WorldWideScience

Sample records for complex trait context

  1. Specificity, contexts, and reference groups matter when assessing autistic traits

    OpenAIRE

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Dern, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Many of the personality and behavioral traits (e.g., social imperviousness, directness in conversation, lack of imagination, affinity for solitude, difficulty displaying emotions) that are known to be sensitive to context (with whom?) and reference group (according to whom?) also appear in questionnaire-based assessments of autistic traits. Therefore, two experiments investigated the effects of specifying contexts and reference groups when assessing autistic traits in autistic and non-autisti...

  2. Specificity, contexts, and reference groups matter when assessing autistic traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Dern, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Many of the personality and behavioral traits (e.g., social imperviousness, directness in conversation, lack of imagination, affinity for solitude, difficulty displaying emotions) that are known to be sensitive to context (with whom?) and reference group (according to whom?) also appear in questionnaire-based assessments of autistic traits. Therefore, two experiments investigated the effects of specifying contexts and reference groups when assessing autistic traits in autistic and non-autistic participants. Experiment 1 (124 autistic and 124 non-autistic participants) demonstrated that context matters when assessing autistic traits (F(1,244) = 267.5, p autistic people” or “I like being around autistic people”), both autistic and non-autistic participants self-reported having more autistic traits; when the context was specified as the participants’ in-group, participants reported having fewer autistic traits. Experiment 2 (82 autistic and 82 non-autistic participants) demonstrated that reference group matters when assessing autistic traits (F(2,160) = 94.38, p autistic people, I have unusual eye contact”), autistic participants reported having more autistic traits; when the reference group was their in-group, autistic participants reported having fewer autistic traits. Non-autistic participants appeared insensitive to reference group on the Social Responsiveness Scale. Exploratory analyses suggested that when neither the context nor the reference group is specified (for assessing autistic traits on the Autism-Spectrum Quotient), both autistic and non-autistic participants use the majority (“non-autistic people”) as the implied context and reference group. PMID:28192464

  3. Integrative Genomic Analysis of Complex traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehsani, Ali Reza

    In the last decade rapid development in biotechnologies has made it possible to extract extensive information about practically all levels of biological organization. An ever-increasing number of studies are reporting miltilayered datasets on the entire DNA sequence, transceroption, protein...... expression, and metabolite abundance of more and more populations in a multitude of invironments. However, a solid model for including all of this complex information in one analysis, to disentangle genetic variation and the underlying genetic architecture of complex traits and diseases, has not yet been...

  4. Leaf traits within communities: context may affect the mapping of traits to function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jennifer L; Cornwell, William K

    2013-09-01

    The leaf economics spectrum (LES) has revolutionized the way many ecologists think about quantifying plant ecological trade-offs. In particular, the LES has connected a clear functional trade-off (long-lived leaves with slow carbon capture vs. short-lived leaves with fast carbon capture) to a handful of easily measured leaf traits. Building on this work, community ecologists are now able to quickly assess species carbon-capture strategies, which may have implications for community-level patterns such as competition or succession. However, there are a number of steps in this logic that require careful examination, and a potential danger arises when interpreting leaf-trait variation among species within communities where trait relationships are weak. Using data from 22 diverse communities, we show that relationships among three common functional traits (photosynthetic rate, leaf nitrogen concentration per mass, leaf mass per area) are weak in communities with low variation in leaf life span (LLS), especially communities dominated by herbaceous or deciduous woody species. However, globally there are few LLS data sets for communities dominated by herbaceous or deciduous species, and more data are needed to confirm this pattern. The context-dependent nature of trait relationships at the community level suggests that leaf-trait variation within communities, especially those dominated by herbaceous and deciduous woody species, should be interpreted with caution.

  5. The Hidden Complexity of Mendelian Traits across Natural Yeast Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Hou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mendelian traits are considered to be at the lower end of the complexity spectrum of heritable phenotypes. However, more than a century after the rediscovery of Mendel’s law, the global landscape of monogenic variants, as well as their effects and inheritance patterns within natural populations, is still not well understood. Using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we performed a species-wide survey of Mendelian traits across a large population of isolates. We generated offspring from 41 unique parental pairs and analyzed 1,105 cross/trait combinations. We found that 8.9% of the cases were Mendelian. Further tracing of causal variants revealed background-specific expressivity and modified inheritances, gradually transitioning from Mendelian to complex traits in 30% of the cases. In fact, when taking into account the natural population diversity, the hidden complexity of traits could be substantial, confounding phenotypic predictability even for simple Mendelian traits.

  6. Interpersonal Perception: Cognitive Complexity and Trait Implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Charles F., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Demonstrates that evaluative connotations of personality characteristics have more persuasive effect on interpersonal judgment for persons low in cognitive complexity than for cognitively complex persons. Stresses need for conceptualizing interpersonal judgment as function of interaction between cognitive complexity and evaluative requirements of…

  7. Context-dependent ATC complexity metric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercado Velasco, G.A.; Borst, C.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have investigated Air Traffic Control (ATC) complexity metrics in a search for a metric that could best capture workload. These studies have shown how daunting the search for a universal workload metric (one that could be applied in different contexts: sectors, traffic patterns,

  8. Relationships between structural complexity, coral traits, and reef fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Emily S.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A.; Nash, Kirsty L.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Wilson, Shaun K.

    2017-06-01

    With the ongoing loss of coral cover and the associated flattening of reef architecture, understanding the links between coral habitat and reef fishes is of critical importance. Here, we investigate whether considering coral traits and functional diversity provides new insights into the relationship between structural complexity and reef fish communities, and whether coral traits and community composition can predict structural complexity. Across 157 sites in Seychelles, Maldives, the Chagos Archipelago, and Australia's Great Barrier Reef, we find that structural complexity and reef zone are the strongest and most consistent predictors of reef fish abundance, biomass, species richness, and trophic structure. However, coral traits, diversity, and life histories provided additional predictive power for models of reef fish assemblages, and were key drivers of structural complexity. Our findings highlight that reef complexity relies on living corals—with different traits and life histories—continuing to build carbonate skeletons, and that these nuanced relationships between coral assemblages and habitat complexity can affect the structure of reef fish assemblages. Seascape-level estimates of structural complexity are rapid and cost effective with important implications for the structure and function of fish assemblages, and should be incorporated into monitoring programs.

  9. Innovating with technologyin team contexts: a trait activation theory perspective

    OpenAIRE

    M. Magni; L. Maruping; L. Caporarello; S. Basaglia

    2011-01-01

    The paper illustrates how individual traits, such as PIIT may affect individual exploration of technology. The effect of individual characteristics are activated by team level characteristics such as a climate that fosters exploration and learning.

  10. Measuring workload in collaborative contexts: trait versus state perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, William S; Funke, Gregory J; Knott, Benjamin A

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, we explored the state versus trait aspects of measures of task and team workload in a disaster simulation. There is often a need to assess workload in both individual and collaborative settings. Researchers in this field often use the NASATask Load Index (NASA-TLX) as a global measure of workload by aggregating the NASA-TLX's component items. Using this practice, one may overlook the distinction between traits and states. Fifteen dyadic teams (11 inexperienced, 4 experienced) completed five sessions of a tsunami disaster simulator. After every session, individuals completed a modified version of the NASA-TLX that included team workload measures.We then examined the workload items by using a between-subjects and within-subjects perspective. Between-subjects and within-subjects correlations among the items indicated the workload items are more independent within subjects (as states) than between subjects (as traits). Correlations between the workload items and simulation performance were also different at the trait and state levels. Workload may behave differently at trait (between-subjects) and state (within-subjects) levels. Researchers interested in workload measurement as a state should take a within-subjects perspective in their analyses.

  11. Impulsive responding in threat and reward contexts as a function of PTSD symptoms and trait disinhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Naomi; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Hayes, Jasmeet P

    2018-01-01

    We examined current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, trait disinhibition, and affective context as contributors to impulsive and self-destructive behavior in 94 trauma-exposed Veterans. Participants completed an affective Go/No-Go task (GNG) with different emotional contexts (threat, reward, and a multidimensional threat/reward condition) and current PTSD, trait disinhibition, and risky/self-destructive behavior measures. PTSD interacted with trait disinhibition to explain recent engagement in risky/self-destructive behavior, with Veterans scoring high on trait disinhibition and current PTSD symptoms reporting the highest levels of these behaviors. On the GNG task, commission errors were also associated with the interaction of PTSD symptoms and trait disinhibition. Specifically, PTSD symptoms were associated with greater commission errors in threat vs. reward contexts for individuals who were low on trait disinhibition. In contrast, veterans high on PTSD and trait disinhibition exhibited the greatest number of commission errors in the multidimensional affective context that involved both threat and reward processing. Results highlight the interactive effects of PTSD and disinhibited personality traits, as well as threat and reward systems, as risk factors for impulsive and self-destructive behavior in trauma-exposed groups. Findings have clinical implications for understanding heterogeneity in the expression of PTSD and its association with disinhibited behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ubiquitous polygenicity of human complex traits: genome-wide analysis of 49 traits in Koreans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yang

    Full Text Available Recent studies in population of European ancestry have shown that 30% ~ 50% of heritability for human complex traits such as height and body mass index, and common diseases such as schizophrenia and rheumatoid arthritis, can be captured by common SNPs and that genetic variation attributed to chromosomes are in proportion to their length. Using genome-wide estimation and partitioning approaches, we analysed 49 human quantitative traits, many of which are relevant to human diseases, in 7,170 unrelated Korean individuals genotyped on 326,262 SNPs. For 43 of the 49 traits, we estimated a nominally significant (P<0.05 proportion of variance explained by all SNPs on the Affymetrix 5.0 genotyping array ([Formula: see text]. On average across 47 of the 49 traits for which the estimate of h(G(2 is non-zero, common SNPs explain approximately one-third (range of 7.8% to 76.8% of narrow sense heritability. The estimate of h(G(2 is highly correlated with the proportion of SNPs with association P<0.031 (r(2 = 0.92. Longer genomic segments tend to explain more phenotypic variation, with a correlation of 0.78 between the estimate of variance explained by individual chromosomes and their physical length, and 1% of the genome explains approximately 1% of the genetic variance. Despite the fact that there are a few SNPs with large effects for some traits, these results suggest that polygenicity is ubiquitous for most human complex traits and that a substantial proportion of the "missing heritability" is captured by common SNPs.

  13. Perceptual processing of a complex musical context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quiroga Martinez, David Ricardo; Hansen, Niels Christian; Højlund, Andreas

    play a fundamental role in music perception. The mismatch negativity (MMN) is a brain response that offers a unique insight into these processes. The MMN is elicited by deviants in a series of repetitive sounds and reflects the perception of change in physical and abstract sound regularities. Therefore......, it is regarded as a prediction error signal and a neural correlate of the updating of predictive perceptual models. In music, the MMN has been particularly valuable for the assessment of musical expectations, learning and expertise. However, the MMN paradigm has an important limitation: its ecological validity....... To this aim we will develop a new paradigm using more real-sounding stimuli. Our stimuli will be two-part music excerpts made by adding a melody to a previous design based on the Alberti bass (Vuust et al., 2011). Our second goal is to determine how the complexity of this context affects the predictive...

