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Sample records for componentes principales pca

  1. Redes neuronales artificiales para el análisis de componentes principales. La red de OJA

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    Piedad Tolmos Rodríguez-Piñero

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de componentes principales es una herramienta estadísticomatemática de gran utilidad en multitud de campos, especialmente en el de la compresión de datos. En este artículo se estudia el proceso de la extracción de componentes principales, y se detalla una Red Neuronal Artificial, la red de Oja, diseñada específicamente para el cálculo de la primera componente principal de la matriz de momentos de segundo orden asociada al vector de datos. Se concluye exponiendo algunas redes que generalizan la red de Oja, y permiten extraer el número deseado de componentes principales. Finalmente se explican algunas aplicaciones, fundamentalmente la del procesamiento de imágenes, y la compresión de datos.

  2. Análisis de componentes principales funcionales en series de tiempo económicas (Analysis of principal functional components in economic time series

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    Cristina O. Chávez Chong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spanis abstract. El análisis de datos funcionales ha cobrado gran relevancia en los últimos años, convirtiéndose en un importante campo de investigación en la Estadística. El primer método considerado para procesar este tipo de datos fue el de las componentes principales. En este trabajo se considera la extensión del método de las componentes principales clásicas (ACP al caso funcional (ACPF, algunas propiedades interesantes que aparecen y otras que se conservan al realizar dicha extensión, así como su aplicación el procesamiento de datos reales económicos y una breve explicación de algunas bibliotecas que realizan el análisis de componentes principales funcionales. English abstract. The functional data analysis has gained relevance over the last years becoming an important statistics investigation field. The first method used to process this data type was the principal components analysis (PCA. In this paper, an extension of the classical principal components analysis (PCA to the functional method (FPCA is considered, as well as some interesting properties that appear and others that remain with it. Furthermore, its application in the processing of real economic data and some previous work that analyze functional principal components are explained.

  3. R PROJECT: SU APLICACIÓN COMO SOFTWARE LIBRE PARA ANÁLISIS EN COMPONENTES PRINCIPALES

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    Fabricio Bolaños Guerrero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es producto de un proyecto de investigación realizado en colaboración con profesores de la Escuela de Matemáticas de la Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR, para dar a conocer una opción de software estadístico llamado R Project. Con este paquete es posible hacer Análisis en Componentes Principales (ACP y representar los resultados usando el Plano Principal y el Círculo de Correlaciones, como herramientas para poder realizar una mejor interpretación de los datos de la tabla (individuos y variables. El software R es de distribución libre, su implementación es sencilla y no requiere de mayores recursos informáticos. Dentro de sus diversas aplicaciones está el ACP, que es una herramienta que se utiliza para la interpretación de la información presentada en una tabla de datos cuantitativos; por lo tanto, las personas investigadoras de diferentes áreas tienen una opción económica y sencilla para realizar Análisis de Datos. Se llevan a cabo dos ejemplos de ACP, donde se muestra un posible uso de la herramienta y se dan las instrucciones sobre cómo realizarlo paso a paso.

  4. Principales componentes del clima laboral en el servicio de urgencias de una organización sanitaria: un abordaje cualitativo

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    J. Antonio Lozano Lozano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo ofrece un modelo estructural de los principales componentes del "clima laboral" a partir de una construcción de categorías realizadas mediante el registro de información no estructurada aportada por 7 informantes clave del servicio de urgencias de una organización sanitaria. Para el registro de la información se utilizaron entrevistas en profundidad. Con la intención de organizar y sistematizar la información, se realizó un análisis de contenido de la documentación aportada, transformándola a formato de texto siguiendo el método denominado "Teoría Fundamentada" (Strauss y Glaser, 1980. Como resultado, se obtuvo un modelo del concepto basado en 5 componentes principales: "productividad", "relación laboral", "trabajo individual", "satisfacción laboral" y "características del servicio". A diferencia de otros procedimientos de obtención de componentes principales de un concepto, éste permitió dar cuenta del proceso de construcción emergente de las distintas categorías para poder explicitar procesos de construcción del cuerpo substantivo del concepto.

  5. R PROJECT: SU APLICACIÓN COMO SOFTWARE LIBRE PARA ANÁLISIS EN COMPONENTES PRINCIPALES (R PROJECT: ITS USE AS OPEN SOURCE FOR PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS

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    Bolaños Guerrero Fabricio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Este artículo es producto de un proyecto de investigación realizado en colaboración con profesores de la Escuela de Matemáticas de la Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR, para dar a conocer una opción de software estadístico llamado R Project®. Con este paquete es posible hacer Análisis en Componentes Principales (ACP y representar los resultados usando el Plano Principal y el Círculo de Correlaciones, como herramientas para poder realizar una mejor interpretación de los datos de la tabla (individuos y variables. El software R es de distribución libre, su implementación es sencilla y no requiere de mayores recursos informáticos. Dentro de sus diversas aplicaciones está el ACP, que es una herramienta que se utiliza para la interpretación de la información presentada en una tabla de datos cuantitativos; por lo tanto, las personas investigadoras de diferentes áreas tienen una opción económica y sencilla para realizar Análisis de Datos. Se llevan a cabo dos ejemplos de ACP, donde se muestra un posible uso de la herramienta y se dan las instrucciones sobre cómo realizarlo paso a paso.Abstract: This article is a product of a research project made in collaboration with teachers of the Mathematics School of the University of Costa Rica, in order to show an option of statistical software called “R Project®”. With this software, it is possible to do an Analysis in the Principal Components (PCA and to represent the results using the “principal plane” and the “circle of correlations”, as tools to have a better interpretation of the data in the chart (individuals and variables. The software R is for free distribution, its implementation is simple and it does not require great computer resources. Among its diverse applications there is the PCA, which is a tool used to interpret the information showed in a chart with quantitative data; therefore, the researchers of different areas have a cheap and simple option to do a Data

  6. Componentes Principales (C.P. de los sistemas de calculo del IPC base 92 y sistema IPC base 2001

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    Julio Pallas González

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Nueve años después de que se adoptara un cambio de base en el cálculo del IPC para el Estado Español, asistimos a un cambio de sistema en el cálculo del mismo, naciendo el sistema de índices de precios, base 2001. A lo largo de este trabajo y utilizando el programa estadístico SPSS, se tratará de realizar un análisis multivariante, sobre las distintas variables que componen el IPC base 92, del estado español, y las del índice, atendiendo al nuevo sistema base 2001, que entró en vigor en enero de 2002. De todas las técnicas multivariantes susceptibles de ser aplicadas en este trabajo, se utilizaran el análisis de componentes principales y el análisis factorial, con el fin de obtener factores no observables que permitan explicar, perdiendo la mínima información, las variables originales que representan.

  7. Patrones Presupuestarios de Gasto de las CCAA (2007): Análisis de Componentes Principales y Análisis de Clasificación

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    Alonso Sanz, Ixone

    2008-01-01

    En este trabajo se realizan dos estudios sucesivos para identificar tanto la diversidad de pautas presupuestarias de gasto autonómico como posibles patrones comunes, utilizando los presupuestos de 2007. Así, tras un primer análisis univariante, el núcleo de este artículo lo constituye un estudio multivariante de la distribución de las diferentes partidas presupuestarias en las distintas CCAA, empleando dos técnicas estadísticas: el Análisis de Componentes Principales (ACP) y el Análisis de Cl...

  8. COMPONENTES QUÍMICOS PRINCIPALES DE LA MADERA DE Dalbergia granadillo Pittier Y DE Platymiscium lasiocarpum Sandw

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    J. G. Rutiaga-Quiñones

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis químico de la madera (duramen, zona de transición y albura de dos especies tropicales (Dalbergia granadillo y Platymiscium lasiocarpum de acuerdo a las normas ASTM. Los componentes químicos determinados fueron: cenizas, extraíbles (etanol-benceno, agua caliente y agua a temperatura ambiente, lignina y holocelulosa. Las cantidades de componentes químicos encontrados en las muestras de madera variaron de la siguiente manera: cenizas (0.62 a 1.84 %, solubilidad total (10.19 a 33.35 %, lignina (25.24 a 27.24 % y holocelulosa (49.24 a 55.25 %. El análisis estadístico de varianza de los resultados indicó que la cantidad de componentes químicos es diferente estadísticamente (P<0.05 entre las dos especies y los tres tipos de madera.

  9. Investigação da qualidade de farinhas enriquecidas utilizando Análise por Componentes Principais (PCA Enriched flour quality investigation using Principal Component Analysis (PCA

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    Bruno Thiago Soeiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Alguns países, incluindo o Brasil (RDC 344, 2002, instituíram uma regulamentação indicando que farinhas de milho e trigo devem ser enriquecidas com ácido fólico e ferro. O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi a avaliação de algumas características de farinhas enriquecidas usando a Análise por Componentes Principais (PCA. Parâmetros como o teor de ácido fólico, ferro, proteína, lipídios, umidade, cinzas e carboidratos foram avaliados em 30 embalagens de farinhas adquiridas em comércio local. As farinhas de trigo e milho apresentaram, em média, composição centesimal aceitável de acordo com a Legislação Brasileira. Para as farinhas de trigo, a concentração de ácido fólico estava, em média, próxima ao esperado. As farinhas de milho continham quantidade superior da vitamina. Para os dois tipos de farinha, constatou-se teor de ferro acima do valor declarado no rótulo dos produtos. Uma matriz com 30 linhas (amostras e 7 colunas (variáveis foi organizada e os dados foram autoescalados. A primeira informação observada foi uma clara diferenciação entre os tipos de farinhas. As farinhas de trigo foram caracterizadas por maior quantidade de proteínas, umidade e cinzas. Por outro lado, as farinhas de milho apresentaram maior concentração de ferro, lipídios, carboidratos e ácido fólico. Foi possível notar também que farinhas acondicionadas em embalagens de plástico apresentaram menor quantidade de ácido fólico (152 µg.100 g-1, em média, quando comparadas às amostras armazenadas em embalagens de papel (259 µg.100 g-1, em média. Esse estudo pode fornecer ferramentas importantes para a avaliação dos programas de enriquecimento de alimentos com ácido fólico, principalmente, por apontar, preliminarmente, para a importância do tipo de embalagem para o acondicionamento das farinhas enriquecidas com a vitamina.Some countries, including Brazil (resolution - RDC # 344, 2004, have issued a regulation stipulating

  10. Principales componentes del sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona: historia, modulación farmacológica e impacto clínico

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    David Benavente, Dr.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La existencia del sistema Renina-Angiotensina-Aldosterona (RAA fue postulada hace más de 100 años. Posterior al descubrimiento de sus principales componentes se inició una etapa en la que se estableció su rol patogénico en enfermedades cardiovasculares y renales. El desarrollo de fármacos capaces de inhibir la producción o bloquear la acción de los diferentes componentes de este sistema ha revolucionado la forma en la que manejamos la patología cardiovascular y renal. La identificación de nuevos elementos constituyentes de este sistema promete mejorar nuestra comprensión del funcionamiento del mismo y la posibilidad de desarrollar nuevos fármacos más selectivos en sus efectos. Todo ello garantiza que el sistema RAA continúe siendo centro de nuestra atención por muchos años.

  11. LAS ORGANIZACIONES POLÍTICAS EN LAS ELECCIONES PRESIDENCIALES PERUANAS DE 2011 USANDO ANÁLISIS DE COMPONENTES PRINCIPALES

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    Jorge Luis Bazan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available El  propósito  de  este  trabajo  es  presentar  una  aplicación  de  la  metodología  de  datos composicionales  en  datos  de  la  elección  presidencial  peruana  de  la  primera  vuelta  del  2011  a  nivel provincial y llamar la atención acerca de la importancia de este tipo de metodologías que reconocen de mejor manera la naturaleza real de los datos. Para los aspectos metodológicos fueron considerados los datos multipartidarios como análisis de datos composicionales. Como resultados importantes en este trabajo  fue que los dados electorales son de carácter composicional, siendo la proporción de votos el componente más importante, que incluso el número de votos existentes.

  12. Creación de índices de gestión hospitalaria mediante análisis de componentes principales Construction of hospital management indices using principal component analysis

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    José Almenara-Barrios

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Obtener índices útiles para la gestión hospitalaria basados en técnicas estadísticas multivariantes descriptivas. Material y métodos. Durante 1999 y 2000 se recogió información del Hospital de Algeciras correspondiente a los ingresos hospitalarios del periodo 1997-1998. Se estudiaron las variables habitualmente monitorizadas por el Servicio Andaluz de Salud, del Sistema Nacional de Salud Español: número de ingresos, mortalidad, número de reingresos, número de consultas externas, índice case-mix, número de estancias e índice funcional. Las variables se midieron en un total de 22 486 ingresos. Aplicamos la técnica de análisis de componentes principales (ACP, y se utilizó la matriz de correlaciones R. Resultados. Se seleccionaron las dos primeras componentes, con un porcentaje acumulado de variabilidad de 62.67%. Conclusiones. La primera componente puede ser asimilada a un nuevo índice que tiene que ver con la cuantía de personas atendidas, llamado demanda asistencial. La segunda explicaría la dificultad de los casos atendidos; le hemos llamado complejidad asistencial. Ambos índices permiten dar una clasificación de los servicios hospitalarios.Objective. To construct useful indices for hospital management, based on descriptive multivariate techniques. Material and Methods. Data were collected during 1999 and 2000, on hospital admissions occurring during 1997-1998 at Hospital General de Algeciras, part of Servicio Andaluz de Salud (SAS of Sistema Nacional de Salud Español (Spanish National Health Service. The following variables routinely monitored by health authorities were analyzed: number of admissions, mortality, number of re-admissions, number of outpatient consultations, case-mix index, number of stays, and functional index. Variables were measured in a total of 22486 admissions. We applied the Principal Components Analysis (PCA method using the R correlation matrix. Results. The first two components were

  13. Perfil competitivo de empresas de tercerización de procesos de Bogotá: análisis de componentes principales

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    NELSON ORLANDO ALARCÓN VILLAMIL

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo de resultados de investigación es analizar el perfil competitivo de empresas de tercerización de procesos de negocio (BPO, por sus siglas en Inglés de Bogotá, evaluadas a través del Modelo de Indicadores de Gestión Sostenible y Asociatividad (MIGSA y utilizando el Análisis de Componentes Principales (ACP, para distribuir las variables estudiadas en un número reducido de grupos, con el fin de dar cuenta de los aspectos que sintetizan la variabilidad en la gestión de las empresas. El estudio permitió establecer dos ejes: el primero relaciona aspectos de sostenibilidad internos a la empresa y el segundo establece elementos de sostenibilidad externos, los dos generan cuatro perfiles diferentes de competitividad, los cuales permiten a las organizaciones, además de establecer su ubicación, la generación de planes estratégicos que favorezcan su posicionamiento en el mercado.

  14. Asignación de primas en el seguro del automóvil utilizando el Análisis en ComponentesPrincipales Funcionales = Premium allocation in the car insurance by using Functional Principal Component Analysis.

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    Herranz Peinado, C. Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de las primas de riesgo en el seguro del automóvil es de suma importancia, debido a la gran competitividad existente en el mercado asegurador. En este artículo se pretende proponer un sistema de bonificación-penalización de las primas de riesgo utilizando el Análisis Funcional en Componentes Principales. En concreto, se realiza un estudio empírico con los datos reales de una compañía aseguradora con cobertura nacional. Aplicando el sistema propuesto de bonificación-penalización a los perfiles de comportamiento de los asegurados, se obtienen las primas de riesgo para cada uno de los perfiles considerados y tramos de edad. = The study of the premium risk in the car insurance is really important because the insurance market is very competitive. In this article we show a bonus-malus method of risk premiums. To do this, we use the Functional Principal Component Analysis. More precisely, we explain an empirical study with the real data of an insurance company. By applying the bonus-malus method that we have given, we are able to obtain the premium risk for different profiles and age ranges.

  15. Análise multivariada aplicada na identificação de fármacos antidepressivos. Parte II: Análise por componentes principais (PCA e o método de classificação SIMCA Multivariate analysis to applied in the identification of antidepressants. Part II: principal components analysis (PCA and soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA

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    Janusa Goelzer Sabin

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho a identificação e a discriminação de dois diferentes fármacos utilizados como antidepressivos foi estudada, empregando os espectros de reflexão difusa no infravermelho médio com transformada de Fourier (DRIFTS, juntamente com a análise de componentes principais (PCA e o método de classificação SIMCA. Os espectros no infravermelho de amostras contendo diferentes concentrações dos princípios ativos cloridrato de amitriptilina e cloridrato de imipramina, foram coletados em um espectrofotômetro NICOLET Magna 550, sendo realizadas 2 réplicas para cada amostra, com resolução de 4 cm-1 e 32 varreduras. A análise de componentes principais confirmou a existência de dois grupos distintos, correspondendo aos dois diferentes princípios ativos utilizados, além de evidenciar a presença de amostras anômalas no conjunto de dados que, possivelmente, iriam interferir na modelagem. Já o método de classificação SIMCA possibilitou o reconhecimento de amostras dos princípios ativos cloridrato de imipramina e cloridrato de amitriptilina com resultados indicando 100% de classificação correta das classes modeladas.In this work the certification of two different drugs used as antidepressants was studied, using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS, together with the analysis of principal components (PCA and the method of soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA. The DRIFT spectra of samples with different concentrations of the active principles amitriptiline and imipramine hydrochlorides had been collected in Magna 550 spectrofotometer, two spectra for each sample, with resolution of 4 cm-1 and 32 scans. The PCA confirmed the existence of two distinct groups, corresponding to the two different active principles used. Otherwise the method of classification SIMCA made possible the recognition of samples of the principles amitriptyline and imipramine hydrochlorides with results indicating

  16. Diferenciación de ácido acetilsalicílico utilizando la técnica de espectroscopia Raman y el análisis de componentes principales

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    José Luis González-Sólis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente la técnica de espectroscopia Raman ha sido aplicada en áreas como médicas, farmacéuticas y nanotecnología para determinar las concentraciones y diferencias en las soluciones de compuestos orgánicos e inorgánicos. En éste trabajo se analizaron las diferencias respecto a las concentraciones de los compuestos de una forma farmacéutica derivada del ácido acetilsalicílico comercial en forma de comprimido fabricado por 5 diferentes laboratorios. Los datos en bruto se obtuvieron a partir del acido acetil salicílico como principio activo, y 5 muestras de diferentes laboratorios fueron también analizadas. El bloque espectral se obtuvo utilizando un equipo de microscopia Raman Horiba-JY HR800 con una fuente de excitación de 830 nm y 17 mW de potencia. El algoritmo del PCA fue desarrollado en MatLab y aplicado al bloque espectral. Concluyendo que la aplicación de la espectroscopia Raman a la farmacología ofrece información sobre la efectividad farmacológica del ácido acetilsalicílico como analgésico y antipirético.

  17. Caracterización de sondeos estivales del norte de Mendoza mediante el análisis de componentes principales y obtención de un índice de convección Characterization Of Summer Soundings From Northern Mendoza By Principal Components Analysis And The Obtaining Of A Convection Index

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    Diego C Araneo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizó el análisis de componentes principales para caracterizar radiosondeos estivales del norte de Mendoza, evaluando su capacidad para identificar patrones asociados a la ocurrencia de convección y definiendo un índice de inestabilidad. Se tomaron 326 casos, construyendo una matriz de anomalías de temperatura (T y temperatura de punto de rocío (Td de los niveles estándar entre 850 y 300 hPa. El análisis arrojó 6 componentes significativas que explican más del 91% de varianza. Así se obtuvieron 12 patrones que representan condiciones atmosféricas diferenciadas. Las mayores correlaciones entre patrones y casos de convección (C y no convección (NC, se obtuvieron para las componentes 6, 2, 4 y 3. La convección se favorecería en entornos relativamente húmedos con un marcado gradiente de T en niveles medios y altos, mientras se inhibiría con capas secas en niveles medios y altos, y débiles gradientes de T en capas bajas. El indicador de C/NC puede estimarse por regresión múltiple logística dependiente de las componentes de carga, con una correlación conjunta de 0,5, determinando un índice de estabilidad/inestabilidad calculable a partir de los perfiles de T y Td y dependiente de las características climatológicas de la región. El índice mostró una efectividad del 72%.The Principal Components Analysis was used to characterize the summery North Mendoza rawinsondes, evaluating their capacity to identify patterns associated to the convection occurrence and defining an instability index. It was selected 326 cases, building an entry matrix with the temperature and dew point temperature anomalies for the standard levels between 850 and 300 hPa. The analysis showed 6 significant components that explain more than 91% of variance. Therefore, 12 patterns were obtained, which represent different atmospheric conditions. The main correlations between the patterns and convection (C and non convection (NC cases were obtained for the

  18. Principales componentes de la imagen corporativa de entidades culturales

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    María Ramis Carrasco

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available En el presente articulo se lleva a cabo un análisis de la imagen corporativa de una entidad cultural con el objetivo de destacar la importancia de la misma a la hora de elaborar estrategias relacionadas con la gestión cultural. Se ha investigado qué atributos concretos son mejor valorados por el público y qué dimensiones generales componen la imagen corporativa de la entidad. Basándonos en la literatura revisada, se ha realizado una entrevista en profundidad al gestor de programación de la entidad y una encuesta descriptiva a sus espectadores mediante un cuestionario estructurado. Los resultados de los análisis muestran que la imagen corporativa de la entidad analizada es positiva, si bien es cierto que se pueden mejorar ciertos aspectos.

  19. Regionalization and classification of bioclimatic zones in the central-northeastern region of Mexico using principal component analysis (PCA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda-Martinez, L.F.; Carbajal, N.; Medina-Roldan, E. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, A. C., San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail: lpineda@ipicyt.edu.mx

    2007-04-15

    Applying principal component analysis (PCA), we determined climate zones in a topographic gradient in the central-northeastern part of Mexico. We employed nearly 30 years of monthly temperature and precipitation data at 173 meteorological stations. The climate classification was carried out applying the Koeppen system modified for the conditions of Mexico. PCA indicates a regionalization in agreement with topographic characteristics and vegetation. We describe the different bioclimatic zones, associated with typical vegetation, for each climate using geographical information systems (GIS). [Spanish] Utilizando un analisis de componentes principales, determinamos zonas climaticas en un gradiente topografico en la zona centro-noreste de Mexico. Se emplearon datos de precipitacion y temperatura medias mensuales por un periodo de 30 anos de 173 estaciones meteorologicas. La clasificacion del clima fue llevada a cabo de acuerdo con el sistema de Koeppen modificado para las condiciones de Mexico. El analisis de componentes principales indico una regionalizacion que concuerda con caracteristicas de topografia y vegetacion. Se describen zonas bioclimaticas, asociadas a vegetacion tipica para cada clima, usando sistemas de informacion geografica (SIG).

  20. Clasificación de extractos etanólicos de especies de la familia Lauraceae por cromatografía en capa fina bidimensional y análisis estadísticos multivariado CCD-2D/ PCA-cluster

    OpenAIRE

    William A. Delgado; Luis E. Cuca S.

    2016-01-01

    Se caracterizaron los extractos etanólicos de hojas y cortezas de 13 especies de la familia Lauraceae mediante cromatografía en capa fina de dos dimensiones (2D-CCD).  Los datos posteriores se analizaron mediante técnicas de análisis estadístico multivariado (cluster y análisis de componentes principales (PCA)). Lo anterior permitió hacer una distinción entre los extractos obtenidos de diferentes partes de la planta (hojas y cortezas). Se observó, además, que la metodología usada es capaz de ...

  1. The PCa Tumor Microenvironment.

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    Sottnik, Joseph L; Zhang, Jian; Macoska, Jill A; Keller, Evan T

    2011-12-01

    The tumor microenvironment (TME) is a very complex niche that consists of multiple cell types, supportive matrix and soluble factors. Cells in the TME consist of both host cells that are present at tumor site at the onset of tumor growth and cells that are recruited in either response to tumor- or host-derived factors. PCa (PCa) thrives on crosstalk between tumor cells and the TME. Crosstalk results in an orchestrated evolution of both the tumor and microenvironment as the tumor progresses. The TME reacts to PCa-produced soluble factors as well as direct interaction with PCa cells. In return, the TME produces soluble factors, structural support and direct contact interactions that influence the establishment and progression of PCa. In this review, we focus on the host side of the equation to provide a foundation for understanding how different aspects of the TME contribute to PCa progression. We discuss immune effector cells, specialized niches, such as the vascular and bone marrow, and several key protein factors that mediate host effects on PCa. This discussion highlights the concept that the TME offers a potentially very fertile target for PCa therapy.

  2. Principales enfermedades bucodentales en embarazadas

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez de Varona, Yuliet B; Batista Sánchez, Tamara; Peña Marrero, Yamilet; Torres Acosta, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el embarazo constituye un proceso natural que provoca una serie de cambios fisiológicos, patológicos y psicológicos que las convierten en pacientes especiales que demandan cuidados exclusivos. Objetivo: determinar las principales enfermedades bucodentales que afectan a las embarazadas del Policlínico Pedro Díaz Coello. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal de enero de 2014 a enero de 2015 en el Policlínico Pedro Díaz Coello de Holguín a un total de 395 embarazadas que acudi...

  3. Volatilization from PCA steel alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagrman, D.L.; Smolik, G.R.; McCarthy, K.A.; Petti, D.A.

    1996-08-01

    The mobilizations of key components from Primary Candidate Alloy (PCA) steel alloy have been measured with laboratory-scale experiments. The experiments indicate most of the mobilization from PCA steel is due to oxide formation and spalling but that the spalled particles are large enough to settle rapidly. Based on the experiments, models for the volatization of iron, manganese, and cobalt from PCA steel in steam and molybdenum from PCA steel in air have been derived.

  4. Análise exploratória de adoçantes de mesa via espectroscopia no infravermelho (FTIR e análise por componentes principais (ACP Exploratory analysis of commercial sweeteners by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and principal component analysis (PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Tozetto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos vinte anos, o consumo de alimentos diet e light tem aumentado sistematicamente, o que tem propiciado o constante desenvolvimento de produtos desse gênero. Grande ênfase tem sido dada àqueles produtos que substituem sacarose por edulcorantes de baixos conteúdos calóricos ou não calóricos. Seguindo esta tendência, adoçantes de mesa têm sido desenvolvidos variando-se amplamente o veículo e o tipo de edulcorante empregado. Neste trabalho, a análise de componentes principais associada à espectroscopia na região do infravermelho médio foi utilizada com sucesso para diferenciar os veículos empregados na produção destes adoçantes, sendo que esta metodologia quimiométrica reduziu o espaço dimensional para dois fatores, explicando cerca de 82-% da variância total dos dados. As variáveis responsáveis por esta discriminação estão localizadas na região da impressão digital do espectro de infravermelho (752,2 a 1284,5 cm-1. A análise exploratória mostrou-se útil para a visualização destes dados, gerando informações semiquantitativas para os adoçantes constituídos por lactose/aspartame, observações que seriam dificilmente visualizadas sem o recurso quimiométrico aplicado.In the last twenty years, the consumption of diet and light foods has grown steadily, leading to the constant development of such products. Much emphasis has been placed on products that replace sucrose with sweeteners of low or zero calorie content. The development of new commercial sweeteners illustrates this tendency. In this work, principal component analysis and infrared spectroscopy were used to successfully differentiate the vehicles (mediums employed in the production of sweeteners. This chemometric methodology reduced the dimensional space to two factors, accounting for 82% of the total variance of the data. The variables responsible for this discrimination were localized in the fingerprint region of the infrared spectrum (752.2 to

  5. Petrology of Antarctic Eucrites PCA 91078 and PCA 91245

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, L. M.; Domanik, K. J.; Drake, M. J.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2002-01-01

    Antarctic eucrites PCA 91078 and PCA 91245, are petrographically characterized and found to be unpaired, type 6, basaltic eucrites. Observed textures that provide insight into the petrogenesis of these meteorites are also discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Circle of Willis Variants: Fetal PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Shaban

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We sought to determine the prevalence of fetal posterior cerebral artery (fPCA and if fPCA was associated with specific stroke etiology and vessel territory affected. This paper is a retrospective review of prospectively identified patients with acute ischemic stroke from July 2008 to December 2010. We defined complete fPCA as absence of a P1 segment linking the basilar with the PCA and partial fPCA as small segment linking the basilar with the PCA. Patients without intracranial vascular imaging were excluded. We compared patients with complete fPCA, partial fPCA, and without fPCA in terms of demographics, stroke severity, distribution, and etiology and factored in whether the stroke was ipsilateral to the fPCA. Of the 536 included patients, 9.5% ( had complete fPCA and 15.1% ( had partial fPCA. Patients with complete fPCA were older and more often female than partial fPCA and no fPCA patients, and significant variation in TOAST classification was detected across groups (. Patients with complete fPCA had less small vessel and more large vessel strokes than patients with no fPCA and partial fPCA. Fetal PCA may predispose to stroke mechanism, but is not associated with vascular distribution, stroke severity, or early outcome.

  7. PCaPAC 2006 Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavel Chevtsov; Matthew Bickley (Eds.)

    2007-03-30

    The 6-th international PCaPAC (Personal Computers and Particle Accelerator Controls) workshop was held at Jefferson Lab, Newport News, Virginia, from October 24-27, 2006. The main objectives of the conference were to discuss the most important issues of the use of PCs and modern IT technologies for controls of accelerators and to give scientists, engineers, and technicians a forum to exchange the ideas on control problems and their solutions. The workshop consisted of plenary sessions and poster sessions. No parallel sessions were held.Totally, more than seventy oral and poster presentations as well as tutorials were made during the conference, on the basis of which about fifty papers were submitted by the authors and included in this publication. This printed version of the PCaPAC 2006 Proceedings is published at Jefferson Lab according to the decision of the PCaPAC International Program Committee of October 26, 2006.

  8. Circle of Willis Variants: Fetal PCA

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Shaban; Karen C. Albright; Amelia K. Boehme; Sheryl Martin-Schild

    2013-01-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence of fetal posterior cerebral artery (fPCA) and if fPCA was associated with specific stroke etiology and vessel territory affected. This paper is a retrospective review of prospectively identified patients with acute ischemic stroke from July 2008 to December 2010. We defined complete fPCA as absence of a P1 segment linking the basilar with the PCA and partial fPCA as small segment linking the basilar with the PCA. Patients without intracranial vascular ima...

  9. Sparse PCA with Oracle Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Quanquan; Wang, Zhaoran; Liu, Han

    In this paper, we study the estimation of the k -dimensional sparse principal subspace of covariance matrix Σ in the high-dimensional setting. We aim to recover the oracle principal subspace solution, i.e., the principal subspace estimator obtained assuming the true support is known a priori. To this end, we propose a family of estimators based on the semidefinite relaxation of sparse PCA with novel regularizations. In particular, under a weak assumption on the magnitude of the population projection matrix, one estimator within this family exactly recovers the true support with high probability, has exact rank- k , and attains a [Formula: see text] statistical rate of convergence with s being the subspace sparsity level and n the sample size. Compared to existing support recovery results for sparse PCA, our approach does not hinge on the spiked covariance model or the limited correlation condition. As a complement to the first estimator that enjoys the oracle property, we prove that, another estimator within the family achieves a sharper statistical rate of convergence than the standard semidefinite relaxation of sparse PCA, even when the previous assumption on the magnitude of the projection matrix is violated. We validate the theoretical results by numerical experiments on synthetic datasets.

  10. Tensile properties of unirradiated path A PCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braski, D.N.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The tensile properties of PCA in the Al (solution annealed), A3 (25%-cold worked), and B2 (aged, cold worked, and reaged) conditions were determined from room temperature to 600 0 C. The tensile behavior of PCA-A1 and -A3 was generally similar to that of titanium-modified type 316 stainless steel with similar microstructures. The PCA-B2 was weaker than PCA-A3, especially above 500 0 C, but demonstrated slightly better ducility

  11. Semi-Supervised Kernel PCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walder, Christian; Henao, Ricardo; Mørup, Morten

    We present three generalisations of Kernel Principal Components Analysis (KPCA) which incorporate knowledge of the class labels of a subset of the data points. The first, MV-KPCA, penalises within class variances similar to Fisher discriminant analysis. The second, LSKPCA is a hybrid of least...... squares regression and kernel PCA. The final LR-KPCA is an iteratively reweighted version of the previous which achieves a sigmoid loss function on the labeled points. We provide a theoretical risk bound as well as illustrative experiments on real and toy data sets....

  12. International assessment of PCA codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neymotin, L.; Lui, C.; Glynn, J.; Archarya, S.

    1993-11-01

    Over the past three years (1991-1993), an extensive international exercise for intercomparison of a group of six Probabilistic Consequence Assessment (PCA) codes was undertaken. The exercise was jointly sponsored by the Commission of European Communities (CEC) and OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. This exercise was a logical continuation of a similar effort undertaken by OECD/NEA/CSNI in 1979-1981. The PCA codes are currently used by different countries for predicting radiological health and economic consequences of severe accidents at nuclear power plants (and certain types of non-reactor nuclear facilities) resulting in releases of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. The codes participating in the exercise were: ARANO (Finland), CONDOR (UK), COSYMA (CEC), LENA (Sweden), MACCS (USA), and OSCAAR (Japan). In parallel with this inter-code comparison effort, two separate groups performed a similar set of calculations using two of the participating codes, MACCS and COSYMA. Results of the intercode and inter-MACCS comparisons are presented in this paper. The MACCS group included four participants: GREECE: Institute of Nuclear Technology and Radiation Protection, NCSR Demokritos; ITALY: ENEL, ENEA/DISP, and ENEA/NUC-RIN; SPAIN: Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM) and Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear; USA: Brookhaven National Laboratory, US NRC and DOE

  13. Parallel GPU implementation of iterative PCA algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrecut, M

    2009-11-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is a key statistical technique for multivariate data analysis. For large data sets, the common approach to PCA computation is based on the standard NIPALS-PCA algorithm, which unfortunately suffers from loss of orthogonality, and therefore its applicability is usually limited to the estimation of the first few components. Here we present an algorithm based on Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization (called GS-PCA), which eliminates this shortcoming of NIPALS-PCA. Also, we discuss the GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) parallel implementation of both NIPALS-PCA and GS-PCA algorithms. The numerical results show that the GPU parallel optimized versions, based on CUBLAS (NVIDIA), are substantially faster (up to 12 times) than the CPU optimized versions based on CBLAS (GNU Scientific Library).

  14. MD-11 PCA - Research flight team photo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    On Aug. 30, 1995, a the McDonnell Douglas MD-11 transport aircraft landed equipped with a computer-assisted engine control system that has the potential to increase flight safety. In landings at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on August 29 and 30, the aircraft demonstrated software used in the aircraft's flight control computer that essentially landed the MD-11 without a need for the pilot to manipulate the flight controls significantly. In partnership with McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA), with Pratt & Whitney and Honeywell helping to design the software, NASA developed this propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system following a series of incidents in which hydraulic failures resulted in the loss of flight controls. This new system enables a pilot to operate and land the aircraft safely when its normal, hydraulically-activated control surfaces are disabled. This August 29, 1995, photo shows the MD-11 team. Back row, left to right: Tim Dingen, MDA pilot; John Miller, MD-11 Chief pilot (MDA); Wayne Anselmo, MD-11 Flight Test Engineer (MDA); Gordon Fullerton, PCA Project pilot; Bill Burcham, PCA Chief Engineer; Rudey Duran, PCA Controls Engineer (MDA); John Feather, PCA Controls Engineer (MDA); Daryl Townsend, Crew Chief; Henry Hernandez, aircraft mechanic; Bob Baron, PCA Project Manager; Don Hermann, aircraft mechanic; Jerry Cousins, aircraft mechanic; Eric Petersen, PCA Manager (Honeywell); Trindel Maine, PCA Data Engineer; Jeff Kahler, PCA Software Engineer (Honeywell); Steve Goldthorpe, PCA Controls Engineer (MDA). Front row, left to right: Teresa Hass, Senior Project Management Analyst; Hollie Allingham (Aguilera), Senior Project Management Analyst; Taher Zeglum, PCA Data Engineer (MDA); Drew Pappas, PCA Project Manager (MDA); John Burken, PCA Control Engineer.

  15. An efficient algorithm for weighted PCA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, W.P.; Kiers, H.A.L.

    1995-01-01

    The method for analyzing three-way data where one of the three components matrices in TUCKALS3 is chosen to have one column is called Replicated PCA. The corresponding algorithm is relatively inefficient. This is shown by offering an alternative algorithm called Weighted PCA. Specifically it is

  16. Latinobarómetro 1997: Principales resultados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael CRESPO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El latinobarómetro es quizá la encuesta de opinión pública más importante que, cada año, analiza conjuntamente la realidad latinoamericana y española y que, además, permite la comparación de indicadores entre 18 países. Lo que se nos presenta a continuación son comentarios a los principales resultados extraídos en 1997, comparados con los obtenidos el año anterior, sobre aspectos como el desarrollo político e institucional y el estado de la democracia, junto a otras valoraciones de la realidad económica; ofreciéndonos, con ello, una clara descripción de la evolución de la opinión pública en estos países. Palabras clave: Latinobarómetro, opinión pública.ABSTRACT: The "latin-barometer" is perhaps the most important public opinion survey which analysies the latinamerican and the spanish situation together each year. Moreover it allows the comparition of indicators between eighteen countries. This paper shows the main results obtained during 1997. These results are compared with wihic were obtained on 1996. It comparies issues such as the instituctional and political development and the conditios of democracy; it linked to other valuations of the economic situation. These data offer us a clear description about the evoluction of public opinion in these countries.

  17. Model selection for Gaussian kernel PCA denoising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kasper Winther; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2012-01-01

    We propose kernel Parallel Analysis (kPA) for automatic kernel scale and model order selection in Gaussian kernel PCA. Parallel Analysis [1] is based on a permutation test for covariance and has previously been applied for model order selection in linear PCA, we here augment the procedure to also...... tune the Gaussian kernel scale of radial basis function based kernel PCA.We evaluate kPA for denoising of simulated data and the US Postal data set of handwritten digits. We find that kPA outperforms other heuristics to choose the model order and kernel scale in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR...

  18. Performance comparisons between PCA-EA-LBG and PCA-LBG-EA approaches in VQ codebook generation for image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jinn-Tsong; Chou, Ping-Yi; Chou, Jyh-Horng

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to generate vector quantisation (VQ) codebooks by integrating principle component analysis (PCA) algorithm, Linde-Buzo-Gray (LBG) algorithm, and evolutionary algorithms (EAs). The EAs include genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimisation (PSO), honey bee mating optimisation (HBMO), and firefly algorithm (FF). The study is to provide performance comparisons between PCA-EA-LBG and PCA-LBG-EA approaches. The PCA-EA-LBG approaches contain PCA-GA-LBG, PCA-PSO-LBG, PCA-HBMO-LBG, and PCA-FF-LBG, while the PCA-LBG-EA approaches contain PCA-LBG, PCA-LBG-GA, PCA-LBG-PSO, PCA-LBG-HBMO, and PCA-LBG-FF. All training vectors of test images are grouped according to PCA. The PCA-EA-LBG used the vectors grouped by PCA as initial individuals, and the best solution gained by the EAs was given for LBG to discover a codebook. The PCA-LBG approach is to use the PCA to select vectors as initial individuals for LBG to find a codebook. The PCA-LBG-EA used the final result of PCA-LBG as an initial individual for EAs to find a codebook. The search schemes in PCA-EA-LBG first used global search and then applied local search skill, while in PCA-LBG-EA first used local search and then employed global search skill. The results verify that the PCA-EA-LBG indeed gain superior results compared to the PCA-LBG-EA, because the PCA-EA-LBG explores a global area to find a solution, and then exploits a better one from the local area of the solution. Furthermore the proposed PCA-EA-LBG approaches in designing VQ codebooks outperform existing approaches shown in the literature.

  19. PcaO Positively Regulates pcaHG of the β-Ketoadipate Pathway in Corynebacterium glutamicum▿

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ke-Xin; Huang, Yan; Chen, Xi; Wang, Nan-Xi; Liu, Shuang-Jiang

    2010-01-01

    We identified a new regulator, PcaO, which is involved in regulation of the protocatechuate (PCA) branch of the β-ketoadipate pathway in Corynebacterium glutamicum. PcaO is an atypical large ATP-binding LuxR family (LAL)-type regulator and does not have a Walker A motif. A mutant of C. glutamicum in which pcaO was disrupted (RES167ΔpcaO) was unable to grow on PCA, and growth on PCA was restored by complementation with pcaO. Both an enzymatic assay of PCA 3,4-dioxygenase activity (encoded by p...

  20. Simultaneous Estimation of Hydrochlorothiazide, Hydralazine Hydrochloride, and Reserpine Using PCA, NAS, and NAS-PCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Badyal, Pragya Nand; Rawal, Ravindra K

    2015-01-01

    In this study, new and feasible UV-visible spectrophotometric and multivariate spectrophotometric methods were described for the simultaneous determination of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), hydralazine hydrochloride (H.HCl), and reserpine (RES) in combined pharmaceutical tablets. Methanol was used as a solvent for analysis and the whole UV region was scanned from 200-400 nm. The resolution was obtained by using multivariate methods such as the net analyte signal method (NAS), principal component analysis (PCA), and net analyte signal-principal component analysis (NAS-PCA) applied to the UV spectra of the mixture. The results obtained from all of the three methods were compared. NAS-PCA showed a lot of resolved data as compared to NAS and PCA. Thus, the NAS-PCA technique is a combination of NAS and PCA methods which is advantageous to obtain the information from overlapping results.

  1. PCA3 and PCA3-Based Nomograms Improve Diagnostic Accuracy in Patients Undergoing First Prostate Biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Vlaeminck-Guillem

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available While now recognized as an aid to predict repeat prostate biopsy outcome, the urinary PCA3 (prostate cancer gene 3 test has also been recently advocated to predict initial biopsy results. The objective is to evaluate the performance of the PCA3 test in predicting results of initial prostate biopsies and to determine whether its incorporation into specific nomograms reinforces its diagnostic value. A prospective study included 601 consecutive patients addressed for initial prostate biopsy. The PCA3 test was performed before ≥12-core initial prostate biopsy, along with standard risk factor assessment. Diagnostic performance of the PCA3 test was evaluated. The three available nomograms (Hansen’s and Chun’s nomograms, as well as the updated Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial risk calculator; PCPT were applied to the cohort, and their predictive accuracies were assessed in terms of biopsy outcome: the presence of any prostate cancer (PCa and high-grade prostate cancer (HGPCa. The PCA3 score provided significant predictive accuracy. While the PCPT risk calculator appeared less accurate; both Chun’s and Hansen’s nomograms provided good calibration and high net benefit on decision curve analyses. When applying nomogram-derived PCa probability thresholds ≤30%, ≤6% of HGPCa would have been missed, while avoiding up to 48% of unnecessary biopsies. The urinary PCA3 test and PCA3-incorporating nomograms can be considered as reliable tools to aid in the initial biopsy decision.

  2. Theoretical analysis of the PCA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minsart, G.

    1980-01-01

    A very brief description of the PCA-PVF facility is given, and the studied configurations are mentioned. The analysis of the experiment has been divided into two parts: study of the fission density distribution across the PCA core and neutronic analysis of the flux spectra and spatial distributions in the whole facility. For both parts, the procedure of calculation is explained: cross section sets, one- and two-dimensional models, group collapsing, choice of bucklings, ... . The obtained results are shortly compared with the measured values, and illustrated by a figure and several tables. The computations of the fission map in the PCA core yield results in good agreement with the experimental ones (within a few percents for nearly all points). The discrepancies observed for relative reaction rates and spectral indices of a series of threshold detectors at the selected locations in and between steel and iron layers in the water reflector are briefly discussed

  3. COMPONENTES QUÍMICOS DEL DURAMEN DE Andira inermis (W. Wright DC. (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Téllez-Sánchez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis químico del duramen de Andira inermis para determinar los principales componentes químicos. Los resultados encontrados fueron: pH de 5.9, 0.71 % de sustancias inorgánicas, 19.1 % de sustancias extraíbles, 34.2 % de lignina y 65.78 % de polisacáridos. En las cenizas se detectó la presencia de calcio, magnesio, azufre y silicio. Las sustancias fueron obtenidas mediante extracción sucesiva con ciclohexano, cloroformo, acetona y metanol en equipo Soxhlet y finalmente con agua caliente bajo reflujo. La solubilidad del duramen fue mayor en acetona (8.6 % y en metanol (5.3 %; el contenido total de sustancias extraíbles fue de 19.1 %.

  4. PEM-PCA: A Parallel Expectation-Maximization PCA Face Recognition Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokmon Rujirakul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Principal component analysis or PCA has been traditionally used as one of the feature extraction techniques in face recognition systems yielding high accuracy when requiring a small number of features. However, the covariance matrix and eigenvalue decomposition stages cause high computational complexity, especially for a large database. Thus, this research presents an alternative approach utilizing an Expectation-Maximization algorithm to reduce the determinant matrix manipulation resulting in the reduction of the stages’ complexity. To improve the computational time, a novel parallel architecture was employed to utilize the benefits of parallelization of matrix computation during feature extraction and classification stages including parallel preprocessing, and their combinations, so-called a Parallel Expectation-Maximization PCA architecture. Comparing to a traditional PCA and its derivatives, the results indicate lower complexity with an insignificant difference in recognition precision leading to high speed face recognition systems, that is, the speed-up over nine and three times over PCA and Parallel PCA.

  5. PEM-PCA: a parallel expectation-maximization PCA face recognition architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujirakul, Kanokmon; So-In, Chakchai; Arnonkijpanich, Banchar

    2014-01-01

    Principal component analysis or PCA has been traditionally used as one of the feature extraction techniques in face recognition systems yielding high accuracy when requiring a small number of features. However, the covariance matrix and eigenvalue decomposition stages cause high computational complexity, especially for a large database. Thus, this research presents an alternative approach utilizing an Expectation-Maximization algorithm to reduce the determinant matrix manipulation resulting in the reduction of the stages' complexity. To improve the computational time, a novel parallel architecture was employed to utilize the benefits of parallelization of matrix computation during feature extraction and classification stages including parallel preprocessing, and their combinations, so-called a Parallel Expectation-Maximization PCA architecture. Comparing to a traditional PCA and its derivatives, the results indicate lower complexity with an insignificant difference in recognition precision leading to high speed face recognition systems, that is, the speed-up over nine and three times over PCA and Parallel PCA.

  6. Marco de Componentes con soporte para reemplazo dinámico y seguro en sistemas de tiempo real

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En las últimas décadas se han aportado soluciones para el desarrollo de sistemas de tiempo real basados en componentes como base para aumentar la productividad y la fiabilidad de su desarrollo así como su posterior mantenimiento. De modo más reciente están apareciendo soluciones que permiten cierta flexibilidad en estos sistemas con miras a soportar ejecución dinámica a través de reemplazos de componentes en tiempo de ejecución. Para ello se adaptan los modelos de componentes intentando minimizar los conflictos que aparecen al integrar tiempo real y comportamiento dinámico y conseguir reemplazos de componentes en un tiempo acotado. Uno de los principales retos para esto es el cálculo de los tiempos requeridos por las diferentes operaciones necesarias para realizar un reemplazo de componente. El otro gran obstáculo es conocer los tiempos de operación de los componentes del sistema cuando la implementación de éstos puede cambiar durante la vida del sistema. En este trabajo se describe la implementación de un marco de componentes que aporta una solución parcial a estos problemas. Se proporciona un modelo de componentes junto con sus correspondientes algoritmos para asegurar que los componentes pueden ser cargados y reemplazados en tiempo de ejecución sin interferir en el cumplimiento de sus plazos de ejecución. El modelo está diseñado para evitar fallos en los reemplazos de componente. Finalmente se aporta la validación de los conceptos presentados. Abstract: In the last decades solutions have been provided for the real- time component-based systems development as a base to increase productivity and reliability of their development as well as their maintenance. Solutions are increasingly appearing that allow controlled flexibility in these systems, aiming to support dynamic execution through the component replacement at run-time. So, component models are adapted trying to minimize conflicts integrating real-time and

  7. EPOXIDAÇÃO DE ÓLEOS DE SOJA, GIRASSOL E MAMONA E AVALIAÇÃO QUIMIOMÉTRICA POR PCA e HCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carla Bock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo realizar a epoxidação de diferentes óleos vegetais (girassol, mamona e soja e realizar a identificação assim como o acompanhamento reacional através da espectroscopia no infravermelho médio aplicando métodos multivariados de análise (análise de componentes principais – PCA e análise de agrupamento hierárquico – HCA. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que é possível obter epóxidos a partir de ésteres dos óleos de mamona, soja e girassol e que a taxa de conversão está associada ao tempo, a quantidade de enzima e ao óleo vegetal empregado. O estudo também indica que é possível o acompanhamento reacional através da espectroscopia no infravermelho médio associado à análise de componentes principais (PCA e a identificação dos epóxidos obtidos a partir de óleos de girassol, mamona e soja através da espectroscopia no infravermelho médio associada à análise de componentes principais (PCA e análise por agrupamento hierárquico (HCA.

  8. MD-11 PCA - First Landing at Edwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This McDonnell Douglas MD-11 approaches the first landing ever of a transport aircraft under engine power only on Aug. 29, 1995, at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The milestone flight, flown by NASA research pilot and former astronaut Gordon Fullerton, was part of a NASA project to develop a computer-assisted engine control system that enables a pilot to land a plane safely when it normal control surfaces are disabled. The Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system uses standard autopilot controls already present in the cockpit, together with the new programming in the aircraft's flight control computers. The PCA concept is simple--for pitch control, the program increases thrust to climb and reduces thrust to descend. To turn right, the autopilot increases the left engine thrust while decreasing the right engine thrust. The initial Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft studies by NASA were carried out at Dryden with a modified twin-engine F-15 research aircraft.

  9. MD-11 PCA - Research flight team egress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This McDonnell Douglas MD-11 has parked on the flightline at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, following its completion of the first and second landings ever performed by a transport aircraft under engine power only (on Aug. 29, 1995). The milestone flight, with NASA research pilot and former astronaut Gordon Fullerton at the controls, was part of a NASA project to develop a computer-assisted engine control system that enables a pilot to land a plane safely when its normal control surfaces are disabled. Coming down the steps from the aircraft are Gordon Fullerton (in front), followed by Bill Burcham, Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) project engineer at Dryden; NASA Dryden controls engineer John Burken; John Feather of McDonnell Douglas; and Drew Pappas, McDonnell Douglas' project manager for PCA.

  10. Improvements to the RXTE/PCA Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahoda, K.

    2009-01-01

    The author presents the current status of the RXTE/PCA Calibration, with emphasis on recent updates to the energy scale and the background subtraction. A new treatment of the Xenon K-escape line removes the largest remaining residual in the previously distributed matrices. Observations of Sco X-1 made simultaneously with Swift XRT, expressly for the purpose of cross calibrating the response to bright sources, are presented.

  11. Sequential combination of k-t principle component analysis (PCA) and partial parallel imaging: k-t PCA GROWL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Haikun; Huang, Feng; Zhou, Hongmei; Chen, Huijun

    2017-03-01

    k-t principle component analysis (k-t PCA) is a distinguished method for high spatiotemporal resolution dynamic MRI. To further improve the accuracy of k-t PCA, a combination with partial parallel imaging (PPI), k-t PCA/SENSE, has been tested. However, k-t PCA/SENSE suffers from long reconstruction time and limited improvement. This study aims to improve the combination of k-t PCA and PPI on both reconstruction speed and accuracy. A sequential combination scheme called k-t PCA GROWL (GRAPPA operator for wider readout line) was proposed. The GRAPPA operator was performed before k-t PCA to extend each readout line into a wider band, which improved the condition of the encoding matrix in the following k-t PCA reconstruction. k-t PCA GROWL was tested and compared with k-t PCA and k-t PCA/SENSE on cardiac imaging. k-t PCA GROWL consistently resulted in better image quality compared with k-t PCA/SENSE at high acceleration factors for both retrospectively and prospectively undersampled cardiac imaging, with a much lower computation cost. The improvement in image quality became greater with the increase of acceleration factor. By sequentially combining the GRAPPA operator and k-t PCA, the proposed k-t PCA GROWL method outperformed k-t PCA/SENSE in both reconstruction speed and accuracy, suggesting that k-t PCA GROWL is a better combination scheme than k-t PCA/SENSE. Magn Reson Med 77:1058-1067, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. 24 CFR 401.451 - PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (PCA). 401.451 Section 401.451 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.451 PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA). (a) Review... of the project by means of a PCA. If the PAE finds any immediate threats to health and safety, the...

  13. Grassmann Averages for Scalable Robust PCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Feragen, Aasa; Black, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    As the collection of large datasets becomes increasingly automated, the occurrence of outliers will increase—“big data” implies “big outliers”. While principal component analysis (PCA) is often used to reduce the size of data, and scalable solutions exist, it is well-known that outliers can...... to vectors (subspaces) or elements of vectors; we focus on the latter and use a trimmed average. The resulting Trimmed Grassmann Average (TGA) is particularly appropriate for computer vision because it is robust to pixel outliers. The algorithm has low computational complexity and minimal memory requirements...

  14. Las palmeras en los valles principales de la Amazonia peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available LES PALMIERS DES PRINCIPALES VALLEES DE L’AMAZONIE PERUVIENNE. La distribution géographique des espèces de palmiers de l’Amazonie péruvienne est présentée selon les principales vallées. Pour chaque affluent important est donnée la liste des espèces récoltées, et pour chaque espèce sont réunies les références des échantillons d’herbiers, collecteur(s et numéro de collection, ainsi que les herbiers de dépôt. Se presenta la distribución de las palmeras de la Amazonia en función de los valles principales. Por cada río de mayor importancia, se da la lista de las especies colectadas, las referencias de las muestras botánicas, colector(es y número de colección, y los herbarios de depósito de dichas muestras. PALMS OF THE MAJOR RIVER VALLEYS OF PERUVIAN AMAZONIA. Palm species distribution in Peruvian Amazonia is presented according to the major river valleys. The species collected are listed for each tributary valley. The collection references, collector(s and number of the specimen and the herbaria of deposit are given for each species.

  15. Propuesta del Plan de Desarrollo y Ordenamiento Territorial para el Cantón Alausí, Componente Económico Productivo

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera Riera, Ángela Paulina

    2016-01-01

    En el cantón Alausí, provincia Chimborazo se elaboró una propuesta de desarrollo y ordenamiento territorial para el componente económico productivo. Se inició la investigación realizando un análisis de la situación actual del sector productivo; posteriormente, con la ayuda de talleres participativos se identificaron los principales problemas y potencialidades, temas que ayudaron finalmente a la definición de estrategias de desarrollo planteadas en término de programas y proye...

  16. PCA: Principal Component Analysis for spectra modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Peter D.; Oliver, Seb; Farrah, Duncan; Wang, Lingyu; Efstathiou, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    The mid-infrared spectra of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) contain a variety of spectral features that can be used as diagnostics to characterize the spectra. However, such diagnostics are biased by our prior prejudices on the origin of the features. Moreover, by using only part of the spectrum they do not utilize the full information content of the spectra. Blind statistical techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) consider the whole spectrum, find correlated features and separate them out into distinct components. This code, written in IDL, classifies principal components of IRS spectra to define a new classification scheme using 5D Gaussian mixtures modelling. The five PCs and average spectra for the four classifications to classify objects are made available with the code.

  17. Nonlinear peculiar-velocity analysis and PCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekel, A. [and others

    2001-02-20

    We allow for nonlinear effects in the likelihood analysis of peculiar velocities, and obtain {approximately}35%-lower values for the cosmological density parameter and for the amplitude of mass-density fluctuations. The power spectrum in the linear regime is assumed to be of the flat {Lambda}CDM model (h = 0:65, n = 1) with only {Omega}{sub m} free. Since the likelihood is driven by the nonlinear regime, we break the power spectrum at k{sub b} {approximately} 0.2 (h{sup {minus}1} Mpc){sup {minus}1} and fit a two-parameter power-law at k > k{sub b} . This allows for an unbiased fit in the linear regime. Tests using improved mock catalogs demonstrate a reduced bias and a better fit. We find for the Mark III and SFI data {Omega}{sub m} = 0.35 {+-} 0.09 with {sigma}{sub 8}{Omega}P{sub m}{sup 0.6} = 0.55 {+-} 0.10 (90% errors). When allowing deviations from {Lambda}CDM, we find an indication for a wiggle in the power spectrum in the form of an excess near k {approximately} 0.05 and a deficiency at k {approximately} 0.1 (h{sup {minus}1} Mpc){sup {minus}1}--a cold flow which may be related to a feature indicated from redshift surveys and the second peak in the CMB anisotropy. A {chi}{sup 2} test applied to principal modes demonstrates that the nonlinear procedure improves the goodness of fit. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) helps identifying spatial features of the data and fine-tuning the theoretical and error models. We address the potential for optimal data compression using PCA.

  18. Identificación de aceros por espectroscopia de rompimiento inducido por láser (LIBS) y análisis de componentes principales

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras, U.; Meneses-Nava, M.A.; Torres-Armenta, D.; Robles-Camacho, J.; Barbosa-García, O.

    2012-01-01

    En la actualidad existe una producción de mas de 100 000 aceros diferentes de acuerdo a su composición química y propiedades mecánicas; sin embargo, una vez en el mercado, no existe técnica alguna capaz de identificar y clasificar cualquier acero según su clase o grado. En este trabajo se describe un método capaz de identificar y clasificar aceros a través de la determinación de su composición química. El método propuesto se basa en un análisis de espectroscopia atómica procedente de la técni...

  19. ANÁLISIS DE COMPONENTES PRINCIPALES APLICADO A VARIABLES RESPECTO A LA MUJER GESTANTE EN LA REGIÓN DE LAS AMÉRICAS

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas P,Hugo; Albornoz V,Jaime; Reyes P,Alvaro; Erazo B,Marcia; Ide V,Rodolfo

    2006-01-01

    Objetivo: Obtener índices comparativos entre países, respecto a la real situación de la mujer gestante _recursos utilizados y resultados obtenidos_ en la Región de las Américas. Material y Métodos: Se recopila información oficial de los países de la Región de las Américas, publicada por OMS y OPS, correspondiente a variables relacionadas con la mujer embarazada y los recursos potenciales utilizados en su atención, además de los resultados obtenidos en dicha atención. Se estudiaron 9 variables...

  20. Sistema de reconocimiento facial utilizando el análisis de componentes principales com una red neuronal Backpropagation desarrollada en C# y Matlab

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Iturralde, David Roberto; Chávez Sánchez, Juan Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Al desarrollar el sistema basados en las técnicas y métodos anteriormente descritos se considero el lenguaje de programación C Sharp para la creación de la interfaz del sistema por las características que brinda en el manejo de imágenes a través de sus librerías que son apropiadas para este tipo de trabajo y Matlab para la red neuronal backpropagation y cálculos matemáticos complejos por ser un lenguaje nativo en la resolución de problemas matemáticos obteniendo así un sistema robusto y de al...

  1. Designing a reverse osmosis desalination plant, main parameters and compounds; Diseno de una planta desilinizadora de osmosis inversa, parametros y componentes principales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arango Mesa, H. [Universidad del Valle. Cali. Colombia (Colombia); Gomez Gotor, A. [Universidad de las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    This paper comments on some of the design features which should be taken into account in planning a reverse osmosis sea water desalination plant. It also examine the components of some of the plant`s main units, such as the high pressure pumping unit and energy recovering system and the types of membrane modules and their use. Finally, it compares that most common commercially available products. (Author) 6 refs.

  2. Beyond textbook neuroanatomy: The syndrome of malignant PCA infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogela, Steven L; Gozal, Yair M; Rahme, Ralph; Zuccarello, Mario; Ringer, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Given its limited vascular territory, occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) usually does not result in malignant infarction. Challenging this concept, we present 3 cases of unilateral PCA infarction with secondary malignant progression, resulting from extension into what would classically be considered the posterior middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. Interestingly, these were true PCA infarctions, not "MCA plus" strokes, since the underlying occlusive lesion was in the PCA. We hypothesize that congenital and/or acquired variability in the distribution and extent of territory supplied by the PCA may underlie this rare clinical entity. Patients with a PCA infarction should thus be followed closely and offered early surgical decompression in the event of malignant progression.

  3. Nonlinear PCA: characterizing interactions between modes of brain activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Friston, K; Phillips, J; Chawla, D; Büchel, C

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear principal component analysis (PCA) that identifies underlying sources causing the expression of spatial modes or patterns of activity in neuroimaging time-series. The critical aspect of this technique is that, in relation to conventional PCA, the sources can interact to produce (second-order) spatial modes that represent the modulation of one (first-order) spatial mode by another. This nonlinear PCA uses a simple neural network architecture that embodies a spec...

  4. SVD vs PCA: Comparison of Performance in an Imaging Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Oblefias

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of basis spectra from a spectral library is an important prerequisite of any compact imaging spectrometer. In this paper, we compare the basis spectra computed by singular-value decomposition (SVD and principal component analysis (PCA in terms of estimation performance with respect to resolution, presence of noise, intensity variation, and quantization error. Results show that SVD is robust in intensity variation while PCA is not. However, PCA performs better with signals of low signal-to-noise ratio. No significant difference is seen between SVD and PCA in terms of resolution and quantization error.

  5. Preliminary Design Review: PCA Integrated Radar-Tracker Application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lebak, J

    2002-01-01

    The DARPA Polymorphous Computing Architecture (PCA) program is building advanced computer architectures that can reorganize their computation and communication structure to achieve better overall application performance...

  6. Respuesta modular de los componentes craneanos por acción hormonal en el retardo prenatal de crecimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintero, Fabián

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La plasticidad fenotípica es producto de la interacción dinámica entre la información genética y el ambiente, constituyendo el sistema endocrino un intermediario entre ambos. La desnutrición, en el período prenatal y postnatal temprano, puede retrasar el crecimiento. El Catch-up resulta de un período de aceleración del crecimiento que permite a los organismos recuperar su tamaño corporal. Sin embargo, las respuestas son heterogéneas y dependen de condiciones externas y factores intrínsecos vinculados al eje somatotrópico. El presente trabajo analiza el efecto de la hormona de crecimiento (GH sobre las trayectorias de crecimiento de los componentes craneanos neural y facial de animales con retardo prenatal de crecimiento (RPC. Ratas Wistar constituyeron los grupos: Control, RPC y RPC+GH. El RPC se indujo por obstrucción de arterias uterinas. La GH se administró entre 21-60 días de edad. A 1os 1, 21, 42, 63 y 84 días se midieron sobre Rx longitud, ancho y altura del neuro y esplacnocráneo. Se realizó análisis de componentes principales y se calcularon los volúmenes neural y facial ajustados por curvas de regresión. Se concluye que los componentes craneanos facial y neural presentan diferentes estrategias de recuperación en respuesta a la GH, mostrando comportamiento modular.

  7. Denoising by semi-supervised kernel PCA preimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Toke Jansen; Abrahamsen, Trine Julie; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2014-01-01

    Kernel Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has proven a powerful tool for nonlinear feature extraction, and is often applied as a pre-processing step for classification algorithms. In denoising applications Kernel PCA provides the basis for dimensionality reduction, prior to the so-called pre-imag...

  8. Condition Monitoring of Sensors in a NPP Using Optimized PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimized principal component analysis (PCA framework is proposed to implement condition monitoring for sensors in a nuclear power plant (NPP in this paper. Compared with the common PCA method in previous research, the PCA method in this paper is optimized at different modeling procedures, including data preprocessing stage, modeling parameter selection stage, and fault detection and isolation stage. Then, the model’s performance is greatly improved through these optimizations. Finally, sensor measurements from a real NPP are used to train the optimized PCA model in order to guarantee the credibility and reliability of the simulation results. Meanwhile, artificial faults are sequentially imposed to sensor measurements to estimate the fault detection and isolation ability of the proposed PCA model. Simulation results show that the optimized PCA model is capable of detecting and isolating the sensors regardless of whether they exhibit major or small failures. Meanwhile, the quantitative evaluation results also indicate that better performance can be obtained in the optimized PCA method compared with the common PCA method.

  9. Gas-Chromatographic Determination Of Water In Freon PCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Donald M.

    1994-01-01

    Gas-chromatographic apparatus measures small concentrations of water in specimens of Freon PCA. Testing by use of apparatus faster and provides greater protection against accidental contamination of specimens by water in testing environment. Automated for unattended operation. Also used to measure water contents of materials, other than Freon PCA. Innovation extended to development of purgeable sampling accessory for gas chromatographs.

  10. Aspectos legales al utilizar las principales redes sociales en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Adolfo Alvarado Carmona

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los aspectos legales al utilizar las dos principales redes sociales en Colombia como los son facebook y twitter. Cuando un usuario se conecta a cualquiera de las redes sociales debe hacerlo de forma responsable porque de lo contrario puede incurrir en la violación de la normatividad Colombiana en la cual se encuentran los delitos informáticos, la protección de la información y los datos, injuria y calumnia, ciberacoso y derechos de autor. Se determinaron los problemas que conllevan cuando no se utiliza bien la información en las redes sociales en el ámbito jurídico.

  11. Aceites de oliva vírgenes y refinados: Diferencias en componentes menores glicerídicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Camino, M. C.

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines the main differences in glyceridic minor compounds between virgin and refined olive oils. Modifications during the steps of the refining process are studied and compared with differences found in two series of virgin and refined oils and those during storage. The results demonstrate that the absence of polymerized compounds is the most useful parameter for the characterization of virgin oils while the presence of dimeric triglycerides and a high ratio diglycerides/fatty acids are those for refined oils.

    En el presente trabajo se definen las principales diferencias en componentes menores glicerídicos entre aceites de oliva vírgenes y refinados. Para ello, se estudian las modificaciones que tienen lugar durante las distintas etapas del proceso de refinación, se comprueban las diferencias encontradas en dos series de aceites vírgenes y refinados y, finalmente, se analizan las modificaciones originadas durante el almacenamiento. Los resultados demuestran que la ausencia de compuestos de polimerización es de gran valor para la caracterización de los aceites de oliva vírgenes, mientras que, la presencia de dímeros de triglicéridos y la elevada relación diglicéridos/ácidos grasos son las características principales de los aceites refinados.

