WorldWideScience

Sample records for compliance geomechanics studies

  1. Geomechanical Study of Bakken Formation for Improved Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Kegang; Zeng, Zhengwen; He, Jun; Pei, Peng; Zhou, Xuejun; Liu, Hong; Huang, Luke; Ostadhassan, Mehdi; Jabbari, Hadi; Blanksma, Derrick; Feilen, Harry; Ahmed, Salowah; Benson, Steve; Mann, Michael; LeFever, Richard; Gosnold, Will

    2013-12-31

    On October 1, 2008 US DOE-sponsored research project entitled “Geomechanical Study of Bakken Formation for Improved Oil Recovery” under agreement DE-FC26-08NT0005643 officially started at The University of North Dakota (UND). This is the final report of the project; it covers the work performed during the project period of October 1, 2008 to December 31, 2013. The objectives of this project are to outline the methodology proposed to determine the in-situ stress field and geomechanical properties of the Bakken Formation in Williston Basin, North Dakota, USA to increase the success rate of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing so as to improve the recovery factor of this unconventional crude oil resource from the current 3% to a higher level. The success of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing depends on knowing local in-situ stress and geomechanical properties of the rocks. We propose a proactive approach to determine the in-situ stress and related geomechanical properties of the Bakken Formation in representative areas through integrated analysis of field and well data, core sample and lab experiments. Geomechanical properties are measured by AutoLab 1500 geomechanics testing system. By integrating lab testing, core observation, numerical simulation, well log and seismic image, drilling, completion, stimulation, and production data, in-situ stresses of Bakken formation are generated. These in-situ stress maps can be used as a guideline for future horizontal drilling and multi-stage fracturing design to improve the recovery of Bakken unconventional oil.

  2. Geomechanics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Geomechanics Laboratory allows its users to measure rock properties under a wide range of simulated service conditions up to very high pressures and complex load...

  3. Geomechanical reservoir models. A case study from the Sirte Basin / Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henk, Andreas [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geowissenschaften; Frischbutter, Andreas [Wintershall Holding AG, Kassel (Germany); Tawengi, Khaeri Segayer [National Oil Company, Tripoli (Libya)

    2010-03-15

    Geomechanical reservoir models on the basis of numerical simulation techniques provide a tool for the prediction of tectonic stresses and fractures. The workflow to set up and calibrate a geomechanical reservoir model includes import of the subsurface geometry as well as assignment of mechanical properties and boundary conditions. If well data are available, calculated stresses and fractures can be calibrated against observed data. Modeling results are relevant for a variety of tasks ranging from borehole stability and fault slip analysis to planning of hydraulic fracs. Application to a data set from a reservoir in the Eastern Sirte basin of Libya illustrates the practical potential of the modelling approach. The case study shows that stress orientations including local perturbations can be predicted with considerable accuracy even if the reservoir and fault geometries are primarily derived from seismic data, i.e. if well data is sparse. By nature, fracture prediction is less robust as it has to build on several poorly constrained input parameters like magnitude and orientation of paleo-stresses, paleo-pore pressures and former rock mechanical properties. Consequently, sufficient well data with fracture orientations observed on borehole image logs are required to calibrate the geomechanical model and provide a reliable base for fracture prognoses in the inter-well space. (orig.)

  4. A Novel True Triaxial Apparatus to Study the Geomechanical and Fluid Flow Aspects of Energy Exploitations in Geological Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghui; Yin, Guangzhi; Xu, Jiang; Li, Wenpu; Song, Zhenlong; Jiang, Changbao

    2016-12-01

    Fluid-solid coupling investigations of the geological storage of CO2, efficient unconventional oil and natural gas exploitations are mostly conducted under conventional triaxial stress conditions ( σ 2 = σ 3), ignoring the effects of σ 2 on the geomechanical properties and permeability of rocks (shale, coal and sandstone). A novel multi-functional true triaxial geophysical (TTG) apparatus was designed, fabricated, calibrated and tested to simulate true triaxial stress ( σ 1 > σ 2 > σ 3) conditions and to reveal geomechanical properties and permeability evolutions of rocks. The apparatus was developed with the capacity to carry out geomechanical and fluid flow experiments at high three-dimensional loading forces and injection pressures under true triaxial stress conditions. The control and measurement of the fluid flow with effective sealing of rock specimen corners were achieved using a specially designed internally sealed fluid flow system. To validate that the apparatus works properly and to recognize the effects of each principal stress on rock deformation and permeability, stress-strain and permeability experiments and a hydraulic fracturing simulation experiment on shale specimens were conducted under true triaxial stress conditions using the TTG apparatus. Results show that the apparatus has advantages in recognizing the effects of σ 2 on the geomechanical properties and permeability of rocks. Results also demonstrate the effectiveness and reliability of the novel TTG apparatus. The apparatus provides a new method of studying the geomechanical properties and permeability evolutions of rocks under true triaxial stress conditions, promoting further investigations of the geological storage of CO2, efficient unconventional oil and gas exploitations.

  5. Geomechanical Studies on Granite Intrusions in Alxa Area for High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Cheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Geological storage is an important concept for high-level radioactive waste (HLW disposal, and detailed studies are required to protect the environment from contamination by radionuclides. This paper presents a series of geomechanical studies on the site selection for HLW disposal in the Alxa area of China. Surface investigation in the field and RQD analyses on the drill cores are carried out to evaluate the rock mass quality. Laboratory uniaxial and triaxial compressive tests on the samples prepared from the drill cores are conducted to estimate the strength properties of the host rock. It is found that the NRG sub-area has massive granite intrusions, and NRG01 cored granite samples show the best rock quality and higher peak strength under various confinements (0–30 MPa. NRG01 granite samples are applied for more detailed laboratory studies considering the effects of strain rate and temperature. It is observed that the increasing strain rate from 1.0 × 10−5–0.6 × 10−2·s−1 can lead to a limited increase on peak strength, but a much more violent failure under uniaxial compressive tests on the NRG01 granite samples, and the temperature increasing from 20 °C–200 °C may result in a slight increase of UCS, as well as more ductile post-peak behavior in the triaxial compressive tests.

  6. Experimental and Computational Studies of Coupled Geomechanical and Hydrologic Processes in Wellbore Systems (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, J. W.; Mori, H.; Porter, M. L.; Lewis, K. C.; Kelkar, S.

    2013-12-01

    Potential leakage from wells is an important issue in the protection of groundwater resources, CO2 sequestration, and hydraulic fracturing. The first defense in all of these applications is a properly constructed well with adequate Portland cement that effectively isolates the subsurface. The chief threat for such wells is mechanical disruption of the cement, cement/steel, or cement/caprock interfaces. This can occur through wellbore operations that pressurize/depressurize the steel tubing or create temperature transients (e.g., injection, production, hydraulic fracturing, and mechanical testing) as well as reservoir-scale stresses (e.g., filling or depletion of the reservoir) and tectonic stresses (e.g., the mobility of salt). However, there is relatively limited information available on the hydrologic consequences of such processes. Toward this end, we discuss recent experiments and computational models of coupled geomechanical and hydrologic processes in wellbore systems. Triaxial coreflood experiments with tomography were conducted on synthetic wellbore systems including cement-steel, rock-cement and rock-cement-steel composites. The aim of the experiments was to induce stresses through application of axial loads in order to create defects within the cement or at the cement/steel or cement/rock interface. High injection fluid pressures (supercritical CO2 × brine) were applied to the base of the initially impermeable composites. Mechanical failure resulted in creation of permeability, which was measured as a function of time (allowing for the possibility of Portland cement to deform and modify permeability). In addition, fracture patterns were characterized using x-ray tomography. We used the computer code FEHM to study coupled hydrologic and mechanical processes in the near-wellbore environment. The wellbore model was developed as a wedge within a radially symmetric 3D volume. The grid elements consist of the steel casing, the casing-cement interface, the

  7. Geomechanical Properties of Unconventional Shale Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad O. Eshkalak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production from unconventional reservoirs has gained an increased attention among operators in North America during past years and is believed to secure the energy demand for next decades. Economic production from unconventional reservoirs is mainly attributed to realizing the complexities and key fundamentals of reservoir formation properties. Geomechanical well logs (including well logs such as total minimum horizontal stress, Poisson’s ratio, and Young, shear, and bulk modulus are secured source to obtain these substantial shale rock properties. However, running these geomechanical well logs for the entire asset is not a common practice that is associated with the cost of obtaining these well logs. In this study, synthetic geomechanical well logs for a Marcellus shale asset located in southern Pennsylvania are generated using data-driven modeling. Full-field geomechanical distributions (map and volumes of this asset for five geomechanical properties are also created using general geostatistical methods coupled with data-driven modeling. The results showed that synthetic geomechanical well logs and real field logs fall into each other when the input dataset has not seen the real field well logs. Geomechanical distributions of the Marcellus shale improved significantly when full-field data is incorporated in the geostatistical calculations.

  8. Geomechanical and Numerical Studies of Casing Damages in a Reservoir with Solid Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Raoof; Rasouli, Vamegh; Aadnoy, Bernt; Mohammadnejad, Mojtaba

    2016-04-01

    Casings damage is a usually reported incident during production in many fields. This incident is conventionally induced by compressional, tensional, burst or collapse forces applied to the casing string. Excessive anisotropic and non-uniform stresses, causing shear failure in unconsolidated reservoirs, are one of the main reasons reported for the casing failure. In this paper, geomechanical and finite element numerical analysis was applied to model hydraulic and mechanical interactions between casing, cement sheath and formations in a carbonate reservoir located in Southern of Iran. The geomechanical analysis indicated that significant in situ stresses induced as a result of the fault reactivation and pore pressure reduction due to reservoir depletion could be the potential reasons for the casing damage experienced in this field. To assess this, numerical analysis was carried out to simulate the casing in the presence of existing forces during drilling, completion and production phases. It was found that excessive and non-uniform stresses surrounding the wellbore together with pore pressure reduction caused the formation to loss its strength and fail. This shear failure results in solid production, creation of the cavities and deformation of the casing because of the excessive buckling force. In addition, a new empirical equation for prediction of ultimate strength of the casing was developed according to the parameters introduced by sensitivity analysis.

  9. Geomechanical/Geochemical Modeling Studies Conducted within theInternational DECOVALEX Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Rutqvist, J.; Sonnenthal, E.L.; Barr, D.; Chijimatsu, M.; Kolditz, O.; Liu, Q.; Oda, Y.; Wang, W.; Xie, M.; Zhang, C.

    2005-10-19

    The DECOVALEX project is an international cooperative project initiated by SKI, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, with participation of about 10 international organizations. The general goal of this project is to encourage multidisciplinary interactive and cooperative research on modeling coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in geologic formations in support of the performance assessment for underground storage of radioactive waste. One of the research tasks, initiated in 2004 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), addresses the long-term impact of geomechanical and geochemical processes on the flow conditions near waste emplacement tunnels. Within this task, four international research teams conduct predictive analysis of the coupled processes in two generic repositories, using multiple approaches and different computer codes. Below, we give an overview of the research task and report its current status.

  10. Geomechanical Characterization of Marcellus Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor Lora, Rafael; Ghazanfari, Ehsan; Asanza Izquierdo, Enrique

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the reservoir conditions and material properties that govern the geomechanical behavior of shale formations under in situ conditions is of vital importance for many geomechanical applications. The development of new numerical codes and advanced multi-physical (thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical) constitutive models has led to an increasing demand for fundamental material property data. Previous studies have shown that deformational rock properties are not single-value, well-defined, linear parameters. This paper reports on an experimental program that explores geomechanical properties of Marcellus Shale through a series of isotropic compression (i.e. σ 1 = σ 2 = σ 3) and triaxial (i.e. σ 1 > σ 2 = σ 3) experiments. Deformational and failure response of these rocks, as well as anisotropy evolution, were studied under different stress and temperature conditions using single- and multi-stage triaxial tests. Laboratory results revealed significant nonlinear and pressure-dependent mechanical response as a consequence of the rock fabric and the occurrence of microcracks in these shales. Moreover, multi-stage triaxial tests proved to be useful tools for obtaining failure envelopes using a single specimen. Furthermore, the anisotropic nature of Marcellus Shale was successfully characterized using a three-parameter coupled model.

  11. Screening of Geomechanical Risks for Malaysian Development Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Najmuddin Syed Muhammad Syafiq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deeper drilling and exploitation of difficult reservoir is the new trend in oil and gas industry. Geomechanics study has, therefore, become a new requirement particularly for oil and gas field development. However, a complete geomechanics study is limited with the number of experts, time consuming and not a straightforward task. Therefore, there is an urgent need of a quick geomechanics screening criterion to be used as a standard guideline to evaluate the high level geomechanical risks and suitable analysis can be recommended for the identified development fields. The aim of this paper is to propose a screening criterion for geomechanical risks study based on four key parameters, drilling, depletion, injection and storage and sand production. The screening approach is designed based on Risk Assessment Matrix (RAM risk screening where the likelihood is based on a set of scores developed to specific questions. The consequence for each failure scenarios is assessed based on educated estimation of the impact towards people, asset, environment and reputation. Recommendations for geomechanical study are made based on the severity of each failure category on the RAM risk matrix. Fourteen development fields in offshore Peninsular Malaysia, offshore Sarawak and offshore Sabah are selected for the assessment. Based on results, fields in offshore Sarawak and Sabah have higher potential for geomechacnical issues mainly because of their geological settings and formation characteristics. A set of geomechanical study is proposed for each individual field for prudent management of potential geomechanics risk associated with the depletion and EOR injection scheme planned for the fields.

  12. Effects of Geomechanical Mechanism on the Gas Production Behavior: A Simulation Study of Class-3 Type Four-Way-Closure Ridge Hydrate Deposit Offshore Southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Yueh; Chiu, Yung-Cheng; Huang, Yi-Jyun; Hsieh, Bieng-Zih

    2017-04-01

    The future energy police of Taiwan will heavily rely on the clean energy, including renewable energy and low-carbon energy, to meet the target of mitigating CO2 emission. In addition to developing the renewable energies like solar and wind resources, Taiwan will increase the natural gas consumption to obtain enough electrical power with low-carbon emission. The vast resources of gas hydrates recognized in southwestern offshore Taiwan makes a great opportunity for Taiwan to have own energy resources in the future. Therefore, Taiwan put significant efforts on the evaluation of gas hydrate reserves recently. Production behavior of natural gas dissociated from gas hydrate deposits is an important issue to the hydrate reserves evaluation. The depressurization method is a useful engineering recovery method for gas production from a class-3 type hydrate deposit. The dissociation efficiency will be affected by the pressure drawdown disturbance. However, when the pore pressure of hydrate deposits is depressurized for gas production, the rock matrix will surfer more stresses and the formation deformation might be occurred. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of geomechanical mechanism on the gas production from a class-3 hydrate deposit using depressurization method. The case of a class-3 type hydrate deposit of Four-Way-Closure Ridge was studied. In this study a reservoir simulator, STARS, was used. STARS is a multiphase flow, heat transfer, geo-chemical and geo-mechanical mechanisms coupling simulator which is capable to simulate the dissociation/reformation of gas hydrate and the deformation of hydrate reservoirs and overburdens. The simulating ability of STARTS simulator was validated by duplicating the hydrate comparison projects of National Energy Technology Lab. The study target, Four-Way-Closure (FWC) Ridge hydrate deposit, was discovered by the bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs). The geological parameters were collected from the geological and

  13. Fracture characterization by fusion of geophysical and geomechanical data: a case study from the Asmari reservoir, the Central Zagros fold-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosari, Ehsan; Ghareh-Cheloo, Sajjad; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali; Bahroudi, Abbas

    2015-02-01

    Fractured reservoirs contain a large proportion of hydrocarbon reserves in the Middle East. In these types of reservoirs, a variety of fracture types and networks provide the required permeability for hydrocarbon storage and flow. Fractured reservoir characterization has been challenging to petroleum geoscientists and reservoir engineers in terms of developing new approaches in this direction. A variety of techniques have been developed in the literature to study the distribution and the impact of fracture pore types on reservoir characterization. However, such techniques are not suitable for subsurface cases where prediction of fractures become troublesome and each of the developed techniques has its own advantages and limitations. In this study, an integrated approach is proposed for fracture characterization by employing different sources of data including 3D seismic attributes, geomechanical parameters, unconventional logs (image log and nuclear magnetic response (NMR) log), velocity-deviation log (VDL), conventional well logs, and routine core analysis data. Based on the azimuths of horizontal principal stresses and natural fractures, location of the wells over the structure hanging wall is determined. Interpretation of the seismic profiles from the study area indicated a fault-related fold structure style with fault throws controlling the magnitude of curvature. Moreover, fracture distribution of the Asmari reservoir is predicted by using curvature attribute, geomechanical parameters and horizontal slices of VDL. It seems that fractures probably have a much higher distribution at zone 1 and zone 3 of the Asmari formation.

  14. Geomechanical Characteristics of Gas Shales: A Case Study in the North Perth Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, Vamegh; Sutherland, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Gas shales are one type of unconventional reservoirs which have attracted significant attention for gas production in recent years. Gas production from very tight shales requires employment of hydraulic fracturing as a stimulation technique. To design hydraulic fracture operation the mechanical properties of the targeted and surrounding formations should be estimated. Also, the magnitude and orientation of in situ stresses in the field need to be known to estimate the fracture initiation and propagation pressures. This study focuses on gas shale characteristics in the North Perth Basin and uses data corresponding to well Arrowsmith-2 (AS-2) which is the first dedicated shale gas well drilled in Western Australia. A log-based analysis was used to build the rock mechanical model (RMM). The RMM results were used to set up a hydraulic fracturing laboratory experiment. The test was done in the presence of three principal stresses to mimic the real field stress conditions. The test results include the pressure-time curve which was used to estimate the initiation and propagation pressure at that depth. The results were used to draw some practical conclusions related to hydraulic fracturing operation in the field.

  15. Consistent lithological units and its influence on geomechanical stratification in shale reservoir: case study from Baltic Basin, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachytel, Radomir; Jarosiński, Marek; Bobek, Kinga

    2017-04-01

    Geomechanical investigations in shale reservoir are crucial to understand rock behavior during hydraulic fracturing treatment and to solve borehole wall stability problem. Anisotropy should be considered as key mechanical parameter while trying to characterize shale properties in variety of scales. We are developing a concept of step-by-step approach to characterize and upscale the Consistent Lithological Units (CLU) at several scales of analysis. We decided that the most regional scale model, comparable to lithostratigraphic formations, is too general for hydraulic fracture propagation study thus a more detailed description is needed. The CLU's hierarchic model aims in upscale elastic properties with their anisotropy based on available data from vertical borehole. For the purpose of our study we have an access to continuous borehole core profile and full set of geophysical logging from several wells in the Pomeranian part of the Ordovician and Silurian shale complex belongs to the Baltic Basin. We are focused on shale properties that might be crucial for mechanical response to hydraulic fracturing: mineral components, porosity, density, elastic parameters and natural fracture pattern. To prepare the precise CLU model we compare several methods of determination and upscaling every single parameter used for consistent units secretion. Mineralogical data taken from ULTRA log, GEM log, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence were compared with Young modulus from sonic logs and Triaxial Compressive Strength Tests. The results showed the impact of clay content and porosity increase on Young's modulus reduction while carbonates (both calcite and dolomite) have stronger impact on elastic modulus growth, more than quartz, represented here mostly by detrital particles. Comparing the shales of similar composition in a few wells of different depths we concluded that differences in diagenesis and compaction due to variation in formation depth in a range of 1 km has negligible

  16. Feasibility study for lowering the minimum gas pressure in solution-mined caverns based on geomechanical analyses of creep-induced damage and healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratigan, J.L.; Nieland, J.D.; Devries, K.L.

    1998-12-31

    Geomechanical analyses were made to determine the minimum gas pressure allowable based on an existing stress-based criterion (Damage Potential) and an advanced constitutive model (MDCF model) capable of quantifying the level of damage and healing in rock salt. The MDCF model is a constitutive model developed for the WIPP to provide a continuum description of the dislocation and damage deformation of salt. The purpose of this study was to determine if the MDCF model is applicable for evaluating the minimum gas pressure of CNG storage caverns. Specifically, it was to be determined if this model would predict that the minimum gas pressure in the caverns could be lowered without compromising the stability of the cavern. Additionally, the healing behavior of the salt was analyzed to determine if complete healing of the damaged rock zone would occur during the period the cavern was at maximum gas pressure. Significant findings of this study are reported.

  17. Caprock integrity analysis in thermal operations: an integrated geomechanics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Safdar; Han, Hongxue; Ansari, Sajjad; Vishteh, Morteza; Khosravi, Nader [Schlumberger Data and Consulting Services (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In heavy oil fields, thermal processes such as steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and cyclic steam simulation (CSS) are used to recover oil. Unfortunately these methods can induce problems of caprock integrity. It is commonly thought that to maintain caprock integrity, the net injection pressure should be kept under the fracture pressure as measured by mini-fracturing tests but cases have shown that failures can occur below this pressure. This paper aimed at presenting a new approach based on geomechanics to evaluate caprock integrity in thermal processes. A study case was conducted on an SAGD pad development in Northern Alberta. Results confirmed that caprock integrity cannot be guaranteed by injecting steam at a pressure lower than the fracture pressure. In addition the geomechanical model can be used to take measures to avoid catastrophic events. A new integrated geomechanical approach for caprock integrity in thermal operations was developed herein and successfully tested in a field study.

  18. Seismic time-lapse monitoring of potential gas hydrate dissociation around boreholes : could it be feasible? A conceptual 2D study linking geomechanical and seismic FD models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecher, I.; Yang, J.; Anderson, R.; Tohidi, B.; MacBeth, C. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Inst. of Petroleum Engineering; Freij-Ayoub, R.; Clennell, B. [CSIRO Petroleum, Bentley, WA (Australia)

    2008-07-01

    Dissociation of gas hydrate to water and potentially overpressured gas around boreholes may pose a hazard for deep-water hydrocarbon production. Strategies to mitigate this risk include monitoring for early detection of dissociation. Seismic methods are especially promising, primarily because of a high sensitivity of P-wave velocity to gas in the pore space of unconsolidated sediments. This paper presented a study that applied commonly used rock physics modeling to predict the seismic response to gas hydrate dissociation with a focus on P-impedance and performed sensitivity tests. The geomechanical model was translated into seismic models. In order to determine which parameters needed to be particularly well calibrated in experimental and modeling studies, the sensitivity of seismic properties to a variation of input parameters was estimated. The seismic response was predicted from dissociating gas hydrates using two-dimensional finite-difference wave-propagation modeling to demonstrate that despite the small predicted lateral extent of hydrate dissociation, its pronounced effect on seismic properties should allow detection with a seismic source on a drilling platform and receivers on the seafloor. The paper described the methods, models, and results of the study. It was concluded that the key factors for predicting the seismic response of sediments to hydrate dissociation were the mode of gas hydrate distribution, gas distribution in the sediments, gas saturation, and pore pressure. 33 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  19. Constitutive Modelling in Geomechanics Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Puzrin, Alexander M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to bridge the gap between the traditional Geomechanics and Numerical Geotechnical Modelling with applications in science and practice. Geomechanics is rarely taught within the rigorous context of Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics, while when it comes to Numerical Modelling, commercially available finite elements or finite differences software utilize constitutive relationships within the rigorous framework. As a result, young scientists and engineers have to learn the challenging subject of constitutive modelling from a program manual and often end up with using unrealistic models which violate the Laws of Thermodynamics.  The book is introductory, by no means does it claim any completeness and state of the art in such a dynamically developing field as numerical and constitutive modelling of soils. The author gives basic understanding of conventional continuum mechanics approaches to constitutive modelling, which can serve as a foundation for exploring more advanced theories....

  20. 90% Compliance Pilot Studies Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    In early 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced an opportunity for states to participate in energy code compliance evaluation pilot studies. DOE worked with five Regional Energy Efficiency Organizations (REEOs, formerly referred to as Energy Efficiency Partnerships, or EEPs) to fund pilot studies covering nine states. This report details conclusions stated in individual state reports, as well as conclusions drawn by DOE based on their oversight of the pilot studies, and based on discussions held with the REEOs and representatives from the pilot study states and their contractors.

  1. An observational study of hand hygiene compliance in paediatric wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randle, Jacqueline; Firth, Joseph; Vaughan, Natalie

    2013-09-01

    To measure healthcare workers', children's and visitors' hand hygiene compliance in a paediatric oncology ward and a paediatric respiratory ward in an English hospital. Children are especially vulnerable to healthcare-associated infections, yet few studies have reported on hand hygiene compliance in paediatric clinical areas. This was an observational study. We measured hand hygiene compliance over an eight-hour period in two hospital wards using the 'five moments of hand hygiene' observation tool. We monitored a total of 407 hand hygiene opportunities. Overall opportunities for compliance were 74% for healthcare workers (n = 315) and children and visitors 23% (n = 92). Compliance was 84% for allied health professionals, 81% for doctors, 75% for nurses and 73% for ancillary and other staff. Hand hygiene compliance varied depending on which of the five moments of hygiene healthcare workers were undertaking (p hygiene compliance, and for visitors to the oncology ward, hand hygiene compliance was higher (p hygiene compliance; however, visitors' compliance was low. Among healthcare workers, levels of compliance were higher compared with previous reported estimates. Visitors had the lowest level of compliance yet owing to the nature of the clinical environments, nearly a quarter of care is delivered by them rather than healthcare workers, and so, this offers opportunities for specific future interventions aimed at families and carers. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. COMPLIANCE STUDIES: WHAT ABOUT THE FISH?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley, Christa M.; Fischer, Eric S.; Wagner, Katie A.; Weiland, Mark A.; Eppard, M. B.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2013-08-21

    ABSTRACT It is understood that operational and structural conditions at hydroelectric facilities along with environmental conditions of the migration corridors affect the passage conditions for fish. Hydropower fish survival assessments at the individual- and population-level have progressed over the past decade with development of turbine simulation software and improvements in telemetry systems, in particular, micro-transmitters, cabled and autonomous receivers, and advanced statistical designs that provide precise estimates of passage routes and dam-passage survival. However, these approaches often ignore fish condition as a variable in passage and survival analyses. To account for fish condition effects on survival results, compliance statistical models often require increased numbers of tagged fish. For example, prior to and during migration, fish encounter numerous stressors (e.g., disease, predation, contact with structures, decompression events), all of which can cause physical and physiological stress, altering the probability of survival after passage through a dam or a series of dams. In addition, the effects of surgical transmitter implantation process or the transmitter itself may cause physiological stress, alter behavior, and/or decrease survival. Careful physiological evaluations can augment survival model assumptions, resultant data, and predictive scenarios. To exemplify this, surgeons concurrently noted fish condition and surgical implantation during a multi-dam compliance study in 2011. The analyses indicted that surgeon observations on fish condition and surgical outcomes were related to 24 h holding mortalities and fish that never detected after release. Short reach and long reach survival were related to surgical outcomes and fish condition, respectively.

  3. Geomechanical Performance of Hydrate-Bearing Sediments in Offshore Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen A. Holditch

    2006-12-31

    The main objective of this study is to develop the necessary knowledge base and quantitative predictive capability for the description of geomechanical performance of hydrate bearing sediments (hereafter referred to as HBS) in oceanic environments. The focus is on the determination of the envelope of hydrate stability under conditions typical of those related to the construction and operation of offshore platforms. To achieve this objective, we have developed a robust numerical simulator of hydrate behavior in geologic media by coupling a reservoir model with a commercial geomechanical code. To be sure our geomechanical modeling is realistic, we are also investigating the geomechanical behavior of oceanic HBS using pore-scale models (conceptual and mathematical) of fluid flow, stress analysis, and damage propagation. In Phase II of the project, we will review all published core data and generate additional core data to verify the models. To generate data for our models, we are using data from the literature and we will be conducting laboratory studies in 2007 that generate data to (1) evaluate the conceptual pore-scale models, (2) calibrate the mathematical models, (3) determine dominant relations and critical parameters defining the geomechanical behavior of HBS, and (4) establish relationships between the geomechanical status of HBS and the corresponding geophysical signature. The milestones for Phase I of this project are given as follows: Literature survey on typical sediments containing gas hydrates in the ocean (TAMU); Recommendations on how to create typical sediments in the laboratory (TAMU); Demonstrate that typical sediments can be created in a repeatable manner in the laboratory and gas hydrates can be created in the pore space (TAMU); Develop a conceptual pore-scale model based on available data and reports (UCB); Test the developed pore-scale concepts on simple configurations and verify the results against known measurements and observations (UCB

  4. The Geomechanics of CO2 Storage in Deep Sedimentary Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-12

    This study provides a review of the geomechanics and modeling of geomechanics associated with geologic carbon storage (GCS), focusing on storage in deep sedimentary formations, in particular saline aquifers. The paper first introduces the concept of storage in deep sedimentary formations, the geomechanical processes and issues related with such an operation, and the relevant geomechanical modeling tools. This is followed by a more detailed review of geomechanical aspects, including reservoir stress-strain and microseismicity, well integrity, caprock sealing performance, and the potential for fault reactivation and notable (felt) seismic events. Geomechanical observations at current GCS field deployments, mainly at the In Salah CO2 storage project in Algeria, are also integrated into the review. The In Salah project, with its injection into a relatively thin, low-permeability sandstone is an excellent analogue to the saline aquifers that might be used for large scale GCS in parts of Northwest Europe, the U.S. Midwest, and China. Some of the lessons learned at In Salah related to geomechanics are discussed, including how monitoring of geomechanical responses is used for detecting subsurface geomechanical changes and tracking fluid movements, and how such monitoring and geomechanical analyses have led to preventative changes in the injection parameters. Recently, the importance of geomechanics has become more widely recognized among GCS stakeholders, especially with respect to the potential for triggering notable (felt) seismic events and how such events could impact the long-term integrity of a CO2 repository (as well as how it could impact the public perception of GCS). As described in the paper, to date, no notable seismic event has been reported from any of the current CO2 storage projects, although some unfelt microseismic activities have been detected by geophones. However, potential future commercial GCS operations from large

  5. Therapeutic compliance of first line disease-modifying therapies in patients with multiple sclerosis. COMPLIANCE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, A; Mora, S; Blanco, J

    2015-05-01

    Non-adherence to disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in multiple sclerosis may be associated with reduced efficacy. We assessed compliance, the reasons for non-compliance, treatment satisfaction, and quality of life (QoL) of patients treated with first-line therapies. A cross-sectional, multicenter study was conducted that included relapsing multiple sclerosis patients. Compliance in the past month was assessed using Morisky-Green test. Seasonal compliance and reasons for non-compliance were assessed by an ad-hoc questionnaire. Treatment satisfaction and QoL were evaluated by means of TSQM and PRIMUS questionnaires. A total of 220 patients were evaluated (91% relapsing-remitting); the mean age was 39.1 years, 70% were female, and the average time under treatment was 5.4 years. Subcutaneous interferon (IFN) β-1b was used in 23% of the patients, intramuscular IFN β-1a in 21%, subcutaneous IFN β-1a in 37%, and with glatiramer acetate in 19%. The overall compliance was 75%, with no significant differences related to the therapy, and 81% did not report any seasonal variation. Compliant patients had significantly lower disability scores and time of diagnosis, and greater satisfaction with treatment and its effectiveness. Discomfort and flu-like symptoms were the most frequent reasons for non-compliance. The satisfaction and QoL were associated with less disability and number of therapeutic switches. The rate of compliance, satisfaction and QoL in multiple sclerosis patients under DMTs is high, especially for those newly diagnosed, less disabled, and with fewer therapeutic switches. Discomfort and flu-like symptoms associated with injected therapies significantly affect adherence. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. A 3D elasto-plastic FEM program developed for reservoir Geomechanics simulations: Introduction and case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Chamani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of yielded or failure zone due to an engineering construction is a subject of study in different disciplines. In Petroleum engineering, depletion from and injection of gas into a porous rock can cause development of a yield zone around the reservoir. Studying this phenomenon requires elasto-plastic analysis of geomaterial, in this case the porous rocks. In this study, which is a continuation of a previous study investigating the elastic behaviour of geomaterial, the elasto-plastic responses of geomaterial were studied. A 3D finite element code (FEM was developed, which can consider different constitutive models. The code features were explained and some case studies were presented to validate the output results of the code. The numerical model was, then, applied to study the development of the plastic zone around a horizontal porous formation subjected to the injection of gas. The model is described in detail and the results are presented. It was observed that by reducing the cohesion of rocks the extension of the plastic zone increased. Comparing to the elastic model, the ability to estimate the extension of the yield and failure zone is the main advantage of an elasto-plastic model.

  7. 地质力学电磁场模型试验相似理论研究%Study of similarity theory of geomechanical model test in electromagnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗先启; 程圣国; 张振华; 唐凯

    2011-01-01

    地质力学磁力模型试验是利用电磁力模拟重力、电磁力场模拟重力场的原理建立的地质力学模型试验理论与方法.其试验相似判据可根据相似理论的3个基本原理推导.用量纲分析和方程推导均可得到各参数相似判据为ψ*=ε*=μ*=1,l*=u*=n,p*=σ*=E*=c*=1,k*=v*=q*=1,t*=n,p*=1,g*=1/n.在模型中,时间t、几何尺度l缩小n倍,重力加速度g扩大n倍,而材料的其他基本物理力学参数ψ、ε、μ、σ、E、c、k、v、q、p的相似比均为1,从理论上说可采用结构的原型材料进行地质力学磁力模型试验,这在模型试验的操作上十分方便.%Geomechanical model test based on electromagnetic force is one of the newest efforts.lts theory and method test are established with electromagnetic force to simulate gravity or electromagnetic field to simulate gravity field.Geomechanical problem can be studied by the model test of electromagnetic force.Based on three principles of the similarity theory.the similarity criterion of test can be deduced.Using dimensional analysis and equation deduction similarity criteria of the parameters are obtained as follows:Φ* =ε* =μ* =1, l* =μ* = n.p* =(o)* = E* = c* =1 , k* = v* = q* =1,t* =n, p* =1, g* = l/n.In the model, the time t and the geometrical dimension l reduce n times; the acceleration of gravity g amplifies n times; the similarity ratios of the other basic material physico-mechanical parameters such as (Φ, ε, ,U, (o), E, c.k, v, q, p are all 1.The geomechanical model test based on electromagnet force can use prototype material of the structure.which can provide convenience in model test operating.

  8. Geomechanical paleostress inversion using fracture data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maerten, Laurent; Maerten, Frantz; Lejri, Mostfa; Gillespie, Paul

    2016-08-01

    We describe a fast geomechanically-based paleostress inversion technique that uses observed fracture data to constrain stress through multiple simulations. The method assumes that the local stress field around individual fractures is heterogeneous and derives the far field tectonic stress, that we also call the far field boundary conditions. We show how such far field tectonic stress can be recovered through a mechanical stress inversion technique using local observations of natural fractures (i.e. mechanical type, orientation and location). We test the paleostress inversion against outcrop analogues of fractured carbonates from both Nash Point, U.K., where there are well exposed faults and joints and the Matelles, France, where there are well exposed faults, veins and stylolites. We demonstrate through these case studies how the method can be efficiently applied to natural examples and we highlight its advantages and limitations. We discuss how such method could be applied to subsurface problems and how it can provide complementary constraints to drive discrete fracture models for better fractured reservoir characterization and modelling.

  9. Phonetic compliance: a proof-of-concept study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique eDelvaux

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the concept of phonetic compliance, which is defined as the intrinsic individual ability to produce speech sounds that are unusual in the native language, and constitutes a part of the ability to acquire L2 phonetics and phonology. We argue that phonetic compliance represents a systematic source of variance that needs to be accounted for if one wants to improve the control over the independent variables manipulated in SLA experimental studies. We then present the results of a two-fold proof-of-concept study aimed at testing the feasibility of assessing phonetic compliance in terms of gradient. In study 1, a pilot data collection paradigm is implemented on an occasional sample of 10 native French speakers engaged in two reproduction tasks involving respectively vowels and aspirated stops, and data are analysed using descriptive statistics. In study 2, complementary data including L1-typical realizations are collected, resulting in the development of a first set of indicators that may be useful to appropriately assess, and further refine the concept of, phonetic compliance. Based on a critical analysis of the contributions and limitations of the proof-of-concept study, general discussion formulates the guidelines for the following stages of development of a reliable and valid test of phonetic compliance.

  10. Prediction of Geomechanical Properties from Thermal Conductivity of Low-Permeable Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekhonin, Evgeny; Popov, Evgeny; Popov, Yury; Spasennykh, Mikhail; Ovcharenko, Yury; Zhukov, Vladislav; Martemyanov, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    A key to assessing a sedimentary basin's hydrocarbon prospect is correct reconstruction of thermal and structural evolution. It is impossible without adequate theory and reliable input data including among other factors thermal and geomechanical rock properties. Both these factors are also important in geothermal reservoirs evaluation and carbon sequestration problem. Geomechanical parameters are usually estimated from sonic logging and rare laboratory measurements, but sometimes it is not possible technically (low quality of the acoustic signal, inappropriate borehole and mud conditions, low core quality). No wonder that there are attempts to correlate the thermal and geomechanical properties of rock, but no one before did it with large amount of high quality thermal conductivity data. Coupling results of sonic logging and non-destructive non-contact thermal core logging opens wide perspectives for studying a relationship between the thermal and geomechanical properties. More than 150 m of full size cores have been measured at core storage with optical scanning technique. Along with results of sonic logging performed with Sonic Scanner in different wells drilled in low permeable formations in West Siberia (Russia) it provided us with unique data set. It was established a strong correlation between components of thermal conductivity (measured perpendicular and parallel to bedding) and compressional and shear acoustic velocities in Bazhen formation. As a result, prediction of geomechanical properties via thermal conductivity data becomes possible, corresponding results was demonstrated. The work was supported by the Russian Ministry of Education and Science, project No. RFMEFI58114X0008.

  11. Shale Gas Geomechanics for Development and Performance of Unconventional Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domonik, Andrzej; Łukaszewski, Paweł; Wilczyński, Przemysław; Dziedzic, Artur; Łukasiak, Dominik; Bobrowska, Alicja

    2017-04-01

    Mechanical properties of individual shale formations are predominantly determined by their lithology, which reflects sedimentary facies distribution, and subsequent diagenetic and tectonic alterations. Shale rocks may exhibit complex elasto-viscoplastic deformation mechanisms depending on the rate of deformation and the amount of clay minerals, also bearing implications for subcritical crack growth and heterogeneous fracture network development. Thus, geomechanics for unconventional resources differs from conventional reservoirs due to inelastic matrix behavior, stress sensitivity, rock anisotropy and low matrix permeability. Effective horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies are required to obtain and maintain high performance. Success of these techniques strongly depends on the geomechanical investigations of shales. An inelastic behavior of shales draws increasing attention of investigators [1], due to its role in stress relaxation between fracturing phases. A strong mechanical anisotropy in the vertical plane and a lower and more variable one in the horizontal plane are characteristic for shale rocks. The horizontal anisotropy plays an important role in determining the direction and effectiveness of propagation of technological hydraulic fractures. Non-standard rock mechanics laboratory experiments are being applied in order to obtain the mechanical properties of shales that have not been previously studied in Poland. Novel laboratory investigations were carried out to assess the creep parameters and to determine time-dependent viscoplastic deformation of shale samples, which can provide a limiting factor to tectonic stresses and control stress change caused by hydraulic fracturing. The study was supported by grant no.: 13-03-00-501-90-472946 "An integrated geomechanical investigation to enhance gas extraction from the Pomeranian shale formations", funded by the National Centre for Research and Development (NCBiR). References: Ch. Chang M. D

  12. Hypertension Treatment Compliance: A Study on Blacks and Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Irene

    1980-01-01

    Because high blood pressure is generally asymptomatic, it is difficult to inspire patients to adhere to proper treatment regimens. Case studies of nine patients, mostly Black, showed that compliance problems can be overcome if people are impressed with the idea that hypertension is a disease and not merely a symptom. (Author/GC)

  13. Geomechanical Performance of Hydrate-Bearing Sediment in Offshore Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Holditch; Tad Patzek; Jonny Rutqvist; George Moridis; Richard Plumb

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this multi-year, multi-institutional research project was to develop the knowledge base and quantitative predictive capability for the description of geomechanical performance of hydrate-bearing sediments (hereafter referred to as HBS) in oceanic environments. The focus was on the determination of the envelope of hydrate stability under conditions typical of those related to the construction and operation of offshore platforms. We have developed a robust numerical simulator of hydrate behavior in geologic media by coupling a reservoir model with a commercial geomechanical code. We also investigated the geomechanical behavior of oceanic HBS using pore-scale models (conceptual and mathematical) of fluid flow, stress analysis, and damage propagation. The objective of the UC Berkeley work was to develop a grain-scale model of hydrate-bearing sediments. Hydrate dissociation alters the strength of HBS. In particular, transformation of hydrate clusters into gas and liquid water weakens the skeleton and, simultaneously, reduces the effective stress by increasing the pore pressure. The large-scale objective of the study is evaluation of geomechanical stability of offshore oil and gas production infrastructure. At Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), we have developed the numerical model TOUGH + Hydrate + FLAC3D to evaluate how the formation and disassociation of hydrates in seafloor sediments affects seafloor stability. Several technical papers were published using results from this model. LBNL also developed laboratory equipment and methods to produce realistic laboratory samples of sediments containing gas hydrates so that mechanical properties could be measured in the laboratory. These properties are required to run TOUGH + Hydrate + FLAC3D to evaluate seafloor stability issues. At Texas A&M University we performed a detailed literature review to determine what gas hydrate formation properties had been measured and reported in the literature. We

  14. Geomechanics response and induced seismicity during gas field depletion in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D.A.M. van; Buijze, L.; Thienen-Visser, K. van; Nepveu, M.; Wassing, B.B.T.; Orlic, B.; Fokker, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a review ofcontrolling geological, tectonic and engineering factors lor induced seismic¡ty associated to gas depletion in the Netherlands and we place experiences from extensive Dutch geomechanical studies in the past decade in the contex[ ofgeneric models for induced seismi

  15. From Injectivity to Integrity Studies of CO{sub 2} Geological Storage Chemical Alteration Effects on Carbonates Petrophysical and Geomechanical Properties; Caracterisation de l'injectivite et de l'integrite d'un stockage geologique de CO{sub 2}: Effets d'une alteration chimique sur les proprietes petrophysiques et geomecaniques des roches carbonatees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemer, E.; Lombard, J.M. [Institut francais du petrole, IFP, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2010-05-15

    The technical and economical success of a CO{sub 2} geological storage project requires the preservation of the site injectivity and integrity properties over its lifetime. Unlike conventional hydrocarbon gas injection, CO{sub 2} injection implies geochemical reactions between the reactive brine and the in situ formations (reservoir and cap rock) leading to modifications of their petrophysical and geomechanical properties. This paper underlines the experimental difficulties raised by the low permeability of samples representative either of the cap rock itself or at least of transition zones between the reservoir and the effective cap rock. Acidification effects induced by CO{sub 2} injection have been studied using an experimental procedure of chemical alteration, which ensures a homogeneous dissolution pattern throughout the rock sample and especially avoids any worm-holing process that would lead to erroneous measurements at the core scale. Porosity, permeability and geomechanical properties of outcrop and field carbonate samples of various permeability levels have been measured under their native state and different levels of alteration. The present work has been conducted within the framework of ANR GeoCarbone-INJECTIVITY and GeoCarbone-INTEGRITY projects. Each experimental step: chemical alteration, petrophysical measurements and geomechanical testing, is considered from the point of view of injectivity and integrity issues. The obtained experimental data show clear trends of chemically induced mechanical weakening. (authors)

  16. Production-induced changes in reservoir geomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoyedo, Sunday O.

    sensitivity of the reservoir and overburden shale of Forties Field, I observe that while pore pressure variations have not been significant in most parts of the field, a relatively higher decrease in pore pressure in a region of the reservoir has affected the geomechanical properties of both reservoir and overlying rock strata . I found that strain development in the field accounts, in part, for increased reservoir sand production and a negative velocity change in the overburden, which provides an indication of dilation. I use changes in the AVO intercept and gradient calibrated with laboratory measurements to decouple the time-lapse (4D) difference into saturation and pressure changes. Furthermore, I propose a new modification to time-lapse AVO inversion workflows to account for the effect of porosity change in measurements of time-lapse difference. This is particularly crucial in highly-compacting chalk and poorly consolidated clastic reservoirs. Rock-physics-driven inversion of 3D pre-stack seismic data plays a prominent role in the characterization of both reservoir and overburden rocks. Understanding the rock physics of the overburden rock is required for efficient production of the reservoir and to safeguard wellbore, down-hole assembly and supporting surface facilities. Taking Forties Field as a case study, I observe that while instability and subsequent failure of the overburden in the field can be linked to the rapid decrease of the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) at inclinations close to 45 degrees to the bedding plan, some zones in the overburden are characterized by extreme weakness regardless of the well angle through the rock. I use the correlation between unconfined compressive strength and elastic moduli (Young's and Bulk moduli), coupled with the results of simultaneous inversion to derive 3D elastic moduli, calibrated to laboratory measurements, to characterize the zones of extreme weakness. Time-lapse gravimetry continues to find increasing

  17. Compliance of Children with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disability to Treadmill Walking: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashdi, E.; Hutzler, Y.; Roth, D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Individuals with Intellectual Disability (ID) exhibit reduced levels of compliance to exercise, including treadmill walking. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of several training conditions on compliance to participation in treadmill walking of children with moderate to severe ID. Method: Criteria for compliance were…

  18. Geomechanical and Petrophysical Properties of Rift Basin Mudstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, N. V.; Goldberg, D.; Collins, D.; Malkewicz, N.

    2015-12-01

    Mudstone caprocks are important components of reservoir systems in a variety of geologic and geoingeneering applications, but their properties and behavior under in situ conditions remain only partially understood. This study presents a detailed analysis of geomechanical and petrophysical properties of 20 lacustrine mudstones from the Mesozoic Newark Rift Basin, the largest of exposed rift basins in eastern North America, considered as a potential CO2 sequestration site. The samples were selected to represent variable lithology, organic content, redox state, structure (massive and thinly bedded), degree of matrix anisotropy, and burial depths. An extensive characterization program was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and included laboratory CT scans, XRD, SEM, MICP, porosity, permeability, and acoustic velocity measurements, as well as geomechanical testing of both matrix and fracture strength under a range of confining pressures. Core measurements were integrated with available logging data to allow for multiscale comparison and correlation. Most of the analyzed mudstones have the clay content of 50-70%, with abundant mica and detrital grains. The pore system is dominated by narrow micropores (mostly <5-100 microns wide), and nano-scale pore throats (0.005-0.05 microns). Full Mohr-Coulomb failure envelopes built for each mudstone type indicate a large variability in projected unconfined strength and the coefficient of internal friction. The dataset allows building empirical relations between compositional, structural and mechanical properties of these lacustrine mudstones, as well as physical parameters such as acoustic velocity (both laboratory and logging) and elastic moduli. These relations can be applied to other lacustrine mudstones in the East American rift basins, and provide important information for caprock stability modeling in these basins.

  19. Were the May 2012 Emilia-Romagna earthquakes induced? A coupled flow-geomechanics modeling assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juanes, R.; Jha, B.; Hager, B. H.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Astiz, L.; Dieterich, J. H.; Frohlich, C.

    2016-07-01

    Seismicity induced by fluid injection and withdrawal has emerged as a central element of the scientific discussion around subsurface technologies that tap into water and energy resources. Here we present the application of coupled flow-geomechanics simulation technology to the post mortem analysis of a sequence of damaging earthquakes (Mw = 6.0 and 5.8) in May 2012 near the Cavone oil field, in northern Italy. This sequence raised the question of whether these earthquakes might have been triggered by activities due to oil and gas production. Our analysis strongly suggests that the combined effects of fluid production and injection from the Cavone field were not a driver for the observed seismicity. More generally, our study illustrates that computational modeling of coupled flow and geomechanics permits the integration of geologic, seismotectonic, well log, fluid pressure and flow rate, and geodetic data and provides a promising approach for assessing and managing hazards associated with induced seismicity.

  20. Improving ambulatory saliva-sampling compliance in pregnant women: a randomized controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Moeller

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Noncompliance with scheduled ambulatory saliva sampling is common and has been associated with biased cortisol estimates in nonpregnant subjects. This study is the first to investigate in pregnant women strategies to improve ambulatory saliva-sampling compliance, and the association between sampling noncompliance and saliva cortisol estimates. METHODS: We instructed 64 pregnant women to collect eight scheduled saliva samples on two consecutive days each. Objective compliance with scheduled sampling times was assessed with a Medication Event Monitoring System and self-reported compliance with a paper-and-pencil diary. In a randomized controlled study, we estimated whether a disclosure intervention (informing women about objective compliance monitoring and a reminder intervention (use of acoustical reminders improved compliance. A mixed model analysis was used to estimate associations between women's objective compliance and their diurnal cortisol profiles, and between deviation from scheduled sampling and the cortisol concentration measured in the related sample. RESULTS: Self-reported compliance with a saliva-sampling protocol was 91%, and objective compliance was 70%. The disclosure intervention was associated with improved objective compliance (informed: 81%, noninformed: 60%, F(1,60  = 17.64, p<0.001, but not the reminder intervention (reminders: 68%, without reminders: 72%, F(1,60 = 0.78, p = 0.379. Furthermore, a woman's increased objective compliance was associated with a higher diurnal cortisol profile, F(2,64  = 8.22, p<0.001. Altered cortisol levels were observed in less objective compliant samples, F(1,705  = 7.38, p = 0.007, with delayed sampling associated with lower cortisol levels. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that in pregnant women, objective noncompliance with scheduled ambulatory saliva sampling is common and is associated with biased cortisol estimates. To improve sampling compliance, results suggest

  1. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERCEPTIONS AND LEVEL OF COMPLIANCE UNDER SELF ASSESSMENT SYSTEM – A STUDY IN THE EAST COAST REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Marziana Bt. Hj. Mohamad; Norkhazimah Bt. Ahmad; Mohmad Sakarnor Bin Deris

    2010-01-01

    There are three major theoretical perspectives on tax compliance. The first theory perceived that tax compliance is deterred by sanction (Title, C. 1980). Second Theory perceived tax compliance as purely economic decision (Allingham & Sandmo, 1972), while the third theory suggested that tax compliance is determined by non economic factor such as demographic attributes, attitudes and perception towards taxation. In this study, we try to understand tax compliance by using the third model (Kinse...

  2. Catch tank code compliance evaluation and alternatives study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattichak, R.W., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-18

    Evaluation for underground catch tanks against specific criteria by reviewing drawings, documents and conducting interviews with cognizant engineers. The results of this review are documented in a compliance matrix.

  3. Sociodemographic and clinical predictors of compliance with antidepressants for depressive disorders: systematic review of observational studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivero-Santana A

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Amado Rivero-Santana,1 Lilisbeth Perestelo-Perez,2,3 Jeanette Pérez-Ramos,1 Pedro Serrano-Aguilar,2,3 Carlos De las Cuevas2,4 1Canary Islands Foundation of Health and Research, 2Red de Investigacion en Servicios de Salud en Enfermedades Cronicas (REDISSEC, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, 3Evaluation Unit, Canary Islands Health Service, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, 4Department of Psychiatry, University of La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain Background: The literature shows that compliance with antidepressant treatment is unsatisfactory. Several personal and disease-related variables have been shown to be related to compliance behavior. The objective of this study was to review the literature about sociodemographic and clinical predictors of compliance in patients with depressive disorders. Methods: The Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central, PsycInfo, and Cinahl databases were searched until May 2012. Studies that analyzed sociodemographic and clinical predictors or correlates of compliance in patients with depressive disorder were included. A quantitative synthesis was not performed because of the heterogeneity and availability of the data reported. For similar reasons, the results were not classified according to the different phases of treatment. The search was limited to studies published in English and Spanish. Results: Thirty-two studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The most consistent associations with compliance were found for age (older patients showed more compliance and race (white patients were more likely to adhere to treatment than minority ethnic groups. Few studies assessed clinical factors, and the most plausible predictors of compliance were certain comorbidities and substance abuse. Severity of depression did not play an important role in predicting compliance. Conclusion: The impact of the variables studied on compliance behavior appeared to be inconsistent. Identifying potential predictors of compliance with antidepressant treatment is

  4. Analysis of stress and geomechanical properties in the Niobrara Formation of Wattenberg Field, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazulis, Alexandra K.

    In Wattenberg Field the Niobrara Formation is the primary productive zone for horizontal drilling and completions. It is an unconventional reservoir made up of alternating chalk and marl layers which require hydraulic fracturing for completion. The main study area for this project is a four square mile region where time-lapse multicomponent seismic surveys have been acquired. This area includes the Wishbone section, where 11 horizontal wells have been drilled, and is the focus of dynamic reservoir characterization. The primary goal of this research study is to investigate relationships between geomechanics, stress and fractures. Determining the geomechanical properties of the reservoir is essential for better reservoir management. Geology is the main driver controlling production, due to the presence of fault compartmentalization in the field. The central graben, within the Wishbone section, causes geologic heterogeneity and displays signs of high net pressure. This is due to a larger increase in pore pressure, ultimately decreasing effective stress. Outside of the graben, naturally fractured areas, displaying decreasing net pressure trends, will maximize fracture network surface area during completions. This allows for a larger volume of rock to be stimulated, and a greater chance of opening pre-existing fractures. As far as re-fracturing efforts are concerned, areas outside of the graben which are brittle and have low stress anisotropy should be targeted to create complex fracture networks. Geomechanical and stress information about the reservoir is vital for predicting fracture propagation. After investigation of fracture characterization trends, we have a better understanding of stimulated areas within the Wishbone section. Specific completion techniques can be applied to stages based on geomechanical properties and geologic location. Fracture networks defined through the integrated dynamic reservoir characterization process provide targets for future re

  5. Numerical Modeling of Geomechanical Processes Related to CO{sub 2} Injection within Generic Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, Andreas

    2013-05-31

    In this project generic anticline structures have been used for numerical modeling analyses to study the influence of geometrical parameters, fluid flow boundary conditions, in situ stress regime and inter-bedding friction coefficient on geomechanical risks such as fracture reactivation and fracture generation. The resulting stress states for these structures are also used to determine safe drilling directions and a methodology for wellbore trajection optimization is developed that is applicable for non-Andersonian stress states. The results of the fluid flow simulation show that the type of fluid flow boundary condition is of utmost importance and has significant impact on all injection related parameters. It is recommended that further research is conducted to establish a method to quantify the fluid flow boundary conditions for injection applications. The results of the geomechanical simulation show that in situ stress regime is a crucial, if not the most important, factor determining geomechanical risks. For extension and strike slip stress regimes anticline structures should be favored over horizontally layered basin as they feature higher ΔP{sub c} magnitudes. If sedimentary basins are tectonically relaxed and their state of stress is characterized by the uni-axial strain model the basin is in exact frictional equilibrium and fluids should not be injected. The results also show that low inter bedding friction coefficients effectively decouple layers resulting in lower ΔP{sub c} magnitudes, especially for the compressional stress regime.

  6. Geomechanical Characterization and Stability Analysis of the Bedrock Underlying the Costa Concordia Cruise Ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotta, Giulia; Gigli, Giovanni; Ferrigno, Federica; Gabbani, Giuliano; Nocentini, Massimiliano; Lombardi, Luca; Agostini, Andrea; Nolesini, Teresa; Casagli, Nicola

    2017-09-01

    The shipwreck of the Costa Concordia cruise ship, which ran aground on 13 January 2012 on the northwestern coast of Giglio Island (Italy), required continuous monitoring of the position and movement of the vessel to guarantee the security of workers and rescuers operating around and within the wreck and to support shipwreck removal operations. Furthermore, understanding the geomechanical properties and stability behaviour of the coastal rock mass and rocky seabed underlying the ship was of similar importance. To assess the stability conditions of the ship, a ground-based monitoring system was installed in front of the wreck. The network included a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) device, which was used to perform remote semiautomatic geomechanical characterization of the observed rock mass. Using TLS survey techniques, three main discontinuity sets were identified in the granitic rock mass of Giglio Island. Furthermore, a multibeam bathymetric survey was used to qualitatively characterize the seabed. To integrate the processed TLS data and quantitatively describe the rock mass quality, a subsequent field survey was carried out to provide a rock mass geomechanical evaluation (from very good to moderate quality). Based on the acquired information, kinematic and stability analyses were performed to create a spatial prediction of rock failure mechanisms in the study area. The obtained kinematic hazard index values were generally low; only the plane failure index reached slightly higher values. The general stability of the rock mass was confirmed by the stability analysis, which yielded a high safety factor value (approximately 12).

  7. Geomechanically Coupled Simulation of Flow in Fractured Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, C.; Moos, D.; Hartley, L.; Baxter, S.; Foulquier, L.; Holl, H.; Hogarth, R.

    2012-12-01

    Capturing the necessary and sufficient detail of reservoir hydraulics to accurately evaluate reservoir behavior remains a significant challenge to the exploitation and management of fracture-dominated geothermal reservoirs. In these low matrix permeability reservoirs, stimulation response is controlled largely by the properties of natural and induced fracture networks, which are in turn controlled by the in situ stresses, the fracture distribution and connectivity and the hydraulic behavior of the fractures. This complex interaction of fracture flow systems with the present-day stress field compounds the problem of developing an effective and efficient simulation to characterize, model and predict fractured reservoir performance. We discuss here a case study of the integration of geological, geophysical, geomechanical, and reservoir engineering data to characterize the in situ stresses, the natural fracture network and the controls on fracture permeability in geothermal reservoirs. A 3D geomechanical reservoir model includes constraints on stress magnitudes and orientations, and constraints on mechanical rock properties and the fractures themselves. Such a model is essential to understanding reservoir response to stimulation and production in low matrix permeability, fracture-dominated reservoirs. The geomechanical model for this study was developed using petrophysical, drilling, and wellbore image data along with direct well test measurements and was mapped to a 3D structural grid to facilitate coupled simulation of the fractured reservoir. Wellbore image and stimulation test data were used along with microseismic data acquired during the test to determine the reservoir fracture architecture and to provide control points for a realistic inter-connected discrete fracture network. As most fractures are stress-sensitive, their hydraulic conductivities will change with changes in bottomhole flowing and reservoir pressures, causing variations in production profiles

  8. Compliance to drug treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis : A 3 year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viller, F.; Guillemin, F.; Briancon, S.; Moum, T.; Suurmeijer, T.; van den Heuvel, W.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. Patient compliance is considered necessary for the success of drug treatment in chronic diseases. We document compliance with drug treatment and the factors affecting it in a cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. A prospective cohort study of 556 patients with RA fol

  9. Compliance to drug treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis : A 3 year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viller, F.; Guillemin, F.; Briancon, S.; Moum, T.; Suurmeijer, T.; van den Heuvel, W.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. Patient compliance is considered necessary for the success of drug treatment in chronic diseases. We document compliance with drug treatment and the factors affecting it in a cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. A prospective cohort study of 556 patients with RA

  10. Patient compliance and supportive periodontal therapy: Study among young adults of Namakkal district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanium Gokulanathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study is to assess the patient compliance to supportive and maintenance periodontal therapy and to determine the reason for noncompliance among young adult patients of Namakkal district, India. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 400 patients who underwent periodontal therapy and subsequently recalled for supportive and maintenance periodontal treatment in the Department of Periodontics, Vivekanandha Dental College for Women, Namakkal. Patients age group 25-35 years and of both gender were equally selected and grouped by occupation and socioeconomic status. According to their compliance with appointments, they are categorized as complete compliance, partially compliance and insufficient or noncompliance. Noncompliance and partially compliance patients were contacted and asked to rate their experience and reason for noncompliance. Results: In this study, 80% of patients showed complete compliance and were regular for supportive periodontal therapy appointments. Women were more regular in maintaining recall appointments than men. Salaried employers showed 84.3% complete compliance, while self-employed personals showed 77% complete compliance and 75% of nonworking personals were regular to the appointment schedule. Noncompliance person has quoted lack of time and forgetting the appointment date as a major reason for missed appointments. Conclusions: This study recommends the need for improvement in communication skills of practitioners and weekend appointment for patient undergoing periodontal maintenance therapy.

  11. Observational study of compliance with Queensland bicycle helmet laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Ashim Kumar; Haworth, Narelle; Schramm, Amy; Williamson, Amy

    2016-12-01

    Mandatory bicycle helmet laws have been found to increase helmet wearing rates in Australia and internationally. However, much of the research on factors influencing compliance with the Australian helmet laws is dated or focuses on commuters and city areas only. To address this gap, video recordings of bicycle riders were undertaken at 17 sites across Queensland, Australia, representing a mixture of on- and off-road locations, speed limits and regions. Helmet status was able to be determined for 98% of riders observed. The level of compliance with the laws was very high, with 98.3% of the more than 27,000 riders observed wearing helmets. Riders riding on roads were less compliant than those riding on bicycle paths, but no significant differences were observed between the school-holiday and school-term periods. Among the on-road riders, boys were less compliant than girls and overall children were less compliant than adults. Higher compliance levels were found for group riders, road bike riders, lycra-clad riders, during morning hours, and on 50km/h or lower speed limit roads. While the overall level of compliance was very high, certain subgroups were identified as a possible focus for interventions to further improve the compliance level, for example children (particularly boys) riding mountain bikes away from groups during the afternoon hours on 60km/h roads.

  12. Towards a geomechanics classification of folded layered rock masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliardi, Federico; Zanchi, Andrea; Bianchi, Federico; Crosta, Giovanni B.

    2016-04-01

    Several schemes have been proposed in the last decades to account for the effects of structure and alteration of rock masses on their geo-mechanical properties. Among these, the Geological Strength Index (GSI) turned out as the most effective to account for complex geological conditions, including heavily fractured, heterogeneous (e.g. flysch-like) or tectonically disturbed rock masses. It is well known that folding has a direct impact on the type and degree of fracturing. Nevertheless, no classification scheme has been developed to introduce explicitly the effects of folding and associated fracturing on rock mass strength and deformability. In this perspective, we carried out an exploratory study aimed at establishing relationships between outcrop-scale folding and GSI in layered carbonate rock masses, exceptionally well exposed in a quarry near Bergamo (Lombardia, Southern Alps). A N-S trending, 350m long and 115m high benched rock face exposes a complete cross section of a sub-horizontal inclined fold involving Lower Jurassic cherty mudstones (Moltrasio Lms.) and marly limestones successions (Domaro Lms.). The main fold has an axial surface moderately dipping to the north and is characterised by polyharmonic folds at scales of metres to tens of metres. The site was documented by producing a digital outcrop through a high-resolution terrestrial photogrammetric survey from distances ranging from 70 to 130 m (18 camera stations, 395 pictures), using RTK GNSS measurements for camera station geo-referencing. Data processing by Structure-from-Motion (SfM) techniques resulted in detailed point clouds covering the entire slope with a cm-scale accuracy. In order to establish relationships between lithology, folding styles, and geomechanical properties of folded rock masses we performed a detailed structural analysis at 25 survey stations spread over all the different fold sectors. These surveys include: lithology, bedding attitude and thickness, brittle structures (e

  13. Compliance Framing - Framing Compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz-Ulrich Haack; Martin C. Reimann

    2012-01-01

    Corporations have to install various organizational measures to comply with legal as well as internal guidelines systematically. Compliance management systems have the challenging task to make use of an internal compliance-marketing approach in order to ensure not only an adequate but also effective compliance-culture. Compliance-literature and findings of persuasive goal-framing-theory give opposite implications for establishing a rather values- versus rule-based compliance-culture respectiv...

  14. Permeability Changes on Wellbore Cement Fractures Modified by Geochemical and Geomechanical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rod, K. A.; Um, W.