  14. On the Origin of Complex Adaptive Traits: Progress Since the Darwin Versus Mivart Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takao K

    2017-06-01

    The evolutionary origin of complex adaptive traits has been a controversial topic in the history of evolutionary biology. Although Darwin argued for the gradual origins of complex adaptive traits within the theory of natural selection, Mivart insisted that natural selection could not account for the incipient stages of complex traits. The debate starting from Darwin and Mivart eventually engendered two opposite views: gradualism and saltationism. Although this has been a long-standing debate, the issue remains unresolved. However, recent studies have interrogated classic examples of complex traits, such as the asymmetrical eyes of flatfishes and leaf mimicry of butterfly wings, whose origins were debated by Darwin and Mivart. Here, I review recent findings as a starting point to provide a modern picture of the evolution of complex adaptive traits. First, I summarize the empirical evidence that unveils the evolutionary steps toward complex traits. I then argue that the evolution of complex traits could be understood within the concept of "reducible complexity." Through these discussions, I propose a conceptual framework for the formation of complex traits, named as reducible-composable multicomponent systems, that satisfy two major characteristics: reducibility into a sum of subcomponents and composability to construct traits from various additional and combinatorial arrangements of the subcomponents. This conceptual framework provides an analytical foundation for exploring evolutionary pathways to build up complex traits. This review provides certain essential avenues for deciphering the origin of complex adaptive traits. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Plasticity first: molecular signatures of a complex morphological trait in filamentous cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Robin; Kupczok, Anne; Stucken, Karina; Ilhan, Judith; Hammerschmidt, Katrin; Dagan, Tal

    2017-08-31

    Filamentous cyanobacteria that differentiate multiple cell types are considered the peak of prokaryotic complexity and their evolution has been studied in the context of multicellularity origins. Species that form true-branching filaments exemplify the most complex cyanobacteria. However, the mechanisms underlying the true-branching morphology remain poorly understood despite of several investigations that focused on the identification of novel genes or pathways. An alternative route for the evolution of novel traits is based on existing phenotypic plasticity. According to that scenario - termed genetic assimilation - the fixation of a novel phenotype precedes the fixation of the genotype. Here we show that the evolution of transcriptional regulatory elements constitutes a major mechanism for the evolution of new traits. We found that supplementation with sucrose reconstitutes the ancestral branchless phenotype of two true-branching Fischerella species and compared the transcription start sites (TSSs) between the two phenotypic states. Our analysis uncovers several orthologous TSSs whose transcription level is correlated with the true-branching phenotype. These TSSs are found in genes that encode components of the septosome and elongasome (e.g., fraC and mreB). The concept of genetic assimilation supplies a tenable explanation for the evolution of novel traits but testing its feasibility is hindered by the inability to recreate and study the evolution of present-day traits. We present a novel approach to examine transcription data for the plasticity first route and provide evidence for its occurrence during the evolution of complex colony morphology in true-branching cyanobacteria. Our results reveal a route for evolution of the true-branching phenotype in cyanobacteria via modification of the transcription level of pre-existing genes. Our study supplies evidence for the 'plasticity-first' hypothesis and highlights the importance of transcriptional regulation in

  16. Improving biological understanding and complex trait prediction by integrating prior information in genomic feature models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Stefan McKinnon

    externally founded information, such as KEGG pathways, Gene Ontology gene sets, or genomic features, and estimate the joint contribution of the genetic variants within these sets to complex trait phenotypes. The analysis of complex trait phenotypes is hampered by the myriad of genes that control the trait...

  17. Contribution of Large Region Joint Associations to Complex Traits Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, Guillaume; Asma, Senay; Deng, Wei Q.

    2015-01-01

    A polygenic model of inheritance, whereby hundreds or thousands of weakly associated variants contribute to a trait’s heritability, has been proposed to underlie the genetic architecture of complex traits. However, relatively few genetic variants have been positively identified so far and they collectively explain only a small fraction of the predicted heritability. We hypothesized that joint association of multiple weakly associated variants over large chromosomal regions contributes to complex traits variance. Confirmation of such regional associations can help identify new loci and lead to a better understanding of known ones. To test this hypothesis, we first characterized the ability of commonly used genetic association models to identify large region joint associations. Through theoretical derivation and simulation, we showed that multivariate linear models where multiple SNPs are included as independent predictors have the most favorable association profile. Based on these results, we tested for large region association with height in 3,740 European participants from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) study. Adjusting for SNPs with known association with height, we demonstrated clustering of weak associations (p = 2x10-4) in regions extending up to 433.0 Kb from known height loci. The contribution of regional associations to phenotypic variance was estimated at 0.172 (95% CI 0.063-0.279; p < 0.001), which compared favorably to 0.129 explained by known height variants. Conversely, we showed that suggestively associated regions are enriched for known height loci. To extend our findings to other traits, we also tested BMI, HDLc and CRP for large region associations, with consistent results for CRP. Our results demonstrate the presence of large region joint associations and suggest these can be used to pinpoint weakly associated SNPs. PMID:25856144

  18. Genomic prediction of complex human traits: relatedness, trait architecture and predictive meta-models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliopoulou, Athina; Nagy, Reka; Bermingham, Mairead L.; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Hayward, Caroline; Vitart, Veronique; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Wright, Alan F.; Wilson, James F.; Pong-Wong, Ricardo; Agakov, Felix; Navarro, Pau; Haley, Chris S.

    2015-01-01

    We explore the prediction of individuals' phenotypes for complex traits using genomic data. We compare several widely used prediction models, including Ridge Regression, LASSO and Elastic Nets estimated from cohort data, and polygenic risk scores constructed using published summary statistics from genome-wide association meta-analyses (GWAMA). We evaluate the interplay between relatedness, trait architecture and optimal marker density, by predicting height, body mass index (BMI) and high-density lipoprotein level (HDL) in two data cohorts, originating from Croatia and Scotland. We empirically demonstrate that dense models are better when all genetic effects are small (height and BMI) and target individuals are related to the training samples, while sparse models predict better in unrelated individuals and when some effects have moderate size (HDL). For HDL sparse models achieved good across-cohort prediction, performing similarly to the GWAMA risk score and to models trained within the same cohort, which indicates that, for predicting traits with moderately sized effects, large sample sizes and familial structure become less important, though still potentially useful. Finally, we propose a novel ensemble of whole-genome predictors with GWAMA risk scores and demonstrate that the resulting meta-model achieves higher prediction accuracy than either model on its own. We conclude that although current genomic predictors are not accurate enough for diagnostic purposes, performance can be improved without requiring access to large-scale individual-level data. Our methodologically simple meta-model is a means of performing predictive meta-analysis for optimizing genomic predictions and can be easily extended to incorporate multiple population-level summary statistics or other domain knowledge. PMID:25918167

  19. Ethnographies of pain: culture, context and complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This article briefly introduces and discusses the value of ethnographic research, particularly research hailing from the discipline of social and cultural anthropology. After an introduction to ethnography in general, key ethnographic studies of pain are described. These show that ethnography provides a set of techniques for data collection and analysis, as well as a way of thinking about pain as socially and culturally embedded. Modern ethnographic writing is far removed from the literature of the past that sometimes described stereotypes rather than process and complexity. Ethnography provides the chance to describe the complexity and nuance of culture, which serves to counter stereotypes. The article concludes with an example from pain research conducted in a clinical setting. Through the use of ethnographic techniques, the research study provided greater insight than other methods alone might have achieved. The article includes references for further reading should readers be interested in developing their engagement with ethnographic method and interpretation. PMID:26516554

  20. Environmental context and trophic trait plasticity in a key species, the tellinid clam Macoma balthica L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törnroos, Anna; Nordström, M. C.; Aarnio, K.

    2015-01-01

    Species show varying levels of plasticity regarding morphology, physiology and behaviour in relation to their immediate environment, and several trait characteristics are habitat-dependent. Determining when and how the environmental context changes trait expression is of key importance...... for understanding the role of individual species for ecosystem functioning. The tellinid clam Macoma balthica can vary its feeding behaviour, shifting between deposit- and suspension-feeding. In order to study the context-dependency of this trophic plasticity in adult clams, we conducted an experiment assessing...... food uptake by using stable isotope signatures (delta C-13 and delta N-15). We transplanted individuals between and within two shallow bays differing in exposure (exposed sheltered) and sediment characteristics. Our results show that isotope signatures of clams differed between the two habitats...

  1. Emotional Meaning in Context in Relation to Hypomanic Personality Traits: An ERP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrien, Sarah; Gobin, Pamela; Coutté, Alexandre; Thuaire, Flavien; Iakimova, Galina; Mazzola-Pomietto, Pascale; Besche-Richard, Chrystel

    2015-01-01

    The ability to integrate contextual information is important for the comprehension of emotional and social situations. While some studies have shown that emotional processes and social cognition are impaired in people with hypomanic personality trait, no results have been reported concerning the neurophysiological processes mediating the processing of emotional information during the integration of contextual social information in this population. We therefore chose to conduct an ERP study dealing with the integration of emotional information in a population with hypomanic personality trait. Healthy participants were evaluated using the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS), and ERPs were recorded during a linguistic task in which participants silently read sentence pairs describing short social situations. The first sentence implicitly conveyed the positive or negative emotional state of a character. The second sentence was emotionally congruent or incongruent with the first sentence. We analyzed the difference in the modulation of two components (N400 and LPC) in response to the emotional word present at the end of the "target" sentences as a function of the HPS score and the emotional valence of the context. Our results showed a possible modulation of the N400 component in response to both positive and negative context among the participants who scored high on the Mood Volatility subscale of the Hypomanic Personality Scale. These results seem to indicate that the participants with hypomanic personality traits exhibited specificities in the integration of emotions at the level of the early-mobilized neurocognitive processes (N400). Participants with hypomanic personality traits found it difficult to integrate negative emotional contexts, while simultaneously exhibiting an enhanced integration of positive emotional contexts.

  2. Complex relationships among personality traits, job characteristics, and work behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, P.T.; Feij, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the additive, mediating, and moderating effects of personality traits and job characteristics on work behaviors. Job applicants (N = 161) completed personality questionnaires measuring extraversion, neuroticism, achievement motivation, and experience seeking.