  12. Memory Efficient PCA Methods for Large Group ICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachakonda, Srinivas; Silva, Rogers F; Liu, Jingyu; Calhoun, Vince D

    2016-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is widely used for data reduction in group independent component analysis (ICA) of fMRI data. Commonly, group-level PCA of temporally concatenated datasets is computed prior to ICA of the group principal components. This work focuses on reducing very high dimensional temporally concatenated datasets into its group PCA space. Existing randomized PCA methods can determine the PCA subspace with minimal memory requirements and, thus, are ideal for solving large PCA problems. Since the number of dataloads is not typically optimized, we extend one of these methods to compute PCA of very large datasets with a minimal number of dataloads. This method is coined multi power iteration (MPOWIT). The key idea behind MPOWIT is to estimate a subspace larger than the desired one, while checking for convergence of only the smaller subset of interest. The number of iterations is reduced considerably (as well as the number of dataloads), accelerating convergence without loss of accuracy. More importantly, in the proposed implementation of MPOWIT, the memory required for successful recovery of the group principal components becomes independent of the number of subjects analyzed. Highly efficient subsampled eigenvalue decomposition techniques are also introduced, furnishing excellent PCA subspace approximations that can be used for intelligent initialization of randomized methods such as MPOWIT. Together, these developments enable efficient estimation of accurate principal components, as we illustrate by solving a 1600-subject group-level PCA of fMRI with standard acquisition parameters, on a regular desktop computer with only 4 GB RAM, in just a few hours. MPOWIT is also highly scalable and could realistically solve group-level PCA of fMRI on thousands of subjects, or more, using standard hardware, limited only by time, not memory. Also, the MPOWIT algorithm is highly parallelizable, which would enable fast, distributed implementations ideal for big

  13. Memory efficient PCA methods for large group ICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas eRachakonda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Principal component analysis (PCA is widely used for data reduction in group independent component analysis (ICA of fMRI data. Commonly, group-level PCA of temporally concatenated datasets is computed prior to ICA of the group principal components. This work focuses on reducing very high dimensional temporally concatenated datasets into its group PCA space. Existing randomized PCA methods can determine the PCA subspace with minimal memory requirements and, thus, are ideal for solving large PCA problems. Since the number of dataloads is not typically optimized, we extend one of these methods to compute PCA of very large datasets with a minimal number of dataloads. This method is coined multi power iteration (MPOWIT. The key idea behind MPOWIT is to estimate a subspace larger than the desired one, while checking for convergence of only the smaller subset of interest. The number of iterations is reduced considerably (as well as the number of dataloads, accelerating convergence without loss of accuracy. More importantly, in the proposed implementation of MPOWIT, the memory required for successful recovery of the group principal components becomes independent of the number of subjects analyzed. Highly efficient subsampled eigenvalue decomposition techniques are also introduced, furnishing excellent PCA subspace approximations that can be used for intelligent initialization of randomized methods such as MPOWIT. Together, these developments enable efficient estimation of accurate principal components, as we illustrate by solving a 1600-subject group-level PCA of fMRI with standard acquisition parameters, on a regular desktop computer with only 4GB RAM, in just a few hours. MPOWIT is also highly scalable and could realistically solve group-level PCA of fMRI on thousands of subjects, or more, using standard hardware, limited only by time, not memory. Also, the MPOWIT algorithm is highly parallelizable, which would enable fast, distributed implementations

  14. Surgimiento, evolución y principales resultados del Centro Nacional Coordinador de Ensayos Clínicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Amparo Pascual López

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available En la década de los 90, el desarrollo acelerado de la Industria Médico Farmacéutica cubana impuso la necesidad de crear estructuras que garantizaran la evaluación clínica de productos para su introducción a la práctica médica y posterior comercialización. Uno de los centros fundados para contribuir con estos fines fue el Centro Nacional Coordinador de Ensayos Clínicos. El presente trabajo recoge en síntesis las razones que motivaron la creación del centro y muestra, brevemente, su desarrollo organizacional por más de 17 años. Describe, además, los principales componentes del sistema de diseño y conducción de ensayos clínicos; así como los aportes más significativos de cada uno de ellos para el cumplimiento de sus objetivos como centro.

  15. Comparative study of PCA in classification of multichannel EMG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geethanjali, P

    2015-06-01

    Electromyographic (EMG) signals are abundantly used in the field of rehabilitation engineering in controlling the prosthetic device and significantly essential to find fast and accurate EMG pattern recognition system, to avoid intrusive delay. The main objective of this paper is to study the influence of Principal component analysis (PCA), a transformation technique, in pattern recognition of six hand movements using four channel surface EMG signals from ten healthy subjects. For this reason, time domain (TD) statistical as well as auto regression (AR) coefficients are extracted from the four channel EMG signals. The extracted statistical features as well as AR coefficients are transformed using PCA to 25, 50 and 75 % of corresponding original feature vector space. The classification accuracy of PCA transformed and non-PCA transformed TD statistical features as well as AR coefficients are studied with simple logistic regression (SLR), decision tree (DT) with J48 algorithm, logistic model tree (LMT), k nearest neighbor (kNN) and neural network (NN) classifiers in the identification of six different movements. The Kruskal-Wallis (KW) statistical test shows that there is a significant reduction (P PCA transformed features compared to non-PCA transformed features. SLR with non-PCA transformed time domain (TD) statistical features performs better in accuracy and computational power compared to other features considered in this study. In addition, the motion control of three drives for six movements of the hand is implemented with SLR using TD statistical features in off-line with TMSLF2407 digital signal controller (DSC).

  16. PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS (PCA DAN APLIKASINYA DENGAN SPSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermita Bus Umar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available PCA (Principal Component Analysis are statistical techniques applied to a single set of variables when the researcher is interested in discovering which variables in the setform coherent subset that are relativity independent of one another.Variables that are correlated with one another but largely independent of other subset of variables are combined into factors. The Coals of PCA to which each variables is explained by each dimension. Step in PCA include selecting and mean measuring a set of variables, preparing the correlation matrix, extracting a set offactors from the correlation matrixs. Rotating the factor to increase interpretabilitv and interpreting the result.

  17. Stability and chaos of LMSER PCA learning algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Jiancheng; Y, Zhang

    2007-01-01

    LMSER PCA algorithm is a principal components analysis algorithm. It is used to extract principal components on-line from input data. The algorithm has both stability and chaotic dynamic behavior under some conditions. This paper studies the local stability of the LMSER PCA algorithm via a corresponding deterministic discrete time system. Conditions for local stability are derived. The paper also explores the chaotic behavior of this algorithm. It shows that the LMSER PCA algorithm can produce chaos. Waveform plots, Lyapunov exponents and bifurcation diagrams are presented to illustrate the existence of chaotic behavior of this algorithm

  18. Componentes volátiles de mamey (mammea americana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Lucía Morales

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Los componentes volátiles del aroma de mamey (Mammea americana L, fueron extraídos utilizando el método de destilación por arrastre con vapor-extracción simultánea con solvente orgánico. El extracto fue prefraccionado por cromatografía en columna en silica gel con gradiente discontinuo Pentano: Éter etílico para obtener tres fracciones que fueron analizadas por CGAR y CGAR-EM. Se detectaron 34 compuestos, de los cuales fueron identificados 22, siendo los componentes mayoritarios: Furfural (7281 ^ig/kg y E-Famesol (2145 ng/kg

  19. Componente Cultura del Agua del PMGRH: plan de trabajo

    OpenAIRE

    Autoridad Nacional del Agua; Proyecto de Modernización de la Gestión de Recursos Hídricos

    2012-01-01

    Describe el plan de trabajo del Componente Cultura del Agua del Proyecto de Modernización de la Gestión de Recursos Hídricos (PMGRH) en relacion a dos aspectos estructurales del proyecto: 1. Mejora de la capacidad de la Gestión Integrada de Recursos Hídricos (GIRH) a nivel nacional y 2. Fortalecimiento de las capacidades de GIRH en las cuencas.

  20. APLICACIÓN DEL SOFTWARE PCA 1.0: PARA REDUCIR EL DETERIORO DE LA CALIDAD DEL AIRE EN CALI-COLOMBIA (FASE I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Granada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El PCA 1.0 se diseñó como herramienta de soporte para un Procedimiento Organizacional que colecta y trata la información obtenida en el monitoreo y control de contaminantes atmosféricos en Cali - Colombia1. El PCA 1.0 es una aplicación hecha en java con la Interfaz de Desarrollo (IDE NetBeans2. El software PCA 1.0 está diseñado para recepcionar, depurar, validar y generar reportes de manera sistemática de los datos obtenidos en la Red de Monitoreo de Calidad del Aire, Meteorología y de la Inspección Técnico Mecánica y de Gases. El PCA 1.0 estima los Factores de Emisión y la Carga Ambiental diaria generada por las fuentes móviles en kilogramos, así como el valor promedio horario de la concentración de contaminantes criterio. La metodología general del Procedimiento Organizacional se fundamentó en lo establecido en la ISO 14040 (Análisis del Ciclo de Vida. El resultado más importante de la aplicación del PCA 1.0, se evidencia en facilitar a la autoridad ambiental, sanitaria, tránsito y transporte, la toma de decisiones con base en la selección de escenarios de contaminación atmosférica y actuaciones encaminadas hacia la publicación de normas que buscan reducir el deterioro de la calidad del aire en Cali ¿ Colombia. Finalmente, el PCA 1.0 se perfila como una herramienta ágil y adaptable en los sistemas de gestión ambiental municipal en su componente aire.

  1. Elevated YKL40 is associated with advanced prostate cancer (PCa) and positively regulates invasion and migration of PCa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeet, Varinder; Tevz, Gregor; Lehman, Melanie; Hollier, Brett; Nelson, Colleen

    2014-10-01

    Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1 or YKL40) is a secreted glycoprotein highly expressed in tumours from patients with advanced stage cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). The exact function of YKL40 is poorly understood, but it has been shown to play an important role in promoting tumour angiogenesis and metastasis. The therapeutic value and biological function of YKL40 are unknown in PCa. The objective of this study was to examine the expression and function of YKL40 in PCa. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that YKL40 was highly expressed in metastatic PCa cells when compared with less invasive and normal prostate epithelial cell lines. In addition, the expression was primarily limited to androgen receptor-positive cell lines. Evaluation of YKL40 tissue expression in PCa patients showed a progressive increase in patients with aggressive disease when compared with those with less aggressive cancers and normal controls. Treatment of LNCaP and C4-2B cells with androgens increased YKL40 expression, whereas treatment with an anti-androgen agent decreased the gene expression of YKL40 in androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells. Furthermore, knockdown of YKL40 significantly decreased invasion and migration of PCa cells, whereas overexpression rendered them more invasive and migratory, which was commensurate with an enhancement in the anchorage-independent growth of cells. To our knowledge, this study characterises the role of YKL40 for the first time in PCa. Together, these results suggest that YKL40 plays an important role in PCa progression and thus inhibition of YKL40 may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of PCa. © 2014 The authors.

  2. Quantitation of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) by using radiolabelled antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, J.; Seifert, J.; Brendel, W.

    1978-01-01

    The major problem of detecting reaginic antibody by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) is the quantitation of the dye reaction. Radiolabelled antigen was used in an attempt to quantitate the PCA reaction (Radio-PCA). Antisera containing reaginic antibody against human serum albumin (HSA) were produced in rabbits. These antisera were injected into normal rabbit skin in different dilutions. Twentyfour hours later HSA was injected intravenously either with Evans Blue or as 125-I-HSA. Radioactivity found in antibody-containing skin was significantly higher than in control specimens containing saline or normal rabbit serum, as low as antiserum dilutions of 1:1,000. Compared with Evans Blue technique Radio-PCA was able to distinguish quantitatively between different antiserum dilutions at a higher level of statistical significance. (author)

  3. Geochemical Constraints for Mercury's PCA-Derived Geochemical Terranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockstill-Cahill, K. R.; Peplowski, P. N.

    2018-05-01

    PCA-derived geochemical terranes provide a robust, analytical means of defining these terranes using strictly geochemical inputs. Using the end members derived in this way, we are able to assess the geochemical implications for Mercury.

  4. EEG frequency PCA in EEG-ERP dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Robert J; De Blasio, Frances M

    2018-05-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) has long been used to decompose the ERP into components, and these mathematical entities are increasingly accepted as meaningful and useful representatives of the electrophysiological components constituting the ERP. A similar expansion appears to be beginning in regard to decomposition of the EEG amplitude spectrum into frequency components via frequency PCA. However, to date, there has been no exploration of the brain's dynamic EEG-ERP linkages using PCA decomposition to assess components in each measure. Here, we recorded intrinsic EEG in both eyes-closed and eyes-open resting conditions, followed by an equiprobable go/no-go task. Frequency PCA of the EEG, including the nontask resting and within-task prestimulus periods, found seven frequency components within the delta to beta range. These differentially predicted PCA-derived go and no-go N1 and P3 ERP components. This demonstration suggests that it may be beneficial in future brain dynamics studies to implement PCA for the derivation of data-driven components from both the ERP and EEG. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  5. On the Link Between L1-PCA and ICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Clemente, Ruben; Zarzoso, Vicente

    2017-03-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) based on L1-norm maximization is an emerging technique that has drawn growing interest in the signal processing and machine learning research communities, especially due to its robustness to outliers. The present work proves that L1-norm PCA can perform independent component analysis (ICA) under the whitening assumption. However, when the source probability distributions fulfil certain conditions, the L1-norm criterion needs to be minimized rather than maximized, which can be accomplished by simple modifications on existing optimal algorithms for L1-PCA. If the sources have symmetric distributions, we show in addition that L1-PCA is linked to kurtosis optimization. A number of numerical experiments illustrate the theoretical results and analyze the comparative performance of different algorithms for ICA via L1-PCA. Although our analysis is asymptotic in the sample size, this equivalence opens interesting new perspectives for performing ICA using optimal algorithms for L1-PCA with guaranteed global convergence while inheriting the increased robustness to outliers of the L1-norm criterion.

  6. Componentes prenatal y postnatal de la diferenciación craneofacial entre dos poblaciones humanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardi, Marina Laura

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Parte importante de la diferenciación craneofacial interpoblacional ya está presente en etapas tempranas de la ontogenia postnatal. Sin embargo, se desconoce qué parte de la diferenciación se produce en la etapa prenatal. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar la diferenciación craneofacial entre dos poblaciones humanas en dos etapas ontogénicas: menores de 1 año de edad y adultos, a fin de determinar que parte de la diferenciación se produce en la etapa prenatal y en la postnatal. Se estudiaron cráneos adultos y menores a 1 año de edad, de origen europeo (EUR y de poblaciones nativas sudafricanas (SAF. Se registraron 32 landmarks. Las coordenadas tridimensionales se analizaron mediante Análisis Generalizado de Procrustes (AGP y con las coordenadas obtenidas, se realizó Análisis de Componentes Principales (ACP. El análisis discriminante hecho con los escores AGP/ACP indicó que hay diferenciación entre EUR y SAF en adultos (Wilks=0.12** y en sub-adultos (Wilks= 0.07**. Según las grillas de deformación, los adultos SAF presentan cráneos mas largos en sentido anteroposterior y prognatismo facial y landmarks laterales del neurocráneo ubicados mas superiormente respecto de EUR; en los sub-adultos se observa diferenciación similar en el neurocráneo, pero poca diferenciación en la cara. Esto indica que la diferenciación en la forma neurocraneana se produce en la ontogenia prenatal y se acentúa posteriormente. La diferenciación facial, en cambio, se produce principalmente durante la ontogenia postnatal.

  7. Análisis de los componentes del circuito lácteo venezolano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariby Boscán

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El circuito lácteo venezolano está constituido por cuatro eslabones principales: producción primaria, procesamiento, comercialización y consumo, que estudiados conjuntamente, permiten comprender la dimensión real de los problemas que enfrenta. Por tanto, el presente artículo pretende analizar los componentes del circuito lácteo, para lo cual se realizó un estudio descriptivo, utilizando fuentes secundarias, adicionalmente, se diseñó un instrumento semiestructurado para realizar entrevistas a los gerentes de las empresas más importantes del estado Zulia, logrando caracterizar el circuito lácteo en esa región, dado que ésta presenta la mayor participación dentro de la producción de leche cruda nacional (39,32% para 1998. La producción de leche siempre ha estado por debajo del consumo nacional, por lo cual Venezuela es un demandante neto en el mercado internacional. Los resultados de esta investigación arrojaron que la industria que más absorbe leche cruda es la del queso y otros usos (60,05% para 2001, la comercialización de ésta leche en su mayoría se realiza directamente, productor - plantas procesadoras, mientras que los productos derivados presentan canales de mercadeo alternativos para atender al consumidor. Adicionalmente, se pudo constatar que el consumo por persona en Venezuela es bajo (79 lts/hab/año para 2002 con respecto al normativo internacional de 130 lts/hab/año.

  8. A PCA3 gene-based transcriptional amplification system targeting primary prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Neveu, Bertrand; Jain, Pallavi; T?tu, Bernard; Wu, Lily; Fradet, Yves; Pouliot, Fr?d?ric

    2015-01-01

    Targeting specifically primary prostate cancer (PCa) cells for immune therapy, gene therapy or molecular imaging is of high importance. The PCA3 long non-coding RNA is a unique PCa biomarker and oncogene that has been widely studied. This gene has been mainly exploited as an accurate diagnostic urine biomarker for PCa detection. In this study, the PCA3 promoter was introduced into a new transcriptional amplification system named the 3-Step Transcriptional Amplification System (PCA3-3STA) and ...

  9. Ancrage dynamique: principales applications Dynamic Positioning: Main Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fay H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'ancrage dynamique est la technique qui a permis à la recherche pétrolière d'étendre ses possibilités bien au-delà des plateaux continentaux, sans limitation de profondeur, pour des opérations difficiles, ou encore dans un environnement océanométéorologique sévère, comme celui de la mer du Nord et des mers froides avec la présence d'icebergs. Cet article correspond à des extraits de l'ouvrage Ancrage dynamique. Technique et applications , à paraître aux Editions Technip. Après un bref rappel historique et un exposé succinct des caractéristiques des systèmes d'ancrage dynamique, les principales réalisations de navires et de plates-formes semi-submersibles équipées d'un ancrage dynamique sont présentées. La précision du maintien en position, ainsi que les limites opérationnelles des supports considérés sont de même exposées. Enfin la conclusion retrace les avantages de ce procédé, dont l'exceptionnel développement s'applique aussi aux domaines scientifiques et militaires, ainsi qu'à d'autres secteurs industriels que celui des hydrocarbures. Dynamic positioning is the technique that has enabled oil exploration to extend its possibilities far beyond continental shelves, without any limitation of water depth, for difficult operations or else in harsh environments such as for the North Sea and arctic zones with the presence of icebergs. This paper consists of extracts from the book Dynamic Positioning. Technique and Applications , to be published by Editions Technip. After a brief historical review and a succinct survey of the characteristics of dynamic positioning systems, the principal realizations of ships and semi-submersible platforms equipped with a dynamic positioning system are described. The accuracy of position holding capability as well as the operational limits of the supports considered are also described. The conclusion reviews the advantages of this technique, whose exceptional development also

  10. PERFIL PARA REPRESENTAR UNA ARQUITECTURA DE COMPONENTES EN UML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Orejas Valdés

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available

    El lenguaje unificado de modelado (Unified Modeling Language, UML es un lenguaje de modelado estándar para problemas generales, sin embargo, es necesario extenderlo para dominios específicos como puede ser el caso de determinadas arquitecturas. Aquí se presenta una extensión mediante un perfil para una arquitectura de componentes y conectores genéricos.

  11. Aislamiento y cuantificación de los componentes de la hoja del olivo: extracto de hexano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albi, T.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The principal components of the hexane extract from olive leaves are analysed, following an analytical procedure based on the extraction with hexane and the later separation of groups of compounds, according to their polarity, by means of column and thin-layer chromatographies. The following components are separated and identified: hydrocarbons, ester waxes, triglycerides, tocopherols, esterols, lineal and terpenic alcohols and terpenic dialcohols. The olive leaves from five different varieties were analyzed: Picual, Arbequina, Hojiblanca, Empeltre and Cornicabra; the concentration of some compounds ranged between: 2.057-3.400 ppm saturated hydrocarbons; 38-152 ppm squalene; 915-1.874 ppm ester waxes; 28-100 ppm β-carotene; 832-1.396 ppm triglycerides; 41-125 ppm α-tocopherol; 614-2.500 ppm β-sitosterol; 95-311 ppm alcohols and 342-837 ppm terpenic dialcohols.Se analizan los principales componentes del extracto de hexano de hojas de olivo, siguiendo un esquema analítico basado en la extracción con hexano y posterior separación de grupos de compuestos, según su polaridad, mediante cromatografía en columna y en capa fina. Se separan e identifican los siguientes componentes: hidrocarburos, ceras ésteres, triglicéridos, tocoferoles, esteroles, alcoholes lineales y terpénicos y dialcoholes terpénicos. Se han estudiado las hojas de olivo de cinco variedades: Picual, Arbequina Hojiblanca, Empeltre y Cornicabra, los rangos del contenido, en ppm, de algunos compuestos resultaron: hidrocarburos saturados, 2.057-3.400; escualeno, 38-152; ceras ésteres, 915-1874; β -caroteno, 28-100; triglicéridos, 832-1.396; α -tocoferol, 41-125; β-sitosterol, 714-2.500 alcoholes totales 95-311 y dialcoholes terpénicos, 342-837.

  12. Joint Group Sparse PCA for Compressed Hyperspectral Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zohaib; Shafait, Faisal; Mian, Ajmal

    2015-12-01

    A sparse principal component analysis (PCA) seeks a sparse linear combination of input features (variables), so that the derived features still explain most of the variations in the data. A group sparse PCA introduces structural constraints on the features in seeking such a linear combination. Collectively, the derived principal components may still require measuring all the input features. We present a joint group sparse PCA (JGSPCA) algorithm, which forces the basic coefficients corresponding to a group of features to be jointly sparse. Joint sparsity ensures that the complete basis involves only a sparse set of input features, whereas the group sparsity ensures that the structural integrity of the features is maximally preserved. We evaluate the JGSPCA algorithm on the problems of compressed hyperspectral imaging and face recognition. Compressed sensing results show that the proposed method consistently outperforms sparse PCA and group sparse PCA in reconstructing the hyperspectral scenes of natural and man-made objects. The efficacy of the proposed compressed sensing method is further demonstrated in band selection for face recognition.

  13. PCA and Postoperative Pain Management After Orthopedic Surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Hashemi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients often suffer from inadequate treatment of postoperative pain. The aim of this study was to investigate effect of PCA on postoperative pain management and patients’ satisfaction from use of PCA. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, between 2010 to 2011, patients presented by orthopedic specialists to acute and chronic pain service of Akhtar Hospital. A satisfaction questionnaire was given on discharge to this patients, were asked to fill out it . Then collected by ward nurse. Results: patients’ satisfaction from pain relief with use of PCA was high ( 94.9% . In this patient pain relief at third day after surgery and require analgesic was low, significantly (p=0.0001. Significant patients’ satisfaction from effect of PCA in pain control and products support was high (p=0.0001.     Conclusion: Patient controlled analgesia is a safe, effective and noninvasive method for post operative pain management and in this study patients’ satisfaction for pain management was high for use of PCA and pain service. 

  14. [A Quantitative Verification for Operability of Three PCA Devices Attached to the Disposable Infusion Pumps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadokoro, Takahiro; Fuchibe, Makoto; Odo, Yuichiro; Kakinohana, Manabu

    2015-11-01

    In this study using 3 different PCA devices (Baxter infuser LVBB +PCM 2 ml: Pump B, Coopdech Balloonjector +PCA 3 ml: Pump C, Rakuraku fuser +PCA 3 ml: Pump S), we investigated how easily PCA devices could be handled. In this study with 42 volunteers (14 elders and 28 nurses), we compared 3 PCA ejection volume and ejection rate among three PCA devices. PCA ejection rate was defined as the ratio of actual ejection volume to the maximum ejection volume (MEV) of each PCA device. Although not only elders but also nurses failed to produce accurate PCA ejection volume in the Pump B, Pump S could provide the MEV even by elders. In the Pump C, approximately 80% of MEV could be achieved by nurses, but 60% of MEV by elders (P PCA ejection volume might be dependent on PCA device.

  15. Análisis de componentes del sistema productivo de aguacate, con incidencia probable de Phytophthora en Cesar, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tofiño

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la disminución del 35% en rendimiento y mortalidad creciente del aguacatero, se realizó un estudio en los municipios Curumaní y La Paz Robles del Departamento del Cesar (Colombia, con el objetivo de identificar los principales factores agroecológicos y de manejo que afectaron la sanidad y productividad, al igual que las zonas con mayores ventajas comparativas para siembra. Para ello, se evaluaron: tejidos radicales, variables del sistema productivo, descriptores físicos, químicos y microbiológicos de suelo, analizados por componentes principales. Se confirmó infección en raíces por Phytophthora spp y Fusarium sp, con incidencia variable entre municipios. La prueba de Fisher (5%, no mostró relación significativa (P>0.05 entre presencia de patógenos y síntomas en árboles. En Curumaní, las variables de mayor contribución, al 32.70% de la varianza explicada por el primer componente principal, fueron: ufc de bacterias, temperatura, porcentaje de arena y pH; mientras que en La Paz Robles (44.30%, fueron: porcentaje de limo, materia orgánica y número de géneros fúngicos. El análisis de conglomerados indicó mayor heterogeneidad en el sistema productivo de fincas de Curumaní, con respecto a La Paz Robles. En ambos municipios, el porcentaje de materia orgánica mostró relación positiva con el número de géneros de hongos identificados y el porcentaje de arcilla afectó el rendimiento de frutos. Se encontró mayor frecuencia de patógenos con respecto a benéficos, y la incidencia de pudrición radical, estuvo influenciada por suelos ácidos, bajos niveles de nutrientes, materia orgánica y prácticas agrícolas inadecuadas. Las veredas promisorias para inversión fueron Paraíso porvenir, Los naranjos, y Las nubes.

  16. Componentes do cuidado de enfermagem no processo de parto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Thaise Frello

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O cuidar é necessário durante todo o processo do parto, e conhecer o que as mulheres têm a dizer sobre suas experiências permite que as práticas sejam repensadas. Assim, este estudo teve como objetivo identificar como se apresentam os Componentes do Cuidado de Enfermagem nas falas das puérperas acerca do seu processo de parto. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa envolvendo três instituições públicas de cada um dos estados da Região Sul do Brasil no período de agosto a dezembro de 2006, tendo como sujeitos 28 puérperas, entrevistadas no alojamento conjunto por meio de entrevista semi-estruturada. Os dados foram analisados conforme passos propostos por Creswell. O referencial teórico utilizado para sustentar a coleta e análise de dados foram os Componentes do Cuidado de Enfermagem propostos por Carraro, baseados em Nightingale e Semmelweis. Os resultados apontam os aspectos relativos ao cuidado da mulher no processo do parto, possibilitando ter clareza sobre suas necessidades de forma a qualificar o cuidado prestado. Desta forma, seus depoimentos contribuem para promover a reflexão e futuras mudanças nos cuidados prestados pela Enfermagem e toda a Equipe de Saúde.

  17. On a PCA-based lung motion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ruijiang; Lewis, John H; Jia Xun; Jiang, Steve B [Department of Radiation Oncology and Center for Advanced Radiotherapy Technologies, University of California San Diego, 3855 Health Sciences Dr, La Jolla, CA 92037-0843 (United States); Zhao Tianyu; Wuenschel, Sara; Lamb, James; Yang Deshan; Low, Daniel A [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Pl, St. Louis, MO 63110-1093 (United States); Liu Weifeng, E-mail: sbjiang@ucsd.edu [Amazon.com Inc., 701 5th Ave. Seattle, WA 98104 (United States)

    2011-09-21

    Respiration-induced organ motion is one of the major uncertainties in lung cancer radiotherapy and is crucial to be able to accurately model the lung motion. Most work so far has focused on the study of the motion of a single point (usually the tumor center of mass), and much less work has been done to model the motion of the entire lung. Inspired by the work of Zhang et al (2007 Med. Phys. 34 4772-81), we believe that the spatiotemporal relationship of the entire lung motion can be accurately modeled based on principle component analysis (PCA) and then a sparse subset of the entire lung, such as an implanted marker, can be used to drive the motion of the entire lung (including the tumor). The goal of this work is twofold. First, we aim to understand the underlying reason why PCA is effective for modeling lung motion and find the optimal number of PCA coefficients for accurate lung motion modeling. We attempt to address the above important problems both in a theoretical framework and in the context of real clinical data. Second, we propose a new method to derive the entire lung motion using a single internal marker based on the PCA model. The main results of this work are as follows. We derived an important property which reveals the implicit regularization imposed by the PCA model. We then studied the model using two mathematical respiratory phantoms and 11 clinical 4DCT scans for eight lung cancer patients. For the mathematical phantoms with cosine and an even power (2n) of cosine motion, we proved that 2 and 2n PCA coefficients and eigenvectors will completely represent the lung motion, respectively. Moreover, for the cosine phantom, we derived the equivalence conditions for the PCA motion model and the physiological 5D lung motion model (Low et al 2005 Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 63 921-9). For the clinical 4DCT data, we demonstrated the modeling power and generalization performance of the PCA model. The average 3D modeling error using PCA was within 1

  18. On a PCA-based lung motion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruijiang; Lewis, John H; Jia, Xun; Zhao, Tianyu; Liu, Weifeng; Wuenschel, Sara; Lamb, James; Yang, Deshan; Low, Daniel A; Jiang, Steve B

    2011-09-21

    Respiration-induced organ motion is one of the major uncertainties in lung cancer radiotherapy and is crucial to be able to accurately model the lung motion. Most work so far has focused on the study of the motion of a single point (usually the tumor center of mass), and much less work has been done to model the motion of the entire lung. Inspired by the work of Zhang et al (2007 Med. Phys. 34 4772-81), we believe that the spatiotemporal relationship of the entire lung motion can be accurately modeled based on principle component analysis (PCA) and then a sparse subset of the entire lung, such as an implanted marker, can be used to drive the motion of the entire lung (including the tumor). The goal of this work is twofold. First, we aim to understand the underlying reason why PCA is effective for modeling lung motion and find the optimal number of PCA coefficients for accurate lung motion modeling. We attempt to address the above important problems both in a theoretical framework and in the context of real clinical data. Second, we propose a new method to derive the entire lung motion using a single internal marker based on the PCA model. The main results of this work are as follows. We derived an important property which reveals the implicit regularization imposed by the PCA model. We then studied the model using two mathematical respiratory phantoms and 11 clinical 4DCT scans for eight lung cancer patients. For the mathematical phantoms with cosine and an even power (2n) of cosine motion, we proved that 2 and 2n PCA coefficients and eigenvectors will completely represent the lung motion, respectively. Moreover, for the cosine phantom, we derived the equivalence conditions for the PCA motion model and the physiological 5D lung motion model (Low et al 2005 Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 63 921-9). For the clinical 4DCT data, we demonstrated the modeling power and generalization performance of the PCA model. The average 3D modeling error using PCA was within 1

  19. Synthesis and antifungal evaluation of PCA amide analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chuan; Yu, Di-Ya; Zhou, Xu-Dong; Zhang, Min; Wu, Qing-Lai; Li, Jun-Kai

    2018-04-18

    To improve the physical and chemical properties of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) and find higher antifungal compounds, a series of PCA amide analogues were designed and synthesized and their structures were confirmed by 1 H NMR, HRMS, and X-ray. Most compounds showed some antifungal activities in vitro. Particularly, compound 3d exhibited inhibition effect against Pyriculariaoryzac Cavgra with EC 50 value of 28.7 μM and compound 3q exhibited effect against Rhizoctonia solani with EC 50 value of 24.5 μM, more potently active than that of the positive control PCA with its EC 50 values of 37.3 μM (Pyriculariaoryzac Cavgra) and 33.2 μM (Rhizoctonia solani), respectively.

  20. On a PCA-based lung motion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ruijiang; Lewis, John H; Jia Xun; Jiang, Steve B; Zhao Tianyu; Wuenschel, Sara; Lamb, James; Yang Deshan; Low, Daniel A; Liu Weifeng

    2011-01-01

    Respiration-induced organ motion is one of the major uncertainties in lung cancer radiotherapy and is crucial to be able to accurately model the lung motion. Most work so far has focused on the study of the motion of a single point (usually the tumor center of mass), and much less work has been done to model the motion of the entire lung. Inspired by the work of Zhang et al (2007 Med. Phys. 34 4772-81), we believe that the spatiotemporal relationship of the entire lung motion can be accurately modeled based on principle component analysis (PCA) and then a sparse subset of the entire lung, such as an implanted marker, can be used to drive the motion of the entire lung (including the tumor). The goal of this work is twofold. First, we aim to understand the underlying reason why PCA is effective for modeling lung motion and find the optimal number of PCA coefficients for accurate lung motion modeling. We attempt to address the above important problems both in a theoretical framework and in the context of real clinical data. Second, we propose a new method to derive the entire lung motion using a single internal marker based on the PCA model. The main results of this work are as follows. We derived an important property which reveals the implicit regularization imposed by the PCA model. We then studied the model using two mathematical respiratory phantoms and 11 clinical 4DCT scans for eight lung cancer patients. For the mathematical phantoms with cosine and an even power (2n) of cosine motion, we proved that 2 and 2n PCA coefficients and eigenvectors will completely represent the lung motion, respectively. Moreover, for the cosine phantom, we derived the equivalence conditions for the PCA motion model and the physiological 5D lung motion model (Low et al 2005 Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 63 921-9). For the clinical 4DCT data, we demonstrated the modeling power and generalization performance of the PCA model. The average 3D modeling error using PCA was within 1

  1. Adaptive PCA based fault diagnosis scheme in imperial smelting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhikun; Chen, Zhiwen; Gui, Weihua; Jiang, Bin

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, an adaptive fault detection scheme based on a recursive principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to deal with the problem of false alarm due to normal process changes in real process. Our further study is also dedicated to develop a fault isolation approach based on Generalized Likelihood Ratio (GLR) test and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) which is one of general techniques of PCA, on which the off-set and scaling fault can be easily isolated with explicit off-set fault direction and scaling fault classification. The identification of off-set and scaling fault is also applied. The complete scheme of PCA-based fault diagnosis procedure is proposed. The proposed scheme is first applied to Imperial Smelting Process, and the results show that the proposed strategies can be able to mitigate false alarms and isolate faults efficiently. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Diseño de un modelo de red domótica libre basada en componentes OpenDomo para aplicación a un pequeño hotel

    OpenAIRE

    López Torres, Valeriano

    2014-01-01

    El objeto de este proyecto es crear un diseño tipo de instalación domótica para un hotel de hasta 100 habitaciones, basada en componentes OpenDomo y fundamentalmente en el controlador ODControl. El modelo de instalación propuesto está orientado principalmente al ahorro energético y, por tanto, al control de los principales elementos que tienen impacto sobre el ahorro, esto es: la iluminación y la climatización del hotel. L'objecte d'aquest projecte és crear un disseny tipus d'instal·lació ...

  3. Recent Improvements to the Calibration Models for RXTE/PCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahoda, K.

    2008-01-01

    We are updating the calibration of the PCA to correct for slow variations, primarily in energy to channel relationship. We have also improved the physical model in the vicinity of the Xe K-edge, which should increase the reliability of continuum fits above 20 keV. The improvements to the matrix are especially important to simultaneous observations, where the PCA is often used to constrain the continuum while other higher resolution spectrometers are used to study the shape of lines and edges associated with Iron.

  4. Principal Component Analysis Based Two-Dimensional (PCA-2D) Correlation Spectroscopy: PCA Denoising for 2D Correlation Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Young Mee

    2003-01-01

    Principal component analysis based two-dimensional (PCA-2D) correlation analysis is applied to FTIR spectra of polystyrene/methyl ethyl ketone/toluene solution mixture during the solvent evaporation. Substantial amount of artificial noise were added to the experimental data to demonstrate the practical noise-suppressing benefit of PCA-2D technique. 2D correlation analysis of the reconstructed data matrix from PCA loading vectors and scores successfully extracted only the most important features of synchronicity and asynchronicity without interference from noise or insignificant minor components. 2D correlation spectra constructed with only one principal component yield strictly synchronous response with no discernible a asynchronous features, while those involving at least two or more principal components generated meaningful asynchronous 2D correlation spectra. Deliberate manipulation of the rank of the reconstructed data matrix, by choosing the appropriate number and type of PCs, yields potentially more refined 2D correlation spectra

  5. Metoclopramide improves the quality of tramadol PCA indistinguishable to morphine PCA: a prospective, randomized, double blind clinical comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Weiwu; Liu, Yu-Cheng; Maboudou, Edgard; Chen, Tom Xianxiu; Chois, John M; Liao, Cheng-Chun; Wu, Rick Sai-Chuen

    2013-09-01

    Multimodal analgesia has been effectively used in postoperative pain control. Tramadol can be considered "multimodal" because it has two main mechanisms of action, an opioid agonist and a reuptake inhibitor of norepinephrine and serotonin. Tramadol is not as commonly used as morphine due to the increased incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). As metoclopramide is an antiemetic and an analgesic, it was hypothesized that when added to reduce PONV, metoclopromide may enhance the multimodal feature of tramadol by the analgesic property of metoclopramide. Therefore, the effectiveness of postoperative patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with morphine was compared against PCA with combination of tramadol and metoclopramide. A prospective, randomized, double blind clinical trial. Academic pain service of a university hospital. Sixty patients undergoing elective total knee arthroplasty with general anesthesia. Sixty patients were randomly divided into Group M and Group T. In a double-blinded fashion, Group M received intraoperative 0.2 mg/kg morphine and postoperative PCA with 1 mg morphine per bolus, whereas Group T received intraoperative tramadol 2.5 mg/kg and postoperative PCA with 20 mg tramadol plus 1 mg metoclopramide per bolus. Lockout interval was 5 minutes in both groups. Pain scale, satisfaction rate, analgesic consumption, PCA demand, and side effects were recorded by a blind investigator. These two groups displayed no statistically significant difference between the items and variables evaluated. This combination provides analgesia equivalent to that of morphine and can be used as an alternative to morphine PCA. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Linking PCA and time derivatives of dynamic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanimirovic, Olja; Hoefsloot, Huub C. J.; de Bokx, Pieter K.; Smilde, Age K.

    2006-01-01

    Low dimensional approximate descriptions of the high dimensional phase space of dynamic processes are very useful. Principal component analysis (PCA) is the most used technique to find the low dimensional subspace of interest. Here, it will be shown that mean centering of the process data across

  7. Copenhagen uPAR prostate cancer (CuPCa) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Solvej; Berg, Kasper D; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) plays a central role during cancer invasion by facilitating pericellular proteolysis. We initiated the prospective 'Copenhagen uPAR Prostate Cancer' study to investigate the significance of uPAR levels in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. METHODS...

  8. The in-reactor deformation of the PCA alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puigh, R.J.

    1986-04-01

    The swelling and in-reactor creep behaviors of the PCA alloy have been determined from the irradiation of pressurized tube specimens in the FFTF reactor. These data have been obtained to a peak neutron fluence corresponding to approximately 80 dpa in the FFTF reactor for irradiation temperatures between 400 and 750 0 C. Diametral measurements performed on the unstressed specimens indicate the possible onset of swelling in the PCA alloy for irradiation temperatures between 400 and 550 0 C and at a neutron fluence corresponding to ∼50 dpa. The creep data suggest a non-linear fluence dependence and linear stress dependence (for hoop stresses less than 100 MPa) which is consistent with the in-reactor creep behavior of many cold worked austenitic stainless steels. These PCA creep data are compared to available 316 SS in-reactor creep data. The in-reactor creep strains for PCA are significantly less than observed in 20% cold worked 316 SS over the temperature ranges and fluences investigated

  9. Neutron spectral characterization of the PCA-PV benchmark facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stallmann, F.W.; Kam, F.B.K.; Fabry, A.

    1980-01-01

    The Pool Critical Assembly (PCA) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is being used to generate the PCA-PV benchmark neutron field. A configuration consisting of steel blocks and water gaps is used to simulate the thermal shield pressure vessel configurations in power reactors. The distances between the steel blocks can be changed so that the penetration of neutrons through water and steel can be determined and compared for many different configurations. Easy access and low flux levels make it possible to conduct extensive measurements using active and passive neutron dosimetry, which are impossible to perform in commercial reactors. The clean core and simple geometry facilitates neutron transport calculations which can be validated in detail by comparison with measurements. A facility which has the same configuration of water and steel as the PCA-PV facility but contains test specimens for materials testing, will be irradiated in the higher fluxes at the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. Using the results from the PCA-PV facility, the correlation between neutron flux-fluences and radiation damage in steel can be established. This facility is being discussed in a separate paper

  10. ECG-derived respiration methods: adapted ICA and PCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiinanen, Suvi; Noponen, Kai; Tulppo, Mikko; Kiviniemi, Antti; Seppänen, Tapio

    2015-05-01

    Respiration is an important signal in early diagnostics, prediction, and treatment of several diseases. Moreover, a growing trend toward ambulatory measurements outside laboratory environments encourages developing indirect measurement methods such as ECG derived respiration (EDR). Recently, decomposition techniques like principal component analysis (PCA), and its nonlinear version, kernel PCA (KPCA), have been used to derive a surrogate respiration signal from single-channel ECG. In this paper, we propose an adapted independent component analysis (AICA) algorithm to obtain EDR signal, and extend the normal linear PCA technique based on the best principal component (PC) selection (APCA, adapted PCA) to improve its performance further. We also demonstrate that the usage of smoothing spline resampling and bandpass-filtering improve the performance of all EDR methods. Compared with other recent EDR methods using correlation coefficient and magnitude squared coherence, the proposed AICA and APCA yield a statistically significant improvement with correlations 0.84, 0.82, 0.76 and coherences 0.90, 0.91, 0.85 between reference respiration and AICA, APCA and KPCA, respectively. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Hold-out method to correct PCA variance inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Moreno, Pablo; Artes-Rodriguez, Antonio; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the problem of variance inflation experienced by the PCA algorithm when working in an ill-posed scenario where the dimensionality of the training set is larger than its sample size. In an earlier article a correction method based on a Leave-One-Out (LOO) procedure...

  12. Effects of PCA and DMAE on the namatode Caenorhabditis briggsae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, B M; Barrett, K A

    1978-04-01

    Concentration of 6.8 mM DMAE did not retard age pigment accumulation in Caenorhabditis briggsae. However, when the nematodes were exposed to 6.8 mM PCA + 6.8 mM DMAE combined, the accumulation of age pigment was significantly retarded. A combination of 3.4 mM DMAE + 3.4 mM PCA had no effect on age pigment. It is concluded from this study that PCA and DMAE act in concert to produce the observed effect on age pigment. In respect to this parameter neither molecule was effective alone. The results indicate that the effect of centrophenoxine on age pigment might be enhanced by retarding the hydrolysis of centrophenoxine. The accumulation of electron dense aggregates, thought to be aggregates of cross-linked molecules, was reduced by 6.8 PCA + 6.8 DMAE. It is suggested that centrophenoxine be tested for its ability to remove random, unwanted cross-linkages in higher animals.

  13. Tracking image features with PCA-SURF descriptors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pancham, A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available IAPR International Conference on Machine Vision Applications, May 18-22, 2015, Tokyo, JAPAN Tracking Image Features with PCA-SURF Descriptors Ardhisha Pancham CSIR, UKZN South Africa apancham@csir.co.za Daniel Withey CSIR South Africa...

  14. Optimization of CNC end milling process parameters using PCA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of CNC end milling process parameters using PCA-based Taguchi method. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... To meet the basic assumption of Taguchi method; in the present work, individual response correlations have been eliminated first by means of Principal Component ...

  15. [An improved low spectral distortion PCA fusion method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shi; Zhang, Ai-Wu; Li, Han-Lun; Hu, Shao-Xing; Meng, Xian-Gang; Sun, Wei-Dong

    2013-10-01

    Aiming at the spectral distortion produced in PCA fusion process, the present paper proposes an improved low spectral distortion PCA fusion method. This method uses NCUT (normalized cut) image segmentation algorithm to make a complex hyperspectral remote sensing image into multiple sub-images for increasing the separability of samples, which can weaken the spectral distortions of traditional PCA fusion; Pixels similarity weighting matrix and masks were produced by using graph theory and clustering theory. These masks are used to cut the hyperspectral image and high-resolution image into some sub-region objects. All corresponding sub-region objects between the hyperspectral image and high-resolution image are fused by using PCA method, and all sub-regional integration results are spliced together to produce a new image. In the experiment, Hyperion hyperspectral data and Rapid Eye data were used. And the experiment result shows that the proposed method has the same ability to enhance spatial resolution and greater ability to improve spectral fidelity performance.

  16. Chemical fingerprinting of petroleum biomakers using time warping and PCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan H.; Tomasi, Giorgio; Hansen, Asger B.

    2005-01-01

    A new method for chemical fingerprinting of petroleum biomakers is described. The method consists of GC-MS analysis, preprocessing of GC-MS chromatograms, and principal component analysis (PCA) of selected regions. The preprocessing consists of baseline removal by derivatization, normalization...

  17. Compost de ave de corral como componente de sustratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Alejandra Barbaro¹

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El sustrato para cultivo es un material que colocado en un contenedor permite el anclaje del sistema radicular, proporcionando agua y nutrientes. Entre los materiales empleados para formular sustratos se encuentran los compost. Entre ellos el compost de cama de ave de corral (CAC, elaborado en base al estiércol de aves mezclado con los materiales que forman su lecho. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar dos compost de CAC como componente de sustrato, mediante el desarrollo de plantas de Coral (Salvia splendens. Uno de los compost contenía cama de stud (CAC+S durante su compostaje. Se formularon sustratos con diferentes proporciones de compost de CAC, compost de corteza de pino y pinocha, luego fueron analizados física y químicamente. A las plantas cultivadas en cada sustrato se midió la longitud y el diámetro del tallo, peso fresco y seco de la parte aérea y radicular. La densidad, porosidad y capacidad de retención de agua de todos los sustratos fueron aceptables. El pH de ambos compost de CAC fue mayor a 6,3, y los valores de las mezclas se encontraron dentro del rango aceptable. Todos los sustratos superaron 1 dS m-1 (1+5 v/v, principalmente los formulados con compost de CAC+S, cuyo material puro contenía altos niveles salinos. Al disminuir el porcentaje de CAC en las mezclas, diminuyó la concentración de cada nutriente. Las plantas cultivadas en el sustrato comercial y en las mezclas con 20% de CAC fueron las que lograron los mayores pesos aéreos y radiculares, diámetro y longitud del tallo. Por lo tanto, el compost de ave de corral podría ser una alternativa viable como componente de sustrato si se lo utiliza hasta un 20%.

  18. Parent-controlled PCA for pain management in pediatric oncology: is it safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghelescu, Doralina L; Faughnan, Lane G; Oakes, Linda L; Windsor, Kelley B; Pei, Deqing; Burgoyne, Laura L

    2012-08-01

    Patient-controlled analgesia offers safe and effective pain control for children who can self-administer medication. Some children may not be candidates for patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) unless a proxy can administer doses. The safety of proxy-administered PCA has been studied, but the safety of parent-administered PCA in children with cancer has not been reported. In this study, we compare the rate of complications in PCA by parent proxy versus PCA by clinician (nurse) proxy and self-administered PCA. Our pediatric institution's quality improvement database was reviewed for adverse events associated with PCA from 2004 through 2010. Each PCA day was categorized according to patient or proxy authorization. Data from 6151 PCA observation days were included; 61.3% of these days were standard PCA, 23.5% were parent-proxy PCA, and 15.2% were clinician-proxy PCA days. The mean duration of PCA use was 12.1 days, and the mean patient age was 12.3 years. The mean patient age was lower in the clinician-proxy (9.4 y) and parent-proxy (5.1 y) groups, respectively. The complication rate was lowest in the parent-proxy group (0.62%). We found that proxy administration of PCA by authorized parents is as safe as clinician administered and standard PCA at our pediatric institution.

  19. Caracterización de unidades de acción facial combinando métodos kernel y análisis de componentes independientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Alberto Álvarez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo descrito en este documento presenta una metodología para la caracterización de unidades de acción facial (AUs, que representan cambios sutiles de las expresiones faciales. La metodología se basa en métodos Kernel, para realizar un mapeo no lineal de los datos y buscar las direcciones de las proyecciones de los datos en el espacio característico mediante análisis de componentes independientes (ICA. La validación se realiza sobre la base de datos Cohn-Kanade. Se hace un preprocesamiento de las imágenes a través de ecualización del histograma, un blanqueamiento de los datos con análisis de componentes principales basado en Kernel (KPCA, de esta forma el mapeo en el espacio característico busca una estructura lineal de los datos de entrada, finalmente se aplica ICA para hacer que la distribución de los datos proyectados sea lo menos Gaussiana posible. El desempeño alcanzado fue del 96.64% ±0.54 de exactitud para el reconocimiento promedio de tres combinaciones de AUs del rostro entero más rostros neutrales, se detectan principalmente cambios que ocurren entre transiciones rápidas de AUs que se manifiestan de forma instantánea. Adicionalmente la metodología planteada permite reducir el tamaño del espacio característico ya que se representan los datos en términos únicamente de sus componentes independientes (ICs de tal manera que se utilizan tan solo las variables que aportan mayor información, lo que permite disminuir la complejidad del clasificador.

  20. Parent-Controlled PCA for Pain Management in Pediatric Oncology: Is it Safe?

    OpenAIRE

    Anghelescu, Doralina L.; Faughnan, Lane G.; Oakes, Linda L.; Windsor, Kelley B.; Pei, Deqing; Burgoyne, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Patient-controlled analgesia offers safe and effective pain control for children who can self-administer medication. Some children may not be candidates for PCA unless a proxy can administer doses. The safety of proxy-administered PCA has been studied, but the safety of parent-administered PCA in children with cancer has not been reported. In this study we compare the rate of complications in PCA by parent proxy versus PCA by clinician (nurse) proxy and self-administered PCA. Our pediatric in...

  1. F-15 PCA (Propulsion Controlled Aircraft) Simulation Cockpit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The F-15 PCA (Propulsion Controlled Aircraft) simulation was used from 1990 to 1993. It was used for the development of propulsion algorithms and piloting techniques (using throttles only) to be used for emergency flight control in the advent of a major flight control system failure on a multi-engine aircraft. Following this program with the Dryden F-15, similiar capabilities were developed for other aircraft, such as the B-720, Lear 24, B-727, C-402, and B-747.

  2. Technology Marketing using PCA , SOM, and STP Strategy Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Sunghae Jun

    2011-01-01

    Technology marketing is a total processing about identifying and meeting the technological needs of human society. Most technology results exist in intellectual properties like patents. In our research, we consider patent document as a technology. So patent data are analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Self Organizing Map (SOM) for STP(Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning) strategy modeling. STP is a popular approach for developing marketing strategies. We use STP strategy m...

  3. Imaging network level language recovery after left PCA stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Rajani; Long, Charltien; Purcell, Jeremy J; Faria, Andreia V; Lindquist, Martin; Jarso, Samson; Race, David; Davis, Cameron; Posner, Joseph; Wright, Amy; Hillis, Argye E

    2016-05-11

    The neural mechanisms that support aphasia recovery are not yet fully understood. Our goal was to evaluate longitudinal changes in naming recovery in participants with posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke using a case-by-case analysis. Using task based and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and detailed language testing, we longitudinally studied the recovery of the naming network in four participants with PCA stroke with naming deficits at the acute (0 week), sub acute (3-5 weeks), and chronic time point (5-7 months) post stroke. Behavioral and imaging analyses (task related and resting state functional connectivity) were carried out to elucidate longitudinal changes in naming recovery. Behavioral and imaging analysis revealed that an improvement in naming accuracy from the acute to the chronic stage was reflected by increased connectivity within and between left and right hemisphere "language" regions. One participant who had persistent moderate naming deficit showed weak and decreasing connectivity longitudinally within and between left and right hemisphere language regions. These findings emphasize a network view of aphasia recovery, and show that the degree of inter- and intra- hemispheric balance between the language-specific regions is necessary for optimal recovery of naming, at least in participants with PCA stroke.

  4. PCA3 Silencing Sensitizes Prostate Cancer Cells to Enzalutamide-mediated Androgen Receptor Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgür, Emre; Celik, Ayca Iribas; Darendeliler, Emin; Gezer, Ugur

    2017-07-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is an androgen-dependent disease. Novel anti-androgens (i.e. enzalutamide) have recently been developed for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Evidence is accumulating that prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) is involved in androgen receptor (AR) signaling. Here, in combination with enzalutamide-mediated AR blockade, we investigated the effect of PCA3 targeting on the viability of PCa cells. In hormone-sensitive LNCaP cells, AR-overexpressing LNCaP-AR + cells and VCaP cells (representing CRPC), PCA3 was silenced using siRNA oligonucleotides. Gene expression and cell viability was assessed in PCA3-silenced and/or AR-blocked cells. PCA3 targeting reduced the expression of AR-related genes (i.e. prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate-specific transcript 1 (non-protein coding) (PCGEM1)) and potentiated the effect of enzalutamide. Proliferation of PCa cells was suppressed upon PCA3 silencing with a greater effect in LNCaP-AR + cells. Furthermore, PCA3 silencing sensitized PCa cells to enzalutamide-induced loss of cell growth. PCA3, as a therapeutic target in PCa, might be used to potentiate AR antagonists. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  5. Estudio de los componentes antioxidantes y actividad antioxidante en tomates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz M. Zapata

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la concentración de los componentes antioxidantes presentes en el tomate y la actividad antioxidante total durante su crecimiento, almacenamiento, maduración y comercialización. Los antioxidantes analizados fueron: licopeno, β-caroteno, ácido L-ascórbico y fenoles totales. La actividad antioxidante se midió utilizando los métodos: "Ferric reducing/antioxidant power" (FRAP y decoloración del β-caroteno. Los antioxidantes ácido L-ascórbico, licopeno y β-caroteno fueron 2,6 veces mayor en la comercialización respecto de los valores iniciales, mientras que la actividad antioxidante en la última etapa fue 2,1 y 3,5 veces más alta que en el crecimiento para los métodos FRAP y decoloración de b-caroteno, respectivamente. En consecuencia, el consumidor dispone de un fruto rico en antioxidantes, lo que le atribuye la capacidad de captación de los radicales libres presentes en nuestro cuerpo que podrían disminuir los riesgos que contraer enfermedades crónicas.

  6. Componentes principais como preditores no mapeamento digital de classes de solos Principal components as predictor variables in digital mapping of soil classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre ten Caten

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Tecnologias disponíveis para a observação da Terra oferecem uma grande gama de informações sobre componentes ambientais que, por estarem relacionadas com a formação dos solos, podem ser usadas como variáveis preditoras no Mapeamento Digital de Solos (MDS. No entanto, modelos com um grande número de preditores, bem como a existência de multicolinearidade entre os dados, podem ser ineficazes no mapeamento de classes e propriedades do solo. O objetivo deste estudo foi empregar a Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP visando a selecionar e diminuir o número de preditores na regressão logística múltipla multinomial (RLMM utilizada no mapeamento de classes de solos. Nove covariáveis ambientais, ligadas ao fator de formação relevo, foram derivadas de um Modelo Digital de Elevação e denominadas variáveis originais, estas foram submetidas à ACP e transformadas em Componentes Principais (CP. As RLMM foram desenvolvidas utilizando-se atributos de terreno e as CP como variáveis explicativas. O mapa de solos gerado a partir de três CP (65,6% da variância original obteve um índice kappa de 37,3%, inferior aos 48,5% alcançado pelo mapa de solos gerado a partir de todas as nove variáveis originais.Available technologies for Earth observation offer a wide range of predictors relevant to Digital Soil Mapping (DSM. However, models with a large number of predictors, as well as, the existence of multicollinearity among the data, may be ineffective in the mapping of classes and soil properties. The aim of this study was to use the Principal Component Analysis (PCA to reduce the number of predictors in the multinomial logistic regression (MLR used in soil mapping. Nine environmental covariates, related to the relief factor of soil formation, were derived from a digital elevation model and named the original variables, which were submitted to PCA and transformed into principal components (PC. The MLR were developed using the terrain

  7. Prostate cancer (PCa) risk variants and risk of fatal PCa in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Irene M; Lindström, Sara; Kibel, Adam S; Berndt, Sonja I; Campa, Daniele; Gerke, Travis; Penney, Kathryn L; Albanes, Demetrius; Berg, Christine; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Chanock, Stephen; Crawford, E David; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaziano, J Michael; Giles, Graham G; Henderson, Brian; Hoover, Robert; Johansson, Mattias; Le Marchand, Loic; Ma, Jing; Navarro, Carmen; Overvad, Kim; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Severi, Gianluca; Siddiq, Afshan; Stampfer, Meir; Stevens, Victoria L; Travis, Ruth C; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vineis, Paolo; Mucci, Lorelei A; Yeager, Meredith; Giovannucci, Edward; Kraft, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Screening and diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) is hampered by an inability to predict who has the potential to develop fatal disease and who has indolent cancer. Studies have identified multiple genetic risk loci for PCa incidence, but it is unknown whether they could be used as biomarkers for PCa-specific mortality (PCSM). To examine the association of 47 established PCa risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with PCSM. We included 10 487 men who had PCa and 11 024 controls, with a median follow-up of 8.3 yr, during which 1053 PCa deaths occurred. The main outcome was PCSM. The risk allele was defined as the allele associated with an increased risk for PCa in the literature. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate the hazard ratios of each SNP with time to progression to PCSM after diagnosis. We also used logistic regression to calculate odds ratios for each risk SNP, comparing fatal PCa cases to controls. Among the cases, we found that 8 of the 47 SNPs were significantly associated (pPCa, but most did not differentiate between fatal and nonfatal PCa. Rs11672691 and rs10993994 were associated with both fatal and nonfatal PCa, while rs6465657, rs7127900, rs2735839, and rs13385191 were associated with nonfatal PCa only. Eight established risk loci were associated with progression to PCSM after diagnosis. Twenty-two SNPs were associated with fatal PCa incidence, but most did not differentiate between fatal and nonfatal PCa. The relatively small magnitudes of the associations do not translate well into risk prediction, but these findings merit further follow-up, because they may yield important clues about the complex biology of fatal PCa. In this report, we assessed whether established PCa risk variants could predict PCSM. We found eight risk variants associated with PCSM: One predicted an increased risk of PCSM, while seven were associated with decreased risk. Larger studies that focus on fatal PCa are needed to identify more markers that

  8. New genomic structure for prostate cancer specific gene PCA3 within BMCC1: implications for prostate cancer detection and progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond A Clarke

    Full Text Available The prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3/DD3 gene is a highly specific biomarker upregulated in prostate cancer (PCa. In order to understand the importance of PCA3 in PCa we investigated the organization and evolution of the PCA3 gene locus.We have employed cDNA synthesis, RTPCR and DNA sequencing to identify 4 new transcription start sites, 4 polyadenylation sites and 2 new differentially spliced exons in an extended form of PCA3. Primers designed from these novel PCA3 exons greatly improve RT-PCR based discrimination between PCa, PCa metastases and BPH specimens. Comparative genomic analyses demonstrated that PCA3 has only recently evolved in an anti-sense orientation within a second gene, BMCC1/PRUNE2. BMCC1 has been shown previously to interact with RhoA and RhoC, determinants of cellular transformation and metastasis, respectively. Using RT-PCR we demonstrated that the longer BMCC1-1 isoform - like PCA3 - is upregulated in PCa tissues and metastases and in PCa cell lines. Furthermore PCA3 and BMCC1-1 levels are responsive to dihydrotestosterone treatment.Upregulation of two new PCA3 isoforms in PCa tissues improves discrimination between PCa and BPH. The functional relevance of this specificity is now of particular interest given PCA3's overlapping association with a second gene BMCC1, a regulator of Rho signalling. Upregulation of PCA3 and BMCC1 in PCa has potential for improved diagnosis.

  9. Opioid Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) use during the Initial Experience with the IMPROVE PCA Trial: A Phase III Analgesic Trial for Hospitalized Sickle Cell Patients with Painful Episodes

    OpenAIRE

    Dampier, Carlton D.; Smith, Wally R.; Kim, Hae-Young; Wager, Carrie Greene; Bell, Margaret C.; Minniti, Caterina P.; Keefer, Jeffrey; Hsu, Lewis; Krishnamurti, Lakshmanan; Mack, A. Kyle; McClish, Donna; McKinlay, Sonja M.; Miller, Scott T.; Osunkwo, Ifeyinwa; Seaman, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Opioid analgesics administered by patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) are frequently used for pain relief in children and adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) hospitalized for persistent vaso-occlusive pain, but optimum opioid dosing is not known. To better define PCA dosing recommendations, a multi-center phase III clinical trial was conducted comparing two alternative opioid PCA dosing strategies (HDLI-higher demand dose with low constant infusion or LDHI- lower demand dose and higher const...

  10. Suministro de las principales fuentes de energía, proteína y grasa en México, 1961–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bruno-Fiscal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El conocimiento relacionado con la disponibilidad de los principales grupos de alimentos y sus aportes de energía, proteína y grasa, es de vital importancia por parte de entes gubernamentales y privados, con el fin de diagnosticar el potencial alimenticio de una región. Material y Métodos: Se utilizó análisis multivariado de la varianza (MANOVA con contraste canónico de tipo ortogonal, análisis de componentes principales, análisis descriptivo exploratorio de tipo unidimensional y análisis Biplot, donde se tuvo en cuenta una base de datos proveniente de la FAO relacionada al suministro medio disponible de energía, proteína y grasa por persona/día de los principales grupos de alimentos en el período comprendido de 1961 a 2010 en México. Dichos datos representan únicamente el suministro medio disponible para la población total y no indican necesariamente consumo real. Resultados: Durante el período de análisis el suministro de carne de ave fue el de mayor aumento, pasando de 10,4g/persona/día a 71,2g/persona/día. Caso contrario al maíz y el frijol, los cuales tuvieron una disminución de 1% y 49% respectivamente. El mayor suministro de energía y proteína lo aportó la leche con 130kcal/persona/día y 7,5g/persona/día de proteína. El mayor aporte de grasa se dio por parte de la carne de cerdo, con 10,8g/persona/día. Conclusiones: Si bien se nota un crecimiento de suministro de vegetales, frutas y hortalizas, este tiene una proporción menor al de la carne, por lo que se debe reorganizar la dieta de los mexicanos por una que contenga aportaciones óptimas para una dieta equilibrada.

  11. Principales prácticas de recursos humanos de las PyMEs industriales exitosas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rocío López Suárez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El éxito competitivo de la PyME depende en parte de la buena gestión de recursos humanos,por lo que no darle el valor que requiere constituye una de las principales causas de fracasode estas empresas. La responsabilidad de la gestión eficaz de los recursos humanos recae fundamentalmenteen los directivos. La presente investigación tiene como objetivo identificarlos estilos de dirección y las principales prácticas de recursos humanos que llevan a cabo lasPyMEs industriales exitosas de México y España. Para alcanzar los objetivos antes reseñados,se ha realizado un análisis documental, así como entrevistas en profundidad a expertosen el área de recursos humanos. En este trabajo se presentan los principales resultados conrespecto a las prácticas mencionadas.

  12. Clinical utility of the PCA3 urine assay in European men scheduled for repeat biopsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haese, A.; Taille, A. De La; Poppel, H. van; Marberger, M.; Stenzl, A.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Huland, H.; Abbou, C.C.; Remzi, M.; Tinzl, M.; Feyerabend, S.; Stillebroer, A.B.; Gils, M.P.M.Q.; Schalken, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Prostate CAncer gene 3 (PCA3) assay has shown promise as an aid in prostate cancer (pCA) diagnosis in identifying men with a high probability of a positive (repeat) biopsy. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the clinical utility of the PROGENSA PCA3 assay. DESIGN, SETTING, AND

  13. Componentes oculares em anisometropia The ocular components in anisometropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tayah

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar as correlações dos componentes oculares (comprimento axial, comprimento do segmento anterior, poder médio da córnea, profundidade da câmara vítrea e poder refrativo equivalente com o erro refrativo total do olho portador da menor e da maior ametropia em anisométropes. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um "survey" analítico conduzido em população de 68 anisométropes de duas ou mais dioptrias atendida no Ambulatório da Clinica Oftalmológica do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo Os anisométropes foram submetidos à refração estática objetiva e subjetiva, ceratometria e biometria ultra-sônica. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significativa entre os valores dos componentes oculares medidos dos olhos portadores da menor e da maior ametropia. Os olhos portadores da menor ametropia apresentaram as mesmas correlações significantes observadas em olhos emétropes, ou seja, correlação da refração com comprimento do segmento anterior e comprimento axial, e correlação do comprimento axial com poder corneano e profundidade da câmara vítrea. Os olhos portadores da maior ametropia apresentaram correlação significante da refração com o comprimento axial e do comprimento axial com a profundidade da câmara vítrea. Ainda em ambos os olhos observou-se correlação significante do poder do cristalino com a profundidade da câmara anterior. CONCLUSÃO: Os olhos portadores da menor ametropia desenvolveram as correlações mais freqüentemente observadas nos olhos emétropes. Os olhos portadores da maior ametropia não desenvolveram as mesmas correlações dos emétropes.PURPOSE: To asses the correlation between ocular components (axial length, anterior segment length, corneal power, vitreous length and equivalent power of the eye and refractive error in eyes with higher and lower ametropia of subjects with anisometropia. METHODS: An analytical survey was carried out in 68 patients

  14. Biometric identification based on feature fusion with PCA and SVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkovits, László; Lefkovits, Szidónia; Emerich, Simina

    2018-04-01

    Biometric identification is gaining ground compared to traditional identification methods. Many biometric measurements may be used for secure human identification. The most reliable among them is the iris pattern because of its uniqueness, stability, unforgeability and inalterability over time. The approach presented in this paper is a fusion of different feature descriptor methods such as HOG, LIOP, LBP, used for extracting iris texture information. The classifiers obtained through the SVM and PCA methods demonstrate the effectiveness of our system applied to one and both irises. The performances measured are highly accurate and foreshadow a fusion system with a rate of identification approaching 100% on the UPOL database.

  15. Hábitos de publicación y citación según campos científicos: Principales diferencias a partir de las revistas JCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorta-González, Pablo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Journals’ impact indicators are not comparable among scientific fields because of systematic differences in publication and citation habits. In this work, the impact factor was decomposed into five independent variables, as applied to journal category, fields, and areas considered in the databases of the leading provider of science indicators, Thomson Reuters. A Principal Component Analysis was employed to find the sources of the variance and a Cluster Analysis was used to detect similarities. In spite of systematic differences between disciplines, the principal components explain 78% of the total variance. From the statistical point of view, some categories of Science are closer to the Social Sciences than to Science and vice versa.Los indicadores de impacto de revistas no son comparables entre campos científicos debido a las diferencias significativas en los hábitos de publicación y citación. En este trabajo se presenta una descomposición del factor de impacto en cinco variables independientes. Esta descomposición se aplica a las categorías de revista, campos y áreas considerados en las bases de datos del principal proveedor de indicadores científicos, Thomson Reuters. Para localizar las fuentes de la varianza se emplea un Análisis de Componentes Principales y para detectar las semejanzas se utiliza un Análisis Cluster. A pesar de las diferencias sistemáticas entre disciplinas, las componentes principales explican el 78% de la varianza total. Existen categorías de Ciencias que están más próximas, desde el punto de vista estadístico, de algunas Ciencias Sociales que del resto de Ciencias y viceversa.