    2015-12-01

    Experimental studies were conducted using batch reactors, X-ray microtomography (XMT), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling to determine changes in cement fracture surfaces, fluid flow pathways and permeability, and cement fracture propagation with geochemical and geomechanical processes. Portland cement-basalt interface sample with artificial fractures was prepared to study the geochemical and geomechanical effects on the integrity of wellbores containing defects caused by subsurface activities. Cement-basalt interface sample was subjected to mechanical stress at 2.7 MPa before the chemical reaction. CFD modeling was performed to simulate flow of supercritical CO2 within the fractures before and after the application of mechanical stress. The model results highlighted the complex flow characteristics within the fracture and also changes in flow patterns due to application of geomechanical stress. The CFD model predicted ~45% increase in permeability after the application of geomechanical force, which increases the fracture aperture. The same sample was reacted with CO2-saturated groundwater with impurity H2S (1 wt.%) at 50°C and 10 MPa for 3 to 3.5 months under static conditions. XMT provided three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the opening and interconnection of cement fractures due to mechanical stress. Even after a 3.5-month reaction with CO2-H2S-saturated groundwater at 50°C and 10 MPa, CaCO3 (s) precipitation occurred more extensively within the cement fracture rather than along the cement-basalt interfaces. Micro X-ray diffraction analysis also showed that major cement carbonation products of CO2-saturated groundwater reacting with impurity H2S were calcite, aragonite, and vaterite, consistent with cement carbonation by pure CO2-saturated groundwater, while pyrite was not identified due to low H2S content. The experimental results imply that the wellbore cement with fractures is likely to be healed during exposure to CO2-saturated

  15. 2D and 3D reconstruction and geomechanical characterization of kilometre-scale complex folded structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, Andrea; Agliardi, Federico; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Villa, Alberto; Bistacchi, Andrea; Iudica, Gaetano

    2015-04-01

    The geometrical, structural and geomechanical characterization of large-scale folded structures in sedimentary rocks is an important issue for different geological and geo-hazard applications (e.g. hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoir exploitation, natural rock slope stability, mining, and tunnelling). Fold geometry controls topography and the spatial distribution of rock types with different strength and permeability. Fold-related fracture systems condition the fracture intensity, degree of freedom, and overall strength of rock masses. Nevertheless, scale issues and limited accessibility or partial exposure of structures often hamper a complete characterization of these complex structures. During the last years, advances in remote survey techniques as terrestrial Lidar (TLS) allowed significant improvements in the geometrical and geological characterization of large or inaccessible outcrops. However, sound methods relating structures to rock mass geomechanical properties are yet to be developed. Here we present results obtained by integrating remote survey and field assessment techniques to characterize a folded sedimentary succession exposed in unreachable vertical rock walls. The study area is located in the frontal part of the Southern Alps near Bergamo, Italy. We analysed large-scale detachment folds developed in the Upper Triassic sedimentary cover in the Zu Limestone. Folds are parallel and disharmonic, with regular wavelengths and amplitudes of about 200-250 m. We used a Riegl VZ-1000 long-range laser scanner to obtain points clouds with nominal spacings between 5 cm and 20 cm from 9 scan positions characterized by range between 350 m and 1300 m. We fixed shadowing and occlusion effects related to fold structure exposure by filling point clouds with data collected by terrestrial digital photogrammetry (TDP). In addition, we carried out field surveys of fold-related brittle structures and their geomechanical attributes at key locations. We classified cloud

  16. Sarbanes Oxley section 404 costs of compliance : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneller, A.C.W.(L.); Langendijk, H.P.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    In 2002 US Congress approved the Sarbanes Oxley Act (SOX). Section 404 requires companies to assess their internal controls and acquire an attestation of this assessment from their external auditor. In this paper, we investigate the costs of compliance of this assessment and attestation. The Europea

  17. Sarbanes Oxely Section 404 costs of compliance: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneller, L.; Langendijk, H.

    2007-01-01

    In 2002 US Congress approved the Sarbanes Oxley Act (SOX). Section 404 requires companies to assess their internal controls and acquire an attestation of this assessment from their external auditor. In this paper, we investigate the costs of compliance of this assessment and attestation. The Europea

  18. Sarbanes Oxely Section 404 costs of compliance: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneller, L.; Langendijk, H.

    2007-01-01

    In 2002 US Congress approved the Sarbanes Oxley Act (SOX). Section 404 requires companies to assess their internal controls and acquire an attestation of this assessment from their external auditor. In this paper, we investigate the costs of compliance of this assessment and attestation. The Europea

  19. Sarbanes Oxley section 404 costs of compliance : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneller, A.C.W.(L.); Langendijk, H.P.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    In 2002 US Congress approved the Sarbanes Oxley Act (SOX). Section 404 requires companies to assess their internal controls and acquire an attestation of this assessment from their external auditor. In this paper, we investigate the costs of compliance of this assessment and attestation. The Europea

  20. Psychosocial and medical factors affecting treatment compliance in patients attending psychiatric hospital: a study from Kashmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Shoib

    2014-02-01

    Results: Out of 200 respondents studied in the study 41.5 % were males and 58.5% were females. Maximum number of patients (31.5% studied were in the age group below the 30 years. 3.5% of respondents were in the age group above 70 years. Out of total 200 respondents in the study 74 % of the respondents are in compliance with recommended medicine whereas non-compliance was found in the 26% of studied population. Complications (13.46% ascending out by usage of psychiatric medicine can be attributed as one of the major case of treatment non-compliance in psychiatric patients, among the psychiatric patients. Accessibility of psychiatric medicine and Financial constrain was also one of the reasons behind the medicine non-compliance (7.69%. Patients with no insight to psychiatric disease also include a good percentage of (5.76 % of medicine non- compliance. Conclusions: Non-compliance is a dominant factor which causes possibly causes readmission in psychiatric wards. Compliance in psychiatric patients in general could be enhanced and improved by adequate intervention via patient counselling and patient medicinal care and education. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 220-224

  1. Modeling reservoir geomechanics using discrete element method : Application to reservoir monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alassi, Haitham Tayseer

    2008-09-15

    Understanding reservoir geomechanical behavior is becoming more and more important for the petroleum industry. Reservoir compaction, which may result in surface subsidence and fault reactivation, occurs during reservoir depletion. Stress changes and possible fracture development inside and outside a depleting reservoir can be monitored using time-lapse (so-called '4D') seismic and/or passive seismic, and this can give valuable information about the conditions of a given reservoir during production. In this study we will focus on using the (particle-based) Discrete Element Method (DEM) to model reservoir geomechanical behavior during depletion and fluid injection. We show in this study that DEM can be used in modeling reservoir geomechanical behavior by comparing results obtained from DEM to those obtained from analytical solutions. The match of the displacement field between DEM and the analytical solution is good, however there is mismatch of the stress field which is related to the way stress is measured in DEM. A good match is however obtained by measuring the stress field carefully. We also use DEM to model reservoir geomechanical behavior beyond the elasticity limit where fractures can develop and faults can reactivate. A general technique has been developed to relate DEM parameters to rock properties. This is necessary in order to use correct reservoir geomechanical properties during modeling. For any type of particle packing there is a limitation that the maximum ratio between P- and S-wave velocity Vp/Vs that can be modeled is 3 . The static behavior for a loose packing is different from the dynamic behavior. Empirical relations are needed for the static behavior based on numerical test observations. The dynamic behavior for both dense and loose packing can be given by analytical relations. Cosserat continuum theory is needed to derive relations for Vp and Vs. It is shown that by constraining the particle rotation, the S-wave velocity can be

  2. A Retrospective Longitudinal Database Study of Persistence and Compliance with Treatment of Osteoporosis in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Péter; Takács, István; Marton, István; Tóth, Emese; Zoltan, Cina; Lang, Zsolt; Psachoulia, Emi; Intorcia, Michele

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed persistence and compliance with anti-osteoporosis therapies, and associations between compliance and clinical outcomes (fracture, fracture-related hospitalization and death), in Hungarian women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. The study used the Hungarian National Health Insurance Fund Administration database and included women with PMO aged at least 50 years, for whom a prescription for anti-osteoporosis medication had been filled between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2013 (index event). Persistence (prescription refilled within 8 weeks of the end of the previous supply) was evaluated over 2 years; good compliance (medication possession ratio ≥ 80 %) was evaluated at 1 year. Associations between compliance and clinical outcomes (data collected for up to 6 years) were assessed with adjustment for baseline covariates. A total of 296,300 women met the inclusion criteria (524,798 index events). Persistence and compliance were higher for less frequent and parenteral therapies (1- and 2-year persistence: half-yearly [parenteral] vs. daily/weekly/monthly [oral and parenteral], 81 and 38 % vs. 21-34 and 10-18 %, respectively; parenteral vs. oral, 75 and 36 % vs. 32 and 16 %; good compliance: half-yearly vs. daily/weekly/monthly, 70 vs. 24-39 %; parenteral vs. oral 78 vs. 36 %). Good compliance significantly reduced the risks of fracture, fracture-related hospitalization and death (relative risk vs. non-compliance [95 % confidence interval]: 0.77 [0.70-0.84], 0.72 [0.62-0.85] and 0.57 [0.51-0.64], respectively; P < 0.01). Improving compliance through long-interval parenteral therapies may result in clinical benefits for patients.

  3. Some geomechanical aspects of geological CO2 sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlic, B.

    2008-01-01

    Reservoir depletion and subsequent CO 2 injection into the depleted geological reservoir induce stress changes that may mechanically damage top seal and wells, or trigger existing faults, creating the leakage pathways for CO 2 escape from the reservoir. The role of geomechanics is to assess the mech

  4. Some geomechanical aspects of geological CO2 sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlic, B.

    2009-01-01

    Reservoir depletion and subsequent CO2 injection into the depleted geological reservoir induce stress changes that may mechanically damage top seal and wells, or trigger existing faults, creating the leakage pathways for CO2 escape from the reservoir. The role of geomechanics is to assess the mechan

  5. A Study to Determine the Correlation between Continuity of Care and Patient Medication Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    rheumatic fever were studied for compliance with the physicians’ recommenda- tions. The patients were stratified for age, sex, and compliance, and...utilization of medical resources, morbidity or mortality. - ~ - 15 In the second study, 73 children on oral penicillin prophylaxis for history of...understood 11. 1 was responsible to administer the medication to: a. myself b. my spouse ____c. my children d. my parents ___. others 1 46 12. I was

  6. Chinese parenting and children's compliance to adults: a cross-cultural comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ching-Yu Soar

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the parenting beliefs and practices of Taiwanese, Chinese immigrant (all first-generation immigrants in the UK) and English mothers, and the compliance of their young children (aged 5–7), in order to elucidate the effects of child temperament, culture and acculturation strategies on reported parenting beliefs and practices, observed parental behaviour, child behaviour, mother–child interaction dynamics and children’s compliance. The data were colle...

  7. A geomechanical model of a sinkhole formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchiv, Alexandru; Zamfirescu, Florian; Mocuta, Marius; Popa, Iulian; Zlibut, Alexandru; Huggenberger, Peter; Zechner, Eric; Dresmann, Horst; Scheidler, Stefan; Wiesmeier, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    On December 2010 a sinkhole was suddenly formed close to the eastern flank of Ocna-Mures salt dome. Soon after the collapse the sinkhole was filled with brine forming a salt lake called Plus Lake. The total volume of sinkhole of about 100000 m3 remained constant since February 2011. The Ocna Mures salt dome is situated on the western border of the Transylvanian basin (Romania) and has been exploited for a long time. The ceilings of some shallow mine chambers are now collapsed and filled with brine. Along the eastern flank of the salt dome there is a disturbed zone due to diapirism. Its presence is suggested by the strong fragmentation of rock in the boreholes drilled along the salt-sterile contact, as it resulted from the low values of RQD index. The sinkhole is probably due to a pressure increase along the diapir flank. The causes of this sudden increase of pressure are not well known. Most probably it is due to the damage of the tubing of a flank borehole as mentioned in a technical report of the exploiting company. The injected fresh water expelled through the breaches of the damaged borehole and, due to the high pressure flushed up the crushed material of the disturbed zone. In order to better understand the setting up of the Plus Lake joint research efforts were performed by teams from Bucharest and Basel Universities since 2013. For the geomechanical approach a numerical model was performed using the Flac 7.0 code. In a first stage the creep behavior of salt was analyzed considering a Norton creep law. It resulted that after 100 years the salt reached equilibrium, the creep could be neglected and in a first approximation mechanical equilibrium could be analyzed considering only an elasto-plastic behavior of both the salt and the sterile. For both the salt and the surrounding sedimentary rocks the Mohr-Coulomb criterion was considered. The properties of sterile rocks were estimated following the GSI system. Due to poor rock quality the strength parameters have

  8. Temperature dependence of creep compliance of highly cross-linked epoxy: A molecular simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabaz, Fardin, E-mail: rajesh.khare@ttu.edu; Khare, Ketan S., E-mail: rajesh.khare@ttu.edu; Khare, Rajesh, E-mail: rajesh.khare@ttu.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    We have used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the effect of temperature on the creep compliance of neat cross-linked epoxy. Experimental studies of mechanical behavior of cross-linked epoxy in literature commonly report creep compliance values, whereas molecular simulations of these systems have primarily focused on the Young’s modulus. In this work, in order to obtain a more direct comparison between experiments and simulations, atomistically detailed models of the cross-linked epoxy are used to study their creep compliance as a function of temperature using MD simulations. The creep tests are performed by applying a constant tensile stress and monitoring the resulting strain in the system. Our results show that simulated values of creep compliance increase with an increase in both time and temperature. We believe that such calculations of the creep compliance, along with the use of time temperature superposition, hold great promise in connecting the molecular insight obtained from molecular simulation at small length- and time-scales with the experimental behavior of such materials. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first reported effort that investigates the creep compliance behavior of cross-linked epoxy using MD simulations.

  9. Compliance of laser-assisted microvascular anastomosis: a comparative study with manual anastomosis (preliminary results)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaria, Roland G.; Lhote, Francois-Marie; Dauzat, Michel; Juan, Jean-Marie; Oliva-Lauraire, Marie-Claire; Durrleman, Nicolas; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Albat, Bernard; Frapier, Jean-Marc; Chaptal, Paul-Andre; Godlewski, Guilhem

    1999-01-01

    The compliance of microvascular anastomosis is an important predictive factor for long term patency of graft or vascular reconstruction. This experimental study compare the compliance of manual suture and laser assisted end to end microvascular anastomosis. In nine New-Zealand white rabbits we performed manual end-to-end suture anastomosis on the left femoral artery and laser assisted anastomosis on the right femoral artery, with a diode laser (wavelength 988 nm, power output 500 mW). Compliance was obtained by echotracking (CBI 8000 sonomicrometry system with 20 MHz implantable microprobe from Crystal-Biotech, USA) on the anastomosis site as well as upstream, and downstream from the anastomosis. Vessel compliance was lower on the manual suture side compared to the laser assisted anastomosis side, especially downstream from the anastomosis.

  10. [Effect of compliance with an antibiotic prophylaxis protocol in surgical site infections in appendectomies. Prospective cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Santana, Tomás; Del-Moral-Luque, Juan Antonio; Gil-Yonte, Pablo; Bañuelos-Andrío, Luis; Durán-Poveda, Manuel; Rodríguez-Caravaca, Gil

    Antibiotic prophylaxis is the most suitable tool for preventing surgical site infection. This study assessed compliance with antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery for acute appendicitis, and the effect of this compliance on surgical site infection. Prospective cohort study to evaluate compliance with antibiotic prophylaxis protocol in appendectomies. An assessment was made of the level of compliance with prophylaxis, as well as the causes of non-compliance. The incidence of surgical site infection was studied after a maximum incubation period of 30 days. The relative risk adjusted with a logistic regression model was used to assess the effect of non-compliance of prophylaxis on surgical site infection. The study included a total of 930 patients. Antibiotic prophylaxis was indicated in all patients, and administered in 71.3% of cases, with an overall protocol compliance of 86.1%. The principal cause of non-compliance was time of initiation. Cumulative incidence of surgical site infection was 4.6%. No relationship was found between inadequate prophylaxis compliance and infection (relative risk=0.5; 95% CI: 0.1-1.9) (P>.05). Compliance of antibiotic prophylaxis was high, but could be improved. No relationship was found between prophylaxis compliance and surgical site infection rate. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. Data assimilation of surface displacements to improve geomechanical parameters of gas storage reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccarato, C.; Baó, D.; Ferronato, M.; Gambolati, G.; Alzraiee, A.; Teatini, P.

    2016-03-01

    Although the beginning of reservoir geomechanics dates back to the late 1960s, only recently stochastical geomechanical modelling has been introduced into the general framework of reservoir operational planning. In this study, the ensemble smoother (ES) algorithm, i.e., an ensemble-based data assimilation method, is employed to reduce the uncertainty of the constitutive parameters characterizing the geomechanical model of an underground gas storage (UGS) field situated in the upper Adriatic sedimentary basin (Italy), the Lombardia UGS. The model is based on a nonlinear transversely isotropic stress-strain constitutive law and is solved by 3-D finite elements. The Lombardia UGS experiences seasonal pore pressure change caused by fluid extraction/injection leading to land settlement/upheaval. The available observations consist of vertical and horizontal time-lapse displacements accurately measured by persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) on RADARSAT scenes acquired between 2003 and 2008. The positive outcome of preliminary tests on simplified cases has supported the use of the ES to jointly assimilate vertical and horizontal displacements. The ES approach is shown to effectively reduce the spread of the uncertain parameters, i.e., the Poisson's ratio, the ratio between the horizontal and vertical Young and shear moduli, and the ratio between the virgin loading (I cycle) and unloading/reloading (II cycle) compressibility. The outcomes of the numerical simulations point out that the updated parameters depend on the assimilated measurement locations as well as the error associated to the PSI measurements. The parameter estimation may be improved by taking into account possible model and/or observation biases along with the use of an assimilation approach, e.g., the Iterative ensemble smoother, more appropriate for nonlinear problems.

  12. Coupled hydrogeological and geomechanical modelling for the analysis of large slope instabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloui, Lyesse; Ferrari, Alessio; Bonnard, Christophe

    2010-05-01

    Slowly-moving landslides (average velocity between 2 and 10 cm/year) are quite frequent in mountainous or hilly areas and they may display occasional crises, generally due to exceptional climatic conditions. The hazard related to these events cannot be analysed in terms of probability analysis, as the number of recorded past events is generally very small and climate changes could significantly modify the environmental setting. Quantitative relationships relating climatic condition fluctuations and sliding area velocity must then be pursued by taking into account the most relevant physical processes involved in the landslide behaviours. Conventional stability analyses are unable to deal with such questions because they do not allow the velocity fields to be determined. With regard to the behaviour of large slope instabilities, a methodology is presented which aims to describe the behaviour of slow-moving landslides by means of a coupled hydrogeological and geomechanical modelling framework. As it is well known, the evolution of the pore water pressure within the landslide body is often recognized as the main cause for the occurrence of displacement accelerations. In this sense the interaction among the hydrological and the mechanical responses must be considered to analyse the landslide behaviour, with the aim of quantitatively relating pore water pressure variations and movements. For a given case study, pore water pressure evolutions in space and time are obtained from a duly calibrated finite element hydrogeological model, which can take into account the role of several key factors such as infiltration, preferential flows and vegetation. Computed groundwater pressures resulting from the hydrogeological simulations are introduced as nodal forces in a finite element geomechanical model in order to calculate stress evolutions and displacements. The use of advanced constitutive models based on the generalised effective stress concept allows taking into account

  13. Multiscale finite-element method for linear elastic geomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletto, Nicola; Hajibeygi, Hadi; Tchelepi, Hamdi A.

    2017-02-01

    The demand for accurate and efficient simulation of geomechanical effects is widely increasing in the geoscience community. High resolution characterizations of the mechanical properties of subsurface formations are essential for improving modeling predictions. Such detailed descriptions impose severe computational challenges and motivate the development of multiscale solution strategies. We propose a multiscale solution framework for the geomechanical equilibrium problem of heterogeneous porous media based on the finite-element method. After imposing a coarse-scale grid on the given fine-scale problem, the coarse-scale basis functions are obtained by solving local equilibrium problems within coarse elements. These basis functions form the restriction and prolongation operators used to obtain the coarse-scale system for the displacement-vector. Then, a two-stage preconditioner that couples the multiscale system with a smoother is derived for the iterative solution of the fine-scale linear system. Various numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate accuracy and robustness of the method.

  14. Applicability of geomechanical classifications for estimation of strength properties in Brazilian rock masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Tatiana B; Lana, Milene S; Santos, Allan E M; Silveira, Larissa R C

    2017-01-01

    Many authors have been proposed several correlation equations between geomechanical classifications and strength parameters. However, these correlation equations have been based in rock masses with different characteristics when compared to Brazilian rock masses. This paper aims to study the applicability of the geomechanical classifications to obtain strength parameters of three Brazilian rock masses. Four classification systems have been used; the Rock Mass Rating (RMR), the Rock Mass Quality (Q), the Geological Strength Index (GSI) and the Rock Mass Index (RMi). A strong rock mass and two soft rock masses with different degrees of weathering located in the cities of Ouro Preto and Mariana, Brazil; were selected for the study. Correlation equations were used to estimate the strength properties of these rock masses. However, such correlations do not always provide compatible results with the rock mass behavior. For the calibration of the strength values obtained through the use of classification systems, ​​stability analyses of failures in these rock masses have been done. After calibration of these parameters, the applicability of the various correlation equations found in the literature have been discussed. According to the results presented in this paper, some of these equations are not suitable for the studied rock masses.

  15. Hand hygiene compliance among the nursing staff in freestanding nursing homes in Taiwan: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-I; Liang, Shu-Yuan; Wu, Shu-Fang Vivienne; Chuang, Yeu-Hui

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to explore the hand hygiene compliance among the nursing staff in Taiwanese freestanding nursing homes. A descriptive observational research design was used. A total of 782 opportunities for hand hygiene were observed by one trained research assistant in two freestanding nursing homes. The hand-hygiene observation tool was used to assess hand hygiene practice. The overall hand hygiene compliance among nursing staff in nursing homes was only 11.3%. Results further showed that the compliance was greater after contact with body fluids (odds ratio = 6.9, confidence interval (CI) = 3.75-9.88, P = 0.000) and lower before the performance of aseptic procedures (odds ratio = 0.15, CI = 0.04-0.63, P = 0.003) when compared with other activities. Hand hygiene compliance was relatively low among the nursing staff in freestanding nursing homes in Taiwan. To comprehensively analyze this issue, further research involving a larger number of nursing homes and strategies to improve compliance with hand hygiene among the nursing staff at these institutions is needed. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Deformation Monitoring of Geomechanical Model Test and Its Application in Overall Stability Analysis of a High Arch Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoquan Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geomechanical model testing is an important method for studying the overall stability of high arch dams. The main task of a geomechanical model test is deformation monitoring. Currently, many types of deformation instruments are used for deformation monitoring of dam models, which provide valuable information on the deformation characteristics of the prototype dams. However, further investigation is required for assessing the overall stability of high arch dams through analyzing deformation monitoring data. First, a relationship for assessing the stability of dams is established based on the comprehensive model test method. Second, a stability evaluation system is presented based on the deformation monitoring data, together with the relationships between the deformation and overloading coefficient. Finally, the comprehensive model test method is applied to study the overall stability of the Jinping-I high arch dam. A three-dimensional destructive test of the geomechanical model dam is conducted under reinforced foundation conditions. The deformation characteristics and failure mechanisms of the dam abutments and foundation were investigated. The test results indicate that the stability safety factors of the dam abutments and foundation range from 5.2 to 6.0. These research results provide an important scientific insight into the design, construction, and operation stages of this project.

  17. Improving physician hand hygiene compliance using behavioural theories: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Squires Janet E

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare-associated infections affect 10% of patients in Canadian acute-care hospitals and are significant and preventable causes of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients. Hand hygiene is among the simplest and most effective preventive measures to reduce these infections. However, compliance with hand hygiene among healthcare workers, specifically among physicians, is consistently suboptimal. We aim to first identify the barriers and enablers to physician hand hygiene compliance, and then to develop and pilot a theory-based knowledge translation intervention to increase physicians’ compliance with best hand hygiene practice. Design The study consists of three phases. In Phase 1, we will identify barriers and enablers to hand hygiene compliance by physicians. This will include: key informant interviews with physicians and residents using a structured interview guide, informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework; nonparticipant observation of physician/resident hand hygiene audit sessions; and focus groups with hand hygiene experts. In Phase 2, we will conduct intervention mapping to develop a theory-based knowledge translation intervention to improve physician hand hygiene compliance. Finally, in Phase 3, we will pilot the knowledge translation intervention in four patient care units. Discussion In this study, we will use a behavioural theory approach to obtain a better understanding of the barriers and enablers to physician hand hygiene compliance. This will provide a comprehensive framework on which to develop knowledge translation interventions that may be more successful in improving hand hygiene practice. Upon completion of this study, we will refine the piloted knowledge translation intervention so it can be tested in a multi-site cluster randomized controlled trial.

  18. Cognitive Dissonance Theory and the Induced-Compliance Paradigm: Concerns for Teaching Religious Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Charlene P. E.

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive Dissonance Theory and the Induced-Compliance Paradigm pose some interesting questions for those teaching religious studies in publicly funded colleges and universities. Given that religious beliefs can be challenged by the historical-critical study of scriptures, for example, and that the cognitive dissonance generated when this occurs…

  19. High Temperature Versus Geomechanical Parameters of Selected Rocks – The Present State of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sygała

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current state of knowledge concerning the examination of the impact of increased temperatures on changes of geomechanical properties of rocks. Based on historical data, the shape of stress–strain characteristics that illustrate the process of the destruction of rock samples as a result of load impact under uniaxial compression in a testing machine, were discussed. The results from the studies on changes in the basic strength and elasticity parameters of rocks, such as the compressive strength and Young’s modulus were compared. On their basis, it was found that temperature has a significant effect on the change of geomechanical properties of rocks. The nature of these changes also depends on other factors (apart from temperature. They are, among others: the mineral composition of rock, the porosity and density. The research analysis showed that changes in the rock by heating it at various temperatures and then uniaxially loading it in a testing machine, are different for different rock types. Most of the important processes that cause changes in the values of the strength parameters of the examined rocks occured in the temperature range of 400 to 600 °C.

  20. Insights into the damage zones in fault-bend folds from geomechanical models and field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Wei; Hou, Guiting; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the rock mass deformation and stress states, the fracture development and distribution are critical to a range of endeavors including oil and gas exploration and development, and geothermal reservoir characterization and management. Geomechanical modeling can be used to simulate the forming processes of faults and folds, and predict the onset of failure and the type and abundance of deformation features along with the orientations and magnitudes of stresses. This approach enables the development of forward models that incorporate realistic mechanical stratigraphy (e.g., the bed thickness, bedding planes and competence contrasts), include faults and bedding-slip surfaces as frictional sliding interfaces, reproduce the geometry of the fold structures, and allow tracking strain and stress through the whole deformation process. In this present study, we combine field observations and finite element models to calibrate the development and distribution of fractures in the fault-bend folds, and discuss the mechanical controls (e.g., the slip displacement, ramp cutoff angle, frictional coefficient of interlayers and faults) that are able to influence the development and distribution of fractures during fault-bend folding. A linear relationship between the slip displacement and the fracture damage zone, the ramp cutoff angle and the fracture damage zone, and the frictional coefficient of interlayers and faults and the fracture damage zone was established respectively based on the geomechanical modeling results. These mechanical controls mentioned above altogether contribute to influence and control the development and distribution of fractures in the fault-bend folds.

  1. Role of geomechanically grown fractures on dispersive transport in heterogeneous geological formations

    KAUST Repository

    Nick, H. M.

    2011-11-04

    A second order in space accurate implicit scheme for time-dependent advection-dispersion equations and a discrete fracture propagation model are employed to model solute transport in porous media. We study the impact of the fractures on mass transport and dispersion. To model flow and transport, pressure and transport equations are integrated using a finite-element, node-centered finite-volume approach. Fracture geometries are incrementally developed from a random distributions of material flaws using an adoptive geomechanical finite-element model that also produces fracture aperture distributions. This quasistatic propagation assumes a linear elastic rock matrix, and crack propagation is governed by a subcritical crack growth failure criterion. Fracture propagation, intersection, and closure are handled geometrically. The flow and transport simulations are separately conducted for a range of fracture densities that are generated by the geomechanical finite-element model. These computations show that the most influential parameters for solute transport in fractured porous media are as follows: fracture density and fracture-matrix flux ratio that is influenced by matrix permeability. Using an equivalent fracture aperture size, computed on the basis of equivalent permeability of the system, we also obtain an acceptable prediction of the macrodispersion of poorly interconnected fracture networks. The results hold for fractures at relatively low density. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  2. Role of critical state framework in understanding geomechanical behavior of methane hydrate-bearing sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Shun; Xie, Xiao-Guang; Leung, Yat Fai

    2016-08-01

    A proper understanding of geomechanical behavior of methane hydrate-bearing sediments is crucial for sustainable future gas production. There are a number of triaxial experiments conducted over synthetic and natural methane hydrate (MH)-bearing sediments, and several soil constitutive models have been proposed to describe their behavior. However, the generality of a sophisticated model is questioned if it is tested only for a limited number of cases. Furthermore, it is difficult to experimentally determine the associated parameters if their physical meanings and significance are not elucidated. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that a simple extension of the critical state framework is sufficient to capture the geomechanical behavior of MH-bearing soils from various sources around the world, while the significance of each parameter is quantified through variance-based global sensitivity analyses. Our results show that the influence of hydrates can be largely represented by one hydrate-dependent parameter, pcd', which controls the expansion of the initial yield surface. This is validated through comparisons with shearing and volumetric response of MH-bearing soils tested at various institutes under different confining stresses and with varying degrees of hydrate saturation. Our study suggests that the behavior of MH-bearing soils can be reasonably predicted based on pcd' and the conventional critical state parameters of the host sediments that can be obtained through typical geotechnical testing procedures.

  3. Field scale geomechanical modeling for prediction of fault stability during underground gas storage operations in a depleted gas field in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlic, B.; Wassing, B.B.T.; Geel, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    A geomechanical modeling study was conducted to investigate stability of major faults during past gas production and future underground gas storage operations in a depleted gas field in the Netherlands. The field experienced induced seismicity during gas production, which was most likely caused by

  4. Field scale geomechanical modeling for prediction of fault stability during underground gas storage operations in a depleted gas field in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlic, B.; Wassing, B.B.T.; Geel, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    A geomechanical modeling study was conducted to investigate stability of major faults during past gas production and future underground gas storage operations in a depleted gas field in the Netherlands. The field experienced induced seismicity during gas production, which was most likely caused by t

  5. The Rotterdam AMblyopia Screening Effectiveness Study (RAMSES): compliance and predictive value in the first 2 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. Juttmann (Rikard)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: RAMSES is a 7 year follow up study, aiming at the evaluation of the effectiveness and the efficiency of screening for amblyopia. In this first report, concerning the first 2 years of life, the compliance with the prevention programme and the positive

  6. PREFACE: International Symposium on Geohazards and Geomechanics (ISGG2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utili, S.

    2015-09-01

    These Conference Proceedings contain the full papers in electronic format of the International Symposium on 'Geohazards and Geomechanics', held at University of Warwick, UK, on September 10-11, 2015. The Symposium brings together the complementary expertise of world leading groups carrying out research on the engineering assessment, prevention and mitigation of geohazards. A total of 58 papers, including 8 keynote lectures cover phenomena such as landslide initiation and propagation, debris flow, rockfalls, soil liquefaction, ground improvement, hazard zonation, risk mapping, floods and gas and leachates. The techniques reported in the papers to investigate geohazards involve numerical modeling (finite element method, discrete element method, material point method, meshless methods and particle methods), experimentation (laboratory experiments, centrifuge tests and field monitoring) and analytical simplified techniques. All the contributions in this volume have been peered reviewed according to rigorous international standards. However the authors take full responsibility for the content of their papers. Agreements are in place for the edition of a special issue dedicated to the Symposium in three international journals: Engineering Geology, Computational Particle Mechanics and International Journal of Geohazards and Environment. Authors of selected papers will be invited to submit an extended version of their work to these Journals that will independently assess the papers. The Symposium is supported by the Technical Committee 'Geo-mechanics from Micro to Macro' (TC105) of the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (ISSMGE), 'Slope Stability in Engineering Practice' (TC208), 'Forensic Geotechnical Engineering' (TC302), the British Geotechnical Association and the EU FP7 IRSES project 'Geohazards and Geomechanics'. Also the organizers would like to thank all authors and their supporting institutions for their contributions. For any

  7. Compliance and data reliability in sun exposure studies with diaries and personal, electronic UV dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter A; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2006-04-01

    Skin cancer risk estimations are based on sun exposure data. However, the reliability of collected data in personal ultraviolet (UV) dosimeters studies has not previously been validated. We aimed at investigating the data reliability and subject compliance in a study of sun exposure behaviour among 407 subjects (age range, 4-68 years) during 54 943 days based on time-stamped personal UV dosimeter readings and diary records. By comparing diary records and UV dosimeter readings on a daily basis, we investigated subject compliance, total sun exposure record, reasons for non-responding along with rates of diary completing errors. Efforts to improve compliance were described. The subject compliance rate was median 93.5% (percent days where the diary was completed and the UV dosimeter was worn). The total sun exposure record rate was median 84.1% (percent of participation days with both UV dosimeter and diary records and where the UV dosimeter was worn). Children, adolescents and golfers had lower sun exposure record rates than the rest of the groups (Pdosimeter maintenance service within 24 h and scrutinized data for errors and mistakes.

  8. Engineering geology and geomechanics in dam and tunnel construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, L. (ed.)

    1981-01-01

    Papers presented at this conference included planning of road tunnels, geological and geotechnical exploration for tunnels, determination of rock mass strength of sedimentary rocks, geomechanical assessment and foundation problems of dams, excavation of mine roadways, movement and stress phenomena in rock strata resulting from hard coal mining, effects of rock bolts and thin linings as tunnel supports, system bolting in deep underground rock excavations, highly stressed areas in tunnels and damage in tunnelling. Papers are either in German or in English. Two papers have been previously abstracted.

  9. Determinants of pregnant women's compliance with alcohol guidelines: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Amy E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2009, Australian alcohol guidelines for pregnancy changed from low to no alcohol intake. Previous research found a high proportion of pregnant Australian women drank during pregnancy; however, there has been limited investigation of whether pregnant women comply with 2009 alcohol guidelines. The purpose of this study was to provide an assessment of pregnant women’s compliance with 2009 Australian alcohol guidelines and identify predictors of such compliance, including previous drinking behaviour. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of prospective data from the 1973–1978 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health was conducted. Women aged 30–36 years who were pregnant at the 2009 survey and had data on alcohol use were included (n = 837. Compliance with 2009 alcohol guidelines for pregnancy was defined as no alcohol intake. Predictors of compliance were analysed using multivariate logistic regression, controlling for area of residence, in three separate models to account for multicollinearity between measures of previous alcohol intake (compliance with 2001 guidelines; frequency and quantity; bingeing. Private health insurance, household income, and illicit drug use were entered into all models and retained if significant. Results 72% of pregnant women did not comply with the 2009 alcohol guidelines and 82% of these women drank less than seven drinks per week, with no more than one or two drinks per drinking day. The odds of complying with abstinence increased by a factor of 3.48 (95% CI 2.39-5.05 for women who previously complied with the 2001 alcohol guidelines and decreased by a factor of 0.19 (95% CI 0.08-0.66 if household incomes were $36,400 or more. In other models the odds of complying were lower for women who consumed alcohol before pregnancy at least weekly (OR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.25-0.63 or binged (OR ≥ 0.18, 95% CI 0.10-0.31 and were higher for those who abstained (OR

  10. Systematic Video Documentation in Laparoscopic Colon Surgery Using a Checklist: A Feasibility and Compliance Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahoney, Paul R A; Trencheva, Koiana; Zhuo, Changhua; Shukla, Parul J; Lee, Sang W; Sonoda, Toyooki; Milsom, Jeffrey W

    2015-09-01

    High-quality images can be readily captured during laparoscopic colon surgery, but there are no guidelines for documentation of these video data or how to best measure surgical quality from an operative video. This study evaluates the feasibility and compliance in documenting key steps during laparoscopic right hemicolectomy and sigmoid colectomy. A retrospective review of previously recorded videos of patients undergoing laparoscopic right hemicolectomy or sigmoid colectomy from September to December 2011 in a single institution was performed. Patients' demographics, intraoperative features, postoperative complications, and variables for video recording and editing were collected. Compliance of key surgical steps was assessed using a checklist by two independent surgeons. Sixteen laparoscopic operations (seven right hemicolectomies and nine sigmoid colectomies) were recorded. Twelve (75%) were laparoscopic-assisted, and four (25%) were hand-assisted laparoscopic operations. Compliance with key surgical steps in laparoscopic right hemicolectomy and sigmoid colectomy was demonstrated in the majority of patients, with steps ranging in compliance from 42.9% to 100% and from 77.8% to 100%, respectively. The edited video had a median duration of 3 minutes 47 seconds (range, 1 minute 44 seconds-5 minutes 38 seconds) with a production time of nearly 1 hour and a resolution of 1440 × 1080 pixels. Key surgical steps during laparoscopic right hemicolectomy and sigmoid colectomy can be documented and edited into a short representative video. Standardization of this process should allow video documentation to improve quality in laparoscopic colon surgery.

  11. Feasibility study of the use of a daily electronic mail reminder to improve oral contraceptive compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Michelle C; Creinin, Mitchell D; Murthy, Amitasrigowri S; Harwood, Bryna; Reid, Lynn M

    2003-11-01

    Women who ingest their oral contraceptive pill (OCP) as part of a daily routine are more likely use their OCPs correctly. This trial examines the feasibility of an electronic-mail (e-mail) reminder system to improve OCP compliance. An e-mail reminder was sent to 50 new OCP users daily for 3 months. Subjects sent an e-mail reply to confirm receipt. OCP compliance was recorded on diaries. Four subjects were discontinued for not checking their e-mail. Active participants missed a median of 18% of the e-mail reminders (range: 0-65%). A follow-up visit was scheduled after completion of three OCP cycles. Of the 40 subjects returning completed diaries, 50% missed no active pills at all and 20% missed at least one in each cycle. Most found the daily e-mail somewhat (65%) or very helpful (19%) for OCP compliance. Of those continuing OCPs, 64% wanted to continue receiving e-mail reminders at the completion of the study. Because inconsistent OCP use is a significant cause of unplanned conception, the use of e-mail to improve OCP compliance has the potential to decrease unintended pregnancies.

  12. Investigation of intact rock geomechanical parameters' effects on commercial blocks' productivity within stone reserves: A case history of some quarries in Isfahan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarahmadi, Reza; Bagherpour, Raheb; Tabaei, Morteza; Sousa, Luis M. O.

    2017-10-01

    One of the common methods to determine commercial blocks productivity (CBP) in reserves of dimension stone is through the study of the discontinuities' network. However, this determination remains a difficult task due to geographical heterogeneity and lack of access to all reserves' formations. This study presents a new method based on various geomechanical tests performed on intact rocks that assessed the CBP of a dimension stones' rock mass. Assuming that a dimension stone's rock mass comprised a large block of an intact rock, due to tectonics, the geomechanical properties of this block had direct effects on the discontinuities created within it. Therefore, the geomechanical properties of the intact rock may be related to the CBP of a stone reserve. Based on this factor, this study explored the relationship among some geomechanical properties, including failure angle, uniaxial compressive strength, and modulus of elasticity, and CBP by using data acquired from 21 dimension stone quarries consisting of travertine, marble, and onyx groups. According to the results obtained from the analysis of the Isfahan province's Iranian quarries, failure angle was not highly related to the reserve's CBP. In marble quarries, CBP may decrease, if the compressive strength of an intact rock exceeds 60 MPa. Among the studied parameters, the saturated-to-dry ratio's modulus of elasticity had the greatest relationship to the CBP. Generally, the presented diagrams displayed that the correlation between geomechanical properties and the CBP were an appropriate guide in determining the potential cost-effectiveness of a accessing a particular rock reserve during the early exploration phase.

  13. Development of the T+M coupled flow–geomechanical simulator to describe fracture propagation and coupled flow–thermal–geomechanical processes in tight/shale gas systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jihoon; Moridis, George J.

    2013-10-01

    We developed a hydraulic fracturing simulator by coupling a flow simulator to a geomechanics code, namely T+M simulator. Modeling of the vertical fracture development involves continuous updating of the boundary conditions and of the data connectivity, based on the finite element method for geomechanics. The T+M simulator can model the initial fracture development during the hydraulic fracturing operations, after which the domain description changes from single continuum to double or multiple continua in order to rigorously model both flow and geomechanics for fracture-rock matrix systems. The T+H simulator provides two-way coupling between fluid-heat flow and geomechanics, accounting for thermoporomechanics, treats nonlinear permeability and geomechanical moduli explicitly, and dynamically tracks changes in the fracture(s) and in the pore volume. We also fully accounts for leak-off in all directions during hydraulic fracturing. We first validate the T+M simulator, matching numerical solutions with the analytical solutions for poromechanical effects, static fractures, and fracture propagations. Then, from numerical simulation of various cases of the planar fracture propagation, shear failure can limit the vertical fracture propagation of tensile failure, because of leak-off into the reservoirs. Slow injection causes more leak-off, compared with fast injection, when the same amount of fluid is injected. Changes in initial total stress and contributions of shear effective stress to tensile failure can also affect formation of the fractured areas, and the geomechanical responses are still well-posed.

  14. Environmental factors and their association with emergency department hand hygiene compliance: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Eileen J; Wyer, Peter; Giglio, James; Jia, Haomiao; Nelson, Germaine; Kauari, Vepuka E; Larson, Elaine L

    2016-05-01

    Hand hygiene is effective in preventing healthcare-associated infections. Environmental conditions in the emergency department (ED), including crowding and the use of non-traditional patient care areas (ie, hallways), may pose barriers to hand hygiene compliance. We examined the relationship between these environmental conditions and proper hand hygiene. This was a single-site, observational study. From October 2013 to January 2014, trained observers recorded hand hygiene compliance among staff in the ED according to the World Health Organization 'My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene'. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse the relationship between environmental conditions and hand hygiene compliance, while controlling for important covariates (eg, hand hygiene indication, glove use, shift, etc). A total of 1673 hand hygiene opportunities were observed. In multivariable analyses, hand hygiene compliance was significantly lower when the ED was at its highest level of crowding than when the ED was not crowded and lower among hallway care areas than semiprivate care areas (OR=0.39, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.55; OR=0.73, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.97). Unique environmental conditions pose barriers to hand hygiene compliance in the ED setting and should be considered by ED hand hygiene improvement efforts. Further study is needed to evaluate the impact of these environmental conditions on actual rates of infection transmission. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. SPEED COMPLIANCE IN FREEWAY VARIABLE SPEED LIMIT SYSTEM – CASE STUDY OF THE PRAGUE CITY RING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał MATOWICKI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many previous studies have confirmed the strong relationship between speed compliance and the frequency and severity of traffic accidents. Variable speed limit (VSL system as a measure to improve traffic safety enables the freeway system to change its posted speed limit based on various traffic and environmental conditions. Such system helps drivers to recognize the upcoming events, to adjust their driving style and in such way to address speed variation of the traffic flow. This is called speed harmonization. Although many studies researching the effect of VSL system on the traffic stream can be found, there are only few addressing its influence on the drivers behavior, particularly focusing on their tolerance limit and compliance, which has crucial meaning for future design of controlling algorithms. This study was prepared to inspect this grey area by studying the data from the VSL system at Prague city ring, describing the influence of the highway management system and its influence on drivers.

  16. Geological and geomechanical properties of the carbonate rocks at the eastern Black Sea Region (NE Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Hakan; Yalçinalp, Bülent; Arslan, Mehmet; Babacan, Ali Erden; Çetiner, Gözde

    2016-11-01

    Turkey located in the Alpine-Himalayan Mountain Belt has 35% of the natural stone reserves of the world and has good quality marble, limestone, travertine and onyx reserves especially in the western regions of the country. The eastern Black Sea Region with a 1.4 million meters cubes reserve has a little role on the natural stone production in the country. For this reason, this paper deals with investigation on the potential of carbonate stone in the region and determination of the geological and geo-mechanical properties of these rocks in order to provide economic contribution to the national economy. While the study sites are selected among the all carbonate rock sites, the importance as well as the representative of the sites were carefully considered for the region. After representative samples were analyzed for major oxide and trace element compositions to find out petrochemical variations, the experimental program conducted on rock samples for determination of both physical and strength properties of the carbonate rocks. The results of the tests showed that there are significant variations in the geo-mechanical properties of the studied rock groups. The density values vary from 2.48 to 2.70 gr/cm3, water absorption by weight values range from 0.07 to 1.15% and the apparent porosity of the carbonate rocks are between 0.19 and 3.29%. However, the values of the UCS shows variation from 36 to 80 MPa. Tensile and bending strength values range from 3.2 to 7.5 MPa and 6.0-9.2 MPa respectively. Although the onyx samples have the lowest values of apparent porosity and water absorption by weight, these samples do not have the highest values of UCS values owing to occurrence of the micro-cracks. The UCS values of the rock samples were also found after cycling tests However, the limestone samples have less than 5% deterioration after freezing-thawing and wetting-drying tests, but travertine and onyx samples have more than 15% deterioration. Exception of the apparent

  17. Compliance Study of Endovascular Stent Grafts Incorporated with Polyester and Polyurethane Graft Materials in both Stented and Unstented Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Guan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Compliance mismatch between stent graft and host artery may induce complications and blood flow disorders. However, few studies have been reported on stent graft compliance. This study aims to explore the deformation and compliance of stent graft in stented and unstented zones under three pressure ranges. Compliance of two stent grafts incorporated with polyurethane graft (nitinol-PU and polyester graft (nitinol-PET materials respectively were tested; the stents used in the two stent grafts were identical. For the circumferential deformation of the stent grafts under each pressure range, the nitinol-PET stent graft was uniform in both zones. The nitinol-PU stent graft was circumferentially uniform in the stented zone, however, it was nonuniform in the unstented zone. The compliance of the PU graft material was 15 times higher than that of the PET graft. No significant difference in compliance was observed between stented and unstented zones of the nitinol-PET stent graft regardless of the applied pressure range. However, for the nitinol-PU stent graft, compliance of the unstented PU region was approximately twice that of the stented region; thus, compliance along the length of the nitinol-PU stent graft was not constant and different from that of the nitinol-PET stent graft.

  18. Linking Geomechanical Models with Observations of Microseismicity during CCS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, J.; Kendall, J.; White, D.

    2012-12-01

    During CO2 injection for the purposes of carbon capture and storage (CCS), injection-induced fracturing of the overburden represents a key risk to storage integrity. Fractures in a caprock provide a pathway along which buoyant CO2 can rise and escape the storage zone. Therefore the ability to link field-scale geomechanical models with field geophysical observations is of paramount importance to guarantee secure CO2 storage. Accurate location of microseismic events identifies where brittle failure has occurred on fracture planes. This is a manifestation of the deformation induced by CO2 injection. As the pore pressure is increased during injection, effective stress is decreased, leading to inflation of the reservoir and deformation of surrounding rocks, which creates microseismicity. The deformation induced by injection can be simulated using finite-element mechanical models. Such a model can be used to predict when and where microseismicity is expected to occur. However, typical elements in a field scale mechanical models have decameter scales, while the rupture size for microseismic events are typically of the order of 1 square meter. This means that mapping modeled stress changes to predictions of microseismic activity can be challenging. Where larger scale faults have been identified, they can be included explicitly in the geomechanical model. Where movement is simulated along these discrete features, it can be assumed that microseismicity will occur. However, microseismic events typically occur on fracture networks that are too small to be simulated explicitly in a field-scale model. Therefore, the likelihood of microseismicity occurring must be estimated within a finite element that does not contain explicitly modeled discontinuities. This can be done in a number of ways, including the utilization of measures such as closeness on the stress state to predetermined failure criteria, either for planes with a defined orientation (the Mohr-Coulomb criteria) for

  19. The effects of impure CO2 on reservoir sandstones: results from mineralogical and geomechanical experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbler, H.; Erickson, K. P.; Schmidt, M.; Lempp, Ch.; Pöllmann, H.

    2012-04-01

    An experimental study of the behaviour of reservoir sandstones from deep saline aquifers during the injection and geological storage of CO2 with the inherent impurities SOX and NOX is part of the German national project COORAL*. Sample materials were taken from outcrops of possible reservoir formations of Rotliegend and Bunter Sandstones from the North German Basin. A combination of mineralogical alteration experiments and geomechanical tests was carried out on these rocks to study the potential effects of the impurities within the CO2 pore fluid. Altered rock samples after the treatment with CO2 + SOX/NOX in an autoclave system were loaded in a triaxial cell under in-situ pressure and temperature conditions in order to estimate the modifications of the geomechanical rock properties. Mineralogical alterations were observed within the sandstones after the exposure to impure supercritical (sc)CO2 and brine, mainly of the carbonatic, but also of the silicatic cements, as well as of single minerals. Besides the partial solution effects also secondary carbonate and minor silicate mineral precipitates were observed within the pore space of the treated sandstones. These alterations affect the grain structure of the reservoir rock. Results of geomechanical experiments with unaltered sandstones show that the rock strength is influenced by the degree of rock saturation before the experiment and the chemical composition of the pore fluid (scCO2 + SOX + NOX). After long-term autoclave treatment with impure scCO2, the sandstone samples exhibit modified strength parameters and elastic deformation behaviour as well as changes in porosity compared to untreated samples. Furthermore, the injected fluid volume into the pore space of sandstones from the same lithotype varies during triaxial loading depending on the chemistry of the pore fluid. CO2 with NOX and SOX bearing fluid fills a significantly larger proportion of the sandstone pore space than brine with pure scCO2. * The

  20. Geomechanics of fracture caging in wellbores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, R.; Zhang, X.; Schultz-Ela, D.

    2013-01-01

    This study highlights the occurrence of so-called ‘fracture cages’ around underbalanced wellbores, where fractures cannot propagate outwards due to unfavourable principal stress orientations. The existence of such cages is demonstrated here by independent analytical and numerical methods. We explain

  1. Geomechanics of fracture caging in wellbores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, R.; Zhang, X.; Schultz-Ela, D.

    2013-01-01

    This study highlights the occurrence of so-called ‘fracture cages’ around underbalanced wellbores, where fractures cannot propagate outwards due to unfavourable principal stress orientations. The existence of such cages is demonstrated here by independent analytical and numerical methods. We explain

  2. Using Methodological Triangulation to Study the Individual Compliance Behaviour Towards Income Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela ȘTEFURA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The research in tax compliance has approached various methods of data collection, but almost never methodological triangulation has been used. Triangulation helps the researcher in obtaining more reliable results, if they prove to be similar after each method used and also it increases the validity of the entire study. The purpose of the paper is to highlight the importance of triangulation and especially methodological triangulation, by presenting the use of it in researching the compliance behaviour of three categories of individual Romanian taxpayers (doctors, lawyers/notaries and self-employed accountants towards income reporting. Two studies have been conducted: a survey on actual taxpayers and a quasi-experiment on potential taxpayers. The studies had similar results, so the usefulness of triangulation is once again confirmed. The results may be useful to both theorists and practitioners.

  3. Geomechanical rock properties of a basaltic volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren N Schaefer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In volcanic regions, reliable estimates of mechanical properties for specific volcanic events such as cyclic inflation-deflation cycles by magmatic intrusions, thermal stressing, and high temperatures are crucial for building accurate models of volcanic phenomena. This study focuses on the challenge of characterizing volcanic materials for the numerical analyses of such events. To do this, we evaluated the physical (porosity, permeability and mechanical (strength properties of basaltic rocks at Pacaya Volcano (Guatemala through a variety of laboratory experiments, including: room temperature, high temperature (935 °C, and cyclically-loaded uniaxial compressive strength tests on as-collected and thermally-treated rock samples. Knowledge of the material response to such varied stressing conditions is necessary to analyze potential hazards at Pacaya, whose persistent activity has led to 13 evacuations of towns near the volcano since 1987. The rocks show a non-linear relationship between permeability and porosity, which relates to the importance of the crack network connecting the vesicles in these rocks. Here we show that strength not only decreases with porosity and permeability, but also with prolonged stressing (i.e., at lower strain rates and upon cooling. Complimentary tests in which cyclic episodes of thermal or load stressing showed no systematic weakening of the material on the scale of our experiments. Most importantly, we show the extremely heterogeneous nature of volcanic edifices that arise from differences in porosity and permeability of the local lithologies, the limited lateral extent of lava flows, and the scars of previous collapse events. Input of these process-specific rock behaviors into slope stability and deformation models can change the resultant hazard analysis. We anticipate that an increased parameterization of rock properties will improve mitigation power.

  4. Geomechanical analyses to investigate wellbore/mine interactions in the Potash Enclave of Southeastern New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Bean, James E. (Sandia Staffing Alliance, LLC, Albuquerque, NM); Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Stone, Charles Michael

    2010-04-01

    Geomechanical analyses have been performed to investigate potential mine interactions with wellbores that could occur in the Potash Enclave of Southeastern New Mexico. Two basic models were used in the study; (1) a global model that simulates the mechanics associated with mining and subsidence and (2) a wellbore model that examines the resulting interaction impacts on the wellbore casing. The first model is a 2D approximation of a potash mine using a plane strain idealization for mine depths of 304.8 m (1000 ft) and 609.6 m (2000 ft). A 3D wellbore model then considers the impact of bedding plane slippage across single and double cased wells cemented through the Salado formation. The wellbore model establishes allowable slippage to prevent casing yield.

  5. A fully-coupled geomechanics and flow model for hydraulic fracturing and reservoir engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charoenwongsa, S.; Kazemi, H.; Miskimins, J.; Fakcharoenphol [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-07-01

    A fully coupled geomechanics flow model was used to assess how the changes in pore pressure and temperature influence rock stresses in tight gas reservoirs. The finite difference method was used to develop simulations for phases, components, and thermal stresses. A wave component was used to model the propagation of the strain displacement front as well as changes in stress with time. Fluid and heat flow volumes were modelled separately from rock formation properties. The influence of hydraulic fracturing on stress distributions surrounding the fracture was investigated as well as the effect of filter cake and filtrate. Results of the study showed that significant changes in shear stresses near hydraulic fractures occur as a result of hydraulic fracture face displacement perpendicular to the fracture face. While temperature effects also caused changes in stress distributions, changes in pore pressure did not significantly impact shear stresses as the filtrate did not travel very far into the reservoir. 17 refs., 17 figs.

  6. The role of trust in nurturing compliance: a study of accused tax avoiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kristina

    2004-04-01

    Why an institution's rules and regulations are obeyed or disobeyed is an important question for regulatory agencies. This paper discusses the findings of an empirical study that shows that the use of threat and legal coercion as a regulatory tool--in addition to being more expensive to implement--can sometimes be ineffective in gaining compliance. Using survey data collected from 2,292 taxpayers accused of tax avoidance, it will be demonstrated that variables such as trust need to be considered when managing noncompliance. If regulators are seen to be acting fairly, people will trust the motives of that authority, and will defer to their decisions voluntarily. This paper therefore argues that to shape desired behavior, regulators will need to move beyond motivation linked purely to deterrence. Strategies directed at reducing levels of distrust between the two sides may prove particularly effective in gaining voluntary compliance with an organization's rules and regulations.

  7. Does training improve compliance with hand hygiene and decrease infections in the neonatal intensive care unit? A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Moghaddam, P; Arjmandnia, M; Shokrollahi, M; Aghaali, M

    2015-01-01

    The most important tool in any infection control program is good hand hygiene. Despite recognizing that hand hygiene is crucial in reducing infection rates, hand hygiene compliance remains suboptimal. This study was designed to determine hand hygiene compliance, before and after an educational intervention and its impact on hospital infection rates. The study was done in neonatal intensive care unit of an educational hospital. All healthcare providers working in the unit at the time of study were trained on importance of hand hygiene and methods of hand hygiene observation; after that hand washing compliance controlled by a physician during postintervention phase. Hand hygiene compliance, healthcare associated infection and mortality rates compared before and after educational intervention. Compliance of health-care workers for all hand hygiene opportunities combined was 30% before intervention and improved to 70% in postintervention. In postintervention phase, healthcare associated infection rates and mortality rates decreased significantly as the hand hygiene compliance improved. Good control of hand hygiene compliance by physician after an educational program may have good effect in healthcare associated infections control in neonatal intensive care unit.

  8. 3D geomechanical-numerical modelling of the absolute stress state for geothermal reservoir exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Karsten; Heidbach, Oliver; Moeck, Inga

    2013-04-01

    For the assessment and exploration of a potential geothermal reservoir, the contemporary in-situ stress is of key importance in terms of well stability and orientation of possible fluid pathways. However, available data, e.g. Heidbach et al. (2009) or Zang et al. (2012), deliver only point wise information of parts of the six independent components of the stress tensor. Moreover most measurements of the stress orientation and magnitude are done for hydrocarbon industry obvious in shallow depth. Interpolation across long distances or extrapolation into depth is unfavourable, because this would ignore structural features, inhomogeneity's in the crust or other local effects like topography. For this reasons geomechanical numerical modelling is the favourable method to quantify orientations and magnitudes of the 3D stress field for a geothermal reservoir. A geomechanical-numerical modelling, estimating the 3D absolute stress state, requires the initial stress state as model constraints. But in-situ stress measurements within or close by a potential reservoir are rare. For that reason a larger regional geomechanical-numerical model is necessary, which derive boundary conditions for the wanted local reservoir model. Such a large scale model has to be tested against in-situ stress measurements, orientations and magnitudes. Other suitable and available data, like GPS measurements or fault slip rates are useful to constrain kinematic boundary conditions. This stepwise approach from regional to local scale takes all stress field factors into account, from first over second up to third order. As an example we present a large scale crustal and upper mantle 3D-geomechanical-numerical model of the Alberta Basin and the surroundings, which is constructed to describe continuously the full stress tensor. In-situ stress measurements are the most likely data, because they deliver the most direct information's of the stress field and they provide insights into different depths, a

  9. Coupled reservoir-geomechanical analysis of CO2 injection and ground deformations at In Salah, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, J.; Vasco, D.W.; Myer, L.

    2009-11-01

    In Salah Gas Project in Algeria has been injecting 0.5-1 million tonnes CO{sub 2} per year over the past five years into a water-filled strata at a depth of about 1,800 to 1,900 m. Unlike most CO{sub 2} storage sites, the permeability of the storage formation is relatively low and comparatively thin with a thickness of about 20 m. To ensure adequate CO{sub 2} flow-rates across the low-permeability sand-face, the In Salah Gas Project decided to use long-reach (about 1 to 1.5 km) horizontal injection wells. In an ongoing research project we use field data and coupled reservoir-geomechanical numerical modeling to assess the effectiveness of this approach and to investigate monitoring techniques to evaluate the performance of a CO{sub 2}-injection operation in relatively low permeability formations. Among the field data used are ground surface deformations evaluated from recently acquired satellite-based inferrometry (InSAR). The InSAR data shows a surface uplift on the order of 5 mm per year above active CO{sub 2} injection wells and the uplift pattern extends several km from the injection wells. In this paper we use the observed surface uplift to constrain our coupled reservoir-geomechanical model and conduct sensitivity studies to investigate potential causes and mechanisms of the observed uplift. The results of our analysis indicates that most of the observed uplift magnitude can be explained by pressure-induced, poro-elastic expansion of the 20 m thick injection zone, but there could also be a significant contribution from pressure-induced deformations within a 100 m thick zone of shaly sands immediately above the injection zone.

  10. FINITE ELEMENT MODELING OF PROBLEMS OF GEOMECHANICS AND GEOPHYSICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasov Alexander Nikolaevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the authors consider some classes of problems of geomechanics that are resolved through the application of SIMULIA ABAQUS software. The tasks associated with the assessment of the zone of influence of structures produced on surrounding buildings and structures in the dense urban environment, as well as the tectonic and physical simulation of rifts with the purpose of identification of deformations of the Earth surface and other defects of lithospheric plates. These seemingly different types of tasks can be grouped together on the basis of common characteristics due to the complexity of numerical modeling problems of geomechanics and geophysics. Non-linearity of physical processes, complexity of the geological structure and variable thickness of layers, bed thinning layers, lenses, as well as singular elements, make it hard to consolidate different elements (for example, engineering and geological elements and associated structures of buildings in a single model. In this regard, software SIMULIA ABAQUS looks attractive, since it provides a highly advanced finite-element modeling technique, including a convenient hexahedral mesh generator, a wide range of models of elastic and plastic strain of materials, and the ability to work with certain geometric areas that interrelate through the mechanism of contacting surface pairs that have restrictions. It is noteworthy that the research also facilitates development of personal analytical methods designated for the assessment of physical and mechanical properties of heterogeneous materials as well as new solutions applicable in the vicinity of singular elements of the area that may be used in modeling together with ABAQUS software.

  11. Geomechanical Simulation of Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve - Model Calibration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    A finite element numerical analysis model has been constructed that consists of a realistic mesh capturing the geometries of Bayou Choctaw (BC) Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) site and multi - mechanism deformation ( M - D ) salt constitutive model using the daily data of actual wellhead pressure and oil - brine interface. The salt creep rate is not uniform in the salt dome, and the creep test data for BC salt is limited. Therefore, the model calibration is necessary to simulate the geomechanical behavior of the salt dome. The cavern volumetric closures of SPR caverns calculated from CAVEMAN are used for the field baseline measurement. The structure factor, A 2 , and transient strain limit factor, K 0 , in the M - D constitutive model are used for the calibration. The A 2 value obtained experimentally from the BC salt and K 0 value of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt are used for the baseline values. T o adjust the magnitude of A 2 and K 0 , multiplication factors A2F and K0F are defined, respectively. The A2F and K0F values of the salt dome and salt drawdown skins surrounding each SPR cavern have been determined through a number of back fitting analyses. The cavern volumetric closures calculated from this model correspond to the predictions from CAVEMAN for six SPR caverns. Therefore, this model is able to predict past and future geomechanical behaviors of the salt dome, caverns, caprock , and interbed layers. The geological concerns issued in the BC site will be explained from this model in a follow - up report .

  12. Influence of social competence of physicians on patient compliance with osteoporosis medications--a study on Polish postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryl, Nadia; Horst-Sikorska, Wanda; Ignaszak-Szczepaniak, Magdalena; Marcinkowska, Michalina; Michalak, Michał; Sewerynek, Ewa

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the impact of social competence of physicians on the effectiveness of patient compliance and persistence with therapy. The study included physicians and their patients, previously diagnosed with osteoporosis, and eligible to receive pharmacological treatment. The physicians were evaluated with the social competence questionnaire involving three dimensions: social exposure, intimacy and assertiveness, as well as in the combined scale. All patients in the study group were prescribed the same medication: alendronate once a week. Compliance and persistence of the patients were juxtaposed with social interaction skills of physicians during 7 scheduled appointments at 2-month intervals. Doctor's effectiveness in situations demanding close interpersonal contact was higher in the group with good compliance--group A (p social exposure, (p compliance--group B (p Social skills of physicians influence patient adherence to therapy recommendations. (3) Close interpersonal contact between physicians and their patients eliminates the feeling of fear and

  13. Subjective response to antipsychotic treatment and compliance in schizophrenia. A naturalistic study comparing olanzapine, risperidone and haloperidol (EFESO Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacristán Jose A

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to compare the effectiveness of different antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia it is very important to evaluate subjective response and compliance in patient cohorts treated according to routine clinical practice. Method Outpatients with schizophrenia entered this prospective, naturalistic study when they received a new prescription for an antipsychotic drug. Treatment assignment was based on purely clinical criteria, as the study did not include any experimental intervention. Patients treated with olanzapine, risperidone or haloperidol were included in the analysis. Subjective response was measured using the 10-item version of the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-10, and treatment compliance was measured using a physician-rated 4 point categorical scale. Results A total of 2128 patients initiated treatment (as monotherapy with olanzapine, 417 with risperidone, and 112 with haloperidol. Olanzapine-treated patients had significantly higher DAI-10 scores and significantly better treatment compliance compared to both risperidone- and haloperidol-treated patients. Risperidone-treated patients had a significantly higher DAI-10 score compared to haloperidol-treated patients. Conclusion Subjective response and compliance were superior in olanzapine-treated patients, compared to patients treated with risperidone and haloperidol, in routine clinical practice. Differences in subjective response were explained largely, but not completely, by differences in incidence of EPS.

  14. Modeling of coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, J.; Kim, H. -M.; Ryu, D. -W.; Synn, J. -H.; Song, W. -K.

    2012-02-01

    We applied coupled nonisothermal, multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical numerical modeling to study the coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in concrete-lined rock caverns. The paper focuses on CAES in lined caverns at relatively shallow depth (e.g., 100 m depth) in which a typical CAES operational pressure of 5 to 8 MPa is significantly higher than both ambient fluid pressure and in situ stress. We simulated a storage operation that included cyclic compression and decompression of air in the cavern, and investigated how pressure, temperature and stress evolve over several months of operation. We analyzed two different lining options, both with a 50 cm thick low permeability concrete lining, but in one case with an internal synthetic seal such as steel or rubber. For our simulated CAES system, the thermodynamic analysis showed that 96.7% of the energy injected during compression could be recovered during subsequent decompression, while 3.3% of the energy was lost by heat conduction to the surrounding media. Our geomechanical analysis showed that tensile effective stresses as high as 8 MPa could develop in the lining as a result of the air pressure exerted on the inner surface of the lining, whereas thermal stresses were relatively smaller and compressive. With the option of an internal synthetic seal, the maximum effective tensile stress was reduced from 8 to 5 MPa, but was still in substantial tension. We performed one simulation in which the tensile tangential stresses resulted in radial cracks and air leakage though the lining. This air leakage, however, was minor (about 0.16% of the air mass loss from one daily compression) in terms of CAES operational efficiency, and did not significantly impact the overall energy balance of the system. However, despite being minor in terms of energy balance, the air leakage resulted in a distinct pressure increase in the surrounding rock that could be

  15. Mapping Tax Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Tax compliance denotes the act of reporting and paying taxes in accordance with the tax laws. Current social science scholarship on tax compliance can almost entirely be divided into behavioural psychology analyses and critical tax studies. This article, which presents two cases of how tax...... that studies tax compliance where it takes place as well as what it is made of. Consequently, this article argues that tax compliance is a socio-material assemblage and that complying is a distributed action. The article concludes by highlighting how an ANT approach contributes to the further theoretical...