  3. Climatic conditions cause complex patterns of covariation between demographic traits in a long-lived raptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfindal, Ivar; van de Pol, Martijn; Nielsen, Jan Tøttrup; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Møller, Anders Pape

    2015-01-01

    1.Environmental variation can induce life history changes that can last over a large part of the lifetime of an organism. If multiple demographic traits are affected, expected changes in climate may influence environmental covariances among traits in a complex manner. Thus, examining the

  4. Statistical power to detect genetic (covariance of complex traits using SNP data in unrelated samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Visscher

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We have recently developed analysis methods (GREML to estimate the genetic variance of a complex trait/disease and the genetic correlation between two complex traits/diseases using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP data in unrelated individuals. Here we use analytical derivations and simulations to quantify the sampling variance of the estimate of the proportion of phenotypic variance captured by all SNPs for quantitative traits and case-control studies. We also derive the approximate sampling variance of the estimate of a genetic correlation in a bivariate analysis, when two complex traits are either measured on the same or different individuals. We show that the sampling variance is inversely proportional to the number of pairwise contrasts in the analysis and to the variance in SNP-derived genetic relationships. For bivariate analysis, the sampling variance of the genetic correlation additionally depends on the harmonic mean of the proportion of variance explained by the SNPs for the two traits and the genetic correlation between the traits, and depends on the phenotypic correlation when the traits are measured on the same individuals. We provide an online tool for calculating the power of detecting genetic (covariation using genome-wide SNP data. The new theory and online tool will be helpful to plan experimental designs to estimate the missing heritability that has not yet been fully revealed through genome-wide association studies, and to estimate the genetic overlap between complex traits (diseases in particular when the traits (diseases are not measured on the same samples.

  5. Curation of complex, context-dependent immunological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney John

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB is dedicated to capturing, housing and analyzing complex immune epitope related data http://www.immuneepitope.org. Description To identify and extract relevant data from the scientific literature in an efficient and accurate manner, novel processes were developed for manual and semi-automated annotation. Conclusion Formalized curation strategies enable the processing of a large volume of context-dependent data, which are now available to the scientific community in an accessible and transparent format. The experiences described herein are applicable to other databases housing complex biological data and requiring a high level of curation expertise.

  6. Drought and increased CO2 alter floral visual and olfactory traits with context-dependent effects on pollinator visitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenny, William R; Runyon, Justin B; Burkle, Laura A

    2018-03-25

    Climate change can alter species interactions essential for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function, such as pollination. Understanding the interactive effects of multiple abiotic conditions on floral traits and pollinator visitation are important to anticipate the implications of climate change on pollinator services. Floral visual and olfactory traits were measured from individuals of four forb species subjected to drought or normal water availability, and elevated or ambient concentrations of CO 2 in a factorial design. Pollinator visitation rates and community composition were observed in single-species and multi-species forb assemblages. Drought decreased floral visual traits and pollinator visitation rates but increased volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, whereas elevated CO 2 positively affected floral visual traits, VOC emissions and pollinator visitation rates. There was little evidence of interactive effects of drought and CO 2 on floral traits and pollinator visitation. Interestingly, the effects of climate treatments on pollinator visitation depended on whether plants were in single- or multi-species assemblages. Components of climate change altered floral traits and pollinator visitation, but effects were modulated by plant community context. Investigating the response of floral traits, including VOCs, and context-dependency of pollinator attraction provides additional insights and may aid in understanding the overall effects of climate change on plant-pollinator interactions. © No claim to US Government works New Phytologist Trust © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Parameters in dynamic models of complex traits are containers of missing heritability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Wang

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies of human traits rarely explain more than a small proportion of the heritable variation, and improving this situation within the current paradigm appears daunting. Given a well-validated dynamic model of a complex physiological trait, a substantial part of the underlying genetic variation must manifest as variation in model parameters. These parameters are themselves phenotypic traits. By linking whole-cell phenotypic variation to genetic variation in a computational model of a single heart cell, incorporating genotype-to-parameter maps, we show that genome-wide association studies on parameters reveal much more genetic variation than when using higher-level cellular phenotypes. The results suggest that letting such studies be guided by computational physiology may facilitate a causal understanding of the genotype-to-phenotype map of complex traits, with strong implications for the development of phenomics technology.

  8. A Commentary on Pitfalls of Predicting Complex Traits From SNP's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de los Campos, Gustavo; Sorensen, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    As stated by Wray and co-authors1, knowing the proportion of variance of a trait that is explained by regression on markers in the population (h2M) is relevant because, in principle, h2M represents the maximum prediction accuracy (R2TST) that is achievable in testing (TST) data if marker effects...... of h2M (Ref. 5), conseqeuenty, it is not obvious that R2TST can achieve values equal to the finite sample estimate of h2G-BLUP. In a recent article5, we studied the R2TST of G-BLUP and its relationship with h2G-BLUP. We show analytically that mis-specification of the training–testing (TRN–TST) genomic...

  9. Complex contexts and relationships affect clinical decisions in group therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Mcquaid, Nancy; Balfour, Louise

    2016-09-01

    Clinical errors tend to be underreported even though examining them can provide important training and professional development opportunities. The group therapy context may be prone to clinician errors because of the added complexity within which therapists work and patients receive treatment. We discuss clinical errors that occurred within a group therapy in which a patient for whom group was not appropriate was admitted to the treatment and then was not removed by the clinicians. This was countertherapeutic for both patient and group. Two clinicians were involved: a clinical supervisor who initially assessed and admitted the patient to the group, and a group therapist. To complicate matters, the group therapy occurred within the context of a clinical research trial. The errors, possible solutions, and recommendations are discussed within Reason's Organizational Accident Model (Reason, 2000). In particular, we discuss clinician errors in the context of countertransference and clinician heuristics, group therapy as a local work condition that complicates clinical decision-making, and the impact of the research context as a latent organizational factor. We also present clinical vignettes from the pregroup preparation, group therapy, and supervision. Group therapists are more likely to avoid errors in clinical decisions if they engage in reflective practice about their internal experiences and about the impact of the context in which they work. Therapists must keep in mind the various levels of group functioning, especially related to the group-as-a-whole (i.e., group composition, cohesion, group climate, and safety) when making complex clinical decisions in order to optimize patient outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Worms under stress: unravelling genetic complex traits through perturbation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Sanchez, M.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic architecture of an organism could be considered ‘the most amazing piece of engineering’ existing in nature. Looking from a certain distance, the genetic complexity of an organism could be described as an immense jigsaw puzzle. As in a real jigsaw, the connection between two pieces

  11. Inferring genetic architecture of complex traits using Bayesian integrative analysis of genome and transcriptiome data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehsani, Alireza; Sørensen, Peter; Pomp, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Background To understand the genetic architecture of complex traits and bridge the genotype-phenotype gap, it is useful to study intermediate -omics data, e.g. the transcriptome. The present study introduces a method for simultaneous quantification of the contributions from single nucleotide......-modal distribution of genomic values collapses, when gene expressions are added to the model Conclusions With increased availability of various -omics data, integrative approaches are promising tools for understanding the genetic architecture of complex traits. Partitioning of explained variances at the chromosome...

  12. Psychopathic Personality Traits and Environmental Contexts: Differential Correlates, Gender Differences, and Genetic Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M.; Carlson, Marie D.; Blonigen, Daniel M.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Iacono, William G.; MGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Theorists have speculated that primary psychopathy (or Factor 1 affective-interpersonal features) is prominently heritable whereas secondary psychopathy (or Factor 2 social deviance) is more environmentally determined. We tested this differential heritability hypothesis using a large adolescent twin sample. Trait-based proxies of primary and secondary psychopathic tendencies were assessed using Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ; Tellegen & Waller, 2008) estimates of Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality, respectively (Benning et al., 2005). The environmental contexts of family, school, peers, and stressful life events were assessed using multiple raters and methods. Consistent with prior research, MPQ Impulsive Antisociality was robustly associated with each environmental risk factor, and these associations were significantly greater than those for MPQ Fearless Dominance. However, MPQ Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality exhibited similar heritability, and genetic effects mediated the associations between MPQ Impulsive Antisociality and the environmental measures. Results were largely consistent across male and female twins. We conclude that gene-environment correlations rather than main effects of genes and environments account for the differential environmental correlates of primary and secondary psychopathy. PMID:22452762

  13. Clause complexes as the basis for construing the narrative point of view in translation context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adail Sebastião RODRIGUES-JÚNIOR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article briefly discusses the role of expansions for construing the characters’ identities and personality traits in Oscar Wilde’s novel The Picture of Dorian Gray and its translation, made by João do Rio, and adaptations, made by Clarice Lispector and Claudia Lopes, into Brazilian Portuguese. The discursive configuration or narrative axis that unveils the narrative point of view is the central linguistic realization of the discussion. The paper also problematizes the concept of omission and rewriting in the literary translation context, asserting that these kinds of (retextualizations may create negative cultural impacts on the target-text reader. The discussion is informed by the principles of systemic-functional grammar and its contributions to literary translation, especially the concepts of projection and clause complex.

  14. Local Genetic Correlation Gives Insights into the Shared Genetic Architecture of Complex Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huwenbo; Mancuso, Nicholas; Spendlove, Sarah; Pasaniuc, Bogdan

    2017-11-02

    Although genetic correlations between complex traits provide valuable insights into epidemiological and etiological studies, a precise quantification of which genomic regions disproportionately contribute to the genome-wide correlation is currently lacking. Here, we introduce ρ-HESS, a technique to quantify the correlation between pairs of traits due to genetic variation at a small region in the genome. Our approach requires GWAS summary data only and makes no distributional assumption on the causal variant effect sizes while accounting for linkage disequilibrium (LD) and overlapping GWAS samples. We analyzed large-scale GWAS summary data across 36 quantitative traits, and identified 25 genomic regions that contribute significantly to the genetic correlation among these traits. Notably, we find 6 genomic regions that contribute to the genetic correlation of 10 pairs of traits that show negligible genome-wide correlation, further showcasing the power of local genetic correlation analyses. Finally, we report the distribution of local genetic correlations across the genome for 55 pairs of traits that show putative causal relationships. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Integrating Nonadditive Genomic Relationship Matrices into the Study of Genetic Architecture of Complex Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarian, Alireza; Gezan, Salvador A

    2016-03-01

    The study of genetic architecture of complex traits has been dramatically influenced by implementing genome-wide analytical approaches during recent years. Of particular interest are genomic prediction strategies which make use of genomic information for predicting phenotypic responses instead of detecting trait-associated loci. In this work, we present the results of a simulation study to improve our understanding of the statistical properties of estimation of genetic variance components of complex traits, and of additive, dominance, and genetic effects through best linear unbiased prediction methodology. Simulated dense marker information was used to construct genomic additive and dominance matrices, and multiple alternative pedigree- and marker-based models were compared to determine if including a dominance term into the analysis may improve the genetic analysis of complex traits. Our results showed that a model containing a pedigree- or marker-based additive relationship matrix along with a pedigree-based dominance matrix provided the best partitioning of genetic variance into its components, especially when some degree of true dominance effects was expected to exist. Also, we noted that the use of a marker-based additive relationship matrix along with a pedigree-based dominance matrix had the best performance in terms of accuracy of correlations between true and estimated additive, dominance, and genetic effects. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. A face for all seasons: Searching for context-specific leadership traits and discovering a general preference for perceived health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Spisak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates that followers tend to contingently match particular leader qualities to evolutionarily consistent situations requiring collective action (i.e., context-specific cognitive leadership prototypes and information processing undergoes categorization which ranks certain qualities as first-order context-general and others as second-order context-specific. To further investigate this contingent categorization phenomenon we examined the attractiveness halo – a first-order facial cue which significantly biases leadership preferences. While controlling for facial attractiveness, we independently manipulated the underlying facial cues of health and intelligence and then primed participants with four distinct organizational dynamics requiring leadership (i.e., competition versus cooperation between groups and exploratory change versus stable exploitation. It was expected that the differing requirements of the four dynamics would contingently select for relatively healthier- or intelligent-looking leaders. We found perceived facial intelligence to be a second-order context-specific trait – for instance, in times requiring a leader to address between-group cooperation – whereas perceived health is significantly preferred across all contexts (i.e., a first-order trait. The results also indicate that facial health positively affects perceived masculinity while facial intelligence negatively affects perceived masculinity, which may partially explain leader choice in some of the environmental contexts. The limitations and a number of implications regarding leadership biases are discussed.