  16. Los componentes subjetivos de la ética de Hannah Arendt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bueno Gómez, Noelia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to show the primacy of subjective (and not inter subjective components in the ethics of Hannah Arendt, as against the primacy of inter subjective components in her politics. This is not an obstacle to discovering a subjective component in the political realm as well, and an inter subjective component in the realm of ethics, since both are absolutely necessary in both spheres.

    El objetivo de este estudio es poner de manifiesto el primado de los componentes subjetivos (no los intersubjetivos en la ética de Hannah Arendt, frente al primado de los componentes intersubjetivos de su política. Esto no es obstáculo para que encontremos también un componente subjetivo en el ámbito político, y un componente intersubjetivo en el ámbito de la ética, ambos imprescindibles en cada una de ellas.

  17. Innovative Comparison of Transient Ignition Temperature at the Booster Interface, New Stainless Steel Pyrovalve Primer Chamber Assembly "V" (PCA) Design Versus the Current Aluminum "Y" PCA Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulsberry, Regor L.; McDougle, Stephen H.; Garcia,Roberto; Johnson, Kenneth L.; Sipes, William; Rickman, Steven; Hosangadi, Ashvin

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of four spacecraft pyrovalve anomalies that occurred during ground testing was conducted by the NASA Engineering & Safety Center (NESC) in 2008. In all four cases, a common aluminum (Al) primer chamber assembly (PCA) was used with dual NASA Standard Initiators (NSIs) and the nearly simultaneous (separated by less than 80 microseconds) firing of both initiators failed to ignite the booster charge. The results of the assessment and associated test program were reported in AIAA Paper AIAA-2008-4798, NESC Independent Assessment of Pyrovalve Ground Test Anomalies. As a result of the four Al PCA anomalies, and the test results and findings of the NESC assessment, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) project team decided to make changes to the PCA. The material for the PCA body was changed from aluminum (Al) to stainless steel (SS) to avoid melting, distortion, and potential leakage of the NSI flow passages when the device functioned. The flow passages, which were interconnected in a Y-shaped configuration (Y-PCA) in the original design, were changed to a V-shaped configuration (V-PCA). The V-shape was used to more efficiently transfer energy from the NSIs to the booster. Development and qualification testing of the new design clearly demonstrated faster booster ignition times compared to the legacy AL Y-PCA design. However, the final NESC assessment report recommended that the SS V-PCA be experimentally characterized and quantitatively compared to the Al Y-PCA design. This data was deemed important for properly evaluating the design options for future NASA projects. This test program has successfully quantified the improvement of the SS V-PCA over the Al Y-PCA. A phase B of the project was also conducted and evaluated the effect of firing command skew and enlargement of flame channels to further assist spacecraft applications.

  18. On the use of A PCA as a multichannel time analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Abdelkawy, A.; Abuelela, M.; Habib, N.; Wahba, M.; Salama, F.

    1992-01-01

    PCA and PCA-11 software programmes have been used to utilize the operation of the nucleus personal computer analyzer PCA-8000 in its multichannel scaler (MCS) mode. The operating condition of PCA-8000 were selected to match the time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer which is in operation at the ET-RR-1 reactor. The results of measuring the main parameters of PCA-8000 operating in its MCS mode showed that it can be successfully used as a multichannel time analyzer.5 fig

  19. Performance evaluation of PCA-based spike sorting algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamos, Dimitrios A; Kosmidis, Efstratios K; Theophilidis, George

    2008-09-01

    Deciphering the electrical activity of individual neurons from multi-unit noisy recordings is critical for understanding complex neural systems. A widely used spike sorting algorithm is being evaluated for single-electrode nerve trunk recordings. The algorithm is based on principal component analysis (PCA) for spike feature extraction. In the neuroscience literature it is generally assumed that the use of the first two or most commonly three principal components is sufficient. We estimate the optimum PCA-based feature space by evaluating the algorithm's performance on simulated series of action potentials. A number of modifications are made to the open source nev2lkit software to enable systematic investigation of the parameter space. We introduce a new metric to define clustering error considering over-clustering more favorable than under-clustering as proposed by experimentalists for our data. Both the program patch and the metric are available online. Correlated and white Gaussian noise processes are superimposed to account for biological and artificial jitter in the recordings. We report that the employment of more than three principal components is in general beneficial for all noise cases considered. Finally, we apply our results to experimental data and verify that the sorting process with four principal components is in agreement with a panel of electrophysiology experts.

  20. MD-11 PCA - View of aircraft on ramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This McDonnell Douglas MD-11 is taxiing to a position on the flightline at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, following its completion of the first and second landings ever performed by a transport aircraft under engine power only (on Aug. 29, 1995). The milestone flight, with NASA research pilot and former astronaut Gordon Fullerton at the controls, was part of a NASA project to develop a computer-assisted engine control system that enables a pilot to land a plane safely when its normal control surfaces are disabled. The Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system uses standard autopilot controls already present in the cockpit, together with the new programming in the aircraft's flight control computers. The PCA concept is simple. For pitch control, the program increases thrust to climb and reduces thrust to descend. To turn right, the autopilot increases the left engine thrust while decreasing the right engine thrust. The initial Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft studies by NASA were carried out at Dryden with a modified twin-engine F-15 research aircraft.

  1. MD-11 PCA - Closeup view of aircraft on ramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This McDonnell Douglas MD-11 has taxied to a position on the flightline at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, following its completion of the first and second landings ever performed by a transport aircraft under engine power only (on Aug. 29, 1995). The milestone flight, with NASA research pilot and former astronaut Gordon Fullerton at the controls, was part of a NASA project to develop a computer-assisted engine control system that enables a pilot to land a plane safely when its normal control surfaces are disabled. The Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system uses standard autopilot controls already present in the cockpit, together with the new programming in the aircraft's flight control computers. The PCA concept is simple. For pitch control, the program increases thrust to climb and reduces thrust to descend. To turn right, the autopilot increases the left engine thrust while decreasing the right engine thrust. The initial Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft studies by NASA were carried out at Dryden with a modified twin-engine F-15 research aircraft.

  2. PCA safety data review after clinical decision support and smart pump technology implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prewitt, Judy; Schneider, Susan; Horvath, Monica; Hammond, Julia; Jackson, Jason; Ginsberg, Brian

    2013-06-01

    Medication errors account for 20% of medical errors in the United States with the largest risk at prescribing and administration. Analgesics or opioids are frequently used medications that can be associated with patient harm when prescribed or administered improperly. In an effort to decrease medication errors, Duke University Hospital implemented clinical decision support via computer provider order entry (CPOE) and "smart pump" technology, 2/2008, with the goal to decrease patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) adverse events. This project evaluated PCA safety events, reviewing voluntary report system and adverse drug events via surveillance (ADE-S), on intermediate and step-down units preimplementation and postimplementation of clinical decision support via CPOE and PCA smart pumps for the prescribing and administration of opioids therapy in the adult patient requiring analgesia for acute pain. Voluntary report system and ADE-S PCA events decreased based upon 1000 PCA days; ADE-S PCA events per 1000 PCA days decreased 22%, from 5.3 (pre) to 4.2 (post) (P = 0.09). Voluntary report system events decreased 72%, from 2.4/1000 PCA days (pre) to 0.66/1000 PCA days (post) and was statistically significant (P PCA events between time periods in both the ADE-S and voluntary report system data, thus supporting the recommendation of clinical decision support via CPOE and PCA smart pump technology.

  3. Fault detection of feed water treatment process using PCA-WD with parameter optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shirong; Tang, Qian; Lin, Yu; Tang, Yuling

    2017-05-01

    Feed water treatment process (FWTP) is an essential part of utility boilers; and fault detection is expected for its reliability improvement. Classical principal component analysis (PCA) has been applied to FWTPs in our previous work; however, the noises of T 2 and SPE statistics result in false detections and missed detections. In this paper, Wavelet denoise (WD) is combined with PCA to form a new algorithm, (PCA-WD), where WD is intentionally employed to deal with the noises. The parameter selection of PCA-WD is further formulated as an optimization problem; and PSO is employed for optimization solution. A FWTP, sustaining two 1000MW generation units in a coal-fired power plant, is taken as a study case. Its operation data is collected for following verification study. The results show that the optimized WD is effective to restrain the noises of T 2 and SPE statistics, so as to improve the performance of PCA-WD algorithm. And, the parameter optimization enables PCA-WD to get its optimal parameters in an automatic way rather than on individual experience. The optimized PCA-WD is further compared with classical PCA and sliding window PCA (SWPCA), in terms of four cases as bias fault, drift fault, broken line fault and normal condition, respectively. The advantages of the optimized PCA-WD, against classical PCA and SWPCA, is finally convinced with the results. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Posterior cerebral artery involvement in moyamoya disease: initial infarction and angle between PCA and basilar artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Yeoun; Kim, Seung-Ki; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Choi, Jung Won; Phi, Ji Hoon; Kim, In-One; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Wang, Kyu-Chang

    2013-12-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a chronic cerebrovascular occlusive disease, and progressive involvement of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) has been reported. However, majority of MMD articles are presenting classic anterior circulation related issues. This study investigates the preoperative factors related to the long-term outcome of posterior circulation in MMD. Retrospective review of 88 MMD patients (166 PCAs in either hemisphere) without symptomatic disease involvement of PCA at initial diagnosis was done. Data at initial diagnosis regarding age, presence of infarction, status of the PCA, type of posterior communicating artery, and the angle between PCA and basilar artery were reviewed. Progressive stenosis of PCA was evaluated by symptom or radiological imaging during follow up. During an average follow up of 8.3 years, 29 out of 166 (18 %) evaluated PCAs showed progressive disease involvement. The average time of progression from the initial operation was 4.9 years, with the latest onset at 10.8 years. The patients who showed progressive stenosis of the PCA tended to be younger, present with infarction, have smaller angle between PCA and basilar artery, and have asymptomatic stenosis of the PCA at initial presentation. However, multivariate analysis confirmed only the presence of initial infarction and a smaller angle between PCA and basilar artery to be significantly associated with progressive stenosis of PCA. Involvement of PCA in MMD may occur in a delayed fashion, years after the completion of revascularization of anterior circulation. Persistent long-term follow-up regarding the posterior circulation is recommended.

  5. Revisión de los principales modelos teóricos explicativos del maltrato infantil

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Manuel Moreno Manso

    2006-01-01

    En este artículo se describen las cinco formas de maltrato infantil y los principales modelos teóricos que a lo largo de los últimos treinta años han tratado de proporcionar explicaciones sobre los fenómenos de abuso sexual, maltrato físico, abandono físico, maltrato emocional y abandono emocional.

  6. Identification of an IL-1-induced gene expression pattern in AR+ PCa cells that mimics the molecular phenotype of AR- PCa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Jardin, Shayna E; Kanchwala, Mohammed S; Jacob, Joan; Merchant, Sana; Meade, Rachel K; Gahnim, Nagham M; Nawas, Afshan F; Xing, Chao; Delk, Nikki A

    2018-06-01

    In immunosurveillance, bone-derived immune cells infiltrate the tumor and secrete inflammatory cytokines to destroy cancer cells. However, cancer cells have evolved mechanisms to usurp inflammatory cytokines to promote tumor progression. In particular, the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 (IL-1), is elevated in prostate cancer (PCa) patient tissue and serum, and promotes PCa bone metastasis. IL-1 also represses androgen receptor (AR) accumulation and activity in PCa cells, yet the cells remain viable and tumorigenic; suggesting that IL-1 may also contribute to AR-targeted therapy resistance. Furthermore, IL-1 and AR protein levels negatively correlate in PCa tumor cells. Taken together, we hypothesize that IL-1 reprograms AR positive (AR + ) PCa cells into AR negative (AR - ) PCa cells that co-opt IL-1 signaling to ensure AR-independent survival and tumor progression in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. LNCaP and PC3 PCa cells were treated with IL-1β or HS-5 bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) conditioned medium and analyzed by RNA sequencing and RT-QPCR. To verify genes identified by RNA sequencing, LNCaP, MDA-PCa-2b, PC3, and DU145 PCa cell lines were treated with the IL-1 family members, IL-1α or IL-1β, or exposed to HS-5 BMSC in the presence or absence of Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist (IL-1RA). Treated cells were analyzed by western blot and/or RT-QPCR. Comparative analysis of sequencing data from the AR + LNCaP PCa cell line versus the AR - PC3 PCa cell line reveals an IL-1-conferred gene suite in LNCaP cells that is constitutive in PC3 cells. Bioinformatics analysis of the IL-1 regulated gene suite revealed that inflammatory and immune response pathways are primarily elicited; likely facilitating PCa cell survival and tumorigenicity in an inflammatory tumor microenvironment. Our data supports that IL-1 reprograms AR + PCa cells to mimic AR - PCa gene expression patterns that favor AR-targeted treatment resistance and cell survival. © 2018 Wiley

  7. Recubrimientos contra la corrosión a alta temperatura para componentes de turbinas de gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agüero, A.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Hot section gas turbine components are made of superalloys, developed to withstand high temperatures in conditions in which mechanical stresses are high and that require high surface stability. However, during the 50s it became evident that compositions resulting in high mechanical strength for these materials were not compatible with those offering optimal protection from the working environments. The idea of employing protective coatings over materials with high mechanical strength resulted therefore from this situation. Presently, both aeronautic and power generation turbines operate at temperatures within the 900-1400 °C, thanks to these coatings, indispensable for their correct operation. In this work, the principal degradation mechanisms in these operating conditions and the different type of coatings presently employed by the industrial sector are described, beginning by the oldest Ni or Co aluminides, following with the addition of other metals such as Pt, Cr, etc. to the former coatings in order to increase their useful life, continuing with the overlay MCrAlY coatings and finishing with the thermal barrier coating systems. Moreover, the corresponding deposition techniques industrially employed to deposit these coatings are described, and finally, an insight of the latest research lines currently being developed is also included.

    Los componentes de las zonas calientes de las turbinas de gas están hechos de superaleaciones desarrolladas para soportar altas temperaturas, en condiciones en que las tensiones mecánicas son relativamente altas y en las que se requiere una alta estabilidad superficial. Sin embargo, durante la década de 1950-60, se hizo evidente que las composiciones que aumentaban la resistencia mecánica de estos materiales y aquellas que ofrecían una óptima protección contra ambientes agresivos no eran compatibles. Esto, condujo a la idea de emplear recubrimientos protectores sobre materiales con alta

  8. Cost effectiveness analysis of screening in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Lisse, U.G.; Mueller-Lisse, U.L.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose. The authors attempted to provide an overview of current concepts and the status of research in the field of cost effectiveness analysis (CEA) of screening for prostate cancer (PCA).Material and methods. Basic concepts and methods of CEA were reviewed. Examples of CEA-related studies of PCA were obtained from pertinent literature through medical databases.Results. Screening for PCA has so far been restricted to limited groups of health care recipients, usually within the framework of clinical trials. In those trials, screening for PCA usually results in higher numbers of PCAs being detected at lower average stages in a given population. As a consequence of screening, the rate of potentially curable PCAs increases. However, it has not yet been demonstrated that screening for PCA decreases PCA-related mortality or morbidity from metastatic PCA. On the other hand, additional costs are associated with the screening measure and with increased use of resources for diagnosis and treatment of the additional PCAs detected through screening.Conclusions. Throughout the European Union and North America, mass screening for PCA has not been implemented. This may chiefly be due to the current lack of information on long term benefits of PCA screening, particularly disease-specific survival. Currently, major studies are underway to assess the effects of PCA screening and its cost effectiveness. These studies include the US-American prostate, lung, colon and ovary trials (PLCO) and the European randomised study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC). (orig.) [de

  9. Preliminary PCA/TT Results on MRO CRISM Multispectral Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, David R.; Smith, M. D.

    2010-10-01

    Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter arrived at Mars in March 2006 and by September had achieved its science-phase orbit with the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) beginning its visible to near-infrared (VIS/NIR) spectral imaging shortly thereafter. One goal of CRISM is to fill in the spatial gaps between the various targeted observations, eventually mapping the entire surface. Due to the large volume of data this would create, the instrument works in a reduced spectral sampling mode creating "multispectral” images. From these data we can create image cubes using 64 wavelengths from 0.410 to 3.923 µm. We present here our analysis of these multispectral mode data products using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Target Transformation (TT) [1]. Previous work with ground-based images [2-5] has shown that over an entire visible hemisphere, there are only three to four meaningful components using 32-105 wavelengths over 1.5-4.1 µm the first two are consistent over all temporal scales. The TT retrieved spectral endmembers show nearly the same level of consistency [5]. The preliminary work on the CRISM images cubes implies similar results; three to four significant principal components that are fairly consistent over time. These components are then used in TT to find spectral endmembers which can be used to characterize the surface reflectance for future use in radiative transfer cloud optical depth retrievals. We present here the PCA/TT results comparing the principal components and recovered endmembers from six reconstructed CRISM multi-spectral image cubes. References: [1] Bandfield, J. L., et al. (2000) JGR, 105, 9573. [2] Klassen, D. R. and Bell III, J. F. (2001) BAAS 33, 1069. [3] Klassen, D. R. and Bell III, J. F. (2003) BAAS, 35, 936. [4] Klassen, D. R., Wark, T. J., Cugliotta, C. G. (2005) BAAS, 37, 693. [5] Klassen, D. R. (2009) Icarus, 204, 32.

  10. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Screening and New Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer (PCa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Carsten; Rittenhouse, Harry; Hu, Xinhai; Cammann, Henning; Jung, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    PSA screening reduces PCa-mortality but the disadvantages overdiagnosis and overtreatment require multivariable risk-prediction tools to select appropriate treatment or active surveillance. This review explains the differences between the two largest screening trials and discusses the drawbacks of screening and its meta-analysisxs. The current American and European screening strategies are described. Nonetheless, PSA is one of the most widely used tumor markers and strongly correlates with the risk of harboring PCa. However, while PSA has limitations for PCa detection with its low specificity there are several potential biomarkers presented in this review with utility for PCa currently being studied. There is an urgent need for new biomarkers especially to detect clinically significant and aggressive PCa. From all PSA-based markers, the FDA-approved prostate health index (phi) shows improved specificity over percent free and total PSA. Another kallikrein panel, 4K, which includes KLK2 has recently shown promise in clinical research studies but has not yet undergone formal validation studies. In urine, prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) has also been validated and approved by the FDA for its utility to detect PCa. The potential correlation of PCA3 with cancer aggressiveness requires more clinical studies. The detection of the fusion of androgen-regulated genes with genes of the regulatory transcription factors in tissue of (~)50% of all PCa-patients is a milestone in PCa research. A combination of the urinary assays for TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion and PCA3 shows an improved accuracy for PCa detection. Overall, the field of PCa biomarker discovery is very exciting and prospective.

  11. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Screening and New Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer (PCa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenhouse, Harry; Hu, Xinhai; Cammann, Henning; Jung, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Abstract PSA screening reduces PCa-mortality but the disadvantages overdiagnosis and overtreatment require multivariable risk-prediction tools to select appropriate treatment or active surveillance. This review explains the differences between the two largest screening trials and discusses the drawbacks of screening and its meta-analysisxs. The current American and European screening strategies are described. Nonetheless, PSA is one of the most widely used tumor markers and strongly correlates with the risk of harboring PCa. However, while PSA has limitations for PCa detection with its low specificity there are several potential biomarkers presented in this review with utility for PCa currently being studied. There is an urgent need for new biomarkers especially to detect clinically significant and aggressive PCa. From all PSA-based markers, the FDA-approved prostate health index (phi) shows improved specificity over percent free and total PSA. Another kallikrein panel, 4K, which includes KLK2 has recently shown promise in clinical research studies but has not yet undergone formal validation studies. In urine, prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) has also been validated and approved by the FDA for its utility to detect PCa. The potential correlation of PCA3 with cancer aggressiveness requires more clinical studies. The detection of the fusion of androgen-regulated genes with genes of the regulatory transcription factors in tissue of ~50% of all PCa-patients is a milestone in PCa research. A combination of the urinary assays for TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion and PCA3 shows an improved accuracy for PCa detection. Overall, the field of PCa biomarker discovery is very exciting and prospective. PMID:27683457

  12. PCA-derived factors that may be predictive of postoperative pain in pediatric patients: a possible role for the PCA ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Conor; Pehora, Carolyne; Crawford, Mark W

    2012-01-01

    No method exists to reliably predict which patients will develop severe postoperative pain. The authors hypothesized that data derived from patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pumps (specifically the ratio of patient demands to pump deliveries) may predict which patients would develop severe pain after scoliosis repair. Quaternary, university-affiliated, pediatric hospital. Forty American Society of Anesthesiologists I-Il pediatric patients who had undergone elective scoliosis repair and had consented to recruitment to a randomized clinical trial investigating the effects of early morphine administration on remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia. To test the hypothesis of the current study, the authors calculated the PCA ratio of demand to delivery at every 4 hours throughout the first 24 hours after surgery for all the patients recruited to the original study. The authors compared calculated PCA ratios, numeric rating scale pain scores, and cumulative morphine consumption for those patients who developed severe postoperative pain and met the criteria for opioid rotation versus those patients who did not. Seven patients required opioid rotation from PCA morphine to PCA hydromorphone. Eight hours after surgery, the median PCA ratio for those seven patients (2.5[range, 1.8-4.3]) was significantly greater than that for all other recruited patients (1.3 [range, 0-2.7]; p PCA ratios of demand to delivery as early as 8 hours after surgery.

  13. Opioid Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) use during the Initial Experience with the IMPROVE PCA Trial: A Phase III Analgesic Trial for Hospitalized Sickle Cell Patients with Painful Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dampier, Carlton D.; Smith, Wally R.; Kim, Hae-Young; Wager, Carrie Greene; Bell, Margaret C.; Minniti, Caterina P.; Keefer, Jeffrey; Hsu, Lewis; Krishnamurti, Lakshmanan; Mack, A. Kyle; McClish, Donna; McKinlay, Sonja M.; Miller, Scott T.; Osunkwo, Ifeyinwa; Seaman, Phillip; Telen, Marilyn J.; Weiner, Debra L.

    2015-01-01

    Opioid analgesics administered by patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) are frequently used for pain relief in children and adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) hospitalized for persistent vaso-occlusive pain, but optimum opioid dosing is not known. To better define PCA dosing recommendations, a multi-center phase III clinical trial was conducted comparing two alternative opioid PCA dosing strategies (HDLI-higher demand dose with low constant infusion or LDHI- lower demand dose and higher constant infusion) in 38 subjects who completed randomization prior to trial closure. Total opioid utilization (morphine equivalents, mg/kg) in 22 adults was 11.6 ± 2.6 and 4.7 ± 0.9 in the HDLI and in the LDHI arms, respectively, and in 12 children it was 3.7 ± 1.0 and 5.8 ± 2.2, respectively. Opioid-related symptoms were mild and similar in both PCA arms (mean daily opioid symptom intensity score: HDLI 0.9 ± 0.1, LDHI 0.9 ± 0.2). The slow enrollment and early study termination limited conclusions regarding superiority of either treatment regimen. This study adds to our understanding of opioid PCA usage in SCD. Future clinical trial protocol designs for opioid PCA may need to consider potential differences between adults and children in PCA usage. PMID:21953763

  14. Shallow-Land Buriable PCA-type austenitic stainless steel for fusion application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.

    1991-01-01

    Neutron-induced activity in the PCA (Primary Candidate Alloy) austenitic stainless steel is examined, when used for first-wall components in a DEMO fusion reactor. Some low-activity definitions, based on different waste management and disposal concepts, are introduced. Activity in the PCA is so high that any recycling of the irradiated material can be excluded. Disposal of PCA radioactive wastes in Shallow-Land Buriable (SLB) is prevented as well. Mo, Nb and some impurity elements have to be removed or limited, in order to reduce the radioactivity of the PCA. Possible low-activity versions of the PCA are introduced (PCA-la); they meet the requirements for SLB and may also be recycled under certain conditions. (author)

  15. Improved k-t PCA Algorithm Using Artificial Sparsity in Dynamic MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiran; Chen, Zhifeng; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Lixia; Xia, Ling; Liu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The k - t principal component analysis ( k - t PCA) is an effective approach for high spatiotemporal resolution dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. However, it suffers from larger residual aliasing artifacts and noise amplification when the reduction factor goes higher. To further enhance the performance of this technique, we propose a new method called sparse k - t PCA that combines the k - t PCA algorithm with an artificial sparsity constraint. It is a self-calibrated procedure that is based on the traditional k - t PCA method by further eliminating the reconstruction error derived from complex subtraction of the sampled k - t space from the original reconstructed k - t space. The proposed method is tested through both simulations and in vivo datasets with different reduction factors. Compared to the standard k - t PCA algorithm, the sparse k - t PCA can improve the normalized root-mean-square error performance and the accuracy of temporal resolution. It is thus useful for rapid dynamic MR imaging.

  16. Transformaciones actuales del poder punitivo. Caracterización de sus principales rasgos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Cita Triana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El documento aborda el tema de las recientes transformaciones del poder punitivo, a partir de dos niveles de análisis: el primero se ocupa de la descripción de los principales elementos contextuales en los que se insertan los cambios; el segundo desarrolla los rasgos generales que caracterizan estas transformaciones del poder punitivo en este momento. El propósito central es desarrollar un diagnóstico que permita detectar los principales y actuales problemas que enfrenta el discurso jurídico-penal y político criminal y, de este modo, contribuir a la determinación de nuevos escenarios de investigación de relevancia en la actualidad.

  17. Patient perspectives of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) and methods for improving pain control and patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patak, Lance S; Tait, Alan R; Mirafzali, Leela; Morris, Michelle; Dasgupta, Sunavo; Brummett, Chad M

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to (1) identify patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) attributes that negatively impact patient satisfaction and ability to control pain while using PCA and (2) obtain data on patient perceptions of new PCA design features. We conducted a prospective survey study of postoperative pain control among patients using a PCA device. The survey was designed to evaluate patient satisfaction with pain control, understanding of PCA, difficulties using PCA, lockout-period management, and evaluation of new PCA design features. A total of 350 eligible patients completed the survey (91%). Patients who had difficulties using PCA were less satisfied (P PCA. Forty-nine percent of patients reported not knowing if they would receive medicine when they pushed the PCA button, and of these, 22% believed that this uncertainty made their pain worse. The majority of patients preferred the proposed PCA design features for easier use, including a light on the button, making it easier to find (57%), and a PCA button that vibrates (55%) or lights up (70%), alerting the patient that the PCA pump is able to deliver more medicine. A majority of patients, irrespective of their satisfaction with PCA, preferred a new PCA design. Certain attributes of current PCA technology may negatively impact patient experience, and modifications could potentially address these concerns and improve patient outcomes.

  18. Análisis de las videotecas de las principales televisiones en España

    OpenAIRE

    De-Mon-Martín, Adrián; Guallar, Javier

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio es analizar los archivos audiovisuales de las principales televisiones de España mediante 24 indicadores agrupados en 5 apartados: aspectos generales, contenido, sistema de consulta, presentación de resultados y aspectos audiovisuales. La muestra analizada son las televisiones generalistas españolas con mayor audiencia durante 2013 (Antena 3, Cuatro, La Sexta, Telecinco y TVE1). Los resultados del estudio diferencian los mejores resultados del archivo público de TV...

  19. Cuidados de enfermería en las principales complicaciones de las quemaduras 2012-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Tapia Arroyo, Lucía

    2013-01-01

    Las quemaduras representan una de las patologías más frecuentes, graves e incapacitantes, siendo los accidentes domésticos, de tráfico y laborales sus principales causas. Las quemaduras están influidas por la interacción de los factores biológicos, psicológicos, sociales, económicos, políticos, culturales, éticos, legales, históricos, religiosos y espirituales

  20. Epileptic seizure detection in EEG signal with GModPCA and support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Abeg Kumar; Banka, Haider

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders caused by recurrent seizures. Electroencephalograms (EEGs) record neural activity and can detect epilepsy. Visual inspection of an EEG signal for epileptic seizure detection is a time-consuming process and may lead to human error; therefore, recently, a number of automated seizure detection frameworks were proposed to replace these traditional methods. Feature extraction and classification are two important steps in these procedures. Feature extraction focuses on finding the informative features that could be used for classification and correct decision-making. Therefore, proposing effective feature extraction techniques for seizure detection is of great significance. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a dimensionality reduction technique used in different fields of pattern recognition including EEG signal classification. Global modular PCA (GModPCA) is a variation of PCA. In this paper, an effective framework with GModPCA and Support Vector Machine (SVM) is presented for epileptic seizure detection in EEG signals. The feature extraction is performed with GModPCA, whereas SVM trained with radial basis function kernel performed the classification between seizure and nonseizure EEG signals. Seven different experimental cases were conducted on the benchmark epilepsy EEG dataset. The system performance was evaluated using 10-fold cross-validation. In addition, we prove analytically that GModPCA has less time and space complexities as compared to PCA. The experimental results show that EEG signals have strong inter-sub-pattern correlations. GModPCA and SVM have been able to achieve 100% accuracy for the classification between normal and epileptic signals. Along with this, seven different experimental cases were tested. The classification results of the proposed approach were better than were compared the results of some of the existing methods proposed in literature. It is also found that the time and space

  1. Comparative analysis of the PCA3 gene expression in sediments and exosomes isolated from urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Mikhaylenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Prostate cancer (PCa is one of the common oncological diseases in men. Expression of the PCA3 gene in urine is currently used as a molecular genetic marker of PCa.Objective: to comparative analysis of the PCA3 expression in urine sediments and exosomes for the determination of the biomaterial, which allows detecting the PCA3 expression in more efficient manner.Materials and methods. The 12 patients with different stages of PCa and 8 control samples were examined.Results. The diagnostic accuracy of the PCA3 gene expression analysis in this cohort exceeded 90 %. We had not obtained significant differences in the sensitivity and specificity of the PCA3 hyperexpression in the urine sediments compared with exosomes. This result indicates in favor to using urine sediment for the PCA3 analysis as a biomaterial with less time-consuming sample preparation, although the possible advantage of exosomes for the analysis of the expression marker panels requires further studies.

  2. A Multi-Time Scale Morphable Software Milieu for Polymorphous Computing Architectures (PCA) - Composable, Scalable Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skjellum, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Polymorphous Computing Architectures (PCA) rapidly "morph" (reorganize) software and hardware configurations in order to achieve high performance on computation styles ranging from specialized streaming to general threaded applications...

  3. PCA-1/ALKBH3 contributes to pancreatic cancer by supporting apoptotic resistance and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, Ichiro; Sho, Masayuki; Shimada, Keiji; Hotta, Kiyohiko; Ueda, Yuko; Yasuda, Satoshi; Shigi, Naoko; Konishi, Noboru; Tsujikawa, Kazutake; Nakajima, Yoshiyuki

    2012-09-15

    The PCA-1/ALKBH3 gene implicated in DNA repair is expressed in several human malignancies but its precise contributions to cancer remain mainly unknown. In this study, we have determined its functions and clinical importance in pancreatic cancer. PCA-1/ALKBH3 functions in proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis were evaluated in human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Further, PCA-1/ALKBH3 expression in 116 patients with pancreatic cancer was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. siRNA-mediated silencing of PCA-1/ALKBH3 expression induced apoptosis and suppressed cell proliferation. Conversely, overexpression of PCA-1/ALKBH3 increased anchorage-independent growth and invasiveness. In addition, PCA-1/ALKBH3 silencing downregulated VEGF expression and inhibited angiogenesis in vivo. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis showed that PCA-1/ALKBH3 expression was abundant in pancreatic cancer tissues, where it correlated with advanced tumor status, pathological stage and VEGF intensity. Importantly, patients with low positivity of PCA-1/ALKBH3 expression had improved postoperative prognosis compared with those with high positivity. Our results establish PCA-1/ALKBH3 as important gene in pancreatic cancer with potential utility as a therapeutic target in this fatal disease.

  4. Tensile properties of unirradiated PCA from room temperature to 7000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braski, D.N.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The tensile properties of Prime Candidate Alloy (PCA) austenitic stainless steel after three different thermomechanical treatments were determined from room temperature to 700 0 C. The solution-annealed PCA had the lowest strength and highest ductility, while the reverse was true for the 25%-cold-worked material. The PCA containing titanium-rich MC particles fell between the other two heats. The cold-worked PCA had nearly the same tensile properties as cold-worked type 316 stainless steel. Both alloys showed ductility minima at 300 0 C

  5. Quality of Life and Sexual Health in the Aging of PCa Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacci, Mauro; Baldi, Elisabetta; Tamburrino, Lara; Detti, Beatrice; Livi, Lorenzo; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Tubaro, Andrea; Gravas, Stavros; Carini, Marco; Serni, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in elderly men. The progressive ageing of the world male population will further increase the need for tailored assessment and treatment of PCa patients. The determinant role of androgens and sexual hormones for PCa growth and progression has been established. However, several trials on androgens and PCa are recently focused on urinary continence, quality of life, and sexual function, suggesting a new point of view on the whole endocrinological aspect of PCa. During aging, metabolic syndrome, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and central obesity, can be associated with a chronic, low-grade inflammation of the prostate and with changes in the sex steroid pathways. These factors may affect both the carcinogenesis processes and treatment outcomes of PCa. Any treatment for PCa can have a long-lasting negative impact on quality of life and sexual health, which should be assessed by validated self-reported questionnaires. In particular, sexual health, urinary continence, and bowel function can be worsened after prostatectomy, radiotherapy, or hormone treatment, mostly in the elderly population. In the present review we summarized the current knowledge on the role of hormones, metabolic features, and primary treatments for PCa on the quality of life and sexual health of elderly Pca survivors.

  6. Polymorphous Computing Architecture (PCA) Application Benchmark 1: Three-Dimensional Radar Data Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lebak, J

    2001-01-01

    The DARPA Polymorphous Computing Architecture (PCA) program is building advanced computer architectures that can reorganize their computation and communication structures to achieve better overall application performance...

  7. Componente alimentario nutricional del análisis de situación de salud

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, Sandra; Chinnock, Anne

    2002-01-01

    El análisis de situación de salud es la primera etapa en el proceso de planificación estratégica en las áreas de salud. Dado que el modelo de análisis de situación de salud no incluye variables e indicadores que describan y expliquen la situación alimentaria nutricional de la población, es importante incorporar el Componente Alimentario-nutricional como un insumo importante en el proceso de planificación. El presente artículo tiene como propósito presentar la propuesta del componente alimenta...

  8. Estudio de las componentes galácticas en el entorno solar

    OpenAIRE

    Masana Fresno, Eduard

    2004-01-01

    En el entorno solar encontramos estrellas de características físicas muy diferentes, pertenecientes a dos de las componentes estelares que forman la Galaxia: el disco (delgado y grueso) y el halo. Los datos astrométricos del catálogo Hipparcos de estrellas enanas FGK combinados con la fotometría infrarroja del catálogo 2MASS han permitido la determinación de los parámetros (cinemática, metalicidad, edad y luminosidad) de cada una de estas componentes en el entorno solar y establecer las posib...

  9. Metodología de modelado de aplicaciones web móviles basada en componentes

    OpenAIRE

    Vera, Pablo Martín; Pons, Claudia; González González, Carina Soledad; Giulianelli, Daniel Alberto; Rodríguez, Rocío Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Esta línea de investigación busca crear una metodología de modelado utilizando una extensión conservativa de UML (Lenguaje Unificado de Modelado) que permita diseñar aplicaciones web móviles centrándose en el modelado de la interfaz de usuario mediante la utilización de componente configurables. El objetivo final es la generación automática del código fuente completo de la aplicación. Para lograr tal fin se extienden los diagramas de clases y componentes de UML. El diagrama de clases es exten...

  10. Um metodo para modelagem de exceções em desenvolvimento baseado em componentes

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Henrique da Silva Brito

    2005-01-01

    Resumo: Devido a grande popularização do Desenvolvimento Baseado em Componentes (DBC), ele vem sendo empregado inclusive no desenvolvimento de sistemas computacionais críticos. O emprego do DBC na construção de sistemas confiáveis evidencia a necessidade de se desenvolver componentes de software que sejam robustos e que possuam uma garantia maior do seu funcionamento correto. Tratamento de exceções é uma técnica bastante conhecida para a verificação e tratamento de erros em sistemas de softwa...

  11. El componente cultural en los cursos de ELE para estudiantes universitarios en Corea del Sur

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yerim

    2014-01-01

    [ES]La tesis investiga el tratamiento del componente cultural en los cursos de ELE para estudiantes universitarios, en Corea del Sur. En primer lugar, se reflexiona sobre el cambio cualitativo del componente cultural a lo largo de la evolución metodológica, para elegir un enfoque adecuado al ámbito universitario de ese país, a fin de llevar a cabo una enseñanza integrada de la lengua y la cultura en el aula, que en este caso sería el enfoque orientado a la acción adoptado por el Marco común e...

  12. PCA/HEXTE Observations of Coma and A2319

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rephaeli, Yoel

    1998-01-01

    The Coma cluster was observed in 1996 for 90 ks by the PCA and HEXTE instruments aboard the RXTE satellite, the first simultaneous, pointing measurement of Coma in the broad, 2-250 keV, energy band. The high sensitivity achieved during this long observation allows precise determination of the spectrum. Our analysis of the measurements clearly indicates that in addition to the main thermal emission from hot intracluster gas at kT=7.5 keV, a second spectral component is required to best-fit the data. If thermal, it can be described with a temperature of 4.7 keV contributing about 20% of the total flux. The additional spectral component can also be described by a power-law, possibly due to Compton scattering of relativistic electrons by the CMB. This interpretation is based on the diffuse radio synchrotron emission, which has a spectral index of 2.34, within the range allowed by fits to the RXTE spectral data. A Compton origin of the measured nonthermal component would imply that the volume-averaged magnetic field in the central region of Coma is B =0.2 micro-Gauss, a value deduced directly from the radio and X-ray measurements (and thus free of the usual assumption of energy equipartition). Barring the presence of unknown systematic errors in the RXTE source or background measurements, our spectral analysis yields considerable evidence for Compton X-ray emission in the Coma cluster.

  13. Efectos de la dieta Mediterránea y de sus principales componentes en la morbi-mortalidad por cáncer y su modulación genética en el estudio PREDIMED

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Sabio, Judith Begoña

    2017-01-01

    El cáncer es el nombre común que recibe un conjunto de enfermedades relacionadas en las que se existe un proceso descontrolado en el crecimiento de las células del cuerpo, causado por anormalidades en el material genético de las células. La carcinogénesis o proceso por el cual se produce el cáncer, se debe a múltiples agentes carcinógenos como virus, radiaciones, sustancias químicas, factores del estilo de vida como el consumo de tabaco, alcohol, o tipo de alimentación, entre otros agentes. L...

  14. Behavior of the PCA3 gene in the urine of men with high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morote, Juan; Rigau, Marina; Garcia, Marta; Mir, Carmen; Ballesteros, Carlos; Planas, Jacques; Raventós, Carles X; Placer, José; de Torres, Inés M; Reventós, Jaume; Doll, Andreas

    2010-12-01

    An ideal marker for the early detection of prostate cancer (PCa) should also differentiate between men with isolated high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and those with PCa. Prostate Cancer Gene 3 (PCA3) is a highly specific PCa gene and its score, in relation to the PSA gene in post-prostate massage urine (PMU-PCA3), seems to be useful in ruling out PCa, especially after a negative prostate biopsy. Because PCA3 is also expressed in the HGPIN lesion, the aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of PMU-PCA3 scores for ruling out PCa in men with previous HGPIN. The PMU-PCA3 score was assessed by quantitative PCR (multiplex research assay) in 244 men subjected to prostate biopsy: 64 men with an isolated HGPIN (no cancer detected after two or more repeated biopsies), 83 men with PCa and 97 men with benign pathology findings (BP: no PCa, HGPIN or ASAP). The median PMU-PCA3 score was 1.56 in men with BP, 2.01 in men with HGPIN (p = 0.128) and 9.06 in men with PCa (p = 0.008). The AUC in the ROC analysis was 0.705 in the subset of men with BP and PCa, while it decreased to 0.629 when only men with isolated HGPIN and PCa were included in the analysis. Fixing the sensitivity of the PMU-PCA3 score at 90%, its specificity was 79% in men with BP and 69% in men with isolated HGPIN. The efficacy of the PMU-PCA3 score to rule out PCa in men with HGPIN is lower than in men with BP.

  15. Developing and Evaluating Creativity Gamification Rehabilitation System: The Application of PCA-ANFIS Based Emotions Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chung-Ho; Cheng, Ching-Hsue

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the factors in a patient's rehabilitation achievement after a total knee replacement (TKR) patient exercises, using a PCA-ANFIS emotion model-based game rehabilitation system, which combines virtual reality (VR) and motion capture technology. The researchers combine a principal component analysis (PCA) and an adaptive…

  16. The relationship between Prostate CAncer gene 3 (PCA3) and prostate cancer significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poppel, Hein; Haese, Alexander; Graefen, Markus; de la Taille, Alexandre; Irani, Jacques; de Reijke, Theo; Remzi, Mesut; Marberger, Michael

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the relationship between Prostate CAncer gene 3 (PCA3) and prostate cancer significance. PATIENTS AND METHODS Clinical data from two multi-centre European open-label, prospective studies evaluating the clinical utility of the PCA3 assay in guiding initial and repeat biopsy

  17. The role of PCA3 in the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessels, D.

    2010-01-01

    Serum PSA has shown to be the most valuable tool in the detection, staging and monitoring of prostate cancer (PCa). However, the substantial overlap in serum PSA values between men with non-malignant prostatic diseases and PCa is the limitation of PSA as a prostate tumor marker. In patients with

  18. Protocatechuic acid (PCA) induced a better antiviral effect by immune enhancement in SPF chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongxia; Zhang, Qiang; Zuo, Zonghui; Chu, Jun; Xiao, Hongzhi; Javed, M Tariq; He, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is an antiviral agent against Avian Influenza virus (AIV) and Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) virus, but its antiviral mechanism is unknown. In this study, we evaluated the humoral and cellular responses to PCA in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. One hundred forty 35-day-old SPF chickens were randomly divided into 7 groups. The birds were inoculated with the commercial, attenuated Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) vaccine and then received orally with 10, 20 or 40 mg/kg body weight of PCA for 30 days. Immune organ indexes, anti-Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) antibodies and lymphocyte proliferation, but not body weight, were significantly increased in chicken treated with 40 mg/kg PCA, compared to the control birds treated with Astragalus polysaccharide (ASP). Survival rate was 70% and 60%, respectively, in the chickens with 40 mg/kg PCA, 20 mg/kg PCA while 50% survival was found in the birds treated with 125 mg/kg ASP. PCA treatment resulted in significantly lower viral load and reduced shedding. These results indicate that PCA may improve poultry health by enhancing both the humoral and cellular immune response. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. GO-PCA: An Unsupervised Method to Explore Gene Expression Data Using Prior Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide expression profiling is a widely used approach for characterizing heterogeneous populations of cells, tissues, biopsies, or other biological specimen. The exploratory analysis of such data typically relies on generic unsupervised methods, e.g. principal component analysis (PCA) or hierarchical clustering. However, generic methods fail to exploit prior knowledge about the molecular functions of genes. Here, I introduce GO-PCA, an unsupervised method that combines PCA with nonparametric GO enrichment analysis, in order to systematically search for sets of genes that are both strongly correlated and closely functionally related. These gene sets are then used to automatically generate expression signatures with functional labels, which collectively aim to provide a readily interpretable representation of biologically relevant similarities and differences. The robustness of the results obtained can be assessed by bootstrapping. I first applied GO-PCA to datasets containing diverse hematopoietic cell types from human and mouse, respectively. In both cases, GO-PCA generated a small number of signatures that represented the majority of lineages present, and whose labels reflected their respective biological characteristics. I then applied GO-PCA to human glioblastoma (GBM) data, and recovered signatures associated with four out of five previously defined GBM subtypes. My results demonstrate that GO-PCA is a powerful and versatile exploratory method that reduces an expression matrix containing thousands of genes to a much smaller set of interpretable signatures. In this way, GO-PCA aims to facilitate hypothesis generation, design of further analyses, and functional comparisons across datasets.

  20. k-t PCA: temporally constrained k-t BLAST reconstruction using principal component analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Kozerke, Sebastian; Ringgaard, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    in applications exhibiting a broad range of temporal frequencies such as free-breathing myocardial perfusion imaging. We show that temporal basis functions calculated by subjecting the training data to principal component analysis (PCA) can be used to constrain the reconstruction such that the temporal resolution...... is improved. The presented method is called k-t PCA....

  1. The biological knowledge discovery by PCCF measure and PCA-F projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xingang; Zhu, Guanqun; Han, Qiuhong; Lu, Zuhong

    2017-01-01

    In the process of biological knowledge discovery, PCA is commonly used to complement the clustering analysis, but PCA typically gives the poor visualizations for most gene expression data sets. Here, we propose a PCCF measure, and use PCA-F to display clusters of PCCF, where PCCF and PCA-F are modeled from the modified cumulative probabilities of genes. From the analysis of simulated and experimental data sets, we demonstrate that PCCF is more appropriate and reliable for analyzing gene expression data compared to other commonly used distances or similarity measures, and PCA-F is a good visualization technique for identifying clusters of PCCF, where we aim at such data sets that the expression values of genes are collected at different time points.

  2. Principales diferencias entre el Plan General de Contabilidad y el Plan General de Contabilidad Pública

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Pacheco, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    Este trabajo consistirá en un análisis entre los aspectos más significativos del Plan General de Contabilidad y Plan General de Contabilidad Pública, en el que se pondrán de manifiesto las principales diferencias en cada una de las partes en las que se estructuran ambos. Concretamente, marco conceptual, criterios de reconocimiento y valoración, cuentas anuales y cuadro de cuentas. Para ello, será fundamental conocer el fin que persiguen cada entidad, para posteriormente, interpretar y aplicar...

  3. La planificación de la movilidad en algunas de las principales ciudades europeas

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte Monedero, Beatriz; Sánchez de Lara, Miguel Ángel

    2011-01-01

    Los mercados del mañana: Bases para su análisis hoy. XXV Congreso Anual AEDEM En este trabajo. se explica la situación actual del transpOIte público en algunas de las principales ciudades europeas, su estructura organizativa y legislativa, planes de movilidad futuros y sislemas de financiación en comparación con la ciudad de Madrid. Asimismo. se sugiere algunas vías complementarias y alternativas de financiación del transporte público. pre-print

  4. Caracterización de las principales cadenas agroalimentarias en Argentina y Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Rojas, Natalia Camila; Palacio Botero, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Cada día es mayor la demanda de alimentos a nivel mundial y menor su oferta debido a múltiples razones, por eso que es de gran importancia encontrar las mejores prácticas para que la cadena de suministro de productos alimenticios sea más eficiente y productiva, no sólo con el fin de llegar a la mayor población posible, sino también de mejorar los rendimientos de cada uno de los participantes de la misma. Este proyecto busca analizar las tres principales cadenas agroalimentarias de Argentin...

  5. Inseguridad alimentaria en los estados de México: un estudio de sus principales determinantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Díaz-Carreño

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un análisis de los principales factores determinantes de la inseguridad alimentaria severa en las entidades federativas de México, para lo cual se utilizó un modelo econométrico de regresión lineal múltiple. Los resultados sugieren que el fenómeno de la inseguridad alimentaria severa en los estados de México durante 2012 responde principalmente a las variables de escolaridad media y crecimiento de la producción per cápita del sector primario.

  6. Inseguridad alimentaria en los estados de México: un estudio de sus principales determinantes

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ángel Díaz-Carreño

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo presenta un análisis de los principales factores determinantes de la inseguridad alimentaria severa en las entidades federativas de México, para lo cual se utilizó un modelo econométrico de regresión lineal múltiple. Los resultados sugieren que el fenómeno de la inseguridad alimentaria severa en los estados de México durante 2012 responde principalmente a las variables de escolaridad media y crecimiento de la producción per cápita del sector primario.

  7. Principales insectos plaga, invertebrados y vertebrados que atacan el cultivo del arroz en Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    MSc. Irán Rodríguez Delgado; Dr. C. Hipólito Israel Pérez Iglesias; Dr. C. Alejandro Rafael Socorro Castro

    2018-01-01

    El trabajo ofrece una revisión bibliográfica actualizada relacionada con la caracterización de los principales insectos plaga, invertebrados y vertebrados que pueden afectar al cultivo del arroz, así como los daños que ocasionan y medidas para su control en Ecuador. La mayor afectación en el cultivo del arroz es ocasionada por la sogata (Tagosodes orizicolus Muir.), que provoca daños directos, producidos por la picadura al momento de alimentarse, o indirectos, al transmitir el virus de la hoj...

  8. El uso del diccionario como componente estratégico en las clases de ele para alumnado sinohablante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Iglesia Martín

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El diccionario cumple una función importante en el proceso de aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera (Lew, 2016.  Cuando un alumno sinohablante está aprendiendo español ve la necesidad de usar el diccionario para verificar la ortografía o el significado de las palabras que desconoce (Tungmen Tu, 2010. Esto se evidencia en el hecho de que cuando un alumno llega a clase siempre trae consigo un diccionario.  Los objetivos principales de este estudio son: (1 hacer  un  diagnóstico  del  uso  que  los estudiantes  sinohablantes  hacen  de  los  diccionarios  en  clase; y (2 analizar la percepción que tienen dichos estudiantes de las ventajas y desventajas que representa el diccionario en el aula de lengua. En las conclusiones del trabajo se propone una línea de actuación docente en el ámbito del  componente  estratégico  para  optimizar  el  uso  de  diccionarios monolingües  y  bilingües  en  clase. Palabras clave: ELE, sinohablantes, diccionarios, competencia estratégica   Abstract: The dictionary plays an important role in the learning process of a foreign language (Lew, 2016. The need to use the dictionary to verify the spelling or the meaning of the words that the Chinese student does not know when s/he is learning Spanish is beyond doubt (Tungmen Tu, 2012. The fact that when a student arrives in class s/he always brings a dictionary is an evidence. The main objectives of this study are: (1 to make a diagnosis of Chinese students dictionary use in class; and (2 analyze the students' perception of the advantages and disadvantages of the dictionary in the language classroom. In the conclusions of the work, a teaching approach is proposed in the scope of the strategic component to optimize the use of monolingual and bilingual dictionaries in class. Key words: ELE, Spanish, Chinese learners, dictionary, strategic competence.

  9. TIC y discapacidad. Principales barreras para la formación del profesorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Fernández Batanero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, teniendo como problemática la Formación Permanente de los Maestros españoles en relación con las TIC aplicadas a personas con discapacidad, analiza las principales barreras para el desarrollo de planes de formación del profesorado y aquellos aspectos que se consideran prioritarios en dicha formación. En la parte empírica del estudio se analizaron 241 entrevistas realizadas a profesionales del sector educativo del estado español (miembros de equipos directivos, coordinadores TIC, directores y asesores tecnológicos de centros de formación del profesorado. Entre las conclusiones podemos destacar que las principales barreras que obstaculizan la realización de actividades de formación de TIC y discapacidad en la mayoría de las comunidades Autónomas vienen determinadas en primer lugar por factores económicos, de tiempo y de actitud del profesorado.

  10. Análisis comparativo de las principales Escuelas de Educación Maternal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Fernández y Fernández-Arroyo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Justificación: Los programas de educación prenatal son una poderosa herramienta para aumentar la salud materno-infantil. Hoy no se conoce el enfoque educativo más eficaz. Objetivo principal: Conocer las diferencias de enfoque y metodología de las principales escuelas de educación maternal. Metodología: Revisión de las bases de datos PubMed, Embase, Lilacs, Scielo y Cochrane desde el año 2000. Revisión de las páginas web de las escuelas. Estudio de la documentación mediante el método comparativo. Análisis mediante una base de datos con el programa Excel. Resultados principales: Se analizan y comparan las 5 primeras escuelas y 10 de las nuevas escuelas emergentes. Conclusión principal: el trabajo permite conocer el enfoque conceptual y la metodología de las escuelas, lo que puede facilitar la elección a los profesionales y el diseño de investigaciones para aumentar la calidad de los programas.

  11. [The value of PHI/PCA3 in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S J; Xu, L W; Xu, Z; Wu, J P; Liang, K; Jia, R P

    2016-01-12

    To investigate the value of prostate health index (PHI) and prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). A total of 190 patients with abnormal serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) or abnormal digital rectal examination were enrolled. They were all underwent initial biopsy and 11 of them were also underwent repeated biopsy. In addition, 25 healthy cases (with normal digital rectal examination and PSAPHI and PCA3 were detected by using immunofluorescence and Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP). The sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis were determined by ROC curve.In addition, the relationship between PHI/PSA and the Gleason score and clinical stage were analyzed. A total of 89 patients were confirmed PCa by Pathological diagnosis. The other 101 patients were diagnosed as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The sensitivity and specificity of PCA3 test were 85.4% was 92.1%. Area under curve (AUC) of PHI is higher than AUC of PSA (0.727>0.699). The PHI in peripheral blood was positively correlated with Gleason score and clinical stage. The detection of PCA3 and PHI shows excellent detecting effectiveness. Compared with single PSA, the combined detection of PHI and PCA3 improved the diagnostic specificity. It can provide a new method for the early diagnosis in prostate cancer and avoid unnecessary biopsies.

  12. GND-PCA-based statistical modeling of diaphragm motion extracted from 4D MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swastika, Windra; Masuda, Yoshitada; Xu, Rui; Kido, Shoji; Chen, Yen-Wei; Haneishi, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed a statistical model of diaphragm motion using regular principal component analysis (PCA) and generalized N-dimensional PCA (GND-PCA). First, we generate 4D MRI of respiratory motion from 2D MRI using an intersection profile method. We then extract semiautomatically the diaphragm boundary from the 4D-MRI to get subject-specific diaphragm motion. In order to build a general statistical model of diaphragm motion, we normalize the diaphragm motion in time and spatial domains and evaluate the diaphragm motion model of 10 healthy subjects by applying regular PCA and GND-PCA. We also validate the results using the leave-one-out method. The results show that the first three principal components of regular PCA contain more than 98% of the total variation of diaphragm motion. However, validation using leave-one-out method gives up to 5.0 mm mean of error for right diaphragm motion and 3.8 mm mean of error for left diaphragm motion. Model analysis using GND-PCA provides about 1 mm margin of error and is able to reconstruct the diaphragm model by fewer samples.

  13. The applications of PCA in QSAR studies: A case study on CCR5 antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, ChangKyoo; Shahlaei, Mohsen

    2018-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA), as a well-known multivariate data analysis and data reduction technique, is an important and useful algebraic tool in drug design and discovery. PCA, in a typical quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study, analyzes an original data matrix in which molecules are described by several intercorrelated quantitative dependent variables (molecular descriptors). Although extensively applied, there is disparity in the literature with respect to the applications of PCA in the QSAR studies. This study investigates the different applications of PCA in QSAR studies using a dataset including CCR5 inhibitors. The different types of preprocessing are used to compare the PCA performances. The use of PC plots in the exploratory investigation of matrix of descriptors is described. This work is also proved PCA analysis to be a powerful technique for exploring complex datasets in QSAR studies for identification of outliers. This study shows that PCA is able to easily apply to the pool of calculated structural descriptors and also the extracted information can be used to help decide upon an appropriate harder model for further analysis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Periarticular infiltration for pain relief after total hip arthroplasty: a comparison with epidural and PCA analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandazi, Ageliki; Kanellopoulos, Ilias; Kalimeris, Konstantinos; Batistaki, Chrysanthi; Nikolakopoulos, Nikolaos; Matsota, Paraskevi; Babis, George C; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia

    2013-11-01

    Epidural and intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) are established methods for pain relief after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Periarticular infiltration is an alternative method that is gaining ground due to its simplicity and safety. Our study aims to assess the efficacy of periarticular infiltration in pain relief after THA. Sixty-three patients undergoing THA under spinal anaesthesia were randomly assigned to receive postoperative analgesia with continuous epidural infusion with ropivacaine (epidural group), intraoperative periarticular infiltration with ropivacaine, clonidine, morphine, epinephrine and corticosteroids (infiltration group) or PCA with morphine (PCA group). PCA morphine provided rescue analgesia in all groups. We recorded morphine consumption, visual analog scale (VAS) scores at rest and movement, blood loss from wound drainage, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and adverse effects at 1, 6, 12, 24 h postoperatively. Morphine consumption at all time points, VAS scores at rest, 6, 12 and 24 h and at movement, 6 and 12 h postoperatively were lower in infiltration group compared to PCA group (p PCA group (p PCA with morphine after THA, providing better pain relief and lower opioid consumption postoperatively. Infiltration seems to be equally effective to epidural analgesia without having the potential side effects of the latter.

  15. Distinct clinical and metabolic deficits in PCA and AD are not related to amyloid distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, M H; Alkalay, A; Agarwal, N; Baker, S L; O'Neil, J P; Janabi, M; Yen, I V; Growdon, M; Jang, J; Madison, C; Mormino, E C; Rosen, H J; Gorno-Tempini, M L; Weiner, M W; Miller, B L; Jagust, W J; Rabinovici, G D

    2011-05-24

    Patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) often have Alzheimer disease (AD) at autopsy, yet are cognitively and anatomically distinct from patients with clinical AD. We sought to compare the distribution of β-amyloid and glucose metabolism in PCA and AD in vivo using Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) and FDG-PET. Patients with PCA (n = 12, age 57.5 ± 7.4, Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] 22.2 ± 5.1), AD (n = 14, age 58.8 ± 9.6, MMSE 23.8 ± 6.7), and cognitively normal controls (NC, n = 30, age 73.6 ± 6.4) underwent PiB and FDG-PET. Group differences in PiB distribution volume ratios (DVR, cerebellar reference) and FDG uptake (pons-averaged) were assessed on a voxel-wise basis and by comparing binding in regions of interest (ROIs). Compared to NC, both patients with AD and patients with PCA showed diffuse PiB uptake throughout frontal, temporoparietal, and occipital cortex (p PCA and AD even after correcting for atrophy. FDG patterns in PCA and AD were distinct: while both groups showed hypometabolism compared to NC in temporoparietal cortex and precuneus/posterior cingulate, patients with PCA further showed hypometabolism in inferior occipitotemporal cortex compared to both NC and patients with AD (p PCA. Fibrillar amyloid deposition in PCA is diffuse and similar to AD, while glucose hypometabolism extends more posteriorly into occipital cortex. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanisms of selective network degeneration in focal variants of AD.

  16. Can we use PCA to detect small signals in noisy data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelberg, Jakob; Rusz, Ján

    2017-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is among the most commonly applied dimension reduction techniques suitable to denoise data. Focusing on its limitations to detect low variance signals in noisy data, we discuss how statistical and systematical errors occur in PCA reconstructed data as a function of the size of the data set, which extends the work of Lichtert and Verbeeck, (2013) [16]. Particular attention is directed towards the estimation of bias introduced by PCA and its influence on experiment design. Aiming at the denoising of large matrices, nullspace based denoising (NBD) is introduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Improved swelling resistance for PCA austenitic stainless steel under HFIR irradiation through microstructural control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziasz, P.J.; Braski, D.N.

    1984-01-01

    Swelling evaluation of PCA variants and 20%-cold-worked (N-Lot) type 316 stainless steel (CW 316) at 300 to 600 0 C was extended to 44 dpa. Swelling was negligible in all the steels at 300 0 C after approx. 44 dpa. At 500 to 600 0 C 25%-cold-worked PCA showed better void swelling resistance than type 316 at approx. 44 dpa. There was less swelling variation among alloys at 400 0 C, but again 25%-cold-worked PCA was the best

  18. Principales protagonistas de la respuesta inflamatoria a la infección

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Velázquez Acosta

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Se hace una revisión de los principales elementos implicados en la respuesta inflamatoria del individuo a la infección, por el beneficio que este conocimiento reporta al mejor manejo terapéutico de los pacientes. Se revisan los principales protagonistas de la inflamación, desde los detonantes como: lipopolisacárido, peptidoglicano, ácidos lipoteicoico y murámico, hasta los principales mediadores implicados. Se discute el proceso de activación de monocitos y células endoteliales y la repercusión de ello, y se hace un análisis dinámico del proceso de activación en función del tiempo trancurrido desde el comienzo de la infección, y sus etapas fisiopatológicas. Se evidencia el papel protagónico que tiene el propio organismo en el daño producido por la respuesta a la infección, además de la importancia del adecuado equilibrio entre proinflamación y contrarregulación para el pronóstico del enfermo, lo que obliga a tenerlo en cuenta a la hora del tratamiento.A review of the main elements involved in the inflamatory response of the individuals to infection is made, taking into account that this knowledge helps to improve the therapeutic management of patients. The main agents of inflammation are reviewed, starting from detonators such as: lipopolysaccharides, petpidoglycans, muramic acid to the principal mediators involved. The activation process of monocytes and endothelial cells is dicussed, as well as its repercussion. A dynamic analysis of the activation process according to the time elapsed since the onset of the infection and of its physiopathological stages is made. It is demonstrated the fundamental role played by the organism in the damage produced by the response to infection, and the importance of an adequate balance between proinflammation and contraregulation for the patient´s prognosis, which makes it necessary at the time of treatment.

  19. Prostate health index (phi) and prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) significantly improve diagnostic accuracy in patients undergoing prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdonà, Sisto; Bruzzese, Dario; Ferro, Matteo; Autorino, Riccardo; Marino, Ada; Mazzarella, Claudia; Perruolo, Giuseppe; Longo, Michele; Spinelli, Rosa; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Oliva, Andrea; De Sio, Marco; Damiano, Rocco; Altieri, Vincenzo; Terracciano, Daniela

    2013-02-15

    Prostate health index (phi) and prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) have been recently proposed as novel biomarkers for prostate cancer (PCa). We assessed the diagnostic performance of these biomarkers, alone or in combination, in men undergoing first prostate biopsy for suspicion of PCa. One hundred sixty male subjects were enrolled in this prospective observational study. PSA molecular forms, phi index (Beckman coulter immunoassay), PCA3 score (Progensa PCA3 assay), and other established biomarkers (tPSA, fPSA, and %fPSA) were assessed before patients underwent a 18-core first prostate biopsy. The discriminating ability between PCa-negative and PCa-positive biopsies of Beckman coulter phi and PCA3 score and other used biomarkers were determined. One hundred sixty patients met inclusion criteria. %p2PSA (p2PSA/fPSA × 100), phi and PCA3 were significantly higher in patients with PCa compared to PCa-negative group (median values: 1.92 vs. 1.55, 49.97 vs. 36.84, and 50 vs. 32, respectively, P ≤ 0.001). ROC curve analysis showed that %p2PSA, phi, and PCA3 are good indicator of malignancy (AUCs = 0.68, 0.71, and 0.66, respectively). A multivariable logistic regression model consisting of both the phi index and PCA3 score allowed to reach an overall diagnostic accuracy of 0.77. Decision curve analysis revealed that this "combined" marker achieved the highest net benefit over the examined range of the threshold probability. phi and PCA3 showed no significant difference in the ability to predict PCa diagnosis in men undergoing first prostate biopsy. However, diagnostic performance is significantly improved by combining phi and PCA3. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. ANÁLISE DE COMPONENTES PRINCIPAIS APLICADA À CIÊNCIA DE ALIMENTOS: ESTUDO DE CASO COM PEQUI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Inacio Alves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho se objetivou avaliar a potencialidade da análise de componentes principais para a interpretação de resultados de um experimento com microencapsulamento de pequi. O experimento foi realizado no laboratório de Tecnologia de Frutas e Hortaliças do Departamento de Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade Federal de Viçosa. As variáveis utilizadas neste trabalho foram extraídas de um estudo físico-químico e morfológico obtidos a partir de extrato de pequi. A análise de componentes foi realizada com base na matriz de correlação existente entre as componentes e as variáveis reais transformadas, de forma a identificar novas variáveis que explicam a maior parte da variabilidade, gerando-se novos valores para cada parcela experimental correspondente às componentes principais. Para cada temperatura utilizada no trabalho foram ajustadas apenas duas componentes capazes de explicar mais de 90% da variância dos dados originais. A análise de componentes principais foi eficiente neste estudo, gerando componentes interpretáveis reduzindo a dimensionalidade do problema se a perda de informações.

  1. Volumen y asimetría en los principales mercados accionarios latinoamericanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Kristjanpoller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se enfoca en determinar la relación entre los volúmenes de operación y la asimetría de los rendimientos de los principales mercados accionarios latinoamericanos: Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, México y Perú. Se utiliza el modelo propuesto por Hutson et al. (2008, el cual incluye especificaciones de los primeros tres momentos de los volúmenes de operación comercializados y de los rendimientos de los mercados. La principal conclusión del estudio es el hallazgo de evidencia estadísticamente significativa de la influencia de los volúmenes de transacción y la asimetría de los rendimientos en los mercados accionarios de México, Brasil, Chile, Colombia y Argentina y en menor cuantía en Perú.

  2. LA CONCILIACIÓN PREPROCESAL EN EL SISTEMA PENAL ACUSATORIO Y SUS PRINCIPALES APORTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Becerra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La aproximación que se efectúa en el presente estudio, inicia con un acercamiento al concepto de conciliación como mecanismo alternativo de resolución de conflictos, estableciendo los rasgos generales de esta figura; para posteriormente analizar el antecedente inmediato de la conciliación preprocesal en la ley 600 de 2.000, que abrió camino para concederle en materia penal a este mecanismo mayor importancia. Subsiguientemente se profundiza en la conciliación preprocesal consagrada expresamente en la ley 906 de 2004, y se analizan los cambios generados, para así conocer sus características, y determinar sus principales aportes, en el marco del sistema penal acusatorio.

  3. IMPACTOS DE LAS CARRETERAS SOBRE LA FAUNA SILVESTRE Y SUS PRINCIPALES MEDIDAS DE MANEJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Arroyave

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es presentar el impacto de los proyectos viales sobre la fauna silvestre y evaluar las medidas de manejo de estos efectos. Se revisó y analizó la información de diversos estudios realizados en el mundo, al igual que algunos estudios de impacto ambiental de carreteras que se han desarrollado en Antioquia. Se encontró que los principales impactos son el atropellamiento, el aislamiento de poblaciones y el cambio en los patrones reproductivos de la fauna; esto trae como consecuencia la disminución de las poblaciones de especies de fauna silvestre. También se plantean las estrategias comúnmente implementadas para el manejo de los impactos.

  4. Using a cross-model loadings plot to identify protein spots causing 2-DE gels to become outliers in PCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Luise Cederkvist; Jacobsen, Susanne; Jessen, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    The multivariate method PCA is an exploratory tool often used to get an overview of multivariate data, such as the quantified spot volumes of digitized 2-DE gels. PCA can reveal hidden structures present in the data, and thus enables identification of potential outliers and clustering. Based on PCA...