  16. Reducing fluxes of faecal indicator compliance parameters to bathing waters from diffuse agricultural sources: the Brighouse Bay study, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, D; Aitken, M; Crowther, J; Dickson, I; Edwards, A C; Francis, C; Hopkins, M; Jeffrey, W; Kay, C; McDonald, A T; McDonald, D; Stapleton, C M; Watkins, J; Wilkinson, J; Wyer, M D

    2007-05-01

    The European Water Framework Directive requires the integrated management of point and diffuse pollution to achieve 'good' water quality in 'protected areas'. These include bathing waters, which are regulated using faecal indicator organisms as compliance parameters. Thus, for the first time, European regulators are faced with the control of faecal indicator fluxes from agricultural sources where these impact on bathing water compliance locations. Concurrently, reforms to the European Union (EU) Common Agricultural Policy offer scope for supporting on-farm measures producing environmental benefits through the new 'single farm payments' and the concept of 'cross-compliance'. This paper reports the first UK study involving remedial measures, principally stream bank fencing, designed to reduce faecal indicator fluxes at the catchment scale. Considerable reduction in faecal indicator flux was observed, but this was insufficient to ensure bathing water compliance with either Directive 76/160/EEC standards or new health-evidence-based criteria proposed by WHO and the European Commission.

  17. Assessment of public perception and environmental compliance at a pulp and paper facility: a Canadian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Emma; Bernier, Meagan; Blotnicky, Brenden; Golden, Peter G; Janes, Jeffrey; Kader, Allison; Kovacs-Da Costa, Rachel; Pettipas, Shauna; Vermeulen, Sarah; Walker, Tony R

    2015-12-01

    Communities across Canada rely heavily on natural resources for their livelihoods. One such community in Pictou County, Nova Scotia, has both benefited and suffered, because of its proximity to a pulp and paper mill (currently owned by Northern Pulp). Since production began in 1967, there have been increasing impacts to the local environment and human health. Environmental reports funded by the mill were reviewed and compared against provincial and federal regulatory compliance standards. Reports contrasted starkly to societal perceptions of local impacts and independent studies. Most environmental monitoring reports funded by the mill indicate some levels of compliance in atmospheric and effluent emissions, but when compliance targets were not met, there was a lack of regulatory enforcement. After decades of local pollution impacts and lack of environmental compliance, corporate social responsibility initiatives need implementing for the mill to maintain its social licence to operate.

  18. Digital representation of meso-geomaterial spatial distribution and associated numerical analysis of geomechanics:methods,applications and developments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Zhongqi

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the author's efforts in the past decade for the establishment of a practical approach of digital representation of the geomaterial distribution of different minerals,particulars,and components in the meso-scale range(0.1 to 500 mm).The primary goal of the approach is to provide a possible solution to solve the two intrinsic problems associated with the current main-stream methods for geomechanics.The problems are (1) the constitutive models and parameters of soils and rocks cannot be given accurately in geomechanical prediction;and (2) there are numerous constitutive models of soils and rocks in the literature.The problems are possibly caused by the homogenization or averaging method in analyzing laboratory test results for establishing the constitutive models and parameters.The averaging method employs an assumption that the test samples can be represented by a homogeneous medium.Such averaging method ignores the fact that the geomaterial samples are also consisted of a number of materials and components whose properties may have significant differences.In the proposed approach,digital image processing methods are used as measurement tools to construct a digital representation for the actual spatial distribution of the different materials and components in geomaterial samples.The digital data are further processed to automatically generate meshes or grids for numerical analysis.These meshes or grids can be easily incorporated into existing numerical software packages for further mechanical analysis and failure prediction of the geomaterials under external loading.The paper presents case studies to illustrate the proposed approach.Further discussions are also made on how to use the proposed approach to develop the geomechanics by taking into account the geomaterial behavior at micro-scale,meso-scale and macro-scale levels.A literature review of the related developments is given by examining the SCI papers in the database of Science Citation

  19. [Issues of the study of patient compliance to treatment with oral anticancer chemotherapy: advantages of pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics modelisation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénin, Emilie; You, Benoit; Tranchand, Brigitte; Freyer, Gilles; Girard, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, more and more oral anticancer chemotherapies are developed either for cytotoxic or new targeted drugs. But this relatively new route of administration in oncology drives to new problems in treatment management and particularly to non-compliance, i.e. the deviance of the actual way patients take their treatment with the prescription. Population PK-PD models and Monte-Carlo simulations allow to study the impact of non-compliance on toxicities. After a brief review on recent developments about oral chemotherapies, this work presents a simulation where non-compliance, modelled with a two state Markov chain defining four compliance profiles from excellent to poor, is linked to two dose-toxicity (continuous or categorical) population models. Simulated patients with the lowest compliance level were less exposed to treatment and therefore experienced less toxicity with shorter events. Nevertheless treatment efficacy is also lower, and this loss of efficacy may compromise patient's outcome. These results foresee the necessity of global simulations, combining compliance, toxicity and efficacy modelling.

  20. A study of reasons of non-compliance of psychiatric treatment and patients' attitudes towards illness and treatment in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Dafeeah, Elnour E; Salem, Mohamad O

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the extent of psychiatric patients' compliance and non-compliance with treatment and examine the factors that affect compliance. Patients were recruited who were between 16 and 60 years of age and who were hospitalized with a psychiatric disorder and treated in the outpatient clinics of the psychiatry department. A total of 689 patients were approached and 564 patients agreed to participate in the study, a response rate of 81.8%. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire that asked about socio-demographic characteristics (e.g., age, gender, nationality, level of education, occupation, marital status, and life style habits); medication(s) prescribed and the participant's response; the degree of social supervision (rated subjectively by the patient as "poor," "good," or "very good"); data also were obtained from clinical records. Data analyses explored significant associations between compliance and non-compliance and a group of relevant variables. Of the 564 patients studied, 328 (58.2%) were compliant with treatment and 236 (41.8%) were non-compliant. There was no significant difference between compliance and non-compliance in terms of gender (p = 0.471). Patients between 21-30 years of age were significantly more compliant with drug treatment than not. Non-compliance was more common among patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (28.4%), followed by depression (14.4%), and bipolar affective disorder (12.7%) (p = 0.001). Only 25% of compliant patients and 26.3% of non-compliant patients used non-psychotropic medication. Social supervision (40%) was very poor in non-compliant patients whereas 49.4% of compliant patients had very good family support. Notable reasons for non-compliance were irregular attendance to clinic (55.5%), ignorance about side effects of medication (61%), free medicine (45.8%), and a lack of education about medication (58.1%). This study revealed that non-compliance rates among psychiatry patients

  1. Geomechanics-Based Stochastic Analysis of Injection- Induced Seismicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassemi, Ahmad [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2017-08-21

    -thermo-poro-mechanical mechanisms associated with injection and utilizing a state-of-the-art stochastic inversion procedure. The approach proposed herein is innovative and significantly improves the existing SBCR technology (e.g., Shapiro et al. 2003) for geothermal reservoirs in several ways. First, the current scope of the SBRC is limited with respect to the physical processes considered and the rock properties used. Usually, the geomechanics analyses within SBRC is limited to the pore pressure diffusion in the rock mass, which is modeled using a time-dependent parabolic equation and solved using a finite element algorithm with either a line or a point source. However, water injection induces both poroelastic and thermoelastic stresses in the rock mass which affect the stress state. In fact, it has been suggested that thermoelastic stresses can play a dominant role in reservoir seismicity (Ghassemi et al., 2007). We include these important effects by using a fully-coupled poro-thermoelastic constitutive equations for the rock mass which will be solved using a 3D finite element model with more realistic injection geometries such as multiple injection/extraction sources (and in fractures), uncertainty in the material parameters and the in-situ stress distribution to better reflect the pore pressure and stress distributions. In addition, we developed a 3D stochastic fracture network model to study MEQ generation in fracture rocks. The model was verified using laboratory experiments, and calibrated and applied to Newberry EGS stimulation. In previous SBRC approaches, the triggering of micro-seismicity is modeled base on the assumption that the prior stochastic criticality model of the rock mass is a valid and adequate description. However, this assumption often does not hold in the field. Thus, we improved upon the current SBRC approach by using the micro-seismic responses to estimate the hydraulic diffusivity as well as the criticality distribution itself within the field. In this way, instead of

  2. The role of galenic innovation in improving treatment compliance and persistence: three case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gili Marco A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available York Zoellner1, Maria-Magdalena Balp2, Andrea Gili Marco21Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Hamburg, Germany; 2Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, SwitzerlandBackground: The purpose of this study was to explore whether newer galenic formulations with lower treatment burdens are associated with better patient compliance and persistence compared with older more burdensome modalities.Methods: Data from the IMS Disease Analyzer database were analyzed retrospectively for two pairs of analogs (alendronate sodium once daily vs once weekly and immediate-release vs extended-release methylphenidate and one pair of drugs with similar indications but important differences in convenience and dosing instructions (desferrioxamine vs deferasirox. Compliance was calculated as the sum of prescription durations for all prescriptions for each patient over 1 year. Persistence was calculated as the time between first and last prescriptions over 2 years (1 year for deferasirox and desferrioxamine. Data from Germany and the UK were available and used for analysis.Results: Incremental improvements in compliance were +30% in the UK and +26% in Germany for alendronate once weekly vs once daily, +14% in the UK and +19% in Germany for extended-release vs immediate-release methylphenidate, and +15% in Germany for desferrioxamine vs deferasirox. Incremental improvements in persistence were +9 months in the UK and +8 months in Germany for alendronate once weekly vs once daily, +4 months in the UK and +3 months in Germany for extended-release vs immediate-release methylphenidate, and +2 months in Germany for deferasirox vs desferrioxamine.Conclusion: The new formulations that we evaluated were associated with better compliance and persistence compared with older formulations. Despite the fact that some sources of bias could not be excluded, it is likely that these improvements can be attributed to the lower treatment burdens of the galenic formulations of the drugs considered

  3. GPs’ Perceptions of Cardiovascular Risk and Views on Patient Compliance: A Qualitative Interview Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicte Lind Barfoed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. General practitioners’ (GPs’ perception of risk is a cornerstone of preventive care. The aims of this interview study were to explore GPs’ professional and personal attitudes and experiences regarding treatment with lipid-lowering drugs and their views on patient compliance. Methods. The material was drawn from semistructured qualitative interviews. We sampled GPs purposively from ten selected practices, ensuring diversity of demographic, professional, and personal characteristics. The GPs were encouraged to describe examples from their own practices and reflect on them and were informed that the focus was their personal attitudes and experiences. Systematic text condensation was applied for analysis in order to uncover the concepts and themes. Results. The analysis revealed the following 3 main themes: (1 use of cardiovascular guidelines and risk assessment tools, (2 strategies for managing patient compliance, and (3 GPs’ own risk management. There were substantial differences in the attitudes concerning all three themes. Conclusions. The substantial differences in the GPs’ personal and professional risk perceptions may be a key to understanding why GPs do not always follow cardiovascular guidelines. The impact on daily clinical practice, personal consultation style, and patient behaviour with regard to prevention is worth studying further.

  4. Reservoir geomechanics: new approach to reservoir engineering analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Settari, A.; Walters, D.A.; Behie, G.A. [Duke Engineering and Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The rock mechanics aspects of reservoir behavior are reviewed, and a description is included of some recent trends in coupled reservoir and strata mechanics modelling. Case histories are summarized which are field applications of these new trends and tools. These case histories include: (1) high rate injection into an oil sand reservoir; (2) compaction modelling of a North Sea reservoir; and (3) brine disposal at a fracturing pressure. Coupled geomechanical modelling is feasible on a full field scale, and it provides flexibility in the degree of coupling and calculational efficiency. The scope of interest in data gathering and characterization must be extended beyond reservoir boundaries because of the coupled modelling approach. This modelling provides results that can be employed in integrated reservoir management that includes reservoir engineering, drilling and completions. Considering the three case histories, coupled modelling can be used for predicting fracture initiation and re-orientation, reservoir compaction and deformations, and enhancement of injectivity due to stress dependent formation properties. Coupled modelling has brought reservoir modelling to a new realistic level and produces significant economic gains. 15 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Evaluation of corporate income tax compliance costs and compliance behaviour under the self-assessment system

    OpenAIRE

    Sapiei, Noor Sharoja

    2017-01-01

    Commitment to compliance may cause taxpayers to experience unnecessary compliance costs burden resulting in non-compliance behaviour. This study evaluates the tax compliance costs of corporate taxpayers and their compliance with the corporate income tax (CIT) reporting requirements under the Self-Assessment System (SAS) environment. Tax compliance costs, corporate characteristics, tax attitudinal aspects and the likely compliance behaviour of public listed companies (PLCs) are integrated into...

  6. Three-Dimensional Modeling of the Reactive Transport of CO2 and Its Impact on Geomechanical Properties of Reservoir Rocks and Seals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Hou, Zhangshuan; Bacon, Diana H.; Murray, Christopher J.; White, Mark D.

    2016-01-04

    This article develops a novel multiscale modeling approach to analyze CO2 reservoirs using Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s STOMP-CO2-R code that is interfaced with the ABAQUS® finite element package. The STOMP-CO2-R/ABAQUS® sequentially coupled simulator accounts for the reactive transport of CO2 causing mineral composition changes that modify the geomechanical properties of reservoir rocks and seals. Formation rocks’ elastic properties that vary during CO2 injection and govern the poroelastic behavior of rocks are modeled by an Eshelby-Mori-Tanka approach (EMTA) implemented in ABAQUS® via user-subroutines. The computational tool incorporates the change in rock permeability due to both geochemistry and geomechanics. A three-dimensional (3D) STOMP-CO2-R model for a model CO2 reservoir containing a vertical fault is built to analyze a formation containing a realistic geochemical reaction network with 5 minerals: albite, anorthite, calcite, kaolinite and quartz. A 3D ABAQUS® model that maps the above STOMP-CO2-R model is built for the analysis using STOMP-CO2-R/ABAQUS®. The results show that the changes in volume fraction of minerals include dissolution of anorthite, precipitation of calcite and kaolinite, with little change in the albite volume fraction. After a long period of CO2 injection the mineralogical and geomechanical changes significantly reduced the permeability and elastic modulus of the reservoir (between the base and caprock) in front of the fault leading to a reduction of the pressure margin to fracture at and beyond the injection location. The impact of reactive transport of CO2 on the geomechanical properties of reservoir rocks and seals are studied in terms of mineral composition changes that directly affect the rock stiffness, stress and strain distributions as well as the pressure margin to fracture.

  7. Development of a compositional model fully coupled with geomechanics and its application to tight oil reservoir simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yi

    Tight oil reservoirs have received great attention in recent years as unconventional and promising petroleum resources; they are reshaping the U.S. crude oil market due to their substantial production. However, fluid flow behaviors in tight oil reservoirs are not well studied or understood due to the complexities in the physics involved. Specific characteristics of tight oil reservoirs, such as nano-pore scale and strong stress-dependency result in complex porous medium fluid flow behaviors. Recent field observations and laboratory experiments indicate that large effects of pore confinement and rock compaction have non-negligible impacts on the production performance of tight oil reservoirs. On the other hand, there are approximations or limitations for modeling tight oil reservoirs under the effects of pore confinement and rock compaction with current reservoir simulation techniques. Thus this dissertation aims to develop a compositional model coupled with geomechanics with capabilities to model and understand the complex fluid flow behaviors of multiphase, multi-component fluids in tight oil reservoirs. MSFLOW_COM (Multiphase Subsurface FLOW COMpositional model) has been developed with the capability to model the effects of pore confinement and rock compaction for multiphase fluid flow in tight oil reservoirs. The pore confinement effect is represented by the effect of capillary pressure on vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE), and modeled with the VLE calculation method in MSFLOW_COM. The fully coupled geomechanical model is developed from the linear elastic theory for a poro-elastic system and formulated in terms of the mean stress. Rock compaction is then described using stress-dependent rock properties, especially stress-dependent permeability. Thus MSFLOW_COM has the capabilities to model the complex fluid flow behaviors of tight oil reservoirs, fully coupled with geomechanics. In addition, MSFLOW_COM is validated against laboratory experimental data, analytical

  8. Modelling Geomechanical Impact of CO2 Injection Using Precomputed Response Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Odd; Gasda, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    When injecting CO2 or other fluids into a geological formation, pressure plays an important role both as a driver of flow and as a risk factor for mechanical integrity. The full effect of geomechanics on aquifer flow can only be captured using a coupled flow-geomechanics model. In order to solve this computationally expensive system, various strategies have been put forwards over the years, with some of the best current methods based on sequential splitting. In the present work, we seek to approximate the full geomechanical effect on flow without the need of coupling with a geomechanics solver during simulation, and at a computational cost comparable to that of an uncoupled model. We do this by means of precomputed pressure response functions. At grid model generation time, a geomechanics solver is used to compute the mechanical response of the aquifer for a set of pressure fields. The relevant information from these responses is then stored in a compact form and embedded with the grid model. We test the accu...

  9. Relevant Studies for NERC’s Analysis of EPA's Clean Power Plan 111 (d) Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, Mark [WindLogics, St. Paul, MN (United States); Smith, Charlie [Utility Variable Generation Integration Group, Reston, VA (United States); Piwko, Dick [GE Energy, Fairfield, CT (United States); Lew, Debra [GE Energy, Fairfield, CT (United States); Bloom, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-06-12

    The purpose of this paper is to describe multiple studies of wind and solar integration that have found CO2 reductions of approximately 30%. These studies can be viewed in several ways, including as viable paths to compliance with the EPA rule, alternative ''bookend cases'' to compare to compliance based largely on natural gas, or something in between. The studies in this paper represent a body of work that can help inform the public discussion surrounding the cost and reliability impacts of complying with the proposed EPA CPP.

  10. VoIP for Telerehabilitation: A Pilot Usability Study for HIPAA Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie R. Watzlaf

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Consumer-based, free Voice and video over the Internet Protocol (VoIP software systems such as Skype and others are used by health care providers to deliver telerehabilitation and other health-related services to clients. Privacy and security applications as well as HIPAA compliance within these protocols have been questioned by practitioners, health information managers, and other healthcare entities. This pilot usability study examined whether four respondents who used the top three, free consumer-based, VoIP software systems perceived these VoIP technologies to be private, secure, and HIPAA compliant;  most did not.  While the pilot study limitations include the number of respondents and systems assessed, the protocol can be applied to future research and replicated for instructional purposes.  Recommendations are provided for VoIP companies, providers, and users. 

  11. COST OF TAX COMPLIANCE AND RISK MANAGEMENT IN PROJECTS: THE CASE STUDY OF A SMALL ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Manzini Cianfanelli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study uses a risk management perspective to analyze compliance costs arising from overlapping service tax (ST jurisdictions. We study the case of an engineering company providing services to the Companhia de Saneamento Básico do Estado de São Paulo [São Paulo State Sanitation Company] – SABESP, a public entity. The engineering company was contracted under public law 8.666/93, to provide engineering service in several townships in São Paulo’s metropolitan area. Because the laws governing bidding do not permit later modification in price or provider, subsequent double taxation by one municipality cut into the firm’s margins, and should other local governments follow suit, multiple taxation would render the contract untenable for the provider. Our paper models the impact of conflicting jurisdictions on administrative burden, psychological costs and profit constriction and discusses project management techniques for decision making and management in similar situations.

  12. Evaluation of Compliance for Treatment of Sudden Hearing Loss: A CHEER Network Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witsell, David L; Khoury, Tawfiq; Schulz, Kristine A; Stachler, Robert; Tucci, Debara L; Wojdyla, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the presentation and management of sudden sensorineural hearing loss for patients seen in academic and community-based practices within the context of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation's "Clinical Practice Guideline: Sudden Hearing Loss." The intention is to use these findings to guide implementation strategies and quality improvement initiatives and as pilot data for the development of clinical research initiatives. A cross-sectional study of patients with sudden hearing loss. Patients were recruited from practices within the Creating Healthcare Excellence through Education and Research (CHEER) network. The CHEER network is an National Institutes of Health-funded network of 30 otolaryngology sites across the country, half of which are community based and half of which are academic practices. A total of 173 patients were recruited. Data were gathered via custom questionnaires collected by study site coordinators and entered into a secure online platform. Descriptive analyses and correlation statistics were run with SAS 9.3.1. Of the 13 guideline statements in the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation's clinical practice guideline on sudden hearing loss, 11 statements were evaluable through this study. Compliance for otolaryngologists was >95% for key action statements (KASs) 1, 3, and 6; 90% to 95% for KASs 5 and 10; and <90% for KASs 7 and 13. Compliance was <45% for nonotolaryngologists for KASs 3 and 5-7. There is opportunity for nonotolaryngologists to improve for statements 3 and 5-7. Otolaryngologists are compliant with many of the KASs overall, but there is significant room for improvement. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  13. Compliance status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the activities conducted to ensure that the Hanford Site is in compliance with federal environmental protection statutes and related Washington State and local environmental protection regulations and the status of Hanford`s compliance with these requirements. Environmental permits required under the environmental protection regulations are discussed under the applicable statute.

  14. A Study on Patient Compliance of Tuberculosis Enrolled under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salil Sakalle, Bhagwan Waskel, Sanjay Dixit, Dhruvendra Pandey , Suraj Sirohi, Satish Saroshe

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The disease mainly affects the low socioeconomic strata where maintenance of high level of compliance is difficult. The main reasons of low patient compliance are lack of awareness about the disease, more concern about earning the wages, low motivation during drug therapy and early appearance of side effects.

  15. Compliance to Iron Supplementation Among Pregnant Women: a Cross Sectional Study in Urban Slum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpanarani J Dutta, Prakash Patel, R K Bansal

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Every six out of ten pregnant women were found taking iron supplement pills. As number of antenatal visits and knowledge of dose and duration of iron supplementation pills are independently affecting compliance to iron pills, increasing number of antenatal visits and imparting knowledge about dose and duration of iron supplementation pills will improve compliance to iron pills."

  16. A unified approach to fluid-flow, geomechanical, and seismic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarushina, Viktoriya; Minakov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The perturbations of pore pressure can generate seismicity. This is supported by observations from human activities that involve fluid injection into rocks at high pressure (hydraulic fracturing, CO2 storage, geothermal energy production) and natural examples such as volcanic earthquakes. Although the seismic signals that emerge during geotechnical operations are small both in amplitude and duration when compared to natural counterparts. A possible explanation for the earthquake source mechanism is based on a number of in situ stress measurements suggesting that the crustal rocks are close to its plastic yield limit. Hence, a rapid increase of the pore pressure decreases the effective normal stress, and, thus, can trigger seismic shear deformation. At the same time, little attention has been paid to the fact that the perturbation of fluid pressure itself represents an acoustic source. Moreover, non-double-couple source mechanisms are frequently reported from the analysis of microseismicity. A consistent formulation of the source mechanism describing microseismic events should include both a shear and isotropic component. Thus, improved understanding of the interaction between fluid flow and seismic deformation is needed. With this study we aim to increase the competence in integrating real-time microseismic monitoring with geomechanical modelling such that there is a feedback loop between monitored deformation and stress field modelling. We propose fully integrated seismic, geomechanical and reservoir modelling. Our mathematical formulation is based on fundamental set of force balance, mass balance, and constitutive poro-elastoplastic equations for two-phase media consisting of deformable solid rock frame and viscous fluid. We consider a simplified 1D modelling setup for consistent acoustic source and wave propagation in poro-elastoplastic media. In this formulation the seismic wave is generated due to local changes of the stress field and pore pressure induced by

  17. Analysis of sea cliff slope stability integrating traditional geomechanical surveys and remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Martino

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An integrated approach to the geomechanical characterization of coastal sea cliffs was demonstrated at Mt. Pucci (Gargano promontory, Southern Italy by performing direct traditional geomechanical and remote geostructural investigations via Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS. The consistency of the integrated techniques allowed us to achieve a comprehensive and affordable characterization of the main joint sets on the sea cliff slope. The observed joint sets were observed to evaluate the susceptibility of the slope to rock falls by attributing safety factors (SFs to the topple- and wedge-prone rock blocks under three triggering conditions: (a filling with static water, (b seismic action, and (c weathering of joint surfaces. The results of the susceptibility analysis for the topple-prone blocks show that the critical height of water filling of the joint is up to 50 cm and that the critical pseudo-static acceleration values vary in the range of 0.16–0.3 g depending on the block geometry and slope face orientation. For the wedge blocks, the critical height of water filling of the joint is generally up to several centimeters, and the critical pseudo-static acceleration values vary in the range of 0.05–0.8 g depending on the block geometry and slope face orientation. Moreover, the unstable conditions of the blocks due to weathering generally represent 60% of the joint degradation of the intact rock. The combined action of weathering and static water fill was also considered, resulting in a significant decrease of the SFs. Specifically, unstable conditions are associated with water levels lower than 47% of the water levels observed in intact joints, even if less than 60% of the weathering is attributed to the joints. Furthermore, remote survey analyses via Thermal InfraRed Camera and Terrestrial SAR Interferometry (TInSAR were performed to evaluate the role of the surveyed joint sets in inducing instabilities in the Mt. Pucci sea cliff. The results of

  18. Comparison of geomechanical deformation induced by megatonne-scale CO2 storage at Sleipner, Weyburn, and In Salah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, James P; Kendall, J-Michael; Stork, Anna L; Chadwick, R Andy; White, Don J; Bissell, Rob C

    2013-07-23

    Geological storage of CO2 that has been captured at large, point source emitters represents a key potential method for reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. However, this technology will only be viable if it can be guaranteed that injected CO2 will remain trapped in the subsurface for thousands of years or more. A significant issue for storage security is the geomechanical response of the reservoir. Concerns have been raised that geomechanical deformation induced by CO2 injection will create or reactivate fracture networks in the sealing caprocks, providing a pathway for CO2 leakage. In this paper, we examine three large-scale sites where CO2 is injected at rates of ~1 megatonne/y or more: Sleipner, Weyburn, and In Salah. We compare and contrast the observed geomechanical behavior of each site, with particular focus on the risks to storage security posed by geomechanical deformation. At Sleipner, the large, high-permeability storage aquifer has experienced little pore pressure increase over 15 y of injection, implying little possibility of geomechanical deformation. At Weyburn, 45 y of oil production has depleted pore pressures before increases associated with CO2 injection. The long history of the field has led to complicated, sometimes nonintuitive geomechanical deformation. At In Salah, injection into the water leg of a gas reservoir has increased pore pressures, leading to uplift and substantial microseismic activity. The differences in the geomechanical responses of these sites emphasize the need for systematic geomechanical appraisal before injection in any potential storage site.

  19. Patriotism's Impact on Cooperation with the State: An Experimental Study on Tax Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangl, Katharina; Torgler, Benno; Kirchler, Erich

    2016-12-01

    Although it seems reasonable to assume that activating patriotism might motivate citizens to cooperate with the state in reaching societal goals, the empirical evidence supporting this contention is based mostly on correlational rather than experimental studies. In addition, little is known on whether patriotism can be manipulated without simultaneously triggering nationalism and on the psychological processes which determine the patriotism-cooperation relation. This current article reports results of one survey and three experiments that manipulate patriotism by displaying either a national flag or national landscapes or by priming national achievements. The outcomes indicate that reported and manipulated patriotism indirectly increase tax compliance, although the national flag also increases nationalism. National achievements, on the other hand, seemingly increases trust in national public institutions and the voluntary motivation to cooperate, whereas national landscapes only increase the voluntary motivation to cooperate. Hence, it is possible to increase social capital in the form of trust and cooperation through patriotism without fostering nationalism as well.

  20. Pilot Study to Evaluate Compliance and Tolerability of Cranberry Capsules in Pregnancy for the Prevention of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumney, Pamela J.; Hindra, Sasha; Guzman, Lizette; Le, Jennifer; Nageotte, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To evaluate the compliance with and tolerability of daily cranberry capsule ingestion for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) prevention in pregnancy. Design: A total of 49 pregnant women from two sites were randomly assigned to cranberry or matching placebo, two doses daily, at gestational ages less than 16 weeks. Patients were followed monthly for urinary tract infection until delivery. Up to seven monthly visits were scheduled for each patient. Delivery data were evaluated. Results: Of 38 evaluable patients, the mean compliance rate over the study period was 82% (range, 20%–100%). This compliance rate and the 74% of patients achieving good (≥75%) compliance were similar between those who received cranberry capsules and placebo. Compliance evaluation revealed that most patients stopped capsule consumption after 34–38 weeks of participation. Multivariate logistic regression and longitudinal analysis showed a significant interaction time effect with cranberry treatment. However, cranberry consumption was not a significant predictor of gastrointestinal intolerance or study withdrawal. Although 30% of patients withdrew for various reasons, only 1 withdrew because of intolerance to the cranberry capsules. Loss to follow-up was mostly due to provider change (9 of 49 [18%]) and therapy disinterest (4 of 49 [8%]). Seven cases of ASB occurred in 5 patients: 2 of 24 (8%) in the cranberry group and 3 of 25 (12%) in the placebo group. No cases of cystitis or pyelonephritis were observed. Conclusion: One third of pregnant women could not complete the study protocol for various reasons. Compliance with and tolerability of cranberry capsule ingestion appear good; these capsules provide a potentially effective means to prevent ASB in pregnancy. Further studies with large samples are necessary to confirm the findings. PMID:26535612

  1. Pedestrian Crosswalk Law: A study of traffic and trajectory factors that affect non-compliance and stopping distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figliozzi, Miguel A; Tipagornwong, Chawalit

    2016-11-01

    Walking is encouraged by many transportation agencies as a sustainable mode that contributes to livable downtowns. Since pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, safe and comfortable crosswalks are essential to ensure that pedestrian travel becomes an appealing alternative. In this context, the goal of this research is to study the traffic and vehicle trajectory factors that affect crosswalk law compliance and stopping distance from the crosswalk. The results of this research provide new insights into the relationships between traffic conditions, vehicle trajectory, and compliance rates. Results indicate that vehicle origin, vehicle type, stopping at upstream traffic lights, and changes in vehicle speed and headways are key factors to predict pedestrian crosswalk law compliance and stopping behavior; changes in vehicle speed and headways have the highest explanatory power.

  2. The geomechanical characterization of the rocky mass foundation of the Tijuco Alto hydroelectric power plant, Ribeira River, Sao Paulo/Parana States, Brazil; Caracterizacao geomecanica do Macico de Fundacao da UHE Tijuco Alto (Rio Ribeira - SP/PR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Amarilis Lucia Casteli de

    1996-07-01

    This work has as its main objective the geomechanical characterization on the future rocky mass foundation of the Tijuco Alto dam, sited at the Ribeira river, in the cities of Ribeirao, Sao Paulo state and Adrianopolis, Parana state, Brazil, owned by the Companhia Brasileira de Aluminio (Brazilian company of Aluminium). To reach that target, field studies were made to qualify the geotechnical parameters of the rocky mass, in the axis area open galleries. It was also used in situ deformability and stress test results performed in those galleries, that were reinterpreted for a better adaptation of the mass values. The knowledge of the mass inherent characteristics together with the laboratories test results, allowed for the geomechanical classification applications in several different gallery sectors. The geomechanical data obtained allowed through mathematical expressions, to reach the rocky mass values correlations of interest to the work (deformability and strength), that could be compared to the in situ test results. That analysis permitted, besides the classification critical system evaluation, the geomechanical characterization of the rocky mass, focusing its ability to the dam arch construction. (author)

  3. Multiple Drivers of Local (Non- Compliance in Community-Based Marine Resource Management: Case Studies from the South Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne R. Rohe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The outcomes of marine conservation and related management interventions depend to a large extent on people's compliance with these rule systems. In the South Pacific, community-based marine resource management (CBMRM has gained wide recognition as a strategy for the sustainable management of marine resources. In current practice, CBMRM initiatives often build upon customary forms of marine governance, integrating scientific advice and management principles in collaboration with external partners. However, diverse socio-economic developments as well as limited legal mandates can challenge these approaches. Compliance with and effective (legally-backed enforcement of local management strategies constitute a growing challenge for communities—often resulting in considerable impact on the success or failure of CBMRM. Marine management arrangements are highly dynamic over time, and similarly compliance with rule systems tends to change depending on context. Understanding the factors contributing to (non- compliance in a given setting is key to the design and function of adaptive management approaches. Yet, few empirical studies have looked in depth into the dynamics around local (non- compliance with local marine tenure rules under the transforming management arrangements. Using two case studies from Solomon Islands and Fiji, we investigate what drives local (non- compliance with CBMRM and what hinders or supports its effective enforcement. The case studies reveal that non-compliance is mainly driven by: (1 diminishing perceived legitimacy of local rules and rule-makers; (2 increased incentives to break rules due to market access and/ or lack of alternative income; and (3 relatively weak enforcement of local rules (i.e., low perceptions of risk from sanctions for rule-breaking. These drivers do not stand alone but can act together and add up to impair effective management. We further analyze how enforcement of CBMRM is challenged through a range of

  4. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for dyspepsia: Εxploratory study of factors influencing patient compliance in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouroumalis Elias

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the most preferable diagnostic examination for patients over fifty when upper gastrointestinal symptoms appear. However, limited knowledge exists in concerns to the compliance of primary care patients' to the doctors' recommendations for endoscopy. Methods Patients who visited primary care practices in Greece and experienced upper gastrointestinal symptoms within a 10 days screening study, were referred for an upper endoscopy exam. The patients which refused to complete the endoscopy exam, were interviewed by the use of an open- ended translated and validated questionnaire, the Identification of Dyspepsia in General Population (IDGP questionnaire. A qualitative thematic analysis grounded on the theory of planned behavior was performed to reveal the reasons for patients' refusal, while socio-demographic predictors were also assessed. Results Nine hundred and ninety two patients were recorded, 159 of them (16% were found positive for dyspepsia and gastro-esophageal reflux disease according to the IDGP questionnaire. Out of the above, 131 (83.6% patients refused further investigation with endoscopy. Patients who refused upper endoscopy were predominantly female (87.8% (p = 0.036 and over the age of 50. The lack of severe symptoms, fear of pain, concerns of sedation, comorbidity and competing life demands were reported by patients as barriers to performing an endoscopic investigation. Conclusions Patients with dyspepsia in rural Greece tend to avoid upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with two major axons considered to be the causes of patients' refusal: their beliefs towards endoscopy and their personal capability to cope with it. Future research examining reasons of low compliance should be carried out in combination with modern behavioral theories so as to investigate into the above.

  5. Narratives of empowerment and compliance: studies of communication in online patient support groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzer, Helle S; Bygholm, Ann

    2013-12-01

    New technologies enable new forms of patient participation in health care. The article discusses whether communication in online patient support groups is a source of individual as well as collective empowerment or to be understood within the tradition of compliance. The discussion is based on a qualitative analysis of patient communication in two online groups on the Danish portal sundhed.dk, one for lung patients and one for women with fertility problems. The object of study is the total sum of postings during a specific period of time - a total of 4301 posts are included. The textmaterial was analyzed according to the textual paradigm of Paul Ricoeur, and the three steps of critical interpretation. Thus, the analysis moves from describing communicative characteristics of the site to a thorough semantic analysis of its narrative structure of construing meaning, interaction and collective identity, and finally as a source of collective action. The meta-narratives of the two groups confirm online patient support groups for individual empowerment, for collective group identity, but not for collective empowerment. The collective identities of patienthood on the two sites are created by the users (patients) through specific styles of communication and interaction, referred to as 'multi-logical narratives'. In spite of the potential of online communities of opening up health care to the critical voice of the public, the analysis points to a synthesis of the otherwise opposite positions of empowerment and compliance in patient care. On a collective level, the site is empowering the individual users to comply with 'doctor's recommendations' as a group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stimulation Techniques Used In Enhanced Geothermal Systems: Perspectives From Geomechanics and Rock Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen L. Karner; Joel Renner

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the processes that enhance fluid flow in crustal rocks is a key step towards extracting sustainable thermal energy from the Earth. To achieve this, geoscientists need to identify the fundamental parameters that govern how rocks respond to stimulation techniques, as well as the factors that control the evolution of permeability networks. These parameters must be assessed over variety of spatial scales: from microscopic rock properties (such as petrologic, mechanical, and diagenetic characteristics) to macroscopic crustal behavior (such as tectonic and hydro-dynamic properties). Furthermore, these factors must be suitably monitored and/or characterized over a range of temporal scales before the evolutionary behavior of geothermal fields can be properly assessed. I am reviewing the procedures currently employed for reservoir stimulation of geothermal fields. The techniques are analyzed in the context of the petrophysical characteristics of reservoir lithologies, studies of wellbore data, and research on regional crustal properties. I determine common features of geothermal fields that can be correlated to spatiotemporal evolution of reservoirs, with particular attention to geomechanics and petrophysical properties. The study of these correlations can then help guide procedures employed when targeting new prospective geothermal resources.

  7. An approach to development of an information geomechanical structural model of the Kuznetsk Coal Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oparin, V.N.; Potapov, V.P.; Yushkin, V.F.; Kiril' tseva, N.A.; Izotov, A.S. [Russian Academy of Science, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Mining

    2006-05-15

    The geographic information system designed at the Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry for the Kuznetsk Coal Basin and the non-linear geomechanics researches undertaken at the Institute of Mining has served the basis for analyzing the hierarchical structure of geological faults in the Anzherskiy economic district (Kemerovo Region). The analysis is performed by a new canonical scale for structural-hierarchical representations with base root 2, where A and x are the normalized functionally related values. The recommendations are given on how to utilize the geoinformation system of the Kuznetsk Coal Basin in order to obtain a graphical-analytical representation and a system analysis of experimental geomechanical data.

  8. Effects of loadingeunloading and wettingedrying cycles on geomechanical behaviors of mudrocks in the Colombian Andes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mario Camilo Torres-Suarez; Adolfo Alarcon-Guzman; Rafael Berdugo-De Moya

    2014-01-01

    The mudrocks in the Colombian Andes, particularly those exhibiting low cementation (bonding), are susceptible to degradation when the environmental conditions change, which are challenging issues for engineering works. In this paper, the changes in physico-mechanical properties of mudrocks were moni-tored in laboratory, and some influential factors on the mechanical competence of geomaterials were studied. The geotechnical characteristics and experimental designs were developed from physical, chem-ical, mechanical and compositional points of view. In the tests, the techniques such as vapor equilibrium technique (VET) were employed to apply wettingedrying cycles and to control relative humidity (suction-controlled) and loadingeunloading cycles through ultrasonic wave velocities technique. The results show that the main failure mechanisms for the laminated mudrocks start on the microscopic scale by fissures coalescence, exhibiting physico-chemical degradation as well;the global geomechanical behavior presents a state between a ductile, like rock, and a fragile, like soil. The obtained results can provide engineering values according to monitoring laboratory set, when compared with in situ conditions.

  9. Geomechanics for interpreting SAGD monitoring using micro-seismicity and surface tiltmeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Pater, H.; De Koning, J.; Maxwell, S. [Pinnacle Technologies, Calgary, AB (Canada); Walters, D. [Taurus Reservoir Solutions Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    This paper described a procedures for history matching surface movements resulting from the warm-up phases of a steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) project in Saskatchewan. Surface movements were measured using tilt meters that covered the area influenced by the steam injection processes. A thermal reservoir model was then coupled to a geo-mechanical model in order to calculate the surface movements. Surface heave was computed by matching a minimum curvature surface to the tilt vectors. Surface heave data were extracted in order to facilitate comparisons between observed and simulated heave. Injection constraints were defined from measured injection rates in order to match pressure histories. The study showed that the coupled model accurately interpreted monitoring data. Seismic signatures indicated strike slip and potential overthrust fault slippage or casing failures. Uplift was largest at the heel of the well. Results were explained by reservoir heterogeneities. Surface heave was accurately measured using the tiltmeters. Micro-seismic data were used to constrain failure mechanisms and provide information needed to identify conformance and potential cap rock breaches. It was concluded that the model can be used effectively to optimize injection conformance and recovery. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 28 figs.

  10. Compliance with methotrexate treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: influence of patients' beliefs about the medicine. A prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Thurah, Annette; Nørgaard, Mette; Harder, Ingegerd;

    2010-01-01

    Objective of the study is to investigate how compliance during the first year of methotrexate (MTX) treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is influenced by the patients' perception of the necessity for and concern about MTX, the patients' functional disability, and the dose of MTX. A total of 126...

  11. Benzathine Penicillin Prophylaxis in Children with Rheumatic Fever (RF/ Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD: A Study of Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha G. Ghildiyal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To study the compliance of patients of Rheumatic fever (RF/ Rheumatic heart disease (RHD regarding secondary prophylaxis with injection benzathine penicillin. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Pediatric Rheumatology Outpatients’ Department (OPD of a tertiary care teaching university affiliated hospital. Patients below 18 years of age diagnosed as Rheumatic fever/ Rheumatic heart disease following up in Pediatric Rheumatology OPD for at least 1 year for benzathine pencillin prophylaxis were included in the study. The patients diagnosed to have RF/ RHD were advised injection benzathine penicillin prophylaxis every 3 weeks. A proforma was devised for recording the clinical details of the patient- including demographic information, clinical details regarding RF/ RHD and rheumatic fever recurrences. The details of the benzathine penicillin prophylaxis taken by the patient were also recorded in the proforma. The reasons for non-compliance were noted and enlisted as per their frequency. Results: The study included 10 patients following up at the specialty clinic for rheumatic heart disease patients. We had 7 males and 3 females in the study. The average age was 9.7 yrs (6 years to 12 years. The average number of months of follow up for assessing the compliance was 20.7 months (12.6 months to 44 months. The average compliance (% of the 10 patients was 89.60% (63.69% to 100%. Out of the 10 subjects, four had a recurrence of rheumatic fever manifesting in the form of congestive cardiac failure & carditis. Though most of the times the patients were not able to recall the reason for missing the dose, trip to one’s native place was an important reason for missed doses besides forgetting the dates of the prophylaxis and doubts about need for the prophylaxis. Conclusions: Compliance of secondary prophylaxis with benzathine penicillin was about 90% in the present study. Frequent travel by patients to their native

  12. Study effective factors on customer compliance in high contact services based on Bandura social - Cognitive theory

    OpenAIRE

    zahra asadi; bahman hajipour

    2014-01-01

    In today's competitive world, all market participants ranging from individuals, organizations should be looking for ways to success in the market. The secret to success high contact service providers as important part of market participants is, compliance and follow customers of high contact service providers the instructions and guidance. In this paper, a model based on Bandura social - Cognitive theory has Provided to customer compliance . According Bandura social - Cognitive theory and t...

  13. Impact of hydrogeological and geomechanical properties on surface uplift at a CO2 injection site: Parameter estimation and uncertainty quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, P.; Yoon, H.; Martinez, M. J.; Bishop, J. E.; Arnold, B. W.; Bryant, S.

    2013-12-01

    It is essential to couple multiphase flow and geomechanical response in order to predict a consequence of geological storage of CO2. In this study, we estimate key hydrogeologic features to govern the geomechanical response (i.e., surface uplift) at a large-scale CO2 injection project at In Salah, Algeria using the Sierra Toolkit - a multi-physics simulation code developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Importantly, a jointed rock model is used to study the effect of postulated fractures in the injection zone on the surface uplift. The In Salah Gas Project includes an industrial-scale demonstration of CO2 storage in an active gas field where CO2 from natural gas production is being re-injected into a brine-filled portion of the structure downdip of the gas accumulation. The observed data include millimeter scale surface deformations (e.g., uplift) reported in the literature and injection well locations and rate histories provided by the operators. Our preliminary results show that the intrinsic permeability and Biot coefficient of the injection zone are important. Moreover pre-existing fractures within the injection zone affect the uplift significantly. Estimation of additional (i.e., anisotropy ratio) and coupled parameters will help us to develop models, which account for the complex relationship between mechanical integrity and CO2 injection-induced pressure changes. Uncertainty quantification of model predictions will be also performed using various algorithms including null-space Monte Carlo and polynomial-chaos expansion methods. This work will highlight that our coupled reservoir and geomechanical simulations associated with parameter estimation can provide a practical solution for designing operating conditions and understanding subsurface processes associated with the CO2 injection. This work is supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office

  14. Improving hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers: an intervention study in a Hospital in Guizhou Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Mu

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Hand hygiene (HH is a critical component for controlling hospital-acquired infection (HAI. The present study was designed to develop an intervention approach to improve compliance with HH among healthcare workers in a hospital setting. Methods The HH intervention study was conducted in Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital, Guiyang, China and organized by its Department of HAI Management. It was an observational, prospective, quasiexperimental (before-after intervention study. The study was divided into two phases: the baseline phase and the intervention phase. The investigative team included clinical monitoring staff and infection control practitioners who received a series of instructions on HH compliance, monitoring skills, and measurement of the use of HH products. Results Based on 27,852 observations in a 17-month period, the rate of compliance with HH improved from 37.78% at baseline to 75.90% after intervention. Significant improvement in compliance and an increase in consumption of HH products was observed after intervention. The per patient-day consumption of alcohol-based hand rub products and handwash agents increased by 4.75 mL and 4.55 mL, respectively. The consumption of paper towels increased 3.41 sheets per patient-day. During the same period, the prevalence rate of HAI decreased 0.83%. Conclusions This study demonstrates that a significant improvement in compliance with HH can be achieved through a systemic, multidimensional intervention approach involving all categories of healthcare workers in a hospital setting, which may result in a decrease of the HAI rate.

  15. A prospective study of parents' compliance with their child's prescribed analgesia following tonsillectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lennon, Paul

    2013-03-01

    We conducted a prospective study to assess how well parents ensured that their children received their prescribed analgesia following tonsillectomy. Our study was based on 69 cases of tonsillectomy that were carried out at our tertiary pediatric care center. Postoperatively, all patients were prescribed paracetamol (acetaminophen) on the basis of their weight; the standard pediatric dosage of this agent at the time of our study was 60 mg\\/kg\\/day. The parents were telephoned 2 weeks postoperatively to assess their compliance with this regimen. Of the original 69 patients who had been recruited, 66 completed the study-35 girls and 31 boys, aged 2 to 15 years (mean: 7.0; median 5.5). According to the parents, only 15 children (22.7%) received our recommended 60-mg\\/kg\\/day dosage and were thus determined to be fully compliant. Overall, parents reported a wide variation in the amount of drug administered, ranging from 12.5 to 111.0 mg\\/kg\\/day (mean: 44.8), indicating that parents often underdose their children. We recommend that more emphasis be placed on weight-directed, parent-provided analgesia during the post-tonsillectomy period.

  16. PROBLEMS OF GEOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF SEISMIC-FOCI SYSTEMS OF THE EARTH’S CRUST (GEOMECHANICS AND TECTONOPHYSICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris M. Chikov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In our study, an earthquake focus is viewed as a 3D zone of the Earth’s crust, wherein the discharge of mechanical loading is accompanied by recordable destruction and qualitative transformation of the geological medium. The purpose of the present publication is to make an attempt to reveal a direct relationship between seismicity and deformation-metamorphic processes which took place in the Earth’s crust. Traditional and alternative interpretations of geomechanics of seismic-foci situations are discussed. The problems of geodynamics and geostatics of the seismic-foci systems and their concentrations, as well as anthropogenic models and mechanisms of focus medium structuring are reviewed. The relationship between seismicity and mechanisms of «regional shearing» or formation of crustal deformation-metamorphic structures of lineament type is outlined in the example of the Chuya seismic system of earthquakes which occurred in 2003 and afterwards in the Altai region.

  17. Testing a coupled hydro-thermo-chemo-geomechanical model for gas hydrate bearing sediments using triaxial compression lab experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Shubhangi; Haeckel, Matthias; Helmig, Rainer; Wohlmuth, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The presence of gas hydrates influences the stress-strain behavior and increases the load-bearing capacity of sub-marine sediments. This stability is reduced or completely lost when gas hydrates become unstable. Since natural gas hydrate reservoirs are considered as potential resources for gas production on industrial scales, there is a strong need for numerical production simulators with geomechanical capabilities. To reliably predict the mechanical behavior of gas hydrate-bearing sediments during gas production, numerical tools must be sufficiently calibrated against data from controlled experiments or field tests, and the models must consider thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical process coupling in a suitable manner. In this study, we perform a controlled triaxial volumetric strain test on a sediment sample in which methane hydrate is first formed under controlled isotropic effective stress and then dissociated via depressurization under controlled total stress. Sample deformations were kept small, and under thes...

  18. Intervention Effects on Safety Compliance and Citizenship Behaviors: Evidence from the Work, Family, and Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Johnson, Ryan C.; Crain, Tori L.; Bodner, Todd; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Davis, Kelly; Kelly, Erin L.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Karuntzos, Georgia; Chosewood, L. Casey; Berkman, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    We tested the effects of a work-family intervention on employee reports of safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors in 30 healthcare facilities using a group-randomized trial. Based on Conservation of Resources theory and the Work-Home Resources Model, we hypothesized that implementing a work-family intervention aimed at increasing contextual resources via supervisor support for work and family and employee control over work time would lead to improved personal resources and increased employee performance on the job in the form of self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors. Multilevel analyses used survey data from 1,524 employees at baseline, 6-month and 12-month post-intervention follow-ups. Significant intervention effects were observed for safety compliance at the 6-month and organizational citizenship behaviors at the 12-month follow-ups. More specifically, results demonstrate that the intervention protected against declines in employee self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behaviors, compared to employees in the control facilities. The hypothesized mediators of perceptions of family supportive supervisor behaviors, control over work time, and work-family conflict (work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict) were not significantly improved by the intervention. However, baseline perceptions of family supportive supervisor behaviors, control over work time, and work-family climate were significant moderators of the intervention effect on the self-reported safety compliance and organizational citizenship behavior outcomes. PMID:26348479

  19. Geomechanical modeling of reservoir compaction, surface subsidence, and casing damage at the Belridge diatomite field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FREDRICH,JOANNE T.; DEITRICK,G.L.; ARGUELLO JR.,JOSE G.; DEROUFFIGNAC,E.P.

    2000-05-01

    Geologic, and historical well failure, production, and injection data were analyzed to guide development of three-dimensional geomechanical models of the Belridge diatomite field, California. The central premise of the numerical simulations is that spatial gradients in pore pressure induced by production and injection in a low permeability reservoir may perturb the local stresses and cause subsurface deformation sufficient to result in well failure. Time-dependent reservoir pressure fields that were calculated from three-dimensional black oil reservoir simulations were coupled uni-directionally to three-dimensional non-linear finite element geomechanical simulations. The reservoir models included nearly 100,000 gridblocks (100--200 wells), and covered nearly 20 years of production and injection. The geomechanical models were meshed from structure maps and contained more than 300,000 nodal points. Shear strain localization along weak bedding planes that causes casing dog-legs in the field was accommodated in the model by contact surfaces located immediately above the reservoir and at two locations in the overburden. The geomechanical simulations are validated by comparison of the predicted surface subsidence with field measurements, and by comparison of predicted deformation with observed casing damage. Additionally, simulations performed for two independently developed areas at South Belridge, Sections 33 and 29, corroborate their different well failure histories. The simulations suggest the three types of casing damage observed, and show that although water injection has mitigated surface subsidence, it can, under some circumstances, increase the lateral gradients in effective stress, that in turn can accelerate subsurface horizontal motions. Geomechanical simulation is an important reservoir management tool that can be used to identify optimal operating policies to mitigate casing damage for existing field developments, and applied to incorporate the effect of

  20. Geomechanical, Hydraulic and Thermal Characteristics of Deep Oceanic Sandy Sediments Recovered during the Second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate Expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohan Cha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the geomechanical, hydraulic and thermal characteristics of natural sandy sediments collected during the Ulleung Basin gas hydrate expedition 2, East Sea, offshore Korea. The studied sediment formation is considered as a potential target reservoir for natural gas production. The sediments contained silt, clay and sand fractions of 21%, 1.3% and 77.7%, respectively, as well as diatomaceous minerals with internal pores. The peak friction angle and critical state (or residual state friction angle under drained conditions were ~26° and ~22°, respectively. There was minimal or no apparent cohesion intercept. Stress- and strain-dependent elastic moduli, such as tangential modulus and secant modulus, were identified. The sediment stiffness increased with increasing confining stress, but degraded with increasing strain regime. Variations in water permeability with water saturation were obtained by fitting experimental matric suction-water saturation data to the Maulem-van Genuchen model. A significant reduction in thermal conductivity (from ~1.4–1.6 to ~0.5–0.7 W·m−1·K−1 was observed when water saturation decreased from 100% to ~10%–20%. In addition, the electrical resistance increased quasi-linearly with decreasing water saturation. The geomechanical, hydraulic and thermal properties of the hydrate-free sediments reported herein can be used as the baseline when predicting properties and behavior of the sediments containing hydrates, and when the hydrates dissociate during gas production. The variations in thermal and hydraulic properties with changing water and gas saturation can be used to assess gas production rates from hydrate-bearing deposits. In addition, while depressurization of hydrate-bearing sediments inevitably causes deformation of sediments under drained conditions, the obtained strength and stiffness properties and stress-strain responses of the sedimentary formation under drained loading conditions

  1. Performing compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Camilla Lawaetz

    2017-01-01

    the local policy workers front-staged some practices in the implementation process and back-staged others. The local policy workers deliberately performed ‘guideline compliance’ by using information control and impression management techniques. The findings suggest that local guideline compliance should......Guidelines are increasingly used to regulate how local authorities engage in practices. Focusing on the Danish national health promotion guidelines, this article reveals that the local policy workers did not implement the guidelines as proposed. Using a dramaturgical framework, it illustrates how...... be regarded as a staged performance in which deliberate techniques are used to produce and manage certain impressions of compliance....

  2. Handwashing compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniak, Jeannie

    2004-09-01

    Undeniably, handwashing remains the single most effective and cost-efficient method for preventing and reducing the transmission of nosocomial infections. Yet the rates and outbreaks of nosocomial infections in Canadian and international healthcare institutions continue to increase. Shaikh Khalifa Medical Center developed and implemented a multidisciplinary approach to address the challenges of handwashing compliance among nurses and healthcare workers in its workplace setting. Supported by evidence-based research, the approach consisted of three components: collaboration, implementation and evaluation. The use of the alcohol-based hand rub sanitizer or "solution" was integral to the multidisciplinary approach. Ongoing education, communication and a committed leadership were essential to promote and sustain handwashing compliance.

  3. Effect of Pore Pressure on Slip Failure of an Impermeable Fault: A Coupled Micro Hydro-Geomechanical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Juanes, R.

    2015-12-01

    The geomechanical processes associated with subsurface fluid injection/extraction is of central importance for many industrial operations related to energy and water resources. However, the mechanisms controlling the stability and slip motion of a preexisting geologic fault remain poorly understood and are critical for the assessment of seismic risk. In this work, we develop a coupled hydro-geomechanical model to investigate the effect of fluid injection induced pressure perturbation on the slip behavior of a sealing fault. The model couples single-phase flow in the pores and mechanics of the solid phase. Granular packs (see example in Fig. 1a) are numerically generated where the grains can be either bonded or not, depending on the degree of cementation. A pore network is extracted for each granular pack with pore body volumes and pore throat conductivities calculated rigorously based on geometry of the local pore space. The pore fluid pressure is solved via an explicit scheme, taking into account the effect of deformation of the solid matrix. The mechanics part of the model is solved using the discrete element method (DEM). We first test the validity of the model with regard to the classical one-dimensional consolidation problem where an analytical solution exists. We then demonstrate the ability of the coupled model to reproduce rock deformation behavior measured in triaxial laboratory tests under the influence of pore pressure. We proceed to study the fault stability in presence of a pressure discontinuity across the impermeable fault which is implemented as a plane with its intersected pore throats being deactivated and thus obstructing fluid flow (Fig. 1b, c). We focus on the onset of shear failure along preexisting faults. We discuss the fault stability criterion in light of the numerical results obtained from the DEM simulations coupled with pore fluid flow. The implication on how should faults be treated in a large-scale continuum model is also presented.

  4. Surprisingly low compliance to local guidelines for risk factor based screening for gestational diabetes mellitus - A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkvist Anna

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is routine during pregnancy in many countries in the world. The screening programs are either based on general screening offered to all pregnant women or risk factor based screening stipulated in local clinical guidelines. The aims of this study were to investigate: 1 the compliance with local guidelines of screening for GDM and 2 the outcomes of pregnancy and birth in relation to risk factors of GDM and whether or not exposed to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. Methods This study design was a population-based retrospective cross-sectional study of 822 women. A combination of questionnaire data and data collected from medical records was applied. Compliance to the local guidelines of risk factor based screening for GDM was examined and a comparison of outcomes of pregnancy and delivery in relation to risk factor groups for GDM was performed. Results Of the 822 participants, 257 (31.3% women fulfilled at least one criterion for being exposed to screening for GDM according to the local clinical guidelines. However, only 79 (30.7% of these women were actually exposed to OGTT and of those correctly exposed for screening, seven women were diagnosed with GDM. Women developing risk factors for GDM during pregnancy had a substantially increased risk of giving birth to an infant with macrosomia. Conclusion Surprisingly low compliance with the local clinical guidelines for screening for GDM during pregnancy was found. Furthermore, the prevalence of the risk factors of GDM in our study was almost doubled compared to previous Swedish studies. Pregnant women developing risk factors of GDM during pregnancy were found to be at substantially increased risk of giving birth to an infant with macrosomia. There is a need of actions improving compliance to the local guidelines.

  5. Application of stochastic system identification to the study of the compliance of electroactive polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Priam V; Hunter, Ian W; Hernandez, Emanuel

    2011-02-01

    Electroactive polymers have shown promising applications as transducers that can mimic biological muscle. The modulus or the compliance of many of these devices can change significantly as they are actuated making these materials attractive for applications that require tunable stiffness. We have developed a dynamic mechanical analyzer that is capable of making in situ measurements of the dynamic compliance transfer function of conducting polymers as a function of an electrochemical stimulus. We do this by simultaneously applying a stochastic stress waveform over a potential waveform and calculating the compliance as it changes over the course of electrochemical excitation. Using these signals we can calculate the compliance transfer function between 0.1 and 100 Hz and the impulse response function with up to 3% variation in its parameters. These functions are then computed as charge is injected into the polymer and it is shown that the low frequency gain of the transfer function can change by 30%-40% in the electrochemical system tested.

  6. Measuring hand hygiene compliance rates in different special care settings: a comparative study of methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyago Pereira Magnus

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Hand hygiene compliance was reasonably high in these units, as measured by direct observation. However, a lack of correlation with results obtained by other methodologies brings into question the validity of direct observation results, and suggests that periodic audits using other methods may be needed.

  7. Study of compliance with a new, targeted antenatal D immunization prevention programme in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjaer, M B; Perslev, A; Clausen, F B

    2012-01-01

    A targeted routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis programme was implemented in Denmark where anti-D immunoglobulin is given based on the result from noninvasive antenatal screening for fetal RHD. Our objective was to evaluate compliance with this new programme right after its initiation. Materials and...

  8. 3-D-geomechanical-numerical model of the contemporary crustal stress state in the Alberta Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Reiter

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the context of examining the potential usage of safe and sustainable geothermal energy in the Alberta Basin whether in deep sediments or crystalline rock, the understanding of the in-situ stress state is crucial. It is a key challenge to estimate the 3-D stress state at an arbitrary chosen point in the crust, based on sparsely distributed in-situ stress data. To address this challenge, we present a large-scale 3-D geomechanical-numerical model (700 km × 1200 km × 80 km from a large portion of the Alberta Basin, to provide a 3-D continuous quantification of the contemporary stress orientations and stress magnitudes. To calibrate the model, we use a large database of in-situ stress orientation (321 SHmax as well as stress magnitude data (981 SV, 1720 SHmin and 2 (+11 SHmax from the Alberta Basin. To find the best-fit model we vary the material properties and primarily the kinematic boundary conditions of the model. This study focusses in detail on the statistical calibration procedure, because of the large amount of available data, the diversity of data types, and the importance of the order of data tests. The best-fit model provides the total 3-D stress tensor for nearly the whole Alberta Basin and allows estimation of stress orientation and stress magnitudes in advance of any well. First order implications for the well design and configuration of enhanced geothermal systems are revealed. Systematic deviations of the modelled stress from in-situ data are found for stress orientations in the Peace River- and the Bow Island Arch as well as for leak-off-test magnitudes.

  9. Is compliance with hospital accreditation Associated with length of stay and acute readmission? A Danish nationwide population-base study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falstie-Jensen, Anne Mette; Nørgaard, Mette; Hollnagel, Erik;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between compliance with hospital accreditation and length of stay (LOS) and acute readmission (AR). DESIGN: A nationwide population-based follow-up study from November 2009 to December 2012. SETTING: Public, non-psychiatric Danish hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: In......-patients admitted with one of 80 diagnoses. INTERVENTION: Accreditation by the first version of The Danish Healthcare Quality Programme. Using an on-site survey, surveyors assessed the level of compliance with the standards. The hospital was awarded either fully (n = 11) or partially accredited (n = 20). MAIN...... in-patients were included of whom 266 532 were discharged alive and included in the AR analyses. The mean LOS was 4.51 days (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.46-4.57) at fully and 4.54 days (95% CI: 4.50-4.57) at partially accredited hospitals, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors...

  10. Regret on choice of colorectal cancer screening modality was associated with poorer screening compliance: a 4-year prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C S Wong

    Full Text Available Very few studies examined the issue of regret on choosing colorectal cancer (CRC screening tests. We evaluated the determinants of regret and tested the hypothesis that regret over screening choices was associated with poorer screening compliance.A bowel cancer screening centre invited all Hong Kong citizens aged 50-70 years who were asymptomatic of CRC to participate in free-of-charge screening programmes. Upon attendance they attended health seminars on CRC and its screening, and were offered an option to choose yearly faecal immunochemical test (FIT for up to four years vs. one direct colonoscopy. They were not allowed to switch the screening option after decision. A self-administered, four-item validated survey was used to assess whether they regretted over their choice (> 2 = regretful from a scale of 0 [no regret]-5 [extreme regret]. A binary logistic regression model evaluated if initial regret over their choice was associated with poorer programme compliance.From 4,341 screening participants who have chosen FIT or colonoscopy, 120 (2.8% regretted over their decision and 1,029 (23.7% were non-compliant with the screening programme. Younger subjects and people who felt pressure when making their decision were associated with regret. People who regretted their decision were 2.189 (95% C.I. 1.361-3.521, p = 0.001 times more likely to be non-compliant with the programme.This study is the first to show that regret over the initial CRC screening choice was associated with later non-compliance. Screening participants who expressed regret over their choice should receive additional reminders to improve their programmatic compliance.

  11. The Gap between Individual Perception and Compliance: A Qualitative Follow-Up Study of the Surgical Safety Checklist Application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Sendlhofer

    Full Text Available "The Surgical Safety Checklist (SSC is important, but we don't use it adequately" is a well-suited statement that reflects the SSC's application in hospitals. Our aim was to follow up on our initial study on compliance (2014 by analysing differences between individual perception and compliance with the SSC.We conducted a follow-up online survey to assess healthcare professionals' individual perception of, as well as satisfaction and compliance with the SSC three years following its thorough implementation.171 (19.5% of 875 operating team members completed the online survey. 99.4% confirmed using the SSC. Self-estimated subjective knowledge about the intention of the checklist was high, whereas objective knowledge was moderate, but improved as compared to 2014. According to an independent audit the SSC was used in 93.1% of all operations and among the SSCs used the completion rate was 57.2%. The use of the SSC was rated as rather easy [median (IQR: 7 (6-7], familiar [7 (6-7], generally important [7 (7-7], and good for patients [7 (6-7] as well as for employees [7 (7-7]. Only comfort of use was rated lower [6 (5-7].There is a gap between individual perception and actual application of the SSC. Despite healthcare professionals confirming the importance of the SSC, compliance was moderate. The introduction of SSCs in the health care sector remains a constant challenge and requires continuous re-evaluation as well as a sensible integration into existing workflows in hospitals.

  12. Evaluation of fixed orthodontic patients\\\\\\' compliance in the clinic of Shiraz dental school: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Zarif Najafi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Orthodontic patients’ cooperation is a determining factor in treatment outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between patient cooperation during orthodontic treatment with variables such as age, sex, life setting, treatment duration and functional and social discomfort experienced.   Materials and Methods: Specimens were consisted of 100 orthodontic patients (36 males and 64 females between 13-35 years old (average age: 22.57±1.69 years. Patients’ demographic traits, treatment duration andfunctional-social discomfort by the orthodontic treatment were evaluated using a questionnaire answered by the patients or their parents. The degree of patient cooperation was assessed by the modified cooperation questionnaire (Orthodontic Patient Cooperation Scale [OPCS] which was completed by an orthodontist. Data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA, T-test, intraclass correlation coefficient and Pearson Correlation.   Results: No significant difference was found between the cooperation of male and female patients (P=0.867 and also between the cooperation of the patients who lived in the urban and rural setting (P=0.613. Treatment duration and compliance showed a low negative correlation which was not statistically significant (r=-0.155, P=0.127. Functional-social discomfort and compliance showed a low negative correlation which was not statistically significant (r=-0.118, P=0.244. No significant correlations were found between the compliance and age (r=0.002, P=0.988; and also the treatment duration and functional-social discomfort experienced(r=0.164, P=0.105.   Conclusion: Patient compliance appears to be a complex issue that cannot easily be predicted only by factors such as age, gender, life setting, treatment duration and functional-social discomfort experienced.