  17. Prediction of Performance Facets using Specific Personality Traits in the Chinese Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Jessica Y. Y.; Cheung, Fanny M.

    2003-01-01

    Data from the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory for 187 Hong Kong supervisors showed that personality traits related to interpersonal orientation better predicted interpersonal versus personal contextual behaviors. Traits associated with moral obligation and group loyalty predicted personal but not interpersonal contextual behaviors.…

  18. Associations of children's appetitive traits with weight and dietary behaviours in the context of general parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Gerda; Kremers, Stef P J; Oenema, Anke; van de Mheen, Dike

    2012-01-01

    Individual variations in child weight can be explained by genetic and behavioural susceptibility to obesity. Behavioural susceptibility can be expressed in appetite-related traits, e.g. food responsiveness. Research into such behavioural factors is important, as it can provide starting points for (preventive) interventions. To examine associations of children's appetitive traits with weight and with fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake, and to examine whether parenting style interacts with appetite in determining child weight/intake. Data were used from 1275 children participating in the INPACT study in 2009-2010, with a mean age of 9 years in 2009. Their height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). Parents completed a questionnaire to measure children's appetitive traits, children's dietary intake and parenting style. Child BMI z-scores, fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake were regressed on appetitive traits. Moderation by parenting style was tested by adding interaction terms to the regression analyses. Food-approaching appetitive traits were positively, and food-avoidant appetitive traits were negatively related to child BMI z-scores and to child fruit intake. There were no or less consistent associations for snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Authoritative parenting voided the negative association between food fussiness and fruit intake, while neglecting parenting strengthened the positive association between food-approaching appetitive traits and weight. Early assessment of appetitive traits could be used to identify children at risk for overweight. As parenting style can moderate the associations between appetitive traits and weight/intake in a favourable way, parents are a promising target group for preventive interventions aimed at influencing the effect of appetitive traits on children.

  19. Associations of children's appetitive traits with weight and dietary behaviours in the context of general parenting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Rodenburg

    Full Text Available Individual variations in child weight can be explained by genetic and behavioural susceptibility to obesity. Behavioural susceptibility can be expressed in appetite-related traits, e.g. food responsiveness. Research into such behavioural factors is important, as it can provide starting points for (preventive interventions.To examine associations of children's appetitive traits with weight and with fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake, and to examine whether parenting style interacts with appetite in determining child weight/intake.Data were used from 1275 children participating in the INPACT study in 2009-2010, with a mean age of 9 years in 2009. Their height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI. Parents completed a questionnaire to measure children's appetitive traits, children's dietary intake and parenting style. Child BMI z-scores, fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake were regressed on appetitive traits. Moderation by parenting style was tested by adding interaction terms to the regression analyses.Food-approaching appetitive traits were positively, and food-avoidant appetitive traits were negatively related to child BMI z-scores and to child fruit intake. There were no or less consistent associations for snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Authoritative parenting voided the negative association between food fussiness and fruit intake, while neglecting parenting strengthened the positive association between food-approaching appetitive traits and weight.Early assessment of appetitive traits could be used to identify children at risk for overweight. As parenting style can moderate the associations between appetitive traits and weight/intake in a favourable way, parents are a promising target group for preventive interventions aimed at influencing the effect of appetitive traits on children.

  20. "Are we there yet?": Deciding when one has demonstrated specific genetic causation in complex diseases and quantitative traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Grier P; George, Varghese; Go, Rodney C; Page, Patricia Z; Allison, David B

    2003-10-01

    Although mathematical relationships can be proven by deductive logic, biological relationships can only be inferred from empirical observations. This is a distinct disadvantage for those of us who strive to identify the genes involved in complex diseases and quantitative traits. If causation cannot be proven, however, what does constitute sufficient evidence for causation? The philosopher Karl Popper said, "Our belief in a hypothesis can have no stronger basis than our repeated unsuccessful critical attempts to refute it." We believe that to establish causation, as scientists, we must make a serious attempt to refute our own hypotheses and to eliminate all known sources of bias before association becomes causation. In addition, we suggest that investigators must provide sufficient data and evidence of their unsuccessful efforts to find any confounding biases. In this editorial, we discuss what "causation" means in the context of complex diseases and quantitative traits, and we suggest guidelines for steps that may be taken to address possible confounders of association before polymorphisms may be called "causative."

  1. Trait and state anxiety across academic evaluative contexts: development and validation of the MTEA-12 and MSEA-12 scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotardi, Valerie A

    2018-05-01

    Educational measures of anxiety focus heavily on students' experiences with tests yet overlook other assessment contexts. In this research, two brief multiscale questionnaires were developed and validated to measure trait evaluation anxiety (MTEA-12) and state evaluation anxiety (MSEA-12) for use in various assessment contexts in non-clinical, educational settings. The research included a cross-sectional analysis of self-report data using authentic assessment settings in which evaluation anxiety was measured. Instruments were tested using a validation sample of 241 first-year university students in New Zealand. Scale development included component structures for state and trait scales based on existing theoretical frameworks. Analyses using confirmatory factor analysis and descriptive statistics indicate that the scales are reliable and structurally valid. Multivariate general linear modeling using subscales from the MTEA-12, MSEA-12, and student grades suggest adequate criterion-related validity. Initial predictive validity in which one relevant MTEA-12 factor explained between 21% and 54% of the variance in three MSEA-12 factors. Results document MTEA-12 and MSEA-12 as reliable measures of trait and state dimensions of evaluation anxiety for test and writing contexts. Initial estimates suggest the scales as having promising validity, and recommendations for further validation are outlined.

  2. Host Genome Influence on Gut Microbial Composition and Microbial Prediction of Complex Traits in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarinha-Silva, Amelia; Maushammer, Maria; Wellmann, Robin; Vital, Marius; Preuss, Siegfried; Bennewitz, Jörn

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the interplay between gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota, host genetics, and complex traits in pigs using extended quantitative-genetic methods. The study design consisted of 207 pigs that were housed and slaughtered under standardized conditions, and phenotyped for daily gain, feed intake, and feed conversion rate. The pigs were genotyped with a standard 60 K SNP chip. The GIT microbiota composition was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing technology. Eight from 49 investigated bacteria genera showed a significant narrow sense host heritability, ranging from 0.32 to 0.57. Microbial mixed linear models were applied to estimate the microbiota variance for each complex trait. The fraction of phenotypic variance explained by the microbial variance was 0.28, 0.21, and 0.16 for daily gain, feed conversion, and feed intake, respectively. The SNP data and the microbiota composition were used to predict the complex traits using genomic best linear unbiased prediction (G-BLUP) and microbial best linear unbiased prediction (M-BLUP) methods, respectively. The prediction accuracies of G-BLUP were 0.35, 0.23, and 0.20 for daily gain, feed conversion, and feed intake, respectively. The corresponding prediction accuracies of M-BLUP were 0.41, 0.33, and 0.33. Thus, in addition to SNP data, microbiota abundances are an informative source of complex trait predictions. Since the pig is a well-suited animal for modeling the human digestive tract, M-BLUP, in addition to G-BLUP, might be beneficial for predicting human predispositions to some diseases, and, consequently, for preventative and personalized medicine. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  3. Genetic architecture of complex traits and accuracy of genomic prediction: coat colour, milk-fat percentage, and type in Holstein cattle as contrasting model traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben J Hayes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of genetic merit using dense SNP genotypes can be used for estimation of breeding values for selection of livestock, crops, and forage species; for prediction of disease risk; and for forensics. The accuracy of these genomic predictions depends in part on the genetic architecture of the trait, in particular number of loci affecting the trait and distribution of their effects. Here we investigate the difference among three traits in distribution of effects and the consequences for the accuracy of genomic predictions. Proportion of black coat colour in Holstein cattle was used as one model complex trait. Three loci, KIT, MITF, and a locus on chromosome 8, together explain 24% of the variation of proportion of black. However, a surprisingly large number of loci of small effect are necessary to capture the remaining variation. A second trait, fat concentration in milk, had one locus of large effect and a host of loci with very small effects. Both these distributions of effects were in contrast to that for a third trait, an index of scores for a number of aspects of cow confirmation ("overall type", which had only loci of small effect. The differences in distribution of effects among the three traits were quantified by estimating the distribution of variance explained by chromosome segments containing 50 SNPs. This approach was taken to account for the imperfect linkage disequilibrium between the SNPs and the QTL affecting the traits. We also show that the accuracy of predicting genetic values is higher for traits with a proportion of large effects (proportion black and fat percentage than for a trait with no loci of large effect (overall type, provided the method of analysis takes advantage of the distribution of loci effects.