  5. Usos y ocurrencia de los principales metales que se producen en Sonora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lourdes Vega Granillo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available México posee gran cantidad de recursos minerales producto de la naturaleza, por lo que su explotación a través de la minería y el cuidado del medio ambiente deben de coexistir de una manera armoniosa. A través del tiempo la minería ha desempeñado un papel fundamental en la vida económica del país, ya que su desarrollo ha permitido que en la actualidad sea la tercera fuente generadora de ingresos. Asimismo, la minería permite que se desarrollen actividades, como la agrícola y la industrial (automotriz, acerera, cinematográfica, etcétera, entre otras. A nivel mundial, México ocupa el primer lugar en producción de plata, existiendo otros minerales metálicos importantes, como el oro, plomo, hierro, zinc, cobre, uranio y torio. Se considera a la minería como una actividad económica primaria debido a que los minerales se toman directamente de la naturaleza, encontrándose sobre la superficie o bien en el subsuelo a diferentes profundidades. Algunos de los principales centros mineros se localizan al norte del país, pero en los últimos años, Sonora se ha revelado como el estado productor de minerales más importante de México. Los principales minerales son: cobre y metales preciosos, como el oro y la plata. Por ello en el presente artículo, se mencionan los usos más comunes de estos metales, así como su ocurrencia en el estado, y su importancia económica a escala regional.

  6. Faults detection approach using PCA and SOM algorithm in PMSG-WT system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Lamine FADDA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new approach for faults detection in observable data system wind turbine - permanent magnet synchronous generator (WT-PMSG, the studying objective, illustrate the combination (SOM-PCA to build Multi-local-PCA models faults detection in system (WT-PMSG, the performance of the method suggested to faults detection in system data, finding good results in simulation experiment.

  7. Autophagosomal Sequestration of Mitochondria as an Indicator of Antiandrogen Therapy Resistance of Prostate Cancer (PCa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Prostate Cancer (PCa) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: George Wilding, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Houston, TX...Indicator of Antiandrogen Therapy Resistance of Prostate Cancer (PCa) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0509 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center 1515 Holcombe Blvd. Houston, TX 77030-4009

  8. Lactate Oxidation Coupled to Iron or Electrode Reduction by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA

    KAUST Repository

    Call, D. F.

    2011-10-14

    Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA completely oxidized lactate and reduced iron or an electrode, producing pyruvate and acetate intermediates. Compared to the current produced by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, G. sulfurreducens PCA produced 10-times-higher current levels in lactate-fed microbial electrolysis cells. The kinetic and comparative analyses reported here suggest a prominent role of G. sulfurreducens strains in metaland electrode-reducing communities supplied with lactate. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Lactate Oxidation Coupled to Iron or Electrode Reduction by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA

    KAUST Repository

    Call, D. F.; Logan, B. E.

    2011-01-01

    Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA completely oxidized lactate and reduced iron or an electrode, producing pyruvate and acetate intermediates. Compared to the current produced by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, G. sulfurreducens PCA produced 10-times-higher current levels in lactate-fed microbial electrolysis cells. The kinetic and comparative analyses reported here suggest a prominent role of G. sulfurreducens strains in metaland electrode-reducing communities supplied with lactate. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Las estrategias de aprendizaje a través del componente lúdico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Benítez, Gema

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Suplemento del número 11 de marcoELE (julio – diciembre de 2010 Las estrategias de aprendizaje permiten que estudiantes con mayor o menor capacidad intelectual puedan lograr por igual un mismo objetivo. La tarea del profesor es, en la medida de lo posible, hacer que todos ellos desarrollen sus propias estrategias y obtengan un mayor y mejor rendimiento durante el proceso. Una fuente de recursos estratégicos es el componente lúdico, el cual ofrece numerosas ventajas en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. El componente lúdico puede servirnos de estrategia afectiva, comunicativa, cognitiva o de memorización. Este trabajo de investigación se estructura en una parte teórica, centrada, por un lado, en la revisión del concepto de estrategia de aprendizaje, clasificación y papel en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje y, por otro, en las ventajas que ofrece el componente lúdico y cómo puede convertirse en un recurso estratégico fundamental. Por último, se ofrece una serie de actividades lúdicas con las que poner en práctica las estrategias de aprendizaje en el aula ELE.

  11. LA PUBLICIDAD SOBRE ÓRGANOS Y COMPONENTES HUMANOS EN LATINOAMÉRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adolfo García Arango

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El comercio de componentes humanos, como todo en el comercio, nace de una oferta y una demanda, las cuales son publicitadas para lograr su efectividad. En la investigación se revisó la normativa relacionada con órganos y trasplantes en varios países latinoamericanos. Sin embargo, no en todos los países las normas hacen alusión expresa a la publicidad de órganos u otros componentes anatómicos como el caso de México. En otras ni siquiera se menciona el término publicidad, como en Guatemala, Honduras, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, Venezuela, Bolivia o Chile. Sólo en Colombia, Perú, Paraguay, Argentina, Brasil y España hay una alusión directa a la publicidad de órganos y trasplantes. En general, las normas apuntan a restringir la publicidad sobre componentes humanos sea desde el anunciante o desde el anuncio mismo.

  12. Lateral supraorbital approach to ipsilateral PCA-P1 and ICA-PCoA aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehre, Felix; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Elsharkawy, Ahmed; Lehto, Hanna; Shekhtman, Oleg; Andrade-Barazarte, Hugo; Munoz, Francisco; Hijazy, Ferzat; Makhkamov, Makhkam; Hernesniemi, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysms of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) are rare and often associated with anterior circulation aneurysms. The lateral supraorbital approach allows for a very fast and safe approach to the ipsilateral lesions Circle of Willis. A technical note on the successful clip occlusion of two aneurysms in the anterior and posterior Circle of Willis via this less invasive approach has not been published before. The objective of this technical note is to describe the simultaneous microsurgical clip occlusion of an ipsilateral PCA-P1 and an internal carotid artery - posterior communicating artery (ICA-PCoA) aneurysm via the lateral supraorbital approach. The authors present a technical report of successful clip occlusions of ipsilateral located PCA-P1 and ICA-PCoA aneurysms. A 59-year-old female patient was diagnosed with a PCA-P1 and an ipsilateral ICA-PCoA aneurysm by computed tomography angiography (CTA) after an ischemic stroke secondary to a contralateral ICA dissection. The patient underwent microsurgical clipping after a lateral supraorbital craniotomy. The intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography and the postoperative CTA showed a complete occlusion of both aneurysms; the parent vessels (ICA and PCA) were patent. The patient presents postoperative no new neurologic deficit. The lateral supraorbital approach is suitable for the simultaneous microsurgical treatment of proximal anterior circulation and ipsilateral proximal PCA aneurysms. Compared to endovascular treatment, direct visual control of brainstem perforators is possible.

  13. Efficacy and tolerability of intravenous morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) in women undergoing cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andziak, Marta; Beta, Jarosław; Barwijuk, Michal; Issat, Tadeusz; Jakimiuk, Artur J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate analgesic efficacy and tolerability of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with intravenous morphine. Our observational study included 50 women who underwent a Misgav-Ladach or modified Misgav-Ladach cesarean section. Automated PCA infusion device (Medima S-PCA Syringe Pump, Medima, Krakow, Poland) was used for postoperative pain control. Time of morphine administration or initiation of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) with morphine was recorded, as well as post-operative pain at rest assessed by a visual analogue scale (VAS). All patients were followed up for 24 hours after discharge from the operating room, taking into account patient records, worst pain score at rest, number of IV PCA attempts, and drug consumption. Median of total morphine doses used during the postoperative period was 42.9mg (IQR 35.6-48.5), with median infusion time of 687.0 min. (IQR 531.0-757.5). Pain severity and total drug consumption improved after the first 3 hours following cesarean delivery (p PCA attempts per patient was 33 (IQR: 24-37), with median of 11 placebo attempts (IQR: 3-27). Patient-controlled analgesia with morphine is an efficient and acceptable analgesic method in women undergoing cesarean section.

  14. componente vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moscovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine environmental impact, indicators based on vegetation characteristics that would generate the forestry monoculture with the adjacent native forest, 32 sample unit were installed in an area of LIPSIA private enterprise, Esperanza Department, Misiones with those characteristics. The plots of 100 m2 were distributed systematically every 25 meters. The vegetation was divided in stratum: superior (DBH ≥ 10 cm, middle (1,6 cm ≤ DBH > 10 cm and inferior (DBH< cm. There were installed 10 plots in a logged native forest, 10 plots in a 18 years old Pinus elliottii Engelm. with approximately 400 trees/ha., 6 plots in a 10 – 25 years old Araucaria angustifolia (Bertd. Kuntze limiting area with approximately 900 trees/ha., and 6 plots located in this plantation. In the studied area were identified 150 vegetation species. In the inferior stratum there were found differences as function of various floristic diversity indexes. In all the cases the native forest showed larger diversity than plantations, followed by Pinus elliottii, Araucaria plantation and Araucaria limiting area. All the studied forest fitted to a logarithmical series of species distributions, that would indicate the incidence of a environmental factor in this distribution.

  15. Suplementos nutricionales como modificadores del riesgo cardiovascular en componentes del síndrome metabólico en adultos

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    Stefano Tassinari

    2017-05-01

    Conclusión: El uso de suplementos nutricionales con ácidos grasos de cadena larga y antioxidante podría tener efectos benéficos en la disminución de riesgo cardiovascular en pacientes con diagnóstico de síndrome metabólico o alguno de sus componentes. El uso de suplementos con otros componentes debe estudiarse a mayor profundidad para efectuar recomendaciones.

  16. Incidencia del componente cultural en la ense??anza de las lenguas extranjeras para fines espec??ficos

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Moreno, Jos??

    2000-01-01

    El reconocimiento de la presencia del componente cultural en las lenguas constituye en nuestros d??as una obviedad. No obstante, la ense??anza de las lenguas extranjeras en general, as?? como la de los registros especializados de ??stas en particular, no concede la relevancia necesaria a dicho componente. Intentaremos con nuestro estudio responder a problemas que afectan, a nuestro juicio, a los fundamentos mismos de las ense??anzas de los discursos de especialidad. Primero, entendemos que es...

  17. El componente suelo dentro de los estudios de impacto ambiental para la construcción de carreteras

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Castrillón, Doralba Adiela

    2013-01-01

    Resumen: En el desarrollo e implementación de obras nuevas de infraestructura vial es fundamental incluir el recurso suelo como un componente relevante en los Estudios de Impacto Ambiental (EIA) debido a la importancia que tiene caracterizarlo acertadamente y conocer su capacidad de uso y manejo. Para cumplir con lo anterior es necesario que exista una normatividad ambiental que considere el suelo como un componente determinante en planes de manejo ambiental coherentes. Con el objetivo de hac...

  18. Estado del conocimiento y principales amenazas de los humedales boscosos de agua dulce de Chile Knowledge status and principal threats to freshwater forested wetlands of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO CORREA-ARANEDA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Los humedales boscosos de agua dulce son áreas naturalmente inundadas o saturadas, que sustentan vegetación boscosa hidrófila, están presentes en todo el mundo, y en Chile son conocidos como "pitrantos, hualves o hualhues". El presente estudio entrega el estado del conocimiento de estos humedales en Chile, mediante una descripción de sus características biológicas, fisicoquímicas e hidrodinámicas, identificando las principales amenazas para su conservación y las principales necesidades de investigación. Estos ambientes pueden presentar inundación permanente o temporal, dependiendo de un conjunto de procesos microclimáticos, biológicos y edafológicos. Su vegetación, del tipo hidrófila boscosa, es dominada por especies de la familia Myrtaceae. Tanto el comportamiento hídrico como la estructura vegetacional destacan dentro de los aspectos que determinan directamente las características fisicoquímicas del agua y los patrones de distribución de las comunidades biológicas. Los humedales boscosos de Chile han sido ampliamente estudiados desde un punto de vista vegetacional y florístico, pero carecen de estudios limnológicos, hidrológicos o faunísticos básicos, de lo cual deriva un total desconocimiento en relación a su funcionamiento a nivel ecosistémico y los efectos que pueden tener las actividades humanas en sus cuencas (e.g., agrícola, ganadera, forestal sobre sus componentes hídricos y biológicos. A pesar de ser ecosistemas de gran relevancia cultural y ecológica, se identifican importantes falencias en cuanto a su estado de conservación, al no encontrarse protegidos por las actuales herramientas de conservación existentes en el país. Por lo tanto, emergen como ecosistemas únicos, de relevancia mundial, prácticamente desconocidos en Chile y de gran interés para el desarrollo de numerosas líneas de investigación, aunque su alta susceptibilidad ante perturbaciones de origen antrópico amenaza su permanencia

  19. Estudo fatorial dos componentes da leitura: velocidade, compreensão e reconhecimento de palavras Estudio factorial de los componentes de la lectura: velocidad, comprensión y reconocimiento de palabras Factorial study of reading components: speed, comprehension and word recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Gotuzo Seabra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Modelos de processamento de informação têm identificado diferentes processos envolvidos na leitura, incluindo reconhecimento de palavras, compreensão e velocidade, podendo o reconhecimento ocorrer por três diferentes estratégias, logográfica, alfabética e ortográfica. De modo a identificar tais componentes na leitura, foram avaliados 443 estudantes da 1ª à 4ª série do ensino fundamental, em testes de reconhecimento de palavras, compreensão oral/auditiva, compreensão de leitura, processamento ortográfico e velocidade de leitura. Foi conduzida análise fatorial por componentes principais e rotação oblimin, derivando quatro fatores. O fator 1 incluiu reconhecimento de palavras familiares e compreensão linguística oral e escrita; o fator 2 compreendeu as estratégias logográfica e alfabética de reconhecimento de palavras; o fator 3, a estratégia ortográfica; e o fator 4 referiu-se à velocidade leitora. Os achados, bastante próximos ao esperado teoricamente, podem auxiliar na compreensão dos processos cognitivos envolvidos na leitura de crianças no início do ensino fundamental.Modelos de procesamiento de información han identificado diferentes procesos abarcados en la lectura, incluyendo reconocimiento de palabras, comprensión y velocidad, siendo que el reconocimiento puede ocurrir por tres diferentes estrategias, logográfica, alfabética y ortográfica. Con el fin de identificar tales componentes en la lectura, fueron evaluados 443 estudiantes del primer al cuarto año de la enseñanza básica, en testes de reconocimiento de palabras, comprensión oral/auditiva, comprensión de lectura, procesamiento ortográfico y velocidad de lectura. Fue conducida análisis factorial por componentes principales y rotación oblimin, derivando cuatro factores. El factor 1 incluyó reconocimiento de palabras familiares y comprensión lingüística oral y escrita; el factor 2 comprendió las estrategias logográfica y alfabética de

  20. PCA as a practical indicator of OPLS-DA model reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Bradley; Powers, Robert

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) are powerful statistical modeling tools that provide insights into separations between experimental groups based on high-dimensional spectral measurements from NMR, MS or other analytical instrumentation. However, when used without validation, these tools may lead investigators to statistically unreliable conclusions. This danger is especially real for Partial Least Squares (PLS) and OPLS, which aggressively force separations between experimental groups. As a result, OPLS-DA is often used as an alternative method when PCA fails to expose group separation, but this practice is highly dangerous. Without rigorous validation, OPLS-DA can easily yield statistically unreliable group separation. A Monte Carlo analysis of PCA group separations and OPLS-DA cross-validation metrics was performed on NMR datasets with statistically significant separations in scores-space. A linearly increasing amount of Gaussian noise was added to each data matrix followed by the construction and validation of PCA and OPLS-DA models. With increasing added noise, the PCA scores-space distance between groups rapidly decreased and the OPLS-DA cross-validation statistics simultaneously deteriorated. A decrease in correlation between the estimated loadings (added noise) and the true (original) loadings was also observed. While the validity of the OPLS-DA model diminished with increasing added noise, the group separation in scores-space remained basically unaffected. Supported by the results of Monte Carlo analyses of PCA group separations and OPLS-DA cross-validation metrics, we provide practical guidelines and cross-validatory recommendations for reliable inference from PCA and OPLS-DA models.

  1. PCA based clustering for brain tumor segmentation of T1w MRI images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Irem Ersöz; Pehlivanlı, Ayça Çakmak; Sekizkardeş, Emine Gezmez; Ibrikci, Turgay

    2017-03-01

    Medical images are huge collections of information that are difficult to store and process consuming extensive computing time. Therefore, the reduction techniques are commonly used as a data pre-processing step to make the image data less complex so that a high-dimensional data can be identified by an appropriate low-dimensional representation. PCA is one of the most popular multivariate methods for data reduction. This paper is focused on T1-weighted MRI images clustering for brain tumor segmentation with dimension reduction by different common Principle Component Analysis (PCA) algorithms. Our primary aim is to present a comparison between different variations of PCA algorithms on MRIs for two cluster methods. Five most common PCA algorithms; namely the conventional PCA, Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis (PPCA), Expectation Maximization Based Principal Component Analysis (EM-PCA), Generalize Hebbian Algorithm (GHA), and Adaptive Principal Component Extraction (APEX) were applied to reduce dimensionality in advance of two clustering algorithms, K-Means and Fuzzy C-Means. In the study, the T1-weighted MRI images of the human brain with brain tumor were used for clustering. In addition to the original size of 512 lines and 512 pixels per line, three more different sizes, 256 × 256, 128 × 128 and 64 × 64, were included in the study to examine their effect on the methods. The obtained results were compared in terms of both the reconstruction errors and the Euclidean distance errors among the clustered images containing the same number of principle components. According to the findings, the PPCA obtained the best results among all others. Furthermore, the EM-PCA and the PPCA assisted K-Means algorithm to accomplish the best clustering performance in the majority as well as achieving significant results with both clustering algorithms for all size of T1w MRI images. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Diferencias entre la composición sectorial y ocupacional de las principales ciudades chilenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Lufín Varas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available La planifcación regional y urbana ha tendido a fjarse exclusivamente en la composición sectorial de las economías locales, asumiendo en forma implícita que la estructura de ocupaciones por actividad es similar a lo largo de un país. Si bien este supuesto parece ser cierto para el conjunto del tejido productivo, se encuentran diferencias signifcativas cuando se analizan ocupaciones específcas. Entre ellas destacan aquellas intensivas en conocimiento, las cuales tienden a estar sobrerrepresen-tadas en las principales ciudades. Se propone una metodología para el análisis de la relación existente entre la estructura de ocupaciones y la estructura sectorial y se aplica al estudio de las principales ciudades chilenas en 2002 a partir de la información del Censo de población, con el objetivo de estimar en qué medida estas estructuras divergen y si existen concentraciones relativas de ocupaciones, observándose que aquellas relacionadas con el conocimiento y la toma de decisiones empresariales tienen una presencia mayor que la esperada en el área metropolitana de Santiago.Regional and urban planning have tended to be exclusively focused on the industrial mix of local economies, implicitly assuming that the occupational mix of economic activities is similar throughout a country. Tis assumption seems to be right fom the perspective of the productive system as a whole, however signifcant diferences arise when analyzing certain occupations. Among them, knowledge-intensive occupations stand out and tend to be overrepresented in the main urban areas. A methodolog y is proposed to analyze the relationship between the occupational and industrial structures. Tis methodology is applied to the case of the principal Chilean cities in 2002 using data fom the population Census in order to estimate the extent to which these structures diverge and whether or not there are relative concentrations of occupations. Results show that the presence of managerial

  3. Principales enfermedades que afectan al cultivo del arroz en Ecuador y alternativas para su control

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    Dr. C. Hipólito Israel Pérez Iglesias

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available En el mundo y en Ecuador el cultivo de arroz constituye uno de los rubros más importantes por el área cultivada que abarca, la producción que alcanza y el aporte alimentario que realiza. A nivel nacional, a pesar de contar con grandes extensiones de terrenos aptos y condiciones climáticas favorables para el cultivo se obtiene baja productividad, debido fundamentalmente a diferentes patologías que disminuyen la rentabilidad del productor arrocero. La investigación se desarrolló con la finalidad de elaborar un material científico mediante consulta de literatura actualizada, relacionado con las características, daños que provocan y medidas para el control de las principales enfermedades que pueden producir afectaciones al cultivo del arroz. En el país el cultivo es afectado principalmente por enfermedades producidas por hongos y virus, entre las que se destacan la quemazón, la cual se presenta en todas las zonas arroceras del país y es la que mayor afectación produce, además la pudrición de la vaina que se presenta de forma esporádica; mientras la Pudrición Negra se ha registrado en las principales provincias productoras (Guayas, Los Ríos y Manabí, además de El Oro; y en menor magnitud por bacterias y nematodos. El VHB y entorchamiento, son patologías producidas por virus que causan daños considerables. Para mantener un adecuado control fitosanitario de las plantaciones de arroz es conveniente, mantener un monitoreo constante de la incidencia de estas amenazas, con la finalidad de determinar el umbral económico de daños, encaminados a establecer controles en el momento oportuno y disminuir las pérdidas. Palabras clave: Cultivo del arroz, enfermedades, alternativas, manejo agrícola.

  4. Private equity y venture capital: Diferenciación y principales características

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    Leonel Arango Vásquez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es explicar, desde la teoría, dos posibles opciones de financiación que tienen las empresas cuando éstas no pueden acceder a las fuentes tradicionales. La industria del Capital Riesgo surge así como una fuente alternativa de financiación. Esta industria opera a través de vehículos especiales de inversión llamados fondos Private Equity y fondos Venture Capital. En general, los primeros invierten en compañías maduras y desarrolladas, mientras que los segundos lo hacen en empresas nacientes y pequeñas. El ciclo de financiación que proveen estos fondos se estructura en tres etapas principales: captación de recursos, inversión y desinversión. En este artículo se explica la diferencia entre los términos Private Equity y Venture Capital, así como las principales características de las etapas mencionadas.Palabras clave: desinversión; Capital Riesgo; captación de fondos; inversión alternativa; pymes. Private equity and venture capital: Differentiation and main characteristicsAbstractThe purpose of this article with a qualitative approach aims to determine, from the theory the business environment, when companies are not capable to obtain financing through traditional sources, the Private Equity industry is viewed as an alternative source of finance for those companies. This industry operates through special investment vehicles named Private Equity Funds and Venture Capital Funds. In general, the former invest in develop and mature firms, the latter focus on infant and small companies. The financial cycle that these funds supply is structured in three main phases: fundraising phase, investment phase, and divestment phase or exit. This paper explains the difference between Private Equity and Venture Capital, as well as the main characteristics of the mentioned phases; through the methodology of content analysis, which aims to continue the research project of Venture Capital Industry in Colombia

  5. Principales causas de muerte en España : el uso de años de vida perdidos

    OpenAIRE

    Arriaga, Eduardo

    1993-01-01

    En este artículo se analiza el nivel y cambio de la mortalidad de españa por causas de muerte desde 1981 a 1986. Primero se consideran grandes grupos de causas de muerte por edades, y posteriormente cada una de las causas principales de muerte. El análisis permite determinar las principales causas de muerte que operaban en españa en los dos años mencionados. Además, se determina el impacto que los cambios de mortalidad de cada causa tuvo sobre la vida humana, y las causas de muerte que más rá...

  6. Caracterización de los determinantes sociales de la salud y los componentes de la discapacidad en la ciudad de Manizales, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Lucía Castelblanco Niño

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer la relación existente entre los determinantes sociales de la salud y los componentes de la discapacidad. Corresponde a un estudio de tipo descriptivo con fase correlacional, se analizaron 6.150 registros de personas identificadas en el Registro de Localización y Caracterización de las Personas con Discapacidad en la ciudad de Manizales. En los resultados se observaron 3.181 registros de mujeres y 2.969 de hombres; edad promedio: hombres, 40.5 años, y mujeres, 48.9 años. Se destaca la presencia de las alteraciones en el movimiento de cuerpo, manos, brazos y piernas, con 44.7 %. Las principales barreras son las arquitectónicas, se presenta mayor participación social en actividades religiosas y familiares y menor participación en actividades culturales. Las deficiencias y alteraciones permanentes son más frecuentes en la adultez media, la vejez y la infancia, igualmente, se encontró relación de la edad y el grupo étnico con la restricción en la participación, p<0,05. Como conclusión se observa que los bajos niveles educativos producto de la restricción en la participación obstaculizan la capacidad de adquirir conocimientos y habilidades que permitirían acceso a un mercado laboral más amplio y a mejores condiciones de vida.

  7. Efecto de los componentes del agua de mar durante el fenómeno de corrosión por picaduras del cobre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, E.

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Copper is the main component in Cu-Ni alloys recommended for sea water applications. This work presents the electrochemical behaviour of copper in presence of different sea water components and its influence on the corrosion attack. The combined action of chloride and sulphate ions are the main responsible factor for the localized corrosion attack in the form of pitting. A significant parabolic relation exists between the critical pitting potential (Ep and the weight ratio of chloride to sulphate (Cl-/SO42- ions. Therefore sulphate ions are an important component for pitting corrosion of copper.

    El cobre es el elemento principal de las aleaciones Cu-Ni recomendadas para aplicaciones marinas. En este trabajo se presenta el comportamiento electroquímico del cobre con los diferentes componentes del agua de mar y el efecto de estos sobre la forma de ataque del cobre. Se observó que los iones cloruro, en unión con los iones sulfato, son los principales causantes del fenómeno de corrosión por picaduras, existiendo, además, una relación significativa entre el potencial crítico de picado (Ep y la relación (Cl-/SO42- de tipo parabólico, lo cual pone de manifiesto la importancia del ion sulfato en el fenómeno de corrosión por picaduras como promotor de este tipo de mecanismo.

  8. Principales retos a la inclusión en la educación superior ecuatoriana

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    Yanet González Reyes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available La inclusión de grupos tradicionalmente excluidos de la enseñanza superior: pobres, indígenas, discapacitados, negros, entre otros; se ha convertido en un tema de interés y de debate a nivel internacional y nacional. En este sentido, existen algunos vacíos teóricos y prácticos que plantean retos sustantivos a la inclusión, y que, por tanto, constituyen un punto de partida para el avance hacia una verdadera integralidad en la calidad de la enseñanza superior en la región. El objetivo de este artículo es discutir la problemática vigente de la inclusión en la educación superior ecuatoriana, resumiendo sus principales logros y sus mayores retos y aportar recomendaciones para la práctica y la generación de políticas públicas.

  9. La rebelión criolla de la Villa de Oruro. Principales causas y perspectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frigerio, José Óscar

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    Desde la frustrada rebelión de 1739, la villa minera de Oruro soportó continuas disputas de sus principales vecinos criollos con los españoles por el control de los primeros cargos del Cabildo, generándose dos bandos enfrentados. El conflicto se acentuó durante la década de 1760 al surgir el clan Rodríguez, que monopolizó los cargos capitulares sustentándose en su gran poder económico. La década de 1770 presenció no sólo el aumento excesivo de las cargas fiscales y del control burocrático real, sino una particular coyuntura de iliquidez de los mineros criollos que sería detonante de su rebelión en 1781. En confluencia con la sublevación general de Túpac Amaru, la rebelión de la villa entera liderada por los Rodríguez dio como resultado la masacre y saqueo de un grupo de comerciantes españoles. Oruro implico un incipiente polo de poder criollo, con la elaboración de una ideología nacionalista criolla, sustentada en justificaciones ideológicas y un limitado mesianismo. Su carencia de programa independentista produjo una alternancia ambigua de sus líderes criollos entre los polos enfrentados.

  10. Principales factores de riesgo psicológicos y sociales en el adolescente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Herrera Santi

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se realiza un análisis de los principales factores de riesgo psicosociales que pueden incidir en los adolescentes, y se hace una distinción entre los factores de riesgo psicológicos y los sociales; se considera que el conocimiento más profundo de éstos puede servir de ayuda al médico de la familia en la atención a este grupo social, con el objetivo de prevenir la aparición de futuros problemas de salud.In this paper it is made an analysis of the main psychosocial risk factors that may influence on the adolescents. It is also made a distinction between the psychological risk factors and the social ones. It is considered that a better knowledge of these factors may help the family physician to give attention to this social group in order to prevent the appearance of future health problems.

  11. Efectividad de los programas psicoeducativos dirigidos a cuidadores principales de familiares con enfermedad de Alzheimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Medina González

    Full Text Available Resumen: Objetivos: El presente estudio se plantea describir la efectividad de los programas psicoeducativos en la disminución de la sobrecarga y la sintomatología derivada de la misma en cuidadores principales de familiares con enfermedad de Alzheimer. Metodología: Se ha llevado a cabo un proceso de revisión bibliográfica en diferentes bases de datos electrónicas nacionales (IME, CUIDEN e internacionales (CINAHL, COCHRANE y MEDLINE, que se ha completado con una búsqueda manual en editoriales electrónicas, guías de práctica clínica y motores de búsqueda y con una búsqueda secundaria de artículos. Se han admitido publicaciones realizadas entre enero de 2000 y febrero de 2014. Resultados: La bibliografía consultada ofrece resultados poco claros. Aunque existe un número importante de estudios en los que las intervenciones psicoeducativas han mostrado resultados positivos, en muchos de los casos no se obtienen los efectos esperados. Conclusiones: Se considera necesario profundizar en el desarrollo de nuevos programas psicoeducativos, superando las limitaciones metodológicas encontradas.

  12. 2D-3D Face Recognition Method Basedon a Modified CCA-PCA Algorithm

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    Patrik Kamencay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposed methodology for face recognition based on an information theory approach to coding and decoding face images. In this paper, we propose a 2D-3D face-matching method based on a principal component analysis (PCA algorithm using canonical correlation analysis (CCA to learn the mapping between a 2D face image and 3D face data. This method makes it possible to match a 2D face image with enrolled 3D face data. Our proposed fusion algorithm is based on the PCA method, which is applied to extract base features. PCA feature-level fusion requires the extraction of different features from the source data before features are merged together. Experimental results on the TEXAS face image database have shown that the classification and recognition results based on the modified CCA-PCA method are superior to those based on the CCA method. Testing the 2D-3D face match results gave a recognition rate for the CCA method of a quite poor 55% while the modified CCA method based on PCA-level fusion achieved a very good recognition score of 85%.

  13. Differential research of inflammatory and related mediators in BPH, histological prostatitis and PCa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T R; Wang, G C; Zhang, H M; Peng, B

    2018-02-14

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common male malignancies in the world. It was aimed to investigate differential expression of inflammatory and related factors in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate cancer (PCa), histological prostatitis (HP) and explore the role of Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), (VEGF) Vascular endothelial growth factor, androgen receptor (AR) and IL-2, IL-8 and TNF-α in the occurrence and development of prostate cancer. RT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression level of iNOS, VEGF, AR and IL-2, IL-8 and TNF-α in BPH, PCa and BPH+HP. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining were used to detect the protein levels of various proteins in three diseases. The results showed the mRNA and protein levels of iNOS, VEGF and IL-2, IL-8 and TNF-α were significantly increased in PCa and BPH+HP groups compared with BPH group (p BPH+HP groups (p BPH+HP groups (p > .05). iNOS, VEGF, AR and IL-2, IL-8 and TNF-α are involved in the malignant transformation of prostate tissue and play an important role in the development and progression of Prostate cancer (PCa). © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. PCA criterion for SVM (MLP) classifier for flavivirus biomarker from salivary SERS spectra at febrile stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzol, A R M; Lee, Khuan Y; Mansor, W; Omar, I S

    2016-08-01

    Non-structural protein (NS1) has been conceded as one of the biomarkers for flavivirus that causes diseases with life threatening consequences. NS1 is an antigen that allows detection of the illness at febrile stage, mostly from blood samples currently. Our work here intends to define an optimum model for PCA-SVM with MLP kernel for classification of flavivirus biomarker, NS1 molecule, from SERS spectra of saliva, which to the best of our knowledge has never been explored. Since performance of the model depends on the PCA criterion and MLP parameters, both are examined in tandem. Input vector to classifier determined by each PCA criterion is subjected to brute force tuning of MLP parameters for entirety. Its performance is also compared to our previous works where a Linear and RBF kernel are used. It is found that the best PCA-SVM (MLP) model can be defined by 5 PCs from Cattel's Scree test for PCA, together with P1 and P2 values of 0.1 and -0.2 respectively, with a classification performance of [96.9%, 93.8%, 100.0%].

  15. Avoiding Optimal Mean ℓ2,1-Norm Maximization-Based Robust PCA for Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Minnan; Nie, Feiping; Chang, Xiaojun; Yang, Yi; Hauptmann, Alexander G; Zheng, Qinghua

    2017-04-01

    Robust principal component analysis (PCA) is one of the most important dimension-reduction techniques for handling high-dimensional data with outliers. However, most of the existing robust PCA presupposes that the mean of the data is zero and incorrectly utilizes the average of data as the optimal mean of robust PCA. In fact, this assumption holds only for the squared [Formula: see text]-norm-based traditional PCA. In this letter, we equivalently reformulate the objective of conventional PCA and learn the optimal projection directions by maximizing the sum of projected difference between each pair of instances based on [Formula: see text]-norm. The proposed method is robust to outliers and also invariant to rotation. More important, the reformulated objective not only automatically avoids the calculation of optimal mean and makes the assumption of centered data unnecessary, but also theoretically connects to the minimization of reconstruction error. To solve the proposed nonsmooth problem, we exploit an efficient optimization algorithm to soften the contributions from outliers by reweighting each data point iteratively. We theoretically analyze the convergence and computational complexity of the proposed algorithm. Extensive experimental results on several benchmark data sets illustrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method.

  16. Predicting prostate biopsy outcome: prostate health index (phi) and prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) are useful biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Matteo; Bruzzese, Dario; Perdonà, Sisto; Mazzarella, Claudia; Marino, Ada; Sorrentino, Alessandra; Di Carlo, Angelina; Autorino, Riccardo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Buonerba, Carlo; Altieri, Vincenzo; Mariano, Angela; Macchia, Vincenzo; Terracciano, Daniela

    2012-08-16

    Indication for prostate biopsy is presently mainly based on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) serum levels and digital-rectal examination (DRE). In view of the unsatisfactory accuracy of these two diagnostic exams, research has focused on novel markers to improve pre-biopsy prostate cancer detection, such as phi and PCA3. The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of phi and PCA3 for prostate cancer using biopsy as gold standard. Phi index (Beckman coulter immunoassay), PCA3 score (Progensa PCA3 assay) and other established biomarkers (tPSA, fPSA and %fPSA) were assessed before a 18-core prostate biopsy in a group of 251 subjects at their first biopsy. Values of %p2PSA and phi were significantly higher in patients with PCa compared with PCa-negative group (pphi and PCA3 are predictive of malignancy. In conclusion, %p2PSA, phi and PCA3 may predict a diagnosis of PCa in men undergoing their first prostate biopsy. PCA3 score is more useful in discriminating between HGPIN and non-cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. AUTOMATIZACIÓN DE LA ARQUITECTURA DE COMPONENTES GENÉRICOS USANDO UML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Fuentes Ramírez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available

     

    La arquitectura de componentes genéricos permite chequear la consistencia interna de sus elementos arquitectónicos (componentes y conectores a partir de las relaciones internas en sus respectivas estructuras, que pueden ser de inclusión y transformación. También permite verificar la conexión entre componentes y conectores a partir de las relaciones de transformación entre sus interfaces respectivas. Las ideas que se presentan aquí constituyen una propuesta para la automatización de la descripción de esta arquitectura usando el lenguaje de modelado unificado (UML a partir de la descripción formal de sus diagramas de clases y de secuencia, así como para el chequeo de la consistencia. En este artículo se muestra la aplicación de esta propuesta mediante una extensión de la herramienta Visual Paradigm, por medio de un módulo de software conectable.

  18. VIOLENCIA FILIO-PARENTAL: PRINCIPALES CARACTERÍSTICAS, FACTORES DE RIESGO Y CLAVES PARA LA INTERVENCIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Luisa Martínez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available La Violencia Filio-parental (en adelante VFP es un problema cada vez más evidente en los sistemas de protección social, sanitario y judicial que, sin embargo, sigue presentando lagunas respecto de sus principales características y las de sus implicados, factores predisponentes e intervenciones eficaces. Sin embargo, sí existe consenso respecto de sus devastadoras consecuencias. Esta revisión bibliográfica se centra en analizar la problemática de la VFP con el objeto de proporcionar datos que sirvan de herramienta para futuras investigaciones y propuestas de intervención. En particular, en el artículo se define la VFP y sus tipos, se ofrecen datos sobre prevalencia, así como sobre las principales características de hijos maltratadores y padres y madres maltratadas, se comentan los principales factores de riesgo individuales, familiares, escolares y comunitarios destacados hasta el momento, y se presentan las principales áreas de intervención con este colectivo.

  19. Victimización en la perspectiva internacional : Resultados principales de la ENICRIV y ENECRIS 2004-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, J. van; Kesteren, J. van; Smit, P.

    2007-01-01

    Este reporte presenta los principales resultados de las encuestas que fueron realizades como parte del quinto levantamiento de la Encuesta Internacional sobre Criminalidad y Victimización (ENICRIV). Una gran parte de los datos provienen de la Encuesta Europea sobre Criminalidad y Seguridad

  20. Los sistemas de dos componentes: circuitos moleculares versátiles

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos A. Barba-Ostria

    2014-01-01

    Para sobrevivir, los organismos deben adaptarse a cambios ambientales repentinos que ejercen una presión selectiva y por lo tanto sus posibilidades de supervivencia, dependen de su capacidad para responder en forma rápida y precisa. La adaptación a estos cambios está estrechamente ligada a la correcta percepción y transmisión de los estímulos, así como a la generación de respuestas apropiadas. En diferentes bacterias, hongos, plantas y mohos mucilaginosos, los sistemas de dos componentes (SDC...

  1. Influência da atividade física nos componentes psicomotores em idosos

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Espíndola Mota Venâncio; Kesia da Rocha Mendes; Lorena Cristina Castilho; Grassyara Pinho Tolentino

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: analisar a influência da atividade física nos componentes psicomotores em idosos participantes do UNIATI-UniEvangélica. Método: tratou-se de um estudo de natureza descritiva com abordagem qualitativa, transversal, realizado com 80 idosos, de ambos os sexos, sendo que 60 praticam atividades físicas, 20 musculação, 20 hidroginástica, 20 ritmos, regularmente em um projeto na faculdade UniEvangélica (UNIATI), na cidade de Anápolis-GO e outros 20 sedentários. As informações foram coletad...

  2. COMBINING PCA ANALYSIS AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS IN MODELLING ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTIONS OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Zekić-Sušac

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite increased interest in the entrepreneurial intentions and career choices of young adults, reliable prediction models are yet to be developed. Two nonparametric methods were used in this paper to model entrepreneurial intentions: principal component analysis (PCA and artificial neural networks (ANNs. PCA was used to perform feature extraction in the first stage of modelling, while artificial neural networks were used to classify students according to their entrepreneurial intentions in the second stage. Four modelling strategies were tested in order to find the most efficient model. Dataset was collected in an international survey on entrepreneurship self-efficacy and identity. Variables describe students’ demographics, education, attitudes, social and cultural norms, self-efficacy and other characteristics. The research reveals benefits from the combination of the PCA and ANNs in modeling entrepreneurial intentions, and provides some ideas for further research.

  3. Enhancement of noisy EDX HRSTEM spectrum-images by combination of filtering and PCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, Pavel; Longo, Paolo; Okunishi, Eiji

    2017-05-01

    STEM spectrum-imaging with collecting EDX signal is considered in view of the extraction of maximum information from very noisy data. It is emphasized that spectrum-images with weak EDX signal often suffer from information loss in the course of PCA treatment. The loss occurs when the level of random noise exceeds a certain threshold. Weighted PCA, though potentially helpful in isolation of meaningful variations from noise, might provoke the complete loss of information in the situation of weak EDX signal. Filtering datasets prior PCA can improve the situation and recover the lost information. In particular, Gaussian kernel filters are found to be efficient. A new filter useful in the case of sparse atomic-resolution EDX spectrum-images is suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fundamental flow and fracture analysis of prime candidate alloy (PCA) for path a (austenitics)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, G.E.; Jayakumar, M.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1982-01-01

    Room temperature microhardness tests have been performed on samples of Prime Candidate Alloy (PCA) for the austenitics (Path A) subjected to various thermomechanical treatments (TMT). The TMTs have effected various microstructures, which have been well characterized by optical metallography and TEM. For comparison, microhardness tests have been performed on samples of N-lot, DO heat and MFE 316 stainless steel with similar TMTs. The results indicate that the TMTs investigated can significantly alter the microhardness of the PCA in a manner which is consistent with microstructural changes. Moreover, while PCA had the lowest microhardness of the four alloys types after cold working, its microhardness increased while the others decreased to comparable values after aging for 2 h at 750 0 C

  5. Improved swelling resistance for PCA austenitic stainless steel under HFIR irradiation through microstructural control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziasz, P.J.; Braski, D.N.

    1983-01-01

    Six microstructural variants of Prime Candidate Alloy (PCA) were evaluated for swelling resistance during HFIR irradiation, together with several heats of type 316 stainless steel (316). Swelling was negligible in all the steels at 300 0 C after approx. 44 dpa. At 500 to 600 0 C 25%-cold-worked PCA showed better void swelling resistance than type 316 at approx. 44 dpa. There was less swelling variability among alloys at 400 0 C, but again 25%-cold-worked PCA was the best. Microstructurally, swelling resistance correlated with development of fine, stable bubbles whereas high swelling was due to coarser distributions of bubbles becoming unstable and converting to voids (bias-driven cavities)

  6. A comparative study of PCA, SIMCA and Cole model for classification of bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejadgholi, Isar; Bolic, Miodrag

    2015-08-01

    Due to safety and low cost of bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS), classification of BIS can be potentially a preferred way of detecting changes in living tissues. However, for longitudinal datasets linear classifiers fail to classify conventional Cole parameters extracted from BIS measurements because of their high variability. In some applications, linear classification based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has shown more accurate results. Yet, these methods have not been established for BIS classification, since PCA features have neither been investigated in combination with other classifiers nor have been compared to conventional Cole features in benchmark classification tasks. In this work, PCA and Cole features are compared in three synthesized benchmark classification tasks which are expected to be detected by BIS. These three tasks are classification of before and after geometry change, relative composition change and blood perfusion in a cylindrical organ. Our results show that in all tasks the features extracted by PCA are more discriminant than Cole parameters. Moreover, a pilot study was done on a longitudinal arm BIS dataset including eight subjects and three arm positions. The goal of the study was to compare different methods in arm position classification which includes all three synthesized changes mentioned above. Our comparative study on various classification methods shows that the best classification accuracy is obtained when PCA features are classified by a K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) classifier. The results of this work suggest that PCA+KNN is a promising method to be considered for classification of BIS datasets that deal with subject and time variability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Controversies in using urine samples for prostate cancer detection: PSA and PCA3 expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fontenete

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Prostate cancer (PCa is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies in the world. Although PSA utilization as a serum marker has improved prostate cancer detection it still presents some limitations, mainly regarding its specificity. The expression of this marker, along with the detection of PCA3 mRNA in urine samples, has been suggested as a new approach for PCa detection. The goal of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of the urinary detection of PCA3 mRNA and PSA mRNA without performing the somewhat embarrassing prostate massage. It was also intended to optimize and implement a methodological protocol for this kind of sampling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urine samples from 57 patients with suspected prostate disease were collected, without undergoing prostate massage. Increased serum PSA levels were confirmed by medical records review. RNA was extracted by different methods and a preamplification step was included in order to improve gene detection by Real-Time PCR. RESULTS: An increase in RNA concentration with the use of TriPure Isolation Reagent. Despite this optimization, only 15.8% of the cases showed expression of PSA mRNA and only 3.8% of prostate cancer patients presented detectable levels of PCA3 mRNA. The use of a preamplification step revealed no improvement in the results obtained. CONCLUSION: This work confirms that prostate massage is important before urine collection for gene expression analysis. Since PSA and PCA3 are prostate specific, it is necessary to promote the passage of cells from prostate to urinary tract, in order to detect these genetic markers in urine samples.

  8. PROPOSTA EXPERIMENTAL DIDÁTICA PARA O ENSINO DE ANÁLISE DE COMPONENTES PRINCIPAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Valderrama

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Principal component analysis (PCA is a chemometric method that allows for the extraction of chemical information that would otherwise be impossible to determine. Teaching chemometrics to undergraduates can contribute to the overall professional development and training of new teachers, whose profiles have been gaining attention due to the current demand for data interpretation. In this study, a didactic experiment involving PCA is proposed. Spectrophotometry was used in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis region to assess the behavior of anthocyanins extracted from red cabbage at different pH values. The results suggest the possible separation of anthocyanin structures into three distinct groups, according to their chemical characteristics displayed in acid, neutral, and basic media. The objective is to develop educational materials targeted to undergraduate courses, which encompass a larger number of concepts and introduce instrumental techniques currently being employed in both academic research and the industrial sector. Specifically, the proposed experiment introduces concepts related to spectrophotometry in the UV-Vis range and the PCA chemometric method. The materials used are easily accessible, and UV-Vis spectroscopy equipment is less expensive in comparison with other spectroscopy methods.

  9. Habilidad de cuidado de cuidadores familiares principales de pacientes con ACV. Cartagena (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Montalvo Prieto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El accidente cerebrovascular (ACV es la enfermedad neurológica que más incapacidad e institucionalización origina. Su alta supervivencia no es pareja a una recuperación total, pues hasta el noventa por ciento sufre secuelas, lo cual genera una demanda de cuidados y la presencia de un cuidador para realizar las actividades básicas. Estos cuidadores están expuestos a padecer cambios en su vida que afectan sus diferentes roles, lo cual los convierte en una población vulnerable que requiere atención de los servicios de salud. Objetivo: Identificar las habilidades de cuidado de los cuidadores principales de los pacientes con secuelas de ACV en Cartagena. Método: Estudio descriptivo, realizado a 152 cuidadores de pacientes con secuelas de ACV en la ciudad de Cartagena. Se utilizaron dos instrumentos: Caracterización de los Cuidadores e Inventario de Habilidad de Cuidado, instrumento que mide la habilidad de cuidado en las dimensiones conocimiento, valor y paciencia. Resultados: Los cuidadores en su mayoría son mujeres en edad adulta, menores que el sujeto de cuidado, dedicadas al hogar, llevan más de 37 meses dedicados al cuidado, no son las únicas cuidadoras; primer grado de consanguinidad (51,3%, presentan habilidad de cuidado media. Las dimensiones de habilidad de cuidado, el conocimiento (75,7% y la paciencia (87,5% estuvieron en categoría alta y el valor en categoría alta (2,6%. Conclusiones: Los cuidadores de personas con ACV no cuentan con la habilidad necesaria para establecer la relación de cuidado, es necesario realizar intervenciones orientadas a disminuir los riegos del rol de cuidador.

  10. Modification of the grain boundary microstructure of the austenitic PCA stainless steel to improve helium embrittlement resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziasz, P.J.; Braski, D.N.

    1986-01-01

    Grain boundary MC precipitation was produced by a modified thermal-mechanical pretreatment in 25% cold worked (CW) austenitic prime candidate alloy (PCA) stainless steel prior to HFIR irradiation. Postirradiation tensile results and fracture analysis showed that the modified material (B3) resisted helium embrittlement better than either solution annealed (SA) or 25% CW PCA irradiated at 500 to 600 0 C to approx.21 dpa and 1370 at. ppM He. PCA SA and 25% CW were not embrittled at 300 to 400 0 C. Grain boundary MC survives in PCA-B3 during HFIR irradiation at 500 0 C but dissolves at 600 0 C; it does not form in either SA or 25% CW PCA during similar irradiation. The grain boundary MC appears to play an important role in the helium embrittlement resistance of PCA-B3

  11. Biopsy and treatment decisions in the initial management of prostate cancer and the role of PCA3; a systematic analysis of expert opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tombal, Bertrand; Ameye, Filip; de la Taille, Alexandre; de Reijke, Theo; Gontero, Paolo; Haese, Alexander; Kil, Paul; Perrin, Paul; Remzi, Mesut; Schröder, Jörg; Speakman, Mark; Volpe, Alessandro; Meesen, Bianca; Stoevelaar, Herman

    2012-01-01

    The Prostate CAncer gene 3 (PCA3) assay may guide prostate biopsy decisions and predict prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness. This study explored the appropriateness of (1) PCA3 testing; (2) biopsy; (3) active surveillance (AS) and the value of the PCA3 Score for biopsy and AS decisions. Using the

  12. PERFORMANCE DE FERTILIZANTES FOLIARES E CORRELAÇÕES LINEARES EM COMPONENTES DO RENDIMENTO DA SOJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Jardel Szareski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a resposta de diferentes fertilizantes foliares aplicados na cultura da soja e as associações lineares entre os componentes do rendimento de grãos, nas condições edafoclimáticas da Região do Alto Uruguai, RS. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Os tratamentos testados foram: T1: sem aplicação de bioestimulantes; T2: aplicação de NITAMIN®; T3: aplicação de BIOZIME®; T4: aplicação de Bioamino Extra®; T5: Aplicação de NIPHOKAN®, onde avaliou-se os componentes do rendimento de grãos da soja. A aplicação de micronutrientes e bioestimulantes via foliar não acarreta em aumento no rendimento de grãos da soja, para as condições edafoclimáticas da Região do Alto Uruguai. O rendimento de grãos apresenta correlação positiva com o número de ramificações, número de legumes nas ramificações, número total de legumes, número de grãos por planta e massa de mil grãos.

  13. Componentes sociales y espaciales de la movilidad residencial en Bogotá.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Delaunay

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar cuatro componentes de la movilidad residencial intraurbana de los residentes de la ciudad de Bogotá (Colombia: la elección de la vivienda, de su localización, del tipo de tenencia, y la decisión de lograr una autonomía residencial. Cada una de ellas tiene su propia lógica, y ésta se analiza para cada individuo por medio de las trayectorias biográficas recabadas en 1993. Las diferenciaciones sociales cambian de un componente a otro, se agregan o se combinan, provocando variaciones en la movilidad residencial. En una ciudad en rápida expansión, con una notable segregación residencial, el interés por la localización es fundamental, a pesar de que poco se le ha considerado en la literatura que trata sobre el tema. El significado que confieren los individuos a la ubicación de su vivienda dentro de la ciudad rebasa la simple consideración de los recursos con que cuenta el barrio; atañe también a las historias familiares y a la historia de la ciudad.

  14. Componentes da teoria social de aprendizagem numa ferramenta para ensino na Enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina Cubas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOObjetivo:identificar componentes fundamentais da teoria social de aprendizagem numa ferramenta computacional para auxílio ao ensino do processo de raciocínio para elaboração do diagnóstico de enfermagem.Método:estudo qualitativo que analisou o discurso, coletado por meio de grupo focal, de 18 professores e estudantes de duas escolas de enfermagem brasileiras.Resultados:os temas foram agrupados em quatro categorias relacionadas aos componentes da teoria e em 13 subcategorias.Conclusão: o significado da aprendizagem pode ser ampliado pela didática do professor e evidenciado pela relação entre a sistematização e o raciocínio; para aprender fazendo são necessários pré-requisitos e um processo de motivação e capacitação, que também é inerente à aprendizagem pela formação de identidade no grupo; no sentimento de pertencimento a um determinado grupo tornaram-se visíveis aspectos relacionados à profissão em detrimento do pertencimento a uma comunidade de prática de aprendizagem.

  15. Relevancia valorativa del resultado global y sus Componentes frente al resultado neto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Arimany Serrat

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como objeto verificar si el resultado global presenta mayor relevancia valorativa respecto al resultado tradicional, y si es así cuáles son los componentes del resultado global que explican las diferencias. El estudio muestra que el resultado global es una variable relevante tanto para explicar el valor intrínseco de la empresa como para explicar su rentabilidad. Sin embargo, sólo al explicar la rentabilidad el resultado global y su incremento aumentan la relevancia valorativa del resultado neto y su incremento. De los componentes analizados del resultado global, tan sólo los resultados por diferencias de conversión de la moneda extranjera a la moneda de presentación añaden poder explicativo adicional al del resultado neto, aunque sólo en los modelos de rentabilidad. Ni los resultados por valoración de instrumentos financieros a valor razonable con cambios en patrimonio ni los resultados por coberturas de flujos de efectivo aportan un mayor poder explicativo al del resultado neto.

  16. PCA3 noncoding RNA is involved in the control of prostate-cancer cell survival and modulates androgen receptor signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Luciana Bueno; Gimba, Etel Rodrigues Pereira; Palumbo, Antonio; Mello, Kivvi Duarte de; Sternberg, Cinthya; Caetano, Mauricio S; Oliveira, Felipe Leite de; Neves, Adriana Freitas; Nasciutti, Luiz Eurico; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    PCA3 is a non-coding RNA (ncRNA) that is highly expressed in prostate cancer (PCa) cells, but its functional role is unknown. To investigate its putative function in PCa biology, we used gene expression knockdown by small interference RNA, and also analyzed its involvement in androgen receptor (AR) signaling. LNCaP and PC3 cells were used as in vitro models for these functional assays, and three different siRNA sequences were specifically designed to target PCA3 exon 4. Transfected cells were analyzed by real-time qRT-PCR and cell growth, viability, and apoptosis assays. Associations between PCA3 and the androgen-receptor (AR) signaling pathway were investigated by treating LNCaP cells with 100 nM dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and with its antagonist (flutamide), and analyzing the expression of some AR-modulated genes (TMPRSS2, NDRG1, GREB1, PSA, AR, FGF8, CdK1, CdK2 and PMEPA1). PCA3 expression levels were investigated in different cell compartments by using differential centrifugation and qRT-PCR. LNCaP siPCA3-transfected cells significantly inhibited cell growth and viability, and increased the proportion of cells in the sub G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and the percentage of pyknotic nuclei, compared to those transfected with scramble siRNA (siSCr)-transfected cells. DHT-treated LNCaP cells induced a significant upregulation of PCA3 expression, which was reversed by flutamide. In siPCA3/LNCaP-transfected cells, the expression of AR target genes was downregulated compared to siSCr-transfected cells. The siPCA3 transfection also counteracted DHT stimulatory effects on the AR signaling cascade, significantly downregulating expression of the AR target gene. Analysis of PCA3 expression in different cell compartments provided evidence that the main functional roles of PCA3 occur in the nuclei and microsomal cell fractions. Our findings suggest that the ncRNA PCA3 is involved in the control of PCa cell survival, in part through modulating AR signaling, which may raise new

  17. Characteristics and Validation Techniques for PCA-Based Gene-Expression Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders E. Berglund

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many gene-expression signatures exist for describing the biological state of profiled tumors. Principal Component Analysis (PCA can be used to summarize a gene signature into a single score. Our hypothesis is that gene signatures can be validated when applied to new datasets, using inherent properties of PCA. Results. This validation is based on four key concepts. Coherence: elements of a gene signature should be correlated beyond chance. Uniqueness: the general direction of the data being examined can drive most of the observed signal. Robustness: if a gene signature is designed to measure a single biological effect, then this signal should be sufficiently strong and distinct compared to other signals within the signature. Transferability: the derived PCA gene signature score should describe the same biology in the target dataset as it does in the training dataset. Conclusions. The proposed validation procedure ensures that PCA-based gene signatures perform as expected when applied to datasets other than those that the signatures were trained upon. Complex signatures, describing multiple independent biological components, are also easily identified.

  18. Decision tree and PCA-based fault diagnosis of rotating machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weixiang; Chen, Jin; Li, Jiaqing

    2007-04-01

    After analysing the flaws of conventional fault diagnosis methods, data mining technology is introduced to fault diagnosis field, and a new method based on C4.5 decision tree and principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed. In this method, PCA is used to reduce features after data collection, preprocessing and feature extraction. Then, C4.5 is trained by using the samples to generate a decision tree model with diagnosis knowledge. At last the tree model is used to make diagnosis analysis. To validate the method proposed, six kinds of running states (normal or without any defect, unbalance, rotor radial rub, oil whirl, shaft crack and a simultaneous state of unbalance and radial rub), are simulated on Bently Rotor Kit RK4 to test C4.5 and PCA-based method and back-propagation neural network (BPNN). The result shows that C4.5 and PCA-based diagnosis method has higher accuracy and needs less training time than BPNN.

  19. PCA-MLP SVM distinction of salivary Raman spectra of dengue fever infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzol, A R M; Lee, Khuan Y; Mansor, W; Wong, P S; Looi, I

    2017-07-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is a disease of major concern caused by flavivirus infection. Delayed diagnosis leads to severe stages, which could be deadly. Of recent, non-structural protein (NS1) has been acknowledged as a biomarker, alternative to immunoglobulins for early detection of dengue in blood. Further, non-invasive detection of NS1 in saliva makes the approach more appealing. However, since its concentration in saliva is less than blood, a sensitive and specific technique, Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS), is employed. Our work here intends to define an optimal PCA-SVM (Principal Component Analysis-Support Vector Machine) with Multilayer Layer Perceptron (MLP) kernel model to distinct between positive and negative NS1 infected samples from salivary SERS spectra, which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been explored. Salivary samples of DF positive and negative subjects were collected, pre-processed and analyzed. PCA and SVM classifier were then used to differentiate the SERS analyzed spectra. Since performance of the model depends on the PCA criterion and MLP parameters, both are examined in tandem. Its performance is also compared to our previous works on simulated NS1 salivary samples. It is found that the best PCA-SVM (MLP) model can be defined by 95 PCs from CPV criterion with P1 and P2 values of 0.01 and -0.2 respectively. A classification performance of [76.88%, 85.92%, 67.83%] is achieved.

  20. AlleleCoder: a PERL script for coding codominant polymorphism data for PCA analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A useful biological interpretation of diploid heterozygotes is in terms of the dose of the common allele (0, 1 or 2 copies). We have developed a PERL script that converts FASTA files into coded spreadsheets suitable for Principal Component Analysis (PCA). In combination with R and R Commander, two- ...

  1. Statistical Significance of the Contribution of Variables to the PCA Solution: An Alternative Permutation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linting, Marielle; van Os, Bart Jan; Meulman, Jacqueline J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the statistical significance of the contribution of variables to the principal components in principal components analysis (PCA) is assessed nonparametrically by the use of permutation tests. We compare a new strategy to a strategy used in previous research consisting of permuting the columns (variables) of a data matrix…

  2. Investigation of domain walls in PPLN by confocal raman microscopy and PCA analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Zelenovskiy, Pavel; Bourson, Patrice

    2017-07-01

    Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) is a powerful tool for investigation of ferroelectric domains. Mechanical stresses and electric fields existed in the vicinity of neutral and charged domain walls modify frequency, intensity and width of spectral lines [1], thus allowing to visualize micro- and nanodomain structures both at the surface and in the bulk of the crystal [2,3]. Stresses and fields are naturally coupled in ferroelectrics due to inverse piezoelectric effect and hardly can be separated in Raman spectra. PCA is a powerful statistical method for analysis of large data matrix providing a set of orthogonal variables, called principal components (PCs). PCA is widely used for classification of experimental data, for example, in crystallization experiments, for detection of small amounts of components in solid mixtures etc. [4,5]. In Raman spectroscopy PCA was applied for analysis of phase transitions and provided critical pressure with good accuracy [6]. In the present work we for the first time applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method for analysis of Raman spectra measured in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN). We found that principal components demonstrate different sensitivity to mechanical stresses and electric fields in the vicinity of the domain walls. This allowed us to separately visualize spatial distribution of fields and electric fields at the surface and in the bulk of PPLN.

  3. Applications of PCA and SVM-PSO Based Real-Time Face Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yuan Shieh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper incorporates principal component analysis (PCA with support vector machine-particle swarm optimization (SVM-PSO for developing real-time face recognition systems. The integrated scheme aims to adopt the SVM-PSO method to improve the validity of PCA based image recognition systems on dynamically visual perception. The face recognition for most human-robot interaction applications is accomplished by PCA based method because of its dimensionality reduction. However, PCA based systems are only suitable for processing the faces with the same face expressions and/or under the same view directions. Since the facial feature selection process can be considered as a problem of global combinatorial optimization in machine learning, the SVM-PSO is usually used as an optimal classifier of the system. In this paper, the PSO is used to implement a feature selection, and the SVMs serve as fitness functions of the PSO for classification problems. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method simplifies features effectively and obtains higher classification accuracy.

  4. Pre-processing data using wavelet transform and PCA based on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abazar Solgi

    2017-07-14

    Jul 14, 2017 ... Pre-processing data using wavelet transform and PCA based on support vector regression and gene expression programming for river flow simulation. Abazar Solgi1,*, Amir Pourhaghi1, Ramin Bahmani2 and Heidar Zarei3. 1. Department of Water Resources Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of ...

  5. Elemental concentration analysis in PCa, BPH and normal prostate tissues using SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitao, Roberta G.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the main causes of illness and death all over the world. In Brazil, prostate cancer currently represents the second most prevalent malignant neoplasia in men, representing 21% of all cancer cases. Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) is an illness prevailing in men above the age of 50, close to 90% after the age of 80. The prostate presents a high zinc concentration, about 10-fold higher than any other body tissue. In this work, samples of human prostate tissues with cancer (PCa), BPH and normal tissue were analyzed utilizing the total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation technique (SRTXRF) to investigate the differences in the elemental concentrations in these tissues. SR-TXRF analyses were performed at the X-Ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. By using Mann-Whitney U test it was observed that almost all elements presented concentrations with significant differences α = 0.05) between the groups studied. The elements and groups were: S, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Br and Rb (PCa X Normal); S, Fe, Zn and Br (PCa X BPH); K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Br and Rb (BPH X Normal). (author)

  6. PCA-based bootstrap confidence interval tests for gene-disease association involving multiple SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Fuzhong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic association study is currently the primary vehicle for identification and characterization of disease-predisposing variant(s which usually involves multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs available. However, SNP-wise association tests raise concerns over multiple testing. Haplotype-based methods have the advantage of being able to account for correlations between neighbouring SNPs, yet assuming Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE and potentially large number degrees of freedom can harm its statistical power and robustness. Approaches based on principal component analysis (PCA are preferable in this regard but their performance varies with methods of extracting principal components (PCs. Results PCA-based bootstrap confidence interval test (PCA-BCIT, which directly uses the PC scores to assess gene-disease association, was developed and evaluated for three ways of extracting PCs, i.e., cases only(CAES, controls only(COES and cases and controls combined(CES. Extraction of PCs with COES is preferred to that with CAES and CES. Performance of the test was examined via simulations as well as analyses on data of rheumatoid arthritis and heroin addiction, which maintains nominal level under null hypothesis and showed comparable performance with permutation test. Conclusions PCA-BCIT is a valid and powerful method for assessing gene-disease association involving multiple SNPs.

  7. Regularized Pre-image Estimation for Kernel PCA De-noising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Trine Julie; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2011-01-01

    The main challenge in de-noising by kernel Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is the mapping of de-noised feature space points back into input space, also referred to as “the pre-image problem”. Since the feature space mapping is typically not bijective, pre-image estimation is inherently illposed...

  8. Global Clustering Quality Coefficient Assessing the Efficiency of PCA Class Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Praisler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An essential factor influencing the efficiency of the predictive models built with principal component analysis (PCA is the quality of the data clustering revealed by the score plots. The sensitivity and selectivity of the class assignment are strongly influenced by the relative position of the clusters and by their dispersion. We are proposing a set of indicators inspired from analytical geometry that may be used for an objective quantitative assessment of the data clustering quality as well as a global clustering quality coefficient (GCQC that is a measure of the overall predictive power of the PCA models. The use of these indicators for evaluating the efficiency of the PCA class assignment is illustrated by a comparative study performed for the identification of the preprocessing function that is generating the most efficient PCA system screening for amphetamines based on their GC-FTIR spectra. The GCQC ranking of the tested feature weights is explained based on estimated density distributions and validated by using quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA.

  9. Principales insectos plaga, invertebrados y vertebrados que atacan el cultivo del arroz en Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Irán Rodríguez Delgado

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo ofrece una revisión bibliográfica actualizada relacionada con la caracterización de los principales insectos plaga, invertebrados y vertebrados que pueden afectar al cultivo del arroz, así como los daños que ocasionan y medidas para su control en Ecuador. La mayor afectación en el cultivo del arroz es ocasionada por la sogata (Tagosodes orizicolus Muir., que provoca daños directos, producidos por la picadura al momento de alimentarse, o indirectos, al transmitir el virus de la hoja blanca del arroz (RHBV; la mosca minadora, la cual arriba a las zonas arroceras de manera inesperada y el mejor método para su control es el uso de insecticidas; la chinche vaneadora, la que se ha convertido en una plaga de alta importancia ya que puede generar pérdidas económicas de un 30 a 65% del valor total de la producción; el acaro blanco (Steneotarsonemus spinki que puede originar daños directos, debido a su alimentación e indirectos por la inyección de toxinas o la diseminación de organismos fitopatógenos como el hongo Sarocladium oryzae provocando la pudrición de la vaina; o puede encontrarse en asociación con la bacteria Burkholderia glumae (Añublo bacterial de la panícula del arroz, el caracol manzana que provoca daños significativos en arrozales bajo riego; la rata arrocera, que causa los daños al construir sus nidos con hojas y tallos de arroz por encima de la superficie de la lámina de agua; y las aves que constituyen una amenaza permanente al producir daños considerables en la fase de maduración y en el proceso industrial del arroz. Palabras clave: Insectos, vertebrados, invertebrados, arroz, producción.

  10. Principales marcadores moleculares utilizados para la identificación de Babesia bovis y Babesia bigemina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ríos T.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe los principales marcadores moleculares utilizados para la identificación de B. bovis y B. bigemina reportados en la literatura científica. Para ello se diseñó una revisión sistemática a partir de la aplicación de la estrategia metodológica PICO modificada con el objetivo de definir las secuencias nucleotídicas detectadas en los diferentes sitios geográficos y su utilidad diagnóstica. Se realizó una búsqueda avanzada con los términos “Babesia bovis” y “DNA” y “Babesia bigemina” y “DNA” en las bases de datos ScienceDirect, SpringerLink y PubMed que después de ser filtradas permitieron obtener un resultado total de 68 artículos originales. Tanto los artículos incluidos como los excluidos fueron almacenados en tablas, en las cuales se presenta la justificación de su condición dentro del estudio. A los 68 artículos seleccionados se les aplicó una evaluación con criterios de inclusión y exclusión previamente definidos, de este modo, 21 artículos originales cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión y se incluyeron en el estudio. Se describe la utilidad de los marcadores moleculares referenciados en la literatura científica desde 1995 hasta el 2010: la subunidad pequeña RNAr, el gen citocromo b, gen msa-1 and msa-2c, el gen Bv, el factor de elongación alfa (EF-1α, el gen de la beta-Tubulina, SBP 1-2-3, y los RAP; su aplicación diagnóstica y su utilización en los diferentes sitios geográficos. Los marcadores moleculares utilizados para la detección de las babesias bovinas varían dependiendo de la región geográfica, grado de conservación genética y resultados de estudios previos que concluyen su utilidad diagnóstica.