  13. Treating trismus: A prospective study on effect and compliance to jaw exercise therapy in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Nina; Andréll, Paulin; Johansson, Mia; Fagerberg-Mohlin, Bodil; Finizia, Caterina

    2015-12-01

    Trismus after head and neck cancer is a symptom associated with pain and negatively affected health-related quality of life. The purpose of this study was to compare two different jaw exercise devices and the compliance to exercise. Fifty patients with head and neck cancer were randomized to jaw exercise with either the TheraBite or Engström jaw device in a 10-week exercise program. Patients were regularly assessed by an oral surgeon, filled in exercise diaries, and answered the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 Head and Neck 35-questions (EORTC QLQ H&N35) and the Gothenburg Trismus Questionnaire (GTQ). Both groups improved their mouth opening, 7.2 mm (22.9%) and 5.5 mm (17.6%) for TheraBite and Engström, respectively. The largest increase in mouth opening and highest compliance to exercise was seen during the 4 first weeks. Jaw exercise therapy effectively improved mouth opening capacity and led to less trismus-related symptoms. Both jaw devices were proved efficient and compliance to exercise was comparable. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Hand sanitizer-dispensing door handles increase hand hygiene compliance: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiarz, Lukasz S; Savoie, Brent; McGuire, Mark; McConnell, Lauren; Nagy, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Improving rates of hand hygiene compliance (HHC) has been shown to reduce nosocomial disease. We compared the HHC for a traditional wall-mounted unit and a novel sanitizer-dispensing door handle device in a hospital inpatient ultrasound area. HHC increased 24.5%-77.1% (P sanitizer-dispensing door handle, whereas it remained unchanged for the other rooms. Technical improvements like a sanitizer-dispensing door handle can improve hospital HHC.

  15. Response to "Treatment compliance and effectiveness in complex PTSD patients with co-morbid personality disorder undergoing stabilizing cognitive behavioral group treatment: a preliminary study"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, A.; ten Broeke, E.

    2014-01-01

    Last November, the European Journal of Psychotraumatology published an interesting paper entitled "Treatment compliance and effectiveness in complex PTSD patients with co-morbid personality disorder undergoing stabilizing cognitive behavioral group treatment: a preliminary study". This article

  16. Oral hygiene compliance in orthodontic patients: a randomized controlled study on the effects of a post-treatment communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Cozzani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have recently demonstrated that a post-treatment communication to explain the importance of an oral hygiene can improve the orthodontic patients’ compliance over a period of 66 days. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of a structured follow-up communication after orthodontic appliance application on oral hygiene compliance after 30–40 days. Methods Eighty-four orthodontic participants enrolled from patients who were beginning fixed orthodontic treatment at the Orthodontic Department, Gaslini Hospital, Genova, between July and October 2014 were randomly assigned to one of three trial arms. Before the bonding, all patients underwent a session of oral hygiene aimed at obtaining an plaque index of “zero.” At the following orthodontic appointment, the plaque index was calculated for each patient in order to assess oral hygiene compliance. The first group served as control and did not receive any post-procedure communication, the second group received a structured text message giving reassurance, and the third group received a structured telephone call. Participants were blinded to group assignment and were not made aware that the text message or the telephone call was part of the study. (The research protocol was approved by the Italian Comitato Etico Regionale della Liguria-sezione 3^ c/o IRCCS-Istituto G. Gaslini 845/2014, and it is not registered in the trial’s register. Results Thirty patients were randomly assigned to the control group, 28 participants to the text message group, and 26 to the telephone group. Participants who received a post-treatment communication reported higher level of oral hygiene compliance than participants in the control group. The plaque index was 0.3 (interquartile range (Iqr, 0.60 and 0.75 (Iqr, 1.30, respectively, with a significant difference (P = 0.0205. Conclusions A follow-up procedure after orthodontic treatment may be an effective tool to

  17. Development of a dynamic coupled hydro-geomechanical code and its application to induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Md Mamun

    This research describes the importance of a hydro-geomechanical coupling in the geologic sub-surface environment from fluid injection at geothermal plants, large-scale geological CO2 sequestration for climate mitigation, enhanced oil recovery, and hydraulic fracturing during wells construction in the oil and gas industries. A sequential computational code is developed to capture the multiphysics interaction behavior by linking a flow simulation code TOUGH2 and a geomechanics modeling code PyLith. Numerical formulation of each code is discussed to demonstrate their modeling capabilities. The computational framework involves sequential coupling, and solution of two sub-problems- fluid flow through fractured and porous media and reservoir geomechanics. For each time step of flow calculation, pressure field is passed to the geomechanics code to compute effective stress field and fault slips. A simplified permeability model is implemented in the code that accounts for the permeability of porous and saturated rocks subject to confining stresses. The accuracy of the TOUGH-PyLith coupled simulator is tested by simulating Terzaghi's 1D consolidation problem. The modeling capability of coupled poroelasticity is validated by benchmarking it against Mandel's problem. The code is used to simulate both quasi-static and dynamic earthquake nucleation and slip distribution on a fault from the combined effect of far field tectonic loading and fluid injection by using an appropriate fault constitutive friction model. Results from the quasi-static induced earthquake simulations show a delayed response in earthquake nucleation. This is attributed to the increased total stress in the domain and not accounting for pressure on the fault. However, this issue is resolved in the final chapter in simulating a single event earthquake dynamic rupture. Simulation results show that fluid pressure has a positive effect on slip nucleation and subsequent crack propagation. This is confirmed by

  18. Geomechanical modeling of stress and strain evolution during contractional fault-related folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Kevin J.; Ferrill, David A.; Morris, Alan P.; McGinnis, Ronald N.

    2012-11-01

    Understanding stress states and rock mass deformation deep underground is critical to a range of endeavors including oil and gas exploration and production, geothermal reservoir characterization and management, and subsurface disposal of CO2. Geomechanical modeling can predict the onset of failure and the type and abundance of deformation features along with the orientations and magnitudes of stresses. This approach enables development of forward models that incorporate realistic mechanical stratigraphy (e.g., including competence contrasts, bed thicknesses, and bedding planes), include faults and bedding-slip surfaces as frictional sliding interfaces, reproduce the overall geometry of the fold structures of interest, and allow tracking of stress and strain through the deformation history. Use of inelastic constitutive relationships (e.g., elastic-plastic behavior) allows permanent strains to develop in response to the applied loads. This ability to capture permanent deformation is superior to linear elastic models, which are often used for numerical convenience, but are incapable of modeling permanent deformation or predicting permanent deformation processes such as faulting, fracturing, and pore collapse. Finite element modeling results compared with field examples of a natural contractional fault-related fold show that well-designed geomechanical modeling can match overall fold geometries and be applied to stress, fracture, and subseismic fault prediction in geologic structures. Geomechanical modeling of this type allows stress and strain histories to be obtained throughout the model domain.

  19. Faults simulations for three-dimensional reservoir-geomechanical models with the extended finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévost, Jean H.; Sukumar, N.

    2016-01-01

    Faults are geological entities with thicknesses several orders of magnitude smaller than the grid blocks typically used to discretize reservoir and/or over-under-burden geological formations. Introducing faults in a complex reservoir and/or geomechanical mesh therefore poses significant meshing difficulties. In this paper, we consider the strong-coupling of solid displacement and fluid pressure in a three-dimensional poro-mechanical (reservoir-geomechanical) model. We introduce faults in the mesh without meshing them explicitly, by using the extended finite element method (X-FEM) in which the nodes whose basis function support intersects the fault are enriched within the framework of partition of unity. For the geomechanics, the fault is treated as an internal displacement discontinuity that allows slipping to occur using a Mohr-Coulomb type criterion. For the reservoir, the fault is either an internal fluid flow conduit that allows fluid flow in the fault as well as to enter/leave the fault or is a barrier to flow (sealing fault). For internal fluid flow conduits, the continuous fluid pressure approximation admits a discontinuity in its normal derivative across the fault, whereas for an impermeable fault, the pressure approximation is discontinuous across the fault. Equal-order displacement and pressure approximations are used. Two- and three-dimensional benchmark computations are presented to verify the accuracy of the approach, and simulations are presented that reveal the influence of the rate of loading on the activation of faults.

  20. Formalizing and applying compliance patterns for business process compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elgammal, A.F.S.A.; Türetken, O.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.M.; Papazoglou, M.

    2016-01-01

    Today’s enterprises demand a high degree of compliance of business processes to meet diverse regulations and legislations. Several industrial studies have shown that compliance management is a daunting task, and organizations are still struggling and spending billions of dollars annually to ensure a

  1. The estimation of 3D SAR distributions in the human head from mobile phone compliance testing data for epidemiological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, Kanako; Varsier, Nadège; Watanabe, Soichi; Taki, Masao; Wiart, Joe; Mann, Simon; Deltour, Isabelle; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2009-10-01

    A worldwide epidemiological study called 'INTERPHONE' has been conducted to estimate the hypothetical relationship between brain tumors and mobile phone use. In this study, we proposed a method to estimate 3D distribution of the specific absorption rate (SAR) in the human head due to mobile phone use to provide the exposure gradient for epidemiological studies. 3D SAR distributions due to exposure to an electromagnetic field from mobile phones are estimated from mobile phone compliance testing data for actual devices. The data for compliance testing are measured only on the surface in the region near the device and in a small 3D region around the maximum on the surface in a homogeneous phantom with a specific shape. The method includes an interpolation/extrapolation and a head shape conversion. With the interpolation/extrapolation, SAR distributions in the whole head are estimated from the limited measured data. 3D SAR distributions in the numerical head models, where the tumor location is identified in the epidemiological studies, are obtained from measured SAR data with the head shape conversion by projection. Validation of the proposed method was performed experimentally and numerically. It was confirmed that the proposed method provided good estimation of 3D SAR distribution in the head, especially in the brain, which is the tissue of major interest in epidemiological studies. We conclude that it is possible to estimate 3D SAR distributions in a realistic head model from the data obtained by compliance testing measurements to provide a measure for the exposure gradient in specific locations of the brain for the purpose of exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. The proposed method has been used in several studies in the INTERPHONE.

  2. The estimation of 3D SAR distributions in the human head from mobile phone compliance testing data for epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, Kanako; Varsier, Nadège; Watanabe, Soichi; Taki, Masao; Wiart, Joe; Mann, Simon; Deltour, Isabelle; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2009-10-07

    A worldwide epidemiological study called 'INTERPHONE' has been conducted to estimate the hypothetical relationship between brain tumors and mobile phone use. In this study, we proposed a method to estimate 3D distribution of the specific absorption rate (SAR) in the human head due to mobile phone use to provide the exposure gradient for epidemiological studies. 3D SAR distributions due to exposure to an electromagnetic field from mobile phones are estimated from mobile phone compliance testing data for actual devices. The data for compliance testing are measured only on the surface in the region near the device and in a small 3D region around the maximum on the surface in a homogeneous phantom with a specific shape. The method includes an interpolation/extrapolation and a head shape conversion. With the interpolation/extrapolation, SAR distributions in the whole head are estimated from the limited measured data. 3D SAR distributions in the numerical head models, where the tumor location is identified in the epidemiological studies, are obtained from measured SAR data with the head shape conversion by projection. Validation of the proposed method was performed experimentally and numerically. It was confirmed that the proposed method provided good estimation of 3D SAR distribution in the head, especially in the brain, which is the tissue of major interest in epidemiological studies. We conclude that it is possible to estimate 3D SAR distributions in a realistic head model from the data obtained by compliance testing measurements to provide a measure for the exposure gradient in specific locations of the brain for the purpose of exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. The proposed method has been used in several studies in the INTERPHONE.

  3. International Criminal Justice and the Politics of Compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamont, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    International Criminal Justice and the Politics of Compliance provides a comprehensive study of compliance with legal obligations derived from the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia's (ICTY) Statute and integrates theoretical debates on compliance into international justice sc

  4. [Frequency dependance of compliance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayrard, P

    1975-01-01

    Resistance of peripheral or "small" airways is only a small part of the total pulmonary resistance (Raw). Even considerable obstruction in these airways will have little effect on total resistance. Conversely this will lead to inequality in the time constants of units in parallel, and dynamic lung compliance (C dyn) shall fall as respiratory frequence increases. C dyn is measured from simultaneous recordings of transpulmonary pressure (esophageal balloon) and volume obtained from a volume displacement plethysmograph. If Raw and static compliance are found to be normal, the frequency dependance of compliance will result from peripheral airway obstruction only. Early stages of chronic airway obstruction can be established by this method. However this appear not suitable for wide-scale studies.

  5. Numerical Simulation of Permeability Change in Wellbore Cement Fractures after Geomechanical Stress and Geochemical Reactions Using X-ray Computed Tomography Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabilan, Senthil; Jung, Hun Bok; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Beck, Anthon N.; Varga, Tamas; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Um, Wooyong

    2016-06-21

    X-ray microtomography (XMT) imaging combined with a three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling technique was used to study the effect of geochemical and geomechanical processes on fracture properties in composite Portland cement–basalt caprock core samples. The effect of fluid properties and flow conditions on fracture permeability was numerically studied by using fluids with varying physical properties and simulating different pressure conditions. CFD revealed that the application of geomechanical stress led to increased fluid flow, which resulted in increased fracture permeability. After CO2-reaction, XMT images displayed preferential precipitation of calcium carbonate within the fractures in the cement matrix and less precipitation in fractures located at the cement–basalt interface. CFD predicted changes in flow characteristics and differences in absolute values of flow properties due to different pressure gradients. CFD was able to highlight the profound effect of fluid properties on flow characteristics and hydraulic properties of fractures. This study demonstrates the applicability of XMT imaging and CFD as powerful tools for characterizing the hydraulic properties of fractures in a number of applications like geologic carbon sequestration and storage, hydraulic fracturing for shale gas production, and enhanced geothermal systems.

  6. Numerical Simulation of Permeability Change in Wellbore Cement Fractures after Geomechanical Stress and Geochemical Reactions Using X-ray Computed Tomography Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabilan, Senthil; Jung, Hun Bok; Kuprat, Andrew P; Beck, Anthon N; Varga, Tamas; Fernandez, Carlos A; Um, Wooyong

    2016-06-21

    X-ray microtomography (XMT) imaging combined with three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling technique was used to study the effect of geochemical and geomechanical processes on fracture permeability in composite Portland cement-basalt caprock core samples. The effect of fluid density and viscosity and two different pressure gradient conditions on fracture permeability was numerically studied by using fluids with varying density and viscosity and simulating two different pressure gradient conditions. After the application of geomechanical stress but before CO2-reaction, CFD revealed fluid flow increase, which resulted in increased fracture permeability. After CO2-reaction, XMT images displayed preferential precipitation of calcium carbonate within the fractures in the cement matrix and less precipitation in fractures located at the cement-basalt interface. CFD estimated changes in flow profile and differences in absolute values of flow velocity due to different pressure gradients. CFD was able to highlight the profound effect of fluid viscosity on velocity profile and fracture permeability. This study demonstrates the applicability of XMT imaging and CFD as powerful tools for characterizing the hydraulic properties of fractures in a number of applications like geologic carbon sequestration and storage, hydraulic fracturing for shale gas production, and enhanced geothermal systems.

  7. The Strategic Nature of Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Thomas; Mäder, Lars Kai

    2014-01-01

    This compliance study models correct and timely implementation of policies in a multilevel system as a strategic game between a central monitoring agency and multiple implementers and evaluates statistically the empirical implications of this model. We test whether compliance is determined...

  8. Compliance with Iron-Folate Supplement and Associated Factors among Antenatal Care Attendant Mothers in Misha District, South Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinet Arega Sadore

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In Ethiopia, higher proportions of pregnant women are anemic. Despite the efforts to reduce iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy, only few women took an iron supplement as recommended. Thus, this study aimed to assess compliance with iron-folate supplement and associated factors among antenatal care attendant mothers in Misha district, South Ethiopia. Method. Community based cross-sectional study supported with in-depth interview was conducted from March 1 to March 30, 2015. The sample size was determined using single population proportion to 303. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with compliance to iron-folate supplement. Results. The compliance rate was found to be 39.2%. Mothers knowledge of anemia (AOR = 4.451, 95% CI = (2.027,9.777, knowledge of iron-folate supplement (AOR = 3.509, 95% CI = (1.442,8.537, and counseling on iron-folate supplement (AOR = 4.093, 95% CI = (2.002,8.368 were significantly associated with compliance to iron-folate supplement. Conclusions. Compliance rate of iron-folate supplementation during pregnancy remains very low. This study showed that providing women with clear instructions about iron-folate tablet intake and educating them on the health benefits of the iron-folate tablets can increase compliance with iron-folate supplementation.

  9. Monitoring Compliance with Open Access policies

    OpenAIRE

    Picarra, Mafalda

    2015-01-01

    In parallel to implementing Open Access policies, institutions and research funders are also engaged in developing mechanisms to monitor compliance with the existing policies. This study highlights why policy compliance must be monitored and how it can be done. A series of case studies illustrate where compliance is being effectively monitored.

  10. Compliance of energy-dense, small volume oral nutritional supplements in the daily clinical practice on a geriatric ward--an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, K; van Steijn, J; Schuur, T; Kuhn, M; Rouws, C; Huinink, E-L; van der Hooft, C; van Asselt, D

    2014-07-01

    Compliance is important in optimizing the clinical effectiveness of oral nutritional supplements (ONS). Small volume, energy-dense ONS (ED-ONS; ≥ 2 kcal/ml) have been shown to improve compliance in clinical trial settings. However, data from clinical practice is still lacking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ED-ONS on the compliance in an observational set-up to obtain data from daily clinical practice on a geriatric ward. Geriatric inpatients, undernourished or at risk of undernutrition received two servings of either ED-ONS (125 ml, 2.4 kcal/ml: Nutridrink Compact Energy, Nutricia) or a standard ONS (S-ONS; 200 ml, 1.5 kcal/ml: Nutridrink) as part of their daily routine care. Patients were allocated to a group according to availability of beds and placement on the ward. Compliance (kcal/day and % of prescribed volume) was assessed by weighing returned bottles. Data were analyzed via Mixed Model for Repeated Measures. Forty-seven patients received ED-ONS, and 61 patients received S-ONS. Compliance was significantly higher with ED-ONS in geriatric inpatients compared to S-ONS ( 378 ± 14.0 kcal/day vs. 337 ± 13.6 kcal/day (mean ± SEM), p = 0.039, 63.0 ± 2.34% vs. 56.2 ± 2.26%, p = 0.039). Moreover, a trend (p=0.078) was observed towards an increasing difference in compliance over time. This study shows that compliance to ED-ONS is significantly better than to S-ONS in daily clinical practice. Although small, the difference in compliance seems to increase over time, suggesting clinical relevance with longer treatment.

  11. The eye drop chart: a pilot study for improving administration of and compliance with topical treatments in glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McVeigh KA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Katherine Anne McVeigh,1 Georgios Vakros21Department of Ophthalmology, Royal United Hospital, Combe Park, Bath, UK; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Queen’s Hospital, Romford, Essex, UKAim: In order to improve patient education, compliance, and administration of eye drops prescribed for patients suffering with glaucoma within a UK ophthalmology department, an eye drop chart (EDC was designed, developed, and piloted with patients attending the glaucoma clinic over 1 month.Methods: A cross-sectional prospective pilot study of 25 patients using an administration aid and a self-reported questionnaire. Chi-square tests were used to compare responses pre- and postintervention.Results: Results demonstrated an impressive improvement in nine of eleven categories assessed regarding drop administration and compliance. Patients stating that they always wash their hands increased significantly from 64% (13 participants to 92% (23 participants (P=0.029, and those who always shake the bottle improved from 40% (10 to 84% (21 (P=0.001. Punctal occlusion techniques improved from 44% (11 to 72% (18 (P=0.015. Finally, patients who always discarded the bottle after 28 days of use rose from 68% to 92%, though the difference was not significant (P=0.09. Only the number of drops being administered to the eye and the length of time left between the application of drops remained relatively unchanged. Sixty-four percent reported finding EDC helpful or useful, 52% had positive responses when asked if they would continue using EDC, and 88% would recommend it to a friend.Conclusion: Although there are limitations to the data as they are subjective, descriptive, and limited to sample size of 25, the results of this pilot study have shown promise. The EDC appears to be a cost-effective way at improving patients’ use of topical ocular medications.Keywords: glaucoma, administration, compliance, aid, drop chart

  12. Forensic-metrological considerations on assessment of compliance (or non-compliance) in forensic blood alcohol content determinations: A case study with software application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamengo, Luca; Frison, Giampietro; Tedeschi, Gianpaola; Frasson, Samuela

    2016-08-01

    Blood alcohol concentration is the most frequent analytical determination carried out in forensic toxicology laboratories worldwide. It is usually required to assess if an offence has been committed by comparing blood alcohol levels with specified legal limits, which can vary widely among countries. Due to possible serious legal consequences associated with non-compliant alcohol levels, measurement uncertainty should be carefully evaluated, along with other metrological aspects which can influence the final result. The whole procedure can be time-consuming and error-generating in routine practice, increasing the risks for unreliable assessments. A software application named Ethanol WorkBook (EtWB) was developed at the author's laboratory by using Visual Basic for Application language and MS Excel(®), with the aim of providing help to forensic analysts involved in blood alcohol determinations. The program can (i) calculate measurement uncertainties and decision limits with different methodologies; (ii) assess compliance to specification limits with a guard-band approach; (iii) manage quality control (QC) data and create control charts for QC samples; (iv) create control maps from real cases data archives; (v) provide laboratory reports with graphical outputs for elaborated data and (vi) create comprehensive searchable case archives. A typical example of drink driving case is presented and discussed to illustrate the importance of a metrological approach for reliable compliance assessment and to demonstrate software application in routine practice. The tool is made freely available to the scientific community at request.

  13. Hydro-bio-geomechanical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments from Nankai Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamarina, J.C.; Dai, Shifeng; Terzariol, M.; Jang, Jeonghwan; Waite, William F.; Winters, William J.; Nagao, J.; Yoneda, J.; Konno, Y.; Fujii, T.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-01-01

    Natural hydrate-bearing sediments from the Nankai Trough, offshore Japan, were studied using the Pressure Core Characterization Tools (PCCTs) to obtain geomechanical, hydrological, electrical, and biological properties under in situ pressure, temperature, and restored effective stress conditions. Measurement results, combined with index-property data and analytical physics-based models, provide unique insight into hydrate-bearing sediments in situ. Tested cores contain some silty-sands, but are predominantly sandy- and clayey-silts. Hydrate saturations Sh range from 0.15 to 0.74, with significant concentrations in the silty-sands. Wave velocity and flexible-wall permeameter measurements on never-depressurized pressure-core sediments suggest hydrates in the coarser-grained zones, the silty-sands where Sh exceeds 0.4, contribute to soil-skeletal stability and are load-bearing. In the sandy- and clayey-silts, where Sh < 0.4, the state of effective stress and stress history are significant factors determining sediment stiffness. Controlled depressurization tests show that hydrate dissociation occurs too quickly to maintain thermodynamic equilibrium, and pressure–temperature conditions track the hydrate stability boundary in pure-water, rather than that in seawater, in spite of both the in situ pore water and the water used to maintain specimen pore pressure prior to dissociation being saline. Hydrate dissociation accompanied with fines migration caused up to 2.4% vertical strain contraction. The first-ever direct shear measurements on never-depressurized pressure-core specimens show hydrate-bearing sediments have higher sediment strength and peak friction angle than post-dissociation sediments, but the residual friction angle remains the same in both cases. Permeability measurements made before and after hydrate dissociation demonstrate that water permeability increases after dissociation, but the gain is limited by the transition from hydrate saturation

  14. Compliance to oseltamivir among two populations in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom affected by influenza A(H1N1pdm09, November 2009--a waste water epidemiology study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C Singer

    Full Text Available Antiviral provision remains the focus of many pandemic preparedness plans, however, there is considerable uncertainty regarding antiviral compliance rates. Here we employ a waste water epidemiology approach to estimate oseltamivir (Tamiflu® compliance. Oseltamivir carboxylate (oseltamivir's active metabolite was recovered from two waste water treatment plant (WWTP catchments within the United Kingdom at the peak of the autumnal wave of the 2009 Influenza A (H1N1pdm09 pandemic. Predictions of oseltamivir consumption from detected levels were compared with two sources of national government statistics to derive compliance rates. Scenario and sensitivity analysis indicated between 3-4 and 120-154 people were using oseltamivir during the study period in the two WWTP catchments and a compliance rate between 45-60%. With approximately half the collected antivirals going unused, there is a clear need to alter public health messages to improve compliance. We argue that a near real-time understanding of drug compliance at the scale of the waste water treatment plant (hundreds to millions of people can potentially help public health messages become more timely, targeted, and demographically sensitive, while potentially leading to less mis- and un-used antiviral, less wastage and ultimately a more robust and efficacious pandemic preparedness plan.

  15. Semiparametric transformation models for causal inference in time to event studies with all-or-nothing compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen; Chen, Kani; Sobel, Michael E; Ying, Zhiliang

    2015-03-01

    We consider causal inference in randomized survival studies with right censored outcomes and all-or-nothing compliance, using semiparametric transformation models to estimate the distribution of survival times in treatment and control groups, conditional on covariates and latent compliance type. Estimands depending on these distributions, for example, the complier average causal effect (CACE), the complier effect on survival beyond time t, and the complier quantile effect are then considered. Maximum likelihood is used to estimate the parameters of the transformation models, using a specially designed expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to overcome the computational difficulties created by the mixture structure of the problem and the infinite dimensional parameter in the transformation models. The estimators are shown to be consistent, asymptotically normal, and semiparametrically efficient. Inferential procedures for the causal parameters are developed. A simulation study is conducted to evaluate the finite sample performance of the estimated causal parameters. We also apply our methodology to a randomized study conducted by the Health Insurance Plan of Greater New York to assess the reduction in breast cancer mortality due to screening.

  16. Geomechanical and anisotropic acoustic properties of Lower Jurassic Posidonia shales from Whitby (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhubayev, Alimzhan; Houben, Maartje; Smeulders, David; Barnhoorn, Auke

    2014-05-01

    The Posidonia Shale Formation (PSF) is one of the possible resource shales for unconventional gas in Northern Europe and currently is of great interest to hydrocarbon exploration and production. Due to low permeability of shales, economically viable production requires hydraulic fracturing of the reservoir. The design of hydrofractures requires an estimate of stress state within the reservoir and geomechanical properties such as Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. Shales are often highly anisotropic and the models which neglect shale anisotropy may fail to predict the behaviour of hydrofractures. Seismic attenuation anisotropy, on the other hand, can play a key role in quantitative rock characterization. Where the attenuation anisotropy can potentially be linked to anisotropic permeability of shales, its fluid/gas saturation and preferred development of anisotropic fracture orientations. In this research, by utilizing the so-called Thomsen's notations, the elastic anisotropy of our (fractured and unfractured) shales has been investigated using a pulse transmission technique in the ultrasonic frequency range (0.3-1 MHz). Assuming transverse isotropy of the shales, and taking the axis x3 as the axis of rotational symmetry, directional Young's moduli and Poisson's ratios were obtained. The Young's modulus measured parallel to bedding (E1) is found to be larger than the Young's modulus measured orthogonal to bedding (E3). In case of the Poisson's ratios, we found that ν31 is larger than ν12, where νijrelates elastic strain in xj direction to stress applied in xi direction. Finally, attenuation anisotropy in dry and layer-parallel fractured Posidonia shale samples has been studied in the same frequency range. The attenuation of compressional (QP-1) and shear (QS-1) waves increases substantially with a macro (or wavelength) fracture introduction, especially for P and S waves propagating orthogonal to the bedding. In non-fractured and fractured dry shales, QP-1 is

  17. Compliance of Companies with Corporate Governance Codes: Case Study on Listed Belgian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven H. De Cleyn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Listed and large companies become increasingly subject to internal and external pressure to comply with ethical and social standards. This article focuses on one aspect of this matter, namely the corporate governance issue. Within the framework of recent corporate scandals, this paper investigates whether and to which extent Belgian publicly listed SMEs comply with the Belgian Code on Corporate Governance after its first year of introduction, which has been constituted in the framework of the European Action Plan on Corporate Governance.In a sample of 78 Belgian listed SMEs, the compliance with the Code is analysed. After its first year of introduction, companies comply with on average 70% of the Code’s provisions. The most problematic topics in terms of disclosure of information seem to relate to (individual remuneration, private information and content of shareholders’ meetings.

  18. Prognostic value of physicians' assessment of compliance regarding all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes: primary care follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüter Gernot

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether the primary care physician's assessment of patient compliance is a valuable prognostic marker to identify patients who are at increased risk of death, or merely reflects measurement of various treatment parameters such as HbA1C or other laboratory markers is unclear. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the prognostic value of the physicians' assessment of patient compliance and other factors with respect to all-cause mortality during a one year follow-up period. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among 1014 patients with type 2 diabetes aged 40 and over (mean age 69 years, SD 10.4, 45% male who were under medical treatment in 11 participating practices of family physicians and internists working in primary care in a defined region in South Germany between April and June 2000. Baseline data were gathered from patients and physicians by standardized questionnaire. The physician's assessment of patient compliance was assessed by means of a 4-point Likert scale (very good, rather good, rather bad, very bad. In addition, we carried out a survey among physicians by means of a questionnaire to find out which aspects for the assessment of patient compliance were of importance to make this assessment. Active follow-up of patients was conducted after one year to determine mortality. Results During the one year follow-up 48 (4.7% of the 1014 patients died. Among other factors such as patient type (patients presenting at office, nursing home or visited patients, gender, age and a history of macrovascular disease, the physician's assessment of patient compliance was an important predictor of all-cause mortality. Patients whose compliance was assessed by the physician as "very bad" (6% were significantly more likely to die during follow-up (OR = 2.67, 95% CI 1.02–6.97 after multivariable adjustment compared to patients whose compliance was assessed as "rather good" (45% or "very good

  19. On the importance of the heterogeneity assumption in the characterization of reservoir geomechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccarato, C.; Baù, D.; Bottazzi, F.; Ferronato, M.; Gambolati, G.; Mantica, S.; Teatini, P.

    2016-10-01

    The geomechanical analysis of a highly compartmentalized reservoir is performed to simulate the seafloor subsidence due to gas production. The available observations over the hydrocarbon reservoir consist of bathymetric surveys carried out before and at the end of a 10-yr production life. The main goal is the calibration of the reservoir compressibility cM, that is, the main geomechanical parameter controlling the surface response. Two conceptual models are considered: in one (i) cM varies only with the depth and the vertical effective stress (heterogeneity due to lithostratigraphic variability); in another (ii) cM varies also in the horizontal plane, that is, it is spatially distributed within the reservoir stratigraphic units. The latter hypothesis accounts for a possible partitioning of the reservoir due to the presence of sealing faults and thrusts that suggests the idea of a block heterogeneous system with the number of reservoir blocks equal to the number of uncertain parameters. The method applied here relies on an ensemble-based data assimilation (DA) algorithm (i.e. the ensemble smoother, ES), which incorporates the information from the bathymetric measurements into the geomechanical model response to infer and reduce the uncertainty of the parameter cM. The outcome from conceptual model (i) indicates that DA is effective in reducing the cM uncertainty. However, the maximum settlement still remains underestimated, while the areal extent of the subsidence bowl is overestimated. We demonstrate that the selection of the heterogeneous conceptual model (ii) allows to reproduce much better the observations thus removing a clear bias of the model structure. DA allows significantly reducing the cM uncertainty in the five blocks (out of the seven) characterized by large volume and large pressure decline. Conversely, the assimilation of land displacements only partially constrains the prior cM uncertainty in the reservoir blocks marginally contributing to the

  20. Compliance towards dispensed medication labelling standards: a cross-sectional study in the state of Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neoh, Chin Fen; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Awaisu, Ahmed; Tambyappa, Jayabalan

    2009-09-01

    Good medicine labelling practice is vital to ensure safe use of medicines. Non-compliance to labelling standards is a potential source of medication errors. This study was intended to evaluate and compare compliance towards labelling standard for dispensed medications between community pharmacists and general practitioners in Penang, Malaysia. A total of 128 community pharmacies and 26 general practitioners' clinics were visited. Using 'Simulated Client Method' (SCM), data were collected on the medications dispensed upon presentation of hypothetical common cold symptoms. The medications dispensed were evaluated for labelling adequacy. Result revealed that majority of the dispensed medications obtained were not labelled according to regulatory requirements. However, general practitioners complied better than community pharmacists in terms of labelling for: name of patient (p<0.001), details of supplier (p<0.001), dosage of medication (p=0.023), frequency to take medication (p=0.023), patient's reference number (p<0.001), date of supply (p<0.001), special instructions for medication (p=0.008), storage requirements (p=0.002), and indication for medication (p<0.001). Conversely, community pharmacists labelled dispensed medications with the words "Controlled Medicine" more often than did general practitioners (p<0.001). Although laws for labelling dispensed medicines are in place, most community pharmacists and general practitioners did not comply accordingly, thereby putting patients' safety at risks of medication errors.

  1. Can Malaysian Young Adults Report Dietary Intake Using a Food Diary Mobile Application? A Pilot Study on Acceptability and Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yoke San; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Ayob, Ainaa Fatehah; Othman, Nor Effendy; Poh, Bee Koon

    2017-01-01

    Mobile applications may improve dietary reporting among young adults due to their high accessibility and embedded camera function. This pilot study aimed to (i) evaluate users’ acceptability and compliance in reporting dietary intake using a newly developed food diary mobile application (food app); and (ii) identify issues and recommendations for improving dietary assessment using this food app via quantitative and qualitative protocols. Twenty-eight university students each used a food app for seven consecutive days and attended one of five focus group interviews. A 42% decrement in reporting compliance was observed throughout the seven-day recording period. An average of 5.9 recording days were reported and 4.8 occasions of meal data were uploaded each day. Based on questionnaires, high levels of agreement were reported in terms of perceived usefulness (69.3%), perceived ease of use (77.1%), attitude (73.6%), perceived enjoyment (62.6%), and smartphone experience (91.1%), but such agreement was not reported for intention to use (38.1%) and social influence (33.4%). Four major themes emerged from the focus group interviews, namely, (i) features; (ii) potential use; (iii) utility issues of the food app; and (iv) suggestions for improvements. While the food app was well-accepted by most of the young adults, the current prototype would benefit from incorporation of a barcode scanning function, customizable reminders, in-app tutorial, an entertainment component, and enhancement in overall appearance. PMID:28098770

  2. Can Malaysian Young Adults Report Dietary Intake Using a Food Diary Mobile Application? A Pilot Study on Acceptability and Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoke San Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile applications may improve dietary reporting among young adults due to their high accessibility and embedded camera function. This pilot study aimed to (i evaluate users’ acceptability and compliance in reporting dietary intake using a newly developed food diary mobile application (food app; and (ii identify issues and recommendations for improving dietary assessment using this food app via quantitative and qualitative protocols. Twenty-eight university students each used a food app for seven consecutive days and attended one of five focus group interviews. A 42% decrement in reporting compliance was observed throughout the seven-day recording period. An average of 5.9 recording days were reported and 4.8 occasions of meal data were uploaded each day. Based on questionnaires, high levels of agreement were reported in terms of perceived usefulness (69.3%, perceived ease of use (77.1%, attitude (73.6%, perceived enjoyment (62.6%, and smartphone experience (91.1%, but such agreement was not reported for intention to use (38.1% and social influence (33.4%. Four major themes emerged from the focus group interviews, namely, (i features; (ii potential use; (iii utility issues of the food app; and (iv suggestions for improvements. While the food app was well-accepted by most of the young adults, the current prototype would benefit from incorporation of a barcode scanning function, customizable reminders, in-app tutorial, an entertainment component, and enhancement in overall appearance.

  3. Can Malaysian Young Adults Report Dietary Intake Using a Food Diary Mobile Application? A Pilot Study on Acceptability and Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yoke San; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Ayob, Ainaa Fatehah; Othman, Nor Effendy; Poh, Bee Koon

    2017-01-13

    Mobile applications may improve dietary reporting among young adults due to their high accessibility and embedded camera function. This pilot study aimed to (i) evaluate users' acceptability and compliance in reporting dietary intake using a newly developed food diary mobile application (food app); and (ii) identify issues and recommendations for improving dietary assessment using this food app via quantitative and qualitative protocols. Twenty-eight university students each used a food app for seven consecutive days and attended one of five focus group interviews. A 42% decrement in reporting compliance was observed throughout the seven-day recording period. An average of 5.9 recording days were reported and 4.8 occasions of meal data were uploaded each day. Based on questionnaires, high levels of agreement were reported in terms of perceived usefulness (69.3%), perceived ease of use (77.1%), attitude (73.6%), perceived enjoyment (62.6%), and smartphone experience (91.1%), but such agreement was not reported for intention to use (38.1%) and social influence (33.4%). Four major themes emerged from the focus group interviews, namely, (i) features; (ii) potential use; (iii) utility issues of the food app; and (iv) suggestions for improvements. While the food app was well-accepted by most of the young adults, the current prototype would benefit from incorporation of a barcode scanning function, customizable reminders, in-app tutorial, an entertainment component, and enhancement in overall appearance.

  4. Assessment of the Impact of Geomechanical Parameters Variability on Underground Excavations Stability Using Response Surface Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytel, Witold; Świtoń, Joanna

    2013-03-01

    Recognition of properties of the rock mass surrounding a mineral deposit is particularly important for the mining operations at greater depths. Since the rock mass is usually not homogeneous, and its parameters have characteristics of randomness, underground workings safety issue should always be analysed taking into account the dispersion of the values of these parameters around their mean values. In order to assess the impact of geotechnical parameters uncertainty on the excavation stability one uses the appropriate statistical approach. In this paper, by analysing successive combinations of geomechanical parameters of the rock in the measured range, we examined the effect of their variability on risk of underground excavation instability using response surface method.

  5. Multi-Site Application of the Geomechanical Approach for Natural Fracture Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Billingsley; V. Kuuskraa

    2006-03-31

    In order to predict the nature and distribution of natural fracturing, Advanced Resources Inc. (ARI) incorporated concepts of rock mechanics, geologic history, and local geology into a geomechanical approach for natural fracture prediction within mildly deformed, tight (low-permeability) gas reservoirs. Under the auspices of this project, ARI utilized and refined this approach in tight gas reservoir characterization and exploratory activities in three basins: the Piceance, Wind River and the Anadarko. The primary focus of this report is the knowledge gained on natural fractural prediction along with practical applications for enhancing gas recovery and commerciality. Of importance to tight formation gas production are two broad categories of natural fractures: (1) shear related natural fractures and (2) extensional (opening mode) natural fractures. While arising from different origins this natural fracture type differentiation based on morphology is sometimes inter related. Predicting fracture distribution successfully is largely a function of collecting and understanding the available relevant data in conjunction with a methodology appropriate to the fracture origin. Initially ARI envisioned the geomechanical approach to natural fracture prediction as the use of elastic rock mechanics methods to project the nature and distribution of natural fracturing within mildly deformed, tight (low permeability) gas reservoirs. Technical issues and inconsistencies during the project prompted re-evaluation of these initial assumptions. ARI's philosophy for the geomechanical tools was one of heuristic development through field site testing and iterative enhancements to make it a better tool. The technology and underlying concepts were refined considerably during the course of the project. As with any new tool, there was a substantial learning curve. Through a heuristic approach, addressing these discoveries with additional software and concepts resulted in a stronger set

  6. Coupled Biological-Geomechanical-Geochemical Effects of the Disturbed Rock Zone on the Performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, S. C.; Herrick, C. G.; Lee, M. Y.

    2008-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is located at a depth of 655 m in bedded salt in southeastern New Mexico and is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy as a deep underground disposal facility for transuranic (TRU) waste. The WIPP must comply with the EPA's environmental regulations that require a probabilistic risk analysis of releases of radionuclides due to inadvertent human intrusion into the repository at some time during the 10,000-year regulatory period. Sandia National Laboratories conducts performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP using a system of computer codes representing the evolution of underground repository and emplaced TRU waste in order to demonstrate compliance. One of the important features modeled in a PA is the disturbed rock zone (DRZ) surrounding the emplacement rooms in the repository. The extent and permeability of DRZ play a significant role in the potential radionuclide release scenarios. We evaluated the phenomena occurring in the repository that affect the DRZ and their potential effects on the extent and permeability of the DRZ. Furthermore, we examined the DRZ's role in determining the performance of the repository. Pressure in the completely sealed repository will be increased by creep closure of the salt and degradation of TRU waste contents by microbial activity in the repository. An increased pressure in the repository will reduce the extent and permeability of the DRZ. The reduced DRZ extent and permeability will decrease the amount of brine that is available to interact with the waste. Furthermore, the potential for radionuclide release from the repository is dependent on the amount of brine that enters the repository. As a result of these coupled biological-geomechanical-geochemical phenomena, the extent and permeability of the DRZ has a significant impact on the potential radionuclide releases from the repository and, in turn, the repository performance. Sandia is a multi program laboratory operated by Sandia

  7. Do recommendations for institutional food service result in better food service? A study of compliance in Danish hospitals and nursing homes from 1995 to 2002-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Beck, Anne Marie; Lassen, Anne Dahl

    2007-01-01

    and nursing home residents has resulted in measurable progress. Design: A questionnaire-based study was carried out among foodservice managers in Danish hospitals (n = 96) and nursing homes (n = 898) in 1995 and 2002/3 (n = 90) and (n = 682), respectively. The study used compliance with selected issues....../3, hospitals had a higher compliance, except in the case of established feedback routines. Differences were statistically significant. The results indicate that nutritional care is higher on the agenda in hospital, than in nursing homes. However, very little progress can be seen in compliance when results......Background: Since 1995, significant efforts by authorities and researchers have been directed towards addressing the nutritional problems in Danish hospitals and nursing homes. Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the increased focus on nutritional problems in patients...

  8. Impact of the training on the compliance and persistence of weekly bisphosphonate treatment in postmenopausal osteoporosis: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzün, Şansın; Akyüz, Gülseren; Eskiyurt, Nurten; Memiş, Asuman; Kuran, Banu; İçağasıoğlu, Afitap; Sarpel, Tunay; Özdemir, Ferda; Özgirgin, Neşe; Günaydın, Rezzan; Cakçı, Aytül; Yurtkuran, Merih

    2013-01-01

    Long-term patient adherence to osteoporosis treatment is poor despite proven efficacy. In this study, we aimed to assess the impact of active patient training on treatment compliance and persistence in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. In the present national, multicenter, randomized controlled study, postmenopausal osteoporosis patients (45-75 years) who were on weekly bisphosphonate treatment were randomized to active training (AT) and passive training (PT) groups and followed-up by 4 visits after the initial visit at 3 months interval during 12 months of the treatment. Both groups received a bisphosphonate usage guide and osteoporosis training booklets. Additionally, AT group received four phone calls (at 2(nd), 5(th), 8(th), and 11(th) months) and participated to four interactive social/training meetings held in groups of 10 patients (at 3(rd), 6(th), 9(th), and 12(th) months). The primary evaluation criteria were self-reported persistence and compliance to the treatment and the secondary evaluation criteria was quality life of the patients assessed by 41-item Quality of Life European Foundation for Osteoporosis (QUALEFFO-41) questionnaire. Of 448 patients (mean age 62.4±7.7 years), 226 were randomized to AT group and 222 were randomized to PT group. Among the study visits, the most common reason for not receiving treatment regularly was forgetfulness (54.9% for visit 2, 44.3% for visit 3, 51.6% for visit 4, and 43.8% for visit 5), the majority of the patients always used their drugs regularly on recommended days and dosages (63.8% for visit 2, 60.9% for visit 3, 72.1% for visit 4, and 70.8% for visit 5), and most of the patients were highly satisfied with the treatment (63.4% for visit 2, 68.9% for visit 3, 72.4% for visit 4, and 65.2% for visit 5) and wanted to continue to the treatment (96.5% for visit 2, 96.5% for visit 3, 96.9% for visit 4, and 94.4% for visit 5). QUALEFFO scores of the patients in visit 1 significantly improved in visit 5 (37.7

  9. Effects of loading–unloading and wetting–drying cycles on geomechanical behaviors of mudrocks in the Colombian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Camilo Torres-Suarez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The mudrocks in the Colombian Andes, particularly those exhibiting low cementation (bonding, are susceptible to degradation when the environmental conditions change, which are challenging issues for engineering works. In this paper, the changes in physico-mechanical properties of mudrocks were monitored in laboratory, and some influential factors on the mechanical competence of geomaterials were studied. The geotechnical characteristics and experimental designs were developed from physical, chemical, mechanical and compositional points of view. In the tests, the techniques such as vapor equilibrium technique (VET were employed to apply wetting–drying cycles and to control relative humidity (suction-controlled and loading–unloading cycles through ultrasonic wave velocities technique. The results show that the main failure mechanisms for the laminated mudrocks start on the microscopic scale by fissures coalescence, exhibiting physico-chemical degradation as well; the global geomechanical behavior presents a state between a ductile, like rock, and a fragile, like soil. The obtained results can provide engineering values according to monitoring laboratory set, when compared with in situ conditions.

  10. Microscale modeling of fluid flow-geomechanics-seismicity: Relationship between permeability and seismic source response in deformed rock joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raziperchikolaee, S.; Alvarado, V.; Yin, S.

    2014-09-01

    Studying rock joint deformation including both slippage and opening mechanisms provides an opportunity to investigate the connection between the permeability and seismic source mechanisms. A microscale fluid flow-geomechanics-seismicity model was built to evaluate the transport response and failure mechanism of microcracks developed along a joint in Berea sandstone samples during deformation. The modeling method considers comprehensive grain-cement interactions. Fluid flow behavior is obtained through a realistic network model of the pore space in the compacted assembly. The geometric description of the complex pore structure is characterized to predict permeability of the rock sample as a function of rock deformation by using a dynamic pore network model. As a result of microcracks development, forces and displacements in grains involved in bond breakage are measured to determine seismic moment tensor. Shear and nonshear displacements are applied to the joint samples to investigate their effects on permeability evolution and failure mechanism of microcracks during joint deformation. In addition, the effect of joint roughness is analyzed by performing numerical compression tests. We also investigate how confining pressure affects volumetric deformation leading to opening or closure of developed microcracks and permeability changes of samples with joints.

  11. Geomechanical Numerical Analysis as a Guidance for Preservation Works of the "Wieliczka" Salt Mine Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Obyrn, Kajetan; Tajduś, Antoni

    2017-06-01

    Salt was excavated at the "Wieliczka" Salt Mine for over 700 years. Underground mining operations terminated in 1996, by which time almost 2,400 chambers and 245 km of galleries had been created underground, situated on 9 levels and a few interlevels. In 1978, the mine was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List, which stated that parts of the mine with historical value had to be preserved for future generations. In order to preserve the most valuable chambers and galleries, activities aimed at establishing a protection pillar for excavations were conducted in the conservation area on Levels I-V. The need of large scope preserving works created the necessity to conduct a new and truly comprehensive geomechanical analysis. Such an analysis could only be done by means of advanced numerical modelling codes. Three-dimensional calculations were performed by means of FLAC 3D finite difference code. Rock mass stability assessment in the vicinity of excavations was carried out on the basis of the distribution and range of the so called failure zones. This comprehensive geomechanical analysis allows for verification and give the directions for future preservation and closure works in the "Wieliczka" mine.

  12. "The dirty hand in the latex glove": a study of hand hygiene compliance when gloves are worn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Christopher; Savage, Joanne; Besser, Sarah; Hayward, Andrew; Cookson, Barry; Cooper, Ben; Stone, Sheldon

    2011-12-01

    Wearing of gloves reduces transmission of organisms by healthcare workers' hands but is not a substitute for hand hygiene. Results of previous studies have varied as to whether hand hygiene is worse when gloves are worn. Most studies have been small and used nonstandardized assessments of glove use and hand hygiene. We sought to observe whether gloves were worn when appropriate and whether hand hygiene compliance differed when gloves were worn. Observational study. Healthcare workers in 56 medical or care of the elderly wards and intensive care units in 15 hospitals across England and Wales. We observed hand hygiene and glove usage (7,578 moments for hand hygiene) during 249 one-hour sessions. Observers also recorded whether gloves were or were not worn for individual contacts. Gloves were used in 1,983 (26.2%) of the 7,578 moments for hand hygiene and in 551 (16.7%) of 3,292 low-risk contacts; gloves were not used in 141 (21.1%) of 669 high-risk contacts. The rate of hand hygiene compliance with glove use was 41.4% (415 of 1,002 moments), and the rate without glove use was 50.0% (1,344 of 2,686 moments). After adjusting for ward, healthcare worker type, contact risk level, and whether the hand hygiene opportunity occurred before or after a patient contact, glove use was strongly associated with lower levels of hand hygiene (adjusted odds ratio, 0.65 [95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.79]; P hand hygiene was significantly lower when gloves were worn. Hand hygiene campaigns should consider placing greater emphasis on the World Health Organization indications for gloving and associated hand hygiene. National Research Register N0256159318.

  13. Predictors of compliance with a home-based exercise program added to usual medical care in preventing postmenopausal osteoporosis: an 18-month prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoux-Benhamou, M A; Roux, C; Perraud, A; Fermanian, J; Rahali-Kachlouf, H; Revel, M

    2005-03-01

    This prospective 18-month study was designed to assess long-term compliance with a program of exercise aimed to prevent osteoporosis after an educational intervention and to uncover determinants of compliance. A total of 135 postmenopausal women were recruited by flyers or instructed by their physicians to participate in an educational session added to usual medical care. After a baseline visit and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, volunteers participated in a 1-day educational session consisting of a lecture and discussion on guidelines for appropriate physical activity and training in a home-based exercise program taught by a physical therapist. Scheduled follow-up visits were 1, 6, and 18 months after the educational session. Compliance with the exercise program was defined as an exercise practice rate 50% or greater than the prescribed training. The 18-month compliance rate was 17.8% (24/135). The main reason for withdrawal from the program was lack of motivation. Two variables predicted compliance: contraindication for hormone replacement therapy (odds ratio [OR] = 0.13; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.04 to 0.46) and general physical function scores from an SF-36 questionnaire (OR=1.26; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.5). To a lesser extent, osteoporosis risk, defined as a femoral T-score exercise, only a minority of postmenopausal women adhered to a home-based exercise program after 18 months.

  14. The effect of improved compliance with hygiene guidelines on transmission of Staphylococcus aureus to newborn infants: the Swedish Hygiene Intervention and Transmission of S aureus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mernelius, Sara; Löfgren, Sture; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Blomberg, Marie; Olhager, Elisabeth; Gunnervik, Christina; Lenrick, Raymond; Thrane, Malena Tiefenthal; Isaksson, Barbro; Matussek, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    Newborn infants are often colonized with Staphylococcus aureus originating from health care workers (HCWs). We therefore use colonization with S aureus of newborn infants to determine the effect of an improved compliance with hygiene guidelines on bacterial transmission. Compliance with hygiene guidelines was monitored prior to (baseline) and after (follow-up) a multimodal hygiene intervention in 4 departments of obstetrics and gynecology. spa typing was used to elucidate transmission routes of S aureus collected from newborn infants, mothers, fathers, staff members, and environment. The compliance with hygiene guidelines increased significantly from baseline to follow-up. The transmission of S aureus from HCWs to infants was however not affected. Fathers had the highest colonization rates. Persistent carriage was indicated in 18% of the HCWs. The most commonly isolated spa type was t084, which was not detected in a previous study from the same geographic area. It is possible to substantially improve the compliance with hygiene guidelines, by using multimodal hygiene intervention. The improved compliance did not decrease the transmission of S aureus from sources outside the own family to newborn infants. Furthermore, we show the establishment of a new spa type (t084), which now is very common in our region. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. COMPLIANCE TO LONG-TERM TREATMENT OF CARDIOLOGIC PATIENTS WITH MILD TO MODERATE DEPRESSION: INEFFECTIVENESS OF ANTIDEPRESSIVE THERAPY WITH PIRLINDOL IN RANDOMIZED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Strokova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the influence of antidepressant therapy with pirlindol on compliance to the long-term treatment and quality of life in patients with cardiovascular diseases and mild to moderate depression. Material and methods. 61 patients with cardiovascular diseases and mild to moderate depression (according to Beck depression scale were randomized into two groups. Patients of intervention group received pirlindol, while patients of control group did not receive this drug. Compliance to cardiovascular and antidepressant treatment were estimated in 3 and 6 months. Adverse reactions and patients self-assessment of their well-being and global satisfaction in treatmen were also registered.  Results. 24 (75%, 2 (6% and 0 patients of intervention group continue pirlindol treatment in 1, 3 and 6 months, respectively. In 3 months of observation patients of intervention group took drugs for cardiovascular diseases more often than these in control group (81% vs 72%, respectively , р<0.05, they also less frequently showed adverse reactions (56% vs 72%, respectively ,p=0.01 and more often — improvement of their well-being (65% vs 50%, respectively , р=0.03. Compliance to cardiovascular therapy did not differ significantly in patients of both groups by the end the study.  Conclusion. Antidepressant therapy with pirlindol did not influence compliance to long-term cardiovascular treatment in patients with cardiovascular diseases and mild to moderate depression, apparently because of low compliance to pirlindol therapy.

  16. Vaccination Coverage and Compliance with Three Recommended Schedules of 10-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine during the First Year of Its Introduction in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricia Oliveira Saraiva

    Full Text Available Pneumococcal 10-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV10 was introduced to Brazil's National Immunization Program (NIP in 2010. During the first year of vaccine introduction three schedules were used to deal with age at initiation of PCV for catch-up purposes: 3 primary doses + 1 booster (for children aged ≤6 months, a catch-up schedule of 2 doses + 1 booster (7-11 months, and a catch-up schedule of a single dose (12-15 months. The purpose of this study was to assess the magnitude and associated risk factors for under-vaccination or lack of on time vaccination six to eight months after PCV10 introduction. A household survey was conducted in the municipality of Goiania with 1,237 children, who were retroactively classified into one of three age groups, as a factor of the child's age relatively to 30 days after PCV10 introduction. Socioeconomic characteristics and vaccination dates were obtained during home interviews. Vaccination coverage was defined as the percentage of children who completed the recommended number of doses. Compliance with recommended schedules was defined as the percentage of children who received all valid doses at the NIP recommended time interval. Adjusted prevalence ratios (PR of variables independently associated with coverage and compliance were estimated by log binomial regression. Coverage of DTP-Hib was used for comparison purposes. Overall, vaccination coverage was 54.6% (95% CI 52.1-57.7%, lower than DTP-Hib coverage (93.0%; 95% CI 91.5-94.3%. Compliance with recommended schedules was 16.8% (95% CI: 14.7-18.6%. Children 7-11 months old had lower coverage (40.7% and compliance (6.3% compared to children aged 12-15 months (coverage: 88.8%; compliance: 35.6% and ≤6 months old (coverage: 54%; compliance: 18.8%. Having private health insurance was associated with higher PCV10 coverage (PR=1.25; 95% CI: 1.06-1.47, p=0.007, and compliance (PR=1.09; 95% CI: 1.02-1.16, p=0.015. Although PCV10 coverage rapidly increased shortly

  17. Compliance in the First Four Years of AAS 27 Financial Reporting by Local Government: A Study of the New South Wales Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Kenneth Laing

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a longitudinal study of the levels of compliance for the first fouryears (1994 to1997 following the introduction of the Australian Accounting Standard(AAS 27. The annual reports of all 177 local government councils in NSW wereanalysed revealing a high level of compliance with the standard. The main cause fornon-compliance was the complexity of the recognition and treatment of assets. Inaddition a number of problems were identified, in particular the timeliness of thereports and the disproportionately high levels of depreciation expenses reported in theoperating statement. The increased complexities of the financial management in LocalGovernment imposed by AAS 27 required professional accounting competencies moreappropriately derived from a degree level education which contributed to a highturnover of accounting staff during the four years. Finally, the paper questions theviability of the proposed dismantling of AAS 27 and the possible impact this might haveupon the sector.

  18. Fracture Propagation, Fluid Flow, and Geomechanics of Water-Based Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale Gas Systems and Electromagnetic Geophysical Monitoring of Fluid Migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jihoon; Um, Evan; Moridis, George

    2014-12-01

    We investigate fracture propagation induced by hydraulic fracturing with water injection, using numerical simulation. For rigorous, full 3D modeling, we employ a numerical method that can model failure resulting from tensile and shear stresses, dynamic nonlinear permeability, leak-off in all directions, and thermo-poro-mechanical effects with the double porosity approach. Our numerical results indicate that fracture propagation is not the same as propagation of the water front, because fracturing is governed by geomechanics, whereas water saturation is determined by fluid flow. At early times, the water saturation front is almost identical to the fracture tip, suggesting that the fracture is mostly filled with injected water. However, at late times, advance of the water front is retarded compared to fracture propagation, yielding a significant gap between the water front and the fracture top, which is filled with reservoir gas. We also find considerable leak-off of water to the reservoir. The inconsistency between the fracture volume and the volume of injected water cannot properly calculate the fracture length, when it is estimated based on the simple assumption that the fracture is fully saturated with injected water. As an example of flow-geomechanical responses, we identify pressure fluctuation under constant water injection, because hydraulic fracturing is itself a set of many failure processes, in which pressure consistently drops when failure occurs, but fluctuation decreases as the fracture length grows. We also study application of electromagnetic (EM) geophysical methods, because these methods are highly sensitive to changes in porosity and pore-fluid properties due to water injection into gas reservoirs. Employing a 3D finite-element EM geophysical simulator, we evaluate the sensitivity of the crosswell EM method for monitoring fluid movements in shaly reservoirs. For this sensitivity evaluation, reservoir models are generated through the coupled flow-geomechanical

  19. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  20. Radiometric Method for the Research on Geomechanical Parameters of Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonczyk, Michał; Wysocka, Małgorzata; Bukowska, Mirosława; Michalik, Bogusław; Prusek, Stanisław; Wadas, Mariusz

    2017-03-01

    Tests aimed to verify whether there is a correlation between the basic parameters characterizing the mechanical properties of rocks with the properties of ionizing radiation scattered by rocks were performed as part of the research. The positive correlation between the two examined properties would provide the basis for the development of a new method of rock testing using radiation sources or devices generating ionizing radiation. The method could be applied to carry out research in underground boreholes to determine the mechanical properties of the rock mass in situ. The study allowed the verification of the adopted assumptions for the proposed method. The verification was based on the correlation analysis of absorption coefficients of the ionizing radiation of rocks from the Upper Silesian Coal Basin with the results of the research on mechanical and physical properties.

  1. Compliance with the International Code of Marketing of breast-milk substitutes: an observational study of pediatricians' waiting rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodgson, Joan E; Watkins, Amanda L; Bond, Angela B; Kintaro-Tagaloa, Cheryl; Arellano, Alondra; Allred, Patrick A

    2014-04-01

    Abstract The importance of breastmilk as a primary preventative intervention is widely known and understood by most healthcare providers. The actions or non-actions that heathcare providers take toward promoting and supporting breastfeeding families make a difference in the success and duration of breastfeeding. Recognizing this relationship, the World Health Organization developed the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code), which defines best practices in breastfeeding promotion, including physicians' offices. The pediatric practices' waiting rooms are often a family's first experience with pediatric care. The specific aims of this study were to describe (1) Code compliance, (2) the demographic factors affecting the Code compliance, and (3) the amount and type of breastfeeding-supportive materials available in the pediatricians' waiting rooms. An observational cross-sectional design was used to collect data from 163 (82%) of the pediatric practices in Maricopa County, Arizona. None of the 100 waiting rooms that had any materials displayed (61%) was found to be completely Code compliant, with 81 of the offices having formula-promotional materials readily available. Waiting rooms in higher income areas offered more non-Code-compliant materials and gifts. Breastfeeding support information and materials were lacking in all but 18 (18%) offices. A positive relationship (t97=-2.31, p=0.02) occurred between the presence of breastfeeding educational materials and higher income areas. We were able to uncover some practice-related patterns that impact families and potentially undermine breastfeeding success. To move current practices toward breastfeeding-friendly physicians' offices, change is needed.

  2. Three-dimensional geomechanical simulation of reservoir compaction and implications for well failures in the Belridge diatomite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrich, J.T. [SPE, Richardson, TX (United States); Argueello, J.G.; Thorne, B.J.; Wawersik, W.R. [SPE, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes an integrated geomechanics analysis of well casing damage induced by compaction of the diatomite reservoir at the Belridge Field, California. Historical data from the five field operators were compiled and analyzed to determine correlations between production, injection, subsidence, and well failures. The results of this analysis were used to develop a three-dimensional geomechanical model of South Belridge, Section 33 to examine the diatomite reservoir and overburden response to production and injection at the interwell scale and to evaluate potential well failure mechanisms. The time-dependent reservoir pressure field was derived from a three-dimensional finite difference reservoir simulation and used as input to three-dimensional non-linear finite element geomechanical simulations. The reservoir simulation included -200 wells and covered 18 years of production and injection. The geomechanical simulation contained 437,100 nodes and 374,130 elements with the overburden and reservoir discretized into 13 layers with independent material properties. The results reveal the evolution of the subsurface stress and displacement fields with production and injection and suggest strategies for reducing the occurrence of well casing damage.

  3. Evaluation of stress and geomechanical characteristics of rocks at Penn West's Pembina CO{sub 2}-enhanced oil recovery pilot operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haug, K.M.; Bachu, S. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Hawkes, C.D. [Saskatchewan Univ., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The geologic capture and storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is gaining interest as a viable option to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. This paper presented a multidisciplinary research pilot study on CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations in Alberta. Minimizing the potential for CO{sub 2} leakage through faults or fractures has become one of the primary safety issues affecting the successful capture and geological storage of CO{sub 2}. The potential CO{sub 2} leakage paths are controlled by geomechanical parameters, such as the in-situ stress regime, rock stiffness and rock strength, and the integrity of the wellbore seal. Rock mechanical properties control the behaviour of rock when it is subjected to stresses. As such, the pilot study examined the stress and geomechanical properties of the rocks, which are important elements in evaluating the safety of CO{sub 2} injection and storage. The mechanical properties control hydraulic fracturing, induced shear failure, stresses and strains induced in reservoirs due to fluid pressure and temperature changes, and borehole stability, all of which impact CO{sub 2} storage. The pilot study involved the injection of CO{sub 2} into the Upper Cretaceous Cardium Formation sandstone at a depth of about 1650 m. Thick Colorado Group shale overlies and underlies the Cardium sandstone and conglomerate. This paper included an assessment of the stress regime of the Pembina oil field and a review of the relevant rock properties. The minimum horizontal stress in the reservoir was found to be significantly lower than the caprock. Hydraulic fractures induced in the study area would propagate in a vertical plane in a southwest-northeast direction. Available rock elastic properties suggest that conditions in the study area are favourable for fracture containment. Available data indicates that the caprock is strong, which favours the maintenance of caprock integrity as reservoir pressure and temperature

  4. Coupling Geomechanics and Transport in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Jalali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of hydrocarbon reserves are trapped in naturally fractured reservoirs which arechallenging in terms of accurate recovery prediction because of their joint fabric complexity andlithological heterogeneity. Canada, for example, has over 400 billion barrels of crude oil in fracturedcarbonates in Alberta, most of this being bitumen of viscosity greater than 106 cP in the GrosmontFormation, which has an average porosity of about 13-15%. Thermal methods are the most commonexploitation approaches in such viscous oil reservoirs which, in the case of steam injection, are associatedwith up to 275-300°C temperature changes, leading to considerable thermoelastic expansion. Thistemperature change, combined with pore pressure changes from injection and production processes, leadsto massive effective stress variations in the reservoir and surrounding rocks. The thermally-induced(thermoelastic stress changes can easily be an order of magnitude greater than the pore pressure effectsbecause of the high intrinsic stiffness of the low porosity limestone and bounding strata. Study of thesestress-pressure-temperature effects requires a thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM coupling approach whichconsiders the simultaneous variation of effective stress, pore pressure, and temperature and theirinteractions. For example, thermal expansion can lead to significant joint dilation, increasing themacroscopic, joint-dominated transmissivity by an order of magnitude in front of and normal to thethermal front, while reducing it in the direction tangential to the heating front. This leads to stronginduced anisotropy of transport processes, which in turn affects the spatial distribution of the heatingarising from advective heat transfer.

  5. Geomechanical Engineering Concepts Applied to Deep Borehole Disposal Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, C. G.; Haimson, B. C.; Lee, M.

