrate and rotating the substrate using a spincoater, a small amount of the precursor solution was confined in a narrow region along the foot of the block.When we usedan organic semiconducting material, 9,10-dibromoanthracene, as a solute, aligned and roughly ...

  18. Composing, Songwriting, and Producing: Informing Popular Music Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Evan S.

    2013-01-01

    In forwarding comprehensive popular music pedagogies, music educators might acknowledge and address expanded notions of composition in popular music that include processes of recording, engineering, mixing, and producing along with the technologies, techniques, and ways of being musical that encompass these processes. This article advances a…

  19. Appraising Composing in Secondary-School Music Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Angela E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to define music appraisal and to explore the role that talk plays in the process of helping pupils in secondary school music lessons to develop their appraisal skills. This paper offers a definition of appraisal, and traces its developing role in the National Curriculum in England since the early 1990s. The role of…

  20. A (de)composable theory of rhythm perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desain, P.

    1992-01-01

    A definition is given of expectancy of events projected into the future by a complex temporal sequence. The definition can be decomposed into basic expectancy components projected by each time interval implicit in the sequence. A preliminary formulation of these basic curves is proposed and the