  4. Contributions of acculturation, enculturation, discrimination, and personality traits to social anxiety among Chinese immigrants: A context-specific assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ke; Friedlander, Myrna; Pieterse, Alex L

    2016-01-01

    Based on the diathesis-stress model of anxiety, this study examined the contributions of cultural processes, perceived racial discrimination, and personality traits to social anxiety among Chinese immigrants. Further guided by the theory of intergroup anxiety, this study also adopted a context-specific approach to distinguish between participants' experience of social anxiety when interacting with European Americans versus with other Chinese in the United States. This quantitative and ex post facto study used a convenience sample of 140 first-generation Chinese immigrants. Participants were recruited through e-mails from different university and community groups across the United States. The sample includes 55 men and 82 women (3 did not specify) with an average age of 36 years old. Results showed that more social anxiety was reported in the European American context than in the Chinese ethnic context. The full models accounted for almost half the variance in anxiety in each context. Although personality accounted for the most variance, the cultural variables and discrimination contributed 14% of the unique variance in the European American context. Notably, low acculturation, high neuroticism, and low extraversion were unique contributors to social anxiety with European Americans, whereas in the Chinese ethnic context only low extraversion was a unique contributor; more discrimination was uniquely significant in both contexts. The findings suggest a need to contextualize the research and clinical assessment of social anxiety, and have implications for culturally sensitive counseling with immigrants. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The relationship between level of autistic traits and local bias in the context of the McGurk effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta eUjiie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The McGurk effect is a well-known illustration that demonstrates the influence of visual information on hearing in the context of speech perception. Some studies have reported that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD display abnormal processing of audio-visual speech integration, while other studies showed contradictory results. Based on the dimensional model of ASD, we administered two analog studies to examine the link between level of autistic traits, as assessed by the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ, and the McGurk effect among a sample of university students. In the first experiment, we found that autistic traits correlated negatively with fused (McGurk responses. Then, we manipulated presentation types of visual stimuli to examine whether the local bias toward visual speech cues modulated individual differences in the McGurk effect. The presentation included four types of visual images, comprising no image, mouth only, mouth and eyes, and full face. The results revealed that global facial information facilitates the influence of visual speech cues on McGurk stimuli. Moreover, individual differences between groups with low and high levels of autistic traits appeared when the full-face visual speech cue with an incongruent voice condition was presented. These results suggest that individual differences in the McGurk effect might be due to a weak ability to process global facial information in individuals with high levels of autistic traits.

  6. Putting the five-factor model into context: evidence linking big five traits to narrative identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggatt, Peter

    2006-10-01

    The study examined relationships between the Big Five personality traits and thematic content extracted from self-reports of life history data. One hundred and five "mature age" university students (M=30.1 years) completed the NEO PI-R trait measure, and the Personality Web Protocol. The protocol examines constituents of identity by asking participants to describe 24 key "attachments" from their life histories (significant events, people, places, objects, and possessions). Participants sorted these attachments into clusters and provided a self-descriptive label for each cluster (e.g., "adventurous self"). It was predicted that the thematic content of these cluster labels would be systematically related to Big Five trait scores (e.g., that labels referring to strength or positive emotions would be linked to Extraversion). The hypothesized links were obtained for each of the Big Five trait domains except Conscientiousness. Results are discussed with a view to broadening our understanding of the Five-Factor Model in relation to units of personality other than traits.

  7. Age of Onset of Mood Disorders and Complexity of Personality Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Ostacoli, L.; Zuffranieri, M.; Cavallo, M.; Zennaro, A.; Rainero, I.; Pinessi, L.; Pacchiana Parravicini, M. V.; Ladisa, E.; Furlan, P. M.; Picci, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the link between the age of onset of mood disorders and the complexity of the personality traits. Methods. 209 patients with major depressive or manic/hypomanic episodes were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Axis I diagnoses and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Results. 17.2% of the patients had no elevated MCMI-III scores, 45.9% had one peak, and 36.9% had a complex personality disorder wit...

  8. Missing heritability : Is the gap closing? An analysis of 32 complex traits in the Lifelines Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolte, Ilja M.; van der Most, Peter J.; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Boezen, H. Marike; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Franke, Lude; van der Harst, Pim; Navis, Gerjan; Postma, Dirkje S.; Rots, Marianne G.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Swertz, Morris A.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Snieder, Harold

    Despite the recent explosive rise in number of genetic markers for complex disease traits identified in genome-wide association studies, there is still a large gap between the known heritability of these traits and the part explained by these markers. To gauge whether this 'heritability gap' is

  9. Detection of expression quantitative trait Loci in complex mouse crosses: impact and alleviation of data quality and complex population substructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Ovidiu D; Darakjian, Priscila; Kawane, Sunita; Bottomly, Daniel; Hitzemann, Robert; McWeeney, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Complex Mus musculus crosses, e.g., heterogeneous stock (HS), provide increased resolution for quantitative trait loci detection. However, increased genetic complexity challenges detection methods, with discordant results due to low data quality or complex genetic architecture. We quantified the impact of theses factors across three mouse crosses and two different detection methods, identifying procedures that greatly improve detection quality. Importantly, HS populations have complex genetic architectures not fully captured by the whole genome kinship matrix, calling for incorporating chromosome specific relatedness information. We analyze three increasingly complex crosses, using gene expression levels as quantitative traits. The three crosses were an F(2) intercross, a HS formed by crossing four inbred strains (HS4), and a HS (HS-CC) derived from the eight lines found in the collaborative cross. Brain (striatum) gene expression and genotype data were obtained using the Illumina platform. We found large disparities between methods, with concordance varying as genetic complexity increased; this problem was more acute for probes with distant regulatory elements (trans). A suite of data filtering steps resulted in substantial increases in reproducibility. Genetic relatedness between samples generated overabundance of detected eQTLs; an adjustment procedure that includes the kinship matrix attenuates this problem. However, we find that relatedness between individuals is not evenly distributed across the genome; information from distinct chromosomes results in relatedness structure different from the whole genome kinship matrix. Shared polymorphisms from distinct chromosomes collectively affect expression levels, confounding eQTL detection. We suggest that considering chromosome specific relatedness can result in improved eQTL detection.

  10. Directional selection can drive the evolution of modularity in complex traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Diogo; Marroig, Gabriel

    2015-01-13

    Modularity is a central concept in modern biology, providing a powerful framework for the study of living organisms on many organizational levels. Two central and related questions can be posed in regard to modularity: How does modularity appear in the first place, and what forces are responsible for keeping and/or changing modular patterns? We approached these questions using a quantitative genetics simulation framework, building on previous results obtained with bivariate systems and extending them to multivariate systems. We developed an individual-based model capable of simulating many traits controlled by many loci with variable pleiotropic relations between them, expressed in populations subject to mutation, recombination, drift, and selection. We used this model to study the problem of the emergence of modularity, and hereby show that drift and stabilizing selection are inefficient at creating modular variational structures. We also demonstrate that directional selection can have marked effects on the modular structure between traits, actively promoting a restructuring of genetic variation in the selected population and potentially facilitating the response to selection. Furthermore, we give examples of complex covariation created by simple regimes of combined directional and stabilizing selection and show that stabilizing selection is important in the maintenance of established covariation patterns. Our results are in full agreement with previous results for two-trait systems and further extend them to include scenarios of greater complexity. Finally, we discuss the evolutionary consequences of modular patterns being molded by directional selection.

  11. The Allelic Landscape of Human Blood Cell Trait Variation and Links to Common Complex Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astle, William J; Elding, Heather; Jiang, Tao; Allen, Dave; Ruklisa, Dace; Mann, Alice L; Mead, Daniel; Bouman, Heleen; Riveros-Mckay, Fernando; Kostadima, Myrto A; Lambourne, John J; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Downes, Kate; Kundu, Kousik; Bomba, Lorenzo; Berentsen, Kim; Bradley, John R; Daugherty, Louise C; Delaneau, Olivier; Freson, Kathleen; Garner, Stephen F; Grassi, Luigi; Guerrero, Jose; Haimel, Matthias; Janssen-Megens, Eva M; Kaan, Anita; Kamat, Mihir; Kim, Bowon; Mandoli, Amit; Marchini, Jonathan; Martens, Joost H A; Meacham, Stuart; Megy, Karyn; O'Connell, Jared; Petersen, Romina; Sharifi, Nilofar; Sheard, Simon M; Staley, James R; Tuna, Salih; van der Ent, Martijn; Walter, Klaudia; Wang, Shuang-Yin; Wheeler, Eleanor; Wilder, Steven P; Iotchkova, Valentina; Moore, Carmel; Sambrook, Jennifer; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Kaptoge, Stephen; Kuijpers, Taco W; Carrillo-de-Santa-Pau, Enrique; Juan, David; Rico, Daniel; Valencia, Alfonso; Chen, Lu; Ge, Bing; Vasquez, Louella; Kwan, Tony; Garrido-Martín, Diego; Watt, Stephen; Yang, Ying; Guigo, Roderic; Beck, Stephan; Paul, Dirk S; Pastinen, Tomi; Bujold, David; Bourque, Guillaume; Frontini, Mattia; Danesh, John; Roberts, David J; Ouwehand, Willem H; Butterworth, Adam S; Soranzo, Nicole

    2016-11-17

    Many common variants have been associated with hematological traits, but identification of causal genes and pathways has proven challenging. We performed a genome-wide association analysis in the UK Biobank and INTERVAL studies, testing 29.5 million genetic variants for association with 36 red cell, white cell, and platelet properties in 173,480 European-ancestry participants. This effort yielded hundreds of low frequency (<5%) and rare (<1%) variants with a strong impact on blood cell phenotypes. Our data highlight general properties of the allelic architecture of complex traits, including the proportion of the heritable component of each blood trait explained by the polygenic signal across different genome regulatory domains. Finally, through Mendelian randomization, we provide evidence of shared genetic pathways linking blood cell indices with complex pathologies, including autoimmune diseases, schizophrenia, and coronary heart disease and evidence suggesting previously reported population associations between blood cell indices and cardiovascular disease may be non-causal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A face for all seasons: Searching for context-specific leadership traits and discovering a general preference for perceived health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spisak, Brian R.; Blaker, Nancy M.; Lefevre, Carmen E.; Moore, Fhionna R.; Krebbers, Kleis F. B.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research indicates that followers tend to contingently match particular leader qualities to evolutionarily consistent situations requiring collective action (i.e., context-specific cognitive leadership prototypes) and information processing undergoes categorization which ranks certain qualities as first-order context-general and others as second-order context-specific. To further investigate this contingent categorization phenomenon we examined the “attractiveness halo”—a first-order facial cue which significantly biases leadership preferences. While controlling for facial attractiveness, we independently manipulated the underlying facial cues of health and intelligence and then primed participants with four distinct organizational dynamics requiring leadership (i.e., competition vs. cooperation between groups and exploratory change vs. stable exploitation). It was expected that the differing requirements of the four dynamics would contingently select for relatively healthier- or intelligent-looking leaders. We found perceived facial intelligence to be a second-order context-specific trait—for instance, in times requiring a leader to address between-group cooperation—whereas perceived health is significantly preferred across all contexts (i.e., a first-order trait). The results also indicate that facial health positively affects perceived masculinity while facial intelligence negatively affects perceived masculinity, which may partially explain leader choice in some of the environmental contexts. The limitations and a number of implications regarding leadership biases are discussed. PMID:25414653

  13. Fear Appeal in Traffic Safety Advertising: The moderating role of medium context, trait anxiety, and differences between drivers and non-drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Janssens, Wim; De Pelsmacker, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    The impact was investigated of the intensity of a fear appeal, the valence of the medium context, and the individuals' trait anxiety and personal relevance on the responses of 197 individuals to anti-speeding advertisements. A high level of fear attracts more attention. A negative valence context leads to a more positive anti-speeding attitude. The most important moderating effect of trait anxiety is that the attitude is more positive when low-anxiety individuals are exposed to high fear appe...