    2015-12-01

    Deep borehole disposal (DBD) of certain defense-generated radioactive waste forms is being considered by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as an alternative to mined repositories. The 17 inch diameter vertical boreholes are planned to be drilled in crystalline basement rock. As part of an initial field test program, the DOE will drill a demonstration borehole, to be used to test equipment for handling and emplacing prototype nonradioactive waste containers, and a second smaller diameter borehole, to be used for site characterization. Both boreholes will be drilled to a depth of 5 km. Construction of such boreholes is expected to be complex because of their overall length, large diameter, and anticipated downhole conditions of high temperatures, pore pressures, and stress regimes. It is believed that successful development of DBD boreholes can only be accomplished if geologic and tectonic conditions are characterized and drill activities are designed based on that understanding. Our study focuses primarily on using the in situ state of stress to mitigate borehole wall failure, whether tensile or compressive. The measured stresses, or their constrained estimates, will include pore pressure, the vertical stress, the horizontal stresses and orientations, and thermally induced stresses. Pore pressure will be measured directly or indirectly. Horizontal stresses will be estimated from hydraulic fracturing tests, leak off tests, and breakout characteristics. Understanding the site stress condition along with the rock's strength characteristics will aid in the optimization of mud weight and casing design required to control borehole wall failure and other drilling problems.Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-6552A

  6. Tuberculosis patients' pre-hospital delay and non-compliance with a longstanding DOT programme: a mixed methods study in urban Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, A.L.; Gerrets, R.; Kapata, N.; Kabika, A.; Birnie, E.; Klipstein-Grobusch, K.; Grobusch, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem in Zambia, despite considerable efforts to control and prevent it. With this study, we aim to understand how perceptions and cultural, social, economic, and organisational factors influence TB patients’ pre-hospital delay and non-compliance

  7. The Compliance Tradition and Teachers' Instructional Decision-Making in a Centralised Education System: A Case Study of Junior Secondary Geography Teaching in Changchun, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chi-Chung

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports a case study of how junior secondary geography teachers in Changchun, China, planned and delivered their lessons. From the observation and interview data, it was found that teachers in the China mainland were strongly influenced by a compliance culture and uncertainty avoidance stance. It is argued that these cultural traits…

  8. A comparison of medication administration errors from original medication packaging and multi-compartment compliance aids in care homes: A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin-Thomas, Julia Fiona-Maree; Smith, Felicity; Wolfe, Rory; Jani, Yogini

    2017-07-01

    No published study has been specifically designed to compare medication administration errors between original medication packaging and multi-compartment compliance aids in care homes, using direct observation. Compare the effect of original medication packaging and multi-compartment compliance aids on medication administration accuracy. Prospective observational. Ten Greater London care homes. Nurses and carers administering medications. Between October 2014 and June 2015, a pharmacist researcher directly observed solid, orally administered medications in tablet or capsule form at ten purposively sampled care homes (five only used original medication packaging and five used both multi-compartment compliance aids and original medication packaging). The medication administration error rate was calculated as the number of observed doses administered (or omitted) in error according to medication administration records, compared to the opportunities for error (total number of observed doses plus omitted doses). Over 108.4h, 41 different staff (35 nurses, 6 carers) were observed to administer medications to 823 residents during 90 medication administration rounds. A total of 2452 medication doses were observed (1385 from original medication packaging, 1067 from multi-compartment compliance aids). One hundred and seventy eight medication administration errors were identified from 2493 opportunities for error (7.1% overall medication administration error rate). A greater medication administration error rate was seen for original medication packaging than multi-compartment compliance aids (9.3% and 3.1% respectively, risk ratio (RR)=3.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.4 to 6.1, phomes) and multi-compartment compliance aids (RR=2.3, 95%CI 1.1 to 4.9, p=0.03), and between original medication packaging and multi-compartment compliance aids within care homes that used a combination of both medication administration systems (RR=4.3, 95%CI 2.7 to 6.8, phomes, as well as local

  9. Compliance with the guidelines for acute ankle sprain for physiotherapists is moderate in the Netherlands: an observational study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemrijse, C.J.; Plas, G.M.; Hofhuis, H.; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2006-01-01

    Question: What is the compliance with guidelines for acute ankle sprain for physiotherapists? Design: Survey of random sample of physiotherapists. Participants: 400 physiotherapists working in extramural health care in the Netherlands. Outcome measures: Questions covered attitude towards guidelines

  10. Satisfaction and compliance in hormonal contraception: the result of a multicentre clinical study on women's experience with the ethinylestradiol/norelgestromin contraceptive patch in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marelli Silvia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For many women finding the right contraceptive method can be challenging and consistent and correct use over a lifetime is difficult. Even remembering to take a birth control pill every day can be a challenge. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate women's experience with a weekly ethinylestradiol/norelgestromin contraceptive patch (EE/NGMN patch, given new technologies recently developed in hormonal contraception to increase women's options in avoiding daily dosing. Methods In 24 Italian sites, 207 women received the EE/NGMN patch for up to 6 cycles. At study end, overall satisfaction and preference, as well as compliance, efficacy and safety, were evaluated. Results 175 women (84.5% completed the study. The overall satisfaction rate was 88%; convenience and once-a-week frequency of the patch were especially appreciated. At baseline, 82 women (39.4% were using a contraceptive method, mainly oral contraceptives and barrier methods, but only 45.1% were very satisfied/satisfied; after 6 months with the patch, 86.3% of this subset was very satisfied/satisfied. Considering the method used in the 3 months before the study entry, 78.1% strongly preferred/preferred the patch, for convenience (53.9%, ease of use/simplicity (28.9%, fewer (9.2% and less severe (2.6% side effects. Compliance was very high: 1034/1110 cycles (93.2% were completed with perfect compliance and the mean subject's compliance score was 90%. One on-therapy pregnancy occurred. The patch was safe and well tolerated: adverse events frequency was low, with predominantly single reports of each event. Most of them started and subsided during cycle 1. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the EE/NGMN patch is associated with high satisfaction levels and excellent compliance. At study end, the majority of women indicated that they would continue using the patch.

  11. Compliance with Corporate Governance Principles: Australian Evidence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maryam Safari; Soheila Mirshekary; Victoria Wise

    2015-01-01

      This study investigates the association between the level of compliance of Australian listed companies with Australian corporate governance principles, in aggregate, and the level of discretionary...

  12. An Integrated Geomechanical Investigation, Multi-Parameter Monitoring and Analyses of Babadağ-Gündoğdu Creep-like Landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsar, Halil; Aydan, Ömer; Tano, Hisataka; Çelik, Sefer Beran; Ulusay, Reşat

    2016-06-01

    A creep-like landslide in the Gündoğdu district of Babadağ town in Denizli (Turkey), where about 2000 people lived within the damaged houses, has been moving with a velocity of 4-14 cm/year since 1940s. Field observations and monitoring together with geomechanical laboratory tests were carried out to investigate the causative factors of the landslide. These studies were conducted as a part of an international research project performed by Turkish and Japanese scientists since 2000. Long-term monitoring stations established involved measurements of meteorological parameters, displacements, acoustic emission counts, variations in groundwater table, borehole strain measurement, in situ permeability and infiltration characteristics of the slope forming materials, and vibrations induced by weaving machines during their operation. Geomechanical properties of the sandstone and marl, which form the unstable slope, were determined from laboratory tests. In addition to the use of conventional 2-D equilibrium method of analyses, a new approach for modelling the long-term creep-like behaviour of the landslide body, based on discrete finite element method, was also proposed and used to analyse the landslide. It was found that the sliding mass has been involving several zones of weakness (interface) between the sandstone and marl layers through in situ monitoring. The monitoring data of pipe strain, groundwater level fluctuation and rainfall, and AE data showed that slope movement accelerated during and after rainy seasons. It was obtained that the proposed numerical method based on discrete finite element method (DFEM), which considers the softening and hardening of stiffness of the weakness zone as a function of rainfall and, is capable of simulating creep-like behaviour of the landslide. Disaster and Emergency Management Authority of Turkey also considered the results of this research and the landslide area was designated as a Natural Disaster Area and the people living in

  13. RESOLUTION STRATEGY FOR GEOMECHANICALLY-RELATED REPOSITORY DESIGN FOR THERMAL-MECHANICAL EFFECTS (RDTME)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Board

    2003-04-01

    In September of 2000, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued an Issue Resolution Status Report (NRC 2000). The Key Technical Issue (KTI) agreements on Repository Design and Thermal-Mechanical Effects (RDTME) were jointly developed at the Technical Exchange and Management Meeting held on February 6-8, 2001 in Las Vegas, Nevada. In that report, a number of geomechanically-related issues were raised regarding the determination of rock properties, the estimation of the impacts of geologic variability, the use of numerical models, and the examination of drift degradation and design approach to the ground support system for the emplacement drifts. Ultimately, the primary end products of the KTI agreement resolution processes are an assessment of the preclosure stability of emplacement drifts and the associated ground support requirements. There is also an assessment of the postclosure degradation of the excavations when subjected to thermal and seismic-related stresses as well as in situ loading over time.

  14. A Coupled Model of Multiphase Flow, Reactive Biogeochemical Transport, Thermal Transport and Geo-Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C. H.; Yeh, G. T.

    2015-12-01

    In this investigation, a coupled model of multiphase flow, reactive biogeochemical transport, thermal transport and geo-mechanics in subsurface media is presented. It iteratively solves the mass conservation equation for fluid flow, thermal transport equation for temperature, reactive biogeochemical transport equations for concentration distributions, and solid momentum equation for displacement with successive linearization algorithm. With species-based equations of state, density of a phase in the system is obtained by summing up concentrations of all species. This circumvents the problem of having to use empirical functions. Moreover, reaction rates of all species are incorporated in mass conservation equation for fluid flow. Formation enthalpy of all species is included in the law of energy conservation as a source-sink term. Finite element methods are used to discretize the governing equations. Numerical experiments are presented to examine the accuracy and robustness of the proposed model. The results demonstrate the feasibility and capability of present model in subsurface media.

  15. Long-term Geomechanical Observation in the Jeroným Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaláb, Zdenĕk; Lednická, Markéta

    2016-10-01

    Geomechanical measurements have been carried out in the medieval Jeroným Mine since 2001. At first quarterly observation and later also continual monitoring by distributed measurement network were used. The network includes a number of different sensors that have been installed in selected places of underground spaces. There have not been any manifestations documenting dangerous changes of stability during the period of monitoring (2001-2015). The results of accomplished measurements from all convergence profiles confirm the total stability of all underground spaces. However, a number of places have been documented as potentially unstable. Measured values of selected parameters are presented in the paper, namely, movements along fractures, changes of stress tensor and fluctuations in the level of mine water table.

  16. On the Framing Effect to the Perception and Cognition of Individual Tax Compliance: A Case Study in Wuhan City of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the problem of individual tax evasion and its perception and cognition. Since individuals are prone to evade payment of taxes by concealing the information of personal income, it is very important to use tax intelligence information to recognize tax evasion. However, very limited work has been done in this field in China, especially for the framing effect in the perception and cognition of individual tax evasion. For this reason, this study has comprehensively researched the framing effect in the perception and cognition of individual tax evasion in Wuhan city of China. To investigate the existence of framing effect, a questionnaire survey of 300 respondents has been complemented and completed. The covariance analysis has been used to analyze the results of the survey. It has found that the level of taxpayers’ compliance is higher when they receive positive framework information than confronting the negative framework information, which convinces the existence of framing effects in the perception and cognition of individual tax evasion. It is also demonstrated that gender differences also affect taxpayers’ compliance level and male taxpayers’ compliance level is lower than female because they have higher risk preferences. Finally, some strategies have been proposed to strengthen individual tax compliance level.

  17. Deadline Compliance Status Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These monthly Deadline Compliance Status Reports assist Participating Jurisdictions and HUD Field Offices in monitoring compliance with the 2-year commitment and...

  18. 75 FR 80827 - Compliance Policy Guide; Radiofrequency Identification Feasibility Studies and Pilot Programs for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ...; Radiofrequency Identification Feasibility Studies and Pilot Programs for Drugs; Notice To Extend Expiration Date...) Sec. 400.210 entitled ``Radiofrequency Identification (RFID) Feasibility Studies and Pilot Programs... ``Radiofrequency Identification (RFID) Feasibility Studies and Pilot Programs for Drugs.'' Previous extensions...

  19. Hydro-geomechanical behaviour of gas-hydrate bearing soils during gas production through depressurization and CO2 injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deusner, C.; Gupta, S.; Kossel, E.; Bigalke, N.; Haeckel, M.

    2015-12-01

    Results from recent field trials suggest that natural gas could be produced from marine gas hydrate reservoirs at compatible yields and rates. It appears, from a current perspective, that gas production would essentially be based on depressurization and, when facing suitable conditions, be assisted by local thermal stimulation or gas hydrate conversion after injection of CO2-rich fluids. Both field trials, onshore in the Alaska permafrost and in the Nankai Trough offshore Japan, were accompanied by different technical issues, the most striking problems resulting from un-predicted geomechanical behaviour, sediment destabilization and catastrophic sand production. So far, there is a lack of experimental data which could help to understand relevant mechanisms and triggers for potential soil failure in gas hydrate production, to guide model development for simulation of soil behaviour in large-scale production, and to identify processes which drive or, further, mitigate sand production. We use high-pressure flow-through systems in combination with different online and in situ monitoring tools (e.g. Raman microscopy, MRI) to simulate relevant gas hydrate production scenarios. Key components for soil mechanical studies are triaxial systems with ERT (Electric resistivity tomography) and high-resolution local strain analysis. Sand production control and management is studied in a novel hollow-cylinder-type triaxial setup with a miniaturized borehole which allows fluid and particle transport at different fluid injection and flow conditions. Further, the development of a large-scale high-pressure flow-through triaxial test system equipped with μ-CT is ongoing. We will present results from high-pressure flow-through experiments on gas production through depressurization and injection of CO2-rich fluids. Experimental data are used to develop and parametrize numerical models which can simulate coupled process dynamics during gas-hydrate formation and gas production.

  20. Geo-mechanical Model Testing for Stability of Underground Gas Storage in Halite During the Operational Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuguang; Zhang, Qiangyong; Li, Shucai; Liu, Dejun

    2016-07-01

    A 3D geo-mechanical model test is conducted to study the stability of underground gas storage in halite, modeled after the Jintan gas storage constructed in bedded salt rock in China. A testing apparatus is developed to generate long-term stable trapezoid geostresses onto the model cavity, corresponding to the actual gas storage cavern. The time-depending character of the material is simulated using a rheological material, which was tested using a self-developed apparatus. The model cavern is built using an ellipsoid wooden mold divided into small blocks which are assembled and placed into the designed position during the model construction. They are then pulled out one by one to form the cavern. The ellipsoid cavern wall is then lined within a latex balloon. Gas is injected into the cavity and extracted to simulate the operational process of gas injection and recovery. Optical sensors embedded into the model to measure the displacement around the cavity showed that the largest deformation occurs in the middle section of the cavity. The deformation rate increases with increasing gas pressure. At 11 MPa the cavity is in equilibrium with the geostress. The pressure is highest during the gas recovery stages, indicating that gas recovery can threaten the cavern's operational stability, while high gas injection causes rock mass compression and deformation outward from the cavern. The deformation is the combination of cavern convergence and gas-induced rebound which leads to tensile and compression during gas injection and recovery. Hence, the fatigue properties of salt rock should be studied further.

  1. Geomechanical effects on CO2 leakage through fault zones during large-scale underground injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, Antonio P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappa, Frédéric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Nice (France). Cote d' Azur Observatory. GeoAzur

    2013-12-01

    The importance of geomechanics—including the potential for faults to reactivate during large-scale geologic carbon sequestration operations—has recently become more widely recognized. However, notwithstanding the potential for triggering notable (felt) seismic events, the potential for buoyancy-driven CO2 to reach potable groundwater and the ground surface is actually more important from public safety and storage-efficiency perspectives. In this context, this paper extends the previous studies on the geomechanical modeling of fault responses during underground carbon dioxide injection, focusing on the short-term integrity of the sealing caprock, and hence on the potential for leakage of either brine or CO2 to reach the shallow groundwater aquifers during active injection. We consider stress/strain-dependent permeability and study the leakage through the fault zone as its permeability changes during a reactivation, also causing seismicity. We analyze several scenarios related to the volume of CO2 injected (and hence as a function of the overpressure), involving both minor and major faults, and analyze the profile risks of leakage for different stress/strain-permeability coupling functions. We conclude that whereas it is very difficult to predict how much fault permeability could change upon reactivation, this process can have a significant impact on the leakage rate. Moreover, our analysis shows that induced seismicity associated with fault reactivation may not necessarily open up a new flow path for leakage. Results show a poor correlation between magnitude and amount of fluid leakage, meaning that a single event is generally not enough to substantially change the permeability along the entire fault length. Finally, and consequently, even if some changes in permeability occur, this does not mean that the CO2 will migrate up along the entire fault, breaking through the caprock to enter the overlying aquifer.

  2. Package leaflets of the most consumed medicines in Portugal: safety and regulatory compliance issues. A descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Pires

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Package leaflets are necessary for safe use of medicines. The aims of the present study were: 1 to assess the compliance between the content of the package leaflets and the specifications of the pharmaceutical regulations; and 2 to identify potential safety issues for patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Qualitative descriptive study, involving all the package leaflets of branded medicines from the three most consumed therapeutic groups in Portugal, analyzed in the Department of Pharmacoepidemiology, School of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon. METHODS: A checklist validated through an expert consensus process was used to gather the data. The content of each package leaflet in the sample was classified as compliant or non-compliant with compulsory regulatory issues (i.e. stated dosage and descriptions of adverse reactions and optional regulatory issues (i.e. adverse reaction frequency, symptoms and procedures in cases of overdose. RESULTS: A total of 651 package leaflets were identified. Overall, the package leaflets were found to be compliant with the compulsory regulatory issues. However, the optional regulatory issues were only addressed in around half of the sample of package leaflets, which made it possible to identify some situations of potentially compromised drug safety. CONCLUSION: Ideally, the methodologies for package leaflet approval should be reviewed and optimized as a way of ensuring the inclusion of the minimum essential information for safe use of medicines.

  3. Monitoring managers through corporate compliance programs

    OpenAIRE

    Angelucci, C.; Han, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Compliance programs entail monitoring of employees' behavior with the claimed objective of fighting corporate crime. (Competition) Authorities promote such intra-firm monitoring. In a three-tier hierarchy model, authority-shareholder-manager, we study the impact of monitoring through a compliance program on contracting within the firm and the authority's optimal sanctions and leniency policy. We find that compliance programs are beneficial in the fight against corporate crime if and only if t...

  4. 77 FR 74668 - Compliance Policy Guide; Radiofrequency Identification Feasibility Studies and Pilot Programs for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... Feasibility Studies and Pilot Programs for Drugs; Notice To Extend Expiration Date AGENCY: Food and Drug... ``Radiofrequency Identification (RFID) Feasibility Studies and Pilot Programs for Drugs'' to December 31, 2014. FOR... (RFID) Feasibility Studies and Pilot Programs for Drugs.'' Previous extensions of the expiration date...

  5. Geomechanical Modeling of Fault Responses and the Potential for Notable Seismic Events during Underground CO2 Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutqvist, J.; Cappa, F.; Mazzoldi, A.; Rinaldi, A.

    2012-12-01

    The importance of geomechanics associated with large-scale geologic carbon storage (GCS) operations is now widely recognized. There are concerns related to the potential for triggering notable (felt) seismic events and how such events could impact the long-term integrity of a CO2 repository (as well as how it could impact the public perception of GCS). In this context, we review a number of modeling studies and field observations related to the potential for injection-induced fault reactivations and seismic events. We present recent model simulations of CO2 injection and fault reactivation, including both aseismic and seismic fault responses. The model simulations were conducted using a slip weakening fault model enabling sudden (seismic) fault rupture, and some of the numerical analyses were extended to fully dynamic modeling of seismic source, wave propagation, and ground motion. The model simulations illustrated what it will take to create a magnitude 3 or 4 earthquake that would not result in any significant damage at the groundsurface, but could raise concerns in the local community and could also affect the deep containment of the stored CO2. The analyses show that the local in situ stress field, fault orientation, fault strength, and injection induced overpressure are critical factors in determining the likelihood and magnitude of such an event. We like to clarify though that in our modeling we had to apply very high injection pressure to be able to intentionally induce any fault reactivation. Consequently, our model simulations represent extreme cases, which in a real GCS operation could be avoided by estimating maximum sustainable injection pressure and carefully controlling the injection pressure. In fact, no notable seismic event has been reported from any of the current CO2 storage projects, although some unfelt microseismic activities have been detected by geophones. On the other hand, potential future commercial GCS operations from large power plants

  6. Geomechanics of Hydraulic Stimulation in Geothermal Systems: Designing and Implementing a Successful Enhanced Geothermal System at Desert Peak, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, S. H.; Davatzes, N. C.; Zemach, E.; Chabora, E.; Lutz, S.; Rose, P.; Majer, E. L.; Robertson-Tait, A.

    2013-12-01

    Creation of an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) in hot but low-permeability rocks involves hydraulic stimulation of fracture permeability to develop a complex heat exchange system with low hydraulic impedance. An integrated study of stress, fractures and rock mechanical properties was conducted to develop the geomechanical framework for a multi-stage EGS stimulation in Desert Peak well 27-15, located at the low-permeability margins of an active geothermal field. The stimulation targeted silicified tuffs and metamorphosed mudstones at depths of 0.9 to 1.8 km and temperatures ~180 to 210° C. Drilling-induced tensile fractures in image logs from well 27-15 show that the least horizontal principal stress (Shmin) is consistent with normal faulting on ESE- and WNW-dipping fractures mapped at the surface and seen in the image logs. A hydraulic fracturing stress measurement indicates that the magnitude of Shmin at ~0.93 km depth is 0.61 of the calculated vertical stress. Coulomb failure calculations using these stresses together with measurements of friction and permeability on core predict that dilatant shear failure should be induced on pre-existing conjugate normal faults once pore pressures are increased ~2.5 MPa or more above ambient values, generating a zone of enhanced permeability elongated in the direction toward active geothermal wells ~0.5 km to the SSW. Hydraulic stimulation of well 27-15 began in September 2010 by injecting water into the open-hole interval between the casing shoe at 0.9 km depth and a temporary cement plug at 1.1 km. Stimulation was monitored by combined surface and down-hole seismic monitoring, inter-well tracer testing and periodic pressure-temperature-flowmeter logging. An initial stage of low-pressure (shear) stimulation was conducted for ~100 days at a series of pressure steps Shmin and injection rates up to 2800 l/min, resulting in an additional 6-fold increase in injectivity. Numerous microearthquakes induced during this high

  7. Assessing the short-term and long-term integrity of top seals in feasibility studies of geological CO2 storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlic, B.; Heege, J.H. ter; Wassing, B.B.T.

    2011-01-01

    The geomechanical effects of past hydrocarbon production and subsequent CO2 injection in depleted gas reservoirs were evaluated as a part of several recently accomplished feasibility studies of CO2 storage in the Netherlands. The objectives of geomechanical studies were to assess the mechanical

  8. Disease management and medication compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua; Christensen, Kathyrn; Feldman, Lanna

    2012-02-01

    Lack of medication compliance is harmful to health care systems from both a clinical and economic perspective. This study examines the methods that disease management organizations employ to identify nonadherent patients and to measure effectiveness of compliance programs for patients with diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and cystic fibrosis. In addition, this study investigates the degree to which disease managers assume risk in their contracts, and whether compliance strategies are being coordinated with payers' use of value-based insurance design, in which patient cost sharing is a function of the relative value of pharmaceuticals. This study's findings suggest that disease management may be falling short in terms of: (a) comprehensive commitment to expert-recommended at-home devices used to self-diagnose and measure health indicators; (b) early adoption of expert-recommended new technologies to measure and improve compliance; (c) intensity of use of standard tests in outpatient clinics; (d) coordination of compliance strategies with payers' use of value-based insurance design; and (e) the proportion of risk assumed in disease management contracts.

  9. IFRS COMPLIANCE REGARDING INFORMATION DISCLOSED BY COMPANIES IN CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS - CASE STUDY ON IAS 23 BORROWING COSTS APPLICABILITY-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragu Ioana - Maria

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on information disclosure regarding IAS 23, being included in accounting research field. It comprises an empirical study on the correlation between information published by companies in consolidated financial statements with respect to borrowing cost policies and a series of variables that characterize a firm. The objectives of this paper involve estimating and establishing an econometric model in which is assumed that disclosure index for information required by IAS 23 depends on certain elements in the form of country of origin, sales, total assets, debt ratio, ROA and ROE. International accounting literature presents a series of studies on the subject of compliance with IAS disclosure requirements. Similar with this paper, various authors considered annual reports as starting point for data gathering in their reasearch on disclosure phenomena. The criteria used for data gathering, processing and analysing have been previously used in a successful manner by important scientists who published in accounting field. The methodology used involves Disclosure Index computation, as well as SPSS data processing, analysis and interpretation of results. Results show that the model is valid, meaning that there is correlation between information disclosure with respect to IAS 23 and the analyzed variables. According to our estimated econometric model, most of the variables maintain a certain influence on disclosure as we can observe a significant correlation level between the studied elements. This research contributes to the development of both accounting field and international accounting literature, by studying borrowing costs disclosed information in relation to certain elements that best characterize the activity of a company. Although an empirical paper, it concentrates also on accounting practices, as it uses real data extracted from annual reports and consolidated financial statements. The importance of this research relies

  10. Theory of Regulatory Compliance for Requirements Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Jureta, Ivan; Mylopoulos, John; Perini, Anna; Susi, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Regulatory compliance is increasingly being addressed in the practice of requirements engineering as a main stream concern. This paper points out a gap in the theoretical foundations of regulatory compliance, and presents a theory that states (i) what it means for requirements to be compliant, (ii) the compliance problem, i.e., the problem that the engineer should resolve in order to verify whether requirements are compliant, and (iii) testable hypotheses (predictions) about how compliance of requirements is verified. The theory is instantiated by presenting a requirements engineering framework that implements its principles, and is exemplified on a real-world case study.

  11. Increasing Compliance With an Antibiotic Prophylaxis Guideline to Prevent Pediatric Surgical Site Infection: Before and After Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Jeannette P; Aleem, Ilyas S; Tsang, Derek S; Matlow, Anne G; Wright, James G

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate an intervention for improving antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) guideline compliance to prevent surgical site infections in children. Although appropriate AP reduces surgical site infection, and guidelines improve quality of care, changing practice is difficult. To facilitate behavioral change, various barriers need to be addressed. A multidisciplinary task force at a pediatric hospital developed an evidence-based AP guideline. Subsequently, the guideline was posted in operating rooms and the online formulary, only recommended antibiotics were available in operating rooms, incoming trainees received orientation, antibiotic verification was included in time-out, computerized alerts were set for inappropriate postoperative prophylaxis, and surgeons received e-mails when guideline was not followed. AP indication and administration were documented for surgical procedures in July 2008 (preintervention), September 2011 (postintervention), and April-May 2013 (follow-up). Compliance was defined as complete--appropriate antibiotic, dose, timing, redosing, and duration when prophylaxis was indicated; partial--appropriate drug and timing when prophylaxis was indicated; and appropriate use--complete compliance when prophylaxis was indicated, no antibiotics when not indicated. Compliance at preintervention and follow-up was compared using χ(2) tests. AP was indicated in 43.9% (187/426) and 62.0% (124/200) of surgical procedures at preintervention and follow-up, respectively. There were significant improvements in appropriate antibiotic use (51.6%-67.0%; P < 0.001), complete (26.2%-53.2%; P < 0.001) and partial compliance (73.3%-88.7%, P = 0.001), correct dosage (77.5%-90.7%; P = 0.003), timing (83.3%-95.8%; P = 0.001), redosing (62.5%-95.8%, P = 0.003), and duration (47.1%-65.3%; P < 0.002). A multifaceted intervention improved compliance with a pediatric AP guideline.

  12. Improving Homework Compliance in Career Counseling with a Behavioral Activation Functional Assessment Procedure: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch, David E.; Kanter, Jonathan W.; Bowe, William M.; Pfennig, Sherri L.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral activation has emerged as a widely used treatment for depression in a number of health care settings due to its concrete, straightforward emphasis on out-of-session client homework, but it lacks explicit guidelines for identifying and overcoming barriers that interfere with homework completion. The purpose of this pilot study was to…

  13. The Teacher Study Group as a Space for Agency in an Era of Accountability and Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Avis M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of discourses upon teachers who strive to be professionals amidst the US No Child Left Behind era. Using qualitative research methodology and ethnographic techniques, a case study was conducted within the context of a teacher learning community comprised of two female secondary teachers and the researcher. Data were…

  14. Effect of Performance Improvement Programs on Compliance with Sepsis Bundles and Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Elisa; Donati, Abele; Serafini, Giulia; Rinaldi, Laura; Adrario, Erica; Pelaia, Paolo; Busani, Stefano; Girardis, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Background Several reports suggest that implementation of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) guidelines is associated with mortality reduction in sepsis. However, adherence to the guideline-based resuscitation and management sepsis bundles is still poor. Objective To perform a systematic review of studies evaluating the impact of performance improvement programs on compliance with Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) guideline-based bundles and/or mortality. Data Sources Medline (PubMed), Scopus and Intercollegiate Studies Institute Web of Knowledge databases from 2004 (first publication of the SSC guidelines) to October 2014. Study Selection Studies on adult patients with sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock that evaluated changes in compliance to individual/combined bundle targets and/or mortality following the implementation of performance improvement programs. Interventions may consist of educational programs, process changes or both. Data Extraction Data from the included studies were extracted independently by two authors. Unadjusted binary data were collected in order to calculate odds ratios (OR) for compliance to individual/combined bundle targets. Adjusted (if available) or unadjusted data of mortality were collected. Random-effects models were used for the data synthesis. Results Fifty observational studies were selected. Despite high inconsistency across studies, performance improvement programs were associated with increased compliance with the complete 6-hour bundle (OR = 4.12 [95% confidence interval 2.95-5.76], I2 = 87.72%, k = 25, N = 50,081) and the complete 24-hour bundle (OR = 2.57 [1.74-3.77], I2 = 85.22%, k = 11, N = 45,846) and with a reduction in mortality (OR = 0.66 [0.61-0.72], I2 = 87.93%, k = 48, N = 434,447). Funnel plots showed asymmetry. Conclusions Performance improvement programs are associated with increased adherence to resuscitation and management sepsis bundles and with reduced mortality in patients with sepsis, severe sepsis or

  15. Geomechanical parameters of intact rocks and rock masses from the Canary Islands: Implications on their flank stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Losada, J. A.; Hernández-Gutiérrez, L. E.; Olalla, C.; Perucho, A.; Serrano, A.; Eff-Darwich, A.

    2009-05-01

    New data on the geomechanical properties of the highly cohesive volcanic rocks of the Canary Archipelago and their role in the flank stability on oceanic islands are provided in this work. On the basis of the textural and petrological features, a preliminary classification of rocks, grouped into lithotypes, was carried out. This classification includes vesicular and non vesicular basalts, trachybasalts, trachytes, phonolites, welded and non welded ignimbrites. Strength and strain-related features are summarized here for each distinctive lithotype. Taking into account the results of the uniaxial and triaxial compressive tests, the geological strength index of rock masses and their textural-structural features, an estimate of the rock mass parameters and Mohr-Coulomb fit has been carried out. A final discussion on the impact of those geomechanical parameters as factors governing the stability of steep slopes in volcanic islands is then made here as a contribution in volcanic risk.

  16. Community-based health insurance and communities’ scheme requirement compliance in Thehuldere district, northeast Ethiopia: cross-sectional community-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workneh, Samuel Getachew; Biks, Gashaw Andargie; Woreta, Solomon Assefa

    2017-01-01

    Background Community-based health insurance (CBHI) is becoming a prominent and promising concept in tackling financial health care issues confronting the poor rural communities in developing countries. Ethiopia endorsed and constituted CBHI schemes in 13 pilot “woredas” in 2010/11. This study aimed to assess the compliance of the community to CBHI scheme requirements in Thehuledere district, northeast Ethiopia. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 530 respondents between April and June 2015 in Thehuledere District, South Wollo Zone, northeast Ethiopia. A systematic random sampling technique was deployed to select the study participants. A self-administered, structured, pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect the data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with CBHI compliance. Results A total of 511 study participants were included in the study. Approximately 77.9% of the study population complied with CBHI requirements: members’ age (AOR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.62–0.8), premium fee affordability (AOR: 2.66, 95% CI: [1.13–4.42]), members’ occupation (AOR = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.04–0.45), members’ attitude toward CBHI management (AOR = 2.11 [1.14–3.90]), and CBHI members’ knowledge (AOR = 0.24, 95% CI: [0.13–0.42]) were found to be major predictors of community compliance to CBHI requirements. Conclusion CBHI requirement compliance at the early stage was relatively high. We observed that members’ age, premium fee affordability, occupation, attitude, and knowledge were significant predictors. CBHI management’s involvement in awareness creation and training on requirements of the CBHI scheme would contribute to better outcomes and success. PMID:28652789

  17. Community-based health insurance and communities' scheme requirement compliance in Thehuldere district, northeast Ethiopia: cross-sectional community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workneh, Samuel Getachew; Biks, Gashaw Andargie; Woreta, Solomon Assefa

    2017-01-01

    Community-based health insurance (CBHI) is becoming a prominent and promising concept in tackling financial health care issues confronting the poor rural communities in developing countries. Ethiopia endorsed and constituted CBHI schemes in 13 pilot "woredas" in 2010/11. This study aimed to assess the compliance of the community to CBHI scheme requirements in Thehuledere district, northeast Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 530 respondents between April and June 2015 in Thehuledere District, South Wollo Zone, northeast Ethiopia. A systematic random sampling technique was deployed to select the study participants. A self-administered, structured, pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect the data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with CBHI compliance. A total of 511 study participants were included in the study. Approximately 77.9% of the study population complied with CBHI requirements: members' age (AOR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.62-0.8), premium fee affordability (AOR: 2.66, 95% CI: [1.13-4.42]), members' occupation (AOR = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.04-0.45), members' attitude toward CBHI management (AOR = 2.11 [1.14-3.90]), and CBHI members' knowledge (AOR = 0.24, 95% CI: [0.13-0.42]) were found to be major predictors of community compliance to CBHI requirements. CBHI requirement compliance at the early stage was relatively high. We observed that members' age, premium fee affordability, occupation, attitude, and knowledge were significant predictors. CBHI management's involvement in awareness creation and training on requirements of the CBHI scheme would contribute to better outcomes and success.

  18. Baseline subject characteristics predictive of compliance with study-mandated prostate biopsy in men at risk of prostate cancer: results from REDUCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, S; Sun, S; Howard, L E; Moreira, D M; Castro-Santamaria, R; Andriole, G L; Vidal, A C; Freedland, S J

    2016-06-01

    Study compliance is crucial when the study outcome is determined by an invasive procedure, such as prostate biopsy. To investigate predictors of compliance in study-mandated prostate biopsies, we analyzed demographic, clinical and reported lifestyle data from the REDUCE trial. We retrospectively identified 8025 men from REDUCE with at least 2 years of follow-up, and used multivariable logistic regression to test the association between baseline demographic and clinical characteristics and undergoing the study-mandated prostate biopsy at 2 years. We then examined whether missing any of these data was associated with undergoing a biopsy. In REDUCE, 22% of men did not undergo a 2-year biopsy. On multivariable analysis, the non-North American region was predictive of 42-44% increased likelihood of undergoing a 2-year biopsy (P⩽0.001). Being enrolled at a center that enrolled >10 subjects (2nd and 3rd tertile) was associated with a 42-48% increased likelihood of undergoing a 2-year biopsy (P<0.001). In addition, black race predicted 44% lower rate of on-study 2-year biopsy (odds ratio (OR)=0.56; P=0.001). Finally, missing one or more baseline variables was associated with a 32% decreased likelihood of undergoing a 2-year biopsy (OR=0.68; P<0.001). In REDUCE, men outside North America, those at higher volume centers and those with complete baseline data were more likely to undergo study-mandated 2-year biopsies. Given prostate biopsy is becoming increasingly utilized as an endpoint in trials that are often multi-national, regional differences in compliance should be considered when designing future trials. Likewise, efforts are needed to ensure compliance in low-volume centers or among subjects missing baseline data.

  19. Tuberculosis patients' pre-hospital delay and non-compliance with a longstanding DOT programme: a mixed methods study in urban Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, Anne Lia; Gerrets, René; Kapata, Nathan; Kabika, Austin; Birnie, Emma; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Grobusch, Martin P

    2016-10-28

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem in Zambia, despite considerable efforts to control and prevent it. With this study, we aim to understand how perceptions and cultural, social, economic, and organisational factors influence TB patients' pre-hospital delay and non-compliance with care provided by the National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP). A mixed methods study was conducted with 300 TB patients recruited at Kanyama clinic for structured interviews. Thirty were followed-up for multiple in-depth interviews. Six focus group discussions were organised and participant observation was conducted. Ten biomedical care providers, 10 traditional healers, and 10 faith healers were interviewed. Factors associated with non-compliance (disruption of treatment > one week) were assessed by applying logistic regression analyses; qualitative analysis was used to additionally assess factors influencing pre-hospital delay and for triangulation of study findings. TB treatment non-compliance was low (10 %), no association of outcome with cultural or socio-economic factors was found. Only patients' time constraints and long distance to the clinic indicated a possible association with a higher risk of non-compliance (OR 0.52; 95 % CI 0.25, 1.10, p = 0.086). Qualitative data showed that most TB patients combined understandings of biomedical and traditional TB knowledge, used herbal, traditional and/or faith healing, suffered from stigmatizing attitudes, experienced poverty and food shortages, and faced several organisational obstacles while being on treatment. This led in some cases to pre-hospital delay or treatment non-compliance. Mixed methods analysis demonstrated the importance of in-depth information ascertained by qualitative approaches to understand how cultural, socio-economic and organisational factors are influencing patients' pre-hospital delay and treatment compliance. To strengthen the Zambian NTP, combating stigma is of utmost priority coupled with

  20. Cloud-based preoperative planning for total hip arthroplasty: a study of accuracy, efficiency, and compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maratt, Joseph D; Srinivasan, Ramesh C; Dahl, William J; Schilling, Peter L; Urquhart, Andrew G

    2012-08-01

    As digital radiography becomes more prevalent, several systems for digital preoperative planning have become available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of an inexpensive, cloud-based digital templating system, which is comparable with acetate templating. However, cloud-based templating is substantially faster and more convenient than acetate templating or locally installed software. Although this is a practical solution for this particular medical application, regulatory changes are necessary before the tremendous advantages of cloud-based storage and computing can be realized in medical research and clinical practice. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Compliance to the treatment of malaria cases in Ahmedabad City- A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Parikh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Malaria is a serious public health problem in India, accounting for sizeable morbidity, mortality and economic loss 1,2 . A Revised National Drug Policy on Malaria adopted and the guidelines have been prepared for healthcare personnel including clinicians involved in the treatment of malaria 2. Aim: 1 To study adherence to the protocol in diagnosis & management of malaria cases by private medical practitioners and Urban Health Centres (UHC of Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC. Methodology- This was a qualitative study in which 29 UHCs and 97 private practitioners of three zones of Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation were visited. Case papers of last 2 months and all malaria related registers maintained at UHCs were evaluated and home visit of 115 malaria cases was carried out. Observation & Discussion- 93.7% of patient with confirmed vivax malaria were prescribed Chloroquine and 99.1% patient with confirmed malaria prescribed Primaquine with correct dose as per age & schedule. Only 78.8% private practitioner was following the guideline dose. 20.2% of private practitioner were not prescribing Primaquine at all. Conclusion & Recommendation There was lack of sensitization in some M.O. of U.H.C & private practitioners (other than M.D. Medicine regarding prescribing treatment as per National Drug Policy for treatment of Malaria especially primaquine. Sensitization & involvement of private doctors for rational prescription through the Indian / Ahmedabad Medical Association must be carried out.

  2. Hand hygiene compliance of nurses: a 5-unit observational study in North-Eastern Anatolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Sevinç; Parlak Gürol, Ayşe; Cevik, Umran

    2011-08-01

    In five neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in two cities, the hand hygiene applications of 72 nurses included in this observational study have been investigated. The research was conducted between February and June 2007. It was found that before entering the NICUs, majority of nurses have washed their hands but used much less alcohol-based antiseptics; more than half of the nurses did not use gloves, and 50 of them did not wash their hands before care and one-third of the nurses did not wash their hands after care after neonatal treatments. The results obtained from our research showed that most of the nurses paid more attention to hand washing before applying medical treatment.

  3. 3-D geomechanical modelling of a gas reservoir in the North German Basin: workflow for model building and calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Fischer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimal use of conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs depends, amongst others, on the local tectonic stress field. For example, wellbore stability, orientation of hydraulically induced fractures and – especially in fractured reservoirs – permeability anisotropies are controlled by the recent in situ stresses. Faults and lithological changes can lead to stress perturbations and produce local stresses that can significantly deviate from the regional stress field. Geomechanical reservoir models aim for a robust, ideally "pre-drilling" prediction of the local variations in stress magnitude and orientation. This requires a~numerical modelling approach that is capable to incorporate the specific geometry and mechanical properties of the subsurface reservoir. The workflow presented in this paper can be used to build 3-D geomechanical models based on the Finite Element Method (FEM and ranging from field-scale models to smaller, detailed submodels of individual fault blocks. The approach is successfully applied to an intensively faulted gas reservoir in the North German Basin. The in situ stresses predicted by the geomechanical FE model were calibrated against stress data actually observed, e.g. borehole breakouts and extended leak-off tests. Such a validated model can provide insights into the stress perturbations in the inter-well space and undrilled parts of the reservoir. In addition, the tendency of the existing fault network to slip or dilate in the present-day stress regime can be addressed.

  4. Multiphysics of carbon dioxide sequestration in coalbeds: A review with a focus on geomechanical characteristics of coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen S. Masoudian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2 into the atmosphere, it is proposed to inject anthropogenic CO2 into deep geological formations. Deep un-mineable coalbeds are considered to be possible CO2 repositories because coal is able to adsorb a large amount of CO2 inside its microporous structure. However, the response of coalbeds is complex because of coupled flow and mechanical processes. Injection of CO2 causes coal to swell, which leads to reductions in permeability and hence makes injection more difficult, and at the same time leads to changes in the mechanical properties which can affect the stress state in the coal and overlying strata. The mechanical properties of coal under storage conditions are of importance when assessing the integrity and safety of the storage scheme. On the other hand, the geomechanical response of coalbed will also influence the reservoir performance of coalbed. This paper provides an overview of processes associated with coalbed geosequestration of CO2 while the importance of geomechanical characteristics of coalbeds is highlighted. The most recent findings about the interactions between gas transport and geomechanical characteristics of coal will be discussed and the essence will be delivered. The author suggests areas for future research efforts to further improve the understanding of enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM and coalbed geosequestration of CO2.

  5. Treatment compliance and effectiveness in complex PTSD patients with co-morbid personality disorder undergoing stabilizing cognitive behavioral group treatment: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Dorrepaal, Ethy; Thomaes, Kathleen; Smit, Johannes H; Veltman, Dick J.; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.; Draijer, Nel

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the empirical and clinical literature, complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and personality disorders (PDs) are suggested to be predictive of drop-out or reduced treatment effectiveness in trauma-focused PTSD treatment.Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate if personality characteristics would predict treatment compliance and effectiveness in stabilizing complex PTSD treatment. Method: In a randomized controlled trial on a 20-week stabilizing group cognitive ...

  6. Reactive Transport Models with Geomechanics to Mitigate Risks of CO2 Utilization and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deo, Milind [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Huang, Hai [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kweon, Hyukmin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Guo, Luanjing [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-03-28

    revealed that an initial high-permeability pathway facilitated the formation of wormholes. The peak cation concentrations and general trends were matched using Toughreact. Batch reactor modeling showed that the geometric factors obtained using powder data that related effective surface area to the BET surface area had to be reduced for fractured samples and cores. This indicates that the available surface area in consolidated samples is lower than that deduced from powder experiments. Field-scale modeling of reactive transport and geomechanics was developed in parallel at Idaho National Laboratory. The model is able to take into account complex chemistry, and consider interactions of natural fractures and faults. Poroelastic geomechanical considerations are also included in the model.

  7. Estudo caso-controle de indicadores de abandono em doentes com tuberculose A case-control study about indicators of non-compliance in patients with tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDRA A. RIBEIRO

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O abandono do tratamento da tuberculose tem implicações sociais e epidemiológicas. Objetivos: Comparar características de pacientes que abandonaram o tratamento com os que não o abandonaram (controle, matriculados no CS-EPM/Unifesp, no período de 1995 a 1997, e verificar se os grupos educativos de sala de espera diminuíram a ocorrência dos abandonos. Método: Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo controlado com 100 pacientes (38 abandonos pareados para 62 controles matriculados para tratamento de tuberculose, em que se verificaram as variáveis mais relacionadas ao abandono. Destes, 60 pacientes participaram voluntariamente de grupos educativos (16 abandonos e 44 controles. Resultados: As variáveis mais relacionadas ao abandono foram: sexo masculino, tabagismo, alcoolismo, uso de drogas, presença de fatores de risco para HIV e internação prévia. Os que participaram voluntariamente dos grupos educativos de sala de espera tinham características semelhantes ao total de pacientes estudados, mas houve menor ocorrência de abandono durante o tratamento (p Non-compliance of tuberculosis treatment has social and epidemiological implications. Purpose: To compare characteristics of patients that were compliant (control group and non-compliant with the treatment at the Health Care Center at the Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil, between 1995 and 1997, and to verify if patients who had joined in educational classes on tuberculosis had enhanced chances to a positive outcome after expiration of the six months of treatment. Method: The authors conducted a retrospective and controlled study with 100 patients (38 non-compliant and 62 compliant registered for tuberculosis treatment in order to verify the variables related to non-compliance. Sixty patients (16 non-compliant and 44 compliant had educational classes. Results: The risk factors most related to non-compliance were: male sex, cigarette smoking, alcohol and drug abuse, risk factors for

  8. Does industry self-regulation protect young people from exposure to alcohol marketing? A review of compliance and complaint studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Jonathan K; Babor, Thomas F

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol marketing is considered to be potentially harmful to adolescents. In addition to statutory regulation, industry self-regulation is a common way to protect adolescents from alcohol marketing exposures. This paper critically reviews research designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the alcohol industry's compliance procedures to manage complaints when alcohol marketing is considered to have violated a self-regulatory code. Peer-reviewed papers were identified through four literature search engines: PubMed, SCOPUS, PsychINFO and CINAHL. Non-peer-reviewed reports produced by public health agencies, alcohol research centers, non-governmental organizations, government research centers and national industry advertising associations were also included. The search process yielded three peer-reviewed papers, seven non-peer reviewed reports published by academic institutes and non-profit organizations and 20 industry reports. The evidence indicates that the complaint process lacks standardization across countries, industry adjudicators may be trained inadequately or biased and few complaints are upheld against advertisements pre-determined to contain violations of a self-regulatory code. The current alcohol industry marketing complaint process used in a wide variety of countries may be ineffective at removing potentially harmful content from the market-place. The process of determining the validity of complaints employed by most industry groups appears to suffer from serious conflict of interest and procedural weaknesses that could compromise objective adjudication of even well-documented complaints. In our opinion the current system of self-regulation needs major modifications if it is to serve public health objectives, and more systematic evaluations of the complaint process are needed. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. An evaluation of mass drug administration compliance against filariasis of Tikamgarh district of Madhya Pradesh-A household-based community study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mass drug administration (MDA means once-in-a-year administration of diethyl carbamazine (DEC tablet to all people (excluding children under 2 years, pregnant women and severely ill persons in identified endemic areas. It aims at cessation of transmission of lymphatic filariasis. Objective: To study the coverage and compliance of MDA in Tikamgarh district during the campaign in April 2010. Materials and Methods: The activities under MDA involved administration of DEC tablets to eligible population from endemic area by health staff and Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS functionaries referred as drug distributors (DD make house-to-house visits on select dates in 2010. DEC was administered to all people (excluding children under 2 years, pregnant women and severely ill persons with the instruction to ingest the tablet preferably on the spot. Study Design: Cross-sectional population based house-to-house visit. Setting: Urban and rural areas in Tikamgarh district identified as endemic for filariasis where MDA 2010 was undertaken. Study Variables: Exploratory - Rural and urban clusters of Tikamgarh district; Outcome - coverage, compliance, actual coverage, side effects. Analysis: Percentage and proportions. Results: Four clusters, each comprising 30 households from Tikamgarh endemic district, yielded an eligible population of 641. The coverage rate was 607 (94.6% of eligible with variation across different areas. The compliance with drug ingestion was 89.9% with a gap of 10.1% to be targeted by intensive IEC. The effective coverage (85.2% was just above the target (85%. Side effects of DEC were minimum, transient and drug-specific. Overall coverage was marginally better in rural areas. The causes of poor coverage and compliance have been discussed and relevant suggestions have been made.

  10. Monitoring managers through corporate compliance programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelucci, C.; Han, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Compliance programs entail monitoring of employees' behavior with the claimed objective of fighting corporate crime. (Competition) Authorities promote such intra-firm monitoring. In a three-tier hierarchy model, authority-shareholder-manager, we study the impact of monitoring through a compliance pr

  11. Correlates of exercise compliance in physical therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, E.M.; Kok, G.J.; Zee, J. van der

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This correlational study describes factors that are related to patient compliance with exercise regimens during physical therapy. We investigated whether patient compliance was related to characteristics of the patient or the patient's illness, to the patient's attitude, or t

  12. Explaining G20 and BRICS Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Larionova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the internal and external factors influencing the compliance performance of the Group of 20 (G20 and the BRICS. The authors start with an overview of the G20 and BRICS compliance patterns using comparative data onthe number of commitments made by the two institutions, the level of institutional compliance, and distribution of commitments and compliance across issue areas. G20 compliance is traced since the leaders’ first 2008 summit in Washington. The BRICS compliance performance record includes data since the third stand alone summit in Sanya in 2011.The study then takes stock of compliance catalysts embedded in the summits’ discourse: priority placements, numerical targets, timelines, self-accountability pledges and mandates to implement and/or monitor implementation. The authors review trends in the use of catalysts in different years and issue areas and identify commonalities and differences.The analysis then turns to external causes of compliance and focuses on demand for collective actions and members’ collective power to respond and deliver on their pledges. Here the study explores whether the self-accountability mechanisms created by the institutions in response to the demand for effectiveness and legitimacy facilitate compliance.The article concludes by highlighting catalysts, causes of compliance and their combinations with the greatest power to encourage implementation, explaining trends in G20 and BRICS compliance performance. The data sets on G20 and BRICS differ in terms of scale. The G20 data set contains 1,511 commitments of which 114 have been monitored, and the BRICS data set contains 231 commitments of which 23 have been monitored.

  13. Disentangling quality and safety indicator data: a longitudinal, comparative study of hand hygiene compliance and accreditation outcomes in 96 Australian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Virginia; Greenfield, David; Hogden, Anne; Debono, Deborah; Gospodarevskaya, Elena; Forde, Kevin; Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2014-09-23

    The study aims are twofold. First, to investigate the suitability of hand hygiene as an indicator of accreditation outcomes and, second, to test the hypothesis that hospitals with better accreditation outcomes achieve higher hand hygiene compliance rates. A retrospective, longitudinal, multisite comparative survey. Acute public hospitals in New South Wales, Australia. 96 acute hospitals with accreditation survey results from two surveys during 2009-2012 and submitted data for more than four hand hygiene audits between 2010 and 2013. Our primary outcome comprised observational hand hygiene compliance data from eight audits during 2010-2013. The explanatory variables in our multilevel regression model included: accreditation outcomes and scores for the infection control standard; timing of the surveys; and hospital size and activity. Average hand hygiene compliance rates increased from 67.7% to 80.3% during the study period (2010-2013), with 46.7% of hospitals achieving target compliance rates of 70% in audit 1, versus 92.3% in audit 8. Average hand hygiene rates at small hospitals were 7.8 percentage points (pp) higher than those at the largest hospitals (phygiene rates, accreditation outcomes and infection control scores is less clear. Our results indicate that accreditation outcomes and hand hygiene audit data are measuring different parts of the quality and safety spectrum. Understanding what is being measured when selecting indicators to assess the impact of accreditation is critical as focusing on accreditation results would discount successful hand hygiene implementation by smaller hospitals. Conversely, relying on hand hygiene results would discount the infection control related research and leadership investment by larger hospitals. Our hypothesis appears to be confounded by an accreditation programme that makes it more difficult for smaller hospitals to achieve high infection control scores. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  14. Disentangling quality and safety indicator data: a longitudinal, comparative study of hand hygiene compliance and accreditation outcomes in 96 Australian hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Virginia; Greenfield, David; Hogden, Anne; Debono, Deborah; Gospodarevskaya, Elena; Forde, Kevin; Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The study aims are twofold. First, to investigate the suitability of hand hygiene as an indicator of accreditation outcomes and, second, to test the hypothesis that hospitals with better accreditation outcomes achieve higher hand hygiene compliance rates. Design A retrospective, longitudinal, multisite comparative survey. Setting Acute public hospitals in New South Wales, Australia. Participants 96 acute hospitals with accreditation survey results from two surveys during 2009–2012 and submitted data for more than four hand hygiene audits between 2010 and 2013. Outcomes Our primary outcome comprised observational hand hygiene compliance data from eight audits during 2010–2013. The explanatory variables in our multilevel regression model included: accreditation outcomes and scores for the infection control standard; timing of the surveys; and hospital size and activity. Results Average hand hygiene compliance rates increased from 67.7% to 80.3% during the study period (2010–2013), with 46.7% of hospitals achieving target compliance rates of 70% in audit 1, versus 92.3% in audit 8. Average hand hygiene rates at small hospitals were 7.8 percentage points (pp) higher than those at the largest hospitals (phygiene rates, accreditation outcomes and infection control scores is less clear. Conclusions Our results indicate that accreditation outcomes and hand hygiene audit data are measuring different parts of the quality and safety spectrum. Understanding what is being measured when selecting indicators to assess the impact of accreditation is critical as focusing on accreditation results would discount successful hand hygiene implementation by smaller hospitals. Conversely, relying on hand hygiene results would discount the infection control related research and leadership investment by larger hospitals. Our hypothesis appears to be confounded by an accreditation programme that makes it more difficult for smaller hospitals to achieve high infection control

  15. Practice organisational characteristics can impact on compliance with the BTS/SIGN asthma guideline: qualitative comparative case study in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener-Ogilvie, Sharon; Huby, Guro; Pinnock, Hilary; Gillies, John; Sheikh, Aziz

    2008-06-04

    Although the BTS-SIGN asthma guideline is one of the most well known and widely respected guidelines in the world, implementation in UK primary care remains patchy. Building on extensive earlier descriptive work, we sought to explore the way teamwork and inter-professional relationships impact on the implementation of the BTS-SIGN guideline on asthma in general practice. Qualitative comparative case study using nine in-depth interviews and 2 focus groups with general practitioners and practice nurses, involved in delivering asthma care. Participants were purposively recruited from practices in a Scottish health board with high and low compliance with the BTS-SIGN asthma guideline. There was a marked difference in the way respondents from practices with high compliance and respondents from practices with low compliance spoke about the value of guidelines and the challenges of implementing them. On both accounts, the former were more positive than the latter and were able to be more specific about the strategies they used to overcome barriers to implementation. We explored the reason for this difference in response and identified practice organisation, centring on delegation of work to nurses, as a factor mediating the practice's level of compliance. Effective delegation was underpinned by organisation of asthma work among practice members who have the appropriate level of skills and knowledge, know and understand each others' work and responsibilities, communicate well among themselves and trust each others' skills. It was the combination of these factors which made for successful delegation and guideline implementation, not any one factor in isolation. In our sample of practices, teamwork and organisation of care within practices appeared to impact on guideline implementation and further larger studies are needed to explore this issue further. Isolated interventions such as measures to improve staff's knowledge or increased clinical resource and time, which are

  16. Geomechanical analysis applied to geological carbon dioxide sequestration, induced seismicity in deep mines, and detection of stress-induced velocity anisotropy in sub-salt environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucier, Amie Marie

    The role of geomechanical analysis in characterizing the feasibility of CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers is addressed in two investigations. The first investigation was completed as part of the Ohio River Valley CO2 Storage Project. We completed a geomechanical analysis of the Rose Run Sandstone, a potential injection zone, and its adjacent formations at the American Electric Power's 1.3 GW Mountaineer Power Plant in New Haven, West Virginia. The results of this analysis were then used to evaluate the feasibility of anthropogenic CO2 sequestration in the potential injection zone. First, we incorporated the results of the geomechanical analysis with a geostatistical aquifer model in CO2 injection flow simulations to test the effects of introducing a hydraulic fracture to increase injectivity. Then, we determined that horizontal injection wells at the Mountaineer site are feasible because the high rock strength ensures that such wells would be stable in the local stress state. Finally, we evaluated the potential for injection-induced seismicity. The second investigation concerning CO2 sequestration was motivated by the modeling and fluid flow simulation results from the first study. The geomechanics-based assessment workflow follows a bottom-up approach for evaluating regional deep saline aquifer CO2 injection and storage feasibility. The CO2 storage capacity of an aquifer is a function of its porous volume as well as its CO2 injectivity. For a saline aquifer to be considered feasible in this assessment it must be able to store a specified amount of CO2 at a reasonable cost per ton of CO 2. The proposed assessment workflow has seven steps. The workflow was applied to a case study of the Rose Run sandstone in the eastern Ohio River Valley. We found that it is feasible in this region to inject and store 113 Mt CO2/yr for 30 years at an associated well cost of less than 1.31 US$/t CO2, but only if injectivity enhancement techniques such as hydraulic fracturing

  17. Metabolic syndrome patient compliance with drug treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilcéia Lopes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: 1 To evaluate the compliance with drug treatment in patients with metabolic syndrome. 2 To determine association between access to and use of medicines, as well as the level of knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors and compliance. INTRODUCTION: Low compliance has been one of the greatest challenges for the successful treatment of chronic diseases. Although this issue has been widely studied in patients with isolated hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia, compliance studies involving patients with these concomitant diseases or with metabolic syndrome diagnosis are scarce. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving patients who have been diagnosed with metabolic syndrome according to the IDF criteria. Patients were being treated in a Health-Medical School Center bound to the Public Brazilian Healthcare System. This study was conducted in two phases. Phase I was characterized by analyzing medical records and Phase II involved interviewing the patients. A variation of the Morisky-Green Test was used to evaluate compliance. Compliance was the dependent variable and the independent variables included access to medicines, the use of medicines and the level of knowledge concerning cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: Two hundred and forty-three patients were identified as being eligible for Phase II, and 75 were included in the study. The average level of compliance was 5.44 points (standard deviation of 0.68, on a scale ranging from 1.00 to 6.00 points. There was no statistically meaningful association between independent variables and compliance. The level of patient knowledge of diet and dyslipidemia was considered to be low. CONCLUSIONS: Patients involved in this study exhibited a high level of compliance with drug treatment. Further research is needed to better elucidate the compliance behavior of patients who have been diagnosed with metabolic syndrome.

  18. Stress determination and geomechanical stability analysis of an oil well of Iran

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ayub Elyasi; Kamran Goshtasbi; Omid Saeidi; Seyed Rahman Torabi

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, a numerical model using three-dimensional finite difference code FLAC3D is proposed for analysing the stability of an oil well drilled in four formations. Normalized Yielded Zone Area (NYZA, i.e., the ratio of surrounding yielded cross-sectional area to initial area of well) has been determined for different mud pressures. In each formation, by interpolating of obtained NYZA equal to one, the optimized mud pressure was determined using MATLAB software. Practical data including geomechanical parameters along with drilling data from one of Iranian oilfields, Mansouri-54 well have been utilized in this analysis. in situ stress was determined using stress polygon method and conducting hydraulic fracturing data in the field. Analytical solution using the Mogi–Coulomb and the Hoek–Brown failure criteria has been carried out and results are compared with the presented model. The results demonstrated that the NYZA and Hoek–Brown criteria might underestimate and overestimate the drilling mud pressure, respectively, and should be used cautiously. In the inclined section of the well, plastic zone showed more extension in the lower part than upper part of the well because of the high stress concentration.

  19. Bulk Density Adjustment of Resin-Based Equivalent Material for Geomechanical Model Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengxian Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An equivalent material is of significance to the simulation of prototype rock in geomechanical model test. Researchers attempt to ensure that the bulk density of equivalent material is equal to that of prototype rock. In this work, barite sand was used to increase the bulk density of a resin-based equivalent material. The variation law of the bulk density was revealed in the simulation of a prototype rock of a different bulk density. Over 300 specimens were made for uniaxial compression test. Test results indicated that the substitution of quartz sand by barite sand had no apparent influence on the uniaxial compressive strength and elastic modulus of the specimens but can increase the bulk density, according to the proportional coarse aggregate content. An ideal linearity was found in the relationship between the barite sand substitution ratio and the bulk density. The relationship between the bulk density and the usage of coarse aggregate and barite sand was also presented. The test results provided an insight into the bulk density adjustment of resin-based equivalent materials.

  20. Geomechanical processes at closed mines in Donbass coalfield and their potential effects at surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilenko, Y.N.; Yermakov, V.N. [Donetsk State Technical University, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    2002-12-01

    One of the principal technical problems that arises in the Donbass coalfield, Ukraine, during the closure of mines that are no longer viable is the activation of geomechanical processes and their effect at the surface. The main precondition for the initiation of such processes is the presence of voids and foliations underground. It is not possible to predict when the closure of these voids will occur, but the results are repeated slumping of the rock mass, ultimately affecting the surface. The consequences can be surface collapse or deformation. Collapse cones appear above the collars of vertical shafts, shallow workings, fissures and gaps in thick, solid seams. Additional movement and deformation are possible above stopes when the rock mass has been made wet by flooding of the mine and also when zones of concentrated deformation become active. The knowledge that can be derived from experience so far and from the monitoring of closed mine sites needs to be collected and applied. The monitoring scheme in the Stakhanov District of the Donbass is reviewed along with the first observations of surface deformation above closed mines - where anomalous movement was already observed when the mines were operational.

  1. Timelapse ultrasonic tomography for measuring damage localization in geomechanics laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudisco, Erika; Roux, Philippe; Hall, Stephen A; Viggiani, Giulia M B; Viggiani, Gioacchino

    2015-03-01

    Variation of mechanical properties in materials can be detected non-destructively using ultrasonic measurements. In particular, changes in elastic wave velocity can occur due to damage, i.e., micro-cracking and particles debonding. Here the challenge of characterizing damage in geomaterials, i.e., rocks and soils, is addressed. Geomaterials are naturally heterogeneous media in which the deformation can localize, so that few measurements of acoustic velocity across the sample are not sufficient to capture the heterogeneities. Therefore, an ultrasonic tomography procedure has been implemented to map the spatial and temporal variations in propagation velocity, which provides information on the damage process. Moreover, double beamforming has been successfully applied to identify and isolate multiple arrivals that are caused by strong heterogeneities (natural or induced by the deformation process). The applicability of the developed experimental technique to laboratory geomechanics testing is illustrated using data acquired on a sample of natural rock before and after being deformed under triaxial compression. The approach is then validated and extended to time-lapse monitoring using data acquired during plane strain compression of a sample including a well defined layer with different mechanical properties than the matrix.

  2. Geomechanical behavior of the reservoir and caprock system at the In Salah CO2 storage project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joshua A; Chiaramonte, Laura; Ezzedine, Souheil; Foxall, William; Hao, Yue; Ramirez, Abelardo; McNab, Walt

    2014-06-17

    Almost 4 million metric tons of CO2 were injected at the In Salah CO2 storage site between 2004 and 2011. Storage integrity at the site is provided by a 950-m-thick caprock that sits above the injection interval. This caprock consists of a number of low-permeability units that work together to limit vertical fluid migration. These are grouped into main caprock units, providing the primary seal, and lower caprock units, providing an additional buffer and some secondary storage capacity. Monitoring observations at the site indirectly suggest that pressure, and probably CO2, have migrated upward into the lower portion of the caprock. Although there are no indications that the overall storage integrity has been compromised, these observations raise interesting questions about the geomechanical behavior of the system. Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the measured pressure, seismic, and surface deformation behavior. These include fault leakage, flow through preexisting fractures, and the possibility that injection pressures induced hydraulic fractures. This work evaluates these hypotheses in light of the available data. We suggest that the simplest and most likely explanation for the observations is that a portion of the lower caprock was hydrofractured, although interaction with preexisting fractures may have played a significant role. There are no indications, however, that the overall storage complex has been compromised, and several independent data sets demonstrate that CO2 is contained in the confinement zone.

  3. Modelling of underground geomechanical characteristics for electrophysical conversion of oil shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukharkin, A. A.; Koryashov, I. A.; Martemyanov, S. M.; Ivanov, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Oil shale energy extraction is an urgent issue for modern science and technique. With the help of electrical discharge phenomena it is possible to create a new efficient technology for underground conversion of oil shale to shale gas and oil. This method is based on Joule heat in the rock volume. During the laboratory experiments the problem has arisen, when the significant part of a shale fragment is being heated, but the further heating is impossible due to specimen cracking. It leads to disruption in current flow and heat exchange. Evidently, in the underground conditions these failure processes will not proceed. Cement, clay and glass fiber/epoxy resin armature have been used for modelling of geomechanical underground conditions. Experiments have shown that the use of a reinforcing jacket makes it possible to convert a full rock fragment. Also, a thermal field extends radially from the centre of a tree-type structure, and it has an elliptic cross section shape. It is explained by the oil shale anisotropy connected with a rock laminar structure. Therefore, heat propagation is faster along the layers than across ones.