  11. Principales daños sanitarios y sociales relacionados con el consumo de alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sarasa-Renedo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El alcohol afecta al cerebro y a la mayoría de los órganos y sistemas y se relaciona con numerosos problemas sanitarios, incluyendo enfermedades mentales, neurológicas, digestivas, cardiovasculares, endocrinas y metabólicas, perinatales, cáncer, infecciones y lesiones intencionadas y no intencionadas. Los mecanismos fisiopatológicos aún no se comprenden bien, aunque se ha postulado toxicidad directa del etanol y de sus metabolitos, déficits nutricionales y absorción de endotoxinas microbianas intestinales, todo modulado por los patrones de consumo y factores genéticos y ambientales. A nivel individual no puede predecirse con precisión quién tendrá o no problemas. A nivel poblacional para muchos problemas, como varios tipos de cánceres, hepatopatías, lesiones y probablemente conductas de riesgo, como relaciones sexuales sin protección, se suele observar una relación dosis respuesta lineal o exponencial. Para otros, como mortalidad general en mayores de 45 años, enfermedades isquémicas o diabetes mellitus la relación es en forma de J. Su impacto sobre la carga global de enfermedad es enorme, incluso después de descontar los efectos beneficiosos sobre la enfermedad cardiovascular, con diferencias importantes según país, edad, género, posición socioeconómica y otros factores. Buena parte de los daños se relacionan con su capacidad para producir dependencia y con la intoxicación aguda. A menudo genera también consecuencias negativas para otras personas (violencia, incumplimiento de responsabilidades familiares o laborales, molestias que no suelen considerarse al evaluar la carga de enfermedad. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir los principales daños sociales y sanitarios relacionados con el consumo de alcohol y los mecanismos que los generan a partir de fuentes secundarias.

  12. Principales resultados del sistema cubano de farmacovigilancia en el año 200

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Debesa García

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el funcionamiento y principales resultados del sistema cubano de farmacovigilancia durante el año 2001 en todos los niveles de salud del país. Durante 12 meses, los casos se identificaron mediante el sistema de notificación voluntaria de sospecha de reacciones adversas a medicamentos. Se recibieron en la Unidad Nacional Coordinadora de Farmacovigilancia 16 195 notificaciones de Reacciones Adversas Medicamentosas (RAM que contenían 33 601 sospechas de RAM, para una tasa de notificación de 1 447 reportes x 1 000 000 de habitantes, el 60,2 % de las RAM correspondió al sexo femenino y el 39,8 % al masculino. En cuanto al nivel de asistencia, la atención primaria es la que más notifica con 83,3 %, fueron resultados alentadores que en el año 2001 la relación de reacciones moderadas y graves respecto a leves (59,2 %/40,6 % continua favorable al incremento de notificaciones de mayor severidad. Se reportaron 33 reacciones con desenlace fatal, para un 0,2 %. Las notificaciones recibidas en nuestra unidad nos permitieron cuantificar y caracterizar las RAM, teniendo además un gran valor para generar alertas y vigilar la seguridad de los medicamentos que circulan en nuestro país.The functioning and main results of the Cuban Drug Surveillance System in the year 2001 at all the health care levels throughout the country are described. In that period, cases were identified by the Voluntary Notification of suspected adverse drug reaction System. The National Coordinating Unit of Drug Surveillance received 16 195 notes on Adverse Drug Reactions that included 33 601 suspected adverse drug reactions, for a notification rate of 1 447 reports per 1 000 000 pop.; 62% of adverse drug reactions were reported in females and 39,8% in males. Regarding the level of assistance, primary health care level is the one that presented more reports with 83,3% of the total amount. Results were encouraging in the year 2001 since the ratio of moderate and

  13. [Interest of evaluation of professional practice for the improvement of the management of postoperative pain with patient controlled analgesia (PCA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, A; Cuignet-Royer, E; Cornet, C; Trueck, S; Heck, M; Taron, F; Peignier, C; Chastel, A; Gervais, P; Bouaziz, H; Audibert, G; Mertes, P-M

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate the daily practice of postoperative PCA in Nancy University Hospital, in continuity with a quality program of postoperative pain (POP) care conducted in 2003. A retrospective audit of patient medical records. A review of all the medical records of consecutive surgical patients managed by PCA over a 5-week period in six surgical services. Criteria studied: Evaluation of hospital means (eight criteria) and of medical and nursing staff practice (16 criteria). A second audit was conducted 6 months after the implementation of quality improvement measures. Assessment of the hospital means: temperature chart including pain scores and PCA drug consumption, patient information leaflet, PCA protocol, postoperative pre-filled prescription form (PFPF) for post-anaesthesia care including PCA, and optional training of nurses in postoperative pain management. EVALUATION OF PRACTICES: One hundred and fifty-nine files of a total of 176 patients were analyzed (88%). Improvements noted after 6 months: trace of POP evaluation progressed from 73 to 87%, advance prescription of PCA adjustment increased from 56 to 68% and of the treatment of adverse effects from 54 to 68%, trace of PCA adaptation by attending nurse from 15 to 43%, trace of the administration of the treatment of adverse effects by attending nurse from 24% to 64%, as did the use of PFPF from 59 to 70%. The usefulness of a pre-filled prescription form for post-anaesthesia care including PCA prescription is demonstrated. Quality improvement measures include: poster information and pocket guides on PCA for nurses, training of 3 nurses per service to act as "PCA advisers" who will in turn train their ward colleagues in PCA management and the use of equipment until an acute pain team is established. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. OXIDACIÓN DEL ARSÉNICO REGULADA POR UN SISTEMA BACTERIANO DE DOS COMPONENTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco González G

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El arsénico es un metaloide tóxico, ampliamente distribuido en ambientes terrestres y acuáticos. La biotransformación bacteriana juega un rol importante en el ciclo biogeoquímico de este metaloide, interviniendo en su movilidad, distribución y biodisponibilidad. Los mecanismos de resistencia bacteriana a arsénico, se encuentran asociados a determinantes genéticos, que les otorgan la capacidad de realizar principalmente transformaciones de oxidación y/o reducción. En esta revisión, se describe el mecanismo de resistencia bacteriana al arsénico por la Arsenito oxidasa (AOX y el control transcripcional mediado por un sistema de dos componentes (aoxSR, que regulan la expresión de genes clave implicados en la oxidación de arsenito (AsIII

  15. Evaluacion del componente central y periferico de fatiga muscular en pacientes neuropaticos y miopaticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Cohen

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando un método de cuantificación del electromiograma, se investigaron parte de los mecanismos centrales y periféricos responsables de la fatiga muscular en enfermos crónicamente denervados y en pacientes con compromiso muscular primitivo. Se observó en los denervados que los mecanismos de fatiga muscular, no difieren mayormente de los observados en el grupo de sujetos sanos, por el contrario, en los miopáticos a más del componente central, existen otros de orden periférico, tales como la pérdida de unidades motoras funcionantes durante el esfuerzo y el bloqueo temporario de la transmisión neuromuscular, que contribuye al desarrollo de la fatiga.

  16. Tumor germinal mixto con componentes de disgerminoma y coriocarcinoma de ovario en mujer adolescente con ataxiatelangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Augusto Gálvez-Cuitiva

    2015-11-01

    días. Se suspendió la quimioterapia porque desarrolló choque séptico que puso en riesgo su vida. Por su enfermedad de base permaneció bajo vigilancia. Actualmente, 17 meses después, la paciente vive sin actividad tumoral.  Conclusión: existe asociación entre ataxia-telangiectasia, leucemia y linfomas. Se describe el caso clínico de una paciente con ataxia-telangiectasia y tumor germinal mixto con componente de disgerminoma y coriocarcinoma de ovario. Se propone establecer un tratamiento especial para estos pacientes inmunocomprometidos, con alto riesgo de cáncer pero, a la vez, de no tolerar los esquemas habituales.

  17. Effect of process control agent (PCA) on the characteristics of mechanically alloyed Ti-Mg powders [Journal article

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Machio, Christopher N

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a study to determine the effect of process control agent (PCA) on the characteristics of Ti-Mg powders during milling. It has been shown that a 2% increase in PCA content leads to up to a 40% increase in yield...

  18. RXTE PCA and Swift BAT detects the millisecond pulsar Swift J1756.9-2508 in outburst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patruno, A.; Markwardt, C.B.; Strohmayer, T.E.; Swank, J.H.; Smith, S.E.; Pereira, D.

    2009-01-01

    We report a detection of increased activity of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar Swift J1756.9-2508 observed with the RXTE-PCA monitoring on July 8, 9hr UTC. Increased flux is detected simultaneously on the Swift-BAT camera. RXTE-PCA follow up observations starting on July 13, 23hr UTC,

  19. DESEMPENHO DOS COMPONENTES DE PRODUÇÃO EM CULTIVARES DE SOJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Alves Ribeiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Busca-se cultivares cada vez mais adaptadas e que expressem maiores níveis de produtividade, trazendo assim um melhor aproveitamento de áreas produtivas. Os componentes produtivos estão ligados à produtividade das cultivares de soja e são importantes no seu processo de seleção. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar duas cultivares de soja RR, com ciclos de maturação, precoce e superprecoce em sua adaptação a região central de Goiás. O delineamento foi conduzido em blocos casualizados com seis repetições. Os componentes de produção avaliados foram: Altura de plantas, número de grãos por planta, número de grãos por vagem, número de hastes, número de nós reprodutivos, número de vagens, número de vagens chochas, peso de grãos por planta, massa de mil grãos e produtividade. Os dados foram submetidos ao software Assistat para análises estatísticas e foi realizado o teste Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. As cultivares testadas apresentam variações nos caracteres produtivos avaliados e foram influenciados pelo hábito de crescimento. Através do número de nos reprodutivos foi possível identificar cultivares mais responsiva. A cultivar de hábito de crescimento determinado proporcionou maior rendimento de grãos.   A cultivar de com hábito de crescimento indeterminado foi desfavorecida pela variação pluviométrica durante o estádio fenológico R5.

  20. Influencia de los componentes minoritarios de los carbones en la fabricación de cementos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soria Santamaría, Francisco

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the reconversion of coal in the cement industry, it is considered important to analyze the incorporation and transcendence of certain components in the clinkerisation process. Given in detail are the circuits of gases and volatile materials used in the baking process, emphasizing the interest of sulphur, alkalis, chlorides and fluorides. Emphasized are the conditions and limits imposed in practice to certain components and the possibilities of application of the carbons in this sense. Finally, a brief comment is made to the emission of dusts and contaminating gases, emphasizing the incidence in this field with the use of solid fuels in the furnaces to manufacture cement.

    Como consecuencia de la reconversión al carbón en la industria cementera, se considera importante analizar la incorporación y trascendencia de ciertos componentes en el proceso de clinkerización. Se expone con detalle los circuitos de gases y materias volátiles en el proceso de cocción, destacando el interés del azufre, álcalis, cloruros y fluoruros. Se destacan las condiciones y límites impuestos por la práctica a ciertos componentes y las posibilidades de aplicación de los carbones en este sentido. Finalmente, se hace un breve comentario a la emisión de polvo y gases contaminantes, precisando la incidencia en este campo con el empleo de combustibles sólidos en los hornos para fabricar cemento.

  1. Relevancia valorativa del resultado global y sus componentes frente al resultado neto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Arimany Serrat

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como objeto verificar si el resultado global presenta mayor relevancia valorativa respecto al resultado tradicional, y si es así cuáles son los componentes del resultado global que explican las diferencias. El estudio muestra que el resultado global es una variable relevante tanto para explicar el valor intrínseco de la empresa como para explicar su rentabilidad. Sin embargo, sólo al explicar la rentabilidad el resultado global y su incremento aumentan la relevancia valorativa del resultado neto y su incremento. De los componentes analizados del resultado global, tan sólo los resultados por diferencias de conversión de la moneda extranjera a la moneda de presentación añaden poder explicativo adicional al del resultado neto, aunque sólo en los modelos de rentabilidad. Ni los resultados por valoración de instrumentos financieros a valor razonable con cambios en patrimonio ni los resultados por coberturas de flujos de efectivo aportan un mayor poder explicativo al del resultado neto.This study analyses if comprehensive income is more value relevant than the net income and, if that is the case, what are the elements of the comprehensive income explaining the difference. Our study shows that comprehensive income is a relevant variable both to explain the value of the company and also to explain its return. However, comprehensive income and its variation show to be more relevant than the net income and its variation only when explaining return. As for the components of the comprehensive income, foreign currency adjustments increase usefulness in the return models but cash flow hedges and adjustments due to fair value valuation do not add value relevance to the net income.

  2. Amorphization of Fe-based alloy via wet mechanical alloying assisted by PCA decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neamţu, B.V., E-mail: Bogdan.Neamtu@stm.utcluj.ro [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 103-105, Muncii Avenue, 400641, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Chicinaş, H.F.; Marinca, T.F. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 103-105, Muncii Avenue, 400641, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Isnard, O. [Université Grenoble Alpes, Institut NEEL, F-38042, Grenoble (France); CNRS, Institut NEEL, 25 rue des martyrs, BP166, F-38042, Grenoble (France); Pană, O. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Street, 400293, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Chicinaş, I. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 103-105, Muncii Avenue, 400641, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2016-11-01

    Amorphization of Fe{sub 75}Si{sub 20}B{sub 5} (at.%) alloy has been attempted both by wet and dry mechanical alloying starting from a mixture of elemental powders. Powder amorphization was not achieved even after 140 hours of dry mechanical alloying. Using the same milling parameters, when wet mechanical alloying was used, the powder amorphization was achieved after 40 h of milling. Our assumption regarding the powder amorphization capability enhancement by contamination with carbon was proved by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements which revealed the presence of carbon in the chemical composition of the wet mechanically alloyed sample. Using shorter milling times and several process control agents (PCA) (ethanol, oleic acid and benzene) with different carbon content it was proved that the milling duration required for powder amorphization is linked to the carbon content of the PCA. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), thermomagnetic (TG) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) measurements performed to the heated samples revealed the fact that, the crystallisation occurs at 488 °C, thus leading to the formation of Fe{sub 3}Si and Fe{sub 2}B. Thermogravimetry measurements performed under H{sub 2} atmosphere, showed the same amount of contamination with C, which is about 2.3 wt%, for the amorphous samples regardless of the type of PCA. Saturation magnetisation of the wet milled samples decreases upon increasing milling time. In the case of the amorphous samples wet milled with benzene up to 20 h and with oleic acid up to 30 h, the saturation magnetisation has roughly the same value, indicating the same degree of contamination. The XRD performed on the samples milled using the same parameters, revealed that powder amorphization can be achieved even via dry milling, just by adding the equivalent amount of elemental C calculated from the TG plots. This proves that in this system by considering the atomic species which can contaminate the powder, they can be

  3. Use of principal components analysis (PCA) on estuarine sediment datasets: The effect of data pre-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, M.K.; Spencer, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) is a multivariate statistical technique capable of discerning patterns in large environmental datasets. Although widely used, there is disparity in the literature with respect to data pre-treatment prior to PCA. This research examines the influence of commonly reported data pre-treatment methods on PCA outputs, and hence data interpretation, using a typical environmental dataset comprising sediment geochemical data from an estuary in SE England. This study demonstrated that applying the routinely used log (x + 1) transformation skewed the data and masked important trends. Removing outlying samples and correcting for the influence of grain size had the most significant effect on PCA outputs and data interpretation. Reducing the influence of grain size using granulometric normalisation meant that other factors affecting metal variability, including mineralogy, anthropogenic sources and distance along the salinity transect could be identified and interpreted more clearly. - Data pre-treatment can have a significant influence on the outcome of PCA.

  4. Antineoplastic and immunomodulatory effect of polyphenolic components of Achyranthes aspera (PCA) extract on urethane induced lung cancer in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Chandradeo; Kumar, Arvind

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds of Achyranthes aspera (PCA) extract is evaluated for anti-cancerous and cytokine based immunomodulatory effects. The PCA extract contains known components of phenolic acid and flavonoids such as mixture of quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, kaempferol, quercetin and chrysin along with many unknown components. PCA has been orally feed to urethane (ethyl carbamate) primed lung cancerous mice at a dosage of 100 mg/kg body weight for 30 consecutive days. 100 mg powder of A. aspera contains 2.4 mg phenolic acid and 1.1 mg flavonoid (2:1 ratio). Enhanced activities and expression of antioxidant enzymes GST, GR, CAT, SOD, while down regulated expression and activation of LDH enzymes in PCA feed urethane primed lung cancerous tissues as compared to PCA non-feed urethane primed lung cancerous tissues were observed. PCA feed urethane primed lung tissues showed down regulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α along with TFs, NF-κB and Stat3 while the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and p53 were enhanced in PCA feed urethane primed lung tissues. FTIR and CD spectroscopy data revealed that PCA resisted the urethane mediated conformational changes of DNA which is evident by the shift in guanine and thymine bands in FTIR from 1,708 to 1,711 cm(-1) and 1,675 to 1,671 cm(-1), respectively in PCA feed urethane primed lung cancerous tissues DNA in comparison to urethane primed lung cancerous tissues DNA. The present study suggests that PCA components have synergistic anti-cancerous and cytokine based immunomodulatory role and DNA conformation restoring effects. However, more research is required to show the effects of each component separately and in combination for effective therapeutic use to cure and prevent lung cancer including other cancers.

  5. A Study of Wind Turbine Comprehensive Operational Assessment Model Based on EM-PCA Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Minqiang; Xu, Bin; Zhan, Yangyan; Ren, Danyuan; Liu, Dexing

    2018-01-01

    To assess wind turbine performance accurately and provide theoretical basis for wind farm management, a hybrid assessment model based on Entropy Method and Principle Component Analysis (EM-PCA) was established, which took most factors of operational performance into consideration and reach to a comprehensive result. To verify the model, six wind turbines were chosen as the research objects, the ranking obtained by the method proposed in the paper were 4#>6#>1#>5#>2#>3#, which are completely in conformity with the theoretical ranking, which indicates that the reliability and effectiveness of the EM-PCA method are high. The method could give guidance for processing unit state comparison among different units and launching wind farm operational assessment.

  6. Short-term PV/T module temperature prediction based on PCA-RBF neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiyong; Zhao, Zhendong; Li, Yisheng; Xiao, Jing; Tang, Yunfeng

    2018-02-01

    Aiming at the non-linearity and large inertia of temperature control in PV/T system, short-term temperature prediction of PV/T module is proposed, to make the PV/T system controller run forward according to the short-term forecasting situation to optimize control effect. Based on the analysis of the correlation between PV/T module temperature and meteorological factors, and the temperature of adjacent time series, the principal component analysis (PCA) method is used to pre-process the original input sample data. Combined with the RBF neural network theory, the simulation results show that the PCA method makes the prediction accuracy of the network model higher and the generalization performance stronger than that of the RBF neural network without the main component extraction.

  7. Extraction of prostatic lumina and automated recognition for prostatic calculus image using PCA-SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuocai; Xu, Xiangmin; Ding, Xiaojun; Xiao, Hui; Huang, Yusheng; Liu, Jian; Xing, Xiaofen; Wang, Hua; Liao, D Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Identification of prostatic calculi is an important basis for determining the tissue origin. Computation-assistant diagnosis of prostatic calculi may have promising potential but is currently still less studied. We studied the extraction of prostatic lumina and automated recognition for calculus images. Extraction of lumina from prostate histology images was based on local entropy and Otsu threshold recognition using PCA-SVM and based on the texture features of prostatic calculus. The SVM classifier showed an average time 0.1432 second, an average training accuracy of 100%, an average test accuracy of 93.12%, a sensitivity of 87.74%, and a specificity of 94.82%. We concluded that the algorithm, based on texture features and PCA-SVM, can recognize the concentric structure and visualized features easily. Therefore, this method is effective for the automated recognition of prostatic calculi.

  8. Thermogravimetry/mass spectrometry study of woody residues and an herbaceous biomass crop using PCA techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, C.J.; Velo, E.; Puigjaner, L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, ETSEIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Avinguda Diagonal 647, G2, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Meszaros, E.; Jakab, E. [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 17, Budapest 1525 (Hungary)

    2007-10-15

    The devolatilization behaviour of pine and beech wood from carpentry residuals and an herbaceous product from an energy plantation (artichoke thistle) was investigated by thermogravimetry/mass spectrometry (TG/MS). The effect of three pre-treatments, hot-water washing, ethanol extraction and their combination, was also studied. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to help in the evaluation of the large data set of results. The characteristics of the thermal decomposition of the herbaceous crop are considerably different from that of the woody biomass samples. The evolution profiles of some characteristic pyrolysis products revealed that the thermal behaviour of wood and thistle is still considerably different after the elimination of some of the inorganic ions and extractive compounds, although the macromolecular components of the samples decompose at similar temperatures. With the help of the PCA calculations, the effect of the different pre-treatments on the production of the main pyrolysis products was evidenced. (author)

  9. Microstructural design of PCA austenitic stainless steel for improved resistance to helium embrittlement under HFIR irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziasz, P.J.; Braski, D.N.

    1983-01-01

    Several variants of Prime Candidate Alloy (PCA) with different preirradiation thermal-mechanical treatments were irradiated in HFIR and were evaluated for embrittlement resistance via disk-bend tensile testing. Comparison tests were made on two heats of 20%-cold-worked type 316 stainless steel. None of the alloys were brittle after irradiation at 300 to 400 0 C to approx. 44 dpa and helium levels of 3000 to approx.3600 at. ppm. However, all were quite brittle after similar exposure at 600 0 C. Embrittlement varied with alloy and pretreatment for irradiation to 44 dpa at 500 0 C and to 22 dpa at 600 0 C. Better relative embrittlement resistance among PCA variants was found in alloys which contained prior grain boundary MC carbide particles that remained stable under irradiation

  10. Statistical Fractal Models Based on GND-PCA and Its Application on Classification of Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyan Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed to establish the statistical fractal model for liver diseases classification. Firstly, the fractal theory is used to construct the high-order tensor, and then Generalized -dimensional Principal Component Analysis (GND-PCA is used to establish the statistical fractal model and select the feature from the region of liver; at the same time different features have different weights, and finally, Support Vector Machine Optimized Ant Colony (ACO-SVM algorithm is used to establish the classifier for the recognition of liver disease. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, PCA eigenface method and normal SVM method are chosen as the contrast methods. The experimental results show that the proposed method can reconstruct liver volume better and improve the classification accuracy of liver diseases.

  11. The effects of multidisciplinary rehabilitation: RePCa-a randomised study among primary prostate cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieperink, K B; Johansen, C; Hansen, Steinbjørn

    2013-01-01

    Background:The objective of this study is the effectiveness of multidisciplinary rehabilitation on treatment-related adverse effects after completed radiotherapy in patients with prostate cancer (PCa).Methods:In a single-centre oncology unit in Odense, Denmark, 161 PCa patients treated...... with radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy were randomly assigned to either a programme of two nursing counselling sessions and two instructive sessions with a physical therapist (n=79) or to usual care (n=82). Primary outcome was Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC-26) urinary irritative sum......-score.Before radiotherapy, pre-intervention 4 weeks after radiotherapy, and after a 20-week intervention, measurements included self-reported disease-specific quality of life (QoL; EPIC-26, including urinary, bowel, sexual, and hormonal symptoms), general QoL (Short-form-12, SF-12), pelvic floor muscle strength (Modified...

  12. Application of principal component analysis (PCA) as a sensory assessment tool for fermented food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debasree; Chattopadhyay, Parimal

    2012-06-01

    The objective of the work was to use the method of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) to describe the sensory attributes of the fermented food products prepared with the incorporation of lactic cultures. Panellists were selected and trained to evaluate various attributes specially color and appearance, body texture, flavor, overall acceptability and acidity of the fermented food products like cow milk curd and soymilk curd, idli, sauerkraut and probiotic ice cream. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified the six significant principal components that accounted for more than 90% of the variance in the sensory attribute data. Overall product quality was modelled as a function of principal components using multiple least squares regression (R (2) = 0.8). The result from PCA was statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). These findings demonstrate the utility of quantitative descriptive analysis for identifying and measuring the fermented food product attributes that are important for consumer acceptability.

  13. Extraction of Prostatic Lumina and Automated Recognition for Prostatic Calculus Image Using PCA-SVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuocai; Xu, Xiangmin; Ding, Xiaojun; Xiao, Hui; Huang, Yusheng; Liu, Jian; Xing, Xiaofen; Wang, Hua; Liao, D. Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Identification of prostatic calculi is an important basis for determining the tissue origin. Computation-assistant diagnosis of prostatic calculi may have promising potential but is currently still less studied. We studied the extraction of prostatic lumina and automated recognition for calculus images. Extraction of lumina from prostate histology images was based on local entropy and Otsu threshold recognition using PCA-SVM and based on the texture features of prostatic calculus. The SVM classifier showed an average time 0.1432 second, an average training accuracy of 100%, an average test accuracy of 93.12%, a sensitivity of 87.74%, and a specificity of 94.82%. We concluded that the algorithm, based on texture features and PCA-SVM, can recognize the concentric structure and visualized features easily. Therefore, this method is effective for the automated recognition of prostatic calculi. PMID:21461364

  14. Similaridade entre Adultos e Regenerantes do Componente Arbóreo em Floresta com Araucária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Drews de Aguiar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O estudo objetivou inventariar o componente arbóreo regenerante em uma floresta no Planalto Sul de Santa Catarina e compará-lo ao componente adulto da mesma área. Foram alocadas 25 parcelas, onde os regenerantes e adultos foram identificados e quantificados. Foi calculado o Índice de Regeneração Natural Total (RNT de cada espécie. Para verificar a similaridade entre os componentes, foi utilizada a Análise de Similaridade e o índice de Jaccard. Foram amostrados 503 regenerantes, pertencentes a 58 espécies e 29 famílias. Myrtaceae foi a família de maior riqueza (13. Leandra regnelli (Triana Cogn., Myrcia splendens (Sw. DC. e Miconia cinerascens Miq. apresentaram os maiores valores de RNT. Houve elevada dissimilaridade entre regenerantes e adultos, sendo que 37,5% das espécies do componente adulto não tiveram representantes na regeneração natural. Conclui-se que existe uma baixa capacidade regenerativa da maior parte das espécies, o que pode estar associado à presença de gado na área.

  15. Efecto generacional de la desnutrición sobre el crecimiento de los componentes craneo-funcionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesani Rossi, María Florencia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar, desde un criterio funcional, el crecimiento craneano en dos generaciones de ratas subnutridas. Los animales de la generación parental (P fueron alimentados con dieta control ad libitum. Las generaciones filiales (F1 y F2 recibieron el 75% del alimento consumido por un animal P de su misma edad y sexo. Cada animal fue radiografiado periódicamente entre los 20 y 100 días de edad. Sobre cada radiografía se relevaron longitud, ancho y altura de los componentes funcionales mayores (neurocráneo y esplacnocráneo y menores (neural anterior, medio y posterior, ótico, masticatorio, respiratorio y alveolar. Los cambios de tamaño de cada componente fueron evaluados por medio de índices volumétricos. Los datos se procesaron mediante pruebas de Kruskal-Wallis y Kolmogorov-Smirnov para k muestras. La desnutrición provocó retardo significativo del crecimiento de los componentes craneanos mayores y menores. El tamaño neurocraneano y esplacnocraneano asi como el de algunos componentes menores fue mayor en F1 que en F2, evidenciando un retardo acumulativo del crecimiento. La variación morfológica (tamaño y forma entre generaciones refleja una tendencia secular negativa.

  16. [Identification of varieties of cashmere by Vis/NIR spectroscopy technology based on PCA-SVM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gui-Fang; He, Yong

    2009-06-01

    One mixed algorithm was presented to discriminate cashmere varieties with principal component analysis (PCA) and support vector machine (SVM). Cashmere fiber has such characteristics as threadlike, softness, glossiness and high tensile strength. The quality characters and economic value of each breed of cashmere are very different. In order to safeguard the consumer's rights and guarantee the quality of cashmere product, quickly, efficiently and correctly identifying cashmere has significant meaning to the production and transaction of cashmere material. The present research adopts Vis/NIRS spectroscopy diffuse techniques to collect the spectral data of cashmere. The near infrared fingerprint of cashmere was acquired by principal component analysis (PCA), and support vector machine (SVM) methods were used to further identify the cashmere material. The result of PCA indicated that the score map made by the scores of PC1, PC2 and PC3 was used, and 10 principal components (PCs) were selected as the input of support vector machine (SVM) based on the reliabilities of PCs of 99.99%. One hundred cashmere samples were used for calibration and the remaining 75 cashmere samples were used for validation. A one-against-all multi-class SVM model was built, the capabilities of SVM with different kernel function were comparatively analyzed, and the result showed that SVM possessing with the Gaussian kernel function has the best identification capabilities with the accuracy of 100%. This research indicated that the data mining method of PCA-SVM has a good identification effect, and can work as a new method for rapid identification of cashmere material varieties.

  17. SU-C-BRF-03: PCA Modeling of Anatomical Changes During Head and Neck Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetvertkov, M; Kim, J; Siddiqui, F; Kumarasiri, A; Chetty, I; Gordon, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop principal component analysis (PCA) models from daily cone beam CTs (CBCTs) of head and neck (H and N) patients that could be used prospectively in adaptive radiation therapy (ART). Methods: : For 7 H and N patients, Pinnacle Treatment Planning System (Philips Healthcare) was used to retrospectively deformably register daily CBCTs to the planning CT. The number N of CBCTs per treatment course ranged from 14 to 22. For each patient a PCA model was built from the deformation vector fields (DVFs), after first subtracting the mean DVF, producing N eigen-DVFs (EDVFs). It was hypothesized that EDVFs with large eigenvalues represent the major anatomical deformations during the course of treatment, and that it is feasible to relate each EDVF to a clinically meaningful systematic or random change in anatomy, such as weight loss, neck flexion, etc. Results: DVFs contained on the order of 3×87×87×58=1.3 million scalar values (3 times the number of voxels in the registered volume). The top 3 eigenvalues accounted for ∼90% of variance. Anatomical changes corresponding to an EDVF were evaluated by generating a synthetic DVF, and applying that DVF to the CT to produce a synthetic CBCT. For all patients, the EDVF for the largest eigenvalue was interpreted to model weight loss. The EDVF for other eigenvalues appeared to represented quasi-random fraction-to-fraction changes. Conclusion: The leading EDVFs from single-patient PCA models have tentatively been identified with weight loss changes during treatment. Other EDVFs are tentatively identified as quasi-random inter-fraction changes. Clean separation of systematic and random components may require further work. This work is expected to facilitate development of population-based PCA models that can be used to prospectively identify significant anatomical changes, such as weight loss, early in treatment, triggering replanning where beneficial

  18. Improved medical image fusion based on cascaded PCA and shift invariant wavelet transforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reena Benjamin, J; Jayasree, T

    2018-02-01

    In the medical field, radiologists need more informative and high-quality medical images to diagnose diseases. Image fusion plays a vital role in the field of biomedical image analysis. It aims to integrate the complementary information from multimodal images, producing a new composite image which is expected to be more informative for visual perception than any of the individual input images. The main objective of this paper is to improve the information, to preserve the edges and to enhance the quality of the fused image using cascaded principal component analysis (PCA) and shift invariant wavelet transforms. A novel image fusion technique based on cascaded PCA and shift invariant wavelet transforms is proposed in this paper. PCA in spatial domain extracts relevant information from the large dataset based on eigenvalue decomposition, and the wavelet transform operating in the complex domain with shift invariant properties brings out more directional and phase details of the image. The significance of maximum fusion rule applied in dual-tree complex wavelet transform domain enhances the average information and morphological details. The input images of the human brain of two different modalities (MRI and CT) are collected from whole brain atlas data distributed by Harvard University. Both MRI and CT images are fused using cascaded PCA and shift invariant wavelet transform method. The proposed method is evaluated based on three main key factors, namely structure preservation, edge preservation, contrast preservation. The experimental results and comparison with other existing fusion methods show the superior performance of the proposed image fusion framework in terms of visual and quantitative evaluations. In this paper, a complex wavelet-based image fusion has been discussed. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method enhances the directional features as well as fine edge details. Also, it reduces the redundant details, artifacts, distortions.

  19. Wavelet Compressed PCA Models for Real-Time Image Registration in Augmented Reality Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Cooper; Kent Wise; John Cooper; Makarand Deo

    2015-01-01

    The use of augmented reality (AR) has shown great promise in enhancing medical training and diagnostics via interactive simulations. This paper presents a novel method to perform accurate and inexpensive image registration (IR) utilizing a pre-constructed database of reference objects in conjunction with a principal component analysis (PCA) model. In addition, a wavelet compression algorithm is utilized to enhance the speed of the registration process. The proposed method is used to perform r...

  20. In Vivo Imaging of Experimental Melanoma Tumors using the Novel Radiotracer 68Ga-NODAGA-Procainamide (PCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertész, István; Vida, András; Nagy, Gábor; Emri, Miklós; Farkas, Antal; Kis, Adrienn; Angyal, János; Dénes, Noémi; Szabó, Judit P; Kovács, Tünde; Bai, Péter; Trencsényi, György

    2017-01-01

    The most aggressive form of skin cancer is the malignant melanoma. Because of its high metastatic potential the early detection of primary melanoma tumors and metastases using non-invasive PET imaging determines the outcome of the disease. Previous studies have already shown that benzamide derivatives, such as procainamide (PCA) specifically bind to melanin pigment. The aim of this study was to synthesize and investigate the melanin specificity of the novel 68 Ga-labeled NODAGA-PCA molecule in vitro and in vivo using PET techniques. Procainamide (PCA) was conjugated with NODAGA chelator and was labeled with Ga-68 ( 68 Ga-NODAGA-PCA). The melanin specificity of 68 Ga-NODAGA-PCA was tested in vitro , ex vivo and in vivo using melanotic B16-F10 and amelanotic Melur melanoma cell lines. By subcutaneous and intravenous injection of melanoma cells tumor-bearing mice were prepared, on which biodistribution studies and small animal PET/CT scans were performed for 68 Ga-NODAGA-PCA and 18 FDG tracers. 68 Ga-NODAGA-PCA was produced with high specific activity (14.9±3.9 GBq/µmol) and with excellent radiochemical purity (98%PCA uptake of B16-F10 cells was significantly ( p ≤0.01) higher than Melur cells. Ex vivo biodistribution and in vivo PET/CT studies using subcutaneous and metastatic tumor models showed significantly ( p ≤0.01) higher 68 Ga-NODAGA-PCA uptake in B16-F10 primary tumors and lung metastases in comparison with amelanotic Melur tumors. In experiments where 18 FDG and 68 Ga-NODAGA-PCA uptake of B16-F10 tumors was compared, we found that the tumor-to-muscle (T/M) and tumor-to-lung (T/L) ratios were significantly ( p ≤0.05 and p ≤0.01) higher using 68 Ga-NODAGA-PCA than the 18 FDG accumulation. Our novel radiotracer 68 Ga-NODAGA-PCA showed specific binding to the melanin producing experimental melanoma tumors. Therefore, 68 Ga-NODAGA-PCA is a suitable diagnostic radiotracer for the detection of melanoma tumors and metastases in vivo .

  1. Automatic detection of optic disc based on PCA and mathematical morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Sandra; Naranjo, Valery; Angulo, Us; Alcaniz, Mariano

    2013-04-01

    The algorithm proposed in this paper allows to automatically segment the optic disc from a fundus image. The goal is to facilitate the early detection of certain pathologies and to fully automate the process so as to avoid specialist intervention. The method proposed for the extraction of the optic disc contour is mainly based on mathematical morphology along with principal component analysis (PCA). It makes use of different operations such as generalized distance function (GDF), a variant of the watershed transformation, the stochastic watershed, and geodesic transformations. The input of the segmentation method is obtained through PCA. The purpose of using PCA is to achieve the grey-scale image that better represents the original RGB image. The implemented algorithm has been validated on five public databases obtaining promising results. The average values obtained (a Jaccard's and Dice's coefficients of 0.8200 and 0.8932, respectively, an accuracy of 0.9947, and a true positive and false positive fractions of 0.9275 and 0.0036) demonstrate that this method is a robust tool for the automatic segmentation of the optic disc. Moreover, it is fairly reliable since it works properly on databases with a large degree of variability and improves the results of other state-of-the-art methods.

  2. Identifikasi Wajah Manusia untuk Sistem Monitoring Kehadiran Perkuliahan menggunakan Ekstraksi Fitur Principal Component Analysis (PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cucu Suhery

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Berbagai sistem monitoring presensi yang ada memiliki kekurangan dan kelebihan masing-masing, dan perlu  untuk terus dikembangkan sehingga memudahkan dalam proses pengolahan datanya. Pada penelitian ini dikembangkan suatu sistem monitoring presensi menggunakan deteksi wajah manusia yang diintegrasikan dengan basis data menggunakan bahasa pemrograman Python dan library opencv. Akuisisi data citra dilakukan dengan ponsel android, kemudian citra tersebut dideteksi dan dipotong sehingga hanya didapat bagian wajah saja.  Deteksi wajah menggunakan metode Haar-Cascade Classifier, kemudian ekstraksi fitur dilakukan menggunakan metode Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Hasil dari PCA diberi label sesuai dengan data manusia yang ada pada basis data. Semua citra yang telah memiliki nilai PCA dan tersimpan di basis data akan dicari kemiripannya dengan citra wajah pada proses pengujian menggunakan metoda Euclidian Distance. Pada penelitian ini basis data yang digunakan yaitu MySQL. Hasil deteksi citra wajah pada proses pelatihan memiliki tingkat keberhasilan 100% dan hasil identifikasi wajah pada proses pengujian memiliki tingkat keberhasilan 90%..   Kata kunci— android, haar-cascade classifier, principal component analysis, euclidian distance, MySQL, sistem monitoring presensi, deteksi wajah

  3. EEG channels reduction using PCA to increase XGBoost's accuracy for stroke detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriah, N.; Wijaya, S. K.; Fanany, M. I.; Badri, C.; Rezal, M.

    2017-07-01

    In Indonesia, based on the result of Basic Health Research 2013, the number of stroke patients had increased from 8.3 ‰ (2007) to 12.1 ‰ (2013). These days, some researchers are using electroencephalography (EEG) result as another option to detect the stroke disease besides CT Scan image as the gold standard. A previous study on the data of stroke and healthy patients in National Brain Center Hospital (RS PON) used Brain Symmetry Index (BSI), Delta-Alpha Ratio (DAR), and Delta-Theta-Alpha-Beta Ratio (DTABR) as the features for classification by an Extreme Learning Machine (ELM). The study got 85% accuracy with sensitivity above 86 % for acute ischemic stroke detection. Using EEG data means dealing with many data dimensions, and it can reduce the accuracy of classifier (the curse of dimensionality). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) could reduce dimensionality and computation cost without decreasing classification accuracy. XGBoost, as the scalable tree boosting classifier, can solve real-world scale problems (Higgs Boson and Allstate dataset) with using a minimal amount of resources. This paper reuses the same data from RS PON and features from previous research, preprocessed with PCA and classified with XGBoost, to increase the accuracy with fewer electrodes. The specific fewer electrodes improved the accuracy of stroke detection. Our future work will examine the other algorithm besides PCA to get higher accuracy with less number of channels.

  4. A neuro-fuzzy inference system for sensor failure detection using wavelet denoising, PCA and SPRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Man Gyun

    2001-01-01

    In this work, a neuro-fuzzy inference system combined with the wavelet denoising, PCA(principal component analysis) and SPRT (sequential probability ratio test) methods is developed to detect the relevant sensor failure using other sensor signals. The wavelet denoising technique is applied to remove noise components in input signals into the neuro-fuzzy system. The PCA is used to reduce the dimension of an input space without losing a significant amount of information, The PCA makes easy the selection of the input signals into the neuro-fuzzy system. Also, a lower dimensional input space usually reduces the time necessary to train a neuro-fuzzy system. The parameters of the neuro-fuzzy inference system which estimates the relevant sensor signal are optimized by a genetic algorithm and a least-squares algorithm. The residuals between the estimated signals and the measured signals are used to detect whether the sensors are failed or not. The SPRT is used in this failure detection algorithm. The proposed sensor-monitoring algorithm was verified through applications to the pressurizer water level and the hot-leg flowrate sensors in pressurized water reactors

  5. Filtrado Adaptativo de Componentes Involuntarias en Marcha Asistida por Andador para Detección de Intenciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Frizera

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este trabajo, se presenta un método de filtrado adaptativo para la eliminación de las componentes involuntarias de las fuerzas de interacción entre el usuario y el andador por el apoyo de sus miembros superiores. Este proceso se basa en la atenuación selectiva de componentes relacionadas con las oscilaciones del tronco del sujeto durante la marcha. Para ello, se hace la estimación de la cadencia de marcha en tiempo real procesando las señales de distancia obtenidas por un subsistema ultrasónico mediante el algoritmo Weighted-Frequency Fourier Linear Combiner (WFLC. Este subsistema suministra la distancia entre los pies del usuario y el andador en tiempo real. La cadencia a su vez es usada para el ajuste de un filtro notch adaptativo construido a partir del algoritmo Fourier Linear Combiner (FLC que realiza el filtrado en tiempo real de las señales obtenidas del subsistema de medición de fuerzas de apoyo de antebrazos. El método propuesto ofrece una cancelación robusta y en tiempo real de cerca del 80% de la amplitud de las componentes indeseadas de frecuencia. La salida del algoritmo de filtrado propuesto permite así evidenciar componentes de fuerzas de bajo nivel pero muy importantes ya que están generadas por acciones intencionales y naturales asociadas a las intenciones de guiado del andador. Estas componentes serán utilizadas en el control de los motores del andador basándose en una arquitectura de control clásico que será desarrollada posteriormente. Palabras clave: Robótica de rehabilitación, interfaz hombre-máquina, filtrado adaptativo, detección de intenciones, marcha humana

  6. RELAÇÃO ENTRE COMPONENTES DO CORPO VAZIO E RENDIMENTOS DE CARCAÇA DE NOVILHOS DE CORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguelangelo Ziegler Arboitte

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar a relação entre os vários componentes das partes do corpo não-integrantes da carcaça com os rendimentos de carcaça quente (RCQ e fria (RCF expressos em relação ao peso de abate (PAB ou de corpo vazio (PCV de novilhos de corte. Foram utilizados 24 animais mestiços Charolês – Nelore,terminados em confinamento. Nenhum componente do corpo vazio, bem como os conjuntos dos componentes apresentaram relação significativa com os RCQ e RCF quando ajustados para PAB. Quando avaliados em relação ao PCV, o RCQ correlacionou-se positivamente com coração (r=0,41 e negativamente com as gorduras internas: inguinal (r=-0,62, renal (r=-0,48, toalete (r=-0,51 e ruminal+intestinal (r=-0,57. E o RCF apresentou relação positiva com cabeça (r=0,42, coração (r=0,45 e omaso (r=0,49, e negativa com couro (r=-0,45, abomaso (r=-0,52 e gorduras internas:inguinal (r=-0,46, renal (r=-0,43, toalete (r=-0,68 e ruminal+intestinal (r=-0,72. Para os conjuntos dos componentes, apenas as gorduras internas correlacionaram-se significativamente com os RCQ (r=-0,68 e RCF (r=-0,76 expressos em relação ao PCV. Correlação significativa foi verificada entre os conjuntos gorduras internas com componentes externos (r=0,50 e entre os conjuntos trato digestivo vazio com órgãos vitais (r=0,74. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Bos indicus, Bos taurus, couro, cruzamento, gordura interna.

  7. Análisis estadístico multivariante de las principales enfermedades gastroéntericas en el cantón Guayaquil

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Saltos, Cristina Marisela; Ramirez Figueroa, John Alex

    2009-01-01

    La presente investigación desarrolla el Análisis Multivariado de las principales enfermedades gastroéntericas que afectan a la ciudad de Guayaquil. Consideramos que las principales enfermedades gastroéntericas son: Fiebre Tifoidea, Salmonelosis y Enfermedades Diarreicas Agudas. En el primer capítulo se enfoca la problemática de las enfermedades gastroéntericas en el Ecuador y en la ciudad de Guayaquil, de la misma manera se presenta la descripción de las principales enfermedades gastroént...

  8. Synthesis and bioactivities of Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid derivatives based on the modification of PCA carboxyl group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhipeng; Niu, Junfan; Liu, Hao; Xu, Zhihong; Li, Junkai; Wu, Qinglai

    2017-05-01

    Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) as a natural product widely exists in microbial metabolites of Pseudomonads and Streptomycetes and has been registered for the fungicide against rice sheath blight in China. To find higher fungicidal activities compounds and study the effects on fungicidal activities after changing the carboxyl group of PCA, we synthesized a series of PCA derivatives by modifying the carboxyl group of PCA and their structures were confirmed by 1 H NMR and HRMS. Most compounds exhibited significant fungicidal activities in vitro. In particular, compound 6 exhibited inhibition effect against Rhizoctonia solani with EC 50 values of 4.35mg/L and compound 3b exhibited effect against Fusarium graminearum with EC 50 values of 8.30mg/L, compared to the positive control PCA with its EC 50 values of 7.88mg/L (Rhizoctonia solani) and 127.28mg/L (Fusarium graminearum), respectively. The results indicated that the carboxyl group of PCA could be modified to be amide group, acylhydrazine group, ester group, methyl, hydroxymethyl, chloromethyl and ether group etc. And appropriate modifications on carboxyl group of PCA were useful to extend the fungicidal scope. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment of a patient with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) with chiropractic manipulation and Dynamic Neuromuscular Stabilization (DNS): A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francio, Vinicius T; Boesch, Ron; Tunning, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a rare progressive neurodegenerative syndrome which unusual symptoms include deficits of balance, bodily orientation, chronic pain syndrome and dysfunctional motor patterns. Current research provides minimal guidance on support, education and recommended evidence-based patient care. This case reports the utilization of chiropractic spinal manipulation, dynamic neuromuscular stabilization (DNS), and other adjunctive procedures along with medical treatment of PCA. A 54-year-old male presented to a chiropractic clinic with non-specific back pain associated with visual disturbances, slight memory loss, and inappropriate cognitive motor control. After physical examination, brain MRI and PET scan, the diagnosis of PCA was recognized. Chiropractic spinal manipulation and dynamic neuromuscular stabilization were utilized as adjunctive care to conservative pharmacological treatment of PCA. Outcome measurements showed a 60% improvement in the patient's perception of health with restored functional neuromuscular pattern, improvements in locomotion, posture, pain control, mood, tolerance to activities of daily living (ADLs) and overall satisfactory progress in quality of life. Yet, no changes on memory loss progression, visual space orientation, and speech were observed. PCA is a progressive and debilitating condition. Because of poor awareness of PCA by physicians, patients usually receive incomplete care. Additional efforts must be centered on the musculoskeletal features of PCA, aiming enhancement in quality of life and functional improvements (FI). Adjunctive rehabilitative treatment is considered essential for individuals with cognitive and motor disturbances, and manual medicine procedures may be consider a viable option.

  10. Refração e seus componentes em anisometropia Refraction and its components in anisometropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tayah

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Em anisométropes comparar os valores médios individuais dos componentes oculares de ambos os olhos, correlacionar as diferenças dos componentes com as diferenças de refração; e identificar o menor número de fatores que contenham o mesmo grau de informações expressas no conjunto de variáveis que influenciam a diferença refrativa. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo transversal analítico em população de 77 anisométropes de 2 D ou mais, atendida no ambulatório de Oftalmologia do Hospital Universitário da Faculdade de Medicina Nilton Lins, Manaus. RESULTADOS: Os anisométropes foram submetidos à refração estática objetiva e subjetiva, ceratometria e biometria ultrassônica A-scan. A análise dos dados foi feita por meio dos seguintes modelos estatísticos: análise univariada, multivariada, de regressão múltipla e fatorial. CONCLUSÕES: Não houve diferenças significativas na comparação dos valores médios individuais dos componentes oculares entre os olhos. Houve correlação negativa média entre a diferença refrativa e a diferença de comprimento axial (r= -0,64 (pPURPOSE: To compare the individual means of ocular components of both eyes in patients with anisometropia; to correlate the differences of the components with refractive differences; and to identify the smallest number of factors that contain the same level of information expressed in the set of variables that influence refractive difference. METHODS: An analytical transversal study was carried out in 77 patients with anisometropia of two or more dioptres seen at the Ophthalmologic Clinic, University Hospital, Nilton Lins Medical School, Manaus. RESULTS: All participants were submitted to ophthalmologic examination which included objective and subjective cycloplegic refractometry, keratometry and ultrasound biometry. Data analysis comprised the following statistical models: univariate, multivariate, multiple and factorial regression analyses. CONCLUSIONS

  11. [The role of a single PCA3 test before a first negative prostate biopsy: 5-year follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardeau, S; Charles, T; Fromont-Hankard, G; Irani, J

    2017-04-01

    We report a 5-year follow-up of a cohort of patients who underwent a first prostate biopsy following a prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) test. We reviewed consecutive patients who had in 2008 a single urinary PCA3 test using the Gen-Probe ® assay before a first prostate biopsy for a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) between 3 and 20ng/mL and/or a suspicious digital rectal examination. PCA3 performances were analyzed in 2008 and then in 2013 after taking into account the results of repeat biopsies. At initial biopsy in 2008, among the 125 patients study cohort, prostate cancer was diagnosed in 47 patients (37.6%). Abnormal digital rectal exam, PSA density, prostate volume and PCA3 score were significantly associated with prostate cancer diagnosis. PCA3 area under the curve of the receiver operating curve was 0.67 [95%CI: 0.57-0.76] with an optimal threshold of PCA3 in this sample of 24 units. During the 5-year follow-up, among the 78 patients with a negative prostate biopsy in 2008, 23 (29.5%) had a repeat prostate biopsy of whom 14 were diagnosed with prostate cancer. PCA3 score measured in 2008 was associated with prostate cancer diagnosis (P=0.002). All 9 patients with a negative repeat prostate biopsy had a PCA3 score below the cut-off while this was the case in only 2 patients among the 14 with a positive repeat prostate biopsy. The results of a single PCA3 test before a first prostate biopsy seems to be a useful aid in deciding whether to perform a repeat biopsy. 4. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. EL TURISMO SOLIDARIO COMO INSTRUMENTO DE DESARROLLO: UN ESTUDIO DE CASO PARA ANALIZAR LAS PRINCIPALES MOTIVACIONES DE LOS TURISTAS SOLIDARIOS

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    Laura Fuentes-Moraleda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se centra en el concepto y evolución del turismo solidario así como en las motivaciones del turista que lo realiza. Tras la revisión de la literatura y basado en un estudio cuantitativo de la cartera de clientes de una ONG española especializada en viajes solidarios, se concluye que la interactuación con otras culturas y el enriquecimiento personal son dos de las principales motivaciones de este tipo de viajero. Los resultados del estudio presentan algunas orientaciones para que las comunidades adapten su oferta actual hacia una mayor integración con el viajero.

  13. Parasitosis intestinales en Argentina: Principales agentes causales encontrados en la población y/o en el ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Juarez, Maria Mercedes; Rajal, Verónica Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Las parasitosis intestinales se encuentran ampliamente distribuidas en el mundo, con mayor prevalencia en los países en desarrollo. Principalmente afectan a los niños en los que además provocan disminución del desarrollo físico y mental; situación que puede potenciarse enormemente cuando se suma a un estado nutricional deficiente. La Organización Mundial de la Salud las considera una de las principales causas de morbilidad, estrechamente ligada a la pobreza y relacionada con inadecuada higien...

  14. Patrocinio deportivo en los principales equipos de fútbol de la Liga española

    OpenAIRE

    Trueba Gutiérrez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN: El marketing es una función de la organización y un conjunto de procesos para crear, comunicar y entregar valor a los clientes, y para manejar las relaciones con estos últimos, de manera que beneficien a toda la organización”. (AMA, 1985) El objetivo principal de este trabajo es analizar y tratar todo aquello que rodea al mundo del Patrocinio en el fútbol. Concretamente, el valoraremos la notoriedad o importancia de los patrocinadores en los principales equipos de fútbol de la Li...

  15. Marco jurídico y principales instrumentos de la cooperación transfronteriza institucional en Europa

    OpenAIRE

    Medina García, Eusebio

    2017-01-01

    En este artículo realizamos un recorrido desde los orígenes de la «cooperación transfronteriza institucional» en Europa hasta la actual «cooperación territorial». Definimos y comparamos los conceptos de «cooperación institucional» y «cooperación tradicional” y auguramos un acercamiento entre ambas. Describimos el principal marco legal de la «cooperación transfronteriza institucional» y analizamos sus principales instrumentos, prestando una atención especial a la Eurorregión, a la Agrupación E...

  16. Burnout en cuidadores principales de pacientes con Alzheimer,el síndrome del asistente desasistido

    OpenAIRE

    Garcés de los Fayos Ruiz, Enrique Javier; Peinado Portero, Ana Isabel

    1998-01-01

    En este trabajo se describen los efectos emocionales que sufren los familiares que asumen el papel de cuidadores principales de enfermos de Alzheimer, y en especial el síndrome denominado Burnout. Este trastorno se manifiesta mediante un complejo síndrome afectivo y motivacional, que acaece en quienes desempeñan tareas de ayuda a los demás, caracterizado por la presencia de síntomas de agotamiento emocional, despersonalización en el trato e inadecuación con la ...

  17. Desempeño competitivo de los principales bloques exportadores en el mercado mundial de quesos y manteca

    OpenAIRE

    Depetris Guiguet, Edith; Rossini, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    Dos de los principales productos lácteos comercializados en el mercado internacional son quesos y manteca, habiendo sido ambos objeto de fuerte protección en casi todos los países. Entre comienzos de la década del ’90 y mediados de la primera del nuevo milenio, hubo cambios importantes en el contexto que afectaron el comercio mundial de ambos, incluyendo la consolidación y creación de bloques de libre comercio y los resultados de las negociaciones multilaterales, con compromisos de mayor aper...

  18. Reflexiones sobre la influencia de los componentes religiosos en el asociacionismo inmigrante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mata Romeu, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The text reflects on the importance (real and symbolic religious component in the birth and consolidation of the associations of immigrants from the Maghreb and sub-Saharan Africa. The analysis focuses exclusively on the Islamic religion, as is most common in people from this source. The field work was developed in three Autonomous Communities: Catalonia, Community Valencia and Navarra, between 2009 and 2010. Research shows, among others, shared religious beliefs of the members of the association are important (in some cases decisive to understand both the birth of the partnership, including joint and internal cohesion. As will be seen also throughout the text, the religious component is also useful to understand the relations that these associations together, with those considered similar and the different public administrations.El texto reflexiona sobre la importancia (real y simbólica de los componentes religiosos en el nacimiento y consolidación de las asociaciones de personas inmigrantes procedentes de el Magreb y el África subsahariana. El análisis se centra de forma exclusiva en la religión islámica, dado que es la mayoritaria en las personas de esta procedencia. El trabajo de campo se ha desarrollado en tres comunidades autónomas: Cataluña, Comunidad Valenciana y Navarra, entre los años 2009 y 2010. De la investigación se desprende, entre otras, que las creencias religiosas compartidas de los miembros de la asociación resultan importantes (incluso en algunos casos determinantes para entender tanto el nacimiento de la asociación, como su articulación y cohesión interna. Como se verá también a lo largo del texto, el componente religioso será también de utilidad para comprender las relaciones que sostienen estas asociaciones entre sí, con aquellas consideradas análogas y con las distintas administraciones públicas.

  19. Explorando o componente inflamatório da esquizofrenia Targeting the inflammatory component of schizophrenia

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    Hassan Rahmoune

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A esquizofrenia é uma doença heterogênea caracterizada por um conjunto de manifestações clínicas. Um grande número de estudos ao longo dos últimos 20 anos apontou para anormalidades no sistema imune em pacientes que sofrem dessa condição. Em adição, tem sido mostrado que a psicose e a disfunção cognitiva associadas com a esquizofrenia estão ligadas a doenças autoimunes. Aqui, revisamos a evidência que sugere que um status pró-inflamatório do sistema imune induz sintomas psicopatológicos e pode estar envolvido na fisiopatologia dessa principal doença mental. Também propomos que futuros estudos pré-clínicos e clínicos deveriam levar em conta tais causas predefinidas e o status do componente inflamatório. Estratificação de pacientes e estratégias de medicina personalizadas baseadas no direcionamento ao componente inflamatório da doença poderiam ajudar na redução de sintomas e da progressão da doença. Por fim, isso poderia levar a novos conceitos na identificação de alvos moleculares em esquizofrenia e estratégias de descoberta de drogas.Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disease characterised by an array of clinical manifestations. A large number of studies over the last 20 years have pointed towards immune system abnormalities in patients suffering from this condition. In addition, the psychosis and cognitive dysfunction associated with schizophrenia have been shown to be linked with autoimmune diseases. Here, we review the evidence, which suggests that a pro-inflammatory status of the immune system induces psychopathologic symptoms and may be involved in the pathophysiology of this major mental illness. We also propose that future preclinical and clinical studies should take such pre-defined causes and the dynamic status of the inflammatory component into account. Patient stratification and personalised medicine strategies based on targeting the inflammatory component of the disease could help in alleviation of

  20. Explorando o componente inflamatório da esquizofrenia Targeting the inflammatory component of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rahmoune

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A esquizofrenia é uma doença heterogênea caracterizada por um conjunto de manifestações clínicas. Um grande número de estudos ao longo dos últimos 20 anos apontou para anormalidades no sistema imune em pacientes que sofrem dessa condição. Em adição, tem sido mostrado que a psicose e a disfunção cognitiva associadas com a esquizofrenia estão ligadas a doenças autoimunes. Aqui, revisamos a evidência que sugere que um status pró-inflamatório do sistema imune induz sintomas psicopatológicos e pode estar envolvido na fisiopatologia dessa principal doença mental. Também propomos que futuros estudos pré-clínicos e clínicos deveriam levar em conta tais causas predefinidas e o status do componente inflamatório. Estratificação de pacientes e estratégias de medicina personalizadas baseadas no direcionamento ao componente inflamatório da doença poderiam ajudar na redução de sintomas e da progressão da doença. Por fim, isso poderia levar a novos conceitos na identificação de alvos moleculares em esquizofrenia e estratégias de descoberta de drogas.Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disease characterised by an array of clinical manifestations. A large number of studies over the last 20 years have pointed towards immune system abnormalities in patients suffering from this condition. In addition, the psychosis and cognitive dysfunction associated with schizophrenia have been shown to be linked with autoimmune diseases. Here, we review the evidence, which suggests that a pro-inflammatory status of the immune system induces psychopathologic symptoms and may be involved in the pathophysiology of this major mental illness. We also propose that future preclinical and clinical studies should take such pre-defined causes and the dynamic status of the inflammatory component into account. Patient stratification and personalised medicine strategies based on targeting the inflammatory component of the disease could help in alleviation of

  1. Influência da atividade física nos componentes psicomotores em idosos

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    Patricia Espíndola Mota Venâncio

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: analisar a influência da atividade física nos componentes psicomotores em idosos participantes do UNIATI-UniEvangélica. Método: tratou-se de um estudo de natureza descritiva com abordagem qualitativa, transversal, realizado com 80 idosos, de ambos os sexos, sendo que 60 praticam atividades físicas, 20 musculação, 20 hidroginástica, 20 ritmos, regularmente em um projeto na faculdade UniEvangélica (UNIATI, na cidade de Anápolis-GO e outros 20 sedentários. As informações foram coletadas a partir de testes da ficha de avaliação psicomotora de Rosa Neto,22 os quais avaliam alterações de comportamento mental psicológico e neurológico, controle evolutivo nas áreas da motricidade fina, coordenação global, equilíbrio, esquema corporal, organização espacial e temporal. Resultados: os idosos praticantes de atividades físicas obtiveram melhor desempenho em todos os testes, com diferenças significativas, comparando aos idosos não praticantes, tendo a grande maioria classificado em muito inferior na coordenação global, normal médio no equilíbrio, muito superior na classificação do esquema corporal, normal médio na organização espacial, muito superior na estruturação temporal e normal médio na classificação geral dos aspectos psicomotores, mostrando assim que os idosos praticantes de atividades físicas tem maior desenvoltura em relação às valências físicas e motoras, controle da postura, percepção e manutenção da imagem corporal, um bom equilíbrio, melhor domínio de si próprio fisicamente, socialmente e psicologicamente. Considerações finais: a prática de musculação, hidroginástica e ritmos influencia na melhora e manutenção dos componentes psicomotores, obtendo assim uma maior desenvoltura da coordenação global, esquema corporal, equilíbrio, organização espacial e temporal, na qual os idosos sedentários não obtiveram bons resultados.

  2. Arabidopsis PCaP2 Functions as a Linker Between ABA and SA Signals in Plant Water Deficit Tolerance

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    Xianling Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Water stress has a major influence on plant growth, development, and productivity. However, the cross-talk networks involved in drought tolerance are not well understood. Arabidopsis PCaP2 is a plasma membrane-associated Ca2+-binding protein. In this study, we employ qRT-PCR and β-glucuronidase (GUS histochemical staining to demonstrate that PCaP2 expression was strongly induced in roots, cotyledons, true leaves, lateral roots, and whole plants under water deficit conditions. Compared with the wild type (WT plants, PCaP2-overexpressing (PCaP2-OE plants displayed enhanced water deficit tolerance in terms of seed germination, seedling growth, and plant survival status. On the contrary, PCaP2 mutation and reduction via PCaP2-RNAi rendered plants more sensitive to water deficit. Furthermore, PCaP2-RNAi and pcap2 seedlings showed shorter root hairs and lower relative water content compared to WT under normal conditions and these phenotypes were exacerbated under water deficit. Additionally, the expression of PCaP2 was strongly induced by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA and salicylic acid (SA treatments. PCaP2-OE plants showed insensitive to exogenous ABA and SA treatments, in contrast to the susceptible phenotypes of pcap2 and PCaP2-RNAi. It is well-known that SNF1-related kinase 2s (SnRK2s and pathogenesis-related (PRs are major factors that influence plant drought tolerance by ABA- and SA-mediated pathways, respectively. Interestingly, PCaP2 positively regulated the expression of drought-inducible genes (RD29A, KIN1, and KIN2, ABA-mediated drought responsive genes (SnRK2.2, -2.3, -2.6, ABF1, -2, -3, -4, and SA-mediated drought responsive genes (PR1, -2, -5 under water deficit, ABA, or SA treatments. Taken together, our results showed that PCaP2 plays an important and positive role in Arabidopsis water deficit tolerance by involving in response to both ABA and SA signals and regulating root hair growth. This study provides novel insights into the

  3. 2L-PCA: a two-level principal component analyzer for quantitative drug design and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qi-Shi; Wang, Shu-Qing; Xie, Neng-Zhong; Wang, Qing-Yan; Huang, Ri-Bo; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2017-09-19

    A two-level principal component predictor (2L-PCA) was proposed based on the principal component analysis (PCA) approach. It can be used to quantitatively analyze various compounds and peptides about their functions or potentials to become useful drugs. One level is for dealing with the physicochemical properties of drug molecules, while the other level is for dealing with their structural fragments. The predictor has the self-learning and feedback features to automatically improve its accuracy. It is anticipated that 2L-PCA will become a very useful tool for timely providing various useful clues during the process of drug development.

  4. Los sistemas de dos componentes: circuitos moleculares versátiles

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    Carlos A. Barba-Ostria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Para sobrevivir, los organismos deben adaptarse a cambios ambientales repentinos que ejercen una presión selectiva y por lo tanto sus posibilidades de supervivencia, dependen de su capacidad para responder en forma rápida y precisa. La adaptación a estos cambios está estrechamente ligada a la correcta percepción y transmisión de los estímulos, así como a la generación de respuestas apropiadas. En diferentes bacterias, hongos, plantas y mohos mucilaginosos, los sistemas de dos componentes (SDC permiten regular su fisiología de acuerdo a las condiciones ambientales. En estos circuitos moleculares, el mecanismo de comunicación entre módulos es la fosforilación consecutiva de residuos de His y Asp localizados en dos proteínas: una cinasa sensora (CS y un regulador de la respuesta (RR. En este artículo de revisión, se destacan las características más relevantes de los SDC, así como su participación como sistemas de percepción-respuesta a muy diversos estímulos. Además se resaltan las diferencias entre los SDC en procariontes y eucariontes. Finalmente se ejemplifican algunas diferencias usando los circuitos de regulación osmótica de Escherichia coli y Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  5. Aceros sinterizados tratados al vapor para la fabricación de componentes de amortiguadores bitubo

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    Cambronero, L. E. G.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, properties of three sintered and steam treated alloyed irons were analysed. These materials were Fe+2Cu, Fe+0.6C+0.5Cu, and Fe+0.45P+2.5Cu, which were obtained by powder mixing. Once pressed and sintered, samples were steam treated (surface treatment which is characteristic of sintered irons. Density, hardness and tensile strength were obtained on sintered and steam treated samples, within their microstructure analysis. Also, a tribological study was carried out since some parts of shock absorbers are working under friction.

    En este trabajo se analizan las propiedades de tres hierros aleados sintetizados y tratados al vapor. Los materiales seleccionados son el Fe+2Cu, Fe+0.6C+0.5Cu, y Fe+0.45P+2.5Cu, obtenidos por mezcla elemental de polvos. Una vez compactados y sintetizados, se sometieron a un tratamiento de recubrimiento característico de los hierros, como es el tratamiento al vapor. En los materiales sintetizados y tratados al vapor, se determinaron su densidad, dureza y resistencia a tracción, junto con su análisis microestructural. Así mismo dado que algunos de los componentes de los amortiguadores bitubo están sometidos a esfuerzos de fricción, se analizaron el comportamiento tribologíco de los materiales obtenidos tanto en estado sintetizado como tratados al vapor.

  6. COMPONENTES MINORITÁRIOS DO ÓLEO DE MAMONA (Ricinus comunnis L.

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    Elina Bastos Caramão

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O óleo extraído de sementes de Ricinnus communis L., conhecida como mamona, foi analisado neste trabalho quanto a presença decomponentes minoritários extraídos na fase insaponificável. A extração de insaponificáveis foi realizada conforme o método AOCS(Ca 6a-40 e a análise das amostras de óleo foi realizada por Cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas (CG-DEMapós derivatização com BSA. Entre as substâncias identificadas encontrou-se o D-tocoferol, g- tocoferol, D5-ergostenol, stigmasterol,obtusifoliol, g-sitosterol, fucosterol e cicloartenol. As amostras de óleo de diferentes variedades de mamona, obtidas por prensagem afrio e por solvente em extrator soxhlet apresentaram diferenças quanto as substâncias separadas. O método empregado para extração eanálise foi apropriado para identificar a presença de componentes minoritários no óleo de mamona.

  7. EXTENSIÓN DEL METAMODELO DE UML PARA UNA ARQUITECTURA DE COMPONENTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Orejas Valdés

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

     

     

    UML es un lenguaje de modelado estándar para problemas generales, sin embargo, es necesario extenderlo para dominios específicos como puede ser el caso de determinadas arquitecturas. En este caso se presenta una extensión de su metamodelo mediante la creación de nuevas metaclases y metaasociaciones para una arquitectura de componentes y conectores genéricos.