  14. Associations of Children's Appetitive Traits with Weight and Dietary Behaviours in the Context of General Parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Rodenburg (Gerda); S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); A. Oenema (Anke); H. van de Mheen (Dike)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Individual variations in child weight can be explained by genetic and behavioural susceptibility to obesity. Behavioural susceptibility can be expressed in appetite-related traits, e.g. food responsiveness. Research into such behavioural factors is important, as it can

  15. Organizational Justice: Personality Traits or Emotional Intelligence? An Empirical Study in an Italian Hospital Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of personality traits and emotional intelligence in relation to organizational justice. The Organizational Justice Scale, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Form, and the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory were administered to 384 Italian nurses. The emotional intelligence…

  16. Social engineering in the context of Cialdini's psychology of persuasion and personality traits

    OpenAIRE

    Quiel, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    This thesis shows that social engineering mainly relies on peripheral route persuasion and that consequently, Cialdini's principles of influence can be used to explain how social engineering attacks work. It is further shown by a comprehensive literature review that individual values of personality traits relate to social engineering susceptibility. Based on these arguments, a framework is proposed, which can help to guide future research. Suggestions to plausible relations between the person...

  17. Simple versus complex models of trait evolution and stasis as a response to environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Gene; Hopkins, Melanie J.; Lidgard, Scott

    2015-04-01

    Previous analyses of evolutionary patterns, or modes, in fossil lineages have focused overwhelmingly on three simple models: stasis, random walks, and directional evolution. Here we use likelihood methods to fit an expanded set of evolutionary models to a large compilation of ancestor-descendant series of populations from the fossil record. In addition to the standard three models, we assess more complex models with punctuations and shifts from one evolutionary mode to another. As in previous studies, we find that stasis is common in the fossil record, as is a strict version of stasis that entails no real evolutionary changes. Incidence of directional evolution is relatively low (13%), but higher than in previous studies because our analytical approach can more sensitively detect noisy trends. Complex evolutionary models are often favored, overwhelmingly so for sequences comprising many samples. This finding is consistent with evolutionary dynamics that are, in reality, more complex than any of the models we consider. Furthermore, the timing of shifts in evolutionary dynamics varies among traits measured from the same series. Finally, we use our empirical collection of evolutionary sequences and a long and highly resolved proxy for global climate to inform simulations in which traits adaptively track temperature changes over time. When realistically calibrated, we find that this simple model can reproduce important aspects of our paleontological results. We conclude that observed paleontological patterns, including the prevalence of stasis, need not be inconsistent with adaptive evolution, even in the face of unstable physical environments.

  18. Adapting APSIM to model the physiology and genetics of complex adaptive traits in field crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Graeme L; van Oosterom, Erik; McLean, Greg; Chapman, Scott C; Broad, Ian; Harland, Peter; Muchow, Russell C

    2010-05-01

    Progress in molecular plant breeding is limited by the ability to predict plant phenotype based on its genotype, especially for complex adaptive traits. Suitably constructed crop growth and development models have the potential to bridge this predictability gap. A generic cereal crop growth and development model is outlined here. It is designed to exhibit reliable predictive skill at the crop level while also introducing sufficient physiological rigour for complex phenotypic responses to become emergent properties of the model dynamics. The approach quantifies capture and use of radiation, water, and nitrogen within a framework that predicts the realized growth of major organs based on their potential and whether the supply of carbohydrate and nitrogen can satisfy that potential. The model builds on existing approaches within the APSIM software platform. Experiments on diverse genotypes of sorghum that underpin the development and testing of the adapted crop model are detailed. Genotypes differing in height were found to differ in biomass partitioning among organs and a tall hybrid had significantly increased radiation use efficiency: a novel finding in sorghum. Introducing these genetic effects associated with plant height into the model generated emergent simulated phenotypic differences in green leaf area retention during grain filling via effects associated with nitrogen dynamics. The relevance to plant breeding of this capability in complex trait dissection and simulation is discussed.

  19. Simultaneous discovery, estimation and prediction analysis of complex traits using a bayesian mixture model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Moser

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gene discovery, estimation of heritability captured by SNP arrays, inference on genetic architecture and prediction analyses of complex traits are usually performed using different statistical models and methods, leading to inefficiency and loss of power. Here we use a Bayesian mixture model that simultaneously allows variant discovery, estimation of genetic variance explained by all variants and prediction of unobserved phenotypes in new samples. We apply the method to simulated data of quantitative traits and Welcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC data on disease and show that it provides accurate estimates of SNP-based heritability, produces unbiased estimators of risk in new samples, and that it can estimate genetic architecture by partitioning variation across hundreds to thousands of SNPs. We estimated that, depending on the trait, 2,633 to 9,411 SNPs explain all of the SNP-based heritability in the WTCCC diseases. The majority of those SNPs (>96% had small effects, confirming a substantial polygenic component to common diseases. The proportion of the SNP-based variance explained by large effects (each SNP explaining 1% of the variance varied markedly between diseases, ranging from almost zero for bipolar disorder to 72% for type 1 diabetes. Prediction analyses demonstrate that for diseases with major loci, such as type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis, Bayesian methods outperform profile scoring or mixed model approaches.

  20. Taxonomy for complexity theory in the context of maternity care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuize, M.; Downe, S.; Gottfreðsdóttir, H.; Rijnders, M.; Preez, A. du; Vaz Rebelo, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background The linear focus of ‘normal science’ is unable toadequately take account of the complex interactions that direct health care systems. There is a turn towards complexity theory as a more appropriate framework for understanding system behaviour. However, a comprehensive taxonomy for

  1. cis-Acting Complex-Trait-Associated lincRNA Expression Correlates with Modulation of Chromosomal Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yihong Tan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Intergenic long noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs are the largest class of transcripts in the human genome. Although many have recently been linked to complex human traits, the underlying mechanisms for most of these transcripts remain undetermined. We investigated the regulatory roles of a high-confidence and reproducible set of 69 trait-relevant lincRNAs (TR-lincRNAs in human lymphoblastoid cells whose biological relevance is supported by their evolutionary conservation during recent human history and genetic interactions with other trait-associated loci. Their enrichment in enhancer-like chromatin signatures, interactions with nearby trait-relevant protein-coding loci, and preferential location at topologically associated domain (TAD boundaries provide evidence that TR-lincRNAs likely regulate proximal trait-relevant gene expression in cis by modulating local chromosomal architecture. This is consistent with the positive and significant correlation found between TR-lincRNA abundance and intra-TAD DNA-DNA contacts. Our results provide insights into the molecular mode of action by which TR-lincRNAs contribute to complex human traits. : Tan et al. identify and characterize 69 human complex trait/disease-associated lincRNAs in LCLs. They show that these loci are often associated with cis-regulation of gene expression and tend to be localized at TAD boundaries, suggesting that these lincRNAs may influence chromosomal architecture. Keywords: intergenic long noncoding RNA, lincRNA, GWAS, expression quantitative trait loci, eQTL, complex trait and disease, enhancer, cis-regulation, topologically associated domains, TAD

  2. Multimodal versus Unimodal Instructions in a Complex Learning Context.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gellevij, M.R.M.; van der Meij, Hans; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; Pieters, Julius Marie

    2002-01-01

    Multimodal instruction with text and pictures was compared with unimodal, text-only instruction. More specifically, 44 students used a visual or a textual manual to learn a complex software application. During 2 103–116-min training sessions, cognitive load, and time and ability to recover from

  3. Multimodal versus Unimodal Instruction in a Complex Learning Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellevij, Mark; van der Meij, Hans; de Jong, Ton; Pieters, Jules

    2002-01-01

    Compared multimodal instruction with text and pictures with unimodal text-only instruction as 44 college students used a visual or textual manual to learn a complex software application. Results initially support dual coding theory and indicate that multimodal instruction led to better performance than unimodal instruction. (SLD)

  4. Genome-wide association mapping of leaf metabolic profiles for dissecting complex traits in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedelsheimer, Christian; Lisec, Jan; Czedik-Eysenberg, Angelika; Sulpice, Ronan; Flis, Anna; Grieder, Christoph; Altmann, Thomas; Stitt, Mark; Willmitzer, Lothar; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2012-06-05

    The diversity of metabolites found in plants is by far greater than in most other organisms. Metabolic profiling techniques, which measure many of these compounds simultaneously, enabled investigating the regulation of metabolic networks and proved to be useful for predicting important agronomic traits. However, little is known about the genetic basis of metabolites in crops such as maize. Here, a set of 289 diverse maize inbred lines was genotyped with 56,110 SNPs and assayed for 118 biochemical compounds in the leaves of young plants, as well as for agronomic traits of mature plants in field trials. Metabolite concentrations had on average a repeatability of 0.73 and showed a correlation pattern that largely reflected their functional grouping. Genome-wide association mapping with correction for population structure and cryptic relatedness identified for 26 distinct metabolites strong associations with SNPs, explaining up to 32.0% of the observed genetic variance. On nine chromosomes, we detected 15 distinct SNP-metabolite associations, each of which explained more then 15% of the genetic variance. For lignin precursors, including p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid, we found strong associations (P values to ) with a region on chromosome 9 harboring cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, a key enzyme in monolignol synthesis and a target for improving the quality of lignocellulosic biomass by genetic engineering approaches. Moreover, lignin precursors correlated significantly with lignin content, plant height, and dry matter yield, suggesting that metabolites represent promising connecting links for narrowing the genotype-phenotype gap of complex agronomic traits.

  5. Kernel-based whole-genome prediction of complex traits: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morota, Gota; Gianola, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Prediction of genetic values has been a focus of applied quantitative genetics since the beginning of the 20th century, with renewed interest following the advent of the era of whole genome-enabled prediction. Opportunities offered by the emergence of high-dimensional genomic data fueled by post-Sanger sequencing technologies, especially molecular markers, have driven researchers to extend Ronald Fisher and Sewall Wright's models to confront new challenges. In particular, kernel methods are gaining consideration as a regression method of choice for genome-enabled prediction. Complex traits are presumably influenced by many genomic regions working in concert with others (clearly so when considering pathways), thus generating interactions. Motivated by this view, a growing number of statistical approaches based on kernels attempt to capture non-additive effects, either parametrically or non-parametrically. This review centers on whole-genome regression using kernel methods applied to a wide range of quantitative traits of agricultural importance in animals and plants. We discuss various kernel-based approaches tailored to capturing total genetic variation, with the aim of arriving at an enhanced predictive performance in the light of available genome annotation information. Connections between prediction machines born in animal breeding, statistics, and machine learning are revisited, and their empirical prediction performance is discussed. Overall, while some encouraging results have been obtained with non-parametric kernels, recovering non-additive genetic variation in a validation dataset remains a challenge in quantitative genetics.