  4. Geomechanical Simulation of CO{sub 2} Leakage and Cap Rock Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygaard, Runar; Bai, Baojun; Eckert, Andreas

    2012-09-30

    CO{sub 2} sequestration into porous and permeable brine filled aquifers is seen as one of the most likely near-term solutions for reducing greenhouse gases. Safely storing injected CO{sub 2}, which is less dense than water, requires trapping the CO{sub 2} under an impermeable rock which would act as a seal. One of the concerns with CO{sub 2} sequestration is the generation of new fractures or reactivation of existing fractures and faults caused by CO{sub 2} injection into the sealing formation. Mitigation strategies must be developed to remediate potentially leaking faults or fractures. This project evaluated potential storage scenarios in the state of Missouri and developed coupled reservoir and geomechanic simulations to identify storage potential and leakage risks. Further, several injectable materials used to seal discontinuities were evaluated under subsurface conditions. The four sealant materials investigated were paraffin wax, silica based gel, polymer based gel, and micro-cement, which all significantly reduced the fracture permeability. However, the micro-cement was the most effective sealing agent and the only sealant able to withstand the large differential pressure caused by CO{sub 2} or brine injection and create a strong seal to prevent further fracturing.

  5. Geomechanical Simulation of CO2 Leakage and Cap Rock Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygaard, Runar [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States); Bai, Baojun [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States); Eckert, Andreas [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)

    2012-09-30

    CO2 sequestration into porous and permeable brine filled aquifers is seen as one of the most likely near-term solutions for reducing greenhouse gases. Safely storing injected CO2, which is less dense than water, requires trapping the CO2 under an impermeable rock which would act as a seal. One of the concerns with CO2 sequestration is the generation of new fractures or reactivation of existing fractures and faults caused by CO2 injection into the sealing formation. Mitigation strategies must be developed to remediate potentially leaking faults or fractures. This project evaluated potential storage scenarios in the state of Missouri and developed coupled reservoir and geomechanic simulations to identify storage potential and leakage risks. Further, several injectable materials used to seal discontinuities were evaluated under subsurface conditions. The four sealant materials investigated were paraffin wax, silica based gel, polymer based gel, and micro-cement, which all significantly reduced the fracture permeability. However, the micro-cement was the most effective sealing agent and the only sealant able to withstand the large differential pressure caused by CO2 or brine injection and create a strong seal to prevent further fracturing.

  6. A Review of Factors for Tax Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta BARBUTA-MISU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the variables of tax compliance analysed by researchers from various countries and adapting them to the Romanian conditions to create a model to include factors that influence decision of tax compliance. Tax compliance has been studied in economics by analysing the individual decision of a representative person between paying taxes and evading taxes. In the research of tax compliance have been done many empirical studies that emphasized the impact of a wide variety of potential determinants of voluntary compliance with individual income/profit tax filing and reporting obligations. The most important determinants identified are: economic factors as the level of income, audit probabilities, tax audit, tax rate, tax benefits, penalties, fines and other non-economic factors as attitudes toward taxes, personal, social and national norms, perceived fairness etc.

  7. Are Retail Outlets Complying with National Legislation to Protect Children from Exposure to Tobacco Displays at Point of Sale? Results from the First Compliance Study in the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Eadie

    Full Text Available From April 6th 2015, all small shops in the UK were required to cover up tobacco products at point of sale (POS to protect children from exposure. As part of a larger 5-year study to measure the impact of the legislation in Scotland, an audit was conducted to assess level and nature of compliance with the ban immediately following its introduction.A discreet observational audit was conducted 7-14 days post implementation which took measures of physical changes made to cover products, server/assistant practices, tobacco signage and advertising, and communication of price information. The audit was conducted in all small retail outlets (n = 83 selling tobacco in four communities in Scotland selected to represent different levels of urbanisation and social deprivation. Data were analysed descriptively.Compliance with the legislation was high, with 98% of shops removing tobacco from permanent display and non-compliance was restricted almost entirely to minor contraventions. The refurbishment of shops with new or adapted tobacco storage units resulted in the removal of nearly all commercial brand messages and images from POS, dropping from 51% to 4%. The majority of shops stored their tobacco in public-facing storage units (81%. Most shops also displayed at least one generic tobacco message (88%.Compliance with Scottish prohibitions on display of tobacco products in small retail outlets was high immediately after the legislation implementation date. However, although tobacco branding is no longer visible in retail outlets, tobacco storage units with generic tobacco messages are still prominent. This points towards a need to monitor how the space vacated by tobacco products is utilised and to better understand how the continuing presence of tobacco storage units influences people's awareness and understanding of tobacco and smoking. Countries with existing POS bans and who are considering such bans should pay particular attention to regulations

  8. U.S.- and Mexico-born Hispanic teen mothers: a descriptive study of factors that relate to postpartum compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinman, M L; Smith, P B

    1994-05-01

    Compliance with postpartum visits after teenage births in the US was examined among 289 Hispanic teenagers, of whom 127 were born in Mexico or border towns, who delivered at Harris County Hospital District and scheduled postpartum appointments at the Teen Health Clinic. The mean age was 17.31 years for mothers and 21.95 years for fathers. 56.7% (164) were married. 49.8% lived with husbands, 25.8% with parents, 22.3% with friends/relatives, and 2.1% alone. 74.7% stated that they had no social supports. 88.9% had a term delivery, 8.3% a preterm delivery, and 2.8% a fetal loss. 67.5% were first births, 5.5% had a previous abortion, and 3.1% had a previous miscarriage. 23.2% had a previous child, and 0.7% had a previous preterm delivery. Some form of prenatal care was received by 85.1%. 34.3% reported no further educational plans. 17.3% (50) returned for a scheduled postpartum visit. Mothers with a prior history of a premature birth or miscarriage were more likely to return postpartum compared to mothers with a first or prior birth. The differences are marginally significant. None of the mothers with a prior abortion returned. 34.9% of the returning teen mothers were more likely to have had prenatal care. Returning mothers also were a larger percentage of those with no future educational plans. 13.4% of returning mothers had an available social support system. Country of origin was not associated with support systems, prenatal care, return status, educational plans, pregnancy history, or current birth outcome. Out of the 50 returning, 20 were Mexican-born and married. Only Mexican marital status was found to be a significant variable explaining differences. Marital status had no effect on the 26 US native-born returnees. 92% of the Mexican-born teens were married and had a support system. The most dramatic feature of this study is the high level of noncompliance among both US-born and Mexican-born adolescents. There were few distinguishing features between these two

  9. [Predictors for compliance in orthodontic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müssig, E; Berger, M; Komposch, G; Brunner, M

    2008-03-01

    Having established the importance of compliance as a significant factor of a successful orthodontic treatment, the aim of the present study was to evaluate intrapersonal and interpersonal factors which could help predict patient compliance. The attributional style of 58 patients was assessed by a standardised questionnaire. An individual questionnaire was designed to determine attitudes concerning orthodontic treatment, the doctor-patient relationship, the wearing behaviour and control behaviour. The questionnaire was answered by the patient and by the orthodontist. The compliance was evaluated by the orthodontist on the basis of commonly used indicators for compliance: wearing time, oral hygiene and reliability of keeping the appointments. The results showed a significant correlation between the compliance and the attributional style of the patients in positive situations, but not between the compliance and the wearing behaviour estimated by the patient. The interpersonal comparison revealed a lack of knowledge on the part of the orthodontist about the patients' daily activities and their ability to correctly wear their appliances. The questionnaire answers show compliance to be a subjective construct of the orthodontist demonstrating mostly social-emotional matters. There is no consistency with compliance and the patients' statement concerning their wearing behaviour but with a positive attitude on the part of the patients demonstrating independent responsibility.

  10. A High Rate of Non-Compliance Confounds the Study of Whole Grains and Weight Maintenance in a Randomised Intervention Trial—The Case for Greater Use of Dietary Biomarkers in Nutrition Intervention Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Mette; Pelletier, Xavier; Ross, Alastair B.; Thielecke, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Observational studies consistently find an inverse relationship between whole-grain intake and weight gain. We aimed to confirm this in an open-label researcher-blinded parallel design randomised trial. A total of 179 overweight/obese women with a habitually low whole-grain intake (60% of participants had alkylresorcinol concentrations below 70 nmol/L, a concentration indicating low or no intake of whole-grain wheat. Further, weight regain was lower than expected in both intervention groups, further supporting a lack of compliance to the post-weight-loss diet. The rate of compliance was too low to conclude any effect of whole grain on weight maintenance, and reinforces the need to use objective measures of compliance in nutrition intervention studies. PMID:28085022

  11. Regulatory Enforcement and Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren

    1999-01-01

    agencies. The latter are shown to be more important in bringing about compliance than are inspectors' enforcement styles. Municipal agencies are shown to increase compliance through the use of third parties, more frequent inspection, and setting priorities for inspection of major items. The findings about...

  12. Compliance with biopsy recommendations of a prostate cancer risk calculator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, Heidi A.; Roobol, Monique J.; Busstra, Martijn; Kil, Paul; Oomens, Eric H.; de Jong, Igle J.; Bangma, Chris H.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Korfage, Ida

    OBJECTIVES To assess both urologist and patient compliance with a 'no biopsy' or 'biopsy' recommendation of the European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) Risk Calculator (RC), as well as their reasons for non-compliance. To assess determinants of patient compliance. PATIENTS

  13. Effects of fault-controlled CO2 alteration on mineralogical and geomechanical properties of reservoir and seal rocks, Crystal Geyser, Green River, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, J. R.; Eichhubl, P.; Urquhart, A.; Dewers, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    An understanding of the coupled chemical and mechanical properties of reservoir and seal units undergoing CO2 injection is critical for modeling reservoir behavior in response to the introduction of CO2. The implementation of CO2 sequestration as a mitigation strategy for climate change requires extensive risk assessment that relies heavily on computer models of subsurface reservoirs. Numerical models are fundamentally limited by the quality and validity of their input parameters. Existing models generally lack constraints on diagenesis, failing to account for the coupled geochemical or geomechanical processes that affect reservoir and seal unit properties during and after CO2 injection. For example, carbonate dissolution or precipitation after injection of CO2 into subsurface brines may significantly alter the geomechanical properties of reservoir and seal units and thus lead to solution-enhancement or self-sealing of fractures. Acidified brines may erode and breach sealing units. In addition, subcritical fracture growth enhanced by the presence of CO2 could ultimately compromise the integrity of sealing units, or enhance permeability and porosity of the reservoir itself. Such unknown responses to the introduction of CO2 can be addressed by laboratory and field-based observations and measurements. Studies of natural analogs like Crystal Geyser, Utah are thus a critical part of CO2 sequestration research. The Little Grand Wash and Salt Wash fault systems near Green River, Utah, host many fossil and active CO2 seeps, including Crystal Geyser, serving as a faulted anticline CO2 reservoir analog. The site has been extensively studied for sequestration and reservoir applications, but less attention has been paid to the diagenetic and geomechanical aspects of the fault zone. XRD analysis of reservoir and sealing rocks collected along transects across the Little Grand Wash Fault reveal mineralogical trends in the Summerville Fm (a siltstone seal unit) with calcite and

  14. Better compliance with hypofractionation vs. conventional fractionation in adjuvant breast cancer radiotherapy. Results of a single, institutional, retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudat, Volker; Nour, Alaa; Hammoud, Mohamed; Abou Ghaida, Salam [Saad Specialist Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Al Khobar (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-05-15

    The aim of the study was to identify factors significantly associated with the occurrence of unintended treatment interruptions in adjuvant breast cancer radiotherapy. Patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy of the breast or chest wall between March 2014 and August 2016 were evaluated. The radiotherapy regimens and techniques applied were either conventional fractionation (CF; 28 daily fractions of 1.8 Gy or 25 fractions of 2.0 Gy) or hypofractionation (HF; 15 daily fractions of 2.67 Gy) with inverse planned intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or three-dimensional planned conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with noncompliance. Noncompliance was defined as the missing of at least one scheduled radiotherapy fraction. In all, 19 of 140 (13.6%) patients treated with HF and 39 of 146 (26.7%) treated with CF experienced treatment interruptions. Of 23 factors tested, the fractionation regimen emerged as the only independent significant prognostic factor for noncompliance on multivariate analysis (CF; p = 0.007; odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-4.2). No statistically significant differences concerning the reasons for treatment interruptions could be detected between patients treated with CF or HF. HF is significantly associated with a better patient compliance with the prescribed radiotherapy schedule compared with CF. The data suggest that this finding is basically related to the shorter overall treatment time of HF. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Untersuchung war es, Faktoren zu identifizieren, die mit ungeplanten Behandlungsunterbrechungen bei der adjuvanten Strahlentherapie des Mammakarzinoms assoziiert sind. Es wurden Patienten untersucht, die eine adjuvante Strahlentherapie der Mamma oder Brustwand zwischen Maerz 2014 und August 2016 erhielten. Zur Anwendung kamen als Fraktionierungsprotokoll und strahlentherapeutische Technik eine konventionell fraktionierte (CF; 28 Fraktionen mit

  15. Coupling of Multiphase Flow and Geomechanics in Fractured Porous Media: Application to CO2 Leakages from Natural and Stimulated Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzedine, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Leakage to the atmosphere of a significant fraction of injected CO2 would constitute a failure of a geological CO2 storage project from a greenhouse gas mitigation perspective. We present a numerical model that simulates flow and transport of CO2 into heterogeneous subsurface systems. The model, StoTran, is a flexible numerical environment that uses state-of-the-art finite element and finite volume methods and unstructured adaptive mesh refinement scheme implemented using MPI and OpenMP protocols. Multiphase flow equations and the geomechanical equations are implicitly solved and either fully or sequentially coupled. StoTran can address inverse and forward problems under deterministic or stochastic conditions. For the current study, StoTran has been used to simulate several scenarios spanning from a homogeneous single layered reservoir to heterogeneous multi-layered systems, which including cap-rock with embedded fractures, have been simulated under different operations of CO2 injection and CO2 leakages conditions. Results show the impact of the injection and leakage rates on the time evolution of the spread of the CO2 plume, its interception of the fractured cap-rock and the risk associated with the contamination of the overlaying aquifer. Spatial and temporal moments have been calculated for different, deterministic of stochastic, subsurface physical and chemical properties. Spatial moments enable assessing the extent of the region of investigation under conditions of uncertainty. Furthermore, several leakage scenarios show the intermittence behavior and development of the CO2 plume in the subsurface; its first interception with the fractures located further far from the injection well then, at a second stage, its interception with the fracture within the immediate vicinity of the injection well. We will present a remedy to CO2 leakages from the reservoir in order to enhance a long term containment of the injected CO2. This work performed under the auspices of

  16. Geo-mechanical consequences of large scale fluid storage in the Utsira formation in the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangen, Magnus; Gasda, Sarah; Bjørnarå, Tore

    2016-04-01

    The Utsira formation in the North Sea is a more than 400 km long formation of Pliocene sand with a thickness in the range from 50m to 350m. The porosity of the Utsira formation is estimated to 35% and the permeability is of the order Darcy (1e-12 m2). This formation is being considered as a possible site for large scale CO2 storage, because of its large storage capacity and good permeability. In this work we look at the geo-mechanical implications of injecting "large'' volumes of fluid in the Utsira formation. Our modelling is based on Biot's poro-elasticity in combination with one-phase and two phase flow. We compare the pressure build-up from injection of brine with the pressure build-up from from injection of supercritical CO2. Well placement and near well modelling is not a part of the modelling. We study four different injection scenarios over 25 years, which have injection rates: 1 Mt/year, 10 Mt/year, 100 Mt/year and 1000 Mt/year. We observe that the pressure plume scales with the injection rate, which is the same behaviour as with Theis solution for pressure build-up. A particular concern is the mechanical properties of the Utsira sand and the cap rock. The cap rock is a Quaternary shale with a Young's modulus measured to 0.25 GPa and a Poisson ratio 0.25. A Young's modulus for the Utsira sand, which can be used to model expansion of the formation, is not measured. It is reasonable to assume that the loose sand has a low Young's modulus. We have tested low values of the Young's modulus for the sand and we get considerable mechanical expansion of the Utsira formation, even in the case of low pressure build-up from the fluid injection. Almost all the surface (seabed) uplift is linked to mechanical expansion of the sand. The strain of the Utsira formation and related surface uplift can be estimated with simple 1D models. Vertical 1D models apply because of the large lateral extent of the pressure plume compared to the thickness of the formation. The limits of

  17. Compliance and Enforcement Actions (CEA) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Compliance and Enforcement Actions application provides process assistance / improvements for conducting investigation and enforcement activities. The Compliance and...

  18. NCAA Compliance: An Examination of NCAA Division I Compliance Officers' Perceptions on the Educative Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbert, Tonya L.

    2013-01-01

    A review of the literature indicates an absence of studies about compliance officers working in higher education institutions belonging to the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). The current qualitative study explored the perceptions of compliance officers in the field of intercollegiate athletics at NCAA Division I institutions in…

  19. ETHICS AND COMPLIANCE IN BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREESCU Nicoleta Alina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have studied the evolution of the business ethics concept through the prism of definitions from some renowned authors in the field and through the approach model of the business ethics and by implementing it in the company level. We have found out that in the last 40 years this concept has evolved from a theoretical aspect, as well as a practical one. Companies are motivated to implement ethics and compliance programs in business so that they can manage the changes that come from society. If, until recently, all that mattered for a company was profit, in the last decades, the situation changed. In order to develop a durable business, it is essential to have a good reputation. Owning and implementing an ethics and compliance program in business has become an imperative for companies, regardless of their activity sector. The role of the compliance department becomes more pregnant in each company: the employees need safety, the existence of communication lines provides comfort. From the partners in business’ point of view, owning such a program is a necessity, a condition, and not conforming to the principles of business ethics can lead to the isolation of the company. The ethics and compliance programs in business are instruments that protect the company by implementing certain proactive identification mechanisms that ensure the development of an ethical organizational culture.

  20. Patterns of compliance with prenatal iron supplementation among Peruvian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavaleta, Nelly; Caulfield, Laura E; Figueroa, Alberto; Chen, Ping

    2014-04-01

    Prenatal iron supplementation is recommended to control anaemia during pregnancy. Low compliance and side effects have been claimed as the main obstacles for adequate impact of the supplementation. As part of a double-blind supplementation study carried out in a hospital located in a shantytown in Lima, Peru, we monitored compliance throughout pregnancy and evaluated factors associated with variation in compliance over time. Overall, 985 pregnant women were enrolled in a supplementation study that was administered through their prenatal care from 10 to 24 weeks of gestation until 4 weeks postpartum. They received 60 mg iron and 250 µg folate with or without 15 mg zinc. Women had monthly care visits and were also visited weekly to query regarding compliance, overall health status, and potential positive and negative effects of supplement consumption. Median compliance was 79% (inter-quartile range: 65-89%) over pregnancy, and the median number of tablets consumed was 106 (81-133). Primpara had lower average compliance; positive health reports were associated with greater compliance, and negative reports were associated with lower compliance. There was no difference by type of supplement. Women with low initial compliance did achieve high compliance by the end of pregnancy, and women who reported forgetting to take the supplements did have lower compliance. Compliance was positively associated with haemoglobin concentration at the end of pregnancy. In conclusion, women comply highly with prenatal supplementation within a prenatal care model in which supplies are maintained and reinforcing messages are provided. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Geomechanical modeling of the nucleation process of Australia's 1989 M5.6 Newcastle earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Christian D.

    2007-04-01

    Inherent to black-coal mining in New South Wales (Australia) since 1801, the discharge of ground water may have triggered the M5.6 Newcastle earthquake in 1989. 4-dimensional geomechanical model simulations reveal that widespread water removal and coal as deep as a 500 m depth resulted in an unload of the Earth's crust. This unload caused a destabilization process of the pre-existing Newcastle fault in the interior of the crust beneath the Newcastle coal field. In tandem, an increase in shear stress and a decrease in normal stress may have reactivated this reverse fault. Over the course of the last fifty years, elevated levels of lithostatic stress alterations have accelerated. In 1991, based on the modeling of the crust's elastostatic response to the unload, there has been the minimal critical shear stress changes of 0.01 Mega Pascal (0.1 bar) that reached the Newcastle fault at a depth where the 1989 mainshock nucleated. Hence, it can be anticipated that other faults might also be critically stressed in that region for a couple of reasons. First, the size of the area (volume) that is affected by the induced stress changes is larger than the ruptured area of the Newcastle fault. Second, the seismic moment magnitude of the 1989 M5.6 Newcastle earthquake is associated with only a fraction of mass removal (1 of 55), following McGarr's mass-moment relationship. Lastly, these findings confirm ongoing seismicity in the Newcastle region since the beginning of the 19th century after a dormant period of 10,000 years of no seismicity.

  2. Shariah Compliance of Wakalah Concept in Takaful Operation: A Case Study of A Takaful Operation in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objective – The main objective of this paper is to focus on wakalah model and its impact in takaful operation and   to  evaluate  the  compliance  of  takaful  company  with  shari’ah principles in applying the wakalah concept.Methods – qualitative method which is based on library research. Reference to many books, articles, proceeding papers, handouts, journals, and internet source regarding wakalah by Etiqa Takaful Berhad.Result–The finding of this research shows that the takaful operation ...

  3. GENDER AND ETHNICITY DIFFERENCES IN TAX COMPLIANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyapalan Kasipillai

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate whether gender and ethnicity differences occur in relation to tax compliance attitude and behavior. Prior studies on tax compliance have focused little on gender as a predictor of compliance. In Malaysia, ethnic background of a taxpayer could be a major determinant of tax compliance. A personal interview approach is used to obtain information from taxpayers in urban towns. A t-test suggests that males and females were found to have similar compliant attitude. As for ethnicity, asimilar result was observed. Results of a regression analysis indicate that gender, academic qualification, and the person preparing tax return were statistically significant as determinants of non-compliant attitude. In terms of compliant behavior, a regression analysis revealed that "attitude towards non-compliance" and "receipt of cash income" were two significant explanatory variables of tax non-compliance behavior of understating income knowingly. The findings of this study are useful for policyimplications in identifying groups that require additional attention to increase voluntary tax compliance.

  4. Drug compliance in patients with systemic scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hromadkova, Lucie; Soukup, Tomas; Cermakova, Eva; Vlcek, Jiri

    2012-11-01

    Although drug compliance is a crucial component of treatment effectiveness in chronic diseases, it has never been evaluated in patients with systemic scleroderma. Therefore, the aim of this descriptive study was to determine the drug compliance rate in systemic scleroderma patients and to identify risk factors for noncompliance in these patients. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted. All patients with systemic scleroderma (n = 41) who visited a rheumatic center and signed an informed consent form were included. Data were obtained during structured interviews with patients and from medical records. The Compliance Questionnaire Rheumatology (CQR) was used to determine patient compliance. The relationships between compliance rate and demographic and clinical characteristics were examined. The mean CQR score was 75 %. Based on a dichotomous rating, only 42 % of the patients achieved a satisfactory compliance rate (≥80 %). No relationships between various demographic and clinical characteristics and CQR score expressed as continuous or dichotomous variables were found. This study represents the first evaluation of drug compliance in patients with systemic scleroderma. Many noncompliant patients were identified, but no common risk factors for noncompliance were discovered. The reasons for noncompliance seem to depend on the personal features of the patients.

  5. Adesão ao tratamento de manutenção em asma (estudo ADERE Compliance with maintenance treatment of asthma (ADERE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Chatkin

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a adesão ao tratamento preventivo de asma persistente moderada e grave. MÉTODOS: Médicos de vários Estados do país foram contactados para selecionar asmáticos persistentes moderados ou graves, maiores de doze anos. Os pacientes receberam salmeterol/fluticasona 50/250 µg diskus durante 90 dias (sendo orientados a retornarem as embalagens ao final do estudo para conferência da dosagem total utilizada. Receberam telefonemas da equipe do estudo no início e ao final de 90 dias para que fosse avaliada a adesão. Foi considerado como aderente ao tratamento o asmático que utilizou no mínimo 85% das doses prescritas. As variáveis estudadas foram sexo, idade, cor, estado civil, escolaridade, tabagismo atual, outras atopias, co-morbidades, gravidade da asma, uso de outras medicações e número de hospitalizações por asma. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 131 pacientes oriundos de quinze estados, com taxa geral de adesão de 51,9%. Houve diferença significativa na adesão quanto à gravidade da asma (maior adesão nos casos graves; p = 0,02. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa nas demais variáveis. CONCLUSÃO: A taxa geral de adesão ao tratamento de manutenção da asma foi baixa.OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate of compliance with preventive treatment of moderate and severe persistent asthma. METHODS: Physicians at various medical centers across the country were invited to nominate patients for participation in the study. Inclusion criteria were being over the age of 12 and presenting moderate or severe persistent asthma. Participating patients received salmeterol/fluticasone 50/250 µg by dry powder inhaler for 90 days and were instructed to return the empty packages at the end of the study as a means of determining the total quantity used. In order to evaluate compliance, a member of the research team contacted each patient via telephone at the study outset and again at the end of the 90-day study period

  6. Real-world evaluation of compliance and preference in Alzheimer’s disease treatment: an observational study in Taiwan 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai TH

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tzu-Hsien Lai,1,2,* Wen-Fu Wang,3,* Bak-Sau Yip,4 Yu-Wan Yang,5 Giia-Sheun Peng,6 Shih-Jei Tsai,7,8 Yi-Chu Liao,9 Ming-Chyi Pai10,111Section of Neurology, Department of Internal Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, New Taipei, 2Department of Neurology, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, 3Department of Neurology, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, 4Department of Neurology, National Taiwan University Hospital Hsin-Chu Branch, Hsinchu, 5Department of Neurology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, 6Department of Neurology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, 7Department of Neurology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, 8School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, 9Department of Neurology, Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, 10Division of Behavioral Neurology, Department of Neurology, 11Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: Among the medications approved for Alzheimer’s disease (AD, rivastigmine is the only one available as transdermal patch. The aim of this study was to evaluate compliance and caregivers’ preference with oral and transdermal (rivastigmine monotherapy in patients with mild-to-moderate AD from Taiwan.Methods: Real-world Evaluation of Compliance And Preference in Alzheimer’s disease treatment (RECAP in Taiwan was a prospective, noninterventional, observational study with a 24-week (±8 weeks observational period for each participant. Eligible patients were grouped into one of the two treatment cohorts based on the baseline AD therapy: oral (donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, or memantine or transdermal (rivastigmine patch. The primary end points were caregiver preference and caregiver assessment of patients’ compliance to

  7. Motivation and compliance with intraoral elastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeroo, Helen J; Cunningham, Susan J; Newton, Jonathon Timothy; Travess, Helen C

    2014-07-01

    Intraoral elastics are commonly used in orthodontics and require regular changing to be effective. Unfortunately, poor compliance with elastics is often encountered, especially in adolescents. Intention for an action and its implementation can be improved using "if-then" plans that spell out when, where, and how a set goal, such as elastic wear, can be put into action. Our aim was to determine the effect of if-then plans on compliance with elastics. To identify common barriers to compliance with recommendations concerning elastic wear, semistructured interviews were carried out with 14 adolescent orthodontic patients wearing intraoral elastics full time. Emerging themes were used to develop if-then plans to improve compliance with elastic wear. A prospective pilot study assessed the effectiveness of if-then planning aimed at overcoming the identified barriers on compliance with elastic wear. Twelve participants were randomized equally into study and control groups; the study group received information about if-then planning. The participants were asked to collect used elastics, and counts of these were used to assess compliance. A wide range of motivational and volitional factors were described by the interviewed participants, including the perceived benefits of elastics, cues to remember, pain, eating, social situations, sports, loss of elastics, and breakages. Compliance with elastic wear was highly variable among patients. The study group returned more used elastics, suggesting increased compliance, but the difference was not significant. The use of if-then plans might improve compliance with elastic wear when compared with routine clinical instructions. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Compliance of treatment in glaucoma patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banc, Ana; Stan, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the treatment compliance level of glaucoma patients and the correlation between the compliance level and a series of patient's demographic characteristics. We conducted an observational study in which we studied 100 glaucoma patients who answered the questions we included into a questionnaire. We defined and calculated a broad compliance score and a narrow score, and we investigated the connection between the first score and age, gender, demographic location (urban versus rural), education level, current occupation and duration of disease respectively. The mean of the broad compliance score was 9.64 +/- 1.72, which represents 80% of the maximum value of the score, and the mean of the narrow compliance score was 4.73 +/- 1.12, (78% of the maximum value). The correlation coefficient between score and age was z = -0.09 (p value = 0.19), the Z value for the evaluation of the connection between score and gender was -1.16 (p value = 0.24), and for the connection between compliance score and demographic location Z value = -2.42 (p value = 0.01). Chi-square value for the evaluation of the relation between the score and education level was 14.66 (p value = 0.001), and for the current occupation Chi-square value = 3.47 (p value = 0.06). The correlation coefficient between score and disease duration was tau = 0.09 (p value = 0.23). According to the answers the patients gave, we identified the parameters that require more attention in the ophthalmologist - glaucoma patient communication: genetic transmission of glaucoma, treatment's side effects, number of visits to the ophthalmologist, awareness of the life-long gradului period of treatment. In this study, the compliance level of glaucoma patients is relatively high and we observe a correlation between the compliance level and demographic location, and between the compliance level and patient's education level respectively.,

  9. Treatment Compliance with Fixed-Dose Combination of Vildagliptin/Metformin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Inadequately Controlled with Metformin Monotherapy: A 24-Week Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorios Rombopoulos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the differences in treatment compliance with vildagliptin/metformin fixed-dose versus free-dose combination therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in Greece. Design. Adult patients with T2DM, inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy, (850 mg bid, participated in this 24-week, multicenter, observational study. Patients were enrolled in two cohorts: vildagliptin/metformin fixed-dose combination (group A and vildagliptin metformin free-dose combination (group B. Results. 659 patients were enrolled, 360 were male, with mean BMI 30.1, mean T2DM duration 59.6 months, and mean HbA1c at baseline 8%; 366 patients were assigned to group A and 293 to group B; data for 3 patients was missing. In group A, 98.9% of patients were compliant with their treatment compared to 84.6% of group B. The odds ratio for compliance in group A versus B was (OR 18.9 (95% CI: 6.2, 57.7; P<0.001. In group A mean HbA1c decreased from 8.1% at baseline to 6.9% (P<0.001 at the study end and from 7.9% to 6.8% (P<0.001 in group B. Conclusions. Patients in group A were more compliant than patients in group B. These results are in accordance with international literature suggesting that fixed-dose combination therapies lead to increased compliance to treatment.

  10. Compliance and treatment satisfaction of post menopausal women treated for osteoporosis. Compliance with osteoporosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huas Dominique

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adherence to anti-osteoporosis treatments is poor, exposing treated women to increased fracture risk. Determinants of poor adherence are poorly understood. The study aims to determine physician- and patient- rated treatment compliance with osteoporosis treatments and to evaluate factors influencing compliance. Methods This was an observational, cross-sectional pharmacoepidemiological study with a randomly-selected sample of 420 GPs, 154 rheumatologists and 110 gynaecologists practicing in France. Investigators included post-menopausal women with a diagnosis of osteoporosis and a treatment initiated in the previous six months. Investigators completed a questionnaire on clinical features, treatments and medical history, and on patient compliance. Patients completed a questionnaire on sociodemographic features, lifestyle, attitudes and knowledge about osteoporosis, treatment compliance, treatment satisfaction and quality of life. Treatment compliance was evaluated with the Morisky Medication-taking Adherence Scale. Variables collected in the questionnaires were evaluated for association with compliance using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results 785 women were evaluated. Physicians considered 95.4% of the sample to be compliant, but only 65.5% of women considered themselves compliant. The correlation between patient and physician perceptions of compliance was low (κ: 0.11 [95% CI: 0.06 to 0.16]. Patient-rated compliance was highest for monthly bisphosphonates (79.7% and lowest for hormone substitution therapy (50.0%. Six variables were associated with compliance: treatment administration frequency, perceptions of long-term treatment acceptability, perceptions of health consequences of osteoporosis, perceptions of knowledge about osteoporosis, exercise and mental quality of life. Conclusion Compliance to anti-osteoporosis treatments is poor. Reduction of dosing regimen frequency and patient education may be useful

  11. Compliance for Green IT

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The growing range of Green IT regulations are challenging more and more organisations to take specific steps to ensure they are in compliance with sometimes complex regulations, ranging from cap & trade requirements through to regulations concerning IT equipment disposal.

  12. Environmental Compliance Issue Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    An order to establish the Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for coordination of significant environmental compliance issues to ensure timely development and consistent application of Departmental environmental policy and guidance

  13. Environmental Compliance Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-01

    The Guide is intended to assist Department of Energy personnel by providing information on the NEPA process, the processes of other environmental statutes that bear on the NEPA process, the timing relationships between the NEPA process and these other processes, as well as timing relationships between the NEPA process and the development process for policies, programs, and projects. This information should be helpful not only in formulating environmental compliance plans but also in achieving compliance with NEPA and various other environmental statutes. The Guide is divided into three parts with related appendices: Part I provides guidance for developing environmental compliance plans for DOE actions; Part II is devoted to NEPA with detailed flowcharts depicting the compliance procedures required by CEQ regulations and Department of Energy NEPA Guidelines; and Part III contains a series of flowcharts for other Federal environmental requirements that may apply to DOE projects.

  14. On the conditional logistic estimator in two-arm experimental studies with non-compliance and before-after binary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolucci, Francesco

    2010-06-15

    The behavior of the conditional logistic estimator is analyzed under a causal model for two-arm experimental studies with possible non-compliance in which the effect of the treatment is measured by a binary response variable. We show that, when non-compliance may only be observed in the treatment arm, the effect (measured on the logit scale) of the treatment on compliers and that of the control on non-compliers can be identified and consistently estimated under mild conditions. The same does not happen for the effect of the control on compliers. A simple correction of the conditional logistic estimator is then proposed, which allows us to considerably reduce the bias in estimating this quantity and the causal effect of the treatment over control on compliers. A two-step estimator results on the basis of which we can also set up a Wald test for the hypothesis of absence of a causal effect of the treatment. The asymptotic properties of the estimator are studied by exploiting the general theory on maximum likelihood estimation of misspecified models. Finite-sample properties of the estimator and of the related Wald test are studied by simulation. The extension of the approach to the case of missing responses is also outlined. The approach is illustrated by an application to a dataset deriving from a study on the efficacy of a training course on the breast self examination practice. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Touch, compliance, and awareness of tactile contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joule, Robert-Vincent; Guéguen, Nicolas

    2007-04-01

    Many experimental studies have shown that touch increases compliance with a request; however, the difference between the effect of touch on compliance between participants who notice and those who do not notice such contact remains in question. An experiment was conducted in which a female confederate asked 368 female smokers to give her a cigarette. In the Touch condition, when making her request, the confederate slightly touched the participant on her forearm. Analysis showed the touch was associated with significantly higher compliance to the request, and a difference was evident in the Touch condition between subjects who had noticed the tactile contact and those who had not.

  16. [Drug compliance of patients on anticoagulant treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadó, Klára; Kocsis, Eszter; Zelkó, Romána; Hankó, Balázs; Kovácsné Balogh, Judit; Forczig, Mónika; Domján, Gyula

    2015-08-09

    Despite several therapeutic possibilities the morbidity and mortality of thromboembolic disorders remain high. Improving drug compliance - i. e. keeping up the doctor's prescriptions - may be an effective tool to reach better results. To improve patients' compliance, the risk factors of non-compliance should be recognized. Among these patients' fear of adverse effects of drugs, their lack of knowledge about their illness and medication, forgetfulness, and other social, economic factors may be the most important. Furthermore, adherence may be worsened when the patient feels that the decision has been made over his/her head. Sustained medical adherence is important because anticoagulation may be a life-long treatment. The new oral anticoagulants make the matter of compliance to be current. These new type of drugs do not need regular laboratory monitoring and, therefore, compliance cannot be strictly followed. There are several studies concerning drug compliance to anticoagulant medications. Improvement of adherence is based on regular patient education after reviewing the factors of non-compliance, which needs teamwork with important roles of doctors, pharmacists, dietetics and nurses. Careful and accurate work of the participants of primary care might be complemented by the activity of anticoagulant clinics.

  17. Geology, water-quality, hydrology, and geomechanics of the Cuyama Valley groundwater basin, California, 2008--12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Rhett; Gibbs, Dennis R.; Hanson, Randall T.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Brandt, Justin T.; Falk, Sarah E.; Harich, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the water resources of the Cuyama Valley groundwater basin in Santa Barbara County, California, a series of cooperative studies were undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Santa Barbara County Water Agency. Between 2008 and 2012, geologic, water-quality, hydrologic and geomechanical data were collected from selected sites throughout the Cuyama Valley groundwater basin. Geologic data were collected from three multiple-well groundwater monitoring sites and included lithologic descriptions of the drill cuttings, borehole geophysical logs, temperature logs, as well as bulk density and sonic velocity measurements of whole-core samples. Generalized lithologic characterization from the monitoring sites indicated the water-bearing units in the subsurface consist of unconsolidated to partly consolidated sand, gravel, silt, clay, and occasional cobbles within alluvial fan and stream deposits. Analysis of geophysical logs indicated alternating layers of finer- and coarser-grained material that range from less than 1 foot to more than 20 feet thick. On the basis of the geologic data collected, the principal water-bearing units beneath the monitoring-well sites were found to be composed of younger alluvium of Holocene age, older alluvium of Pleistocene age, and the Tertiary-Quaternary Morales Formation. At all three sites, the contact between the recent fill and younger alluvium is approximately 20 feet below land surface. Water-quality samples were collected from 12 monitoring wells, 27 domestic and supply wells, 2 springs, and 4 surface-water sites and were analyzed for a variety of constituents that differed by site, but, in general, included trace elements; nutrients; dissolved organic carbon; major and minor ions; silica; total dissolved solids; alkalinity; total arsenic and iron; arsenic, chromium, and iron species; and isotopic tracers, including the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, activities of tritium, and carbon-14 abundance. Of the 39

  18. Practice organisational characteristics can impact on compliance with the BTS/SIGN asthma guideline: Qualitative comparative case study in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillies John

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the BTS-SIGN asthma guideline is one of the most well known and widely respected guidelines in the world, implementation in UK primary care remains patchy. Building on extensive earlier descriptive work, we sought to explore the way teamwork and inter-professional relationships impact on the implementation of the BTS-SIGN guideline on asthma in general practice. Methods Qualitative comparative case study using nine in-depth interviews and 2 focus groups with general practitioners and practice nurses, involved in delivering asthma care. Participants were purposively recruited from practices in a Scottish health board with high and low compliance with the BTS-SIGN asthma guideline. Results There was a marked difference in the way respondents from practices with high compliance and respondents from practices with low compliance spoke about the value of guidelines and the challenges of implementing them. On both accounts, the former were more positive than the latter and were able to be more specific about the strategies they used to overcome barriers to implementation. We explored the reason for this difference in response and identified practice organisation, centring on delegation of work to nurses, as a factor mediating the practice's level of compliance. Effective delegation was underpinned by organisation of asthma work among practice members who have the appropriate level of skills and knowledge, know and understand each others' work and responsibilities, communicate well among themselves and trust each others' skills. It was the combination of these factors which made for successful delegation and guideline implementation, not any one factor in isolation. Conclusion In our sample of practices, teamwork and organisation of care within practices appeared to impact on guideline implementation and further larger studies are needed to explore this issue further. Isolated interventions such as measures to improve staff

  19. The ACCOMPLISH study. A cluster randomised trial on the cost-effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention to improve hand hygiene compliance and reduce healthcare associated infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steyerberg Ewout W

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health authorities have recognized lack of hand hygiene in hospitals as one of the important causes of preventable mortality and morbidity at population level. The implementation strategy ACCOMPLISH (Actively Creating COMPLIance Saving Health targets both individual and environmental determinants of hand hygiene. This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a multicomponent implementation strategy aimed at the reduction of healthcare associated infections in Dutch hospital care, by promotion of hand hygiene. Methods/design The ACCOMPLISH package will be evaluated in a two-arm cluster randomised trial in 16 hospitals in the Netherlands, in one intensive care unit and one surgical ward per hospital. Intervention A multicomponent package, including e-learning, team training, introduction of electronic alcohol based hand rub dispensers and performance feedback. Variables The primary outcome measure will be the observed hand hygiene compliance rate, measured at baseline and after 6, 12 and 18 months; as a secondary outcome measure the prevalence of healthcare associated infections will be measured at the same time points. Process indicators of the intervention will be collected pre and post intervention. An ex-post economic evaluation of the ACCOMPLISH package from a healthcare perspective will be performed. Statistical analysis Multilevel analysis, using mixed linear modelling techniques will be conducted to assess the effect of the intervention strategy on the overall compliance rate among healthcare workers and on prevalence of healthcare associated infections. Questionnaires on process indicators will be analysed with multivariable linear regression, and will include both behavioural determinants and determinants of innovation. Cost-effectiveness will be assessed by calculating the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, defined here as the costs for the intervention divided by the difference in prevalence of

  20. Compliance to Oseltamivir among Two Populations in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom Affected by Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, November 2009 – A Waste Water Epidemiology Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Andrew C.; Järhult, Josef D.; Grabic, Roman; Khan, Ghazanfar A.; Fedorova, Ganna; Fick, Jerker; Lindberg, Richard H.; Bowes, Michael J.; Olsen, Björn; Söderström, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Antiviral provision remains the focus of many pandemic preparedness plans, however, there is considerable uncertainty regarding antiviral compliance rates. Here we employ a waste water epidemiology approach to estimate oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) compliance. Oseltamivir carboxylate (oseltamivir's active metabolite) was recovered from two waste water treatment plant (WWTP) catchments within the United Kingdom at the peak of the autumnal wave of the 2009 Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 pandemic. Predictions of oseltamivir consumption from detected levels were compared with two sources of national government statistics to derive compliance rates. Scenario and sensitivity analysis indicated between 3–4 and 120–154 people were using oseltamivir during the study period in the two WWTP catchments and a compliance rate between 45–60%. With approximately half the collected antivirals going unused, there is a clear need to alter public health messages to improve compliance. We argue that a near real-time understanding of drug compliance at the scale of the waste water treatment plant (hundreds to millions of people) can potentially help public health messages become more timely, targeted, and demographically sensitive, while potentially leading to less mis- and un-used antiviral, less wastage and ultimately a more robust and efficacious pandemic preparedness plan. PMID:23613721

  1. Costs, quality of life, treatment satisfaction and compliance in patients with beta-thalassemia major undergoing iron chelation therapy: the ITHACA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalone, Luciana; Mantovani, Lorenzo G; Krol, Marieke; Rofail, Diana; Ravera, Simona; Bisconte, Maria Grazia; Borgna-Pignatti, Caterina; Borsellino, Zelia; Cianciulli, Paolo; Gallisai, Domenico; Prossomariti, Luciano; Stefàno, Ippazio; Cappellini, Maria D

    2008-07-01

    Iron chelation treatment (ICT) in beta-thalassemia major (beta-TM) patients undergoing blood transfusions can cause low satisfaction, low compliance, with possible negative consequences on treatment success, patients' wellbeing, and costs. The purpose was to estimate the societal burden attributable to beta-TM in terms of direct and indirect costs, health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL), satisfaction and compliance with ICT in patients undergoing transfusions and ICT. The naturalistic, multicenter, longitudinal Italian-THAlassemia-Cost-&-Outcomes-Assessment (ITHACA) cost-of-illness study was conducted involving patients of any age, on ICT for at least 3 years, who were enrolled at 8 Italian Thalassemia Care Centers. Costs were estimated from the societal perspective, quantified with tariffs, prices, or net earnings valid in 2006. One-hundred and thirty-seven patients were enrolled (median age = 28.3, 3-48 years, 49.6% male) and retrospectively observed for a median of 11.6 months. Mean direct costs were euro1242/patient/month, 55.5% attributable to ICT, 33.2% attributable to transfusions. Relevant quantity and quality of productivity was lost. Both physical and mental components of HRQoL were compromised. Little difficulties remembering to take ICT and positive satisfaction with the perceived effectiveness of therapy were declared, but not good levels of satisfaction with acceptance, perception of side effects and burden of ICT. The management of beta-TM patients undergoing transfusions and ICT is efficacious, although costly, but overall benefits were not always perceived as optimal by patients. Efforts must be focused to improve patients' acceptance and satisfaction with their therapy; this would contribute to a better compliance and hence an increase in treatment effectiveness and patients' overall wellbeing, with expected improved allocation of human and economic resources.

  2. A High Rate of Non-Compliance Confounds the Study of Whole Grains and Weight Maintenance in a Randomised Intervention Trial-The Case for Greater Use of Dietary Biomarkers in Nutrition Intervention Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Mette; Pelletier, Xavier; Ross, Alastair B; Thielecke, Frank

    2017-01-11

    Observational studies consistently find an inverse relationship between whole-grain intake and weight gain. We aimed to confirm this in an open-label researcher-blinded parallel design randomised trial. A total of 179 overweight/obese women with a habitually low whole-grain intake (grain (RG) or whole-grain (WG) foods (80 g/day) for 12 weeks after an initial weight loss program over 8 weeks. Body weight and composition was assessed at baseline, after the initial weight loss, and after the 12-week dietary intervention. During the 12-week dietary intervention phase, there were no group differences in changes in body weight and total fat mass %, whereas abdominal fat mass tended to increase more during the dietary intervention phase in the WG compared to the RG group (0.7 (SD 3.6) vs. -0.3 (SD 3.8) %; p = 0.052). Plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations, biomarkers of wholegrain wheat and rye intake, indicated poor compliance, particularly in the WG group, where >60% of participants had alkylresorcinol concentrations below 70 nmol/L, a concentration indicating low or no intake of whole-grain wheat. Further, weight regain was lower than expected in both intervention groups, further supporting a lack of compliance to the post-weight-loss diet. The rate of compliance was too low to conclude any effect of whole grain on weight maintenance, and reinforces the need to use objective measures of compliance in nutrition intervention studies.

  3. Respiratory compliance but not gas exchange correlates with changes in lung aeration after a recruitment maneuver: an experimental study in pigs with saline lavage lung injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzler, Dietrich; Pelosi, Paolo; Dembinski, Rolf; Ullmann, Annette; Mahnken, Andreas H; Rossaint, Rolf; Kuhlen, Ralf

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Atelectasis is a common finding in acute lung injury, leading to increased shunt and hypoxemia. Current treatment strategies aim to recruit alveoli for gas exchange. Improvement in oxygenation is commonly used to detect recruitment, although the assumption that gas exchange parameters adequately represent the mechanical process of alveolar opening has not been proven so far. The aim of this study was to investigate whether commonly used measures of lung mechanics better detect lung tissue collapse and changes in lung aeration after a recruitment maneuver as compared to measures of gas exchange Methods In eight anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs, acute lung injury was induced by saline lavage and a recruitment maneuver was performed by inflating the lungs three times with a pressure of 45 cmH2O for 40 s with a constant positive end-expiratory pressure of 10 cmH2O. The association of gas exchange and lung mechanics parameters with the amount and the changes in aerated and nonaerated lung volumes induced by this specific recruitment maneuver was investigated by multi slice CT scan analysis of the whole lung. Results Nonaerated lung correlated with shunt fraction (r = 0.68) and respiratory system compliance (r = 0.59). The arterial partial oxygen pressure (PaO2) and the respiratory system compliance correlated with poorly aerated lung volume (r = 0.57 and 0.72, respectively). The recruitment maneuver caused a decrease in nonaerated lung volume, an increase in normally and poorly aerated lung, but no change in the distribution of a tidal breath to differently aerated lung volumes. The fractional changes in PaO2, arterial partial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2) and venous admixture after the recruitment maneuver did not correlate with the changes in lung volumes. Alveolar recruitment correlated only with changes in the plateau pressure (r = 0.89), respiratory system compliance (r = 0.82) and parameters obtained from the pressure-volume curve

  4. Enhancing the evaluation of pathogen transmission risk in a hospital by merging hand-hygiene compliance and contact data: a proof-of-concept study

    CERN Document Server

    Mastrandrea, Rossana; Brouqui, Philippe; Barrat, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Hand-hygiene compliance and contacts of health-care workers largely determine the potential paths of pathogen transmission in hospital wards. We explored how the combination of data collected by two automated infrastructures based on wearable sensors and recording (i) use of hydro-alcoholic solution and (ii) contacts of health-care workers provide an enhanced view of the risk of transmission events in the ward. We perform a proof-of-concept observational study. Detailed data on contact patterns and hand-hygiene compliance of health-care workers were collected by wearable sensors over 12 days in an infectious disease unit of a hospital in Marseilles, France. 10837 contact events among 10 doctors, 4 nurses, 4 nurses' aids and 4 housekeeping staff were recorded during the study. Most contacts took place among medical doctors. Aggregate contact durations were highly heterogeneous and the resulting contact network was highly structured. 510 visits of health-care workers to patients' rooms were recorded, with a low...

  5. Implementation of an Empirical Joint Constitutive Model into Finite-Discrete Element Analysis of the Geomechanical Behaviour of Fractured Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qinghua; Latham, John-Paul; Xiang, Jiansheng

    2016-12-01

    An empirical joint constitutive model (JCM) that captures the rough wall interaction behaviour of individual fractures associated with roughness characteristics observed in laboratory experiments is combined with the solid mechanical model of the finite-discrete element method (FEMDEM). The combined JCM-FEMDEM formulation gives realistic fracture behaviour with respect to shear strength, normal closure, and shear dilatancy and includes the recognition of fracture length influence as seen in experiments. The validity of the numerical model is demonstrated by a comparison with the experimentally established empirical solutions. A 2D plane strain geomechanical simulation is conducted using an outcrop-based naturally fractured rock model with far-field stresses loaded in two consecutive phases, i.e. take-up of isotropic stresses and imposition of two deviatoric stress conditions. The modelled behaviour of natural fractures in response to various stress conditions illustrates a range of realistic behaviour including closure, opening, shearing, dilatancy, and new crack propagation. With the increase in stress ratio, significant deformation enhancement occurs in the vicinity of fracture tips, intersections, and bends, where large apertures can be generated. The JCM-FEMDEM model is also compared with conventional approaches that neglect the scale dependency of joint properties or the roughness-induced additional frictional resistance. The results of this paper have important implications for understanding the geomechanical behaviour of fractured rocks in various engineering activities.

  6. Geomechanical log deduced from porosity and mineralogical content; Diagraphie geomecanique deduite de la porosite et de la composition mineralogique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemer, E.; Vincke, O.; Longuemare, P. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2004-07-01

    The 'geomechanical log' research project aims at estimating rock mechanical properties from a set of models, whose input data can be deduced from drilling logs and measurements on core samples (if these are available). The key point is to focus on defining relatively general and easy to handle models. In this paper, we propose various analytical models allowing one to estimate poroelastic and failure properties of limestones and sandstones directly from their porosity and, in the specific case of sandstone poroelastic characteristics, their mineralogical content. The properties obtained are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. The second step of the project will be to actually infer the input data for the models (here porosity and mineral content) from drilling logs and to compare the results obtained to tests on core samples. A geomechanical log could then be automatically created from standard logs and help to optimize drilling. We also intend to test the same approaches on rock plastic properties and shale behavior. (authors)

  7. Combining microseismic and geomechanical observations to interpret storage integrity at the In Salah CCS site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz-Allmann, Bettina P.; Kühn, Daniela; Oye, Volker; Bohloli, Bahman; Aker, Eyvind

    2014-07-01

    We present results from microseismic monitoring and geomechanical analysis obtained at the industrial-scale CO2 sequestration site at the In Salah gas development project in Algeria. More than 5000 microseismic events have been detected at a pilot monitoring well using a master event cross-correlation method. The microseismic activity occurs in four distinct clusters and thereof three clearly correlate with injection rates and wellhead pressures. These event clusters are consistent with a location within the reservoir interval. However, due to insufficient network geometry there are large uncertainties on event location. We estimate a fracture pressure of 155 bar (at the wellhead) from the comparison of injection pressure and injection rate and conclude that reservoir fracture pressure of the injection horizon has most likely been exceeded occasionally, accompanied by increased microseismic activity. Our analysis of 3-D ray tracing for direct and converted phases suggests that one of the event clusters is located at a shallower depth than the reservoir injection interval. However, this event cluster is most likely unrelated to changes in the injection activity at a single well, as the event times do not correlate with the wellhead pressures. Furthermore, this event cluster shows b-values close to one, indicating re-activated natural or tectonic seismicity on pre-existing weakness zones rather than injection induced seismicity. Analysis of event azimuths and significant shear wave splitting of up to 5 per cent provide further valuable insight into fluid migration and fracture orientation at the reservoir level. Although only one geophone was available during the critical injection period, the microseismic monitoring of CO2 injection at In Salah is capable of addressing some of the most relevant questions about fluid migration and reservoir integrity. An improved monitoring array with larger aperture and higher sensitivity is highly recommended, as it could greatly

  8. Coupled flow and geomechanics modeling of fracture reactivation and induced seismicity in the Basel geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyukhova, A.; Castineira, D.; Juanes, R.

    2016-12-01

    Triggered and induced seismicity is at the cornerstone of discussions surrounding a wide range of subsurface technologies, e.g. unconventional hydrocarbon recovery, geologic carbon sequestration, underground gas storage, and geothermal energy extraction. We revisit the geothermal experiment in Basel, Switzerland, in which over 11 thousand cubic meters of water were injected into deep fractured crystalline rock. The injection took place in December 2006 and was performed at a single injection well, in three stages with increasing injection rate. Seismicity in the region increased during the experiment—with most of the seismic events occurring in the month following injection—and declined slowly after, but with seismic events still being recorded years after injection. The increase in seismicity is caused by reactivation of the pre-existing fractures: an increase in pore pressure decreases the normal effective stress across the fracture, which according to the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion are therefore more prone to slip. The underlying processes, however, may be more complex. It is unclear the role that enhanced hydraulic connectivity in the fracture network plays on triggered seismicity, and on the emergence of seismicity clusters in space. It is also unclear what determines the delay between injection and recorded seismicity, and whether it can be explained by means of pressure propagation and/or dynamic weakening of fractures due to a drop in the friction coefficient as a result of decreased roughness from fracture slip. Here, we employ a computational model of coupled flow and geomechanics to quantitatively assess the impact of fluid injection on the recorded seismicity. We develop a simulation model that incorporates more than ten fractures, whose location, rake and dip are consistent with clusters of seismicity from a relocation of hypocenters and focal mechanisms. We adopt a multiscale description of flow (representing these fractures planes explicitly

  9. Effect of behavior modification on patient compliance in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, D D; Nanda, R S; Sinha, P K; Smith, D W; Currier, G F

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a reward system for improving patient compliance in orthodontic treatment. The sample consisted of 144 orthodontic patients (63 male, 81 female, average age 12.8 years), 6 to 12 months into their treatment. The sample was divided into above-average and below-average compliers, based on the orthodontic patient cooperation scale (OPCS). Each group was further divided into three subgroups: (a) a control group, which received only standard instructions; (b) an award group, which received compliance instructions and a written evaluation of compliance; and (c) a reward group, which received compliance instructions, a report card, and eligibility to receive rewards for adherent behavior. Two measurements of patient compliance were used: (1) the OPCS, which divided the sample into high and low compliers and was used to compare compliance before and after the 6-month experimental period; and (2) a clinical evaluation of compliance that was based on oral hygiene, appointment punctuality, appliance wear, and appliance maintenance. Evaluations were completed at each monthly appointment. Average compliance scores of above-average compliers showed no significant improvement with rewards. The average scores of patients with below-average compliance did not improve significantly. Only oral hygiene scores in the low compliance reward group were better than in the low compliance control group. Academic performance in school was found to be correlated (p reward system may help motivate below-average compliers to comply with prescribed instructions.

  10. THE ROLE OF FAIRNESS IN TAX COMPLIANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Verboon, Peter; Goslinga, Sjoerd

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the relation between fairness considerations and tax compliance attitudes and intentions. Data from a large panel survey among small business owners in the Netherlands have been analyzed. Besides a number of background and control variables the questionnaire contained measures of personal norms, procedural and distributive justice, tax compliance attitudes and intentions to comply with tax rules. Results support the hypothesis that personal norms and just...

  11. The effect of semiconditional dorsal penile nerve electrical stimulation on capacity and compliance of the bladder with deformity in spinal cord injury patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y-H; Kim, S-H; Kim, J M; Im, H T; Choi, I S; Lee, K W

    2012-04-01

    Bladder capacity, bladder compliance, the volume of the first overactive contraction, maximal volume during cystometry (CMG) and the vesicoureteral reflux, bladder wall deformity before and after semiconditional stimulation on DPN. To evaluate the effect of the semiconditional electrical stimulation on dorsal penile nerve (DPN) to improve the complicated bladder function in male with spinal cord injury (SCI). Semiconditional stimulation system and urodynamic laboratory in a university hospital. Six men (age, 33-59 years) with SCI incurred from 38 to 156 months before this study. semiconditional stimulation parameters were set during CMG and semiconditional stimulation on DPN by surface electrodes via Empi Focus stimulator was applied from 14 to 28 days, at home. Parameters about bladder function were measured before and after stimulation applied. All parameters for bladder after semiconditional stimulation were increased. Also, the vesicoureteral reflux and bladder wall deformity was improved in five of six patients. Semiconditional electrical stimulation on DPN effectively suppresses neurogenic detrusor overactivity and distend the bladder physiologically in the SCI patient with a complicated bladder. The bladder capacity and compliance as well as the bladder wall deformity were improved as a result of this treatment.

  12. Compliance with occlusion therapy for childhood amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Michael P; Stewart, Catherine E; Moseley, Merrick J; Stephens, David A; Fielder, Alistair R

    2013-09-17

    Explore compliance with occlusion treatment of amblyopia in the Monitored and Randomized Occlusion Treatment of Amblyopia Studies (MOTAS and ROTAS), using objective monitoring. Both studies had a three-phase protocol: initial assessment, refractive adaptation, and occlusion. In the occlusion phase, participants were instructed to dose for 6 hours/day (MOTAS) or randomized to 6 or 12 hour/day (ROTAS). Dose was monitored continuously using an occlusion dose monitor (ODM). One hundred and fifty-two patients (71 male, 81 female; 122 Caucasian, 30 non-Caucasian) of mean ± SD age 68 ± 18 months participated. Amblyopia was defined as an interocular acuity difference of at least 0.1 logMAR and was associated with anisometropia in 50, strabismus in 44, and both (mixed) in 58. Median duration of occlusion was 99 days (interquartile range 72 days). Mean compliance was 44%, mean proportion of days with no patch worn was 42%. Compliance was lower (39%) on weekends compared with weekdays (46%, P = 0.04), as was the likelihood of dosing at all (52% vs. 60%, P = 0.028). Compliance was lower when attendance was less frequent (P amblyopia type, and severity were not associated with compliance. Mixture modeling suggested three subpopulations of patch day doses: less than 30 minutes; doses that achieve 30% to 80% compliance; and doses that achieve around 100% compliance. This study shows that compliance with patching treatment averages less than 50% and is influenced by several factors. A greater understanding of these influences should improve treatment outcome. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00274664).

  13. ICIS FE&C Compliance Monitoring Screens

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Web Based Training for Integrated Compliance Information System Updated Compliance Monitoring Training for ICIS Federal Enforcement and Compliance User. This...

  14. Shariah Compliance of Wakalah Concept in Takaful Operation: A Case Study of A Takaful Operation in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiah 'Aqilah Mohd Amin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The main objective of this paper is to focus on wakalah model and its impact in takaful operation and   to  evaluate  the  compliance  of  takaful  company  with  shari’ah principles in applying the wakalah concept.Methods – qualitative method which is based on library research. Reference to many books, articles, proceeding papers, handouts, journals, and internet source regarding wakalah by Etiqa Takaful Berhad.Result–The finding of this research shows that the takaful operation in Etiqa Takaful Berhad relies solely on the role of agents to market and promote their products. The agents shall act in accordance with the agreement signed by both parties as to the duties and work to be done by the agent. Binding agreement between the agent and the principal in Etiqa Takaful Berhad is  the Family Takaful  Agency Agreement  and  the General  Takaful  Agency Agreement.Conclusion –It can be concluded that  the agency system should be further strengthened as it has important role in takaful business. Indirectly, it can enhance the development of Islamic finance in Malaysia as well as make it known to the society that it is a good system and can completely replace conventional insurance in this industry.Keywords: Wakalah, Agency System, Takaful, Conventional Insurance

  15. Assessment of arterial stiffness among schizophrenia-spectrum disorders using aortic pulse wave velocity and arterial compliance: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Aaron A; Warburton, Darren E R; Flynn, Sean W; Fredrikson, Diane; Lang, Donna J

    2014-01-30

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in individuals with chronic schizophrenia. Arterial stiffness provides a non-invasive indication of cardiovascular disease risk. To date, arterial stiffness, which has been shown to have independent predictive value for CVD morbidity and mortality, has not been evaluated in this population. We aimed to examine aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) as well as large and small artery compliance (Comp1 and Comp2) in patients being treated for schizophrenia, compared to healthy volunteers. Ten patients and 10 age and gendermatched volunteers underwent a comprehensive evaluation of arterial stiffness including: aPWV, Comp1, Comp2, stroke volume, cardiac output, and systemic vascular resistance. Patient aPWV was significantly elevated compared to healthy volunteers (9.1 ± 4.11 vs. 5.7 ± 1.4, P=0.03). Increased age, blood pressure, heart rate, and cigarettes/day were associated with reduced arterial health in patients. This is the first time aPWV has been described in those treated for schizophrenia. Arterial stiffness is increased in this population. Measuring arterial stiffness is a non-invasive, sensitive and effective tool for evaluating CVD risk in this population. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Verification of geomechanical integrity and prediction of long-term mineral trapping for the Ketzin CO2 storage pilot site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempka, Thomas; De Lucia, Marco; Kühn, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Static and dynamic numerical modelling generally accompany the entire CO2 storage site life cycle. Thereto, it is required to match the employed models with field observations on a regular basis in order to predict future site behaviour. We investigated the coupled processes at the Ketzin CO2 storage pilot site [1] using a model coupling concept focusing on the temporal relevance of processes involved (hydraulic, chemical and mechanical) at given time-scales (site operation, abandonment and long-term stabilization). For that purpose, long-term dynamic multi-phase flow simulations [2], [3] established the basis for all simulations discussed in the following. Hereby, pressure changes resulting in geomechanical effects are largest during site operation, whereas geochemical reactions are governed by slow kinetics resulting in a long-term stabilization. To account for mechanical integrity, which may be mainly affected during site operation, we incorporated a regional-scale coupled hydro-mechanical model. Our simulation results show maximum ground surface displacements of about 4 mm, whereas shear and tensile failure are not observed. Consequently, the CO2 storage operation at the Ketzin pilot site does not compromise reservoir, caprock and fault integrity. Chemical processes responsible for mineral trapping are expected to mainly occur during long-term stabilization at the Ketzin pilot site [4]. Hence, our previous assessment [3] was extended by integrating two long-term mineral trapping scenarios. Thereby, mineral trapping contributes to the trapping mechanisms with 11.7 % after 16,000 years of simulation in our conservative and with 30.9 % in our maximum reactivity scenarios. Dynamic flow simulations indicate that only 0.2 % of the CO2 injected (about 67,270 t CO2 in total) is in gaseous state, but structurally trapped after 16,000 years. Depending on the studied long-term scenario, CO2 dissolution is the dominating trapping mechanism with 68.9 % and 88

  17. Constructing reservoir-scale 3D geomechanical FE-models. A refined workflow for model generation and calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, K.; Henk, A. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften

    2013-08-01

    The tectonic stress field strongly affects the optimal exploitation of conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs. Amongst others, wellbore stability, orientation of hydraulically induced fractures and - particularly in fractured reservoirs - permeability anisotropies depend on the magnitudes and orientations of the recent stresses. Geomechanical reservoir models can provide unique insights into the tectonic stress field revealing the local perturbations resulting from faults and lithological changes. In order to provide robust predictions, such numerical models are based on the finite element (FE) method and account for the complexities of real reservoirs with respect to subsurface geometry, inhomogeneous material distribution and nonlinear rock mechanical behavior. We present a refined workflow for geomechanical reservoir modeling which allows for an easier set-up of the model geometry, high resolution submodels and faster calculation times due to element savings in the load frame. Transferring the reservoir geometry from the geological subsurface model, e.g., a Petrel {sup registered} project, to the FE model represents a special challenge as the faults are discontinuities in the numerical model and no direct interface exists between the two software packages used. Point clouds displaying faults and lithostratigraphic horizons can be used for geometry transfer but this labor-intensive approach is not feasible for complex field-scale models with numerous faults. Instead, so-called Coon's patches based on horizon lines, i.e. the intersection lines between horizons and faults, are well suited to re-generate the various surfaces in the FE software while maintaining their topology. High-resolution submodels of individual fault blocks can be incorporated into the field-scale model. This allows to consider both a locally refined mechanical stratigraphy and the impact of the large-scale fault pattern. A pressure load on top of the model represents the

  18. Interpersonal Communication and Compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, Bob M.; Das, Enny; Pruyn, Ad Th.H.