  8. Estudio comparativo del componente motivacional en miembros de parejas de estudiantes universitarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Quintana Ugando

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research paper compares the motivation among members of 15 university student couples. Intimacy, needs, motivation and life projects were explored. Differences regarding intimacy perception, satisfaction with their relationship and life project with the present couple were included topics. In all cases, sexual activity is the most gratifying item. Needs and motivation are addressed to professional upgrading and family establishment. Resumen En el presente artículo de investigación se compara el componente motivacional entre miembros de 15 parejas estables conformadas por estudiantes universitarios. Se exploró la intimidad vivenciada por ambos miembros en su relación; así como las necesidades, motivos y proyectos de vida que poseen. Se encontraron diferencias en cuanto a la percepción de la intimidad, la satisfacción en la relación y la elaboración de proyectos relacionados con la pareja actual. El aspecto que brinda mayor gratificación en las parejas es la actividad sexual. Las necesidades y motivos de los estudiantes se orientan hacia la superación profesional y la conformación de una familia.

  9. Componentes antiinflamatórios na saliva do Lutzomyia longipalpis, vetor da Leishmania chagasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Chagas Monteiro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A inoculação da saliva de vetores na pele do hospedeiro é importante tanto para a alimentação do inseto quanto para a transmissão e estabelecimento de várias infecções. Em leishmaniose, vários estudos demonstram que a saliva dos vetores Lutzomyia e Phlebotomus contém substâncias com atividades imunossupressoras, imunomodulatórias, vasodilatadoras, anti-plaquetárias e anticoagulantes. Os componentes salivares auxiliam a alimentação do inseto através do aumento do fluxo sanguíneo, assim como induzem a imunossupressão no hospedeiro, o que é fundamental para o estabelecimento da infecção por Leishmania. Neste trabalho foi observado que a saliva induz a produção de IL-10, citocina antiinflamatória, não alterando a produção de IFN-g , citocina próinflamatória, no foco da inflamação. Além disso, a saliva potencializa o edema induzido por carragenina.

  10. Cálculo de ejes y momentos principales de inercia. // The calculation of main axes and inertia momentum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O’connor Montero

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describen cálculos clásicos para determinar ejes y momentos principales de inercia de un cuerpo, y se demuestra que sepueden realizar cálculos con el mismo propósito mediante la aplicación del Cálculo Tensorial, la Teoría Espectral y elAlgebra Lineal. Esto permite justificar los términos del título del trabajo constituye una extensión del modelo tensorial a laestática, que en correspondencia con los elementos que lo definen y según analogías con otras aplicaciones a la mecánicadan lugar a introducir la noción de tensor de inercia de un cuerpo. Bien interpretado, el modelo puede contribuir a cambiosimportantes en la enseñanza del álgebra en la Ingeniería.Palabras claves: Tensor, cálculo tensorial, ejes y momentos principales de inercia, tensor de inercia.________________________________________________________________________________Abstract.The tensors calculation and the spectral theory are applied to modelling the inertia state (main axes and momentum ofinertia of a body. This makes possible to enrich static engineering calculations and to generalise tensorial models beyondthe materials resistance, fluids mechanic and the plastic deformation theory. Well interpretated, the model can lead toimportant changes in algebra teaching for mechanical engineers.Key words: Tension member, tension calculation, inertia main axes , principals inertia momentum, inertiatension member.

  11. Swelling and microstructural development in path A PCA and type 316 stainless steel irradiated in HFIR to about 22 dpa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziasz, P.J.; Braski, D.N.

    1983-01-01

    Irradiation of several microstructural variants of PCA and 20%-cold-worked N-lot type 316 stainess steel (CW 316) in HFIR to about 10 dpa produced no visible cavities at 300 0 C, bubbles at 400 0 C, and varying distributions of bubbles and voids at 500 and 600 0 C. The PCA-B1 swells the most and CW 316 (N-lot) the least at 600 0 C. Irradiations have been extended to about 22 dpa. The PCA-Al swells 0.06%/dpa at 600 0 C but at a much lower rate at 500 0 C. The PCA-A3 shows the lowest swelling at 600 0 C, about the half the swelling rate of type 316 stainless steel

  12. Gestión sistemática de la calidad de la información en los procesos de selección de componentes de software

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala Martínez, Claudia Patricia; Franch Gutiérrez, Javier

    2009-01-01

    La selección de componentes de software desarrollados por terceros juega un papel primordial en el desarrollo de sistemas de software basados en componentes. Uno de los problemas que incrementa potencialmente el riesgo de elegir componentes no apropiados es basar las decisiones en información de poca calidad. La información relacionada con los componentes se caracteriza por estar disgregada, crecer de forma continuada, cambiar con frecuencia, provenir de múltiples y variadas fuentes (no si...

  13. Tendência das taxas de mortalidade infantil e de seus componentes em Guarulhos-SP, no período de 1996 a 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hideki Bando

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar as tendências das taxas de mortalidade infantil (TMI e seus componentes em Guarulhos-SP, no período 1996-2011. MÉTODOS: regressão linear segmentada, para estimar as variações percentuais anuais (VPA. RESULTADOS: em 1996, a TMI e de seus componentes neonatal precoce, neonatal tardio e pós-neonatal foram, respectivamente, de 31,6, 16,7, 3,4 e 11,6 por 1000 nascidos vivos; em 2011, essas taxas foram de 12,6, 5,9, 1,6 e 5,1 respectivamente; houve diminuição significativa das TMI em todo o período; de 1996 a 2002, a VPA foi de -9,9, e de 2002 a 2011, foi de -3,7; o componente neonatal apresentou igual padrão; o componente neonatal precoce apresentou diminuição de 1996 a 2002 (VPA: -12,8, permanecendo estável até 2011; verificou-se diminuição do componente neonatal tardio de 1996 a 2009 (VPA: -2,8; o componente pós-neonatal apresentou redução em todo o período (VPA: -5,7. CONCLUSÃO: observou-se tendência de diminuição das TMI e de seus componentes.

  14. Testing a Modified PCA-Based Sharpening Approach for Image Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Jelének

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Image data sharpening is a challenging field of remote sensing science, which has become more relevant as high spatial-resolution satellites and superspectral sensors have emerged. Although the spectral property is crucial for mineral mapping, spatial resolution is also important as it allows targeted minerals/rocks to be identified/interpreted in a spatial context. Therefore, improving the spatial context, while keeping the spectral property provided by the superspectral sensor, would bring great benefits for geological/mineralogical mapping especially in arid environments. In this paper, a new concept was tested using superspectral data (ASTER and high spatial-resolution panchromatic data (WorldView-2 for image fusion. A modified Principal Component Analysis (PCA-based sharpening method, which implements a histogram matching workflow that takes into account the real distribution of values, was employed to test whether the substitution of Principal Components (PC1–PC4 can bring a fused image which is spectrally more accurate. The new approach was compared to those most widely used—PCA sharpening and Gram–Schmidt sharpening (GS, both available in ENVI software (Version 5.2 and lower as well as to the standard approach—sharpening Landsat 8 multispectral bands (MUL using its own panchromatic (PAN band. The visual assessment and the spectral quality indicators proved that the spectral performance of the proposed sharpening approach employing PC1 and PC2 improve the performance of the PCA algorithm, moreover, comparable or better results are achieved compared to the GS method. It was shown that, when using the PC1, the visible-near infrared (VNIR part of the spectrum was preserved better, however, if the PC2 was used, the short-wave infrared (SWIR part was preserved better. Furthermore, this approach improved the output spectral quality when fusing image data from different sensors (e.g., ASTER and WorldView-2 while keeping the proper albedo

  15. PCA-based algorithm for calibration of spectrophotometric analysers of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morawski, Roman Z; Miekina, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Spectrophotometric analysers of food, being instruments for determination of the composition of food products and ingredients, are today of growing importance for food industry, as well as for food distributors and consumers. Their metrological performance significantly depends of the numerical performance of available means for spectrophotometric data processing; in particular – the means for calibration of analysers. In this paper, a new algorithm for this purpose is proposed, viz. the algorithm using principal components analysis (PCA). It is almost as efficient as PLS-based algorithms of calibration, but much simpler

  16. Research on distributed heterogeneous data PCA algorithm based on cloud platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Huang, Gang

    2018-05-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) of heterogeneous data sets can solve the problem that centralized data scalability is limited. In order to reduce the generation of intermediate data and error components of distributed heterogeneous data sets, a principal component analysis algorithm based on heterogeneous data sets under cloud platform is proposed. The algorithm performs eigenvalue processing by using Householder tridiagonalization and QR factorization to calculate the error component of the heterogeneous database associated with the public key to obtain the intermediate data set and the lost information. Experiments on distributed DBM heterogeneous datasets show that the model method has the feasibility and reliability in terms of execution time and accuracy.

  17. Convergence analysis of Chauvin's PCA learning algorithm with a constant learning rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Jiancheng; Yi Zhang

    2007-01-01

    The convergence of Chauvin's PCA learning algorithm with a constant learning rate is studied in this paper by using a DDT method (deterministic discrete-time system method). Different from the DCT method (deterministic continuous-time system method), the DDT method does not require that the learning rate converges to zero. An invariant set of Chauvin's algorithm with a constant learning rate is obtained so that the non-divergence of this algorithm can be guaranteed. Rigorous mathematic proofs are provided to prove the local convergence of this algorithm

  18. Convergence analysis of Chauvin's PCA learning algorithm with a constant learning rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv Jiancheng [Computational Intelligence Laboratory, School of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Yi Zhang [Computational Intelligence Laboratory, School of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)]. E-mail: zhangyi@uestc.edu.cn

    2007-05-15

    The convergence of Chauvin's PCA learning algorithm with a constant learning rate is studied in this paper by using a DDT method (deterministic discrete-time system method). Different from the DCT method (deterministic continuous-time system method), the DDT method does not require that the learning rate converges to zero. An invariant set of Chauvin's algorithm with a constant learning rate is obtained so that the non-divergence of this algorithm can be guaranteed. Rigorous mathematic proofs are provided to prove the local convergence of this algorithm.

  19. FUZZY FUSION OF PCA, ICA AND ILDA FACE ALGORITHMS FOR ENHANCED USER AUTHENTICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRASHANT KUMAR JAIN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Use of biometrics has increased over last few years due to its inherent advantages over customary identification tools such as token card and password, etc. In biometrics, after fingerprint, face recognition is second most preferred method with reasonably good accuracy. In some applications like CCTV cameras where face of a person is available for processing, face recognition techniques can to be very useful. In this paper, integration of face recognition techniques PCA, ICA and ILDA using fuzzy fusion method is detailed. The preliminary results clearly reveal that the fusion of methods improves the accuracy of the user identification.

  20. Effect of Spatial Alignment Transformations in PCA and ICA of Functional Neuroimages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukic, Ana S.; Wernick, Miles N.; Yang, Yongui

    2007-01-01

    this observation is true, not only for spatial ICA, but also for temporal ICA and for principal component analysis (PCA). In each case we find conditions that the spatial alignment operator must satisfy to ensure invariance of the results. We illustrate our findings using functional magnetic-resonance imaging (f......It has been previously observed that spatial independent component analysis (ICA), if applied to data pooled in a particular way, may lessen the need for spatial alignment of scans in a functional neuroimaging study. In this paper we seek to determine analytically the conditions under which...

  1. PMSVM: An Optimized Support Vector Machine Classification Algorithm Based on PCA and Multilevel Grid Search Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukai Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an optimized Support Vector Machine classifier, named PMSVM, in which System Normalization, PCA, and Multilevel Grid Search methods are comprehensively considered for data preprocessing and parameters optimization, respectively. The main goals of this study are to improve the classification efficiency and accuracy of SVM. Sensitivity, Specificity, Precision, and ROC curve, and so forth, are adopted to appraise the performances of PMSVM. Experimental results show that PMSVM has relatively better accuracy and remarkable higher efficiency compared with traditional SVM algorithms.

  2. Reliability of hydroelectric generation components, systems and units; Confiabilidad de componentes, sistemas y unidades de generacion hidroelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Sanchez, Ramon; Torres Toledano, Gerardo; Franco Nava, Jose Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This article presents a methodology for the calculation of the reliability of components, systems and hydroelectric generating units, as well as the scope of a computational system for the evaluation of such reliability. In the case of the reliability calculation of components and systems, the computer programs is not limited to hydro stations and can be used in other type of systems. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta una metodologia para calcular la confiabilidad de componentes, sistemas y unidades de generacion hidroelectrica, asi como el alcance de un sistema computacional para evaluar dicha confiabilidad. En el caso del calculo de confiabilidad de componentes y sistemas, el programa de computo no se limita a centrales hidroelectricas y puede utilizarse en otro tipo de sistemas.

  3. Reliability of hydroelectric generation components, systems and units; Confiabilidad de componentes, sistemas y unidades de generacion hidroelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Sanchez, Ramon; Torres Toledano, Gerardo; Franco Nava, Jose Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This article presents a methodology for the calculation of the reliability of components, systems and hydroelectric generating units, as well as the scope of a computational system for the evaluation of such reliability. In the case of the reliability calculation of components and systems, the computer programs is not limited to hydro stations and can be used in other type of systems. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta una metodologia para calcular la confiabilidad de componentes, sistemas y unidades de generacion hidroelectrica, asi como el alcance de un sistema computacional para evaluar dicha confiabilidad. En el caso del calculo de confiabilidad de componentes y sistemas, el programa de computo no se limita a centrales hidroelectricas y puede utilizarse en otro tipo de sistemas.

  4. A g-factor metric for k-t SENSE and k-t PCA based parallel imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binter, Christian; Ramb, Rebecca; Jung, Bernd; Kozerke, Sebastian

    2016-02-01

    To propose and validate a g-factor formalism for k-t SENSE, k-t PCA and related k-t methods for assessing SNR and temporal fidelity. An analytical gxf -factor formulation in the spatiotemporal frequency domain is derived, enabling assessment of noise and depiction fidelity in both the spatial and frequency domain. Using pseudoreplica analysis of cardiac cine data the gxf -factor description is validated and example data are used to analyze the performance of k-t methods for various parameter settings. Analytical gxf -factor maps were found to agree well with pseudoreplica analysis for 3x, 5x, and 7x k-t SENSE and k-t PCA. While k-t SENSE resulted in lower average gxf values (gx (avg) ) in static regions when compared with k-t PCA, k-t PCA yielded lower gx (avg) values in dynamic regions. Temporal transfer was better preserved with k-t PCA for increasing undersampling factors. The proposed gxf -factor and temporal transfer formalism allows assessing noise performance and temporal depiction fidelity of k-t methods including k-t SENSE and k-t PCA. The framework enables quantitative comparison of different k-t methods relative to frame-by-frame parallel imaging reconstruction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Diseño mediante elementos finitos de componentes estructurales de un cuadricóptero para impresión 3D

    OpenAIRE

    PARDO APARISI, IVÁN

    2016-01-01

    El trabajo tiene como objetivo diseñar componentes estructurales, mediante el método de elementos finitos, que serán utilizados en un dron de cuatro rotores (cuadricóptero). Una característica particular de este proyecto es que los componentes estructurales a diseñar serán fabricados mediante impresión 3D. Pardo Aparisi, I. (2016). Diseño mediante elementos finitos de componentes estructurales de un cuadricóptero para impresión 3D. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/75994. TFGM

  6. Dinámica de los componentes demográficos en Baja California, durante el periodo 1985-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Estrella Valenzuela

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se identifican los rangos predominantes en la dinámica de los componentes demográficos del estado de Baja California y sus municipios, durante el período 1985-1990. Para ello, se utilizan y combinan datos de estadísticas vitales, censales y de las Encuestas Demográficas de Baja California de 1986 y 1990. A partir del análisis de la mortalidad y la fecundidad, se logra determinar una tendencia de estabilidad en el componente natural de la dinámica demográfica del estado, con variaciones marginales a nivel municipal. En el rubro de crecimiento social, sin embargo, se observa un notable y claro incremento en la movilidad de la población que se sustenta en dos componentes: un incremento en la tasa de emigración desde el estado en su conjunto y una más elevada y consistente tendencia al incremento en las tasas de inmigración hacia Baja California, que revierte la tendencia decreciente del peso del crecimiento social en la entidad

  7. Un estudio sobre los componentes pedagógicos de los cursos online masivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Raposo Rivas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A finales de la primera década del siglo XXI, el rápido aumento de cursos MOOC dibuja un nuevo panorama educativo planteando nuevos retos a la enseñanza y al aprendizaje debido, fundamentalmente, a sus características de masividad, ubicuidad y gratuidad. En estos cursos se da una confluencia de mediaciones tecnológicas y pedagógicas aún por explorar en todas sus dimensiones. Este trabajo, utilizando un instrumento de indicadores educativos e interactivos en un MOOC (INdiMOOC-EdI de elaboración propia, se centra en averiguar qué componentes pedagógicos posee la actual oferta de MOOC en lengua hispana, para poder dirimir aquellos elementos dependientes de las plataformas que los soportan. Para ello se realiza una investigación mixta de tipo exploratoria y secuencial que analiza un total de 117 cursos ubicados en 10 plataformas diferentes, utilizando el instrumento creado y validado a tal efecto. Con la información obtenida se lleva a cabo un análisis de contenido en su vertiente cualitativa, mientras que con la cuantitativa se efectúan análisis estadísticos complementados con algoritmos propios de la minería de datos. Los resultados muestran que las diferentes plataformas condicionan los diseños pedagógicos del MOOC en cinco aspectos fundamentales: el aprendizaje, las actividades y tareas, los medios y recursos, la interactividad y la evaluación. Se concluye con una serie de indicadores de tipo descriptivo, formativo e interactivo que pueden orientar la pedagogía de futuros Cursos Online Masivos Abiertos.

  8. FACTORES AMBIENTALES QUE AFECTAN LOS COMPONENTES DE PRODUCCION Y PRODUCTIVIDAD DURANTE LA VIDA DE LAS CERDAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Enrique Ek Mex

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta revisión fue describir algunos factores ambientales que influyen sobre los componentes de producción y productividad durante la estancia de las cerdas en el hato. La productividad de la cerda puede ser medida como el número o kilogramos de cerdos nacidos vivos o destetados por camada, por año o durante la estancia en el hato. El efecto de año y granja son importantes fuentes de variación, se deben principalmente a los cambios climatológicos y diferencias en el manejo. El efecto de época en las regiones tropicales es debido al estrés calórico y la alta humedad en la época de calor. Las cerdas de primer parto tienen intervalo entre partos e intervalo destete a la concepción mayor y camadas pequeñas en comparación con las cerdas multíparas. La productividad durante la vida productiva es afectada por el manejo particular de cada unidad de producción, la edad y el número de lechones nacidos al primer parto y la causa de desecho. La mayoría de los estudios son en zonas templadas. En conclusión, la productividad de las cerdas es afectada por las diferentes condiciones climáticas de cada región y a diferencias de manejo entre granjas en diferentes años y épocas, así como por el número de parto, por lo que es importante realizar la caracterización de las condiciones específicas de cada granja o región.

  9. Es el reflejo glabelar un componente del parkinsonismo inducido por neurolépticos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Sánchez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La evidencia disponible sugiere que algunos signos neurológicos atribuidos al uso de neurolépticos son realmente manifestaciones secundarias de trastornos psicóticos. Objetivo. Se efectuó el presente estudio con el objetivo de evaluar el papel del signo glabelar como componente clínico del parkinsonismo secundario inducido por neurolépticos. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó un grupo de pacientes con parkinsonismo secundario inducido por neurolépticos, utilizando la escala de Simpson y Angus para efectos colaterales extrapiramidales. La contribución del signo glabelar en el síndrome global se evaluó mediante técnicas de análisis factorial. Resultados. Se evaluaron 103 pacientes, de los cuales, 52% correspondía a mujeres, con parkinsonismo secundario inducido por neurolépticos. La mayoría de pacientes recibieron haloperidol como tratamiento antipsicótico. Los diagnósticos más frecuentes fueron los trastornos afectivos y los esquizofrénicos. El ítem correspondiente al reflejo glabelar mostró el promedio de covarianza interítem más alto y el mayor valor de unicidad. Los puntajes de alfa de Cronbach de la escala aumentaron al retirar de ésta el ítem correspondiente al signo glabelar. Conclusión. Nuestros hallazgos sugieren que el signo glabelar mide una condición diferente del parkinsonismo secundario inducido por neurolépticos. Sugerimos que este hallazgo clínico no sea utilizado para medir la evolución de la respuesta neurológica a los antipsicóticos.

  10. Ketamine PCA for treatment of end-of-life neuropathic pain in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew; Jakacki, Regina; May, Carol; Howrie, Denise; Maurer, Scott

    2015-12-01

    Control of neuropathic pain (NP) for children at end of life is challenging. Ketamine improves control of NP, but its use in children is not well described. We describe a retrospective case review of 14 children with terminal prognoses treated with ketamine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for management of opioid-refractory NP at the end of life. Median ketamine dose was 0.06 mg/kg/h (range 0.014-0.308 mg/kg/h) with a 0.05 mg/kg (range 0.03-0.5mg/kg) demand dose available every 15 minutes (range 10-60 minutes). All patients noted subjective pain relief with ketamine, and 79% had no adverse effects. Benzodiazepines limited neuropsychiatric side effects. Ketamine treatment arrested dose escalation of opioids in 64% of patients, and 79% were discharged to home hospice. Ketamine PCA is an effective, well-tolerated therapy for opioid-refractory NP in pediatric end-of-life care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Location optimization of solar plants by an integrated hierarchical DEA PCA approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Ghaderi, S.F.; Maghsoudi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Unique features of renewable energies such as solar energy has caused increasing demands for such resources. In order to use solar energy as a natural resource, environmental circumstances and geographical location related to solar intensity must be considered. Different factors may affect on the selection of a suitable location for solar plants. These factors must be considered concurrently for optimum location identification of solar plants. This article presents an integrated hierarchical approach for location of solar plants by data envelopment analysis (DEA), principal component analysis (PCA) and numerical taxonomy (NT). Furthermore, an integrated hierarchical DEA approach incorporating the most relevant parameters of solar plants is introduced. Moreover, 2 multivariable methods namely, PCA and NT are used to validate the results of DEA model. The prescribed approach is tested for 25 different cities in Iran with 6 different regions within each city. This is the first study that considers an integrated hierarchical DEA approach for geographical location optimization of solar plants. Implementation of the proposed approach would enable the energy policy makers to select the best-possible location for construction of a solar power plant with lowest possible costs

  12. PCA-based ANN approach to leak classification in the main pipes of VVER-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadad, Kamal; Jabbari, Masoud; Tabadar, Z.; Hashemi-Tilehnoee, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a neural network based fault diagnosing approach which allows dynamic crack and leaks fault identification. The method utilizes the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique to reduce the problem dimension. Such a dimension reduction approach leads to faster diagnosing and allows a better graphic presentation of the results. To show the effectiveness of the proposed approach, two methodologies are used to train the neural network (NN). At first, a training matrix composed of 14 variables is used to train a Multilayer Perceptron neural network (MLP) with Resilient Backpropagation (RBP) algorithm. Employing the proposed method, a more accurate and simpler network is designed where the input size is reduced from 14 to 6 variables for training the NN. In short, the application of PCA highly reduces the network topology and allows employing more efficient training algorithms. The accuracy, generalization ability, and reliability of the designed networks are verified using 10 simulated events data from a VVER-1000 simulation using DINAMIKA-97 code. Noise is added to the data to evaluate the robustness of the method and the method again shows to be effective and powerful. (orig.)

  13. PCA Based Stress Monitoring of Cylindrical Specimens Using PZTs and Guided Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabid Quiroga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since mechanical stress in structures affects issues such as strength, expected operational life and dimensional stability, a continuous stress monitoring scheme is necessary for a complete integrity assessment. Consequently, this paper proposes a stress monitoring scheme for cylindrical specimens, which are widely used in structures such as pipelines, wind turbines or bridges. The approach consists of tracking guided wave variations due to load changes, by comparing wave statistical patterns via Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Each load scenario is projected to the PCA space by means of a baseline model and represented using the Q-statistical indices. Experimental validation of the proposed methodology is conducted on two specimens: (i a 12.7 mm ( 1 / 2 ″ diameter, 0.4 m length, AISI 1020 steel rod, and (ii a 25.4 mm ( 1 ″ diameter, 6m length, schedule 40, A-106, hollow cylinder. Specimen 1 was subjected to axial loads, meanwhile specimen 2 to flexion. In both cases, simultaneous longitudinal and flexural guided waves were generated via piezoelectric devices (PZTs in a pitch-catch configuration. Experimental results show the feasibility of the approach and its potential use as in-situ continuous stress monitoring application.

  14. The PCA learning effect: An emerging correlate of face memory during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoqing; Maurer, Daphne; Wilson, Hugh R

    2015-10-01

    Human adults implicitly learn the prototype and the principal components of the variability distinguishing faces (Gao & Wilson, 2014). Here we measured the implicit learning effect in adults and 9-year-olds, and with a modified child-friendly procedure, in 7-year-olds. All age groups showed the implicit learning effect by falsely recognizing the average (the prototype effect) and the principal component faces as having been seen (the PCA learning effect). The PCA learning effect, but not the prototype effect increased between 9years of age and adulthood and at both ages was the better predictor of memory for the actually studied faces. In contrast, for the 7-year-olds, the better predictor of face memory was the prototype effect. The pattern suggests that there may be a developmental change between ages 7 and 9 in the mechanism underlying memory for faces. We provide the first evidence that children as young as age 7 can extract the most important dimensions of variation represented by principal components among individual faces, a key ability that grows stronger with age and comes to underlie memory for faces. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Features and performance of PCa board which cuts off the electromagnetic wave. Electromagnetic shield building using the carbon fiber contamination PCa board; Denjiha wo shadansuru PCa ban no tokucho to seino. Tanso sen'i konnyu PCa ban wo mochiita denji shirudobiru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Katsuo; Kasai, Yasuaki [Obayashi Corp., Osaka (Japan); Okada, Shin' ichiro; Sakamoto, Shin [Osaka Gas Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1999-03-10

    With the rapid popularization of public radio information communication equipment, portable telephones, wireless LAN, etc., the interception (building shield) of the electromagnetic wave internal and external the building becomes large problem. As process equal to the convention and the method in which the cost is possible, they did do not shield the whole building, and also ensure the comfort as an office, and PCa board which mixed the carbon fiber into the mortar was developed. They described the survey result of the electromagnetic shield performance of the building which constructed by using this in external wall. They explained electromagnetism characteristics of the contamination mortar and application to the PCa board and method. They carried out the measurement in the electromagnetic shield room laboratory, and they obtained next result. 1) There is seldom on the effect both only the concrete and only by the carbon fiber mesh. 2) They considered the effect that carbon fiber chop 1% are mixed into the concrete. 3) The effect became a maximum, when carbon fiber chop and carbon fiber mesh were mixed, and they confirmed being excellent cost-concerned. (NEDO)

  16. A Method for Aileron Actuator Fault Diagnosis Based on PCA and PGC-SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Li Qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aileron actuators are pivotal components for aircraft flight control system. Thus, the fault diagnosis of aileron actuators is vital in the enhancement of the reliability and fault tolerant capability. This paper presents an aileron actuator fault diagnosis approach combining principal component analysis (PCA, grid search (GS, 10-fold cross validation (CV, and one-versus-one support vector machine (SVM. This method is referred to as PGC-SVM and utilizes the direct drive valve input, force motor current, and displacement feedback signal to realize fault detection and location. First, several common faults of aileron actuators, which include force motor coil break, sensor coil break, cylinder leakage, and amplifier gain reduction, are extracted from the fault quadrantal diagram; the corresponding fault mechanisms are analyzed. Second, the data feature extraction is performed with dimension reduction using PCA. Finally, the GS and CV algorithms are employed to train a one-versus-one SVM for fault classification, thus obtaining the optimal model parameters and assuring the generalization of the trained SVM, respectively. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach, four types of faults are introduced into the simulation model established by AMESim and Simulink. The results demonstrate its desirable diagnostic performance which outperforms that of the traditional SVM by comparison.

  17. Learning binary code via PCA of angle projection for image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fumeng; Ye, Zhiqiang; Wei, Xueqi; Wu, Congzhong

    2018-01-01

    With benefits of low storage costs and high query speeds, binary code representation methods are widely researched for efficiently retrieving large-scale data. In image hashing method, learning hashing function to embed highdimensions feature to Hamming space is a key step for accuracy retrieval. Principal component analysis (PCA) technical is widely used in compact hashing methods, and most these hashing methods adopt PCA projection functions to project the original data into several dimensions of real values, and then each of these projected dimensions is quantized into one bit by thresholding. The variances of different projected dimensions are different, and with real-valued projection produced more quantization error. To avoid the real-valued projection with large quantization error, in this paper we proposed to use Cosine similarity projection for each dimensions, the angle projection can keep the original structure and more compact with the Cosine-valued. We used our method combined the ITQ hashing algorithm, and the extensive experiments on the public CIFAR-10 and Caltech-256 datasets validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Encuesta Nacional de Factores de Riesgo 2005: resultados principales. Prevalencia de factores de riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ferrante

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hasta el momento no contábamos con estimaciones a nivel nacional de los principales factores de riesgo de morbimortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares que permitieran una estrategia de promoción y prevención primaria. En el marco del desarrollo de políticas de salud pública, el Ministerio de Salud de la Nación inició las actividades para la realización de la primera “Encuesta Nacional de Factores de Riesgo”. ObjetivosDescribir la prevalencia de los principales factores de riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares en la Argentina y su asociación con características sociodemográficas.Material y métodosDesde el 12 marzo y hasta el 17 de junio de 2005 se llevó a cabo la primera Encuesta Nacional de Factores de Riesgo. Se utilizó un cuestionario validado previamente para la Argentina, propuesto por la OPS y la OMS. La muestra fue probabilística, a nivel de viviendas, con representatividad nacional y provincial. Criterio de inclusión: población adulta (18 años y más. Se obtuvieron los principales indicadores de prevalencia de acuerdo con las recomendaciones de los CDC, se evaluaron asociaciones entre características sociodemográficas y se estimó la frecuencia de control de presión arterial y colesterol.ResultadosSe realizaron 41.392 encuestas, con una tasa de respuesta del 86,7%. Los principales indicadores a nivel nacional fueron: baja actividad física 46,2%, consumo de tabaco 33,4% 18 a 64 años y 29,7% en adultos, presión arterial elevada 34,4% (en personas que se controlaron,sobrepeso-obesidad 49,1%, bajo consumo de frutas y verduras 35,3%, diabetes 11,9%(en personas que se controlaron, colesterol elevado 27,8% (en personas que se controlaron,consumo de alcohol de riesgo 9,6%. Para casi todos los factores de riesgo evaluados se observó mayor prevalencia en la población de menores ingresos, con necesidades básicas insatisfechas y menor nivel educativo. Se observaron prevalencias significativas tambi

  19. External validation of a PCA-3-based nomogram for predicting prostate cancer and high-grade cancer on initial prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Daniel J; Elshafei, Ahmed; Nyame, Yaw A; Kara, Onder; Malkoc, Ercan; Gao, Tianming; Jones, J Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to externally validate a previously developed PCA3-based nomogram for the prediction of prostate cancer (PCa) and high-grade (intermediate and/or high-grade) prostate cancer (HGPCa) at the time of initial prostate biopsy. A retrospective review was performed on a cohort of 336 men from a large urban academic medical center. All men had serum PSA PCa, PSA at diagnosis, PCA3, total prostate volume (TPV), and abnormal finding on digital rectal exam (DRE). These variables were used to test the accuracy (concordance index) and calibration of a previously published PCA3 nomogram. Biopsy confirms PCa and HGPCa in 51.0% and 30.4% of validation patients, respectively. This differed from the original cohort in that it had significantly more PCa and HGPCA (51% vs. 44%, P = 0.019; and 30.4% vs. 19.1%, P PCa detection the concordance index was 75% and 77% for overall PCa and HGPCa, respectively. Calibration for overall PCa was good. This represents the first external validation of a PCA3-based prostate cancer predictive nomogram in a North American population. Prostate 76:1019-1023, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Comparativa técnica y prospectiva de las principales plataformas MOOC de código abierto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanan Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de cursos abiertos masivos online (MOOCs es un fenómeno en pleno auge a nivel mundial. Todos estos cursos se asientan en plataformas tecnológicas cuyas características técnicas conviene tener en cuenta, más aún tratándose de desarrollos de código abierto. Por lo tanto, a la hora de hacer una elección, tan relevante o más que analizar las características funcionales de la plataforma, es analizar los aspectos más técnicos. En este sentido, son importantes en tanto detalles de carácter político: ¿a quién pertenece la propiedad intelectual de la plataforma? ¿bajo qué licencia se distribuyen?, como económicos: ¿ya existe lo que quiero hacer? ¿puedo basarme o reutilizar material existente?, y educativos: ¿cuáles son las principales funcionales técnicas? ¿cómo analizar y adecuar el itinerario formativo del alumnado en función del uso de la plataforma? ¿cómo dar soporte a miles de usuarios concurrentes de forma eficiente y eficaz?.Este trabajo tiene como objetivo contribuir con un análisis técnico comparativo de las principales plataformas MOOC disponibles bajo licencias abiertas, aportando claves que permitan, a los responsables de entidades educativas que vayan a desarrollar sus propios cursos masivos online, tomar decisiones sobre la plataforma a usar. Este trabajo de investigación incluye también un análisis prospectivo sobre las líneas de trabajo futuras en las que están trabajando las plataformas más activas.

  1. PCA and vTEC climatology at midnight over mid-latitude regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, M. P.; Meza, A.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of the thermospheric vertical neutral wind on vertical total electron content (vTEC) variations including longitudinal anomaly, remaining winter anomaly, mid-latitude summer night anomaly, and semiannual anomaly is studied at mid-latitude regions around zero magnetic declination at midnight during high solar activity. By using the principal component analysis (PCA) numerical technique, this work studies the spatial and temporal variations of the ionosphere at midnight over mid-latitude regions during 2000-2002. PCA is applied to a time series of global vTEC maps produced by the International Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Service. Four regions were studied in particular, each located at mid-latitude and approximately centered at zero magnetic declination, with two in the northern hemisphere and two in southern hemisphere, and all are located near and far from geomagnetic poles in each case. This technique provides an effective method to analyze the main ionospheric variabilities at mid-latitudes. PCA is also applied to the vTEC computed using the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) 2012 model, to analyze the capability of this model to represent ionospheric variabilities at mid-latitude. Also, the Horizontal Wind Model 2007 (HWM07) is used to improve our climatology interpretation, by analyzing the relationship between vTEC and thermospheric wind, both quantitatively and qualitatively. At midnight, the behavior of mean vTEC values strongly responds to vertical wind variation, experiencing a decrease of about 10-15% with the action of the positive vertical component of the field-aligned neutral wind lasting for 2 h in all regions except for Oceania. Notable results include: a significant increase toward higher latitudes during summer in the South America and Asia regions, associated with the mid-latitude summer night anomaly, and an increase toward higher latitudes in winter in the North America and Oceania regions, highlighting the

  2. Pain management in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis undergoing posterior spinal fusion: combined intrathecal morphine and continuous epidural versus PCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravish, Matthew; Muldowney, Bridget; Becker, Aimee; Hetzel, Scott; McCarthy, James J; Nemeth, Blaise A; Noonan, Kenneth J

    2012-12-01

    A retrospective case-comparison study. Compare efficacy and safety of combined intrathecal morphine (ITM) and epidural analgesia (EPI) to that of conventional intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) after posterior spinal fusion (PSF) for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Pain control after PSF in AIS has been managed traditionally with IV-PCA. More recently studies have shown improvement in pain control with the use of continuous EPI or intraoperative ITM. No studies to our knowledge have compared the use of both ITM and EPI analgesia to that of IV-PCA. An Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective case-comparison study was performed from 1989 to 2009 of all patients undergoing PSF for AIS. Patients received either IV-PCA or ITM/EPI. Daily pain scores were recorded along with total opioid and benzodiazepine use. Adverse events were recorded for all the patients. A total of 146 patients were initially included in the study; 95 patients received ITM/EPI and 51 received IV-PCA as a historical control. Eight patients from the ITM/EPI group were excluded from the pain comparison portion of the study. There were no statistical differences in age, sex, weight, or hospital stay between the 2 groups. The ITM/EPI group had, on average, 1 additional level of fusion (P = 0.001). Daily average pain scores were lower in the ITM/EPI group on all hospital days, and statistically lower in days 1 and 3 to 5. Total opioid requirement was significantly lower in the ITM/EPI patients, although oral opioid use was higher among this group. Total benzodiazepine use was lower among the IV-PCA group. A total of 15.7% of the IV-PCA patients had bladder hypotonia, compared with 1.1% of the ITM/EPI group (P = 0.002). The rate of illeus was 15.7% in the IV-PCA patients and 5.7% in the ITM/EPI (P = 0.071). Respiratory depression was reported in 4 ITM/EPI patients, 0 in our PCA group. Technical catheter malfunction was reported in 8.5% of the EPI group. The use of ITM

  3. Improved algorithms for the classification of rough rice using a bionic electronic nose based on PCA and the Wilks distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sai; Zhou, Zhiyan; Lu, Huazhong; Luo, Xiwen; Lan, Yubin

    2014-03-19

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is one of the main methods used for electronic nose pattern recognition. However, poor classification performance is common in classification and recognition when using regular PCA. This paper aims to improve the classification performance of regular PCA based on the existing Wilks Λ-statistic (i.e., combined PCA with the Wilks distribution). The improved algorithms, which combine regular PCA with the Wilks Λ-statistic, were developed after analysing the functionality and defects of PCA. Verification tests were conducted using a PEN3 electronic nose. The collected samples consisted of the volatiles of six varieties of rough rice (Zhongxiang1, Xiangwan13, Yaopingxiang, WufengyouT025, Pin 36, and Youyou122), grown in same area and season. The first two principal components used as analysis vectors cannot perform the rough rice varieties classification task based on a regular PCA. Using the improved algorithms, which combine the regular PCA with the Wilks Λ-statistic, many different principal components were selected as analysis vectors. The set of data points of the Mahalanobis distance between each of the varieties of rough rice was selected to estimate the performance of the classification. The result illustrates that the rough rice varieties classification task is achieved well using the improved algorithm. A Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN) was also established to test the effectiveness of the improved algorithms. The first two principal components (namely PC1 and PC2) and the first and fifth principal component (namely PC1 and PC5) were selected as the inputs of PNN for the classification of the six rough rice varieties. The results indicate that the classification accuracy based on the improved algorithm was improved by 6.67% compared to the results of the regular method. These results prove the effectiveness of using the Wilks Λ-statistic to improve the classification accuracy of the regular PCA approach. The results

  4. Persuasão: o componente pragmático da argumentação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Chagas Oliveira

    Full Text Available A publicação do Tratado da Argumentação: a nova retórica, em 1958, costuma suscitar, entre os adeptos dos estudos em argumentação, uma aproximação com a retórica de pensadores que vão de Corax e Tisias a Aristóteles e Quintiliano. Esse tipo de associação revela a temerária tendência para o entendimento de que a teoria erigida por Perelman constitui uma reconstrução da retórica aristotélica. Inicialmente, cumpre destacar que os campos de aplicação são efetivamente distintos. Ante ao estreito vínculo entre a retórica e a eloquência, que demarca os caracteres próprios da retórica na antiguidade, precisamos verificar que a nova retórica incorpora elementos da elaboração argumentativa - e, por conseguinte, do produto textual - que outrora não eram contemplados pelo campo retórico. Mesmo a Nova Retórica, jovem senhora sexagenária, não mais constitui um referencial para aquele que pretende irromper na árdua tarefa de analisar peças argumentativas. Tampouco a Novíssima Retórica, insculpida nas teorias sociojurídicas de Boaventura Sousa Santos, contempla os ambientes e modelos cognitivos próprios do atual contexto. As estratégias de persuasão, no mundo contemporâneo, ganharam contornos tão diferenciados, que pouco se parecem com aquelas indicadas em clássicos que se detiveram na tarefa de descrevê-las, como Aristóteles e Schopenhauer, por exemplo. Nossa abordagem, neste pequeno trabalho, restringe-se a contemplar o componente pragmático da argumentação a persuasão para configurar a existência de uma Nuper-retórica, capaz de contemplar o(s ambiente(s (preponderantemente persuasivo(s e a elaboração das peças argumentativas.

  5. Componentes económicos y administrativos de un modelo agroempresarial sostenible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Horacio Murcia Cabra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El diseño y la ejecución de un modelo agroempresarial sostenible, en procesos de desarrollo agropecuario y rural, tiene relaciones en un contexto global y holístico con ejes productivos, económicos, sociales, administrativos y ambientales, entre otros, enmarcados en un contexto circundante. Estos aspectos fueron considerados en 2009 en algunas áreas rurales de Bogotá, en las cuales se presentan diversas situaciones que hacen difícil la vida de los campesinos, quienes obtienen su escaso ingreso gracias a la explotación de sus tierras. Para ayudar a dar solución a estos problemas, la Universidad de La Salle y la Secretaría Distrital de Desarrollo Económico (SDDE de la Alcaldía de Bogotá suscribieron el Convenio 034 de 2008, por medio del cual se pretendió contribuir a dar a productores de las localidades de Usme y Ciudad Bolívar una visión empresarial de la cadena productiva de leche en sus facetas de producción, transformación y comercialización. Entre los diversos componentes del modelo agroempresarial, en el presente artículo se hace énfasis en los elementos económicos y administrativos que lo comprenden, tratando de llevar a cabo un proceso de apoyo que buscó la apropiación por parte de los campesinos de conceptos que les ayudaran a planear, organizar, dirigir y controlar sus fincas en una forma más apropiada hacia la optimización de sus ingresos, tanto individuales (unidad familiar, como comunales. Con tales propósitos se llevó a cabo un proceso de investigación acción participativa (IAP basado en diagnósticos específicos, analizados junto con la comunidad por medio de metodologías dirigidas a tres ámbitos básicos del desarrollo rural: finca (simbolizando los aspectos técnicos, económicos y administrativos de las unidades productivas, familia (destacando los elementos sociales de su actividad y comunidad (haciendo énfasis en los procesos de mejoramiento de las condiciones de vida a nivel regional. De

  6. Componentes Reprodutivos e Produtivos no Rebanho de Corte da Embrapa Cerrados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McManus Concepta

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os diversos fatores que influenciam o intervalo de partos (IEP, a fertilidade real (FR, razão do peso do bezerro ao nascer (RPN ou desmame (RPD em relação ao peso da vaca ao parto, no rebanho de gado mestiço da Embrapa Cerrados. Foram analisados dados de 4469 parições, coletados no período entre 1976 e 1999, usando os procedimentos GLM, CORR e PRINCOMP do SAS. As características incluíram as relações peso ao nascimento do bezerro/peso da vaca no parto (RPN, peso ao desmame do bezerro/ peso da vaca no parto (RPD e a fertilidade real (FR, bem como a condição corporal (CC e os pesos dos animais. A CC da vaca no parto (CCVP não afetou a mortalidade, o peso ao nascer dos bezerros, ou o IEP. A FR elevou-se com o aumento da CCVP, seguindo a tendência oposta que o IEP. Verificaram-se menor IEP e maior FR com maiores valores de CC da vaca ao desmame (CCVD. O grupo genético do pai não influenciou nenhuma das características analisadas, enquanto o grupo da mãe foi significativo para todas as características estudadas. Somente o ano do nascimento influenciou a mortalidade dos bezerros. O ambiente (mês, ano e número do parto da mãe e a genética (sexo influenciaram significativamente os pesos ao nascer e ao desmame. As correlações entre as características estudadas foram, em geral, baixas e, às vezes, negativas para RPN e RPD, enquanto com FR foram mais altas. Os dois primeiros componentes explicam 56% da variação total entre as características examinadas.

  7. Comparative evaluation of urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2: ERG scores and serum PHI in predicting prostate cancer aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallon, Lucile; Luangphakdy, Devillier; Ruffion, Alain; Colombel, Marc; Devonec, Marian; Champetier, Denis; Paparel, Philippe; Decaussin-Petrucci, Myriam; Perrin, Paul; Vlaeminck-Guillem, Virginie

    2014-07-30

    It has been suggested that urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion tests and serum PHI correlate to cancer aggressiveness-related pathological criteria at prostatectomy. To evaluate and compare their ability in predicting prostate cancer aggressiveness, PHI and urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG (T2) scores were assessed in 154 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for biopsy-proven prostate cancer. Univariate and multivariate analyses using logistic regression and decision curve analyses were performed. All three markers were predictors of a tumor volume≥0.5 mL. Only PHI predicted Gleason score≥7. T2 score and PHI were both independent predictors of extracapsular extension(≥pT3), while multifocality was only predicted by PCA3 score. Moreover, when compared to a base model (age, digital rectal examination, serum PSA, and Gleason sum at biopsy), the addition of both PCA3 score and PHI to the base model induced a significant increase (+12%) when predicting tumor volume>0.5 mL. PHI and urinary PCA3 and T2 scores can be considered as complementary predictors of cancer aggressiveness at prostatectomy.

  8. Comparative Evaluation of Urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2: ERG Scores and Serum PHI in Predicting Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile Tallon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion tests and serum PHI correlate to cancer aggressiveness-related pathological criteria at prostatectomy. To evaluate and compare their ability in predicting prostate cancer aggressiveness, PHI and urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG (T2 scores were assessed in 154 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for biopsy-proven prostate cancer. Univariate and multivariate analyses using logistic regression and decision curve analyses were performed. All three markers were predictors of a tumor volume ≥0.5 mL. Only PHI predicted Gleason score ≥7. T2 score and PHI were both independent predictors of extracapsular extension (≥pT3, while multifocality was only predicted by PCA3 score. Moreover, when compared to a base model (age, digital rectal examination, serum PSA, and Gleason sum at biopsy, the addition of both PCA3 score and PHI to the base model induced a significant increase (+12% when predicting tumor volume >0.5 mL. PHI and urinary PCA3 and T2 scores can be considered as complementary predictors of cancer aggressiveness at prostatectomy.

  9. Human Classification Based on Gestural Motions by Using Components of PCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Azri A; Wan, Khairunizam; Za'aba, S K; Shahriman A B; Asyekin H; Zuradzman M R; Adnan, Nazrul H

    2013-01-01

    Lately, a study of human capabilities with the aim to be integrated into machine is the famous topic to be discussed. Moreover, human are bless with special abilities that they can hear, see, sense, speak, think and understand each other. Giving such abilities to machine for improvement of human life is researcher's aim for better quality of life in the future. This research was concentrating on human gesture, specifically arm motions for differencing the individuality which lead to the development of the hand gesture database. We try to differentiate the human physical characteristic based on hand gesture represented by arm trajectories. Subjects are selected from different type of the body sizes, and then acquired data undergo resampling process. The results discuss the classification of human based on arm trajectories by using Principle Component Analysis (PCA)

  10. Permeability Estimation of Rock Reservoir Based on PCA and Elman Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Jian, Shaoyong

    2018-03-01

    an intelligent method which based on fuzzy neural networks with PCA algorithm, is proposed to estimate the permeability of rock reservoir. First, the dimensionality reduction process is utilized for these parameters by principal component analysis method. Further, the mapping relationship between rock slice characteristic parameters and permeability had been found through fuzzy neural networks. The estimation validity and reliability for this method were tested with practical data from Yan’an region in Ordos Basin. The result showed that the average relative errors of permeability estimation for this method is 6.25%, and this method had the better convergence speed and more accuracy than other. Therefore, by using the cheap rock slice related information, the permeability of rock reservoir can be estimated efficiently and accurately, and it is of high reliability, practicability and application prospect.

  11. Evaluation of the application of BIM technology based on PCA - Q Clustering Algorithm and Choquet Integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiaozhao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For the development of the construction industry, the construction of data era is approaching, BIM (building information model with the actual needs of the construction industry has been widely used as a building information clan system software, different software for the practical application of different maturity, through the expert scoring method for the application of BIM technology maturity index mark, establish the evaluation index system, using PCA - Q clustering algorithm for the evaluation index system of classification, comprehensive evaluation in combination with the Choquet integral on the classification of evaluation index system, to achieve a reasonable assessment of the application of BIM technology maturity index. To lay a foundation for the future development of BIM Technology in various fields of construction, at the same time provides direction for the comprehensive application of BIM technology.

  12. Visual tracking based on the sparse representation of the PCA subspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dian-bing; Zhu, Ming; Wang, Hui-li

    2017-09-01

    We construct a collaborative model of the sparse representation and the subspace representation. First, we represent the tracking target in the principle component analysis (PCA) subspace, and then we employ an L 1 regularization to restrict the sparsity of the residual term, an L 2 regularization term to restrict the sparsity of the representation coefficients, and an L 2 norm to restrict the distance between the reconstruction and the target. Then we implement the algorithm in the particle filter framework. Furthermore, an iterative method is presented to get the global minimum of the residual and the coefficients. Finally, an alternative template update scheme is adopted to avoid the tracking drift which is caused by the inaccurate update. In the experiment, we test the algorithm on 9 sequences, and compare the results with 5 state-of-art methods. According to the results, we can conclude that our algorithm is more robust than the other methods.

  13. Oxidation/volatilization rates in air for candidate fusion reactor blanket materials, PCA and HT-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Kraus, H.G.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Jones, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Large uncertainties exist in the quantity of neutron-induced activation products that can be mobilized in potential fusion accidents. The accidental combination of high temperatures and oxidizing conditions might lead to mobilization of a significant amount of activation products from structural materials. Here, the volatilization of constituents of PCA and HT-9 resulting from oxidation in air was investigated. Tests were conducted in flowing air at temperatures from 600 to 1300 0 C for 1, 5, or 20 h. Elemental volatility was calculated in terms of the weight fraction of the element volatilized from the initial alloy. Molybdenum and manganese were the radiologically significant primary constituents most volatilizized, suggesting that molybdenum and manganese should be minimized in fusion steel compositions. Higher chromium content appears beneficial in reducing hazards from mobile activation products. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to study the oxide layer on samples. (orig.)

  14. Oxidation/volatilization rates in air for candidate fusion reactor blanket materials, PCA and HT-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Kraus, H.G.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Jones, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Large uncertainties exist in the quantity of neutron-induced activation products that can be mobilized in potential fusion accidents. The accidental combination of high temperatures and oxidizing conditions might lead to mobilization of a significant amount of activation products from structural materials. Here, the volatilization of constituents of PCA and HT-9 resulting from oxidation in air was investigated. Tests were conducted in flowing air at temperatures from 600 to 1300 0 C for 1, 5, or 20 hours. Elemental volatility was calculated in terms of the weight fraction of the element volatilized from the initial alloy. Molybdenum and manganese were the radiologically significant primary constituents most volatilized, suggesting that molybdenum and manganese should be minimized in fusion steel compositions. Higher chromium content appears beneficial in reducing hazards from mobile activation products. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to study the oxide layer on samples

  15. Coarse-to-fine markerless gait analysis based on PCA and Gauss-Laguerre decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredo, Michela; Schmid, Maurizio; Conforto, Silvia; Carli, Marco; Neri, Alessandro; D'Alessio, Tommaso

    2005-04-01

    Human movement analysis is generally performed through the utilization of marker-based systems, which allow reconstructing, with high levels of accuracy, the trajectories of markers allocated on specific points of the human body. Marker based systems, however, show some drawbacks that can be overcome by the use of video systems applying markerless techniques. In this paper, a specifically designed computer vision technique for the detection and tracking of relevant body points is presented. It is based on the Gauss-Laguerre Decomposition, and a Principal Component Analysis Technique (PCA) is used to circumscribe the region of interest. Results obtained on both synthetic and experimental tests provide significant reduction of the computational costs, with no significant reduction of the tracking accuracy.

  16. Insights on the Spectral Signatures of Stellar Activity and Planets from PCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Allen B.; Fischer, Debra A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, 52 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Cisewski, Jessi [Department of Statistics, Yale University, 24 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Dumusque, Xavier [Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 ch. des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Ford, Eric B., E-mail: allen.b.davis@yale.edu [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Photospheric velocities and stellar activity features such as spots and faculae produce measurable radial velocity signals that currently obscure the detection of sub-meter-per-second planetary signals. However, photospheric velocities are imprinted differently in a high-resolution spectrum than are Keplerian Doppler shifts. Photospheric activity produces subtle differences in the shapes of absorption lines due to differences in how temperature or pressure affects the atomic transitions. In contrast, Keplerian Doppler shifts affect every spectral line in the same way. With a high enough signal-to-noise (S/N) and resolution, statistical techniques can exploit differences in spectra to disentangle the photospheric velocities and detect lower-amplitude exoplanet signals. We use simulated disk-integrated time-series spectra and principal component analysis (PCA) to show that photospheric signals introduce spectral line variability that is distinct from that of Doppler shifts. We quantify the impact of instrumental resolution and S/N for this work.

  17. Dimensionality Reduction Methods: Comparative Analysis of methods PCA, PPCA and KPCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Arroyo-Hernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dimensionality reduction methods are algorithms mapping the set of data in subspaces derived from the original space, of fewer dimensions, that allow a description of the data at a lower cost. Due to their importance, they are widely used in processes associated with learning machine. This article presents a comparative analysis of PCA, PPCA and KPCA dimensionality reduction methods. A reconstruction experiment of worm-shape data was performed through structures of landmarks located in the body contour, with methods having different number of main components. The results showed that all methods can be seen as alternative processes. Nevertheless, thanks to the potential for analysis in the features space and the method for calculation of its preimage presented, KPCA offers a better method for recognition process and pattern extraction

  18. Intrathecal morphine is superior to intravenous PCA in patients undergoing minimally invasive cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirojit Mukherjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of our study was to evaluate the beneficial effect of low dose intrathecal morphine on postoperative analgesia, over the use of intravenous patient controlled anesthesia (PCA, in patients undergoing fast track anesthesia during minimally invasive cardiac surgical procedures. A randomized controlled trial was undertaken after approval from local ethical committee. Written informed consent was obtained from 61 patients receiving mitral or tricuspid or both surgical valve repair in minimal invasive technique. Patients were assigned randomly to 2 groups. Group 1 received general anesthesia and intravenous patient controlled analgesia (PCA pump with Piritramide (GA group. Group 2 received a single shot of intrathecal morphine (1.5 μg/kg body weight prior to the administration of general anesthesia (ITM group. Site of puncture was confined to lumbar (L1-2 or L2-3 intrathecal space. The amount of intravenous piritramide used in post anesthesia care unit (PACU and the first postoperative day was defined as primary end point. Secondary end points included: time for tracheal extubation, pain and sedation scores in PACU upto third postoperative day. For statistical analysis Mann-Whitney-U Test and Fishers exact test (SPSS were used. We found that the demand for intravenous opioids in PACU was significantly reduced in ITM group (P <0.001. Pain scores were significantly decreased in ITM group until second postoperative day (P <0.01. There was no time delay for tracheal extubation in ITM group, and sedation scores did not differ in either group. We conclude that low dose single shot intrathecal morphine provides adequate postoperative analgesia, reduces the intravenous opioid consumption during the early postoperative period and does not defer early extubation.

  19. Identification of beta-2 as a key cell adhesion molecule in PCa cell neurotropic behavior: a novel ex vivo and biophysical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Keith H; Castillo, Deborah G; Morris, Joseph W; Boggs, Mary E; Czymmek, Kirk J; Adams, Elizabeth L; Schramm, Lawrence P; Sikes, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is believed to metastasize through the blood/lymphatics systems; however, PCa may utilize the extensive innervation of the prostate for glandular egress. The interaction of PCa and its nerve fibers is observed in 80% of PCa and is termed perineural invasion (PNI). PCa cells have been observed traveling through the endoneurium of nerves, although the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. Voltage sensitive sodium channels (VSSC) are multimeric transmembrane protein complexes comprised of a pore-forming α subunit and one or two auxiliary beta (β) subunits with inherent cell adhesion molecule (CAM) functions. The beta-2 isoform (gene SCN2B) interacts with several neural CAMs, while interacting putatively with other prominent neural CAMs. Furthermore, beta-2 exhibits elevated mRNA and protein levels in highly metastatic and castrate-resistant PCa. When overexpressed in weakly aggressive LNCaP cells (2BECFP), beta-2 alters LNCaP cell morphology and enhances LNCaP cell metastasis associated behavior in vitro. We hypothesize that PCa cells use beta-2 as a CAM during PNI and subsequent PCa metastasis. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of beta-2 expression on PCa cell neurotropic metastasis associated behavior. We overexpressed beta-2 as a fusion protein with enhanced cyan fluorescence protein (ECFP) in weakly aggressive LNCaP cells and observed neurotropic effects utilizing our novel ex vivo organotypic spinal cord co-culture model, and performed functional assays with neural matrices and atomic force microscopy. With increased beta-2 expression, PCa cells display a trend of enhanced association with nerve axons. On laminin, a neural CAM, overexpression of beta-2 enhances PCa cell migration, invasion, and growth. 2BECFP cells exhibit marked binding affinity to laminin relative to LNECFP controls, and recombinant beta-2 ectodomain elicits more binding events to laminin than BSA control. Functional overexpression of VSSC

  20. Design and synthesis of prostate cancer antigen-1 (PCA-1/ALKBH3) inhibitors as anti-prostate cancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Syuhei; Mabuchi, Miyuki; Shimizu, Tadashi; Itoh, Yoshihiro; Takeuchi, Yuko; Ueda, Masahiro; Mizuno, Hiroaki; Shigi, Naoko; Ohshio, Ikumi; Jinguji, Kentaro; Ueda, Yuko; Yamamoto, Masatatsu; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Aoki, Shunji; Tsujikawa, Kazutake; Tanaka, Akito

    2014-02-15

    A series of 1-aryl-3,4-substituted-1H-pyrazol-5-ol derivatives was synthesized and evaluated as prostate cancer antigen-1 (PCA-1/ALKBH3) inhibitors to obtain a novel anti-prostate cancer drug. After modifying 1-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-3,4-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-5-ol (1), a hit compound found during random screening using a recombinant PCA-1/ALKBH3, 1-(1H-5-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)-4-benzyl-3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-ol (35, HUHS015), was obtained as a potent PCA-1/ALKBH3 inhibitor both in vitro and in vivo. The bioavailability (BA) of 35 was 7.2% in rats after oral administration. As expected, continuously administering 35 significantly suppressed the growth of DU145 cells, which are human hormone-independent prostate cancer cells, in a mouse xenograft model without untoward effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative Performance Of Using PCA With K-Means And Fuzzy C Means Clustering For Customer Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmida Afrin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Data mining is the process of analyzing data and discovering useful information. Sometimes it is called knowledge Discovery. Clustering refers to groups whereas data are grouped in such a way that the data in one cluster are similar data in different clusters are dissimilar. Many data mining technologies are developed for customer segmentation. PCA is working as a preprocessor of Fuzzy C means and K- means for reducing the high dimensional and noisy data. There are many clustering method apply on customer segmentation. In this paper the performance of Fuzzy C means and K-means after implementing Principal Component Analysis is analyzed. We analyze the performance on a standard dataset for these algorithms. The results indicate that PCA based fuzzy clustering produces better results than PCA based K-means and is a more stable method for customer segmentation.

  2. Detergencia. Sus principales mecanismos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Herrera, Carlos

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances on research, technology and applications for detergent processes increase rapidly. They keep provoking, as during last decades, repercussions on several fields (domestic, industrial, sanitary, energetic, environmental, legislative. To control as much as possible these repercussions, it is necessary to assess the actual knowledge about detergency mechanisms. This informative article starts by reviewing the essential elements for detergent processes (substrate, soil, cleaning bath. Subsequently several physico-chemical key factors for effectiveness of the textile washing are discussed. These factors are: a removal of liquid oily soils (by rolling-up, or by spontaneous microemulsification; b separation of solid particles (by interfacial or electrostatic interactions; c antiredeposition effects (by solubilization, emulsification or suspension; d water hardness influence; e washing physical conditions (temperature, agitation, time. The article ends by establishing the necessity for maintaining close collaboration among experts on different fields to optimize both detergent processes and their repercussions.

    Los avances en investigación, tecnología y aplicaciones de las operaciones detersivas aumentan rápidamente. Estos siguen provocando, como durante las últimas décadas, repercusiones en muy diversos campos (domésticos, industriales, sanitarios, energéticos, medioambientales, legislativos. Para controlar en lo posible estas repercusiones, resulta necesario valorar los conocimientos actuales sobre los mecanismos de la detergencia. Este artículo de información comienza revisando los elementos esenciales de las operaciones detersivas (sustrato, suciedad, baño. A continuación discute varios factores químicofísicos clave para la eficacia en el lavado de artículos textiles. Estos factores son: a eliminación de suciedades oleosas líquidas (por «rolling-up», o por microemulsificación; b separación de partículas sólidas (por interacciones interfaciales y electrostáticas; c efectos de antirredeposición (por solubilización, emulsificación o suspensión; d influencia de la dureza del agua; y e condiciones físicas del lavado (temperatura, agitación, tiempo. El artículo termina estableciendo la necesidad de mantener una estrecha colaboración entre expertos de diferentes campos para optimizar las operaciones detersivas, así como las repercusiones de las mismas.

  3. El represamiento y aluvión del río Santa Cruz, Andes Principales (31°40'S), provincia de San Juan

    OpenAIRE

    Patricio E. D'odorico; Daniel J. Pérez; Nicolás Sequeira; Luis Fauqué

    2009-01-01

    En la región de los Andes Principales sanjuaninos, existe una alta concentración de deslizamientos, cuyos depósitos han originado represamientos naturales. El colapso de estos diques generados por movimientos de ladera es el proceso evolutivo más probable de estas geoformas. El análisis de imágenes satelitales y fotos aéreas permite reconstruir las características y el origen de los deslizamientos que formaron esos diques naturales. En esta región de los Andes Principales, el rápido levantami...

  4. Componentes do modelo teórico de Roy em pacientes submetidos à hemodiálise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Maria Farias de Queiroz Frazão

    Full Text Available Estudo transversal, objetivando identificar os componentes do modelo teórico de Roy em pacientes submetidos à hemodiálise em um centro de diálise. Participaram 178 pacientes de um centro dialítico no Nordeste do Brasil. A coleta de dados ocorreu de outubro/2011 a fevereiro/2012, por entrevista e exame físico. Os componentes identificados foram: problemas adaptativos, comportamentos e estímulos. Os principais problemas adaptativos foram: retenção de líquido intracelular, hipercalemia, hipotermia, edema, intolerância à atividade. Os comportamentos foram: anúria, desequilíbrio hidroeletrolítico, aumento de peso em curto período, aumento do potássio sérico, temperatura corporal abaixo de 36°C, retenção de líquidos, fadiga, dificuldade em realizar atividades de vida diária. Os estímulos foram: lesão renal, circulação extracorpórea, hemodiálise, não seguimento da restrição hídrica, distúrbio eletrolítico, ambiente frio, efeitos adversos relacionados ao tratamento. Conclui-se que a identificação desses componentes, enquadrados no modo fisiológico, contribui para o planejamento de intervenções de enfermagem específicas e voltadas para a adaptação da clientela.

  5. Suplementos nutricionales como modificadores del riesgo cardiovascular en componentes del síndrome metabólico en adultos

    OpenAIRE

    Tassinari, Stefano; Azuero, Andrés; Arreaza, Dan; Rueda-Rodríguez, María C.; Castañeda-Cardona, Camilo; Rosselli, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: analizar los suplementos nutricionales con ácidos grasos de cadena larga, micronutrientes y antioxidantes en la población adulta, como posibles modificadores del riesgo cardiovascular en pacientes con diagnóstico de síndrome metabólico, o alguno de sus componentes. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión de la literatura en las bases de datos Medline y Embase, utilizando los términos “Metabolic Syndrome” AND “Dietary supplements” y ‘Metabolic Syndrome’/exp AND ‘Dietary supplement’/exp, ...

  6. Componentes cognitivos y afectivos en la configuración de la personalidad moral de los adolescentes

    OpenAIRE

    Palma Cortés, Javier

    2013-01-01

    La presente tesis doctoral se ha diseñado con el objetivo de analizar cómo se comportan determinados aspectos cognitivos y afectivos en el desarrollo moral y en la configuración de la personalidad moral de los adolescentes. En relación a los aspectos cognitivos se centra la investigación en la preferencia y jerarquización de los valores humanos, y en el pensamiento prosocial. Los procesos empáticos, desde su vertiente afectiva, han sido analizados como expresión del componente afectivo de la ...

  7. Generación automática de aplicaciones web móviles mediante componentes configurables

    OpenAIRE

    Vera, Pablo Martín; Pons, Claudia; González, Carina; Rodríguez, Rocío Andrea; Giulianelli, Daniel Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Teniendo como objetivo final la generación completa del código fuente de una aplicación, se ha desarrollado CBDHM (Metodología de Modelado Hipermedia Basada en Componentes). Esta metodología está basada en UML (Lenguaje Unificado de Modelado) y permite diseñar y construir aplicaciones web móviles utilizando dos modelos: el modelo de datos y el modelo de interfaz de usuario. El modelo de datos está basado en el diagrama de clases UML extendido para poder generar la base de datos y sus relacion...

  8. PCA3 Reference Set Application: T2-Erg-Martin Sanda-Emory (2014) — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    We hypothesize that combining T2:erg (T2:erg) fusion and PCA3 detection in urine collected after digital rectal exam can improve the specificity of identifying clinically significant prostate cancer presence over the standard PSA and DRE. To address this hypothesis we propose to validate the performance of the urinary T2:erg in a multiplex model predicting the diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer on subsequent prostate biopsy using post-DRE pre biopsy urine specimens from a cohort of 900 men on the EDRN’s PCA3 trial.

  9. Age-related postoperative morphine requirements in children following major surgery--an assessment using patient-controlled analgesia (PCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Henneberg, Steen Winther; Hole, P

    1996-01-01

    To investigate if small children require less morphine for postoperative analgesia than do older children and adolescents we analysed the morphine consumption pattern of 28 consecutive children on intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) following major surgery. The median age-specific morp......To investigate if small children require less morphine for postoperative analgesia than do older children and adolescents we analysed the morphine consumption pattern of 28 consecutive children on intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) following major surgery. The median age...

  10. Hemorragia del postparto. Principales etiologías, su prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. A. Aldo Solari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La hemorragia del postparto es una de las principales emergencias obstétricas. La tasa de mortalidad materna por hemorragias oscila entre 30 y 50%. Los factores de riesgo más importantes son: edad materna avanzada y enfermedades crónicas. La etiología más frecuente es la Inercia Uterina, definida como la incapacidad del útero de retraerse luego del alumbramiento. Su prevención se basa en el manejo activo del trabajo de parto y el tratamiento va desde el uso de terapias farmacológicas con uterotónicos hasta la histerectomía de urgencia. El Acretismo es una inserción anormal de la placenta. Su diagnóstico se basa en el uso de Ecografía y Resonancia Nuclear Magnética y su tratamiento es el parto por cesárea con histerectomía. La radiología intervencionista ha contribuido a disminuir de forma importante la severidad de la hemorragia postparto. Es imprescindible contar con guías de acción protocolizadas para así evitar o disminuir su incidencia y magnitud.