  6. Kernel-based whole-genome prediction of complex traits: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gota eMorota

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of genetic values has been a focus of applied quantitative genetics since the beginning of the 20th century, with renewed interest following the advent of the era of whole genome-enabled prediction. Opportunities offered by the emergence of high-dimensional genomic data fueled by post-Sanger sequencing technologies, especially molecular markers, have driven researchers to extend Ronald Fisher and Sewall Wright's models to confront new challenges. In particular, kernel methods are gaining consideration as a regression method of choice for genome-enabled prediction. Complex traits are presumably influenced by many genomic regions working in concert with others (clearly so when considering pathways, thus generating interactions. Motivated by this view, a growing number of statistical approaches based on kernels attempt to capture non-additive effects, either parametrically or non-parametrically. This review centers on whole-genome regression using kernel methods applied to a wide range of quantitative traits of agricultural importance in animals and plants. We discuss various kernel-based approaches tailored to capturing total genetic variation, with the aim of arriving at an enhanced predictive performance in the light of available genome annotation information. Connections between prediction machines born in animal breeding, statistics, and machine learning are revisited, and their empirical prediction performance is discussed. Overall, while some encouraging results have been obtained with non-parametric kernels, recovering non-additive genetic variation in a validation dataset remains a challenge in quantitative genetics.

  7. Personality traits in alcohol-dependent individuals in the context of childhood abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhant, Aneta; Olajossy, Marcin

    2016-10-31

    The aim of this study was to identify groups of alcohol-dependent individuals differing in the severity of childhood physical, emotional and sexual abuse and to find the personality variables that discriminate between those groups. The study included 90 individuals dependent on alcohol. The following questionnaires were used: the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the Coping Inventory (COPE), the Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ), Cattell's IPAT Anxiety Scale, and the Early Trauma Inventory (ETI). Two groups of subjects addicted to alcohol were identified: group 1 with high and group 2 with low childhood physical, emotional and sexual abuse indices. The subjects in Group 1 had significantly higher scores than the subjects in Group 2 on the TCI Temperament scales of NS and HA and lower scores on the TCI character scales of SD, C2 and C4. Group 1 subjects were significantly more likely than those from Group 2 to use avoidant coping strategies; they were also less likely to use problem-focused strategies and had significantly higher scores on general anxiety, overt anxiety, latent anxiety, level of aggression, physical aggression, hostility and anger. The higher severity of childhood physical, emotional and sexual abuse in alcoholics is associated with those personality traits that seem to be crucial for maintaining abstinence and the quality of cooperation in therapy.

  8. Endurance Exercise Ability in the Horse: A Trait with Complex Polygenic Determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Ricard

    2017-06-01

    fibroblasts. This lncRNA could be one element of the cardiac rhythm regulation. Our GWAS revealed that equine performance during endurance races is a complex polygenic trait, and is partially governed by at least 5 QTL: two coding genes involved in neuronal tissues and three other loci with many regulatory functions such as slowing down heart rate.

  9. Endurance Exercise Ability in the Horse: A Trait with Complex Polygenic Determinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, Anne; Robert, Céline; Blouin, Christine; Baste, Fanny; Torquet, Gwendoline; Morgenthaler, Caroline; Rivière, Julie; Mach, Nuria; Mata, Xavier; Schibler, Laurent; Barrey, Eric

    2017-01-01

    . This lncRNA could be one element of the cardiac rhythm regulation. Our GWAS revealed that equine performance during endurance races is a complex polygenic trait, and is partially governed by at least 5 QTL: two coding genes involved in neuronal tissues and three other loci with many regulatory functions such as slowing down heart rate.

  10. The search for Pleiades in trait constellations: functional integration and phenotypic selection in the complex flowers of Morrenia brachystephana (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranzelli, M C; Sérsic, A N; Cocucci, A A

    2014-04-01

    Pollinator-mediated natural selection on single traits, such as corolla tube or spur length, has been well documented. However, flower phenotypes are usually complex, and selection is expected to act on several traits that functionally interact rather than on a single isolated trait. Despite the fact that selection on complex phenotypes is expectedly widespread, multivariate selection modelling on such phenotypes still remains under-explored in plants. Species of the subfamily Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae) provide an opportunity to study such complex flower contrivances integrated by fine-scaled organs from disparate developmental origin. We studied the correlation structure among linear floral traits (i) by testing a priori morphological, functional or developmental hypotheses among traits and (ii) by exploring the organization of flower covariation, considering alternative expectations of modular organization or whole flower integration through conditional dependence analysis (CDA) and integration matrices. The phenotypic selection approach was applied to determine whether floral traits involved in the functioning of the pollination mechanism were affected by natural selection. Floral integration was low, suggesting that flowers are organized in more than just one correlation pleiad; our hypothetical functional correlation matrix was significantly correlated with the empirical matrix, and the CDA revealed three putative modules. Analyses of phenotypic selection showed significant linear and correlational gradients, lending support to expectations of functional interactions between floral traits. Significant correlational selection gradients found involved traits of different floral whorls, providing evidence for the existence of functional integration across developmental domains. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. Prediction of Complex Human Traits Using the Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Predictor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de los Campos, Gustavo; Vazquez, Ana I; Fernando, Rohan

    2013-01-01

    Despite important advances from Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS), for most complex human traits and diseases, a sizable proportion of genetic variance remains unexplained and prediction accuracy (PA) is usually low. Evidence suggests that PA can be improved using Whole-Genome Regression (WGR......) models where phenotypes are regressed on hundreds of thousands of variants simultaneously. The Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction G-BLUP, a ridge-regression type method) is a commonly used WGR method and has shown good predictive performance when applied to plant and animal breeding populations....... However, breeding and human populations differ greatly in a number of factors that can affect the predictive performance of G-BLUP. Using theory, simulations, and real data analysis, we study the erformance of G-BLUP when applied to data from related and unrelated human subjects. Under perfect linkage...

  12. Genomic Selection in the Era of Next Generation Sequencing for Complex Traits in Plant Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Javaid A; Ali, Sajad; Salgotra, Romesh K; Mir, Zahoor A; Dutta, Sutapa; Jadon, Vasudha; Tyagi, Anshika; Mushtaq, Muntazir; Jain, Neelu; Singh, Pradeep K; Singh, Gyanendra P; Prabhu, K V

    2016-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a promising approach exploiting molecular genetic markers to design novel breeding programs and to develop new markers-based models for genetic evaluation. In plant breeding, it provides opportunities to increase genetic gain of complex traits per unit time and cost. The cost-benefit balance was an important consideration for GS to work in crop plants. Availability of genome-wide high-throughput, cost-effective and flexible markers, having low ascertainment bias, suitable for large population size as well for both model and non-model crop species with or without the reference genome sequence was the most important factor for its successful and effective implementation in crop species. These factors were the major limitations to earlier marker systems viz., SSR and array-based, and was unimaginable before the availability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies which have provided novel SNP genotyping platforms especially the genotyping by sequencing. These marker technologies have changed the entire scenario of marker applications and made the use of GS a routine work for crop improvement in both model and non-model crop species. The NGS-based genotyping have increased genomic-estimated breeding value prediction accuracies over other established marker platform in cereals and other crop species, and made the dream of GS true in crop breeding. But to harness the true benefits from GS, these marker technologies will be combined with high-throughput phenotyping for achieving the valuable genetic gain from complex traits. Moreover, the continuous decline in sequencing cost will make the WGS feasible and cost effective for GS in near future. Till that time matures the targeted sequencing seems to be more cost-effective option for large scale marker discovery and GS, particularly in case of large and un-decoded genomes.

  13. Integrating modelling and phenotyping approaches to identify and screen complex traits - Illustration for transpiration efficiency in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenu, K; van Oosterom, E J; McLean, G; Deifel, K S; Fletcher, A; Geetika, G; Tirfessa, A; Mace, E S; Jordan, D R; Sulman, R; Hammer, G L

    2018-02-21

    Following advances in genetics, genomics, and phenotyping, trait selection in breeding is limited by our ability to understand interactions within the plants and with their environments, and to target traits of most relevance for the target population of environments. We propose an integrated approach that combines insights from crop modelling, physiology, genetics, and breeding to identify traits valuable for yield gain in the target population of environments, develop relevant high-throughput phenotyping platforms, and identify genetic controls and their values in production environments. This paper uses transpiration efficiency (biomass produced per unit of water used) as an example of a complex trait of interest to illustrate how the approach can guide modelling, phenotyping, and selection in a breeding program. We believe that this approach, by integrating insights from diverse disciplines, can increase the resource use efficiency of breeding programs for improving yield gains in target populations of environments.

  14. Failure to Thrive in the Context of Carney Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Amit; Auerbach, Adi; Bonella, Belen; Zavras, Phaedon D; Belyavskaya, Elena; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Meir, Karen; Weiss, Ram; Daum, Hagit; Lodish, Maya B; Gillis, David; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2018-01-01

    Carney complex (CNC) is a rare syndrome associated with multiple tumors and several other unique manifestations. We describe the clinical, genetic, and laboratory findings in a cohort of patients with CNC and failure to thrive (FTT). A retrospective case series of pediatric patients with CNC presenting with FTT. We describe a patient with infantile Cushing syndrome (CS) who presented with severe FTT and liver disease; the patient was subsequently diagnosed with CNC. This led to the realization that at least 10 other patients with CNC and FTT have been investigated in the last 22 years at the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Four of those had primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), 2 had cardiac myxomas, and 3 had liver disease. Pediatric patients with CNC may present with FTT whose primary cause is variable and includes CS due to PPNAD, hepatic involvement, and other manifestations of CNC. FTT due to liver disease and/or other causes is a unique new presentation of this rare syndrome with which clinicians need to be familiar. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Heritability and demographic analyses in the large isolated population of Val Borbera suggest advantages in mapping complex traits genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Traglia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Isolated populations are a useful resource for mapping complex traits due to shared stable environment, reduced genetic complexity and extended Linkage Disequilibrium (LD compared to the general population. Here we describe a large genetic isolate from the North West Apennines, the mountain range that runs through Italy from the North West Alps to the South.The study involved 1,803 people living in 7 villages of the upper Borbera Valley. For this large population cohort, data from genealogy reconstruction, medical questionnaires, blood, anthropometric and bone status QUS parameters were evaluated. Demographic and epidemiological analyses indicated a substantial genetic component contributing to each trait variation as well as overlapping genetic determinants and family clustering for some traits.The data provide evidence for significant heritability of medical relevant traits that will be important in mapping quantitative traits. We suggest that this population isolate is suitable to identify rare variants associated with complex phenotypes that may be difficult to study in larger but more heterogeneous populations.