    2006-01-01

    Two field experiments examined the impact of the Disrupt-Then-Reframe (DTR) technique on compliance. This recently identified technique consists of a subtle, odd element in a typical scripted request (the disruption) followed by a persuasive phrase (the reframing). The authors argued that its impact

  19. Environmental compliance and cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the roles of the principal agencies, organizations, and public in environmental compliance and cleanup of the Hanford Site. Regulatory oversight, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the role of Indian tribes, public participation, and CERCLA Natural Resource Damage Assessment Trustee Activities are all discussed.

  20. Making corporate compliance programs work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibbaro, M J; Colyer, C

    2000-05-01

    Healthcare organizations have created corporate compliance programs in an effort to adhere to Federal government recommendations, minimize the risk of wrongful behavior, and possibly reduce fines that may result from a government investigation. Compliance programs may have undetected weaknesses. Corporate compliance officers, executives, and board members need to be certain that their organization's program has sufficient infrastructure, oversight, and resources; effective education and training; an effective mechanism (hotline) to receive reports of compliance problems; and ongoing auditing and monitoring capabilities.

  1. Construction of uniform gradient magnetic field in geomechanics magnetic model test%地质力学磁力模型试验中均匀梯度磁场的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕金锋; 罗先启; 沈辉

    2014-01-01

    地质力学磁力模型试验利用电磁力(场)模拟重力(场)的原理研究地质力学工程问题,采用的相似材料由铁磁材料与岩土体混合而成。铁磁材料在磁场中的受力方向和大小与所处空间的磁通密度梯度的大小和方向有关,为了模拟均匀的重力场,需要得到在一定空间范围内磁通密度梯度大小相同、方向单一的磁场。根据电磁学基本原理,构建了3种磁路形式以获得磁通密度梯度相对均匀的磁场,对磁力模型试验相似材料进行加载。对比3种磁路,在最佳试验区内开放式磁路对磁场的利用率更高,所以在电流相同条件下等到的磁通密度梯度的量值也更大。与另两种磁路形式相比,尽管半开放式磁路在重量和工作效率上的性能不及开放式和封闭式磁路,但其最佳试验空间的磁通密度梯度的均匀性最好,误差在5%以内,半开放式磁路可以作为地质力学磁力模型试验的磁场发生装置。%Geomechanics magnetic model test is a new test method that simulates gravity field with electromagnetic force field to study geomechanical engineering problems. In geomechanics magnetic model test, the magnetic field is achieved by solenoid and the similar material is made from the mixture of ferromagnetic material and rock-soil mass. The magnetic force, which is decided by the magnetic flux density gradient, will act on ferromagnetic material when it is put in a gradient magnetic field. In order to simulate the uniform gravitational field, a magnetic field with same magnitude and unidirection is needed in a certain space. According to the principle of magnetic circuit design and from different perspectives, three different kinds of magnetic circuit are presented to obtain the requisite magnet field to load the ferromagnetic material. In the optimum test space, the open type magnetic circuit can make full use of the magnetic field so that its magnetic

  2. Moment-specific compliance with hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Tiffany; Tang, Grace; Mak, Ka-lun; Leung, Gilberto

    2014-06-01

    Hand hygiene is an important component of patient-safety education. The World Health Organization recommends the use of hand hygiene measures at five clinical moments. While previous studies have treated hand hygiene as a single entity, we investigated whether and how the compliance of students may vary across the five clinical moments. We also studied their reasons for non-compliance with a view to inform teaching. A voluntary self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted on a convenient sample of 339 medical and nursing students. The five clinical moments studied were: before touching a patient (moment 1); before a clean/aseptic procedure (moment 2); after body fluid exposure risk (moment 3); after touching a patient (moment 4); and after touching the patient's surroundings (moment 5). The overall reported compliance rate was 83.0 per cent. The compliance rates were significantly lower at moments 1 and 5. Nursing students reported better overall compliance (p = 0.01), and at moments 2 (p = 0.0001) and 3 (p = 0.0001), than medical students. Medical students fared better at moment 4 (p = 0.009). The most common reason reported for non-compliance was 'forgetfulness'. We identified differences in compliance rates across the five clinical moments of hand hygiene. Education programmes should not treat the hand hygiene process as a single entity, but should adopt a moment-specific approach to promote recall, with particular emphases on moments 1 and 5. Nursing and medical students may require different education strategies. Future studies on hand hygiene may also adopt a moment-specific approach. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Baseline patient characteristics and mortality associated with longitudinal intervention compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Julia Y; Ten Have, Thomas R; Bogner, Hillary R; Elliott, Michael R

    2007-12-10

    Lin et al. (http://www.biostatsresearch.com/upennbiostat/papers/, 2006) proposed a nested Markov compliance class model in the Imbens and Rubin compliance class model framework to account for time-varying subject noncompliance in longitudinal randomized intervention studies. We use superclasses, or latent compliance class principal strata, to describe longitudinal compliance patterns, and time-varying compliance classes are assumed to depend on the history of compliance. In this paper, we search for good subject-level baseline predictors of these superclasses and also examine the relationship between these superclasses and all-cause mortality. Since the superclasses are completely latent in all subjects, we utilize multiple imputation techniques to draw inferences. We apply this approach to a randomized intervention study for elderly primary care patients with depression.

  4. Implementation of the Barcelona Basic Model into TOUGH-FLAC for simulations of the geomechanical behavior of unsaturated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, J.; Ijiri, Y.; Yamamoto, H.

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents the implementation of the Barcelona Basic Model (BBM) into the TOUGH-FLAC simulator analyzing the geomechanical behavior of unsaturated soils. We implemented the BBM into TOUGH-FLAC by (1) extending an existing FLAC{sup 3D} module for the Modified Cam-Clay (MCC) model in FLAC{sup 3D} and (2) adding computational routines for suction-dependent strain and net stress (i.e., total stress minus gas pressure) for unsaturated soils. We implemented a thermo-elasto-plastic version of the BBM, wherein the soil strength depends on both suction and temperature. The implementation of the BBM into TOUGH-FLAC was verified and tested against several published numerical model simulations and laboratory experiments involving the coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) behavior of unsaturated soils. The simulation tests included modeling the mechanical behavior of bentonite-sand mixtures, which are being considered as back-fill and buffer materials for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. We also tested and demonstrated the use of the BBM and TOUGH-FLAC for a problem involving the coupled THM processes within a bentonite-backfilled nuclear waste emplacement tunnel. The simulation results indicated complex geomechanical behavior of the bentonite backfill, including a nonuniform distribution of buffer porosity and density that could not be captured in an alternative, simplified, linear-elastic swelling model. As a result of the work presented in this paper, TOUGH-FLAC with BBM is now fully operational and ready to be applied to problems associated with nuclear waste disposal in bentonite-backfilled tunnels, as well as other scientific and engineering problems related to the mechanical behavior of unsaturated soils.

  5. Coupled Flow and Geomechanics Modeling of Slow Earthquakes: Application to Slow Slip Events (SSE) in the Guerrero Gap, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves da Silva Junior, J.; Frank, W.; Castineira, D.; Jha, B.; Juanes, R.

    2016-12-01

    Three major cycles of slow slip events (SSE) have been reported since the early 2000s in the Guerrero gap, Mexico, on the boundary between the Cocos and North American plates. Analysis of teleseismic waveforms recorded on a dense temporary seismic network in the Guerrero gap have found low S-wave velocity and high Vp/Vs ratios at the depths corresponding to the sources of SSE, implying the possible presence of fluids and thus an active dewatering process that may result in near-lithostatic pore pressure at the plate interface. Here we use coupled flow and geomechanics analysis of the Guerrero gap to model transient changes in the stress field in the subduction zone as a result of pore pressure fluctuations and potential fluid flow along the subduction interface. Our computational modeling approach couples a multiphase flow simulator with a mechanical simulator using the unconditionally stable fixed stress scheme for the sequential solution of the two-way coupling between flow and geomechanics (Jha and Juanes, 2014). We assume quasi-static mechanical deformation and neglect the inertial term in the solid momentum balance equation—an approximation that is valid to model SSE assuming aseismic slip. We represent the subducting Cocos fault as a surface embedded in a three-dimensional medium, and use zero thickness interface elements to accurately model stick-slip behavior under dynamically evolving fluid pressure and fault strength. We employ the rate- and state-dependent friction model in the evolution of the coefficient of friction. We calibrate our model using two distinct datasets—GPS data and tremor catalogs in the area of Guerrero gap—and by separately constraining the rate of water production from a model of mineral hydration with depth. Our quantitative modeling approach furnishes a mechanistic understanding of the relationship between pore pressure evolution, stress transfer and tremor migration, and helps elucidate the origin of SSE in this area.

  6. A High Rate of Non-Compliance Confounds the Study of Whole Grains and Weight Maintenance in a Randomised Intervention Trial—The Case for Greater Use of Dietary Biomarkers in Nutrition Intervention Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Kristensen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies consistently find an inverse relationship between whole-grain intake and weight gain. We aimed to confirm this in an open-label researcher-blinded parallel design randomised trial. A total of 179 overweight/obese women with a habitually low whole-grain intake (<16 g/day were randomised to a weight maintenance diet with refined-grain (RG or whole-grain (WG foods (80 g/day for 12 weeks after an initial weight loss program over 8 weeks. Body weight and composition was assessed at baseline, after the initial weight loss, and after the 12-week dietary intervention. During the 12-week dietary intervention phase, there were no group differences in changes in body weight and total fat mass %, whereas abdominal fat mass tended to increase more during the dietary intervention phase in the WG compared to the RG group (0.7 (SD 3.6 vs. −0.3 (SD 3.8 %; p = 0.052. Plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations, biomarkers of wholegrain wheat and rye intake, indicated poor compliance, particularly in the WG group, where >60% of participants had alkylresorcinol concentrations below 70 nmol/L, a concentration indicating low or no intake of whole-grain wheat. Further, weight regain was lower than expected in both intervention groups, further supporting a lack of compliance to the post-weight-loss diet. The rate of compliance was too low to conclude any effect of whole grain on weight maintenance, and reinforces the need to use objective measures of compliance in nutrition intervention studies.

  7. Levels and drivers of fishers' compliance with marine protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Arias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective conservation depends largely on people's compliance with regulations. We investigate compliance through the lens of fishers' compliance with marine protected areas (MPAs. MPAs are widely used tools for marine conservation and fisheries management. Studies show that compliance alone is a strong predictor of fish biomass within MPAs. Hence, fishers' compliance is critical for MPA effectiveness. However, there are few empirical studies showing what factors influence fishers' compliance with MPAs. Without such information, conservation planners and managers have limited opportunities to provide effective interventions. By studying 12 MPAs in a developing country (Costa Rica, we demonstrate the role that different variables have on fishers' compliance with MPAs. Particularly, we found that compliance levels perceived by resource users were higher in MPAs (1 with multiple livelihoods, (2 where government efforts against illegal fishing were effective, (3 where fishing was allowed but regulated, (4 where people were more involved in decisions, and (5 that were smaller. We also provide a novel and practical measure of compliance: a compound variable formed by the number illegal fishers and their illegal fishing effort. Our study underlines the centrality of people's behavior in nature conservation and the importance of grounding decision making on the social and institutional realities of each location.

  8. Compliance with the prescribed occlusion treatment for amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagge, Aldo; Nelson, Leonard B

    2017-09-01

    The present review article is an update on the current evidence about compliance to the prescribed occlusion treatment for amblyopia. In particular, the authors focus on the predictors and causes of noncompliance and possible interventions to increase it. Compliance with prescribed occlusion treatment is often challenging. Reported rates of compliance range widely from 49% to 87%. Objective monitoring of occlusion has opened up new research opportunities and allow the design of effective therapeutic regimens. Also, predictors and causes of noncompliance have been investigated and their knowledge may help the clinician to improved compliance with prescribed occlusion treatment for amblyopia. Although many of the studies assessing the effectiveness of interventions to increase compliance to patching treatment for amblyopia have many limitations, evidences support that use of educational supports, parents, and patient understanding on the importance of patching and written information should be considered to increase compliance with patching.

  9. Compliance and persistence with treatment with parathyroid hormone for osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Anne-Luise; Vestergaard, Peter; Eiken, Pia

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Medical intervention is important in the treatment of osteoporosis, and compliance with medical treatment is essential for an optimal outcome. Based on Danish national registers, we found that compliance with parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment is high and associated with marital status......, working status, and type of PTH treatment. PURPOSE: Compliance and persistence are essential for an optimal outcome during medical treatment of osteoporosis. We aimed to evaluate compliance and persistence with treatment with PTH in daily clinical practice in Danish patients and to describe factors...... affecting compliance. METHODS: Register-based nationwide cohort study on all patients in Denmark initiates PTH or analogue treatment for osteoporosis in 2003-2010 (n = 4281). PTH drugs included were the PTH analogue teriparatide(1-34) and recombinant human PTH (rhPTH(1-84)). Compliance with treatment...

  10. Taking your medicine: relational steps to improving patient compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, A

    2001-01-01

    Patient non-compliance with physicians' instructions is a major problem that costs billions of dollars each year. This study supports a significant role for communication, both as a form of information exchange and social support, and participative decision-making in improving patient compliance. These results, based on structural equation modeling, also support the interaction of communication and participative decision-making positively affecting compliance. Results suggest that one-way communication from physician to patient and patient education will not solve compliance problems by themselves. Instead the solution revolves around open, bi-directional information exchange, active listening by both parties, and truly informed consent on the part of patients.

  11. Checking Security Policy Compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Gowadia, Vaibhav; Kudo, Michiharu

    2008-01-01

    Ensuring compliance of organizations to federal regulations is a growing concern. This paper presents a framework and methods to verify whether an implemented low-level security policy is compliant to a high-level security policy. Our compliance checking framework is based on organizational and security metadata to support refinement of high-level concepts to implementation specific instances. Our work uses the results of refinement calculus to express valid refinement patterns and their properties. Intuitively, a low-level security policy is compliant to a high-level security policy if there is a valid refinement path from the high-level security policy to the low-level security policy. Our model is capable of detecting violations of security policies, failures to meet obligations, and capability and modal conflicts.

  12. Orchestrated Session Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Barbanera

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the notion of orchestrated compliance for client/server interactions in the context of session contracts. Devising the notion of orchestrator in such a context makes it possible to have orchestrators with unbounded buffering capabilities and at the same time to guarantee any message from the client to be eventually delivered by the orchestrator to the server, while preventing the server from sending messages which are kept indefinitely inside the orchestrator. The compliance relation is shown to be decidable by means of 1 a procedure synthesising the orchestrators, if any, making a client compliant with a server, and 2 a procedure for deciding whether an orchestrator behaves in a proper way as mentioned before.

  13. Factors predicting compliance to ecological momentary assessment among adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovsky, Alexander W; Mermelstein, Robin J; Hedeker, Donald

    2014-03-01

    Ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) are increasingly used in smoking research to understand contextual and individual differences related to smoking and changes in smoking. To date, there has been little detailed research into the predictors of EMA compliance. However, patterns or predictors of compliance may affect key relationships under investigation and introduce sources of bias in results. The purpose of this study was to investigate predictors of compliance to random prompts among a sample of adolescents who had ever smoked. Data for this study were drawn from a sample of 461 adolescents (9th and 10th graders at baseline) participating in a longitudinal study of smoking escalation. We examined 2 outcomes: subject-level EMA compliance (overall rate of compliance over a week-long EMA wave), and in-the-moment prompt-level compliance to the most proximal random prompt. We investigated several covariates including gender, race, smoking rate, alcohol use, psychological symptomatology, home composition, mood, social context, time in study, inter-prompt interval, and location. At the overall subject level, higher mean negative affect, smoking rate, alcohol use, and male gender predicted lower compliance with random EMA prompts. At the prompt level, after controlling for significant subject-level predictors of compliance, increased positive affect, being outside of the home, and longer inter-prompt interval predicted lower momentary compliance. This study identifies several factors associated with overall and momentary EMA compliance among a sample of adolescents participating in a longitudinal study of smoking. We also propose a conceptual framework for investigating the contextual and momentary predictors of compliance within EMA studies.

  14. Parametric study on the glacier advancement and the integrity of a salt diapir; Parameterstudie zur Gletscherueberfahrung und Integritaet eines Salzdiapirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kock, Ingo

    2013-07-15

    In the present work a parameter study on the consequences for geomechanical integrity of glacier advancement above a salt diapir is presented. Different glacier thicknesses as well as speed of advancement and retreat are considered. The parameter study is conducted using a geomechanical numerical model. Results show that relevant criteria (minimum stress criterion and dilatancy criterion) may be violated during advancement of a glacier. The possibility of violating these criteria increases with increasing thickness and increasing speed.

  15. Adesão ao tratamento da dor crônica: estudo de variáveis demográficas, terapêuticas e psicossociais Compliance with chronic pain treatment: study of demographic, therapeutic and psychosocial variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geana Paula Kurita

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram identificar a prevalência da adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso em pacientes com dor crônica, e analisar as relações entre adesão e características do tratamento medicamentoso e fatores psicossociais (crenças frente à dor, locus de controle da saúde e depressão. Trinta indivíduos foram avaliados 5 vezes durante 6 meses. Adesão plena ocorreu entre 43,3% e 56,7% dos pacientes. A adesão parcial e a não adesão foram altas (40,0%-56,7%. Os índices de adesão não variaram ao longo de seis meses. Menor adesão relacionou-se à ocorrência de efeitos colaterais e às crenças de que o controle da saúde dependia de si próprio, de que dor é incapacitante, de que dor indica a presença de dano físico e de que comportamentos de solicitude de outrem quando há manifestação de dor são desejáveis. Conhecer os fatores envolvidos na adesão permite testar intervenções que a otimizem.The aims of this study were to identify the prevalence of compliance with drug therapy in patients with chronic pain and analyze the relationships between compliance and characteristics of drug therapy and psychosocial factors (beliefs regarding pain, health locus of control and depression. Thirty patients were evaluated 5 times over a period of 6 months. Total compliance occurred in 43.3% to 56.7% of the patients. Partial compliance and non-compliance were high (40.0%-56.7%. The index of compliance did not vary over the six months. Low compliance related to occurrence of side effects and beliefs that the control of health depended on the patient, pain is a disability, that pain means the presence of physical injury and solicitous behavior of others is desirable when there is manifestation of pain. Knowing the factors involved in compliance enables us to test interventions that optimize it.

  16. Restaurant inspection frequency and food safety compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, K Bruce; McKeary, Marie; Hart, Robert; Hall, Robert

    2008-11-01

    Although food premises are regularly inspected, little information is available on the effect of inspections on compliance records, particularly with respect to the impact of the frequency of inspection on compliance. The following presents the outcome of a study designed to assess the impact of increased inspection frequency on compliance measures in Hamilton, Ontario, in the absence of any other changes to food handler/safety programs or legislation. High-risk food inspection premises were randomly assigned three, four, or five inspections per year. Results indicate that no statistical difference existed in outcome measures based on frequency of inspection. When premises were grouped based on the average time between inspections, premises with greater time between inspections scored better compliance measures relative to premises that were inspected more frequently. The study was also unique for the level of consultation and collaboration sought from the public health inspectors (PHIs) assigned to the Food Safety Program. Their knowledge and experience with respect to the critical variables associated with compliance were a complementary component to the literature review conducted by the research team.

  17. Atherosclerosis measured by whole body magnetic resonance angiography and carotid artery ultrasound is related to arterial compliance, but not to endothelium-dependent vasodilation - the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Lars; Andersson, Jessika; Hansen, Tomas; Johansson, Lars; Ahlström, Håkan

    2009-09-01

    Arterial compliance and endothelium-dependent vasodilation are two characteristics of the vessel wall. In the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study, we studied the relationships between arterial compliance and endothelium-dependent vasodilation versus atherosclerosis as measured with two imaging modalities. In the population-based PIVUS study (1016 subjects aged 70), arterial compliance was determined by ultrasound in the carotid artery and the stroke volume to pulse pressure ratio by echocardiography, while endothelium-dependent vasodilation was assessed by the invasive forearm technique with acetylcholine and brachial artery ultrasound. Intima-media thickness was evaluated by ultrasound in the carotid artery (n = 954). Stenosis in the carotid, aorta, renal, upper and lower leg arteries were determined by magnetic resonance angiography in a random subsample of 306 subjects. After adjustments for gender, Framingham risk score, obesity, myocardial infarction and stroke, distensibility in the carotid artery and the stroke volume to pulse pressure ratio were both significantly related to a weighted index of stenosis in the five arterial territories evaluated by magnetic resonance angiography (p<0.02 for both). Distensibility in the carotid artery (P = 0.021), but not the stroke volume to pulse pressure ratio (P = 0.08), was also significantly related to intima-media thickness. In the elderly population, atherosclerosis is mainly related to arterial compliance, but not to endothelium-dependent vasodilation in peripheral conduit or resistance vessels.

  18. Team care to cure adolescents with braces (avoiding low quality of life, pain and bad compliance: a case–control retrospective study. 2011 SOSORT Award winner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavernaro Marta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bracing could be efficacious, given good compliance and quality of braces. Recently the SOSORT Brace Treatment Management Guidelines (SBTMG have highlighted the perceived importance of the professional teams surrounding braced patients. Purpose To verify the impact of a complete rehabilitation team in the adolescent patient with bracing. Materials and methods Design. Initial cross-sectional study, followed by a retrospective case–control study. Population: Thirty-eight patients (15.8 ± 1.6 years; 26 females; 10 hyperkyphosis, 28 scoliosis of 29.2 ± 7.9° Cobb extracted from a single orthotist database (between January 1, 2008 and September 1, 2009 and treated by the same physician; brace wearing at least 15 hours/day for a minimum of 6 months; age 10 or more. Treatment: Braces: Sforzesco, Sibilla, Lapadula or Maguelone. Exercises: SEAS. Methods: Two questionnaires filled in blindly by patients: SRS-22 and one especially developed and validated with 25 questions on adherence to treatment. Groups (main risk factor: TEAM (private institute: satisfied 44/44 SOSORT criteria; grade of teamwork, “excellent” included 13 patients and NOT 25 (National Health Service Rehabilitation Department: 35/44 SOSORT criteria respected; grade, “insufficient”. Results TEAM was more compliant to bracing than NOT (97 ± 6% vs. 80 ± 24% and performed nearly double the exercises (38 ± 12 vs. 20 ± 13 minutes/session. The self-reduction of bracing was significant in NOT (from 16.8 ± 3.7 to 14.8 ± 4.9 hours/day, , P Conclusions Provided the limits of this first study on the topic, the SBTMG seems to be important for brace treatment, influencing pain, QoL and compliance (and so, presumably, final results. Future studies on the topic are advisable.

  19. Compliance with the workplace-smoking ban in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk-Kleinjan, Wendy M I; Rijswijk, Pieter C P; de Vries, Hein; Knibbe, Ronald A

    2013-02-01

    In 2004 the Dutch government instituted a workplace-smoking ban. This study focuses on differences in compliance over time and between occupational sectors, and describes the background variables. Telephone interviews were conducted with company employees across industry, public and service sectors in 2004 (n=705), 2006 (n=2201) and 2008 (n=2034). The questions concerned smoking policy, aspects of awareness and motivation to implement this ban. Compliance rates increased between 2006 (83%) and 2008 (96%) after an initial stagnation in the rate of compliance between 2004 and 2006. The increase in compliance was accompanied by a less negative attitude and an increase in confidence in one's ability to comply (self-efficacy). Differences in compliance between sectors with the highest compliance (public sector) and the lowest compliance (industry) decreased from about 20% to nearly 4%. Simultaneously, in the industry there was a stronger increase for risk perception of enforcement, social influence and self-efficacy. The initial stagnation in increase of compliance might be due to the lack of a (new) coherent package of policy measures to discourage smoking. Over the entire period there was a stronger increase in compliance in the industry sector, probably due to the intensification of enforcement activities and additional policy like legislation, which might increase awareness and social support. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. DOTS Compliance by Tuberculosis Patients in District Raipur (Chhattisgarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeku Sinha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Compliance to therapy is one of the important factors that affect the outcome. Non-compliance to self administered multi drug tuberculosis treatment regimens is an important cause of failure of initial therapy and relapse as well as acquired drug resistance, requiring more prolonged and expensive therapy. Objective: To know the compliance of DOTS therapy in TB patients in District Raipur and to find out the reasons of non-compliance of DOTS therapy among the patients. Study Design: Cross sectional observational community based study. Study Setting: Microscopic Centers in District Raipur. Participants: 695 patients of Tuberculosis. Result: Study revealed that 65.93% patients had complied with the DOTS therapy and 33.38% were non compliant. Conclusion: Most of the reasons of non-Compliance can be averted by proper counseling of target group. Hence to achieve the goal of RNTCP, proper counseling of target group must be given top priority.

  1. Value-Based Argumentation for Justifying Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    Compliance is often achieved 'by design' through a coherent system of controls consisting of information systems and procedures . This system-based control requires a new approach to auditing in which companies must demonstrate to the regulator that they are 'in control'. They must determine the relevance of a regulation for their business, justify which set of control measures they have taken to comply with it, and demonstrate that the control measures are operationally effective. In this paper we show how value-based argumentation theory can be applied to the compliance domain. Corporate values motivate the selection of control measures (actions) which aim to fulfill control objectives, i.e. adopted norms (goals). In particular, we show how to formalize the dialogue in which companies justify their compliance decisions to regulators using value-based argumentation. The approach is illustrated by a case study of the safety and security measures adopted in the context of EU customs regulation.

  2. Compliance of blood sampling procedures with the CLSI H3-A6 guidelines: An observational study by the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) working group for the preanalytical phase (WG-PRE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simundic, Ana-Maria; Church, Stephen; Cornes, Michael P; Grankvist, Kjell; Lippi, Giuseppe; Nybo, Mads; Nikolac, Nora; van Dongen-Lases, Edmee; Eker, Pinar; Kovalevskaya, Svjetlana; Kristensen, Gunn B B; Sprongl, Ludek; Sumarac, Zorica

    2015-08-01

    An observational study was conducted in 12 European countries by the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Working Group for the Preanalytical Phase (EFLM WG-PRE) to assess the level of compliance with the CLSI H3-A6 guidelines. A structured checklist including 29 items was created to assess the compliance of European phlebotomy procedures with the CLSI H3-A6 guideline. A risk occurrence chart of individual phlebotomy steps was created from the observed error frequency and severity of harm of each guideline key issue. The severity of errors occurring during phlebotomy was graded using the risk occurrence chart. Twelve European countries participated with a median of 33 (18-36) audits per country, and a total of 336 audits. The median error rate for the total phlebotomy procedure was 26.9 % (10.6-43.8), indicating a low overall compliance with the recommended CLSI guideline. Patient identification and test tube labelling were identified as the key guideline issues with the highest combination of probability and potential risk of harm. Administrative staff did not adhere to patient identification procedures during phlebotomy, whereas physicians did not adhere to test tube labelling policy. The level of compliance of phlebotomy procedures with the CLSI H3-A6 guidelines in 12 European countries was found to be unacceptably low. The most critical steps in need of immediate attention in the investigated countries are patient identification and tube labelling.

  3. Final Scientific/Technical Report for project “Geomechanical Monitoring for CO2 Hub Storage: Production and Injection at Kevin Dome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, Thomas M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vasco, Don [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dobeck, Laura [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Spangler, Lee [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Leonti, Michelle [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2017-06-27

    After learning that the TDS value in the target injection formation at the Kevin Dome site is too low to qualify for an EPA Class VI CO2 injection permit, the BSCSP project was re-scoped such that injection of CO2 is no longer planned. With no injection planned, the Geomechanics project was closed. In this final report, we describe the objective and approach of the project as proposed, and the limited results obtained before stopping work. The objective of the proposed research was the development & validation of an integrated monitoring approach for quantifying the interactions between large-scale geological carbon storage (GCS) and subsurface geomechanical state, particularly perturbations relevant to reservoir integrity such as fault reactivation and induced fracturing. In the short period of work before knowing the fate of the Kevin Dome project, we (1) researched designs for both the proposed InSAR corner reflectors as well as the near-surface 3C seismic stations; (2) developed preliminary elastic geomechanical models; (3) developed a second generation deformation prediction for the BSCSP Kevin Dome injection site; and (4) completed a preliminary map of InSAR monuments and shallow MEQ wells in the vicinity of the BSCSP injection pad.

  4. Communication and protocol compliance and their relation to the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR): A mixed-methods study of simulated telephone-assisted CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord-Ljungquist, Helena; Brännström, Margareta; Bohm, Katarina

    2015-07-01

    In the event of a cardiac arrest, emergency medical dispatchers (EMDs) play a critical role by providing telephone-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (T-CPR) to laypersons. The aim of our investigation was to describe compliance with the T-CPR protocol, the performance of the laypersons in a simulated T-CPR situation, and the communication between laypersons and EMDs during these actions. We conducted a retrospective observational study by analysing 20 recorded video and audio files. In a simulation, EMDs provided laypersons with instructions following T-CPR protocols. These were then analysed using a mixed method with convergent parallel design. If the EMDs complied with the T-CPR protocol, the laypersons performed the correct procedures in 71% of the actions. The single most challenging instruction of the T-CPR protocol, for both EMDs and laypersons, was airway control. Mean values for compression depth and frequency did not reach established guideline goals for CPR. Proper application of T-CPR protocols by EMDs resulted in better performance by laypersons in CPR. The most problematic task for EMDs as well for laypersons was airway management. The study results did not establish that the quality of communication between EMDs and laypersons performing CPR in a cardiac arrest situation led to statistically different outcomes, as measured by the quality and effectiveness of the CPR delivered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment compliance and effectiveness in complex PTSD patients with co-morbid personality disorder undergoing stabilizing cognitive behavioral group treatment: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrepaal, Ethy; Thomaes, Kathleen; Smit, Johannes H; Veltman, Dick J; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Draijer, Nel

    2013-01-01

    In the empirical and clinical literature, complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and personality disorders (PDs) are suggested to be predictive of drop-out or reduced treatment effectiveness in trauma-focused PTSD treatment. In this study, we aimed to investigate if personality characteristics would predict treatment compliance and effectiveness in stabilizing complex PTSD treatment. In a randomized controlled trial on a 20-week stabilizing group cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) for child-abuse-related complex PTSD, we included 71 patients of whom 38 were randomized to a psycho-educational and cognitive behavioral stabilizing group treatment. We compared the patients with few PD symptoms (adaptive) (N=14) with the non-adaptive patients (N=24) as revealed by a cluster analysis. We found that non-adaptive patients compared to the adaptive patients showed very low drop-out rates. Both non-adaptive patients, classified with highly different personality profiles "withdrawn" and "aggressive," were equally compliant. With regard to symptom reduction, we found no significant differences between subtypes. Post-hoc, patients with a PD showed lower drop-out rates and higher effect sizes in terms of complex PTSD severity, especially on domains that affect regulation and interpersonal problems. Contrary to our expectations, these preliminary findings indicate that this treatment is well tolerated by patients with a variety of personality pathology. Larger sample sizes are needed to study effectiveness for subgroups of complex PTSD patients.

  6. Treatment compliance and effectiveness in complex PTSD patients with co-morbid personality disorder undergoing stabilizing cognitive behavioral group treatment: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethy Dorrepaal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the empirical and clinical literature, complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and personality disorders (PDs are suggested to be predictive of drop-out or reduced treatment effectiveness in trauma-focused PTSD treatment. Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate if personality characteristics would predict treatment compliance and effectiveness in stabilizing complex PTSD treatment. Method: In a randomized controlled trial on a 20-week stabilizing group cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT for child-abuse-related complex PTSD, we included 71 patients of whom 38 were randomized to a psycho-educational and cognitive behavioral stabilizing group treatment. We compared the patients with few PD symptoms (adaptive (N=14 with the non-adaptive patients (N=24 as revealed by a cluster analysis. Results: We found that non-adaptive patients compared to the adaptive patients showed very low drop-out rates. Both non-adaptive patients, classified with highly different personality profiles “withdrawn” and “aggressive,” were equally compliant. With regard to symptom reduction, we found no significant differences between subtypes. Post-hoc, patients with a PD showed lower drop-out rates and higher effect sizes in terms of complex PTSD severity, especially on domains that affect regulation and interpersonal problems. Conclusion: Contrary to our expectations, these preliminary findings indicate that this treatment is well tolerated by patients with a variety of personality pathology. Larger sample sizes are needed to study effectiveness for subgroups of complex PTSD patients.

  7. Compliance or patient empowerment in online communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wentzer, Helle; Bygholm, Ann

    2010-01-01

    New technologies enable a different organization of the public’s admission to health care services. The article discusses whether online support groups in patient treatment are to be understood in the light of patient empowerment or within the tradition of compliance. The back-ground material...... of opening up health care to the critical voice of the public, the quantitative and qualitative studies surprisingly point to a synthesis of the otherwise opposite positions of empowerment and compliance in patient care. Thereby the critical potential of online communities in health care services seems...... reverted into configuring ideal patients from diverse users....

  8. Compliance with clinical practice guidelines for breast cancer treatment: a population-based study of quality-of-care indicators in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacerdote Carlotta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been documented that variations exist in breast cancer treatment despite wide dissemination of clinical practice guidelines. The aim of this population-based study was to evaluate the impact of regional guidelines (Piedmont guidelines, PGL for breast cancer diagnosis and treatment on quality-of-care indicators in the Northwestern Italian region of Piedmont. Methods We included two samples of women aged 50–69 years with incident breast cancer treated in Piedmont before and after the introduction of PGL: 600 in 2002 (pre-PGL and 621 in 2004 (post-PGL. Patients were randomly selected among all incident breast cancer cases identified through the hospital discharge records database. We extracted clinical data on breast cancer cases from medical charts and ascertained vital status through linkage with town offices. We assessed compliance with 14 quality-of-care indicators from PGL recommendations, before and after their introduction in clinical practice. Results Among patients with invasive lesions, 77.1% (N = 368 and 77.5% (N = 383 in the pre-PGL and post-PGL groups, respectively, received breast conservative surgery (BCS as a first-line treatment. Following BCS, 87.7% received radiotherapy in 2002, compared to 87.9% in 2004. Of all patients at medium-to-high risk of distant metastasis, 65.5% (N = 268 and 63.6% (N = 252 received chemotherapy in 2002 and in 2004, respectively. Among the 117 patients with invasive lesions and negative estrogen receptor status in 2002, hormonal therapy was prescribed in 23 of them (19.6%. The incorrect prescription of hormonal therapy decreased to 10.8% (N = 10 among the 92 estrogen receptor-negative patients in 2004 (p Compliance with PGL recommendations was already high in the pre-PGL group, although some quality-of-care indicators did not reach the standard. In the pre/post analysis, 8 out of 14 quality-of-care indicators showed an improvement from 2002 to 2004, but only 4 out of 14

  9. Assessment of respiratory system compliance with electrical impedance tomography using a positive end-expiratory pressure wave maneuver during pressure support ventilation: a pilot clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Tobias H; Bui, Simon; Zick, Günther; Bläser, Daniel; Schädler, Dirk; Weiler, Norbert; Frerichs, Inéz

    2014-12-10

    Assessment of respiratory system compliance (Crs) can be used for individual optimization of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). However, in patients with spontaneous breathing activity, the conventional methods for Crs measurement are inaccurate because of the variable muscular pressure of the patient. We hypothesized that a PEEP wave maneuver, analyzed with electrical impedance tomography (EIT), might be suitable for global and regional assessment of Crs during assisted spontaneous breathing. After approval of the local ethics committee, we performed a pilot clinical study in 18 mechanically ventilated patients (61 ± 16 years (mean ± standard deviation)) who were suitable for weaning with pressure support ventilation (PSV). For the PEEP wave, PEEP was elevated by 1 cmH2O after every fifth breath during PSV. This was repeated five times, until a total PEEP increase of 5 cmH2O was reached. Subsequently, PEEP was reduced in steps of 1 cmH2O in the same manner until the original PEEP level was reached. Crs was calculated using EIT from the global, ventral and dorsal lung regions of interest. For reference measurements, all patients were also examined during controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) with a low-flow pressure-volume maneuver. Global and regional Crs(low-flow) was calculated as the slope of the pressure-volume loop between the pressure that corresponded to the selected PEEP and PEEP +5 cmH2O. For additional reference, Crs during CMV (Crs(CMV)) was calculated as expired tidal volume divided by the difference between airway plateau pressure and PEEP. Respiratory system compliance calculated from the PEEP wave (Crs(PEEP wave)) correlated closely with both reference measurements (r = 0.79 for Crs(low-flow) and r = 0.71 for Crs(CMV)). No significant difference was observed between the mean Crs(PEEP wave) and the mean Crs(low-flow). However, a significant bias of +17.1 ml/cmH2O was observed between Crs(PEEP wave) and Crs(CMV). Analyzing a PEEP wave

  10. Extrinsic incentives and tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Sour, Laura; Gutiérrez Andrade, Miguel Ángel

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the impact of extrinsic incentives in a tax compliance model. It also provides experimental evidence that confirms the existence of a positive relationship between rewards and tax compliance. If individuals are audited, rewards for honest taxpayers are effective in increasing the level of tax compliance. These results are particularly relevant in countries where there is little respect for tax law since rewards can contribute to crowding in the intrinsic motivation to comply.

  11. Extrinsic incentives and tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Sour, Laura; Gutiérrez Andrade, Miguel Ángel

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the impact of extrinsic incentives in a tax compliance model. It also provides experimental evidence that confirms the existence of a positive relationship between rewards and tax compliance. If individuals are audited, rewards for honest taxpayers are effective in increasing the level of tax compliance. These results are particularly relevant in countries where there is little respect for tax law since rewards can contribute to crowding in the intrinsic motivation to comply.

  12. The Body of Knowledge on Compliance in Heart Failure Patients We Are Not There Yet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, Maurice M. W.; van der Wal, Martje H. L.; Jaarsma, Tiny

    2011-01-01

    Background: Noncompliance with diet and fluid restriction is a problem in patients with heart failure (HF). In recent studies, a relationship between compliance with sodium and fluid restriction and knowledge and beliefs regarding compliance was found. In these studies, however, compliance was prima

  13. The Body of Knowledge on Compliance in Heart Failure Patients We Are Not There Yet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, Maurice M. W.; van der Wal, Martje H. L.; Jaarsma, Tiny

    2011-01-01

    Background: Noncompliance with diet and fluid restriction is a problem in patients with heart failure (HF). In recent studies, a relationship between compliance with sodium and fluid restriction and knowledge and beliefs regarding compliance was found. In these studies, however, compliance was prima

  14. Compliance with the Swiss Society for Nutrition's dietary recommendations in the population of Geneva, Switzerland: a 10-year trend study (1999-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Daisy; Guessous, Idris; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    The trends in compliance with the dietary recommendations of the Swiss Society for Nutrition in the Geneva population were assessed for the period from 1999 to 2009 using 10 cross-sectional, population-based surveys (Bus Santé study) with a total of 9,320 participants aged 35 to 75 years (50% women). Dietary intake was assessed using a self-administered, validated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Trends were assessed by logistic regression adjusting for age, smoking status, education, and nationality using survey year as the independent variable. After excluding participants with extreme intakes, the percentage of participants with a cholesterol intake of trend=0.04) and from 57.8% to 61.4% in women (multivariate-adjusted P for trend=0.06). Calcium intake >1 g/day decreased from 53.3% to 46% in men and from 47.6% to 40.7% in women (multivariate-adjusted P for trendtrend<0.001). Conversely, no significant changes were observed for carbohydrates, protein, total fat (including saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids), fiber, and vitamins D and A. We conclude that the quality of the Swiss diet did not improve between 1999 and 2009 and that intakes deviate substantially from expert recommendations for health promotion and chronic disease risk reduction. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Patient compliance in the treatment of Burkitt′s lymphoma in rural Zambia: A retrospective study on 80 Burkitt′s lymphoma patients in Katete, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Boer J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : In African settings the treatment results of Burkitt′s lymphoma (BL seem to be less favourable compared with Western settings. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse some factors that affect the treatment of BL. Patients and Methods : Over a 16 year period, data were extracted of 80 patients. Results : Complete remission 5%, very good partial response 35%, partial response 16%, no response 10%, data missing 34%. Of all patients, 56% did have a positive response to treatment. However, 51% of this subgroup of patients did not finish treatment. There was no difference in completion of treatment between patients living in Katete district finishing treatment vs. living outside Katete district (respectively 25% vs. 32%, P = 0.7148. Conclusion: There is potential for higher cure rates for BL in tropical settings if full effort is put into compliance since a majority of patients, even while having a good prognosis, abandon treatment. Large distance to hospital makes no difference in completing the chemotherapy course.

  16. Quality beyond compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centanni, N; Monroe, M; White, L; Larson, R

    1999-01-01

    The service sector within the biopharmaceutical industry has experienced phenomenal growth over the past decade. In the highly regulated Good Laboratory Practices environment, the need for timely, high-quality service, accurate results, and on-time deliverables becomes paramount for the success and profitability of biopharmaceutical companies. The quality assurance process is a vital component of this drug product-development cycle and ensures compliance to the highest domestic and international regulatory standards. Quality-assurance professionals historically have held the role of independent auditors of the processes, who certify that results meet current standards of practice. Covance, a contract research organization that includes Good Laboratory Practices laboratories, reorganized and expanded the functional responsibilities of its quality assurance team in 1997. Auditors and quality assurance professionals have assumed roles beyond traditional compliance auditing and are forging new leadership and mentoring roles as process-improvement specialists. The results have been tangible, measurable benefits for clients and the Covance organization. This article provides an overview of this cultural change and the processes put in place to improve efficiency, productivity, and customer and employee satisfaction.

  17. Measures for Project Compliance with Enterprise Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Carugati, Andrea; Svejvig, Per

    This paper presents the findings from a recent pilot study exploring how project compliance with enterprise architecture (EA) can be measured. This is a research area which has received very little attention in academic publications on EA. While some ways of measuring EA exist within the literature...

  18. THE ROLE OF FAIRNESS IN TAX COMPLIANCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboon, Peter; Goslinga, Sjoerd

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the relation between fairness considerations and tax compliance attitudes and intentions. Data from a large panel survey among small business owners in the Netherlands have been analyzed. Besides a number of background and control variables the questionnaire co

  19. Monitoring managers through corporate compliance programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Angelucci; M.A. Han

    2010-01-01

    Compliance programs entail monitoring of employees’ behavior with the claimed objective of fighting corporate crime. (Competition) Authorities promote such intra-firm monitoring. In a three-tier hierarchy model, authority-shareholder-manager, we study the impact of monitoring on contracting within t

  20. User's Guide of TOUGH2-EGS. A Coupled Geomechanical and Reactive Geochemical Simulator for Fluid and Heat Flow in Enhanced Geothermal Systems Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakcharoenphol, Perapon [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Xiong, Yi [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Hu, Litang [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Winterfeld, Philip H. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Xu, Tianfu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wu, Yu-Shu [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-05-01

    TOUGH2-EGS is a numerical simulation program coupling geomechanics and chemical reactions for fluid and heat flows in porous media and fractured reservoirs of enhanced geothermal systems. The simulator includes the fully-coupled geomechanical (THM) module, the fully-coupled geochemical (THC) module, and the sequentially coupled reactive geochemistry (THMC) module. The fully-coupled flow-geomechanics model is developed from the linear elastic theory for the thermo-poro-elastic system and is formulated with the mean normal stress as well as pore pressure and temperature. The chemical reaction is sequentially coupled after solution of flow equations, which provides the flow velocity and phase saturation for the solute transport calculation at each time step. In addition, reservoir rock properties, such as porosity and permeability, are subjected to change due to rock deformation and chemical reactions. The relationships between rock properties and geomechanical and chemical effects from poro-elasticity theories and empirical correlations are incorporated into the simulator. This report provides the user with detailed information on both mathematical models and instructions for using TOUGH2-EGS for THM, THC or THMC simulations. The mathematical models include the fluid and heat flow equations, geomechanical equation, reactive geochemistry equations, and discretization methods. Although TOUGH2-EGS has the capability for simulating fluid and heat flows coupled with both geomechanical and chemical effects, it is up to the users to select the specific coupling process, such as THM, THC, or THMC in a simulation. There are several example problems illustrating the applications of this program. These example problems are described in details and their input data are presented. The results demonstrate that this program can be used for field-scale geothermal reservoir simulation with fluid and heat flow, geomechanical effect, and chemical reaction in porous and fractured media.

  1. Varying the Quality of Business Communication Caused by Compliance of Different Accounting Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Setyadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the extent of Indonesian companies‟ compliance with the Indonesian accounting regulations (IARC of inventory, fixed assets, and depreciation by analyzing 160 Indonesian listed companies‟ 2006 annual reports. This study also looks at potential factors that explain the level of this compliance. Analysis reveals a high level of 71.63% inventory compliance, 51.13% fixed assets compliance, and 99.69% depreciation compliance with accounting rules. T-test and regression analysis show that firm size is a significant predictor of accounting compliance. Importantly, ownership and governance structures do not influence the level of compliance. Although Indonesian firms complied with more than 50% of the key accounting rule provisions, regulatory intervention appears needed to improve compliance. Such regulation might include sanctions as promulgated by multilateral financial organizations (World Bank 2005.

  2. Two-phase flow effects on the CO2 injection pressure evolution and implications for the caprock geomechanical stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilarrasa Víctor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geologic carbon storage is considered to be one of the main solutions to significantly reduce CO2 emissions to the atmosphere to mitigate climate change. CO2 injection in deep geological formations entails a two-phase flow, being CO2 the non-wetting phase. One of the main concerns of geologic carbon storage is whether the overpressure induced by CO2 injection may compromise the caprock integrity and faults stability. We numerically investigate the two-phase flow effects that govern the overpressure evolution generated by CO2 injection and how this overpressure affects the caprock geomechanical stability. We find that fluid pressure increases sharply at the beginning of injection because CO2 has to displace the brine that fills the pores around the injection well, which reduces the relative permeability. However, overpressure decreases subsequently because once CO2 fills the pores around the injection well, CO2 can flow easily due to its low viscosity and because the relative permeability to CO2 increases. Furthermore, the pressure drop that occurs in the capillary fringe due to two-phase flow interference decreases as the CO2 plume becomes larger. This overpressure evolution induced by CO2 injection, which remains practically constant with time after the initial peak, is very beneficial for maintaining caprock stability. Thus, the sealing capacity of the caprock will be maintained, preventing CO2 leakage to occur across the caprock.

  3. Upper Body Venous Compliance Exceeds Lower Body Venous Compliance in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.

    1996-01-01

    Human venous compliance hypothetically decreases from upper to lower body as a mechanism for maintenance of the hydrostatic indifference level 'headward' in the body, near the heart. This maintains cardiac filling pressure, and thus cardiac output and cerebral perfusion, during orthostasis. This project entailed four steps. First, acute whole-body tilting was employed to alter human calf and neck venous volumes. Subjects were tilted on a tilt table equipped with a footplate as follows: 90 deg, 53 deg, 30 deg, 12 deg, O deg, -6 deg, -12 deg, -6 deg, O deg, 12 deg, 30 deg, 53 deg, and 90 deg. Tilt angles were held for 30 sec each, with 10 sec transitions between angles. Neck volume increased and calf volume decreased during head-down tilting, and the opposite occurred during head-up tilt. Second, I sought to cross-validate Katkov and Chestukhin's (1980) measurements of human leg and neck venous pressures during whole-body tilting, so that those data could be used with volume data from the present study to calculate calf and neck venous compliance (compliance = (Delta)volume/(Delta)pressure). Direct measurements of venous pressures during postural chances and whole-body tilting confirmed that the local changes in venous pressures seen by Katkov and Chestukhin (1980) are valid. The present data also confirmed that gravitational changes in calf venous pressure substantially exceed those changes in upper body venous pressure. Third, the volume and pressure data above were used to find that human neck venous compliance exceeds calf venous compliance by a factor of 6, thereby upholding the primary hypothesis. Also, calf and neck venous compliance correlated significantly with each other (r(exp 2) = 0.56). Fourth, I wished to determine whether human calf muscle activation during head-up tilt reduces calf venous compliance. Findings from tilting and from supine assessments of relaxed calf venous compliance were similar, indicating that tilt-induced muscle activation is

  4. An Intervention to Increase High School Students' Compliance with Carrying Auto-Injectable Epinephrine: A MASNRN Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, Jennifer L.; McIntyre, C. Lynne; Pulcini, Joyce A.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents with life-threatening allergies are at a greater risk for a fatal anaphylactic event since only about half of them carry unexpired epinephrine available for emergency use. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of school nurse interventions that consisted of either routine or periodic checks during the school year for the…

  5. An observational study of compliance with the Scandinavian guidelines for management of minimal, mild and moderate head injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heskestad, Ben; Waterloo, Knut; Ingebrigtsen, Tor;

    2012-01-01

    The Scandinavian guidelines for management of minimal, mild and moderate head injuries were developed to provide safe and cost effective assessment of head injured patients. In a previous study conducted one year after publication and implementation of the guidelines (2003), we showed low...

  6. Does compliance with codes of conduct make workers better off?: : A study at three garment factories in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decades, there has been a growing number of corporate Codes of Conduct (CoC) being developed and introduced by multinational corporations (MNCs) to promote international labour standards in supply chains. This paper examines the implementation of CoC by suppliers in developing countries. A study was carried out at three garment factories in Vietnam that supply products to a number of well-known international brands. Findings of the research show that there are different levels o...

  7. Identification of patients at risk of non-adherence to oral antirheumatic drugs in rheumatoid arthritis using the Compliance Questionnaire in Rheumatology: an ARCO sub-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, Carlos; Monteagudo, Indalecio; Salvador, Georgina; de Toro, Francisco J; Escudero, Alejandro; Alegre-Sancho, Juan J; Raya, Enrique; Ortiz, Ana; Carmona, Loreto; Mestre, Yvonne; Cea-Calvo, Luis; Calvo-Alén, Jaime

    2017-07-01

    The ARCO study (Study on Adherence of Rheumatoid Arthritis patients to SubCutaneous and Oral Drugs), a multicenter, non-interventional retrospective study, was primarily designed to assess the percentage of patients [aged ≥18 years with an established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) diagnosis] with non-adherence to prescribed subcutaneous biologicals. This paper reports data for the secondary objective from a subset of patients, namely to evaluate non-adherence to prescribed oral antirheumatic drugs in RA patients in Spain using the validated Compliance Questionnaire Rheumatology (CQR). Patients also completed the Morisky-Green Medication Adherence Questionnaire, Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire, and a questionnaire (developed and validated in Spain) on patient satisfaction with RA treatment and preferences. A total of 271 patients (76.7% females; mean age 55.6 years) were being treated with oral drugs for RA, of which 234 completed the CQR questionnaire. Non-adherence was reported in 49/234 (20.9%) patients. The proportion of non-adherence in younger patients (aged ≤48 years; 37.5%) was double that recorded in patients aged >48 years (p = 0.006). Patients with a perception of lower efficacy also had a higher risk of non-adherence (p = 0.012). Multivariable analysis showed that younger age and male gender were independently associated with risk of non-adherence. There was only slight agreement between the CQR and Morisky-Green assessment tools (kappa coefficient = 0.186), possibly reflecting the fact that both questionnaires measure slightly different aspects of medication adherence. In conclusion, one out of five RA patients was identified as at risk for non-adherence with the CQR, and this was more frequent in younger patients and in males.

  8. Nested Markov Compliance Class Model in the Presence of Time-Varying Noncompliance

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Julia Y.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; ELLIOTT, MICHAEL R.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a Markov structure for partially unobserved time-varying compliance classes in the Imbens-Rubin (1997) compliance model framework. The context is a longitudinal randomized intervention study where subjects are randomized once at baseline, outcomes and patient adherence are measured at multiple follow-ups, and patient adherence to their randomized treatment could vary over time. We propose a nested latent compliance class model where we use time-invariant subject-specific complianc...

  9. Compliance with Segment Disclosure Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arya, Anil; Frimor, Hans; Mittendorf, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory oversight of capital markets has intensified in recent years, with a particular emphasis on expanding financial transparency. A notable instance is efforts by the Financial Accounting Standards Board that push firms to identify and report performance of individual business units...... (segments). This paper seeks to address short-run and long-run consequences of stringent enforcement of and uniform compliance with these segment disclosure standards. To do so, we develop a parsimonious model wherein a regulatory agency promulgates disclosure standards and either permits voluntary...... compliance or mandates strict compliance from firms. Under voluntary compliance, a firm is able to credibly withhold individual segment information from its competitors by disclosing data only at the aggregate firm level. Consistent with regulatory hopes, we show that mandatory compliance enhances welfare...

  10. Compliance with physical exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Anne Sofie; Bønnelycke, Julie; Rosenkilde Larsen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    , a moderate (MOD; 300 kcal/day) or a high-dose (HIGH; 600 kcal/day) endurance exercise group for 12 weeks. A sub-set of the subjects were interviewed using pre-determined, qualitative questions to elucidate physical activity and health behaviour. In combination with the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB......Aims: Sixty-one healthy, sedentary, moderately overweight young men participated in a randomised controlled trial to examine the effects of two different doses of endurance exercise on health behaviour and exercise compliance. Methods: Participants were randomised to a sedentary control group...... improved various metabolic health parameters. The MOD group was untroubled by the exercise load and had a positive attitude towards exercise. The HIGH group expressed increased fatigue, less positivity and perceived exercise as time-consuming. The MOD group described themselves as more energetic...

  11. 腺垂体功能减退症患者服药依从性调查及相关因素分析%Study on medication compliance and influencing factors of the patients with hypopituitarism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙小红; 章秋; 李惠萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of the medication compliance and analyze their influencing factors in hypopituitarism patients.Methods 67 patients with hypopituitarism were investigated on their medication compliance by questionnaires,the relevant influencing factors were analyzed.Results 42 patients (63%) in this study had bad compliance status.Understanding of disease and drugs,persistence on regular visit,accompanying articulo of first attack and worrying about adverse reaction of steroids were influencing factors of medication compliance.Conclusions The medication compliance of hypopituitarism patients is relatively unsatisfactory.It is important to further improve the compliance by pluralism health education and full implementation of supervisory management.%目的 探讨腺垂体功能减退症患者服药依从性的现状及影响因素.方法 以67例腺垂体功能减退症患者为研究对象,采用调查表对腺垂体功能减退患者激素替代治疗服药依从性情况及相关影响因素进行调查及统计分析.结果 67例患者中服药依从性差的有42例占63%.非条件Logistic回归分析表明患者对疾病及药物知识了解程度、坚持定期门诊复查、首次发病伴发危象,担心有激素的不良反应为服药依从性的影响因素.结论 腺垂体功能减退症患者服药依从性现状不容乐观,应积极开展多元化健康教育,实行全程督导管理等策略提高服药依从性.

  12. An agent-based model to study effects of team processes on compliance with safety regulations at an airline ground service organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpanskykh, A.; Haest, R.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining high levels of safety under conditions of ever increasing air traffic is a challenging task. Failures to comply with safety-related regulations are often considered to be important contributors to safety occurrences. To address the issue of compliance, approaches based on external regula

  13. An agent-based model to study effects of team processes on compliance with safety regulations at an airline ground service organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpanskykh, A.; Haest, R.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining high levels of safety under conditions of ever increasing air traffic is a challenging task. Failures to comply with safety-related regulations are often considered to be important contributors to safety occurrences. To address the issue of compliance, approaches based on external regula

  14. “Vergiye Gönüllü Uyum” Konusunda Çanakkale İline Yönelik Ampirik Bir Çalışma(An Empirical Study in Çanakkale Towards Voluntary Tax Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk İPEK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Social and psychological aspects take place among the most important subjects in taxation due to relationship with human factor. Indeed, the way of success in taxation does not only depend on some technical regulations. Not only technical regulations but also the factors affecting tax payers’ views on taxations have to be known. Knowing tax payers’ views on taxation will help to establish an efficient and healthy structure in taxation process.Studies examining taxpayers’ views on taxation and their attitudes and behaviors against taxation have increased in recent years. These studies have revealed that voluntary tax compliance referring to tax payers’ meeting their tax obligations voluntarily and on time is affected by many factors. Besides being personally, these factors are also related to social,political,economic and financial structure.A field study Çanakkale province and its results are analyzed in this study examining tax compliance at the local level. As in general, taxpayers in Çanakkale city center are affected by some personal and environmental factors about tax compliance. Taxpayers’ opinions in Çanakkale province differ on the current status and what ought to be. Taxpayers’ generally support fulfilling tax obligation, but they also state that the current status affects negatively tax copliance.

  15. Association Between Loyalty to Community Pharmacy and Medication Persistence and Compliance, and the Use of Guidelines-Recommended Drugs in Type 2 Diabetes: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossa, Anara Richi; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Lauzier, Sophie; Guénette, Line; Sirois, Caroline; Moisan, Jocelyne

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacists record data on all drugs claimed and may build a personal relationship with their clients. We hypothesized that loyalty to a single pharmacy could be associated with a better quality of drug use.To assess the association between pharmacy loyalty and quality of drug use among individuals treated with oral antidiabetes drugs (OADs).This is a cohort study using Quebec Health Insurance Board data. Associations were assessed using multivariable logistic regression.New OAD users, aged ≥18 years.Individuals who filled all their prescription drugs in the same pharmacy during the first year of treatment were considered loyal. During year 2 of treatment we assessed 4 quality indicators of drug use: persistence with antidiabetes treatment, compliance with antidiabetes treatment among those considered persistent, use of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or of an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ACEi/ARB), and use of a lipid-lowering drug.Of 124,009 individuals, 59.75% were identified as loyal. Nonloyal individuals were less likely to persist with their antidiabetes treatment (adjusted odds ratio = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.86-0.91), to comply with their antidiabetes treatment (0.82; 0.79-0.84), to use an ACEi/ARB (0.85; 0.83-0.88) and to use a lipid-lowering drug (0.83; 0.80-0.85). Quality of drug use decreased as the number of different pharmacies increased (linear contrast tests loyalty are specifically due to pharmacists.

  16. DOE standard compliance demonstration program: An office building example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, S.A.; Keller, J.M.; Wrench, L.E.; Williams, C.J.

    1993-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) issued interim new building energy standards (10 CFR 435 1989) to achieve maximum energy efficiency in the designs of new buildings. DOE then entered into a project to demonstrate and assess the impact of these standards on the design community. One area of focus was a test to see how a less conventional design-focused building would meet the standards` requirements -- DOE wanted to demonstrate that compliance with energy standards does not mean compromising the architectural intent of a building. This study, which was initiated at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), illustrated the process by which compliance with the standards can be proven for a highly {open_quotes}design-oriented{close_quotes} office building. The study also assessed the impact of the whole building simulation compliance alternatives on design. This report documents the compliance requirements, gives a description of the sample building chosen for the study, provides general guidance for the compliance process, documents the method of compliance that was undertaken for the sample building, presents the results of the study, and provides a recommendation on how the compliance requirements could be improved to reflect more realistic use types.

  17. Compliance with Sport Injury Prevention Interventions in Randomised Controlled Trials: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Reijen, Miriam; Vriend, Ingrid; van Mechelen, Willem; Finch, Caroline F; Verhagen, Evert A

    2016-08-01

    Sport injury prevention studies vary in the way compliance with an intervention is defined, measured and adjusted for. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the extent to which sport injury prevention randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have defined, measured and adjusted results for compliance with an injury prevention intervention. An electronic search was performed in MEDLINE, PubMed, the Cochrane Center of Controlled Trials, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database) and SPORTDiscus. English RCTs, quasi-RCTs and cluster-RCTs were considered eligible. Trials that involved physically active individuals or examined the effects of an intervention aimed at the prevention of sport- or physical activity-related injuries were included. Of the total of 100 studies included, 71.6 % mentioned compliance or a related term, 68.8 % provided details on compliance measurement and 51.4 % provided compliance data. Only 19.3 % analysed the effect of compliance rates on study outcomes. While studies used heterogeneous methods, pooled effects could not be presented. Studies that account for compliance demonstrated that compliance significant affects study outcomes. The way compliance is dealt with in preventions studies is subject to a large degree of heterogeneity. Valid and reliable tools to measure and report compliance are needed and should be matched to a uniform definition of compliance.

  18. Development of an Advanced Simulator to Model Mobility Control and Geomechanics during CO{sub 2} Floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delshad, Mojdeh; Wheeler, Mary; Sepehrnoori, Kamy; Pope, Gary

    2013-12-31

    The simulator is an isothermal, three-dimensional, four-phase, compositional, equation-of– state (EOS) simulator. We have named the simulator UTDOE-CO2 capable of simulating various recovery processes (i.e., primary, secondary waterflooding, and miscible and immiscible gas flooding). We include both the Peng-Robinson EOS and the Redlich-Kwong EOS models. A Gibbs stability test is also included in the model to perform a phase identification test to consistently label each phase for subsequent property calculations such as relative permeability, viscosity, density, interfacial tension, and capillary pressure. Our time step strategy is based on an IMPEC-type method (implicit pressure and explicit concentration). The gridblock pressure is solved first using the explicit dating of saturation-dependent terms. Subsequently, the material balance equations are solved explicitly for the total concentration of each component. The physical dispersion term is also included in the governing equations. The simulator includes (1) several foam model(s) for gas mobility control, (2) compositional relative permeability models with the hysteresis option, (3) corner point grid and several efficient solvers, (4) geomechanics module to compute stress field as the result of CO{sub 2} injection/production, (5) the format of commercial visualization software, S3graf from Science-soft Ltd., was implemented for user friendly visualization of the simulation results. All tasks are completed and the simulator was fully tested and delivered to the DOE office including a user’s guide and several input files and the executable for Windows Pcs. We have published several SPE papers, presented several posters, and one MS thesis is completed (V. Pudugramam, 2013) resulting from this DOE funded project.

  19. Oil Mist Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, Lloyd

    2009-02-02

    This report summarizes activities at the KCP related to evaluating and modifying machine tools in order to be in compliance with Section 23 of DOE 10 CFR 851, Worker Safety and Health Program. Section 851.23 (a) states that “Contractors must comply with the following safety and health standards that are applicable to the hazards in their covered workplace”, and subsection 9 contains the following applicable standard: “American Congress of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), ‘Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices,’ (2005) (incorporated by reference, see §851.27) when the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values are lower (more protective) than permissible exposure limits in 29 CFR 1910.” In the 2005 ACGIH – Threshold Limit Value book a Notice of Change was issued for exposure to mineral oil mist used in metalworking fluids (MWFs). The effects of planning for the new facility and which machine tools would be making the transition to the new facility affected which machine tools were modified.

  20. Compliance, Persistence, and Switching Patterns for ACE Inhibitors and ARBs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, S.; Nguyen, N.H.; Visser, S.T.; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW; Postma, M.J.; Boersma, C.

    Objectives: To investigate compliance, persistence, and switching patterns for angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Study Design: Drug-utilization analysis using a large prescription database. Methods: Prescription data for more than 50,000

  1. Compliance Audit of Processed Complementary Foods in Urban Ghana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aryeetey, Richmond Nii Okai; Tay, Marcella

    2015-01-01

    ... marketing practices, which undermine practice of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. The current study assessed PCF labeling compliance to the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes (CMBMS...

  2. Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD) which logs all air pollution complaints...

  3. Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The purpose of ICIS is to meet evolving Enforcement and Compliance business needs for EPA and State users by integrating information into a single integrated data...

  4. Smokers’ compliance with smoke-free policies, and non-smokers’ assertiveness for smoke-free air in the workplace: a study from the Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazuras, Lambros; Zlatev, Martin; Rodafinos, Angelos; Eiser, J Richard

    2012-10-01

    Identify the psychosocial variables that predict smokers’ compliance with smoke-free policies at work, and non-smokers’ assertiveness for smoke-free rights in Greek and Bulgarian workplaces. Data were collected from employees in Greece and Bulgaria. The main outcome measures were smokers’ compliance with smoke-free policies, and non-smokers’ assertiveness intentions. Demographic variables, tobacco use and dependence, as well as beliefs about second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and smoking at work were also assessed. Regression analyses showed that smokers’ compliance with smoke-free policies was predicted by age, perceived health risks of smoking, and beliefs related to the benefits of smoking at work. Non-smokers’ assertiveness was predicted by annoyance from exposure to SHS at work, and assertiveness-related social cognitions (e.g., attitudes, social norms, and self-efficacy). Interventions to promote support for tobacco control policies at work in Greece and Bulgaria may benefit from targeting smokers’ beliefs about the actual effects of tobacco use on health and job performance. Accordingly, efforts to promote non-smokers assertiveness should build stronger assertiveness-related attitudes, convey anti-smoking normative messages, and strengthen self-efficacy skills.

  5. 10 CFR 434.604 - Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... energy consumption shall be measured at the building five foot line for all fuels. Energy consumed from... BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.604 Compliance. 604.1 Compliance with this section is... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance. 434.604 Section 434.604 Energy DEPARTMENT...