  11. ESTUDIO DE LA SIMILITUD DE LA RESPUESTA DE LOS PRINCIPALES MOTORES DE BÚSQUEDA EN LA WEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Rodríguez Cáceres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El aumento de la información en la web y su empleo como fuente principal para la recuperación de información en Internet propicia que el uso de los sistemas de recuperación de información en la web (los motores de búsqueda, cobre mayor auge. Si bien estas herramientas realizan una labor encomiable, no resulta menos necesaria la tarea de evaluar su rendimiento y analizar la información que proporcionan. Nuestro estudio propone llevar a cabo un análisis de la similitud de los resultados ofrecidos por los principales motores de búsqueda. Para ello se ha construido un metabuscador que nos va a permitir realizar los experimentos de búsqueda y los cálculos de estos valores de una manera rápida e interactiva. Finalmente se intentará extraer un conjunto de conclusiones válidas de estos resultados, contrastándolas con datos obtenidos en otros trabajos y entre los mismos ofrecidos por nuestro experimento, que viene a demostrar el amplio grado de divergencia entre las respuestas de estos sistemas de recuperación de información, tratándose éste de un tema de relevante interés a la par que no definitivamente consensuado en su solución.

  12. Principales aportaciones de Ortega y Gasset a la Psicología social construccionista y post positivista.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasio Ovejero

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available "Principales aportaciones de Ortega y Gasset a la psicología social construccionista y post positivista" fue el título del seminario que Anastasio Ovejero impartió en el doctorado de Psicología Social de UAB en el mes de diciembre del 2001. Aquel día, en que comenzaban las temperaturas más bajas del invierno en Catalunya, acompañadas de una inusual nieve, realizamos la siguiente entrevista a un personaje que, en contraste, se mostró muy cálido y dispuesto a dialogar acerca de su trabajo en psicología social, sus acercamientos a la filosofía, y la conjugación de ambas disciplinas en el desarrollo teórico, político y práctico de la psicología. Y en donde además nos señaló las conexiones y puentes que entretejen las nuevas formas teóricas y algunas antiguas formas de pensar, tal como la que encontramos en una filosofía como la de Ortega y Gasset.

  13. Principales factores de riesgo asociados a las caídas en ancianos del área de salud Guanabo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Lidia Machado Cuétara

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el envejecimiento provoca cambios en el adulto mayor, que condicionan su deterioro funcional y producen situaciones de incapacidad. Objetivo: determinar los factores de riesgo asociados a las caídas en los ancianos, según el grado de dependencia. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 57 pacientes, que recibieron atención ortopédica en el área de salud Guanabo del municipio Habana del Este de la provincia Ciudad de la Habana, desde enero hasta julio del 2011. Resultados: predominaron los gerontes de 80-89 años y las fracturas de caderas como las lesiones más frecuentes. Entre los principales factores de riesgo extrínsecos figuraron: mobiliario inestable, suelos irregulares e iluminación insuficiente; los intrínsecos fueron hipertensión arterial, alteraciones visuales y osteoarticulares. Según el índice de Bather y la escala de Lawton, la mayoría de los afectados mostraron un grado de dependencia leve para el primero y de 3-4 actividades instrumentales de la vida diaria, para el segundo. Conclusiones: el riesgo de caída fue mayor en las féminas y aumentó con la edad; influyeron factores intrínsecos y extrínsecos, asi como el grado de dependencia que poseían.

  14. The effectiveness of Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA morphine-ketamine compared to Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA morphine to reduce total dose of morphine and Visual Analog Scale (VAS in postoperative laparotomy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ngurah Mahaalit Aribawa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laparotomy may cause moderate to severe after surgery pain, thus adequate pain management is needed. The addition of ketamine in patient controlled analgesia (PCA morphine after surgery can be the option. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of PCA morphine-ketamine compared to PCA morphine in patient postoperative laparotomy surgery to reduce total dose of morphine requirement and pain intensity evaluated with visual analog scale (VAS. Methods: This study was a double-blind RCT in 58 patients of ASA I and II, age 18-64 years, underwent an elective laparotomy at Sanglah General Hospital. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group A, got addition of ketamine (1mg/ml in PCA morphine (1mg/ml and patients in group B received morphine (1mg/ml by PCA. Prior to surgical incision both group were given a bolus ketamine 0,15mg/ kg and ketorolac 0,5mg/kg. The total dose of morphine and VAS were measured at 6, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively. Result: Total dose of morphine in the first 24 hours postoperatively at morphine-ketamine group (5,1±0,8mg is lower than morphine only group (6,5±0,9mg p<0,001. VAS (resting 6 and 12 hour postoperative in morphine-ketamine group (13,4±4,8 mm and (10,7±2,6 mm are lower than morphine (17,9±4,1mm p≤0,05 and (12,8±5,3mm p≤0,05. VAS (moving 6, 12, and 24 hour postoperative morphineketamine group (24,8±5,1mm, (18±5,6mm and (9±5,6mm are lower than morphine (28,7±5,2mm p≤0,05, (23,1±6,0mm p≤0,05, and (12,8±5,3mm p≤0,05. Conclusions: Addition of ketamine in PCA morphine for postoperative laparotomy surgery reduces total morphine requirements in 24 hours compared to PCA morphine alone.

  15. Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPCa) increased the neighboring PCa chemo-resistance via altering the PTHrP/p38/Hsp27/androgen receptor (AR)/p21 signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yun; Sun, Yin; Hu, Shuai; Luo, Jie; Li, Lei; Li, Xin; Yeh, Shuyuan; Jin, Jie; Chang, Chawnshang

    2016-01-01

    Prostatic neuroendocrine cells (NE) are an integral part of prostate cancer (PCa) that are associated with PCa progression. As the current androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) with anti-androgens may promote the neuroendocrine PCa (NEPCa) development, and few therapies can effectively suppress NEPCa, understanding the impact of NEPCa on PCa progression may help us to develop better therapies to battle PCa. Here we found NEPCa cells could increase the docetaxel-resistance of their neighboring PCa cells. Mechanism dissection revealed that through secretion of PTHrP, NEPCa cells could alter the p38/MAPK/Hsp27 signals in their neighboring PCa cells that resulted in increased androgen receptor (AR) activity via promoting AR nuclear translocation. The consequences of increased AR function might then increase docetaxel-resistance via increasing p21 expression. In vivo xenograft mice experiments also confirmed NEPCa could increase the docetaxel-resistance of neighboring PCa, and targeting this newly identified PTHrP/p38/Hsp27/AR/p21 signaling pathway with either p38 inhibitor (SB203580) or sh-PTHrP may result in improving/restoring the docetaxel sensitivity to better suppress PCa. PMID:27375022

  16. pcaH, a molecular marker for estimating the diversity of the protocatechuate-degrading bacterial community in the soil environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Azhari, Najoi

    2007-01-01

    Microorganisms degrading phenolic compounds play an important role in soil carbon cycling as well as in pesticide degradation. The pcaH gene encoding a key ring-cleaving enzyme of the β-ketoadipate pathway was selected as a functional marker. Using a degenerate primer pair, pcaH fragments were cl......H sequences from Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria phyla. This confirms that the developed primer pair targets a wide diversity of pcaH sequences, thereby constituting a suitable molecular marker to estimate the response of the pca community to agricultural practices....

  17. La percepción del riesgo como componente de la Educación Ambiental en las instituciones escolares.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmel Jiménez Denis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En el sistema educativo cubano se desarrollan transformaciones dirigidas a fortalecer la labor educativa en los diferentes niveles educativos. En consecuencia, se reconoce a la educación ambiental como componente del proceso formativo que tiene lugar en cada uno de ellos. Investigaciones realizadas en Cuba reflejan que un elemento importante en esta dirección lo constituye la baja percepción de riesgo en la sociedad cubana en la prevención de desastres naturales, fundamentalmente en la etapa de la adolescencia. La presente investigación, tuvo lugar en tres secundarias básicas del territorio espirituano, seleccionando un grupo de 30 estudiantes en cada una para buscar información. Como resultado se sistematizaron los referentes teóricos-metodológicos que sustentan la percepción de riesgos como componente de la Educación Ambiental para el Desarrollo Sostenible. Además, derivado de un estudio preliminar, se presentan procedimientos que permiten contribuir a la educación de la percepción de riesgos en los adolescentes, tomando como referencia la situación ambiental comunitaria y el modelo actual de escuela Secundaria Básica.

  18. Estudo de crianças na reprodução dos componentes gráficos da escrita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Gonçalves Pontes Sodré

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo do desenvolvimento motor, no domínio da reprodução dos 16 componentes gráficos responsáveis pela grafia da escrita manuscrita do mundo ocidental. Para tanto, foram observados e registrados os desempenhos de 256 crianças, de ambos os sexos, de dois níveis socioeconômicos (nse, de 3 anos e meio a 7 anos. Elas foram distribuídas em 8 faixas etárias, em intervalos de seis meses, de modo que, em cada faixa etária, ficasse assegurado o mesmo número de meninas e meninos, dos dois nse estudados (médio-alto e baixo. Os resultados indicam que a reprodução da forma dos componentes gráficos é possível desde os 3 anos e meio, porém, a precisão e a firmeza parecem depender de mais exercícios com instrumentos gráficos, como o lápis. Sugestões são feitas para, em estudos posteriores, avaliar melhor a influência da prática no domínio destas habilidades.

  19. PCA-based approach for subtracting thermal background emission in high-contrast imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, S.; Quanz, S. P.; Amara, A.; Meyer, M. R.

    2018-03-01

    Aims.Ground-based observations at thermal infrared wavelengths suffer from large background radiation due to the sky, telescope and warm surfaces in the instrument. This significantly limits the sensitivity of ground-based observations at wavelengths longer than 3 μm. The main purpose of this work is to analyse this background emission in infrared high-contrast imaging data as illustrative of the problem, show how it can be modelled and subtracted and demonstrate that it can improve the detection of faint sources, such as exoplanets. Methods: We used principal component analysis (PCA) to model and subtract the thermal background emission in three archival high-contrast angular differential imaging datasets in the M' and L' filter. We used an M' dataset of β Pic to describe in detail how the algorithm works and explain how it can be applied. The results of the background subtraction are compared to the results from a conventional mean background subtraction scheme applied to the same dataset. Finally, both methods for background subtraction are compared by performing complete data reductions. We analysed the results from the M' dataset of HD 100546 only qualitatively. For the M' band dataset of β Pic and the L' band dataset of HD 169142, which was obtained with an angular groove phase mask vortex vector coronagraph, we also calculated and analysed the achieved signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). Results: We show that applying PCA is an effective way to remove spatially and temporarily varying thermal background emission down to close to the background limit. The procedure also proves to be very successful at reconstructing the background that is hidden behind the point spread function. In the complete data reductions, we find at least qualitative improvements for HD 100546 and HD 169142, however, we fail to find a significant increase in S/N of β Pic b. We discuss these findings and argue that in particular datasets with strongly varying observing conditions or

  20. Comparison of PCA and ICA based clutter reduction in GPR systems for anti-personal landmine detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Brian; Larsen, Jan; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents statistical signal processing approaches for clutter reduction in stepped-frequency ground penetrating radar (SF-GPR) data. In particular, we suggest clutter/signal separation techniques based on principal and independent component analysis (PCA/ICA). The approaches...

  1. Accounting for baryonic effects in cosmic shear tomography: Determining a minimal set of nuisance parameters using PCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eifler, Tim; Krause, Elisabeth; Dodelson, Scott; Zentner, Andrew; Hearin, Andrew; Gnedin, Nickolay

    2014-05-28

    Systematic uncertainties that have been subdominant in past large-scale structure (LSS) surveys are likely to exceed statistical uncertainties of current and future LSS data sets, potentially limiting the extraction of cosmological information. Here we present a general framework (PCA marginalization) to consistently incorporate systematic effects into a likelihood analysis. This technique naturally accounts for degeneracies between nuisance parameters and can substantially reduce the dimension of the parameter space that needs to be sampled. As a practical application, we apply PCA marginalization to account for baryonic physics as an uncertainty in cosmic shear tomography. Specifically, we use CosmoLike to run simulated likelihood analyses on three independent sets of numerical simulations, each covering a wide range of baryonic scenarios differing in cooling, star formation, and feedback mechanisms. We simulate a Stage III (Dark Energy Survey) and Stage IV (Large Synoptic Survey Telescope/Euclid) survey and find a substantial bias in cosmological constraints if baryonic physics is not accounted for. We then show that PCA marginalization (employing at most 3 to 4 nuisance parameters) removes this bias. Our study demonstrates that it is possible to obtain robust, precise constraints on the dark energy equation of state even in the presence of large levels of systematic uncertainty in astrophysical processes. We conclude that the PCA marginalization technique is a powerful, general tool for addressing many of the challenges facing the precision cosmology program.

  2. PASS Reference Set Application: Lin UW (2010) TMPRSS2-ERG-PCA-PASS — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active surveillance is used to manage low-risk prostate cancer. Both PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG are promising biomarkers that may be associated with aggressive disease. This study examines the correlation of these biomarkers with higher cancer volume and grade determined at the time of biopsy in an active surveillance cohort.

  3. Discrimination of liver cancer in cellular level based on backscatter micro-spectrum with PCA algorithm and BP neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Wang, Cheng; Cai, Gan; Dong, Xiaona

    2016-10-01

    The incidence and mortality rate of the primary liver cancer are very high and its postoperative metastasis and recurrence have become important factors to the prognosis of patients. Circulating tumor cells (CTC), as a new tumor marker, play important roles in the early diagnosis and individualized treatment. This paper presents an effective method to distinguish liver cancer based on the cellular scattering spectrum, which is a non-fluorescence technique based on the fiber confocal microscopic spectrometer. Combining the principal component analysis (PCA) with back propagation (BP) neural network were utilized to establish an automatic recognition model for backscatter spectrum of the liver cancer cells from blood cell. PCA was applied to reduce the dimension of the scattering spectral data which obtained by the fiber confocal microscopic spectrometer. After dimensionality reduction by PCA, a neural network pattern recognition model with 2 input layer nodes, 11 hidden layer nodes, 3 output nodes was established. We trained the network with 66 samples and also tested it. Results showed that the recognition rate of the three types of cells is more than 90%, the relative standard deviation is only 2.36%. The experimental results showed that the fiber confocal microscopic spectrometer combining with the algorithm of PCA and BP neural network can automatically identify the liver cancer cell from the blood cells. This will provide a better tool for investigating the metastasis of liver cancers in vivo, the biology metabolic characteristics of liver cancers and drug transportation. Additionally, it is obviously referential in practical application.

  4. Contrasting Effects of Dissolved Organic Matter on Mercury Methylation by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Linduo; Chen, Hongmei; Lu, Xia; Lin, Hui; Christensen, Geoff A; Pierce, Eric M; Gu, Baohua

    2017-09-19

    Natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) affects mercury (Hg) redox reactions and anaerobic microbial methylation in the environment. Several studies have shown that DOM can enhance Hg methylation, especially under sulfidic conditions, whereas others show that DOM inhibits Hg methylation due to strong Hg-DOM complexation. In this study, we investigated and compared the effects of DOM on Hg methylation by an iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and a sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 under nonsulfidic conditions. The methylation experiment was performed with washed cells either in the absence or presence of DOM or glutathione, both of which form strong complexes with Hg via thiol-functional groups. DOM was found to greatly inhibit Hg methylation by G. Sulfurreducens PCA but enhance Hg methylation by D. desulfuricans ND132 cells with increasing DOM concentration. These strain-dependent opposing effects of DOM were also observed with glutathione, suggesting that thiols in DOM likely played an essential role in affecting microbial Hg uptake and methylation. Additionally, DOM and glutathione greatly decreased Hg sorption by G. sulfurreducens PCA but showed little effect on D. desulfuricans ND132 cells, demonstrating that ND132 has a higher affinity to sorb or take up Hg than the PCA strain. These observations indicate that DOM effects on Hg methylation are bacterial strain specific, depend on the DOM:Hg ratio or site-specific conditions, and may thus offer new insights into the role of DOM in methylmercury production in the environment.

  5. Relationship between swelling and irradiation creep in cold worked PCA stainless steel to 178 DPA at∼400 degrees C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toloczko, M.B.; Garner, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    At 178 dpa and ∼400 degrees C, the irradiation creep behavior of 20% cold-worked PCA has become dominated by the creep disappearance phenomenon. The total diametral deformation rate has reached the limiting value of 0.33%/dpa at the three highest stress levels. The stress-enhancement of swelling tends to camouflage the onset of creep disappearance, however

  6. Cooperación judicial e integración subnacional chileno-argentina: principales logros y avances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Sfeir Tonsic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La cooperación judicial desarrollada entre diversos órganos de las provincias argentinas y regiones chilenas, al amparo del Tratado de Maipú de Integración y Cooperación de 2009 y de los Comités de Integración binacionales, ha experimentado sustantivos avances en los últimos años, los cuales se ven reflejados en las diversas actividades que se describen en el artículo, las cuales han sido coordinadas y lideradas por las cancillerías de ambos países. Por su parte, la cooperación judicial binacional se entrelaza con el concepto de integración subnacional tanto al permitir un amplio encuentro de altos funcionarios y profesionales interesados en avanzar en estas materias, como al hacer posible el estrechamiento de los vínculos ya existentes a ambos lados de la Cordillera de los Andes. Como fruto de las conversaciones mantenidas en Mendoza en el Comité “Paso Cristo Redentor” de 1 y 2 de septiembre de 2011 y de la organización del Primer Seminario Internacional de Cooperación Judicial Chile-Argentina, desarrollado el 29 y 30 de marzo de 2012, se lograron implementar nuevas Comisiones de Cooperación Judicial en los demás Comités de Integración, así como organizar nuevos seminarios sobre dicha temática, con el objeto de avanzar en el campo de la integración y la cooperación judicial. El objetivo del presente artículo es, precisamente, dar cuenta de los principales logros y avances en esa materia.

  7. Improving Accuracy of Intrusion Detection Model Using PCA and optimized SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaiya Thaseen Ikram

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection is very essential for providing security to different network domains and is mostly used for locating and tracing the intruders. There are many problems with traditional intrusion detection models (IDS such as low detection capability against unknown network attack, high false alarm rate and insufficient analysis capability. Hence the major scope of the research in this domain is to develop an intrusion detection model with improved accuracy and reduced training time. This paper proposes a hybrid intrusiondetection model by integrating the principal component analysis (PCA and support vector machine (SVM. The novelty of the paper is the optimization of kernel parameters of the SVM classifier using automatic parameter selection technique. This technique optimizes the punishment factor (C and kernel parameter gamma (γ, thereby improving the accuracy of the classifier and reducing the training and testing time. The experimental results obtained on the NSL KDD and gurekddcup dataset show that the proposed technique performs better with higher accuracy, faster convergence speed and better generalization. Minimum resources are consumed as the classifier input requires reduced feature set for optimum classification. A comparative analysis of hybrid models with the proposed model is also performed.

  8. PCA-based detection of damage in time-varying systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellino, A.; Fasana, A.; Garibaldi, L.; Marchesiello, S.

    2010-10-01

    When performing Structural Health Monitoring, it is well known that the natural frequencies do not depend only on the damage but also on environmental conditions, such as temperature and humidity. The Principal Component Analysis is used to take this problem into account, because it allows eliminating the effect of external factors. The purpose of the present work is to show that this technique can be successfully used not only for time-invariant systems, but also for time-varying ones. Referring to the latter, one of the most studied systems which shows these characteristics is the bridge with crossing loads, such as the case of the railway bridge studied in present paper; in this case, the mass and the velocity of the train can be considered as "environmental" factors.This paper, after a brief description of the PCA method and one example of its application on time-invariant systems, presents the great potentialities of the methodology when applied to time-varying systems. The results show that this method is able to better detect the presence of damage and also to properly distinguish among different levels of crack depths.

  9. Statistical Downscaling Output GCM Modeling with Continuum Regression and Pre-Processing PCA Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutikno Sutikno

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the climate models used to predict the climatic conditions is Global Circulation Models (GCM. GCM is a computer-based model that consists of different equations. It uses numerical and deterministic equation which follows the physics rules. GCM is a main tool to predict climate and weather, also it uses as primary information source to review the climate change effect. Statistical Downscaling (SD technique is used to bridge the large-scale GCM with a small scale (the study area. GCM data is spatial and temporal data most likely to occur where the spatial correlation between different data on the grid in a single domain. Multicollinearity problems require the need for pre-processing of variable data X. Continuum Regression (CR and pre-processing with Principal Component Analysis (PCA methods is an alternative to SD modelling. CR is one method which was developed by Stone and Brooks (1990. This method is a generalization from Ordinary Least Square (OLS, Principal Component Regression (PCR and Partial Least Square method (PLS methods, used to overcome multicollinearity problems. Data processing for the station in Ambon, Pontianak, Losarang, Indramayu and Yuntinyuat show that the RMSEP values and R2 predict in the domain 8x8 and 12x12 by uses CR method produces results better than by PCR and PLS.

  10. Hybrid Pixel-Based Method for Cardiac Ultrasound Fusion Based on Integration of PCA and DWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Mazaheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical image fusion is the procedure of combining several images from one or multiple imaging modalities. In spite of numerous attempts in direction of automation ventricle segmentation and tracking in echocardiography, due to low quality images with missing anatomical details or speckle noises and restricted field of view, this problem is a challenging task. This paper presents a fusion method which particularly intends to increase the segment-ability of echocardiography features such as endocardial and improving the image contrast. In addition, it tries to expand the field of view, decreasing impact of noise and artifacts and enhancing the signal to noise ratio of the echo images. The proposed algorithm weights the image information regarding an integration feature between all the overlapping images, by using a combination of principal component analysis and discrete wavelet transform. For evaluation, a comparison has been done between results of some well-known techniques and the proposed method. Also, different metrics are implemented to evaluate the performance of proposed algorithm. It has been concluded that the presented pixel-based method based on the integration of PCA and DWT has the best result for the segment-ability of cardiac ultrasound images and better performance in all metrics.

  11. PCA-based spatially adaptive denoising of CFA images for single-sensor digital cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lei; Lukac, Rastislav; Wu, Xiaolin; Zhang, David

    2009-04-01

    Single-sensor digital color cameras use a process called color demosiacking to produce full color images from the data captured by a color filter array (CAF). The quality of demosiacked images is degraded due to the sensor noise introduced during the image acquisition process. The conventional solution to combating CFA sensor noise is demosiacking first, followed by a separate denoising processing. This strategy will generate many noise-caused color artifacts in the demosiacking process, which are hard to remove in the denoising process. Few denoising schemes that work directly on the CFA images have been presented because of the difficulties arisen from the red, green and blue interlaced mosaic pattern, yet a well-designed "denoising first and demosiacking later" scheme can have advantages such as less noise-caused color artifacts and cost-effective implementation. This paper presents a principle component analysis (PCA)-based spatially-adaptive denoising algorithm, which works directly on the CFA data using a supporting window to analyze the local image statistics. By exploiting the spatial and spectral correlations existing in the CFA image, the proposed method can effectively suppress noise while preserving color edges and details. Experiments using both simulated and real CFA images indicate that the proposed scheme outperforms many existing approaches, including those sophisticated demosiacking and denoising schemes, in terms of both objective measurement and visual evaluation.

  12. PCA based feature reduction to improve the accuracy of decision tree c4.5 classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. Z. F.; Sitompul, O. S.; Ramli, M.

    2018-03-01

    Splitting attribute is a major process in Decision Tree C4.5 classification. However, this process does not give a significant impact on the establishment of the decision tree in terms of removing irrelevant features. It is a major problem in decision tree classification process called over-fitting resulting from noisy data and irrelevant features. In turns, over-fitting creates misclassification and data imbalance. Many algorithms have been proposed to overcome misclassification and overfitting on classifications Decision Tree C4.5. Feature reduction is one of important issues in classification model which is intended to remove irrelevant data in order to improve accuracy. The feature reduction framework is used to simplify high dimensional data to low dimensional data with non-correlated attributes. In this research, we proposed a framework for selecting relevant and non-correlated feature subsets. We consider principal component analysis (PCA) for feature reduction to perform non-correlated feature selection and Decision Tree C4.5 algorithm for the classification. From the experiments conducted using available data sets from UCI Cervical cancer data set repository with 858 instances and 36 attributes, we evaluated the performance of our framework based on accuracy, specificity and precision. Experimental results show that our proposed framework is robust to enhance classification accuracy with 90.70% accuracy rates.

  13. Biological image construction by using Raman radiation and Pca: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez E, J. C.; Cordova F, T.; Hugo R, V.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: In the last years, the Raman spectroscopy (Rs) technique has had some applications in the study and analysis of biological samples, due to it is able to detect concentrations or presence of certain organic and inorganic compounds of medical interest. In this work, raw data were obtained through measurements in selected points on a square regions in order to detect specific organic / inorganic compounds on biological samples. Gold nano stars samples were prepared and coated with membrane markers (CD 10+ and CD 19+) and diluted in leukemic B lymphocytes. Each data block was evaluated independently by the method of principal component analysis (Pca) in order to find representative dimensionless values (Cp) for each Raman spectrum in a specific coordinate. Each Cp was normalized in a range of 0-255 in order to generate a representative image of 8 bits of the region under study. Data acquisition was performed with Raman microscopy system Renishaw in Via in the range of 550 to 1700 cm-1 with a 785 nm laser source, with a power of 17 m W and 15 s of exposure time were used for each spectrum. In preliminary results could detect the presence of molecular markers CD 10+ and CD 19+ with gold nano stars and discrimination between both markers. The results suggest conducting studies with specific concentrations organic and inorganic materials. (Author)

  14. Biological image construction by using Raman radiation and Pca: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez E, J. C. [IPN, Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingenieria, Campus Guanajuato, Av. Mineral de Valenciana 200, Col. Fracc. Industrial Puerto Interior, 36275 Silao, Guanajuato (Mexico); Cordova F, T. [Universidad de Guanajuato, DIC, Departamento de Ingenieria Fisica, Loma del Bosque No. 103, Col. Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Hugo R, V., E-mail: jcmartineze@ipn.mx [Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de Tonala, Morelos No. 180, 69584 Tonala, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: In the last years, the Raman spectroscopy (Rs) technique has had some applications in the study and analysis of biological samples, due to it is able to detect concentrations or presence of certain organic and inorganic compounds of medical interest. In this work, raw data were obtained through measurements in selected points on a square regions in order to detect specific organic / inorganic compounds on biological samples. Gold nano stars samples were prepared and coated with membrane markers (CD 10+ and CD 19+) and diluted in leukemic B lymphocytes. Each data block was evaluated independently by the method of principal component analysis (Pca) in order to find representative dimensionless values (Cp) for each Raman spectrum in a specific coordinate. Each Cp was normalized in a range of 0-255 in order to generate a representative image of 8 bits of the region under study. Data acquisition was performed with Raman microscopy system Renishaw in Via in the range of 550 to 1700 cm-1 with a 785 nm laser source, with a power of 17 m W and 15 s of exposure time were used for each spectrum. In preliminary results could detect the presence of molecular markers CD 10+ and CD 19+ with gold nano stars and discrimination between both markers. The results suggest conducting studies with specific concentrations organic and inorganic materials. (Author)

  15. Comprehensive analysis and evaluation of big data for main transformer equipment based on PCA and Apriority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lijuan; Yan, Haijun; Hao, Yongqi; Chen, Yun

    2018-01-01

    With the power supply level of urban power grid toward high reliability development, it is necessary to adopt appropriate methods for comprehensive evaluation of existing equipment. Considering the wide and multi-dimensional power system data, the method of large data mining is used to explore the potential law and value of power system equipment. Based on the monitoring data of main transformer and the records of defects and faults, this paper integrates the data of power grid equipment environment. Apriori is used as an association identification algorithm to extract the frequent correlation factors of the main transformer, and the potential dependence of the big data is analyzed by the support and confidence. Then, the integrated data is analyzed by PCA, and the integrated quantitative scoring model is constructed. It is proved to be effective by using the test set to validate the evaluation algorithm and scheme. This paper provides a new idea for data fusion of smart grid, and provides a reference for further evaluation of big data of power grid equipment.

  16. Application of EOF/PCA-based methods in the post-processing of GRACE derived water variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    Two problems that users of monthly GRACE gravity field solutions face are 1) the presence of correlated noise in the Stokes coefficients that increases with harmonic degree and causes ‘striping', and 2) the fact that different physical signals are overlaid and difficult to separate from each other in the data. These problems are termed the signal-noise separation problem and the signal-signal separation problem. Methods that are based on principal component analysis and empirical orthogonal functions (PCA/EOF) have been frequently proposed to deal with these problems for GRACE. However, different strategies have been applied to different (spatial: global/regional, spectral: global/order-wise, geoid/equivalent water height) representations of the GRACE level 2 data products, leading to differing results and a general feeling that PCA/EOF-based methods are to be applied ‘with care'. In addition, it is known that conventional EOF/PCA methods force separated modes to be orthogonal, and that, on the other hand, to either EOFs or PCs an arbitrary orthogonal rotation can be applied. The aim of this paper is to provide a common theoretical framework and to study the application of PCA/EOF-based methods as a signal separation tool due to post-process GRACE data products. In order to investigate and illustrate the applicability of PCA/EOF-based methods, we have employed them on GRACE level 2 monthly solutions based on the Center for Space Research, University of Texas (CSR/UT) RL04 products and on the ITG-GRACE03 solutions from the University of Bonn, and on various representations of them. Our results show that EOF modes do reveal the dominating annual, semiannual and also long-periodic signals in the global water storage variations, but they also show how choosing different strategies changes the outcome and may lead to unexpected results.

  17. Piper-PCA-Fisher Recognition Model of Water Inrush Source: A Case Study of the Jiaozuo Mining Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinghua Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Source discrimination of mine water plays an important role in guiding mine water prevention in mine water management. To accurately determine water inrush source from a mine in the Jiaozuo mining area, a Piper trilinear diagram based on hydrochemical experimental data of stratified underground water in the area was utilized to determine typical water samples. Additionally, principal component analysis (PCA was used for dimensionality reduction of conventional hydrochemical variables, after which mutually independent variables were extracted. The Piper-PCA-Fisher water inrush source recognition model was established by combining the Piper trilinear diagram and Fisher discrimination theory. Screened typical samples were used to conduct back-discriminate verification of the model. Results showed that 28 typical water samples in different aquifers were determined through the Piper trilinear diagram as a water sample set for training. Before PCA was carried out, the first five factors covered 98.92% of the information quantity of the original data and could effectively represent the data information of the original samples. During the one-by-one rediscrimination process of 28 groups of training samples using the Piper-PCA-Fisher water inrush source model, 100% correct discrimination rate was achieved. During the prediction and discrimination process of 13 samples, one water sample was misdiscriminated; hence, the correct prediscrimination rate was 92.3%. Compared with the traditional Fisher water source recognition model, the Piper-PCA-Fisher water source recognition model established in this study had higher accuracy in both rediscrimination and prediscrimination processes. Thus it had a strong ability to discriminate water inrush sources.

  18. Improving the prediction of pathologic outcomes in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy: the value of prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3), prostate health index (phi) and sarcosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Matteo; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Bruzzese, Dario; Perdonà, Sisto; Mazzarella, Claudia; Perruolo, Giuseppe; Marino, Ada; Cosimato, Vincenzo; Giorgio, Emilia; Tagliamonte, Virginia; Bottero, Danilo; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Terracciano, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    Several efforts have been made to find biomarkers that could help clinicians to preoperatively determine prostate cancer (PCa) pathological characteristics and choose the best therapeutic approach, avoiding over-treatment. On this effort, prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3), prostate health index (phi) and sarcosine have been presented as promising tools. We evaluated the ability of these biomarkers to predict the pathologic PCa characteristics within a prospectively collected contemporary cohort of patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) for clinically localized PCa at a single high-volume Institution. The prognostic performance of PCA3, phi and sarcosine were evaluated in 78 patients undergoing RP for biopsy-proven PCa. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses tested the accuracy (area under the curve (AUC)) in predicting PCa pathological characteristics. Decision curve analyses (DCA) were used to assess the clinical benefit of the three biomarkers. We found that PCA3, phi and sarcosine levels were significantly higher in patients with tumor volume (TV)≥0.5 ml, pathologic Gleason sum (GS)≥7 and pT3 disease (all p-values≤0.01). ROC curve analysis showed that phi is an accurate predictor of high-stage (AUC 0.85 [0.77-0.93]), high-grade (AUC 0.83 [0.73-0.93]) and high-volume disease (AUC 0.94 [0.88-0.99]). Sarcosine showed a comparable AUC (0.85 [0.76-0.94]) only for T3 stage prediction, whereas PCA3 score showed lower AUCs, ranging from 0.74 (for GS) to 0.86 (for TV). PCA3, phi and sarcosine are predictors of PCa characteristics at final pathology. Successful clinical translation of these findings would reduce the frequency of surveillance biopsies and may enhance acceptance of active surveillance (AS). Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  19. Interleukin-6: a bone marrow stromal cell paracrine signal that induces neuroendocrine differentiation and modulates autophagy in bone metastatic PCa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delk, Nikki A; Farach-Carson, Mary C

    2012-04-01

    Autophagy reallocates nutrients and clears normal cells of damaged proteins and organelles. In the context of metastatic disease, invading cancer cells hijack autophagic processes to survive and adapt in the host microenvironment. We sought to understand how autophagy is regulated in the metastatic niche for prostate cancer (PCa) cells where bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) paracrine signaling induces PCa neuroendocrine differentiation (NED). In PCa, this transdifferentiation of metastatic PCa cells to neuronal-like cells correlates with advanced disease. Because autophagy provides a survival advantage for cancer cells and promotes cell differentiation, we hypothesized that autophagy mediates PCa NED in the bone. Thus, we determined the ability of paracrine factors in conditioned media (CM) from two separate BMSC subtypes, HS5 and HS27a, to induce autophagy in C4-2 and C4-2B bone metastatic PCa cells by characterizing the autophagy marker, LC3. Unlike HS27a CM, HS5 CM induced LC3 accumulation in PCa cells, suggesting autophagy was induced and indicating that HS5 and HS27a secrete a different milieu of paracrine factors that influence PCa autophagy. We identified interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine more highly expressed in HS5 cells than in HS27a cells, as a paracrine factor that regulates PCa autophagy. Pharmacological inhibition of STAT3 activity did not attenuate LC3 accumulation, implying that IL-6 regulates NED and autophagy through different pathways. Finally, chloroquine inhibition of autophagic flux blocked PCa NED; hence autophagic flux maintains NED. Our studies imply that autophagy is cytoprotective for PCa cells in the bone, thus targeting autophagy is a potential therapeutic strategy.

  20. Interacción de pesticidas orgánicos con sistemas modelo de los componentes del suelo

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias González, Ana Cristina

    2005-01-01

    En los últimos años los pesticidas orgánicos se han convertido en los compuestos más utilizados en los procesos de producción de la agricultura moderna. Junto con la adopción de diversas mejoras, como son la aplicación de fertilizantes sintéticos, que incrementan el suministro de nutrientes, mejoras en los sistemas de riego y la utilización de maquinaria moderna, el uso de pesticidas orgánicos sintéticos ha sido acreditado como uno de los principales contribuyentes a la modernización de la pr...

  1. Influência da contagem de células somáticas sobre os componentes do leite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Taís Maziero Montanhini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available mastite é uma inflamação da glândula mamária caracterizada por alterações do tecido glandular, causando distúrbios funcionais no quarto mamário afetado. Por sua vez, estes distúrbios induzem a diminuição na produção do leite e alterações em sua composição centesimal, suas propriedades físico-químicas, bacteriológicas e sensoriais.O objetivo foi avaliar a influência da contagem de células somáticas (CCS sobre os componentes do leite. Foram avaliados os resultados de 156.465 amostras analisadas pelo laboratório da Associação Paranaense de Criadores de Bovinos da Raça Holandesa, durante o período de julho a setembro de 2012. Foram determinadas a CCS e os teores de proteína, gordura, lactose, sólidos totais, caseína e extrato seco desengordurado (ESD. A gordura apresentou maior coeficiente de variação, seguida pelos teores de caseína, proteína, sólidos totais, ESD e, finalmente, o componente que apresentou menor variação foi a lactose. Entre as amostras avaliadas, 47,4% apresentaram ao menos um resultado em desacordo com os limites estipulados pela legislação brasileira. Para a CCS, 21,8% das amostras apresentaram resultados acima do padrão. O teor de gordura apresentou correlação positiva com a CCS. Por outro lado, o teor lactose e o ESD apresentaram correlação negativa com a CCS. O teor de proteína total não sofreu influência da CCS, no entanto, a caseína apresentou correlação positiva com a CCS. A mastite afeta a qualidade do leite, uma vez que promove alterações significativas nos seus componentes, principalmente gordura, lactose e caseína.

  2. Caracterización de los componentes genéticos y ambientales implicados en el envejecimiento de las levaduras vínicas

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco Valverde, María Elena

    2012-01-01

    La mayor parte de la fermentación vínica discurre cuando las células de la levadura Saccharomyces cerevisiae han dejado de dividirse. Así pues, la viabilidad en fase estacionaria, llamada longevidad cronológica (LC), es esencial para que la vinificación se lleve a buen término. En este trabajo de tesis doctoral, se han caracterizado diversos componentes ambientales y genéticos que influyen en la longevidad cronológica de las levaduras vínicas. En cuanto a los componentes ambientales, el incre...

  3. Principales lesiones bucales y factores de riesgo presentes en población mayor de 60 años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Gonzáles Ramos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo en la población mayor de 60 años del área de salud de la Policlínica Moncada, que recibieron atención en la Facultad de Estomatología "Raúl González Sánchez", Ciudad de La Habana, durante el año 2006, para determinar los factores de riesgo asociados con la aparición de lesiones bucales, su distribución según edad y sexo, además de identificar el tipo de lesión y su localización anatómica. Se estudiaron 352 ancianos a los que se les aplicó una encuesta para identificar la presencia de factores de riesgo y se realizó un examen físico de la cavidad bucal y el cuello para detectar las lesiones y su localización. Como principales resultados se obtuvo que el 60,7 % de los ancianos presentaron factores de riesgo; los más frecuentes fueron: la ingestión de alimentos condimentados y calientes en un 83,4 %, el hábito de fumar en un 82,1 % seguido del uso de prótesis y el alcoholismo, ambos con 72,4 %. El sexo masculino fue el más afectado en un 58,2 %, el factor de riesgo que predominó fue la ingestión de alcohol en un 75,7 %. En las mujeres el uso de prótesis fue el factor de riesgo que predominó con un 73,3 %, seguido del hábito de fumar; la edad más afectada fue la de más de 80 años en un 41,7 %. El 48,5 % presentaban lesiones, el épulis fisurado fue el más representativo en un 39,1 %, la estomatitis subprotésica con un 35,6 %. La localización anatómica encontrada con mayor afectación fue el paladar duro, encía inferior y mucosa del carrillo. Se evidenció con estos resultados la falta de calidad de las actividades de educación para la salud, ya que predominaron estilos de vida perjudiciales a la salud.

  4. PRINCIPALES COMPETENCIAS QUE DEBE POSEER UN DIRECTOR DE PROYECTOS EN LA INDUSTRIA DE LA CONSTRUCCIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Herrera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El rol del director de proyectos es uno de los trabajos más desafiantes en cualquier organización, porque requiere una amplia comprensión sobre varias áreas que deben estar coordinadas y sobre las que se requieren habilidades interpersonales. El objetivo del trabajo es definir las principales competencias que deben poseer los directores de proyectos en la industria de la construcción, y además presentar cómo éstos podrían desarrollarlas. Para cumplir con éste, se realizó un análisis crítico que incluye diversos estudios de expertos, e instituciones dedicadas a esta área de la ingeniería. De este estudio se concluye que el director de proyectos debe poseer conocimientos, habilidades y actitudes para manejar los aspectos técnicos específicos, el alcance, los costos, los tiempos y la interrelación, alineada con los objetivos, del equipo de trabajo y de los stakeholders, entre otros. Todo ello en un ambiente cambiante, diverso y transversal, generador de incertidumbre y de conflictos a solucionar de forma competente. The role of the project manager is one of the most challenging jobs in any organization because it requires a broad understanding of several areas that need to be coordinated and require interpersonal skills. The objective of the work is to define the main competences that must be possessed by the project managers in the construction industry, and also to present how they could develop them. In order to comply with this, a critical analysis was carried out that includes several studies of experts, and institutions dedicated to this area of engineering. This study concludes that the project manager must have the knowledge, skills and attitudes to handle the specific technical aspects, scope, costs, timing and interrelationship, aligned with the objectives, teamwork and stakeholders, among others. All this in a changing, diverse and transversal environment, generating uncertainty and conflicts to be resolved competently

  5. Parasitosis intestinales en Argentina: principales agentes causales encontrados en la población y en el ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M Juárez

    Full Text Available Las parasitosis intestinales se encuentran ampliamente distribuidas en el mundo, con mayor prevalencia en los países en desarrollo. Principalmente afectan a los niños, en los que además provocan disminución del desarrollo físico y mental, situación que puede potenciarse enormemente cuando se suma a un estado nutricional deficiente. La Organización Mundial de la Salud las considera una de las principales causas de morbilidad, estrechamente ligada a la pobreza y relacionada con inadecuada higiene personal, incorrecta manipulación de los alimentos crudos, falta de servicios sanitarios, falta de provisión de agua potable y contaminación fecal del ambiente. Algunas enfermedades parasitarias se vinculan con condiciones de transmisión que existen universalmente, por lo que son cosmopolitas, mientras que otras tienen distribución geográfica variable. En los últimos años, debido a la globalización, el movimiento de personas de zonas endémicas a regiones no endémicas ha permitido la diseminación de ciertas parasitosis. Y aunque también influyen en la frecuencia de algunas de estas enfermedades las costumbres de los pueblos, las condiciones ambientales son un factor determinante para la supervivencia de los parásitos. En nuestro país, debido a la diversidad de suelos y condiciones climáticas que existen, es posible hallar variedad de agentes causales de estas parasitosis. El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar una revisión bibliográfica de los agentes parasitarios causantes de enfermedades entéricas encontrados en la República Argentina, tanto en materia fecal de personas como en el ambiente, ya que la contaminación parasitaria de este último constituye un indicador directo del riesgo de infección por parásitos intestinales.

  6. Baryonic effects in cosmic shear tomography: PCA parametrization and importance of extreme baryonic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Irshad [Fermilab; Gnedin, Nickolay Y. [Fermilab

    2017-07-07

    Baryonic effects are amongst the most severe systematics to the tomographic analysis of weak lensing data which is the principal probe in many future generations of cosmological surveys like LSST, Euclid etc.. Modeling or parameterizing these effects is essential in order to extract valuable constraints on cosmological parameters. In a recent paper, Eifler et al. (2015) suggested a reduction technique for baryonic effects by conducting a principal component analysis (PCA) and removing the largest baryonic eigenmodes from the data. In this article, we conducted the investigation further and addressed two critical aspects. Firstly, we performed the analysis by separating the simulations into training and test sets, computing a minimal set of principle components from the training set and examining the fits on the test set. We found that using only four parameters, corresponding to the four largest eigenmodes of the training set, the test sets can be fitted thoroughly with an RMS $\\sim 0.0011$. Secondly, we explored the significance of outliers, the most exotic/extreme baryonic scenarios, in this method. We found that excluding the outliers from the training set results in a relatively bad fit and degraded the RMS by nearly a factor of 3. Therefore, for a direct employment of this method to the tomographic analysis of the weak lensing data, the principle components should be derived from a training set that comprises adequately exotic but reasonable models such that the reality is included inside the parameter domain sampled by the training set. The baryonic effects can be parameterized as the coefficients of these principle components and should be marginalized over the cosmological parameter space.

  7. Change detection of medical images using dictionary learning techniques and PCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nika, Varvara; Babyn, Paul; Zhu, Hongmei

    2014-03-01

    Automatic change detection methods for identifying the changes of serial MR images taken at different times are of great interest to radiologists. The majority of existing change detection methods in medical imaging, and those of brain images in particular, include many preprocessing steps and rely mostly on statistical analysis of MRI scans. Although most methods utilize registration software, tissue classification remains a difficult and overwhelming task. Recently, dictionary learning techniques are used in many areas of image processing, such as image surveillance, face recognition, remote sensing, and medical imaging. In this paper we present the Eigen-Block Change Detection algorithm (EigenBlockCD). It performs local registration and identifies the changes between consecutive MR images of the brain. Blocks of pixels from baseline scan are used to train local dictionaries that are then used to detect changes in the follow-up scan. We use PCA to reduce the dimensionality of the local dictionaries and the redundancy of data. Choosing the appropriate distance measure significantly affects the performance of our algorithm. We examine the differences between L1 and L2 norms as two possible similarity measures in the EigenBlockCD. We show the advantages of L2 norm over L1 norm theoretically and numerically. We also demonstrate the performance of the EigenBlockCD algorithm for detecting changes of MR images and compare our results with those provided in recent literature. Experimental results with both simulated and real MRI scans show that the EigenBlockCD outperforms the previous methods. It detects clinical changes while ignoring the changes due to patient's position and other acquisition artifacts.

  8. Capacidad discriminante de la Escala de Componentes Emocionales (ECE-I en un diseño con grupos pareados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Quirós-Morales

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las características discriminantes y predictivas de la Escala de Componentes Emocionales (ECE-I en personas diagnosticadas con fibromialgia. La escala está conformada por 24 ítems distribuidos en 4 factores: problemas fisiológicos (F-PF, autoevaluación negativa (F-AN, desesperanza (F-D, estrés (F-E. Se utilizó una muestra de 124 mujeres (62 diagnosticadas con fibromialgia y 62 sin fibromialgia. Los niveles de predicción y clasificación expresan que la escala puede ser un instrumento útil en psicología de la salud para discriminar la presencia de indicadores emocionales para personas con diagnóstico de fibromialgia.

  9. Manejo do dossel vegetativo e seu efeito nos componentes de produção da videira Merlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Miele

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A poda verde é uma prática cultural utilizada para melhorar as condições do dossel vegetativo dos vinhedos, visando a favorecer a qualidade da uva e do vinho. Nesse sentido, realizou-se este experimento entre as safras de 1993/1994 e 1996/1997, com diferentes modalidades de poda verde, num vinhedo do cv. Merlot conduzido em latada. Houve 12 tratamentos e três repetições, sendo o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados. Os tratamentos constituíram-se da testemunha e de 11 diferentes modalidades de poda verde, ou seja, desbrota, desponta e desfolha, algumas delas em diferentes épocas do ciclo vegetativo da videira. O componente principal 1, da análise de componentes principais (ACP feita em cada ano, separadamente, mostra que o tratamento 10 (desbrota + desponta + desfolha realizada no início da floração, eliminando-se as folhas abaixo dos cachos discriminou-se nos quatro anos, e os tratamentos 7 (desfolha realizada 21 dias antes da colheita, eliminando-se metade das folhas abaixo dos cachos e 6 (desfolha realizada 21 dias antes da colheita, eliminando-se as folhas abaixo dos cachos, em três deles; a ACP da média dos quatro anos também evidencia essa discriminação entre eles. Constata-se que o tratamento 10 foi um dos que tiveram intensidade de poda verde mais intensa, caracterizando-se por variáveis indicativas de plantas com vigor e produtividade mais baixos que os demais.

  10. ENFERMEDADES Y COMPONENTES DE RENDIMIENTO EN LÍNEAS DE FRÉJOL BAJO TRES DENSIDADES DE SIEMBRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rafael Garc\\u00E9s-Fiallos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar las enfermedades, el rendimiento y sus componen - tes en líneas de fréjol bajo tres distanciamientos de siembra. El trabajo se realizó durante la época seca del año 2011, en la Universidad Técnica Estatal de Quevedo (UTEQ, Quevedo, Ecuador. Se determinó la incidencia y severidad de la roya ( Uromyces appendiculatus y mustia hilachosa ( Rizoctonia solani en los estadíos R7 (formación en legumbres y R8 (llenado de legumbres, y después de la cosecha la incidencia de las pudriciones radiculares ( Macrophomina phaseolina y R. solani . Los componentes de rendimiento (número de nudos, legumbres, granos, granos por legumbre, legumbres estériles y granos por planta y peso de granos. Se empleó un Diseño de Bloques Completos al Azar (DBCA con doce tratamientos y tres repeticiones, con arreglo factorial de 4 (líneas promisorias x 3 (planta/m. Para la comparación entre las medias de los tratamientos se empleó la prueba de Tukey al 5% de probabilidad del error. Las líneas promisorias de fréjol EVG 06-103 y SER-03 presentaron menor intensidad de enfermedades. Un aumento en la densidad poblacional causó un acrecentamiento en la intensidad de la roya. Las líneas SER-08 y SER-03 obtuvieron la mayor productividad según la mayoría de componentes de rendimiento y peso de granos. Finalmente, el incremento de la densidad de plantas promovió reducción significativa en el número de legumbres, granos y granos por legumbre por planta, contrario al aumento observado en el peso de granos

  11. SU-F-R-41: Regularized PCA Can Model Treatment-Related Changes in Head and Neck Patients Using Daily CBCTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetvertkov, M; Siddiqui, F; Chetty, I; Kumarasiri, A; Liu, C; Gordon, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To use daily cone beam CTs (CBCTs) to develop regularized principal component analysis (PCA) models of anatomical changes in head and neck (H&N) patients, to guide replanning decisions in adaptive radiation therapy (ART). Methods: Known deformations were applied to planning CT (pCT) images of 10 H&N patients to model several different systematic anatomical changes. A Pinnacle plugin was used to interpolate systematic changes over 35 fractions, generating a set of 35 synthetic CTs for each patient. Deformation vector fields (DVFs) were acquired between the pCT and synthetic CTs and random fraction-to-fraction changes were superimposed on the DVFs. Standard non-regularized and regularized patient-specific PCA models were built using the DVFs. The ability of PCA to extract the known deformations was quantified. PCA models were also generated from clinical CBCTs, for which the deformations and DVFs were not known. It was hypothesized that resulting eigenvectors/eigenfunctions with largest eigenvalues represent the major anatomical deformations during the course of treatment. Results: As demonstrated with quantitative results in the supporting document regularized PCA is more successful than standard PCA at capturing systematic changes early in the treatment. Regularized PCA is able to detect smaller systematic changes against the background of random fraction-to-fraction changes. To be successful at guiding ART, regularized PCA should be coupled with models of when anatomical changes occur: early, late or throughout the treatment course. Conclusion: The leading eigenvector/eigenfunction from the both PCA approaches can tentatively be identified as a major systematic change during radiotherapy course when systematic changes are large enough with respect to random fraction-to-fraction changes. In all cases the regularized PCA approach appears to be more reliable at capturing systematic changes, enabling dosimetric consequences to be projected once trends are

  12. Increasing patient knowledge on the proper usage of a PCA machine with the use of a post-operative instructional card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shovel, Louisa; Max, Bryan; Correll, Darin J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see if an instructional card, attached to the PCA machine following total hip arthroplasty describing proper use of the device, would positively affect subjects' understanding of device usage, pain scores, pain medication consumption and satisfaction. Eighty adults undergoing total hip replacements who had been prescribed PCA were randomized into two study groups. Forty participants received the standard post-operative instruction on PCA device usage at our institution. The other 40 participants received the standard of care in addition to being given a typed instructional card immediately post-operatively, describing proper PCA device use. This card was attached to the PCA device during their recovery period. On post-operative day one, each patient completed a questionnaire on PCA usage, pain scores and satisfaction scores. The pain scores in the Instructional Card group were significantly lower than the Control group (p = 0.024). Subjects' understanding of PCA usage was also improved in the Instructional Card group for six of the seven questions asked. The findings from this study strongly support that postoperative patient information on proper PCA use by means of an instructional card improves pain control and hence the overall recovery for patients undergoing surgery. In addition, through improved understanding it adds an important safety feature in that patients and potentially their family members and/or friends may refrain from PCA-by-proxy. This article demonstrates that the simple intervention of adding an instructional card to a PCA machine is an effective method to improve patients' knowledge as well as pain control and potentially increase the safety of the device use.

  13. SU-F-R-41: Regularized PCA Can Model Treatment-Related Changes in Head and Neck Patients Using Daily CBCTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetvertkov, M [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Siddiqui, F; Chetty, I; Kumarasiri, A; Liu, C; Gordon, J [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To use daily cone beam CTs (CBCTs) to develop regularized principal component analysis (PCA) models of anatomical changes in head and neck (H&N) patients, to guide replanning decisions in adaptive radiation therapy (ART). Methods: Known deformations were applied to planning CT (pCT) images of 10 H&N patients to model several different systematic anatomical changes. A Pinnacle plugin was used to interpolate systematic changes over 35 fractions, generating a set of 35 synthetic CTs for each patient. Deformation vector fields (DVFs) were acquired between the pCT and synthetic CTs and random fraction-to-fraction changes were superimposed on the DVFs. Standard non-regularized and regularized patient-specific PCA models were built using the DVFs. The ability of PCA to extract the known deformations was quantified. PCA models were also generated from clinical CBCTs, for which the deformations and DVFs were not known. It was hypothesized that resulting eigenvectors/eigenfunctions with largest eigenvalues represent the major anatomical deformations during the course of treatment. Results: As demonstrated with quantitative results in the supporting document regularized PCA is more successful than standard PCA at capturing systematic changes early in the treatment. Regularized PCA is able to detect smaller systematic changes against the background of random fraction-to-fraction changes. To be successful at guiding ART, regularized PCA should be coupled with models of when anatomical changes occur: early, late or throughout the treatment course. Conclusion: The leading eigenvector/eigenfunction from the both PCA approaches can tentatively be identified as a major systematic change during radiotherapy course when systematic changes are large enough with respect to random fraction-to-fraction changes. In all cases the regularized PCA approach appears to be more reliable at capturing systematic changes, enabling dosimetric consequences to be projected once trends are

  14. Principales espèces médicinales utilisées en médecine vétérinaire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principales espèces médicinales utilisées en médecine vétérinaire au Bénin: disponibilité et caractéristiques dendrométriques. Irvine Yèïnou Minaflinou Sacca Sidi, Pascal Abiodoun Olounladé, Alain Yaoitcha, Vidjinnangni Fifamè Grâce Nadège Dedehou, Géorcelin Goué Alowanou, Erick Virgile Bertrand Azando, Mawulé ...

  15. The Feasibility Study for Multigeometries Identification of Uranium Components Using PCA-LSSVM Based on Correlation Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The geometry of uranium components is one of the key characteristics and strictly confidential. The geometry identification of metal uranium components was studied using 252Cf source-driven correlation measurement method. For the 3 uranium samples with the same mass and enrichment, there are subtle differences in neutron signals. Even worse, the correlation functions were disturbed by scatter neutrons and include “accidental” coincidence, which is not conductive to the geometry identification. In this paper, we proposed an identification method combining principal component analysis and least-square support vector machine (PCA-LSSVM. The results based on PCA-LSSVM showed that the training precision was 100% and the test precision was 95.83% of the identification model. The total precision of the identification model was 98.41%, which indicated that the identification model was an effective way to identify the geometry properties with the correlation functions.

  16. Preliminary identification of unicellular algal genus by using combined confocal resonance Raman spectroscopy with PCA and DPLS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Ping; Fang, Shaoxi; Li, Zhe; Tang, Peng; Gao, Xia; Guo, Jinsong; Tlili, Chaker; Wang, Deqiang

    2018-02-01

    The analysis of algae and dominant alga plays important roles in ecological and environmental fields since it can be used to forecast water bloom and control its potential deleterious effects. Herein, we combine in vivo confocal resonance Raman spectroscopy with multivariate analysis methods to preliminary identify the three algal genera in water blooms at unicellular scale. Statistical analysis of characteristic Raman peaks demonstrates that certain shifts and different normalized intensities, resulting from composition of different carotenoids, exist in Raman spectra of three algal cells. Principal component analysis (PCA) scores and corresponding loading weights show some differences from Raman spectral characteristics which are caused by vibrations of carotenoids in unicellular algae. Then, discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification method is used to verify the effectiveness of algal identification with confocal resonance Raman spectroscopy. Our results show that confocal resonance Raman spectroscopy combined with PCA and DPLS could handle the preliminary identification of dominant alga for forecasting and controlling of water blooms.

  17. Decoupled ARX and RBF Neural Network Modeling Using PCA and GA Optimization for Nonlinear Distributed Parameter Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ridong; Tao, Jili; Lu, Renquan; Jin, Qibing

    2018-02-01

    Modeling of distributed parameter systems is difficult because of their nonlinearity and infinite-dimensional characteristics. Based on principal component analysis (PCA), a hybrid modeling strategy that consists of a decoupled linear autoregressive exogenous (ARX) model and a nonlinear radial basis function (RBF) neural network model are proposed. The spatial-temporal output is first divided into a few dominant spatial basis functions and finite-dimensional temporal series by PCA. Then, a decoupled ARX model is designed to model the linear dynamics of the dominant modes of the time series. The nonlinear residual part is subsequently parameterized by RBFs, where genetic algorithm is utilized to optimize their hidden layer structure and the parameters. Finally, the nonlinear spatial-temporal dynamic system is obtained after the time/space reconstruction. Simulation results of a catalytic rod and a heat conduction equation demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy compared to several other methods.

  18. News Schemes for Activity Recognition Systems Using PCA-WSVM, ICA-WSVM, and LDA-WSVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M’hamed Bilal Abidine

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction and classification are two key steps for activity recognition in a smart home environment. In this work, we used three methods for feature extraction: Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Independent Component Analysis (ICA, and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA. The new features selected by each method are then used as the inputs for a Weighted Support Vector Machines (WSVM classifier. This classifier is used to handle the problem of imbalanced activity data from the sensor readings. The experiments were implemented on multiple real-world datasets with Conditional Random Fields (CRF, standard Support Vector Machines (SVM, Weighted SVM, and combined methods PCA+WSVM, ICA+WSVM, and LDA+WSVM showed that LDA+WSVM had a higher recognition rate than other methods for activity recognition.

  19. Corrosion of path A PCA and 12 Cr-1 MoVW steel in thermally convective lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortorelli, P.F.; DeVan, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Exposure of path A PCA alloys to thermally convective lithium for 6700 h at 600 and 570 0 C resulted in corrosion reactions that were similar to what is observed for other austenitic alloys exposed under similar conditions. It corroded more rapidly than type 316 stainless steel, and the presence of nitride stringers in PCA did not affect the measured weight losses. Consideration of the weight change and surface analysis data for 12 Cr-1 MoVW steel exposed to thermally convective lithium between 500 and 350 0 C for 10,088 h revealed that reactions with carbon and nitrogen were probably the principal corrosion processes for this alloy in this temperature range. Corrosion was not severe

  20. An EEMD-PCA approach to extract heart rate, respiratory rate and respiratory activity from PPG signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motin, Mohammod Abdul; Karmakar, Chandan Kumar; Palaniswami, Marimuthu

    2016-08-01

    The pulse oximeter's photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals, measure the local variations of blood volume in tissues, reflecting the peripheral pulse modulated by cardiac activity, respiration and other physiological effects. Therefore, PPG can be used to extract the vital cardiorespiratory signals like heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and respiratory activity (RA) and this will reduce the number of sensors connected to the patient's body for recording vital signs. In this paper, we propose an algorithm based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition with principal component analysis (EEMD-PCA) as a novel approach to estimate HR, RR and RA simultaneously from PPG signal. To examine the performance of the proposed algorithm, we used 45 epochs of PPG, electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiratory signal extracted from the MIMIC database (Physionet ATM data bank). The ECG and capnograph based respiratory signal were used as the ground truth and several metrics such as magnitude squared coherence (MSC), correlation coefficients (CC) and root mean square (RMS) error were used to compare the performance of EEMD-PCA algorithm with most of the existing methods in the literature. Results of EEMD-PCA based extraction of HR, RR and RA from PPG signal showed that the median RMS error (quartiles) obtained for RR was 0 (0, 0.89) breaths/min, for HR was 0.62 (0.56, 0.66) beats/min and for RA the average value of MSC and CC was 0.95 and 0.89 respectively. These results illustrated that the proposed EEMD-PCA approach is more accurate in estimating HR, RR and RA than other existing methods.

  1. Epigenetic Signature: A New Player as Predictor of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer (PCa) in Patients on Active Surveillance (AS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Matteo; Ungaro, Paola; Cimmino, Amelia; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Busetto, Gian Maria; Cantiello, Francesco; Damiano, Rocco; Terracciano, Daniela

    2017-05-27

    Widespread prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing notably increased the number of prostate cancer (PCa) diagnoses. However, about 30% of these patients have low-risk tumors that are not lethal and remain asymptomatic during their lifetime. Overtreatment of such patients may reduce quality of life and increase healthcare costs. Active surveillance (AS) has become an accepted alternative to immediate treatment in selected men with low-risk PCa. Despite much progress in recent years toward identifying the best candidates for AS in recent years, the greatest risk remains the possibility of misclassification of the cancer or missing a high-risk cancer. This is particularly worrisome in men with a life expectancy of greater than 10-15 years. The Prostate Cancer Research International Active Surveillance (PRIAS) study showed that, in addition to age and PSA at diagnosis, both PSA density (PSA-D) and the number of positive cores at diagnosis (two compared with one) are the strongest predictors for reclassification biopsy or switching to deferred treatment. However, there is still no consensus upon guidelines for placing patients on AS. Each institution has its own protocol for AS that is based on PRIAS criteria. Many different variables have been proposed as tools to enrol patients in AS: PSA-D, the percentage of freePSA, and the extent of cancer on biopsy (number of positive cores or percentage of core involvement). More recently, the Prostate Health Index (PHI), the 4 Kallikrein (4K) score, and other patient factors, such as age, race, and family history, have been investigated as tools able to predict clinically significant PCa. Recently, some reports suggested that epigenetic mapping differs significantly between cancer patients and healthy subjects. These findings indicated as future prospect the use of epigenetic markers to identify PCa patients with low-grade disease, who are likely candidates for AS. This review explores literature data about the potential of

  2. Plaque Tissue Morphology-Based Stroke Risk Stratification Using Carotid Ultrasound: A Polling-Based PCA Learning Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Luca; Jain, Pankaj K; Suri, Harman S; Ikeda, Nobutaka; Araki, Tadashi; Singh, Bikesh K; Nicolaides, Andrew; Shafique, Shoaib; Gupta, Ajay; Laird, John R; Suri, Jasjit S

    2017-06-01

    Severe atherosclerosis disease in carotid arteries causes stenosis which in turn leads to stroke. Machine learning systems have been previously developed for plaque wall risk assessment using morphology-based characterization. The fundamental assumption in such systems is the extraction of the grayscale features of the plaque region. Even though these systems have the ability to perform risk stratification, they lack the ability to achieve higher performance due their inability to select and retain dominant features. This paper introduces a polling-based principal component analysis (PCA) strategy embedded in the machine learning framework to select and retain dominant features, resulting in superior performance. This leads to more stability and reliability. The automated system uses offline image data along with the ground truth labels to generate the parameters, which are then used to transform the online grayscale features to predict the risk of stroke. A set of sixteen grayscale plaque features is computed. Utilizing the cross-validation protocol (K = 10), and the PCA cutoff of 0.995, the machine learning system is able to achieve an accuracy of 98.55 and 98.83%corresponding to the carotidfar wall and near wall plaques, respectively. The corresponding reliability of the system was 94.56 and 95.63%, respectively. The automated system was validated against the manual risk assessment system and the precision of merit for same cross-validation settings and PCA cutoffs are 98.28 and 93.92%for the far and the near wall, respectively.PCA-embedded morphology-based plaque characterization shows a powerful strategy for risk assessment and can be adapted in clinical settings.

  3. CT-guided thin needles percutaneous cryoablation (PCA) in patients with primary and secondary lung tumors: A preliminary experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusceddu, Claudio, E-mail: clapusceddu@gmail.com [Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Oncological Radiology, Businco Hospital, Regional Referral Center for Oncologic Diseases, Cagliari, Zip code 09100 (Italy); Sotgia, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.sotgia@gmail.com [Department of Oncological Radiology, Businco Hospital, Regional Referral Center for Oncological Diseases, Cagliari, Zip code 09100 (Italy); Fele, Rosa Maria, E-mail: rosellafele@tiscali.it [Department of Oncological Radiology, Businco Hospital, Regional Referral Center for Oncological Diseases, Cagliari, Zip code 09100 (Italy); Melis, Luca, E-mail: doclucamelis@tiscali.it [Department of Oncological Radiology, Businco Hospital, Regional Referral Center for Oncological Diseases, Cagliari, Zip code 09100 (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: To report the data of our initial experience with CT-guided thin cryoprobes for percutaneous cryoablation (PCA) in patients with primary and secondary pulmonary tumors. Material and methods: CT-guided thin needles PCA was performed on 34 lung masses (11 NSCLC = 32%; 23 secondary lung malignancies = 68%) in 32 consecutive patients (24 men and 8 women; mean age 67 ± 10 years) not suitable for surgical resection. Lung masses were treated using two types of cryoprobes: IceRod and IceSeed able to obtain different size of iceball. The number of probes used ranged from 1 to 5 depending on the size of the tumor. After insertion of the cryoprobes into the lesion, the PCA were performed with two 2 (91%) or 3 (9%) cycles each of 12 min of freezing followed by a 4 min active thawing phase and a 4 min passive thawing phase for each one for all treatments. Results: All cryoablation sessions were successfully completed. All primary and metastatic lung tumors were ablated. No procedure-related deaths occurred. Morbidity consisted of 21% (7 of 34) pneumothorax and 3% (1 of 34) cases asymptomatic small pulmonary hemorrhage, respectively, all of CTCAE grade 1 (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events). Low density of entire lesion, central necrosis and solid mass appearance were identify in 21 (62%), 7 (21%) and 6 (17%) of cryoablated tumors, respectively. No lymphadenopathy developed in the region of treated lesions. Technical success (complete lack of enhancement) was achieved in 82%, 97% and 91% of treated lesions at 1-, 3- and 6-months CT follow-up scan, respectively (p < .000). Comparing the tumor longest diameter between the baseline and at 6 month CT images, technical success was revealed in 92% cases (p < .000). Conclusion: Our preliminary experience suggests that PCA is a feasible treatment option. Well-designed clinical trials with a larger patient population are necessary to further investigate the long-term results and prognostic factors.