  6. 14 CFR 26.49 - Compliance plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance plan. 26.49 Section 26.49... Data for Repairs and Alterations § 26.49 Compliance plan. (a) Compliance plan. Except for applicants... January 11, 2008, each person identified in §§ 26.43, 26.45, and 26.47, must submit a compliance...

  7. 40 CFR 469.11 - Compliance dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance dates. 469.11 Section 469... Compliance dates. The compliance deadline for the BAT fluoride limitation shall be as soon as possible as... determined by the permit writer, but in no event later than July 1, 1984. The compliance date for PSES...

  8. 40 CFR 469.21 - Compliance dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance dates. 469.21 Section 469....21 Compliance dates. The compliance date for the BAT fluoride limitation is as soon as possible as determined by the permit writer but in no event later than November 8, 1985. The compliance date for PSES...

  9. Hazardous Waste Compliance Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, G.L.; Holstein, K.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Hazardous Waste Compliance Program Plan (HWCPP) describes how the Rocky Flats Plant institutes a more effective waste management program designed to achieve and maintain strict adherence to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements. Emphasis is given to improve integration of line operations with programmatic and functional support activities necessary to achieve physical compliance to RCRA regulated equipment, facilities and operations at the floor level. This program focuses on specific activities occurring or which need to occur within buildings containing RCRA regulated units and activities. The plan describes a new approach to achieving and maintaining compliance. This approach concentrates authority and accountability for compliance with the line operating personnel, with support provided from the programmatic functions. This approach requires a higher degree of integration and coordination between operating and program support organizations. The principal changes in emphases are; (1) increased line operations involvement, knowledge and accountability in compliance activities, (2) improved management systems to identify, correct and/or avoid deficiencies and (3) enhanced management attention and employee awareness of compliance related matters.

  10. Compliance or patient empowerment in online communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wentzer, Helle; Bygholm, Ann

    2010-01-01

    of the discussion is complementary data from quantitative research on characteristics of patient support groups, and from two qualitative, in depth studies of the impact of patient networks for lung patients and for women with fertility problems. We conclude that in spite of the potential of online communities......New technologies enable a different organization of the public’s admission to health care services. The article discusses whether online support groups in patient treatment are to be understood in the light of patient empowerment or within the tradition of compliance. The back-ground material...... of opening up health care to the critical voice of the public, the quantitative and qualitative studies surprisingly point to a synthesis of the otherwise opposite positions of empowerment and compliance in patient care. Thereby the critical potential of online communities in health care services seems...

  11. Compliance with antimicrobial therapy: Evaluating the related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Moradi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uncontrolled and irrational use of antibiotics increases the rate of antimicrobial resistance and treatment failure. Compliance with antibiotics is an important indicator to show how patients use their prescribed drugs and it can explain the relationship between drug administration and treatment outcome that needs to be monitored and promoted. We decided to evaluate compliance to antimicrobial drugs in this study.Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 100 patients referring to 4 different specialists’ offices were enrolled. The rate and type of non prescribed antibiotic administration were evaluated using predesigned questionnaires. The data were analyzed by SPSS 17.0 software using descriptive statistics and chi-square test for categorical data.Results: Our results showed that 62.4% of the study population had poor compliance and 37.6 % had good compliance with their prescribed regimen. “Feeling better “and “getting worse” on prescribed regimen were major reasons for drug discontinuation. About 70% of our study population get non prescribed antibiotic from pharmacies at least once a year. Most of the requested antibiotics were not first line options. Level of education was the only factor significantly related to the rate of patient compliance. Conclusion: This study shows the high rate of non prescribed antibiotic administration and low rate of compliance among the study population that emerge the need for particular patient education and putting restrictive rules to bound  non-prescribed and unsupervised  antibiotic marketing.

  12. Building Assurance of Regulatory Compliance in Dynamic Service Oriented Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Sabatova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A system or a particular service is considered to be reliable and credible if we are able to prove its compliance with the defined requirements in a trusted way. In the beginning of this paper the concept and the methodology of continual compliance management in SOA systems introduced by MASTER FP7 research project are described. Then the author introduces her work on compliance assurance verification based on the case study in Hospital San Raffaele in Milan, Italy (HSR.The methodology and its technical realization are explained by examples of Key Assurance Indicator (KAI and Key Security Indicators (KSIs designed for two case studies based on the pilot implementation in the HSR. Author’s original contribution is the definition of compliance patterns in the form of assessment policies for the selected use cases.

  13. Adesão à antibioticoterapia profilática em crianças com anemia falciforme: um estudo prospectivo Compliance with antibiotic prophylaxis in children with sickle cell anemia: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Latini Bitarães

    2008-08-01

    compliance were obtained from three interviews with the primary caregivers, from the children's medical records and from assay of antibacterial activity in urine samples of 81 children. Antibiotics were available free of charge. RESULTS: Penicillin was used in 106 cases (majority by oral route; erythromycin in 2 cases. Urine samples tested positive for the antibiotic in 56% of the cases; 48% of the caregivers assured during interviews that all doses had been administered to children; 89% of medical files recorded no compliance failures. Considering a child compliant if none or just one of these methods detected missing doses, the rate of compliance was 67%. The agreement between methods for assigning a child as compliant or not was low. No significant association of compliance rate with gender, nutritional status, per capita income of the family, caregivers' schooling, or number of family members was demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: Compliance rate with prophylactic antibiotic therapy was low when assessed by interviews and urine tests; and overestimated by analysis of medical records. Compliance should preferably be assessed by several methods due to the complex character of its measurement. The results of the present study suggest a need for a comprehensive educational program involving healthcare professionals, families and children with sickle cell anemia.

  14. Geomechanical Facies Concept In Fractured Resevoirs and the Application of Hybrid Numerical and Analytical Techniques for the Description of Coupled Transport In Fractured Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, C. I.; Wenqing, W.; Kolditz, O.

    2009-04-01

    Exploiting and geo-engineering of fractured rocks in the context of reservoir storage and utilisation is important to applications such as hydrogeology, petroleum geology, geothermal energy, nuclear waste storage and CO2-sequestration. Understanding fluid, mass and energy transport in the three dimensional fracture network is critical to the evaluation planned operating efficiency. Hydraulic, thermal, mechanical and chemical coupled processes under the typical reservoir conditions operate at different scales. Depending on whether the process is continuum dominated (e.g. transfer of stress in the rock body) or discontinuity dominated (e.g. hydraulic transport processes) different methods of numerically investigating and quantifying the system can be applied. A geomechanical facies approach provides the basis for large scale numerical analysis of the coupled processes and prediction of system response. It also provides the basis for a three dimensional holistic understanding of the reservoir systems and the appropriate investigation techniques which could be used to evaluate the capacities of the reservoirs to be investigated as well as appropriate development techniques. Concentrating on the numerical modelling there is often a difficult balance between the numerical stability criteria of the different equation systems which need to be solved to describe the interaction of the dominant processes. The introduction of analytical solutions where possible, functional dependencies and multiple meshes provides on the framework of the geo-mechanical facies concept provides an efficient and stable method for the prediction of the effect of the in situ coupling.

  15. Audit and feedback intervention: An examination of differences in chiropractic record-keeping compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homb, Nicole M; Sheybani, Shayan; Derby, Dustin; Wood, Kurt

    2014-10-01

    Objective : The objective of this study was to investigate the association of a clinical documentation quality improvement program using audit-feedback with clinical compliance to indicators of quality chart documentation. Methods : This was an analysis of differences between adherence to quality indicators of chiropractic record documentation and audit-feedback intervention (feedback report only vs. feedback report with one-on-one educational consultation) at different campuses. Comparisons among groups were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey or Dunnett post hoc tests, and Cohen's d effect size estimates. Results : There was a significant increase in the mean percentile compliance in 2 of 5 compliance areas and 1 of 11 compliance objectives. Campus B demonstrated significantly higher levels of compliance relative to campus A and/or campus C in 5 of 5 compliance areas and 7 of 11 compliance objectives. Across-campus comparisons indicated that the compliance area Review (Non-Medicare) Treatment Plan [F(2,18) = 17.537, p importance for clinical compliance practice. Conclusions : Feedback of performance improved compliance to indicators of quality health record documentation, especially when baseline adherence is relatively low. Required educational consultations with clinicians combined with audit-feedback were no more effective at increasing compliance to indicators of quality health record documentation than audit-feedback alone.

  16. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF HYPERTENSION AND DIABETES WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO ADDICTION AND TREATMENT COMPLIANCE IN ABOVE 40 YEARS AGE GROUP IN A SLUM AREA OF CHENNAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Context : India is in a stage of epidemiological transition, facing a dual burden of communicable and non - communicable diseases; and as in developed countries the non - communicable diseases in India are assuming a more menacing proportion. A recent Chennai Corpor ation survey found that at least one in five people in Chennai’s slums had hypertension and more than one in ten had diabetes. Aims : To assess the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes in above 40 years age group in a slum area of Chennai and to study t he association of these diseases with addiction to alcohol and tobacco. The study also focuses on compliance of patients to treatment for hypertension and diabetes. Settings and Design : Urban slum in Chennai, Cross sectional study. Materials and Methods : P resent study was undertaken in a slum in Chennai in persons above 40 years age group. One slum was selected randomly and the households in the slum were sampled by a systematic random sampling method. A pre - designed and pre - tested questionnaire was used to collect information regarding the socio - demographic profile, past history of hypertension and diabetes, history of addiction to alcohol and tobacco (smoking or chewing and compliance to treatment for known hypertensive’s and diabetics. Statistical analys is : The prevalence was expressed in percentage and the Chi square test was used to find association with the factors. Results : The prevalence of Hypertension was 39.17% and Diabetes was 15.49%. The overall prevalence of addiction to alcohol, smoking and/or tobacco among study population in males was 74.86% and females 50.23%. In male study population the prevalence of addiction among hypertensive’s and diabetics was 93.54% (p<0.001 and 96.77% (p<0.001 respectively. In female study population the prevalenc e of addiction among hypertensive’s and diabetics was 62.02% (p<0.005 and 37.28% (p<0.05 respectively. Compliance to treatment was more in females

  17. Stress field sensitivity analysis within Mesozoic successions in the Swiss Alpine foreland using 3-D-geomechanical-numerical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Karsten; Hergert, Tobias; Heidbach, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The in situ stress conditions are of key importance for the evaluation of radioactive waste repositories. In stage two of the Swiss site selection program, the three siting areas of high-level radioactive waste are located in the Alpine foreland in northern Switzerland. The sedimentary succession overlays the basement, consisting of variscan crystalline rocks as well as partly preserved Permo-Carboniferous deposits in graben structures. The Mesozoic sequence represents nearly the complete era and is covered by Cenozoic Molasse deposits as well as Quaternary sediments, mainly in the valleys. The target horizon (designated host rock) is an >100 m thick argillaceous Jurassic deposit (Opalinus Clay). To enlighten the impact of site-specific features on the state of stress within the sedimentary succession, 3-D-geomechanical-numerical models with elasto-plastic rock properties are set up for three potential siting areas. The lateral extent of the models ranges between 12 and 20 km, the vertical extent is up to a depth of 2.5 or 5 km below sea level. The sedimentary sequence plus the basement are separated into 10 to 14 rock mechanical units. The Mesozoic succession is intersected by regional fault zones; two or three of them are present in each model. The numerical problem is solved with the finite element method with a resolution of 100-150 m laterally and 10-30 m vertically. An initial stress state is established for all models taking into account the depth-dependent overconsolidation ratio in Opalinus Clay in northern Switzerland. The influence of topography, rock properties, friction on the faults as well as the impact of tectonic shortening on the state of stress is investigated. The tectonic stress is implemented with lateral displacement boundary conditions, calibrated on stress data that are compiled in Northern Switzerland. The model results indicate that the stress perturbation by the topography is significant to depths greater than the relief contrast. The

  18. Compliance with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH diet: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Wing-Man Kwan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH diet has been recognized as effective to lower blood pressure in feeding trials, but compliance with the diet must be persistent to maximize health benefits in clinical practice. This paper reports a systematic review of the latest evidence on the method to assess DASH compliance and the corresponding patients' compliance in interventional settings. METHODS: The databases including MEDLINE, EBM Reviews, EMBASE, and CINAHL Plus were searched for original research studies published in the period of January 1992-December 2012 that evaluated compliance with DASH diet. Studies written in English language, with DASH intervention, with complete documentation of the degree of DASH compliance and the assessment method used were included in this review. The search terms included: dietary approaches to stop hypertension, DASH, compliance, adherence, consistency, and concordance. RESULTS: Nine studies were included. Different types of interventions were identified, ranging from feeding trial to dietary counseling. These studies differed in the assessment methods used to evaluate DASH compliance, which included objective approaches like measurement of urinary excretion, and subjective approaches like dietary intake assessment for DASH target comparison and construction of DASH scoring systems. Compliance levels were lower in educational interventions than that of the original DASH feeding trial. CONCLUSIONS: To conclude, although no consensus existed regarding the best approach to assess DASH compliance, its suboptimal compliance warrants attention. This study implied a need to investigate effective approaches to sustain the DASH dietary pattern beyond counselling alone.

  19. Thoracic sympathetic block reduces respiratory system compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Ely Martins Benseñor

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA following thoracic surgery presents known analgesic and respiratory benefits. However, intraoperative thoracic sympathetic block may trigger airway hyperreactivity. This study weighed up these beneficial and undesirable effects on intraoperative respiratory mechanics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized, double-blind clinical study at a tertiary public hospital. METHODS: Nineteen patients scheduled for partial lung resection were distributed using a random number table into groups receiving active TEA (15 ml 0.5% bupivacaine, n = 9 or placebo (15 ml 0.9% saline, n = 10 solutions that also contained 1:200,000 epinephrine and 2 mg morphine. Under general anesthesia, flows and airway and esophageal pressures were recorded. Pressure-volume curves, lower inflection points (LIP, resistance and compliance at 10 ml/kg tidal volume were established for respiratory system, chest wall and lungs. Student’s t test was performed, including confidence intervals (CI. RESULTS: Bupivacaine rose 5 ± 1 dermatomes upwards and 6 ± 1 downwards. LIP was higher in the bupivacaine group (6.2 ± 2.3 versus 3.6 ± 0.6 cmH2O, p = 0.016, CI = -3.4 to -1.8. Respiratory system and lung compliance were higher in the placebo group (respectively 73.3 ± 10.6 versus 51.9 ± 15.5, p = 0.003, CI = 19.1 to 23.7; 127.2 ± 31.7 versus 70.2 ± 23.1 ml/cmH2O, p < 0.001, CI = 61 to 53. Resistance and chest wall compliance showed no difference. CONCLUSION: TEA decreased respiratory system compliance by reducing its lung component. Resistance was unaffected. Under TEA, positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers are advisable.

  20. Social-physiological compliance as a determinant of team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, R A; Boucsein, W; Gil, M C

    2001-04-01

    A cybernetic model of behavior predicts that team performance may depend on physiological compliance among participants. This laboratory study tested if compliance in electrodermal activity (EDA), heart rate or breathing in two-person teams (N=16) was predictive of team performance or coordination in a continuous tracking task simulating teleoperation. Visual contact among participants was manipulated. Physiological compliance was scored with weighted coherence and cross correlation. Separate multiple regression analyses revealed that the task completion time was predicted by coherence measures for EDA and heart, but only at a trend level for breathing. Task completion time was also predicted by heart cross correlation. Team tracking error was predicted by coherence measures for EDA, heart and breathing, and also heart cross correlation. While social-visual contact did not have an impact, physiological compliance was predictive of improved performance, with coherence robust over all three physiological measures. Heart cross correlation showed the strongest predictive relationships. These results provide evidence that physiological compliance among team members may benefit team performance. While further study is needed, physiological compliance may someday provide a needed tool for the study of team work, and an objective means to guide the ergonomic design of complex sociotechnical systems requiring a high degree of team proficiency.

  1. Compliance with diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis immunisation in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeitlyn, S; Rahman, A K; Nielsen, B H

    1992-01-01

    of immunisation, and she was given clear instructions to bring the child back after four weeks for the second dose. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Rate of non-compliance with advice to return child for second vaccination. RESULTS: 46 of 113 children (41%) received the second dose of the vaccine. Factors most closely......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate factors associated with non-compliance with having second vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis in a treatment centre in Dhaka to determine which children were most at risk of not completing immunisation. DESIGN: Cohort study of infants given first dose...... of the vaccine and followed up six weeks later to ascertain compliance with having second dose. Factors associated with non-compliance were evaluated. SETTING: Dhaka treatment centre of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. SUBJECTS: 136 unimmunised children aged 6 weeks to 23...

  2. High compliance with dietary recommendations in a cohort of meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiecki, Jakub G; Appleby, Paul N; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Key, Timothy J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences in dietary intakes between 30251 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford study, comprising 18 244 meat eaters, 4 531 fish eaters, 6 673 vegetarians, and 803 vegans aged 30 to 90 years who completed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We hypothesized that these groups characterized by varying degrees of animal product exclusion have significantly different intakes of many nutrients, with possible implications for dietary adequacy and compliance with population dietary goals. Nutrient intakes were estimated including fortification in foods, but excluding dietary supplements. Dietary supplementation practices were also evaluated. Highly significant differences were found in estimated nutrient intakes between meat eaters and vegans, with fish eaters and vegetarians usually having intermediate values. Meat eaters had the highest energy intakes, followed by fish eaters and vegetarians, whereas vegans had the lowest intakes. Vegans had the highest intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, vitamins C and E, folate, magnesium, iron, and copper. Meat eaters had the highest intake of saturated fatty acids, protein, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, vitamin D, zinc, and iodine. Fish eaters had the highest intakes of calcium and selenium. There were no statistically significant differences in sodium and potassium intakes between dietary groups. With the exception of sodium intake, compliance with population dietary goals was high across diet groups. The results suggested a high prevalence of inadequacy for dietary vitamin B12 and iodine in vegans. The diet groups under study showed striking differences in dietary intakes, with possible implications for compliance with dietary recommendations, as well as cardiometabolic diseases risk. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Local Government Internal Audit Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Jones

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Local government councils (LGC rely on a number of funding sources including state and federal governments as well as their community constituents to enable them to provide a range of public services. Given the constraints on these funding sources councils need to have in place a range of strategies and policies capable of providing good governance and must appropriately discharge their financial accountabilities. To assist LGC with meeting their governance and accountability obligations they often seek guidance from their key stakeholders. For example, in the Australian State of New South Wales (NSW, the Office of Local Government has developed a set of guidelines, the Internal Audit Guidelines. In 2010 the NSW Office of Local Government issued revised guidelines emphasising that an internal audit committee is an essential component of good governance. In addition, the guidelines explained that to improve the governance and accountability of the councils, these committees should be composed of a majority of independent members. To maintain committee independence the guidelines indicated that the Mayor should not be a member of the committee. However these are only guidelines, not legislated requirements and as such compliance with the guidelines, before they were revised, has been demonstrated to be quite low (Jones & Bowrey 2013. This study, based on a review of NSW Local Government Councils’ 2012/2013 reports, including Annual Reportsrelation to internal audit committees, to determine if the guidelines are effective in improving local government council governance.

  4. Fundamentals of well geophysical defectoscopy: Certain applications of measures of defectiveness to solving geomechanical problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oparin, V.N.; Kurlenya, M.V.; Matasova, G.G.; Morozov, P.F.

    1983-01-01

    The reaction of a rock massif around the worked chambers to the blasting effect, change in the dominant size of the block in the structural hierarchy of the massif depending on the distance of the blasts, change in the amplitude of the function of state of domains from the distance of the blast, and also certain features of the mechanical condition of the rocks in the vicinity of the cleaning chambers (integrated evaluations) are studied.

  5. Geomechanical Evaluation of Derinkuyu Antique Underground City and its Implications in Geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydan, Ömer; Ulusay, Reşat

    2013-07-01

    Derinkuyu Underground City, located in the Cappadocia Region of Turkey, is an important structure not only for its antique and archaeological characteristics, but also as a structure in terms of the long-term stability of underground rock structures excavated by mankind. The authors carried out some observational, experimental and theoretical rock mechanics studies in the region from 1996 in the context of a research project supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan for the assessment of the long-term behaviour of Derinkuyu Underground City, and these studies are still continuing. In addition to the monitoring of the environmental conditions such as temperature, moisture and air pressure, they also installed acoustic emission (AE) and electrical potential (EP) measurement systems to monitor the behaviour and response of the surrounding rock at the fifth and seventh floors of the underground city. In this article, the geology, seismicity and state of stress of the Cappadocia Region, climatic conditions in the underground city and its vicinity, short- and long-term behaviours of the surrounding rock, its index and mechanical properties, and effects of water content and freezing-thawing processes were investigated. The stability of Derinkuyu Underground City was also evaluated using theoretical and numerical methods, and the results were presented. Furthermore, its implications in modern geoengineering are also discussed.

  6. Study of self-compliance behaviors and internal filament characteristics in intrinsic SiO{sub x}-based resistive switching memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yao-Feng, E-mail: yfchang@utexas.edu; Zhou, Fei; Chen, Ying-Chen; Lee, Jack C. [Microelectronics Research Center, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Fowler, Burt [PrivaTran, LLC, 1250 Capital of Texas Highway South, Bldg 3, Ste 400, Austin, Texas 78746 (United States)

    2016-01-18

    Self-compliance characteristics and reliability optimization are investigated in intrinsic unipolar silicon oxide (SiO{sub x})-based resistive switching (RS) memory using TiW/SiO{sub x}/TiW device structures. The program window (difference between SET voltage and RESET voltage) is dependent on external series resistance, demonstrating that the SET process is due to a voltage-triggered mechanism. The program window has been optimized for program/erase disturbance immunity and reliability for circuit-level applications. The SET and RESET transitions have also been characterized using a dynamic conductivity method, which distinguishes the self-compliance behavior due to an internal series resistance effect (filament) in SiO{sub x}-based RS memory. By using a conceptual “filament/resistive gap (GAP)” model of the conductive filament and a proton exchange model with appropriate assumptions, the internal filament resistance and GAP resistance can be estimated for high- and low-resistance states (HRS and LRS), and are found to be independent of external series resistance. Our experimental results not only provide insights into potential reliability issues but also help to clarify the switching mechanisms and device operating characteristics of SiO{sub x}-based RS memory.

  7. Geomechanical testing of MRIG-9 core for the potential SPR siting at the Richton salt dome.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Dennis P.; Broome, Scott Thomas; Bronowski, David R.; Bauer, Stephen J.; Hofer, John H.

    2009-02-01

    A laboratory testing program was developed to examine the mechanical behavior of salt from the Richton salt dome. The resulting information is intended for use in design and evaluation of a proposed Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facility in that dome. Core obtained from the drill hole MRIG-9 was obtained from the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology. Mechanical properties testing included: (1) acoustic velocity wave measurements; (2) indirect tensile strength tests; (3) unconfined compressive strength tests; (4) ambient temperature quasi-static triaxial compression tests to evaluate dilational stress states at confining pressures of 725, 1450, 2175, and 2900 psi; and (5) confined triaxial creep experiments to evaluate the time-dependent behavior of the salt at axial stress differences of 4000 psi, 3500 psi, 3000 psi, 2175 psi and 2000 psi at 55 C and 4000 psi at 35 C, all at a constant confining pressure of 4000 psi. All comments, inferences, discussions of the Richton characterization and analysis are caveated by the small number of tests. Additional core and testing from a deeper well located at the proposed site is planned. The Richton rock salt is generally inhomogeneous as expressed by the density and velocity measurements with depth. In fact, we treated the salt as two populations, one clean and relatively pure (> 98% halite), the other salt with abundant (at times) anhydrite. The density has been related to the insoluble content. The limited mechanical testing completed has allowed us to conclude that the dilatational criteria are distinct for the halite-rich and other salts, and that the dilation criteria are pressure dependent. The indirect tensile strengths and unconfined compressive strengths determined are consistently lower than other coastal domal salts. The steady-state-only creep model being developed suggests that Richton salt is intermediate in creep resistance when compared to other domal and bedded salts. The results of the study provide only

  8. Corporate compliance and voluntary disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, A B

    1995-09-01

    In any event, the decision to institute a corporate compliance program is a relatively simple one. In view of the ambiguity surrounding certain fraud and abuse provisions, and the corporate "death sentence" that may result from program exclusion, a compliance program is always sound corporate policy. To be sure, if the compliance program is administered improperly, it can actually increase the likelihood of whistleblower actions and create a body of potentially hurtful documentation. But these dangers can be minimized by structuring the program to protect the self-evaluative process through relevant privileges. The risks also pale in comparison to the exposure to criminal or exclusionary sanctions when improper conduct goes undetected by an organization.

  9. Federal facilities compliance act waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J; Gates-Anderson, D; Hollister, R; Painter, S

    1999-07-06

    Site Treatment Plans (STPs) developed through the Federal Facilities Compliance Act pose many technical and administrative challenges. Legacy wastes managed under these plans require Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) compliance through treatment and ultimate disposal. Although capacity has been defined for most of the Department of Energy wastes, many waste streams require further characterization and many need additional treatment and handling beyond LDR criteria to be able to dispose of the waste. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the Hazardous Waste Management Division has developed a comprehensive Legacy Waste Program. The program directs work to manage low level and mixed wastes to ensure compliance with nuclear facility rules and its STP. This paper provides a survey of work conducted on these wastes at LLNL. They include commercial waste treatment and disposal, diverse forms of characterization, inventory maintenance and reporting, on-site treatment, and treatability studies. These activities are conducted in an integrated fashion to meet schedules defined in the STP. The processes managing wastes are dynamic due to required integration of administrative, regulatory, and technical concerns spanning the gamut to insure safe proper disposal.

  10. Geomechanical Investigations for Architectural Heritage Preservation. The Habib Sakakini Palace in Cairo, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed HEMEDA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the geotechnical problems and failure mechanisms of stone structures of Sakakini palace (1897 AC entails a comprehensive study on the mechanical behavior of the stones and other construction materials. In addition to micro analysis, geological and geomorphologic interests, several investigations on stone deterioration and engineering geology were performed. First phase included more advanced techniques, which provided additional information on particular aspects of site deterioration and it included laser analysis (LIBS, electron probe micro analysis, micro XRD and XRF analyses, scanning electron microscope analysis coupled with EDX probing, transmission electron microscopy and grain size distribution analysis, permeability and pore size distribution of stone, mortars, core binders and other construction materials. Second phase included the determination of mechanical properties of building stones, such as compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, tensile strength, and shear strength. To obtain reliable values for these properties, a suitable number of samples should be extracted, prepared for testing, and properly tested. The test results are then analyzed to establish the investigated stone properties. The testing program includes extracting seven cylindrical cores from the basement stone walls of Sakakini’s mansion in down town Cairo. The objectives of the study are to provide a characterization of micro structures and the mechanical properties of the stones of Sakakini’s Mansion; The purpose of the present research is to provide recommendations regarding the strengthening and the safety of architectural heritage under long and short-term loading. For this purpose, a set of experimental tests and of advanced numerical analyses are to be carried out.

  11. Geomechanical and water vapor absorption characteristics of clay-bearing soft rocks at great depth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Na; Liu Longbiao; Hou Dongwen; He Manchao; Liu Yilei

    2014-01-01

    The geological and physico-mechanical properties characterization of deep soft rocks is one of the critical scientific issues for deep soft rock engineering. In the present study, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and mercury intrusion porosimetry experiments were carried out to investigate the mineral compositions, microstructure and porosity characteristics of the 13 clay-bearing soft rock samples collected from a deep coal mine in China. Water vapor absorption and uniaxial compressive experiments were also performed to examine water absorption characteristics and water-induced strength degradation effect of the investigated deep soft rock samples. The results show that the dominant mineral components in mudstone, coarse sandstone and fine sandstone samples were calcite, quartz and clay respectively. The contents of clay minerals in all samples were relatively high and ranged from 12.3% (N-4) to 56.5% (XS-1). Water vapor absorption processes of all the soft rock samples follow an exponential law which is very similar to the water vapor absorption behavior of conglomerate samples reported in our earlier study. Correlation analyses also suggested that there were good positive correlation relationships between water absorptivity and clay minerals for both mudstone and sandstone samples. Furthermore, it was found that vapor absorption was not correlated with the porosity for mudstone, however, positive correlation relationship was found between them for sand-stone. Correlation analysis between UCS, modulus of elasticity and water content demonstrated that both of them tend to decrease with the increase of their water content due to water absorption.

  12. Fully-coupled hydrologic/geomechanical simulations of slope failure in a prototypical steep mountain catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. A.; Borja, R. I.; Ebel, B. A.; Loague, K.

    2009-12-01

    This work presents a physics-based framework for continuum modeling of hydrologically-driven slope failure. The analyses employ a mixed finite element formulation for variably-saturated geomaterials undergoing elastoplastic deformations. The deforming soil mass is treated as a multiphase continuum, and the governing mass and momentum balance equations are solved in a fully-coupled manner. This tight coupling is necessary to capture key features of slope behavior. To test the coupled formulation, we present a three-dimensional slope analysis motivated by a 1996 landslide that occurred at a steep experimental catchment (CB1) near Coos Bay, Oregon. Simulations are used to quantify the rainfall-induced slope deformation and assess the failure potential. Results of parametric studies suggest that for a steep hillslope underlain by bedrock, similar to the CB1 site, failure would occur by a multiple slide block mechanism, with progressive failure surfaces forming at the bedrock interface and propagating to the surface. Extensive field observations and experimental measurements made at the CB1 site provide a rich data set to calibrate and evaluate the proposed numerical model. We take the opportunity, however, to point out those features of the model that are not well-constrained by available field data, but which may play an important role in determing the timing and location of failure. These observations are used to assess the current state of predictive capability of the slope simulations, and to inform the design of future field experiments.

  13. Social influence: compliance and conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cialdini, Robert B; Goldstein, Noah J

    2004-01-01

    This review covers recent developments in the social influence literature, focusing primarily on compliance and conformity research published between 1997 and 2002. The principles and processes underlying a target's susceptibility to outside influences are considered in light of three goals fundamental to rewarding human functioning. Specifically, targets are motivated to form accurate perceptions of reality and react accordingly, to develop and preserve meaningful social relationships, and to maintain a favorable self-concept. Consistent with the current movement in compliance and conformity research, this review emphasizes the ways in which these goals interact with external forces to engender social influence processes that are subtle, indirect, and outside of awareness.

  14. Appolonian Packing and Fractal Shape of Grains Improving Geomechanical Properties in Engineering Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, C. A.

    Fractal packing and highly irregular shaped particles increase the mechanical properties of rocks and building materials. This suggests that fractal methods are good tools for modeling particle mixes with efficient properties like maximum strength and maximum surface area or minimum porosity and minimum permeability. However gradings and packings are calculated by ``Euclidean'' disk models and sphere models. Surprisingly even the simplest models are far more complex than they appear. The fractal ``Appolonian packing model'' is proposed as the most universal two-dimensional packing model. However the inhomogeneity of gradings and the irregularity of natural grain shapes and surfaces are not reflected by these models. Consequently calculations are often far from empirical observations and experimental results. A thorough quantification of packings and gradings is important for many reasons and still a matter of intense investigation and controversial discussion. This study concentrates on fractal models for densely packed non-cohesive rocks, crushed mineral assemblages, concrete and asphalt mixtures. A summary of fractal grain size distributions with linear cumulative curves on log-log plots is presented for these mixtures. It is shown that fractal two-dimensional and three-dimensional models for dense packings reflect different physical processes of material mixing or geological deposition. The results from shear-box experiments on materials with distinct grain size distributions show a remarkable increase of the mechanical strength from non-fractal to fractal mixtures. It is suggested that fractal techniques need more systematical application and correlation with results from material testing experiments in engineering geology. The purpose of future work should lead towards the computability of dense packings of angular particles in three dimensions.

  15. Tax Compliance Inventory: TAX-I Voluntary tax compliance, enforced tax compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchler, Erich; Wahl, Ingrid

    2010-06-01

    Surveys on tax compliance and non-compliance often rely on ad hoc formulated items which lack standardization and empirical validation. We present an inventory to assess tax compliance and distinguish between different forms of compliance and non-compliance: voluntary versus enforced compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion. First, items to measure voluntary and enforced compliance, avoidance, and evasion were drawn up (collected from past research and newly developed), and tested empirically with the aim of producing four validated scales with a clear factorial structure. Second, findings from the first analyses were replicated and extended to validation on the basis of motivational postures. A standardized inventory is provided which can be used in surveys in order to collect data which are comparable across research focusing on self-reports. The inventory can be used in either of two ways: either in its entirety, or by applying the single scales independently, allowing an economical and fast assessment of different facets of tax compliance.

  16. The Impact of Religiosity on Tax Compliance among Turkish Self-Employed Taxpayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Benk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore the impact between religiosity and voluntary tax compliance and enforced tax compliance for self-employed taxpayers in Turkey, where Islam is the predominant religion. A questionnaire survey was administrated to 375 male and 28 female self-employed taxpayers. In this paper, two dimensions of religiosity, namely interpersonal and intrapersonal religiosity, were studied. Factor analysis and ordinary least squares regression methods were used for data analyses. The results of the study illustrate that general religiosity has a statistically positive impact on both voluntary and enforced tax compliance. When we consider the dimensions of religiosity, only intrapersonal religiosity appears to be a significant contributor only to voluntary tax compliance. Nevertheless, interpersonal religiosity has no significant statistical effect on both voluntary and enforced tax compliance. This is one of the pioneer studies of its kind, and investigates the relationship between religiosity and tax compliance from the perspective of developing countries, particularly, Turkey.

  17. THE ROLE OF COMPLIANCE IN AN ORGANIZATION. WAYS OF IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreescu Nicoleta Alina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed the importance of ethical and conduct codes in implementing the compliance programs in an organization. We presented the assumptions that were the basis for the forming of ethic and compliance programs, as well as their evolution in the last decades. In the first part of this paper we highlighted the legislation that outlined principles required for organizations to implement their compliance programs and business ethics. This legislation came as a response to corporate scandals relating to bribery, fraud and corruption in the 70s, and governments of the affected countries were forced to react in order to prevent, detect inappropriate behaviour, as well as improve corporate behaviour. After coming into force of the Federal Law "The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977" (FCPA, 1977, there was an increase in the number of codes of conduct and corporate involvement in adopting a conduct supported by consumers and stakeholders and to redefine the standards and values, to create a new image corresponding to the new market requirements. In the Guidelines 2002 basic principles are set out in order to efficiently implement a compliance and ethics program in business. The case study was materialized in the analysis of ethics and compliance codes, and the method used for implementing them in three Romanian companies. Analyzing the three ethics and conduct codes, we can conclude that the most important factor to successfully implement ethics and compliance within an organization is "tone from the top". CEO conduct is one that has a direct effect on members of the organization. Furthermore, we followed capturing developments in the rules governing the international business ethics and evaluated the legal framework regulating these issues. The primary aim was to assess how rules are implemented throughout business ethics compliance programs developed at company level and to identify ways to promote - at an organizational level

  18. Fair play: social norm compliance failures in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Callaghan, Claire; Bertoux, Maxime; Irish, Muireann; Shine, James M; Wong, Stephanie; Spiliopoulos, Leonidas; Hodges, John R; Hornberger, Michael

    2016-01-01

    .... Functional neuroimaging studies have investigated social norm compliance in healthy individuals, leading to the identification of a network of fronto-subcortical regions that underpins this ability...

  19. Geomechanics of penetration : experimental and computational approaches : final report for LDRD project 38718.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, Robert Douglas; Holcomb, David Joseph; Gettemy, Glen L.; Fossum, Arlo Frederick; Rivas, Raul R.; Bronowski, David R.; Preece, Dale S.

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of the present work is to increase our understanding of which properties of geomaterials most influence the penetration process with a goal of improving our predictive ability. Two primary approaches were followed: development of a realistic, constitutive model for geomaterials and designing an experimental approach to study penetration from the target's point of view. A realistic constitutive model, with parameters based on measurable properties, can be used for sensitivity analysis to determine the properties that are most important in influencing the penetration process. An immense literature exists that is devoted to the problem of predicting penetration into geomaterials or similar man-made materials such as concrete. Various formulations have been developed that use an analytic or more commonly, numerical, solution for the spherical or cylindrical cavity expansion as a sort of Green's function to establish the forces acting on a penetrator. This approach has had considerable success in modeling the behavior of penetrators, both as to path and depth of penetration. However the approach is not well adapted to the problem of understanding what is happening to the material being penetrated. Without a picture of the stress and strain state imposed on the highly deformed target material, it is not easy to determine what properties of the target are important in influencing the penetration process. We developed an experimental arrangement that allows greater control of the deformation than is possible in actual penetrator tests, yet approximates the deformation processes imposed by a penetrator. Using explosive line charges placed in a central borehole, we loaded cylindrical specimens in a manner equivalent to an increment of penetration, allowing the measurement of the associated strains and accelerations and the retrieval of specimens from the more-or-less intact cylinder. Results show clearly that the deformation zone is highly concentrated

  20. Impact of physician empathy on migraine disability and migraineur compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim S Attar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: We aim to establish the role that perceived physician empathy plays in determining migraineurs′ outcomes and compliance with migraine management plans. We checked for associations between perceived physician empathy and clinical outcomes as well as compliance with management plans. Materials and Methods: 63 migraineurs were enrolled between July and September 2011. Questionnaire administered at the time of inclusion into the study included self-assessment of disability due to migraine (Migraine Disability Assessment Test followed by migraineurs′ assessment of physician empathy (Consultation and Relational Empathy Measure. Three months later, a telephonic questionnaire ascertained changes in disability due to migraine and compliance with migraine treatment. Statistical Analysis: Data was entered in Microsoft Excel 2010 and analyzed using SPSS 17. Pearson′s correlation was employed to analyze the significance of relationship between variables. P-value of less than 0.05 has been considered statistically significant. Results: Statistically significant positive Pearson′s correlations are seen between perceived empathy and decrease in migraine disability and symptoms over three months (P < 0.05. Significant positive relationships are also seen between perceived empathy and compliance with diet/meal timings, exercising, de-stressing/sleep pattern modification and medications (P < 0.05. Self-reported compliance is significantly correlated with improved patient outcomes (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Substantial positive associations are found between perceived physician empathy and migraineurs′ outcomes and compliance with management plans. This emphasizes the importance of empathy in migraineur-physician communication.

  1. Numerical and experimental study of strata behavior and land subsidence in an underground coal gasification project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirdesai, N. N.; Singh, R.; Singh, T. N.; Ranjith, P. G.

    2015-11-01

    Underground Coal Gasification, with enhanced knowledge of hydrogeological, geomechanical and environmental aspects, can be an alternative technique to exploit the existing unmineable reserves of coal. During the gasification process, petro-physical and geomechanical properties undergo a drastic change due to heating to elevated temperatures. These changes, caused due to the thermal anisotropy of various minerals, result in the generation of thermal stresses; thereby developing new fracture pattern. These fractures cause the overhead rock strata to cave and fill the gasification chamber thereby causing subsidence. The degree of subsidence, change in fluid transport and geomechanical properties of the rock strata, in and around the subsidence zone, can affect the groundwater flow. This study aims to predict the thermo-geomechanical response of the strata during UCG. Petro-physical and geomechanical properties are incorporated in the numerical modelling software COMSOL Multiphysics and an analytical strength model is developed to validate and further study the mechanical response and heat conduction of the host rock around the gasification chamber. Once the problems are investigated and solved, the enhanced efficiency and the economic exploitation of gasification process would help meet country's energy demand.

  2. Heating improves poor compliance with branched chain amino acid-rich supplementation in patients with liver cirrhosis: A before-after pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itou, Minoru; Kawaguchi, Takumi; Taniguchi, Eitaro; Shiraishi, Satomi; Ibi, Ryoko; Mutou, Michiko; Okada, Teruyo; Uchida, Yuki; Otsuka, Momoka; Oriishi, Tetsuharu; Tanaka, Suiko; Takakura, Machiko; Mitsuyama, Keiichi; Tsuruta, Osamu; Sata, Michio

    2009-01-01

    Although branched chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation improves malnutrition in cirrhotic patients, patient compliance with the administration of BCAA-rich supplements is poor due to their bitter taste. Since temperature is an important factor affecting taste, we examined the effect of heating on the stability of BCAAs and on the compliance of patients with liver cirrhosis with BCAA-rich supplement administration. A thermal denaturation test was first conducted, in which the BCAA-rich supplement Aminoleban® EN was heated to 37, 60, or 80°C for 30 or 60 min. The concentration of three amino acids, L-valine, L-leucine and L-isoleucine, was subsequently measured. The nutritional status of the cirrhotic patients was also evaluted. Patients presenting liver failure with a Child-Pugh class of A (n=2), B (n=2) or C (n=2) were hospitalized at Kurume University Hospital. Six patients with liver cirrhosis (HCV, n=3; HBV, n=1; alcohol, n=2) were enrolled. Venous blood samples were drawn in the morning after a 12-h overnight fast. The BCAA-rich supplement was administered to patients at room temperature (25°C) or heat loaded at 60°C for 10 min, with the temperature maintained above 45°C. Each patient was interviewed by a nationally registered dietitian regarding food consumption and intake of the BCAA-rich supplement immediately after each meal. Nutritional status was evaluated according to serum albumin levels, blood hemoglobin, prothrombin time and total lymphocyte count. No significant decrease was noted in valine, leucine or isoleucine levels following the heating of the BCAAs to 80°C. The caloric intake of the BCAA-rich supplement was significantly higher with administration after heating to 60°C, compared to caloric intake with administration at 25°C. In addition, heating of the BCAA-rich supplement significantly increased blood lymphocyte counts. In conclusion, heating did not affect the stability of the BCAAs, and may improve compliance with BCAA

  3. Public Governance Quality and Tax Compliance Behavior in Nigeria: The Moderating Role of Financial Condition and Risk Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O. Alabede

    2011-06-01

    public governance quality on tax compliance behavior of individual taxpayers as well as the moderating effect of financial condition and risk preference on tax compliance and its determinants. This study extended tax compliance model to incorporate public governance quality and moderating effects of financial condition and risk preference.

  4. User's guide of TOUGH2-EGS-MP: A Massively Parallel Simulator with Coupled Geomechanics for Fluid and Heat Flow in Enhanced Geothermal Systems VERSION 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Yi [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Fakcharoenphol, Perapon [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Shihao [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Winterfeld, Philip H. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Keni [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wu, Yu-Shu [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    TOUGH2-EGS-MP is a parallel numerical simulation program coupling geomechanics with fluid and heat flow in fractured and porous media, and is applicable for simulation of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). TOUGH2-EGS-MP is based on the TOUGH2-MP code, the massively parallel version of TOUGH2. In TOUGH2-EGS-MP, the fully-coupled flow-geomechanics model is developed from linear elastic theory for thermo-poro-elastic systems and is formulated in terms of mean normal stress as well as pore pressure and temperature. Reservoir rock properties such as porosity and permeability depend on rock deformation, and the relationships between these two, obtained from poro-elasticity theories and empirical correlations, are incorporated into the simulation. This report provides the user with detailed information on the TOUGH2-EGS-MP mathematical model and instructions for using it for Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical (THM) simulations. The mathematical model includes the fluid and heat flow equations, geomechanical equation, and discretization of those equations. In addition, the parallel aspects of the code, such as domain partitioning and communication between processors, are also included. Although TOUGH2-EGS-MP has the capability for simulating fluid and heat flows coupled with geomechanical effects, it is up to the user to select the specific coupling process, such as THM or only TH, in a simulation. There are several example problems illustrating applications of this program. These example problems are described in detail and their input data are presented. Their results demonstrate that this program can be used for field-scale geothermal reservoir simulation in porous and fractured media with fluid and heat flow coupled with geomechanical effects.

  5. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-06-08

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained.

  6. Geomechanics of Hazardous Landslides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    POISEL Rainer; BEDNARIK Martin; HOLZER Rudolf; LI(S)(C)(A)K Pavel

    2005-01-01

    A catalogue of possible landslide initial failure mechanisms, taking into account the geological setting and the geometry of the slope, the joint structure, the habitus of the rock blocks, as well as the mechanical behaviour of the rocks and of the rock mass (deformation and strength parameters), is presented. Its aim is to give geologists as well as engineers the opportunity to compare phenomena in the field and phenomena belonging to particular mechanisms and to find the mechanism occurring.The presented catalogue of initial landslide mechanisms only comprises the mechanisms having a clearly defined mechanical model that can be divided into empirical relations and into mechanical models,as well as an overview of run out models, which can be divided into empirical relations and into mechanical models.

  7. Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Engine and Vehicle Compliance Certification and Fuel Economy Inventory contains measured emissions and fuel economy compliance information for all types of...

  8. Clean Air Markets - Compliance Query Wizard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Compliance Query Wizard is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://ampd.epa.gov/ampd/. The Compliance module provides...

  9. Client Compliance with Homework Directives during Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Everett L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated compliance as a function of counselor, client, and therapy variables. Results indicated that variables associated with the conduct of counseling more strongly influenced compliance with homework than did either counselor or client variables. (Author/BL)

  10. 24 CFR 108.25 - Compliance meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMPLIANCE PROCEDURES FOR AFFIRMATIVE FAIR HOUSING MARKETING § 108.25 Compliance meeting. (a) Scheduling... the goals of the AFHM plan may not be achieved, or that the implementation of the Plan should...

  11. Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data Inventory data asset contains measured summary compliance information on light-duty, heavy-duty, and non-road...

  12. Corporate compliance: implications for trustees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commins, K

    1998-01-01

    In this era of fraud and abuse enforcement efforts, hospital trustees are facing potential liability in the event that an investigation reveals the hospital has violated state or federal provisions pertaining to fraud and abuse. This liability can be minimized, or avoided, by ensuring that an effective compliance plan is in place prior to such an investigation.

  13. Best Practices and Simultaneous Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This wrap-up presentation to the workshop covers several topics concerning how lead and copper compliance under the Lead and Copper Rule should be integrated into an overall “simultaneous compliance” framework with other organizations. The LCR requires “optimization” of lead leve...

  14. Audit-based compliance control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cederquist, J.G.; Corin, R.; Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, S.; Hartog, J.I. den; Lenzini, G.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new framework for controlling compliance to discretionary access control policies [Cederquist et al. in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Policies for Distributed Systems and Networks (POLICY), 2005; Corin et al. in Proceedings of the IFIP Workshop on Formal A

  15. Project Compliance with Enterprise Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foorthuis, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    This research project set out to identify effective practices and models for working with projects that are required to comply with Enterprise Architecture (EA), and investigate the benefits and drawbacks brought about by compliance. Research methods used are canonical action research, a statistical

  16. Project Compliance with Enterprise Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foorthuis, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    This research project set out to identify effective practices and models for working with projects that are required to comply with Enterprise Architecture (EA), and investigate the benefits and drawbacks brought about by compliance. Research methods used are canonical action research, a statistical

  17. Developing a nursing corporate compliance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartis, Janice A; Sullivan, Trent

    2002-09-01

    This article presents the process that a large urban tertiary care hospital engaged in when developing a corporate compliance program for nursing. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how nurse executives can successfully implement a comprehensive and practical nursing corporate compliance program. This article describes in detail the 5 steps the hospital took to develop its nursing corporate compliance program and provides examples of tools to guide you in developing a nursing corporate compliance program.

  18. Corporate compliance: framework and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, N

    1999-01-01

    The federal government has created numerous programs to combat fraud and abuse. The government now encourages healthcare facilities to have a corporate compliance program (CCP), a plan that reduces the chances that the facility will violate laws or regulations. A CCP is an organization-wide program comprised of a code of conduct and written policies, internal monitoring and auditing standards, employee training, feedback mechanisms and other features, all designed to prevent and detect violations of governmental laws, regulations and policies. It is a system or method ensuring that employees understand and will comply with laws that apply to what they do every day. Seven factors, based on federal sentencing guidelines, provide the framework for developing a CCP. First, a facility must establish rules that are reasonably capable of reducing criminal conduct. Second, high-level personnel must oversee the compliance effort. Third, a facility must use due care in delegating authority in the compliance initiative. Fourth, standards must be communicated effectively to employees, and fifth, a facility must take reasonable steps to achieve compliance. Sixth, standards must be enforced consistently across the organization and last, standards must be modified or changed for reported concerns, to ensure they are not repeated. PROMINA Health System, Inc. in Atlanta, Ga., designed a program to meet federal guidelines. It started with a self-assessment to define its areas or risk. Next, it created the internal structure and assigned organizational responsibility for running the CCP. PROMINA then developed standards of business and professional conduct, established vehicles of communication and trained employees on the standards. Finally, it continues to develop evidence of the program's effectiveness by monitoring and documenting its compliance activities.

  19. 42 CFR 3.308 - Compliance reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance reviews. 3.308 Section 3.308 Public... ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Enforcement Program § 3.308 Compliance reviews. The Secretary may conduct compliance reviews to determine whether a respondent is complying with the applicable...

  20. 14 CFR 1252.400 - Compliance reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance reviews. 1252.400 Section 1252..., and Enforcement Procedures § 1252.400 Compliance reviews. (a) NASA may conduct compliance reviews and pre-award reviews of recipients or use other similar procedures that will permit it to investigate and...

  1. Tax compliance depends on voice of taxpayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casal, Sandro; Kogler, C.; Mittone, Luigi; Kirchler, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the social distance between taxpayers and tax authorities boosts taxpayers' acceptance of tax load and tax compliance. In the present experiment participants had the opportunity to pay their tax due either as one single compliance decision or as separate compliance decisions for each type o

  2. 38 CFR 18.6 - Compliance information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance information... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 General § 18.6 Compliance information. (a) Cooperation and assistance... compliance reports at such times, and in such form and containing such information, as the responsible...

  3. 22 CFR 209.6 - Compliance information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compliance information. 209.6 Section 209.6... § 209.6 Compliance information. (a) Cooperation and assistance. The Administrator shall to the fullest... and accurate compliance reports at such times, and in such form and containing such information,...

  4. 40 CFR 503.2 - Compliance period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance period. 503.2 Section 503.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.2 Compliance period. (a) Compliance with the standards...

  5. Tax compliance depends on voice of taxpayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casal, Sandro; Kogler, C.; Mittone, Luigi; Kirchler, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the social distance between taxpayers and tax authorities boosts taxpayers' acceptance of tax load and tax compliance. In the present experiment participants had the opportunity to pay their tax due either as one single compliance decision or as separate compliance decisions for each type o

  6. 40 CFR 425.05 - Compliance dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance dates. 425.05 Section 425... STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions § 425.05 Compliance dates. The compliance date for new source performance standards (NSPS) and pretreatment standards for...

  7. Identification of factors involved in medication compliance: incorrect inhaler technique of asthma treatment leads to poor compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbà J

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Josep Darbà,1 Gabriela Ramírez,2 Antoni Sicras,3 Laura García-Bujalance,4 Saku Torvinen,5 Rainel Sánchez-de la Rosa6 1Department of Economics, Universitat de Barcelona, 2BCN Health Economics & Outcomes Research S.L., 3Department of Planning, Badalona Serveis Assistencials S.A., Barcelona, 4Market Access Department, Teva Pharmaceutical, Madrid, Spain; 5Market Access Department, Teva Pharmaceuticals Europe BV, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 6Medical Department, Teva Pharmaceutical, Madrid, Spain Objective: To identify the impact of delivery device of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2-agonist (ICS/LABA on asthma medication compliance, and investigate other factors associated with compliance. Materials and methods: We conducted a retrospective and multicenter study based on a review of medical registries of asthmatic patients treated with ICS/LABA combinations (n=2,213 whose medical devices were either dry powder inhalers (DPIs, such as Accuhaler®, Turbuhaler®, and NEXThaler® or pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDI. Medication compliance included persistence outcomes through 18 months and medication possession ratios. Data on potential confounders of treatment compliance such as asthma exacerbations, comorbidities, demographic characteristics, and health care resource utilization were also explored. Results: The probability of asthma medication compliance in case of DPIs was lower compared to pMDIs, which suggests that inhaler devices influence inhalation therapies. There were additional confounding factors that were considered as explanatory variables of compliance. A worse measure of airflow obstruction (forced expiration volume in 1 second, comorbidities and general practitioner (GP consultations more than once per month decreased the probability of compliance. Within comorbidities, alcoholism was positively associated with compliance. Patients of 29–39, 40–50, and 51–61 age groups or suffering from more than two

  8. Analysis on the Compliance with GRI Guidelines and the Information Disclosed by Japanese Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Kawahara, Naoko; Irie, Noriko

    2015-01-01

    [Abstract] Japanese companies do not comply with the Global Reporting Initiatives (GRI)'s Sustainability Guidelines as much as other developed countries, and their compliance levels are lower among developed countries. This study overviewed the characteristics of Japanese GRI compliance and analysed 15 Japanese listed companies on the information of their corporate sustainability reports in which they comply with the GRI version 3.1 Guidelines. The possible correlation between GRI compliance ...

  9. Predictors of medication compliance among older heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholowski, Krystyna; Cantwell, Robert

    2007-12-01

    Aim.  To examine relationships between psycho-social and patho-physiological measures in explaining medication compliance in older heart failure (HF) patients. Background.  Self-efficacy is a predictor not only of medication compliance, but also health recovery. How older HF patients conceptualize and manage this life-threatening event is central to ongoing rehabilitation. Regulating ongoing medical and lifestyle changes in the rehabilitation process requires that any underlying negative affect be productively managed by the use of appropriate coping strategies. Method.  Using an exploratory correlational design, 51 older HF patients were asked to complete the Beck Depression Inventory, Beliefs about Medication and Diet Questionnaire, Reactions to Daily Events Questionnaire and Self-regulation scale. A self-report measure of medication compliance was obtained as part of a semi-structured interview. The study was conducted in 2003-2004. Results.  Using descriptive statistics, patho-physiological and psychosocial characteristics were given. Independent t-tests were used to assess the gender effects. Pairwise correlations were used to examine the relationships between presenting circumstances, psychosocial characteristics, medication compliance beliefs and self-reported medication compliance behaviours. All positive coping strategies and self-regulation were associated with positive intentions in medication compliance. Males were more inclined towards proactive coping and self-regulatory strategies than were females. Increased depressive symptoms were linked to carelessness in compliance. A belief in medication compliance was associated with a reduced likelihood of carelessness Conclusion.  Bandura's three conditions for agency in rehabilitation, self-efficacy and goal-directed intention appeared to be important even in the early phase of the programme. Positive coping strategies and self-regulation suggests a positive basis for medication compliance and more

  10. Tools for NEPA compliance: Baseline reports and compliance guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, T.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hansen, R.P. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Environmental baseline documents and NEPA compliance guides should be carried in every NEPA implementation ``tool kit``. These two indispensable tools can play a major role in avoiding repeated violations of NEPA requirements that have occurred over the past 26 years. This paper describes these tools, discusses their contents, and explains how they are used to prepare better NEPA documents more cost-effectively. Focus is on experience at Sandia Laboratories (NM).

  11. Contextual Compliance: Situational and Subjective Cost-Benefit Decisions about Pesticides by Chinese Farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, H.; van Rooij, B.; van der Heijden, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes how cost-benefit calculation influences compliance with pesticide regulation by Chinese farmers. Building on a study including 150 farmers and experts, it studies how operational costs and benefits and deterrence affect compliance. Moreover, it studies what variation in cost-be

  12. Thermo-mechanical characterization of polypyrrole compliance using stochastic system identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Priam V; Hunter, Ian W

    2009-01-01

    Conducting polymers such as polypyrrole are studied as novel biologically inspired actuators. Their capacity to generate stresses of up to 5 MPa, strains of up to 10% at low voltages (2 V) make them ideal candidates to be used as artificial muscle materials. It has been shown that the modulus of polypyrrole can change when the material is electrochemically excited. In this paper we develop a technique that uses a stochastic stress input that can be used to measure the compliance frequency response (between 10(-2) Hz and 100 Hz) of polypyrrole in-situ. We validate the compliance calculated from the stochastic stress input by comparing it with the compliance calculated from a single sinusoidal stress input. We also measure the compliance as a function of temperature using both techniques and show that the stochastic compliance follows the same trends as the compliance calculated from single sinusoidal stress input.

  13. A multifaceted hospital-wide intervention increases hand hygiene compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, B; Engelbrecht, H; McDonald, H; Morris, V; Smythe, W

    2016-03-07

    Hand hygiene is an important and basic practice that should be used by all healthcare staff to protect both themselves and their patients against infection. Unfortunately hand hygiene compliance remains poor. To show an improvement in hand hygiene compliance using a multifaceted approach. This was a quasiexperimental pre-post intervention study design with a number of standardised interventions to promote hand hygiene. The World Health Organization hand hygiene multimodal (five-step) intervention approach was used. The study ran from June 2015 to August 2015 in 11 selected wards of a 975-bed tertiary and quaternary care public hospital (Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa). The outcome was to assess improvement in hand hygiene compliance monthly over the 3 months, compared with non-intervention wards and compared with the wards' own performance measured in 2014. The study included both descriptive and analytical components. Post intervention, hand hygiene compliance showed a statistically significant improvement for before patient contact from 34% in 2014 to 76% in 2015 (p<0.05) and for after patient contact from 47% in 2014 to 82% in 2015 (p<0.05). The intervention improved hand hygiene compliance and can easily be replicated in other wards, resulting in sustaining a culture of hand hygiene improvement and behavioural change throughout the hospital.

  14. Measuring hand hygiene compliance rates at hospital entrances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidotas, Marina; Yokota, Paula Kiyomi Onaga; Marra, Alexandre R; Camargo, Thiago Zinsly Sampaio; Victor, Elivane da Silva; Gysi, Deisy Morselli; Leal, Flavio; Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão dos; Edmond, Michael B

    2015-07-01

    Despite the importance of hand hygiene in the health care setting, there are no studies evaluating hand hygiene compliance at hospital entrances. The study was prospectively performed over a 33-week period from March 30, 2014-November 15, 2014, to evaluate hand hygiene compliance in 2 hospital reception areas. We compared electronic handwash counters with the application of radiofrequency identification (GOJO SMARTLINK) (electronic observer) that counts each activation of alcohol gel dispensers to direct observation (human observer) via remote review of video surveillance. We found low hand hygiene compliance rates of 2.2% (99/4,412) and 1.7% (140/8,277), respectively, at reception areas A and D, detected by direct observation. Using the electronic observer, we measured rates of 17% (15,624/91,724) and 7.1% (51,605/730,357) at reception areas A and D, respectively. For the overall time period of simultaneous electronic and human observation, the human observer captured 1% of the hand hygiene episodes detected by the electronic observer. Our study showed very low hand hygiene compliance in hospital reception areas, and we found an electronic hand hygiene system to be a useful method to monitor hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evacuee Compliance Behavior Analysis using High Resolution Demographic Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei [ORNL; Han, Lee [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Tuttle, Mark A [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether evacuee compliance behavior with route assignments from different resolutions of demographic data would impact the evacuation performance. Most existing evacuation strategies assume that travelers will follow evacuation instructions, while in reality a certain percent of evacuees do not comply with prescribed instructions. In this paper, a comparison study of evacuation assignment based on Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZ) and high resolution LandScan USA Population Cells (LPC) were conducted for the detailed road network representing Alexandria, Virginia. A revised platform for evacuation modeling built on high resolution demographic data and activity-based microscopic traffic simulation is proposed. The results indicate that evacuee compliance behavior affects evacuation efficiency with traditional TAZ assignment, but it does not significantly compromise the efficiency with high resolution LPC assignment. The TAZ assignment also underestimates the real travel time during evacuation, especially for high compliance simulations. This suggests that conventional evacuation studies based on TAZ assignment might not be effective at providing efficient guidance to evacuees. From the high resolution data perspective, traveler compliance behavior is an important factor but it does not impact the system performance significantly. The highlight of evacuee compliance behavior analysis should be emphasized on individual evacuee level route/shelter assignments, rather than the whole system performance.

  16. Study on Influence of Nursing based on Syndrome Differentiation on Compliance of Patients with Psychosis%辨证施护对精神病患者服药依从性的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何淑芬; 黄其春

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study and analyze the influence of nursing based on syndrome differentiation on compliance of patients with psychosis.Methods:160 patients with psychosis treated in our hospital from March 2008 to March 2012 were selected as the clinical research objectives.They were divided into observation group and control group and each group included 80 cases.Patients in the two groups were all treated with antipsychotics continually and those in the control group were treated with general health education and mental nursing,while those in the observation group were treated with nursing based on syndrome differentiation.The drug therapy compliance and illness evaluation conditions of patients in the two groups were then observed.Results:The complete drug therapy compliance of patients in the observation group in 6 months and 12 months upon treatment were respectively 72.50% and 68.75%,which were both significantly higher than the complete drug therapy compliance of 26.25% before treatment and also higher than those of the control group after treatment.The BPRS and PANSS grades of patients in the two groups were improved significantly after treatment,and the illness improvement of patients in the observation group was better than that of the control group,and the grades were significantly lower than those of the control group,with P < 0.05,which was of statistic significance.Conclusion:Nursing based on syndrome differentiation has great effect on the improvement of drug therapy compliance of patients with psychosis,improves the life quality of patients with psychosis significantly and reduces the occurrence of misconducts,and thus it is worth to be widely application clinically.%目的:探究并分析辨证施护对精神病患者服药依从性的影响.方法:选取自2008年3月-2012年3月收治的精神病患者160例,将其作为临床研究对象,随机分为观察组和对照组,每组80例.两组患者均继续接受抗精神病药物治疗,对照

  17. 农村艾滋病患者抗病毒治疗依从性及其影响因素的研究%Study on compliance to antiretroviral therapy and its determinants among patients with AIDS in rural area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁飞立; 招忠满; 邓梅花; 何艳英

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解农村抗逆转录病毒治疗服药依从性现状及其影响因素.方法 对广西横县农村地区157例艾滋病病人进行问卷调查,分析影响服药依从性的相关因素.结果 服药依从性好者占64.3%,漏服药的主要原因为忘记和工作忙.多因素Logistic回归分析显示壮族患者依从性较低,而常有服药不良反应的、常参加关爱机构活动的患者、医务人员服务治疗水平高的,则依从性高.结论 横县农村艾滋病患者服药依从性好的比例不高,受诸多因素影响.%OBJECTIVE To assess compliance to antiretroviral therapy and determine factors associated with poor compliance among patients with AIDS in rural area. METHODS The questionnaire investigation and interview were carried out to assess compliance to antiretroviral therapy and its determinants among 157 patients with AIDS in Hengxian of Guangxi. RESULTS Of 157 patients who completed the study, 64.3% reported full compliance. 41 patients who did not take drugs due to forgetfulness or a busy work life. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that patients with adverse drug reactions, patients participating in the activities held by HTV/AIDS support center and high quality of medical care were associated with good compliance, whereas Zhuang nationality patients were significantly correlated with poor compliance. CONCLUSION Full compliance rate a-mong patients with AIDS in rural area of Hengxian was low, and were affected by many factors.

  18. Non-compliance with growth hormone treatment in children is common and impairs linear growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne S Cutfield

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: GH therapy requires daily injections over many years and compliance can be difficult to sustain. As growth hormone (GH is expensive, non-compliance is likely to lead to suboptimal growth, at considerable cost. Thus, we aimed to assess the compliance rate of children and adolescents with GH treatment in New Zealand. METHODS: This was a national survey of GH compliance, in which all children receiving government-funded GH for a four-month interval were included. Compliance was defined as ≥ 85% adherence (no more than one missed dose a week on average to prescribed treatment. Compliance was determined based on two parameters: either the number of GH vials requested (GHreq by the family or the number of empty GH vials returned (GHret. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. FINDINGS: 177 patients were receiving GH in the study period, aged 12.1 ± 0.6 years. The rate of returned vials, but not number of vials requested, was positively associated with HVSDS (p < 0.05, such that patients with good compliance had significantly greater linear growth over the study period (p<0.05. GHret was therefore used for subsequent analyses. 66% of patients were non-compliant, and this outcome was not affected by sex, age or clinical diagnosis. However, Maori ethnicity was associated with a lower rate of compliance. INTERPRETATION: An objective assessment of compliance such as returned vials is much more reliable than compliance based on parental or patient based information. Non-compliance with GH treatment is common, and associated with reduced linear growth. Non-compliance should be considered in all patients with apparently suboptimal response to GH treatment.

  19. Framing of information on the use of public finances, regulatory fit of recipients and tax compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, Marianne; Hoelzl, Erik; Kirchler, Erich; Leder, Susanne; Mannetti, Lucia

    2008-08-01

    Information campaigns to increase tax compliance could be framed in different ways. They can either highlight the potential gains when tax compliance is high, or the potential losses when compliance is low. According to regulatory focus theory, such framing should be most effective when it is congruent with the promotion or prevention focus of its recipients. Two studies confirmed the hypothesized interaction effects between recipients' regulatory focus and framing of information campaigns, with tax compliance being highest under conditions of regulatory fit. To address taxpayers effectively, information campaigns by tax authorities should consider the positive and negative framing of information, and the moderating effect of recipients' regulatory focus.

  20. Obesity and arterial compliance alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifalian, Alexander M; Fi