  4. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA Approach to Seasonal and Zooplankton Diversity Relationships in Fishing Grounds of Mannar Gulf, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvin J. PITCHAIKANI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Principal component analysis (PCA is a technique used to emphasize variation and bring out strong patterns in a dataset. It is often used to make data easy to explore and visualize. The primary objective of the present study was to record information of zooplankton diversity in a systematic way and to study the variability and relationships among seasons prevailed in Gulf of Mannar. The PCA for the zooplankton seasonal diversity was investigated using the four seasonal datasets to understand the statistical significance among the four seasons. Two different principal components (PC were segregated in all the seasons homogeneously. PCA analyses revealed that Temora turbinata is an opportunistic species and zooplankton diversity was significantly different from season to season and principally, the zooplankton abundance and its dynamics in Gulf of Mannar is structured by seasonal current patterns. The factor loadings of zooplankton for different seasons in Tiruchendur coastal water (GOM is different compared with the Southwest coast of India; particularly, routine and opportunistic species were found within the positive and negative factors. The copepods Acrocalanus gracilis and Acartia erythrea were dominant in summer and Southwest monsoon due to the rainfall and freshwater discharge during the summer season; however, these species were replaced by Temora turbinata during Northeast monsoon season.

  5. Tool Wear Prediction in Ti-6Al-4V Machining through Multiple Sensor Monitoring and PCA Features Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Caggiano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Machining of titanium alloys is characterised by extremely rapid tool wear due to the high cutting temperature and the strong adhesion at the tool-chip and tool-workpiece interface, caused by the low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity of Ti alloys. With the aim to monitor the tool conditions during dry turning of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, a machine learning procedure based on the acquisition and processing of cutting force, acoustic emission and vibration sensor signals during turning is implemented. A number of sensorial features are extracted from the acquired sensor signals in order to feed machine learning paradigms based on artificial neural networks. To reduce the large dimensionality of the sensorial features, an advanced feature extraction methodology based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA is proposed. PCA allowed to identify a smaller number of features (k = 2 features, the principal component scores, obtained through linear projection of the original d features into a new space with reduced dimensionality k = 2, sufficient to describe the variance of the data. By feeding artificial neural networks with the PCA features, an accurate diagnosis of tool flank wear (VBmax was achieved, with predicted values very close to the measured tool wear values.

  6. An integrated DEA PCA numerical taxonomy approach for energy efficiency assessment and consumption optimization in energy intensive manufacturing sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Amalnick, M.S.; Ghaderi, S.F.; Asadzadeh, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces an integrated approach based on data envelopment analysis (DEA), principal component analysis (PCA) and numerical taxonomy (NT) for total energy efficiency assessment and optimization in energy intensive manufacturing sectors. Total energy efficiency assessment and optimization of the proposed approach considers structural indicators in addition conventional consumption and manufacturing sector output indicators. The validity of the DEA model is verified and validated by PCA and NT through Spearman correlation experiment. Moreover, the proposed approach uses the measure-specific super-efficiency DEA model for sensitivity analysis to determine the critical energy carriers. Four energy intensive manufacturing sectors are discussed in this paper: iron and steel, pulp and paper, petroleum refining and cement manufacturing sectors. To show superiority and applicability, the proposed approach has been applied to refinery sub-sectors of some OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. This study has several unique features which are: (1) a total approach which considers structural indicators in addition to conventional energy efficiency indicators; (2) a verification and validation mechanism for DEA by PCA and NT and (3) utilization of DEA for total energy efficiency assessment and consumption optimization of energy intensive manufacturing sectors

  7. Tool Wear Prediction in Ti-6Al-4V Machining through Multiple Sensor Monitoring and PCA Features Pattern Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggiano, Alessandra

    2018-03-09

    Machining of titanium alloys is characterised by extremely rapid tool wear due to the high cutting temperature and the strong adhesion at the tool-chip and tool-workpiece interface, caused by the low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity of Ti alloys. With the aim to monitor the tool conditions during dry turning of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, a machine learning procedure based on the acquisition and processing of cutting force, acoustic emission and vibration sensor signals during turning is implemented. A number of sensorial features are extracted from the acquired sensor signals in order to feed machine learning paradigms based on artificial neural networks. To reduce the large dimensionality of the sensorial features, an advanced feature extraction methodology based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is proposed. PCA allowed to identify a smaller number of features ( k = 2 features), the principal component scores, obtained through linear projection of the original d features into a new space with reduced dimensionality k = 2, sufficient to describe the variance of the data. By feeding artificial neural networks with the PCA features, an accurate diagnosis of tool flank wear ( VB max ) was achieved, with predicted values very close to the measured tool wear values.

  8. Improving the bioavailability and anticancer effect of the PCA-1/ALKBH3 inhibitor HUHS015 using sodium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuchi, Miyuki; Shimizu, Tadashi; Ueda, Masahiro; Sasakawa, Yuka; Nakao, Syuhei; Ueda, Yuko; Kawamura, Akio; Tsujikawa, Kazutake; Tanaka, Akito

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer antigen (PCA)-1/AlkB homologue 3 (ALKBH3) has been identified as a clinically significant factor and siRNA of PCA-1 inhibits DU145 proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. HUHS015 ( 1: ), a previous reported PCA-1 small-molecule inhibitor, was also effective without any obvious side-effects or toxicity. The potency of HUHS015, however, is not satisfying. We thought the reason is poor solubility of HUHS015 because insoluble material remained at the injection site after subcutaneous administration. To improve this inhibitor's solubility, we prepared various salts of HUHS015 and examined their solubility, which resulted in the selection of HUHS015 sodium salt ( 2: ) for further studies in vivo. Next, we compared the pharmacokinetics of 1: and 2: via several administration routes. We observed significant improvements in the pharmacokinetic parameters. For example, subcutaneous administration of 2: increased the area under the curve (AUC)0-24 by 8-fold compared to 1 and increased the suppressive effect on the proliferation of DU145 cells in a xenograft model. Copyright © 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  9. Tool Wear Prediction in Ti-6Al-4V Machining through Multiple Sensor Monitoring and PCA Features Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Machining of titanium alloys is characterised by extremely rapid tool wear due to the high cutting temperature and the strong adhesion at the tool-chip and tool-workpiece interface, caused by the low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity of Ti alloys. With the aim to monitor the tool conditions during dry turning of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, a machine learning procedure based on the acquisition and processing of cutting force, acoustic emission and vibration sensor signals during turning is implemented. A number of sensorial features are extracted from the acquired sensor signals in order to feed machine learning paradigms based on artificial neural networks. To reduce the large dimensionality of the sensorial features, an advanced feature extraction methodology based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is proposed. PCA allowed to identify a smaller number of features (k = 2 features), the principal component scores, obtained through linear projection of the original d features into a new space with reduced dimensionality k = 2, sufficient to describe the variance of the data. By feeding artificial neural networks with the PCA features, an accurate diagnosis of tool flank wear (VBmax) was achieved, with predicted values very close to the measured tool wear values. PMID:29522443

  10. Diez pasos para el aprendizaje complejo: Un acercamiento sistemático al diseňo instruccional de los cuatro componentes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Diez pasos para el aprendizaje complejo: Un acercamiento sistemático al diseňo instruccional de los cuatro componentes (translation from English). Cuajimalpa, México: Aseguramiento de la Calidad en la Educacion y en el Trabajo.

  11. A PCA aided cross-covariance scheme for discriminative feature extraction from EEG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Roozbeh; He, Jing; Siuly, Siuly; Zhang, Yanchun

    2017-07-01

    Feature extraction of EEG signals plays a significant role in Brain-computer interface (BCI) as it can significantly affect the performance and the computational time of the system. The main aim of the current work is to introduce an innovative algorithm for acquiring reliable discriminating features from EEG signals to improve classification performances and to reduce the time complexity. This study develops a robust feature extraction method combining the principal component analysis (PCA) and the cross-covariance technique (CCOV) for the extraction of discriminatory information from the mental states based on EEG signals in BCI applications. We apply the correlation based variable selection method with the best first search on the extracted features to identify the best feature set for characterizing the distribution of mental state signals. To verify the robustness of the proposed feature extraction method, three machine learning techniques: multilayer perceptron neural networks (MLP), least square support vector machine (LS-SVM), and logistic regression (LR) are employed on the obtained features. The proposed methods are evaluated on two publicly available datasets. Furthermore, we evaluate the performance of the proposed methods by comparing it with some recently reported algorithms. The experimental results show that all three classifiers achieve high performance (above 99% overall classification accuracy) for the proposed feature set. Among these classifiers, the MLP and LS-SVM methods yield the best performance for the obtained feature. The average sensitivity, specificity and classification accuracy for these two classifiers are same, which are 99.32%, 100%, and 99.66%, respectively for the BCI competition dataset IVa and 100%, 100%, and 100%, for the BCI competition dataset IVb. The results also indicate the proposed methods outperform the most recently reported methods by at least 0.25% average accuracy improvement in dataset IVa. The execution time

  12. Opioid patient controlled analgesia use during the initial experience with the IMPROVE PCA trial: a phase III analgesic trial for hospitalized sickle cell patients with painful episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dampier, Carlton D; Smith, Wally R; Kim, Hae-Young; Wager, Carrie Greene; Bell, Margaret C; Minniti, Caterina P; Keefer, Jeffrey; Hsu, Lewis; Krishnamurti, Lakshmanan; Mack, A Kyle; McClish, Donna; McKinlay, Sonja M; Miller, Scott T; Osunkwo, Ifeyinwa; Seaman, Phillip; Telen, Marilyn J; Weiner, Debra L

    2011-12-01

    Opioid analgesics administered by patient-controlled analgesia (PCA)are frequently used for pain relief in children and adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) hospitalized for persistent vaso-occlusive pain, but optimum opioid dosing is not known. To better define PCA dosing recommendations,a multi-center phase III clinical trial was conducted comparing two alternative opioid PCA dosing strategies (HDLI—higher demand dose with low constant infusion or LDHI—lower demand dose and higher constant infusion) in 38 subjects who completed randomization prior to trial closure. Total opioid utilization (morphine equivalents,mg/kg) in 22 adults was 11.6 ± 2.6 and 4.7 ± 0.9 in the HDLI andin the LDHI arms, respectively, and in 12 children it was 3.7 ± 1.0 and 5.8 ± 2.2, respectively. Opioid-related symptoms were mild and similar in both PCA arms (mean daily opioid symptom intensity score: HDLI0.9 ± 0.1, LDHI 0.9 ± 0.2). The slow enrollment and early study termination limited conclusions regarding superiority of either treatment regimen. This study adds to our understanding of opioid PCA usage in SCD. Future clinical trial protocol designs for opioid PCA may need to consider potential differences between adults and children in PCA usage.

  13. SU-G-BRA-03: PCA Based Imaging Angle Optimization for 2D Cine MRI Based Radiotherapy Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T; Yue, N; Jabbour, S; Zhang, M [Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an imaging angle optimization methodology for orthogonal 2D cine MRI based radiotherapy guidance using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of target motion retrieved from 4DCT. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 4DCT of 6 patients with lung tumor. A radiation oncologist manually contoured the target volume at the maximal inhalation phase of the respiratory cycle. An object constrained deformable image registration (DIR) method has been developed to track the target motion along the respiration at ten phases. The motion of the center of the target mass has been analyzed using the PCA to find out the principal motion components that were uncorrelated with each other. Two orthogonal image planes for cineMRI have been determined using this method to minimize the through plane motion during MRI based radiotherapy guidance. Results: 3D target respiratory motion for all 6 patients has been efficiently retrieved from 4DCT. In this process, the object constrained DIR demonstrated satisfactory accuracy and efficiency to enable the automatic motion tracking for clinical application. The average motion amplitude in the AP, lateral, and longitudinal directions were 3.6mm (min: 1.6mm, max: 5.6mm), 1.7mm (min: 0.6mm, max: 2.7mm), and 5.6mm (min: 1.8mm, max: 16.1mm), respectively. Based on PCA, the optimal orthogonal imaging planes were determined for cineMRI. The average angular difference between the PCA determined imaging planes and the traditional AP and lateral imaging planes were 47 and 31 degrees, respectively. After optimization, the average amplitude of through plane motion reduced from 3.6mm in AP images to 2.5mm (min:1.3mm, max:3.9mm); and from 1.7mm in lateral images to 0.6mm (min: 0.2mm, max:1.5mm), while the principal in plane motion amplitude increased from 5.6mm to 6.5mm (min: 2.8mm, max: 17mm). Conclusion: DIR and PCA can be used to optimize the orthogonal image planes of cineMRI to minimize the through plane motion during radiotherapy

  14. SU-G-BRA-03: PCA Based Imaging Angle Optimization for 2D Cine MRI Based Radiotherapy Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T; Yue, N; Jabbour, S; Zhang, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an imaging angle optimization methodology for orthogonal 2D cine MRI based radiotherapy guidance using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of target motion retrieved from 4DCT. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 4DCT of 6 patients with lung tumor. A radiation oncologist manually contoured the target volume at the maximal inhalation phase of the respiratory cycle. An object constrained deformable image registration (DIR) method has been developed to track the target motion along the respiration at ten phases. The motion of the center of the target mass has been analyzed using the PCA to find out the principal motion components that were uncorrelated with each other. Two orthogonal image planes for cineMRI have been determined using this method to minimize the through plane motion during MRI based radiotherapy guidance. Results: 3D target respiratory motion for all 6 patients has been efficiently retrieved from 4DCT. In this process, the object constrained DIR demonstrated satisfactory accuracy and efficiency to enable the automatic motion tracking for clinical application. The average motion amplitude in the AP, lateral, and longitudinal directions were 3.6mm (min: 1.6mm, max: 5.6mm), 1.7mm (min: 0.6mm, max: 2.7mm), and 5.6mm (min: 1.8mm, max: 16.1mm), respectively. Based on PCA, the optimal orthogonal imaging planes were determined for cineMRI. The average angular difference between the PCA determined imaging planes and the traditional AP and lateral imaging planes were 47 and 31 degrees, respectively. After optimization, the average amplitude of through plane motion reduced from 3.6mm in AP images to 2.5mm (min:1.3mm, max:3.9mm); and from 1.7mm in lateral images to 0.6mm (min: 0.2mm, max:1.5mm), while the principal in plane motion amplitude increased from 5.6mm to 6.5mm (min: 2.8mm, max: 17mm). Conclusion: DIR and PCA can be used to optimize the orthogonal image planes of cineMRI to minimize the through plane motion during radiotherapy

  15. PHI and PCA3 improve the prognostic performance of PRIAS and Epstein criteria in predicting insignificant prostate cancer in men eligible for active surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantiello, Francesco; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Cicione, Antonio; Ferro, Matteo; Cimino, Sebastiano; Favilla, Vincenzo; Perdonà, Sisto; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Magno, Carlo; Morgia, Giuseppe; Damiano, Rocco

    2016-04-01

    To assess the performance of prostate health index (PHI) and prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) when added to the PRIAS or Epstein criteria in predicting the presence of pathologically insignificant prostate cancer (IPCa) in patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) but eligible for active surveillance (AS). An observational retrospective study was performed in 188 PCa patients treated with laparoscopic or robot-assisted RP but eligible for AS according to Epstein or PRIAS criteria. Blood and urinary specimens were collected before initial prostate biopsy for PHI and PCA3 measurements. Multivariate logistic regression analyses and decision curve analysis were carried out to identify predictors of IPCa using the updated ERSPC definition. At the multivariate analyses, the inclusion of both PCA3 and PHI significantly increased the accuracy of the Epstein multivariate model in predicting IPCa with an increase of 17 % (AUC = 0.77) and of 32 % (AUC = 0.92), respectively. The inclusion of both PCA3 and PHI also increased the predictive accuracy of the PRIAS multivariate model with an increase of 29 % (AUC = 0.87) and of 39 % (AUC = 0.97), respectively. DCA revealed that the multivariable models with the addition of PHI or PCA3 showed a greater net benefit and performed better than the reference models. In a direct comparison, PHI outperformed PCA3 performance resulting in higher net benefit. In a same cohort of patients eligible for AS, the addition of PHI and PCA3 to Epstein or PRIAS models improved their prognostic performance. PHI resulted in greater net benefit in predicting IPCa compared to PCA3.

  16. Especies reactivas del oxígeno y balance redox, parte I: aspectos básicos y principales especies reactivas del oxígeno Oxygen reactive species and redox balance, part I: basic aspects and main oxygen reactive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Martínez Sánchez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El balance redox ha sido reconocido, de forma cada vez más creciente, como un componente crítico del proceso de envejecimiento; la iniciación y desarrollo de enfermedades de notable morbilidad y mortalidad (aterosclerosis, cáncer, enfermedades del sistema nervioso central, enfermedades autoinmunes, daño por isquemia-reperfusión, entre otras y respuestas celulares, inducidas por el estrés oxidativo. Estrechamente vinculado con el estrés oxidativo está la generación de especies reactivas de oxígeno las cuales provocan daño celular directo, además de actuar como segundos mensajeros intracelulares al modular las vías de transducción de señales. En el presente trabajo se recogen los principales antecedentes de las investigaciones relacionadas con este tema y se describen las más importantes características de las especies reactivas del oxígeno.The redox balance has been increasingly recognized as a critical component of the aging process; the onset and development of diseases causing dramatic morbidity and mortality (atherosclerosis, cancer, central nervous system diseases, autoinmune diseases, ischemia-reperfusion damage, among others and oxidative stress-induced cellular responses. Closely related to oxidative stress is the generation of oxygen reactive species, which cause direct cell damage in addition to acting as second intracellular messengers when modulating signal transduction pathways. The present paper presented the main antecedents of pieces of research related to this topic and described the most important characteristics of the oxygen reactive species.

  17. “Mobbing” o acoso laboral: revisión de los principales aspectos teórico-metodológicos que dificultan su estudio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Escartín-Solanelles

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años ha habido un creciente interés científico y social en el estudio del mobbing o abuso psicológico en el lugar de trabajo, profundizándose en aspectos tales como su delimitación o su prevención. Este trabajo teórico tiene como objetivo realizar una exhaustiva revisión de las investigaciones existentes en este campo, mostrando las distintas aproximaciones y modelos teóricos predominantes y, aspectos tales como las formas y componentes del mobbing, sus antecedentes o la forma en que este fenómeno ha sido históricamente medido. Del mismo modo, este estudio ofrece una aproximación acerca de las dificultades teórico-metodológicas en el estudio del mobbing, resaltando distintas problemáticas como su componente cultural, su subjetividad, la pertinencia de considerar a terceros, la alta invisibilidad de sus conductas o la borrosidad en su frecuencia. De este modo, se pretende contribuir a una optimización de los esfuerzos para la presente y futura investigación sobre el fenómeno.

  18. Utilização da técnica por componentes principais (acp e fator de iluminação, no mapeamento da cultura do café em relevo montanhoso Coffee crop mapping using principal component analysis and illumination factor for complex relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens A. C. Lamparelli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as informações obtidas das imagens do satélite Landsat/TM5, utilizando técnicas de Análise por Componentes Principais (ACP e Fator de Iluminação oriundo de um Modelo de Elevação do Terreno, calculado a partir de imagens ASTER, no mapeamento de áreas de café em terreno montanhoso. As imagens utilizadas (três foram corrigidas para o efeito da atmosfera e cobriram, temporalmente, o ciclo da cultura. Foram calculadas as componentes principais e escolhidas as duas primeiras, as quais possuíam 94% das informações, para a definição das amostras. As amostras resultantes da ACP foram utilizadas na classificação supervisionada cujo resultado foi comparado com uma classificação convencional e uma classificação multitemporal convencional. A acurácia das classificações foi realizada por meio do cálculo da Exatidão Global e do Coeficiente Kappa, tendo como base uma máscara da área cafeeira da região. Os resultados mostraram que a técnica de ACP foi efetiva no estabelecimento de classes de iluminação, assim como na escolha das amostras, apesar de estas não terem representado a área efetivamente classificada. Em função disto, as classificações foram mais acuradas, principalmente aquela que considerou todos os pixels de cada imagem classificada individualmente pelo método da ACP, confirmando a importância do aspecto multitemporabilidade .The main goal of this study was to evaluate the information produced from Landsat/TM5 images using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Illumination Factor built from Digital Elevation Model from ASTER images for coffee areas mapping in complex relief. Three Landsat images were used to monitor the crop cycle. The Principal Component Analysis was applied to the Landsat images and the two first components were chosen, responsible for 94% of the initial information, and used as a sample set for the supervised classification of those images. That

  19. A comparison of PCA and PMF models for source identification of fugitive methane emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assan, Sabina; Baudic, Alexia; Bsaibes, Sandy; Gros, Valerie; Ciais, Philippe; Staufer, Johannes; Robinson, Rod; Vogel, Felix

    2017-04-01

    Methane (CH_4) is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 28-32 times that of carbon dioxide (CO_2) on a 100 year period, and even greater on shorter timescales [Etminan, et al., 2016, Allen, 2014]. Thus, despite its relatively short life time and smaller emission quantities compared to CO_2, CH4 emissions contribute to approximately 20{%} of today's anthropogenic greenhouse gas warming [Kirschke et al., 2013]. Major anthropogenic sources include livestock (enteric fermentation), oil and gas production and distribution, landfills, and wastewater emissions [EPA, 2011]. Especially in densely populated areas multiple CH4 sources can be found in close vicinity. Thus, when measuring CH4 emissions at local scales it is necessary to distinguish between different CH4 source categories to effectively quantify the contribution of each sector and aid the implementation of greenhouse gas reduction strategies. To this end, source apportionment models can be used to aid the interpretation of spatial and temporal patterns in order to identify and characterise emission sources. The focus of this study is to evaluate two common linear receptor models, namely Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF) for CH4 source apportionment. The statistical models I will present combine continuous in-situ CH4 , C_2H_6, δ^1^3CH4 measured using a Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) instrument [Assan et al. 2016] with volatile organic compound (VOC) observations performed using Gas Chromatography (GC) in order to explain the underlying variance of the data. The strengths and weaknesses of both models are identified for data collected in multi-source environments in the vicinity of four different types of sites; an agricultural farm with cattle, a natural gas compressor station, a wastewater treatment plant, and a pari-urban location in the Ile de France region impacted by various sources. To conclude, receptor model results to separate statistically the

  20. Molecular Characterization of the Genes pcaG and pcaH, Encoding Protocatechuate 3,4-Dioxygenase, Which Are Essential for Vanillin Catabolism in Pseudomonas sp. Strain HR199

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overhage, Jörg; Kresse, Andreas U.; Priefert, Horst; Sommer, Horst; Krammer, Gerhard; Rabenhorst, Jürgen; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    1999-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 is able to utilize eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol), vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde), or protocatechuate as the sole carbon source for growth. Mutants of this strain which were impaired in the catabolism of vanillin but retained the ability to utilize eugenol or protocatechuate were obtained after nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis. One mutant (SK6169) was used as recipient of a Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 genomic library in cosmid pVK100, and phenotypic complementation was achieved with a 5.8-kbp EcoRI fragment (E58). The amino acid sequences deduced from two corresponding open reading frames (ORF) identified on E58 revealed high degrees of homology to pcaG and pcaH, encoding the two subunits of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase. Three additional ORF most probably encoded a 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-hydroxylase (PobA) and two putative regulatory proteins, which exhibited homology to PcaQ of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and PobR of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. Since mutant SK6169 was also complemented by a subfragment of E58 that harbored only pcaH, this mutant was most probably lacking a functional β subunit of the protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase. Since this mutant was still able to grow on protocatechuate and lacked protocatechuate 4,5-dioxygenase and protocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase, the degradation had to be catalyzed by different enzymes. Two other mutants (SK6184 and SK6190), which were also impaired in the catabolism of vanillin, were not complemented by fragment E58. Since these mutants accumulated 3-carboxy muconolactone during cultivation on eugenol, they most probably exhibited a defect in a step of the catabolic pathway following the ortho cleavage. Moreover, in these mutants cyclization of 3-carboxymuconic acid seems to occur by a syn absolute stereochemical course, which is normally only observed for cis,cis-muconate lactonization in pseudomonads. In conclusion, vanillin is degraded through the ortho-cleavage pathway

  1. Comparative Effectiveness of Semantic Feature Analysis (SFA and Phonological Components Analysis (PCA for Anomia Treatment in Persian Speaking Patients With Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sadeghi

    2017-09-01

    Discussion: While PCA is more effective for participants with phonological impairments, SFA is more effective for participants with semantic impairments. Therefore, a direct relationship between underlying functional deficit and response to specific treatment was established for all participants.

  2. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Bathymetric Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of Red Snapper Research Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains unified Bathymetric PCA GeoTiffs with 4x4 meter cell resolution describing the topography of 15 areas along the shelf edge off the South...

  3. Principle Component Analysis with Incomplete Data: A simulation of R pcaMethods package in Constructing an Environmental Quality Index with Missing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missing data is a common problem in the application of statistical techniques. In principal component analysis (PCA), a technique for dimensionality reduction, incomplete data points are either discarded or imputed using interpolation methods. Such approaches are less valid when ...

  4. Componente cultural, libros de texto y enseñanza del inglés como lengua extranjera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varón Páez Martha Elizabeth

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    El objetivo principal de este análisis es explorar, contrastar y comparar los conceptos explícitos e implícitos y las teorías acerca de la cultura que tienen aplicaciones prácticas en los textos escolares para enseñanza del inglés. Se pretende analizar las actividades y tareas diseñadas para ser desarrolladas en las clases de inglés como lengua extranjera en la enseñanza secundaria. Se establecen categorías dicotómicas con base en las teorías y tipologías elaboradas por diversos autores acerca del componente cultural en el currículo de la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras. Dichas tipologías son usadas para analizar los contenidos culturales en los libros de texto de inglés como lengua extranjera. El corpus seleccionado para este estudio consiste en seis libros de texto producidos por editoriales extranjeras y usados en Colombia durante los años 1997 y 2005.

  5. Estudio del comportamiento de la escayola reforzada con fibras de sisal, para componentes en viviendas de bajo coste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oteiza San José, Ignacio

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a brief description of the work done for the elaboration of the doctoral thesis and its conclusions. Starting from the possibilities of using plaster in developing countries, due to its abundance and low cost, a series of mechanical tests have been carried out in order to learn about the physical and mechanical properties of plaster reinforced with sisal fibres for its future use in components for low cost housing.

    El presente artículo es una breve descripción de los trabajos realizados para la elaboración de la tesis doctoral y de las conclusiones de la misma. Partiendo de las posibilidades de utilización en los países en vías de desarrollo del material de escayola, por su abundancia y bajo coste, se llevan a cabo una serie de ensayos mecánicos, con el fin de conocer las propiedades físicas y mecánicas de la escayola reforzada con fibras de sisal, para una futura aplicación en componentes para viviendas de bajo coste.

  6. Limitaciones del ensayo de toxicidad específica para el componente pertussis de células completas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Landys Chovel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Las vacunas que contienen células inactivadas de Bordetella pertussis se han utilizado con efectividad en los Programas Nacionales de Inmunización de todo el mundo. Pese a su reconocida eficacia, ellas se caracterizan por su elevada reactogenicidad, atribuible a la presencia de componentes como toxina pertussis y endotoxinas. Para monitorear la seguridad de estas vacunas existe el ensayo de ganancia en peso en ratones, el cual ha sido criticado por su inespecificidad, poca sensibilidad y alta variabilidad. Basado en lo anterior, el Laboratorio Nacional de Biológicos del Centro Estatal para el Control de de la Calidad de los Medicamentos en Cuba, decidió evaluar la relevancia de esta prueba para la liberación de los lotes de la vacuna DPT. Para ello se estimó la sensibilidad del método para detectar diferentes concentraciones de endotoxinas y toxina pertussis, así como la variabilidad entre ensayos. Los resultados de este trabajo mostraron que sólo altas concentraciones de endotoxinas y toxina pertussis, muy superiores a las habituales en las vacunas DPT, provocan una disminución de la ganancia en peso promedio y un fallo en la especificación de la prueba. Este elemento y la inherente variabilidad de este método resultaron claves en la decisión de no utilizarlo para la liberación nacional de lotes de la vacuna DPT.

  7. Limitaciones del ensayo de toxicidad específica para el componente pertussis de células completas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Perdomo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las vacunas que contienen células inactivadas de Bordetella pertussis se han utilizado con efectividad en los Programas Nacionales de Inmunización de todo el mundo. Pese a su reconocida eficacia, ellas se caracterizan por su elevada reactogenicidad, atribuible a la presencia de componentes como toxina pertussis y endotoxinas. Paramonitorear la seguridad de estas vacunas existe el ensayo de ganancia en peso en ratones, el cual ha sido criticado por su inespecificidad, poca sensibilidad y alta variabilidad. Basado en lo anterior, el Laboratorio Nacional de Biológicos del Centro Estatal para el Control de de la Calidad de los Medicamentos en Cuba, decidió evaluar la relevancia de esta prueba para la liberación de los lotes de la vacuna DPT. Para ello se estimó la sensibilidad del método para detectar diferentes concentraciones de endotoxinas y toxina pertussis, así como la variabilidad entre ensayos. Los resultados de este trabajo mostraron que sólo altas concentraciones de endotoxinas y toxina pertussis, muy superiores a las habituales en las vacunas DPT, provocan una disminución de la ganancia en peso promedio y un fallo en la especificación de la prueba. Este elemento y la inherente variabilidad de este método resultaron claves en la decisión de no utilizarlo para la liberación nacional de lotes de la vacuna DPT.

  8. El componente social en los sistemas de monitoreo ambiental: hacia un manejo integrado de la actividad portuaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montoya Arango Vladimir

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El artículo describe la construcción transdisciplinar de indicadores sociales para el sistema de monitoreo ambiental para puertos de gran calado propuesto al Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial de Colombia. Para la definición de nueve indicadores, distribuidos en tres dimensiones, se llevó a cabo el siguiente procedimiento: primero, identificación de riesgos, amenazas y vulnerabilidad social sobre las poblaciones vecinas y ligadas a la actividad portuaria; segundo, definición de los impactos de esta actividad de acuerdo a su carácter: presión, estado y/o respuesta; y tercero, resumen de una lista amplia de indicadores vinculándolos a cada una de las dimensiones. Los indicadores aportan información complementaria y corelacionada necesaria para la medición de cada dimensión de los impactos sociales de los puertos. La integración transdisciplinar del componente social al sistema de monitoreo permite un efectivo seguimiento al comportamiento de los puertos respecto a su entorno socioambiental, teniendo en cuenta que las afectaciones sobre el ambiente y sobre los grupos humanos que puedan ocasionar, no están aisladas entre sí y pueden, a su vez, incidir en el desempeño del puerto mismo. Los indicadores además de ser una herramienta de medición, constituyen una ruta para acciones dirigidas hacia un comportamiento socioambientalmente responsable.

  9. EL DESARROLLO HUMANO EN SANTA CRUZ (BOLIVIA: DESEQUILIBRIOS TERRITORIALES Y EFECTO NEGATIVO DEL COMPONENTE ECONÓMICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Bazzaco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis del Índice de Desarrollo Humano de los municipios del departamento de Santa Cruz permite destacar como característica central del proceso de desarrollo humano del departamento cruceño en los últimos veinticinco años su profunda vinculación a los progresos realizados por el conjunto de Bolivia y a los factores económicos que condicionaron esta evolución. En este sentido, el departamento reprodujo y amplificó no sólo el ciclo económico del país, sino también el perfil de desarrollo humano de Bolivia: el valor de su Índice de Desarrollo Humano muestra un fuerte desfase entre un indicador económico débil e indicadores sociales básicos - en las áreas de educación y salud - con valores más elevados. Los valores del IDH, los desequilibrios entre sus distintos componentes (entradas económicas, indicadores de educación y esperanza de vida al nacer, así como las correlaciones negativas rescontradas entre indicadores de pobreza y grado de urbanización municipal, ponen en evidencia importantes asimetrías internas en el departamento y permiten avanzar algunas conclusiones respecto a la sostenibilidad del proceso de desarrollo departamental cruceño.

  10. Lo moreno es bello. Componentes identitarios de las mujeres jóvenes evangélicas aymaras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Mansilla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo de investigación científica son descritas las concepciones sobre identidad cultural que expresan las jóvenes evangélicas aymaras de la región de Tarapacá en Chile, por medio de las cuales se enfrenta el vacío en el conocimiento sobre los procesos identitarios en poblaciones de jóvenes pentecostales aymaras, que incluyen sistemáticamente distinciones de género. El material forma parte de un estudio mayor que incluyó 25 entrevistas en profundidad a hombres y mujeres aymaras de sectores rurales y urbanos, entre enero y septiembre del 2013. Serán consideradas las entrevistas correspondientes a 8 jóvenes evangélicas estudiantes universitarias de entre 18 y 29 años de edad y se resaltarán tres componentes identitarios significativos: su relación con la masculinidad, la lengua como recurso de identificación, y el territorio como referente identitario. Por último, se concluirá analizando la importancia de la reflexividad sobre los propios supuestos en investigación como factores que invisibilizan los procesos de ciertos grupos sociales.

  11. Aproximación al modelado del componente conceptual básico del Dispositivo Hipermedial Dinámico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez, Guillermo L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo interdisciplinario, propone una primera aproximación conceptual y de uso al modelado descriptivo y de simulación para el análisis del Dispositivo Hipermedial Dinámico con la finalidad de avanzar hacia la generación de configuraciones más efectivas que posibiliten desarrollos e implementaciones tanto de tecnologías sociales como digitales para la construcción de variadas alternativas de integración responsable de las TIC. Se plantea la utilización del formalismo DEVS (Discrete EVents dynamic Systems que propone una teoría de modelado de sistemas a tiempo continuo usando modelado de eventos discretos. En ese sentido, se presenta el modelado y simulación del denominado "Paquete Hipermedial", como componente conceptual básico del DHD. Lo expuesto aporta un posible camino hacia el análisis evaluativo sobre cómo se desarrollan o se podrían implementar procesos de participación responsable a través de redes sociotécnicas que tengan por objeto investigar, educar y producir en actual contexto físico-virtual.

  12. The singular value filter: a general filter design strategy for PCA-based signal separation in medical ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, F William; Lin, Dan; Hossack, John A

    2011-11-01

    A general filtering method, called the singular value filter (SVF), is presented as a framework for principal component analysis (PCA) based filter design in medical ultrasound imaging. The SVF approach operates by projecting the original data onto a new set of bases determined from PCA using singular value decomposition (SVD). The shape of the SVF weighting function, which relates the singular value spectrum of the input data to the filtering coefficients assigned to each basis function, is designed in accordance with a signal model and statistical assumptions regarding the underlying source signals. In this paper, we applied SVF for the specific application of clutter artifact rejection in diagnostic ultrasound imaging. SVF was compared to a conventional PCA-based filtering technique, which we refer to as the blind source separation (BSS) method, as well as a simple frequency-based finite impulse response (FIR) filter used as a baseline for comparison. The performance of each filter was quantified in simulated lesion images as well as experimental cardiac ultrasound data. SVF was demonstrated in both simulation and experimental results, over a wide range of imaging conditions, to outperform the BSS and FIR filtering methods in terms of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and motion tracking performance. In experimental mouse heart data, SVF provided excellent artifact suppression with an average CNR improvement of 1.8 dB with over 40% reduction in displacement tracking error. It was further demonstrated from simulation and experimental results that SVF provided superior clutter rejection, as reflected in larger CNR values, when filtering was achieved using complex pulse-echo received data and non-binary filter coefficients.

  13. A Hybrid PCA-CART-MARS-Based Prognostic Approach of the Remaining Useful Life for Aircraft Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sánchez Lasheras

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prognostics is an engineering discipline that predicts the future health of a system. In this research work, a data-driven approach for prognostics is proposed. Indeed, the present paper describes a data-driven hybrid model for the successful prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. The approach combines the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS technique with the principal component analysis (PCA, dendrograms and classification and regression trees (CARTs. Elements extracted from sensor signals are used to train this hybrid model, representing different levels of health for aircraft engines. In this way, this hybrid algorithm is used to predict the trends of these elements. Based on this fitting, one can determine the future health state of a system and estimate its remaining useful life (RUL with accuracy. To evaluate the proposed approach, a test was carried out using aircraft engine signals collected from physical sensors (temperature, pressure, speed, fuel flow, etc.. Simulation results show that the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach can forecast faults long before they occur and can predict the RUL. The proposed hybrid model presents as its main advantage the fact that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the input variables of the engine. The performance of this model was compared with those obtained by other benchmark models (multivariate linear regression and artificial neural networks also applied in recent years for the modeling of remaining useful life. Therefore, the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach is very promising in the field of prognostics of the RUL for aircraft engines.

  14. Estructura salarial y segmentación en el mercado laboral de Colombia: un análisis de las siete principales ciudades, 2001-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Mesa, Diana Carolina; Garcia-Suaza, Andres; Roa, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Este documento se concentra en el estudio de las diferencias salariales mediante la comparación de las distribuciones de los salarios para las siete principales ciudades colombianas en el periodo 2001-2005 con datos de la Encuesta Continua de Hogares. Se detectan diferencias significativas que se explican a la luz de la teoría del capital humano y de segmentación laboral; mediante la estimación de ecuaciones de salarios a partir de las características socioeconómicas d...

  15. Integración de las principales teorías del aprendizaje, y análisis y crítica de los autores estudiados

    OpenAIRE

    Mayorga Muñoz, Esteban; Corporación Universitaria Adventista Cra. 84#33AA-1 Medellín, Colombia, South America A.A. 877. Tel. 2508328; Ruiz López, José Jesús; González Arjona, Aura Graciela

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo de la presente actividad colaborativa es integrar las principales teorías del aprendizaje, analizando y criticando a los autores estudiados. Es una actividad colaborativa. Una vez leídos los documentos asignados, de analizarlos y de realizar búsquedas paralelas que aportaron a los contenidos, se seleccionaron dos de los autores de las teorías del aprendizaje: uno de lospropuestos en el cognitivismo, y uno de los propuestos en el constructivismo. Se reflexionó y centró la atención ...

  16. Luis de León (1527-1591 y su teoría de la justicia: aspectos principales de su doctrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Contreras

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Las investigaciones sobre Luis de León se han centrado, sobre todo, en su mística, narrativa y teoría literaria. En este trabajo, el autor intenta desarrollar los principales aspectos de su teoría jurídica. Al igual que otros grandes teólogos de la Escuela de Salamanca, también León ha estudiado el problema de la naturaleza de la ley humana y su vinculación con el derecho natural. Éste es, justamente, el tema del siguiente trabajo.

  17. Análisis de los principales sistemas de gestión de bases de datos ante ataques básicos

    OpenAIRE

    Armendariz Perez, Iñigo

    2016-01-01

    La información más sensible de prácticamente la totalidad de las empresas se almacena en sistemas gestores de bases de datos. Estos gestores pueden ser vulnerables a ataques externos, internos o a errores humanos y la información puede verse comprometida y accedida por personas no autorizadas. Una de las principales tareas del análisis forense es poder realizar un estudio de todo tipo de evidencia digital que esté involucrada en un incidente para que sea admisible en un proceso judicial. ...

  18. Plantas transgénicas: una revisión de los principales cultivos básicos en México

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina Rodríguez R.; Orfil González R.

    2007-01-01

    Los cultivos básicos principales en México son el maíz, la soya, el algodón, de los cuales se han investigado y desarrollado muchas variedades genéticamente modificadas. La aplicación de la genética es un tema muy controvertido. De momento, un aspecto fundamental es la apertura a la información de todo lo relacionado con los cultivos transgénicos para los clientes y consumidores finales. En México, el organismo encargado de la bioseguridad es CIBIOGEM, cuya función primordial es v...

  19. Evaluation of significant sources influencing the variation of water quality of Kandla creek, Gulf of Katchchh, using PCA

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dalal, S.G.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Jagtap, T.G.; Naik, B.G.; Rao, G.S.

    and Marhaba 2003). The use of PCA for wa- ter quality assessment has increased in the last few years, mainly due to the need to obtain appreciable data reduction for analysis and decision (Morales et al. 1999). Bartlett’s sphericity test (χ 2 with degrees....). Florida: CRC. Morales, M. M., Mart, P., Llopis, A., Campos, L., & Sagrado, J. (1999). An environmental study by fac- tor analysis of surface seawater in the Gulf of Valen- cia (western Mediterranean). Analytica Chimica Acta, 394, 109–117. doi:10.1016/S0003...

  20. PCA/INCREMENT MEMORY interface for analog processors on-line with PC-XT/AT IBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biri, S.; Buttsev, V.S.; Molnar, J.; Samojlov, V.N.

    1989-01-01

    The functional and operational descriptions on PCA/INCREMENT MEMORY interface are discussed. The following is solved with this unit: connection between the analogue signal processor and PC, nuclear spectrum acquisition up to 2 24 -1 counts/channel using increment or decrement method, data read/write from or to memory via data bus PC during the spectrum acquisition. Dual ported memory organization is 4096x24 bit, increment cycle time at 4.77 MHz system clock frequency is 1.05 μs. 6 refs.; 2 figs

  1. Prostate Health Index (Phi) and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3) significantly improve prostate cancer detection at initial biopsy in a total PSA range of 2-10 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Matteo; Bruzzese, Dario; Perdonà, Sisto; Marino, Ada; Mazzarella, Claudia; Perruolo, Giuseppe; D'Esposito, Vittoria; Cosimato, Vincenzo; Buonerba, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Musi, Gennaro; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Chun, Felix K; Terracciano, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Many efforts to reduce prostate specific antigen (PSA) overdiagnosis and overtreatment have been made. To this aim, Prostate Health Index (Phi) and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3) have been proposed as new more specific biomarkers. We evaluated the ability of phi and PCA3 to identify prostate cancer (PCa) at initial prostate biopsy in men with total PSA range of 2-10 ng/ml. The performance of phi and PCA3 were evaluated in 300 patients undergoing first prostate biopsy. ROC curve analyses tested the accuracy (AUC) of phi and PCA3 in predicting PCa. Decision curve analyses (DCA) were used to compare the clinical benefit of the two biomarkers. We found that the AUC value of phi (0.77) was comparable to those of %p2PSA (0.76) and PCA3 (0.73) with no significant differences in pairwise comparison (%p2PSA vs phi p = 0.673, %p2PSA vs. PCA3 p = 0.417 and phi vs. PCA3 p = 0.247). These three biomarkers significantly outperformed fPSA (AUC = 0.60), % fPSA (AUC = 0.62) and p2PSA (AUC = 0.63). At DCA, phi and PCA3 exhibited a very close net benefit profile until the threshold probability of 25%, then phi index showed higher net benefit than PCA3. Multivariable analysis showed that the addition of phi and PCA3 to the base multivariable model (age, PSA, %fPSA, DRE, prostate volume) increased predictive accuracy, whereas no model improved single biomarker performance. Finally we showed that subjects with active surveillance (AS) compatible cancer had significantly lower phi and PCA3 values (pphi and PCA3 comparably increase the accuracy in predicting the presence of PCa in total PSA range 2-10 ng/ml at initial biopsy, outperforming currently used %fPSA.

  2. Recent progresses of neural network unsupervised learning: I. Independent component analyses generalizing PCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold H.

    1999-03-01

    The early vision principle of redundancy reduction of 108 sensor excitations is understandable from computer vision viewpoint toward sparse edge maps. It is only recently derived using a truly unsupervised learning paradigm of artificial neural networks (ANN). In fact, the biological vision, Hubel- Wiesel edge maps, is reproduced seeking the underlying independent components analyses (ICA) among 102 image samples by maximizing the ANN output entropy (partial)H(V)/(partial)[W] equals (partial)[W]/(partial)t. When a pair of newborn eyes or ears meet the bustling and hustling world without supervision, they seek ICA by comparing 2 sensory measurements (x1(t), x2(t))T equalsV X(t). Assuming a linear and instantaneous mixture model of the external world X(t) equals [A] S(t), where both the mixing matrix ([A] equalsV [a1, a2] of ICA vectors and the source percentages (s1(t), s2(t))T equalsV S(t) are unknown, we seek the independent sources approximately equals [I] where the approximated sign indicates that higher order statistics (HOS) may not be trivial. Without a teacher, the ANN weight matrix [W] equalsV [w1, w2] adjusts the outputs V(t) equals tanh([W]X(t)) approximately equals [W]X(t) until no desired outputs except the (Gaussian) 'garbage' (neither YES '1' nor NO '-1' but at linear may-be range 'origin 0') defined by Gaussian covariance G equals [I] equals [W][A] the internal knowledge representation [W], as the inverse of the external world matrix [A]-1. To unify IC, PCA, ANN & HOS theories since 1991 (advanced by Jutten & Herault, Comon, Oja, Bell-Sejnowski, Amari-Cichocki, Cardoso), the LYAPONOV function L(v1,...,vn, w1,...wn,) equals E(v1,...,vn) - H(w1,...wn) is constructed as the HELMHOTZ free energy to prove both convergences of supervised energy E and unsupervised entropy H learning. Consequently, rather using the faithful but dumb computer: 'GARBAGE-IN, GARBAGE-OUT,' the smarter neurocomputer will be equipped with an unsupervised learning that extracts

  3. Análise de componentes da tecnologia de Business Process Management System (BPMS) sob a perspectiva de um caso prático

    OpenAIRE

    Sordi, José Osvaldo De; Spelta, Andrea Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    A tecnologia da informação que corrobora com a implementação da abordagem administrativa da gestão por processos denomina-se Business Process Management System (BPMS). Os principais componentes do framework da solução BPMS são: repositório de definição do processo, repositório de instâncias do processo, gerenciador de transação, framework de conectores, motor do processo e middleware. Neste artigo, são definidos e caracterizados os componentes que constituem o framework da solução tecnológica...

  4. El elector colombiano. Una aproximación al perfil del votante de los principales partidos en elecciones presidenciales, 2002-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Guzmán M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio del comportamiento electoral, a pesar de que las teorías sociológica, partidista y de elección racional continúan aplicándose vigorosamente para analizarlo, la respuesta al interrogante sobre ¿cuáles son los factores que predominan en la toma de la decisión del voto? no alcanzan, aún, una respuesta que logre el consenso académico. Así, este trabajo pretende identificar el perfil del votante colombiano en las elecciones presidenciales de 2002, 2006 y 2010 a partir de las semejanzas y diferencias de estos en términos de sofisticación política, orientación político-partidista y características sociodemográficas. El análisis estadístico se realiza con datos de la encuesta LAPOP, y se centra en los votantes de los partidos Liberal, Polo Democrático y Partido de la Unidad Nacional. En la primera parte del documento se plantean los principales aspectos teóricos que guían la investigación. Luego se muestran los rasgos principales del contexto en el que se desarrollaron los tres procesos electorales. Finalmente, se presentan los resultados de los análisis así como algunas ideas a modo de conclusión.

  5. Estudio in vitro de la viabilidad de células Caco-2 en presencia de componentes del aceite esencial de Allium spp

    OpenAIRE

    M. Llana Ruiz-Cabello; M. Puerto; D. Gutiérrez-Praena; S. Pichardo; A. Jos; A. M. Cameán

    2013-01-01

    El aceite esencial de los componentes del género Allium, principalmente ajo y cebolla, presenta propiedades antioxidantes y antibacterianas debidas a la presencia de compuestos azufrados en su composición. La industria alimentaria ha comenzado a desarrollar nuevos sistemas de envasado activo a partir de polímeros seleccionados, a los que se incorporan aceites esenciales que, por sus propiedades, contribuyen a aumentar la vida útil de los alimentos perecederos. En este sentido, se hace necesar...

  6. Componentes de condução da luz natural em edifícios multifamiliares: análise de um código de obras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Nóbrega de Castro

    Full Text Available O uso da luz natural como fonte de iluminação, além dos impactos positivos no bem-estar físico e mental do homem, possui vantagens econômicas. Estas, contudo, dependem da obtenção do nível de iluminação requerido para a tarefa. Neste estudo, o potencial de aproveitamento da luz natural foi analisado considerando-se as dimensões mínimas de sistemas de iluminação natural permitidas para ambientes residenciais, tendo como critério o Código de Obras da cidade de João Pessoa. Os sistemas de iluminação natural analisados consistem em componentes de passagem com componentes de condução. Simulação computacional feita com o software Daysim foi adotada para analisar o comportamento da luz natural. Realizaram-se 480 simulações para cinco ambientes, associando três variáveis no componente de condução: peitoril transparente e opaco (i, componente de condução saliente e encravado (ii, cinco profundidades (iii a três variáveis do entorno: máxima ocupação do solo (i, duas alturas de pavimento (ii, quatro orientações (iii. Os parâmetros de análise foram: iluminância natural útil (INU e autonomia da luz natural (ALN. Com os resultados, percebe-se que os limites mínimos dos critérios do Código não favorecem o aproveitamento da iluminação natural: 40% dos modelos simulados apresentam iluminação natural insuficiente. Os ambientes iluminados através de janelas altas têm os piores resultados.

  7. PCA-induced respiratory depression simulating stroke following endoluminal repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Javed

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To report a case of severe respiratory depression with PCA fentanyl use simulating stroke in a patient who underwent routine elective endoluminal graft repair for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA Case presentation A 78-year-old obese lady underwent routine endoluminal graft repair for AAA that was progressively increasing in size. Following an uneventful operation postoperative analgesia was managed with a patient-controlled analgesia (PCA device with fentanyl. On the morning following operation the patient was found to be unusually drowsy and unresponsive to stimuli. Her GCS level was 11 with plantars upgoing bilaterally. A provisional diagnosis of stroke was made. Urgent transfer to a high-dependency unit (HDU was arranged and she was given ventilatory support with a BiPap device. CT was performed and found to be normal. Arterial blood gas (ABG analysis showed respiratory acidosis with PaCO2 81 mmHg, PaO2 140 mmHg, pH 7.17 and base excess -2 mmol/l. A total dose of 600 mcg of fentanyl was self-administered in the 16 hours following emergence from general anaesthesia. Naloxone was given with good effect. There was an increase in the creatinine level from 90 μmol/L preoperatively to 167 μmol/L on the first postoperative day. The patient remained on BiPap for two days that resulted in marked improvement in gas exchange. Recovery was complete.

  8. Forecasting East Asian Indices Futures via a Novel Hybrid of Wavelet-PCA Denoising and Artificial Neural Network Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The motivation behind this research is to innovatively combine new methods like wavelet, principal component analysis (PCA), and artificial neural network (ANN) approaches to analyze trade in today’s increasingly difficult and volatile financial futures markets. The main focus of this study is to facilitate forecasting by using an enhanced denoising process on market data, taken as a multivariate signal, in order to deduct the same noise from the open-high-low-close signal of a market. This research offers evidence on the predictive ability and the profitability of abnormal returns of a new hybrid forecasting model using Wavelet-PCA denoising and ANN (named WPCA-NN) on futures contracts of Hong Kong’s Hang Seng futures, Japan’s NIKKEI 225 futures, Singapore’s MSCI futures, South Korea’s KOSPI 200 futures, and Taiwan’s TAIEX futures from 2005 to 2014. Using a host of technical analysis indicators consisting of RSI, MACD, MACD Signal, Stochastic Fast %K, Stochastic Slow %K, Stochastic %D, and Ultimate Oscillator, empirical results show that the annual mean returns of WPCA-NN are more than the threshold buy-and-hold for the validation, test, and evaluation periods; this is inconsistent with the traditional random walk hypothesis, which insists that mechanical rules cannot outperform the threshold buy-and-hold. The findings, however, are consistent with literature that advocates technical analysis. PMID:27248692

  9. PCA determination of the radiometric noise of high spectral resolution infrared observations from spectral residuals: Application to IASI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, C.; Masiello, G.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Jacquette, E.; Vandermarcq, O.; Bermudo, F.; Coppens, D.; Tobin, D.

    2018-02-01

    The problem of characterizing and estimating the instrumental or radiometric noise of satellite high spectral resolution infrared spectrometers directly from Earth observations is addressed in this paper. An approach has been developed, which relies on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with a suitable criterion to select the optimal number of PC scores. Different selection criteria have been set up and analysed, which is based on the estimation theory of Least Squares and/or Maximum Likelihood Principle. The approach is independent of any forward model and/or radiative transfer calculations. The PCA is used to define an orthogonal basis, which, in turn, is used to derive an optimal linear reconstruction of the observations. The residual vector that is the observation vector minus the calculated or reconstructed one is then used to estimate the instrumental noise. It will be shown that the use of the spectral residuals to assess the radiometric instrumental noise leads to efficient estimators, which are largely independent of possible departures of the true noise from that assumed a priori to model the observational covariance matrix. Application to the Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer (IASI) has been considered. A series of case studies has been set up, which make use of IASI observations. As a major result, the analysis confirms the high stability and radiometric performance of IASI. The approach also proved to be efficient in characterizing noise features due to mechanical micro-vibrations of the beam splitter of the IASI instrument.

  10. Detection of l-Cysteine in wheat flour by Raman microspectroscopy combined chemometrics of HCA and PCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebi, Nur; Dogan, Canan Ekinci; Develioglu, Ayşen; Yayla, Mediha Esra Altuntop; Sagdic, Osman

    2017-08-01

    l-Cysteine is deliberately added to various flour types since l-Cysteine has enabled favorable baking conditions such as low viscosity, increased elasticity and rise during baking. In Turkey, usage of l-Cysteine as a food additive isn't allowed in wheat flour according to the Turkish Food Codex Regulation on food additives. There is an urgent need for effective methods to detect l-Cysteine in wheat flour. In this study, for the first time, a new, rapid, effective, non-destructive and cost-effective method was developed for detection of l-Cysteine in wheat flour using Raman microscopy. Detection of l-Cysteine in wheat flour was accomplished successfully using Raman microscopy combined chemometrics of PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and HCA (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis). In this work, 500-2000cm -1 spectral range (fingerprint region) was determined to perform PCA and HCA analysis. l-Cysteine and l-Cystine were determined with detection limit of 0.125% (w/w) in different wheat flour samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Radar target classification method with high accuracy and decision speed performance using MUSIC spectrum vectors and PCA projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secmen, Mustafa

    2011-10-01

    This paper introduces the performance of an electromagnetic target recognition method in resonance scattering region, which includes pseudo spectrum Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm and principal component analysis (PCA) technique. The aim of this method is to classify an "unknown" target as one of the "known" targets in an aspect-independent manner. The suggested method initially collects the late-time portion of noise-free time-scattered signals obtained from different reference aspect angles of known targets. Afterward, these signals are used to obtain MUSIC spectrums in real frequency domain having super-resolution ability and noise resistant feature. In the final step, PCA technique is applied to these spectrums in order to reduce dimensionality and obtain only one feature vector per known target. In the decision stage, noise-free or noisy scattered signal of an unknown (test) target from an unknown aspect angle is initially obtained. Subsequently, MUSIC algorithm is processed for this test signal and resulting test vector is compared with feature vectors of known targets one by one. Finally, the highest correlation gives the type of test target. The method is applied to wire models of airplane targets, and it is shown that it can tolerate considerable noise levels although it has a few different reference aspect angles. Besides, the runtime of the method for a test target is sufficiently low, which makes the method suitable for real-time applications.

  12. Estimating the number of components and detecting outliers using Angle Distribution of Loading Subspaces (ADLS) in PCA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y J; Tran, T; Postma, G; Buydens, L M C; Jansen, J

    2018-08-22

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is widely used in analytical chemistry, to reduce the dimensionality of a multivariate data set in a few Principal Components (PCs) that summarize the predominant patterns in the data. An accurate estimate of the number of PCs is indispensable to provide meaningful interpretations and extract useful information. We show how existing estimates for the number of PCs may fall short for datasets with considerable coherence, noise or outlier presence. We present here how Angle Distribution of the Loading Subspaces (ADLS) can be used to estimate the number of PCs based on the variability of loading subspace across bootstrap resamples. Based on comprehensive comparisons with other well-known methods applied on simulated dataset, we show that ADLS (1) may quantify the stability of a PCA model with several numbers of PCs simultaneously; (2) better estimate the appropriate number of PCs when compared with the cross-validation and scree plot methods, specifically for coherent data, and (3) facilitate integrated outlier detection, which we introduce in this manuscript. We, in addition, demonstrate how the analysis of different types of real-life spectroscopic datasets may benefit from these advantages of ADLS. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An Improved Pathological Brain Detection System Based on Two-Dimensional PCA and Evolutionary Extreme Learning Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Deepak Ranjan; Dash, Ratnakar; Majhi, Banshidhar

    2017-12-07

    Pathological brain detection has made notable stride in the past years, as a consequence many pathological brain detection systems (PBDSs) have been proposed. But, the accuracy of these systems still needs significant improvement in order to meet the necessity of real world diagnostic situations. In this paper, an efficient PBDS based on MR images is proposed that markedly improves the recent results. The proposed system makes use of contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) to enhance the quality of the input MR images. Thereafter, two-dimensional PCA (2DPCA) strategy is employed to extract the features and subsequently, a PCA+LDA approach is used to generate a compact and discriminative feature set. Finally, a new learning algorithm called MDE-ELM is suggested that combines modified differential evolution (MDE) and extreme learning machine (ELM) for segregation of MR images as pathological or healthy. The MDE is utilized to optimize the input weights and hidden biases of single-hidden-layer feed-forward neural networks (SLFN), whereas an analytical method is used for determining the output weights. The proposed algorithm performs optimization based on both the root mean squared error (RMSE) and norm of the output weights of SLFNs. The suggested scheme is benchmarked on three standard datasets and the results are compared against other competent schemes. The experimental outcomes show that the proposed scheme offers superior results compared to its counterparts. Further, it has been noticed that the proposed MDE-ELM classifier obtains better accuracy with compact network architecture than conventional algorithms.

  14. Antiallergic effect of fisetin on IgE-mediated mast cell activation in vitro and on passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Woo-Ri; Park, Hye-Jin

    2017-10-01

    Fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone), a naturally occurring bioactive flavonoid, has been shown to inhibit inflammation. However, little is known about the effect of fisetin on immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic responses. In this study, the effect of fisetin on rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cell-mediated allergic reactions was investigated. Fisetin inhibited β-hexosaminidase release and decreased the level of interleukin-4 and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA in IgE/antigen (IgE/Ag)-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells. To elucidate the antiallergic mechanism, we examined the levels of signaling molecules responsible for degranulation and release of inflammatory cytokines. Fisetin decreased the levels of activated spleen tyrosine kinase, Gab2 proteins, linker of activated T cells, extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 in the IgE/Ag-stimulated RBL2H3 cells, and NFκB and STAT3 proteins activated in the ear tissue of mice with passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). In addition, fisetin significantly lowered of FcɛRI α-subunit mRNA expression. Consistent with the cellular data, fisetin markedly suppressed RBL-2H3 cell-dependent PCA in IgE/Ag-sensitized mice. These results suggest that fisetin may have potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of allergic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel fusion method of improved adaptive LTP and two-directional two-dimensional PCA for face feature extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Wang, Bo-yu; Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Li-ming

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, under different illuminations and random noises, focusing on the local texture feature's defects of a face image that cannot be completely described because the threshold of local ternary pattern (LTP) cannot be calculated adaptively, a local three-value model of improved adaptive local ternary pattern (IALTP) is proposed. Firstly, the difference function between the center pixel and the neighborhood pixel weight is established to obtain the statistical characteristics of the central pixel and the neighborhood pixel. Secondly, the adaptively gradient descent iterative function is established to calculate the difference coefficient which is defined to be the threshold of the IALTP operator. Finally, the mean and standard deviation of the pixel weight of the local region are used as the coding mode of IALTP. In order to reflect the overall properties of the face and reduce the dimension of features, the two-directional two-dimensional PCA ((2D)2PCA) is adopted. The IALTP is used to extract local texture features of eyes and mouth area. After combining the global features and local features, the fusion features (IALTP+) are obtained. The experimental results on the Extended Yale B and AR standard face databases indicate that under different illuminations and random noises, the algorithm proposed in this paper is more robust than others, and the feature's dimension is smaller. The shortest running time reaches 0.329 6 s, and the highest recognition rate reaches 97.39%.

  16. Prebiotic Low Sugar Chocolate Dairy Desserts: Physical and Optical Characteristics and Performance of PARAFAC and PCA Preference Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, E C; Esmerino, E A; Monteiro, R A; Pinheiro, C M; Nunes, C A; Cruz, A G; Bolini, Helena M A

    2016-01-01

    The addition of prebiotic and sweeteners in chocolate dairy desserts opens up new opportunities to develop dairy desserts that besides having a lower calorie intake still has functional properties. In this study, prebiotic low sugar dairy desserts were evaluated by 120 consumers using a 9-point hedonic scale, in relation to the attributes of appearance, aroma, flavor, texture, and overall liking. Internal preference map using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using the consumer data. In addition, physical (texture profile) and optical (instrumental color) analyses were also performed. Prebiotic dairy desserts containing sucrose and sucralose were equally liked by the consumers. These samples were characterized by firmness and gumminess, which can be considered drivers of liking by the consumers. Optimization of the prebiotic low sugar dessert formulation should take in account the choice of ingredients that contribute in a positive manner for these parameters. PARAFAC allowed the extraction of more relevant information in relation to PCA, demonstrating that consumer acceptance analysis can be evaluated by simultaneously considering several attributes. Multiple factor analysis reported Rv value of 0.964, suggesting excellent concordance for both methods. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. An Investigation of GIS Overlay and PCA Techniques for Urban Environmental Quality Assessment: A Case Study in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Faisal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations estimates that the global population is going to be double in the coming 40 years, which may cause a negative impact on the environment and human life. Such an impact may instigate increased water demand, overuse of power, anthropogenic noise, etc. Thus, modelling the Urban Environmental Quality (UEQ becomes indispensable for a better city planning and an efficient urban sprawl control. This study aims to investigate the ability of using remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS techniques to model the UEQ with a case study in the city of Toronto via deriving different environmental, urban and socio-economic parameters. Remote sensing, GIS and census data were first obtained to derive environmental, urban and socio-economic parameters. Two techniques, GIS overlay and Principal Component Analysis (PCA, were used to integrate all of these environmental, urban and socio-economic parameters. Socio-economic parameters including family income, higher education and land value were used as a reference to assess the outcomes derived from the two integration methods. The outcomes were assessed through evaluating the relationship between the extracted UEQ results and the reference layers. Preliminary findings showed that the GIS overlay represents a better precision and accuracy (71% and 65%, respectively, comparing to the PCA technique. The outcomes of the research can serve as a generic indicator to help the authority for better city planning with consideration of all possible social, environmental and urban requirements or constraints.

  18. Retrieval of spheroid particle size distribution from spectral extinction data in the independent mode using PCA approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Hong; Lin, Jian-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    An improved anomalous diffraction approximation (ADA) method is presented for calculating the extinction efficiency of spheroids firstly. In this approach, the extinction efficiency of spheroid particles can be calculated with good accuracy and high efficiency in a wider size range by combining the Latimer method and the ADA theory, and this method can present a more general expression for calculating the extinction efficiency of spheroid particles with various complex refractive indices and aspect ratios. Meanwhile, the visible spectral extinction with varied spheroid particle size distributions and complex refractive indices is surveyed. Furthermore, a selection principle about the spectral extinction data is developed based on PCA (principle component analysis) of first derivative spectral extinction. By calculating the contribution rate of first derivative spectral extinction, the spectral extinction with more significant features can be selected as the input data, and those with less features is removed from the inversion data. In addition, we propose an improved Tikhonov iteration method to retrieve the spheroid particle size distributions in the independent mode. Simulation experiments indicate that the spheroid particle size distributions obtained with the proposed method coincide fairly well with the given distributions, and this inversion method provides a simple, reliable and efficient method to retrieve the spheroid particle size distributions from the spectral extinction data. -- Highlights: ► Improved ADA is presented for calculating the extinction efficiency of spheroids. ► Selection principle about spectral extinction data is developed based on PCA. ► Improved Tikhonov iteration method is proposed to retrieve the spheroid PSD.

  19. Sobre la concepcion del sindrome piramidal y del componente yuxtapiramidal despues de 21 años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Barraquer-Bordas

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available Tal como hemos venido manteniendo desde 1952, nos parece justo distinguir dentro del todo del sndrome piramidal un aspecto, diferenciado con suficiente claridad, al que propusimos llamar "yuxtapiramidal". Una nomenclatura científica es, ante todo, un sistema de convenciones — lo más fundamentadas que sea posible — sobre las que es necesario mantener un acuerdo para extraer de ella una utilidad operativa. El término "piramidal" no es mucho más inexacto que muchos otros empleados en Medicina. Ciertamente, si queremos tomar por referencia la palabra ecológicamente originaria, que en este caso es la pirámide bulbar, las dificultades aparecen como serias y considerables. Pero si tenemos en cuenta que a la proyección piramidal pura u ortopiramidal o córtico-espinal directa, va estrechamente aparejado el sistema anátomo-funcional que parece ser crucial en la inhibición del reflejo miotático o de tracción, esto es, la proyección córtico-bulbo(retículo-espinal, que nosotros venimos calificando (desde 1952 de "proyección yuxtapiramidal", facilmente nos daremos cuenta que ambos forman un todo, dispuesto longitudinalmente a lo largo del neuroeje, que mantiene una indudable unidad funcional, sobre todo una "unidad de afectación ante los procesos morbosos que los atañen". La dificultad de la nomenclatura proviene, en gran parte, del hecho de haber querido denominar un "sistema longitudinal" por el nombre de un "accidente casi-transversal" interpuesto en un punto determinado y concreto de su curso: la pirámide bulbar, la cual parece abarcar solamente el "componente mayor" de aquel sistema, con exclusión del otro, del yuxtapiramidal". Las aportaciones experimentales recientes de Asbhy y col. y del grupo de Lance, al confirmar lo esencial de las viejas experiencias de Magoun e col., otorgan, a nuestro juicio, una validez renovada a nuestra concepción de un "sistema yuxtapiramidal", inhibidor del reflejo de tracción. De la afectación de

  20. El componente educativo en el abordaje integral del asma bronquial The educational component in an integrated approach to bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paola Fasciglione

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available El asma bronquial es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica de las vías respiratorias cuya prevalencia está aumentando en el mundo. Actualmente no se dispone de un tratamiento curativo, y el objetivo principal de todo abordaje es el control de la enfermedad y la optimización de la calidad de vida de los pacientes. En este sentido, durante las últimas décadas se han estado implementando y evaluando programas de intervención complementarios a los tratamientos médicos convencionales. Gran parte de éstos consisten en intervenciones educativas o incluyen algún tipo de componente educativo. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar las características y el impacto de las intervenciones educativas en el asma, a través de: a revisión actualizada sobre los diferentes tipos de intervenciones educativas desarrolladas e implementadas para el asma; b identificación de aspectos comunes a todas estas intervenciones; c análisis de los hallazgos de la investigación referidos a su impacto sobre la salud y la calidad de vida de los pacientes. Se concluye que las intervenciones educativas son efectivas para mejorar la salud y la calidad de vida de los pacientes con asma, y para reducir el uso y el costo de recursos sanitarios. Estos hallazgos señalan la importancia de incluir el componente educativo como parte esencial del abordaje integral de esta población clínica. Asimismo, la complejidad inherente al proceso educativo pone de manifiesto la necesidad del trabajo conjunto y complementario entre diferentes profesionales de la salud.Bronchial asthma is an inflammatory chronic disease of the respiratory tract whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. Since there is no curative treatment available, the principal objective of every approach is to control the disease and to improve the quality of life of patients. Over the last few decades, intervention programs supplementing conventional medical treatments have been tested and implemented. The