  16. Fear Appeal in Traffic Safety Advertising: The moderating role of medium context, trait anxiety, and differences between drivers and non-drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Janssens

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact was investigated of the intensity of a fear appeal, the valence of the medium context, and the individuals' trait anxiety and personal relevance on the responses of 197 individuals to anti-speeding advertisements. A high level of fear attracts more attention. A negative valence context leads to a more positive anti-speeding attitude. The most important moderating effect of trait anxiety is that the attitude is more positive when low-anxiety individuals are exposed to high fear appeals in a context with negative valence than in a positive context. These results were largely replicated for drivers, but not for non-drivers for whom there was only an attention-getting effect of high fear appeal. Theoretical and practical implications for anti-speeding campaigning are discussed.

  17. Genetic Marker Discovery in Complex Traits: A Field Example on Fat Content and Composition in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Natacha Pena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the large number of attributes that define pork quality, fat content and composition have attracted the attention of breeders in the recent years due to their interaction with human health and technological and sensorial properties of meat. In livestock species, fat accumulates in different depots following a temporal pattern that is also recognized in humans. Intramuscular fat deposition rate and fatty acid composition change with life. Despite indication that it might be possible to select for intramuscular fat without affecting other fat depots, to date only one depot-specific genetic marker (PCK1 c.2456C>A has been reported. In contrast, identification of polymorphisms related to fat composition has been more successful. For instance, our group has described a variant in the stearoyl-coA desaturase (SCD gene that improves the desaturation index of fat without affecting overall fatness or growth. Identification of mutations in candidate genes can be a tedious and costly process. Genome-wide association studies can help in narrowing down the number of candidate genes by highlighting those which contribute most to the genetic variation of the trait. Results from our group and others indicate that fat content and composition are highly polygenic and that very few genes explain more than 5% of the variance of the trait. Moreover, as the complexity of the genome emerges, the role of non-coding genes and regulatory elements cannot be disregarded. Prediction of breeding values from genomic data is discussed in comparison with conventional best linear predictors of breeding values. An example based on real data is given, and the implications in phenotype prediction are discussed in detail. The benefits and limitations of using large SNP sets versus a few very informative markers as predictors of genetic merit of breeding candidates are evaluated using field data as an example.

  18. Using a system of differential equations that models cattle growth to uncover the genetic basis of complex traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freua, Mateus Castelani; Santana, Miguel Henrique de Almeida; Ventura, Ricardo Vieira; Tedeschi, Luis Orlindo; Ferraz, José Bento Sterman

    2017-08-01

    The interplay between dynamic models of biological systems and genomics is based on the assumption that genetic variation of the complex trait (i.e., outcome of model behavior) arises from component traits (i.e., model parameters) in lower hierarchical levels. In order to provide a proof of concept of this statement for a cattle growth model, we ask whether model parameters map genomic regions that harbor quantitative trait loci (QTLs) already described for the complex trait. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with a Bayesian hierarchical LASSO method in two parameters of the Davis Growth Model, a system of three ordinary differential equations describing DNA accretion, protein synthesis and degradation, and fat synthesis. Phenotypic and genotypic data were available for 893 Nellore (Bos indicus) cattle. Computed values for parameter k 1 (DNA accretion rate) ranged from 0.005 ± 0.003 and for α (constant for energy for maintenance requirement) 0.134 ± 0.024. The expected biological interpretation of the parameters is confirmed by QTLs mapped for k 1 and α. QTLs within genomic regions mapped for k 1 are expected to be correlated with the DNA pool: body size and weight. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which were significant for α mapped QTLs that had already been associated with residual feed intake, feed conversion ratio, average daily gain (ADG), body weight, and also dry matter intake. SNPs identified for k 1 were able to additionally explain 2.2% of the phenotypic variability of the complex ADG, even when SNPs for k 1 did not match the genomic regions associated with ADG. Although improvements are needed, our findings suggest that genomic analysis on component traits may help to uncover the genetic basis of more complex traits, particularly when lower biological hierarchies are mechanistically described by mathematical simulation models.

  19. The genetic architecture of a complex ecological trait: host plant use in the specialist moth, HELIOTHIS SUBFLEXA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of the genetic basis of ecological adaptation remains in its infancy, and most studies have focused on phenotypically simple traits. Host plant use by herbivorous insects is phenotypically complex. While research has illuminated the evolutionary determinants of host use, knowledge of its...

  20. A comparison of graph- and kernel-based -omics data integration algorithms for classifying complex traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kang K; Zhao, Hongyu; Pang, Herbert

    2017-12-06

    High-throughput sequencing data are widely collected and analyzed in the study of complex diseases in quest of improving human health. Well-studied algorithms mostly deal with single data source, and cannot fully utilize the potential of these multi-omics data sources. In order to provide a holistic understanding of human health and diseases, it is necessary to integrate multiple data sources. Several algorithms have been proposed so far, however, a comprehensive comparison of data integration algorithms for classification of binary traits is currently lacking. In this paper, we focus on two common classes of integration algorithms, graph-based that depict relationships with subjects denoted by nodes and relationships denoted by edges, and kernel-based that can generate a classifier in feature space. Our paper provides a comprehensive comparison of their performance in terms of various measurements of classification accuracy and computation time. Seven different integration algorithms, including graph-based semi-supervised learning, graph sharpening integration, composite association network, Bayesian network, semi-definite programming-support vector machine (SDP-SVM), relevance vector machine (RVM) and Ada-boost relevance vector machine are compared and evaluated with hypertension and two cancer data sets in our study. In general, kernel-based algorithms create more complex models and require longer computation time, but they tend to perform better than graph-based algorithms. The performance of graph-based algorithms has the advantage of being faster computationally. The empirical results demonstrate that composite association network, relevance vector machine, and Ada-boost RVM are the better performers. We provide recommendations on how to choose an appropriate algorithm for integrating data from multiple sources.

  1. “Are We There Yet?”: Deciding When One Has Demonstrated Specific Genetic Causation in Complex Diseases and Quantitative Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Grier P.; George, Varghese; Go, Rodney C.; Page, Patricia Z.; Allison, David B.

    2003-01-01

    Although mathematical relationships can be proven by deductive logic, biological relationships can only be inferred from empirical observations. This is a distinct disadvantage for those of us who strive to identify the genes involved in complex diseases and quantitative traits. If causation cannot be proven, however, what does constitute sufficient evidence for causation? The philosopher Karl Popper said, “Our belief in a hypothesis can have no stronger basis than our repeated unsuccessful critical attempts to refute it.” We believe that to establish causation, as scientists, we must make a serious attempt to refute our own hypotheses and to eliminate all known sources of bias before association becomes causation. In addition, we suggest that investigators must provide sufficient data and evidence of their unsuccessful efforts to find any confounding biases. In this editorial, we discuss what “causation” means in the context of complex diseases and quantitative traits, and we suggest guidelines for steps that may be taken to address possible confounders of association before polymorphisms may be called “causative.” PMID:13680525

  2. Cell–cell signaling drives the evolution of complex traits: introduction—lung evo-devo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torday, John S.; Rehan, V. K.

    2009-01-01

    an evolutionary vertical integration of cell-to-tissue-to-organ-to-physiology of intrinsic cell–cell signaling and extrinsic factors is the reverse of the “top-down” conventional way in which physiologic systems are usually regarded. This novel mechanistic approach, incorporating a “middle-out” cell–cell signaling component, will lead to a readily available algorithm for integrating genes and phenotypes. This symposium surveyed the phylogenetic origins of such vertically integrated mechanisms for the evolution of cell–cell communication as the basis for complex physiologic traits, from sponges to man. PMID:20607136

  3. Identification of candidate genes for dissecting complex branch number trait in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Deepak; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Das, Shouvik; Kumar, Vinod; Gowda, C L L; Sharma, Shivali; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Parida, Swarup K

    2016-04-01

    The present study exploited integrated genomics-assisted breeding strategy for genetic dissection of complex branch number quantitative trait in chickpea. Candidate gene-based association analysis in a branch number association panel was performed by utilizing the genotyping data of 401 SNP allelic variants mined from 27 known cloned branch number gene orthologs of chickpea. The genome-wide association study (GWAS) integrating both genome-wide GBS- (4556 SNPs) and candidate gene-based genotyping information of 4957 SNPs in a structured population of 60 sequenced desi and kabuli accessions (with 350-400 kb LD decay), detected 11 significant genomic loci (genes) associated (41% combined PVE) with branch number in chickpea. Of these, seven branch number-associated genes were further validated successfully in two inter (ICC 4958 × ICC 17160)- and intra (ICC 12299 × ICC 8261)-specific mapping populations. The axillary meristem and shoot apical meristem-specific expression, including differential up- and down-regulation (4-5 fold) of the validated seven branch number-associated genes especially in high branch number as compared to the low branch number-containing parental accessions and homozygous individuals of two aforesaid mapping populations was apparent. Collectively, this combinatorial genomic approach delineated diverse naturally occurring novel functional SNP allelic variants in seven potential known/candidate genes [PIN1 (PIN-FORMED protein 1), TB1 (teosinte branched 1), BA1/LAX1 (BARREN STALK1/LIKE AUXIN1), GRAS8 (gibberellic acid insensitive/GAI, Repressor of ga13/RGA and Scarecrow8/SCR8), ERF (ethylene-responsive element-binding factor), MAX2 (more axillary growth 2) and lipase] governing chickpea branch number. The useful information generated from this study have potential to expedite marker-assisted genetic enhancement by developing high-yielding cultivars with more number of productive (pods and seeds) branches in chickpea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  4. Drought and increased CO2 alter floral visual and olfactory traits with context-dependent effects on pollinator visitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Glenny; Justin B. Runyon; Laura A. Burkle

    2018-01-01

    Climate change can alter species interactions essential for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function, such as pollination. Understanding the interactive effects of multiple abiotic conditions on floral traits and pollinator visitation are important to anticipate the implications of climate change on pollinator services. Floral visual and olfactory traits were...

  5. Associations of Children’s Appetitive Traits with Weight and Dietary Behaviours in the Context of General Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Gerda; Kremers, Stef P. J.; Oenema, Anke; van de Mheen, Dike

    2012-01-01

    Background Individual variations in child weight can be explained by genetic and behavioural susceptibility to obesity. Behavioural susceptibility can be expressed in appetite-related traits, e.g. food responsiveness. Research into such behavioural factors is important, as it can provide starting points for (preventive) interventions. Objectives To examine associations of children’s appetitive traits with weight and with fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake, and to examine whether parenting style interacts with appetite in determining child weight/intake. Methods Data were used from 1275 children participating in the INPACT study in 2009–2010, with a mean age of 9 years in 2009. Their height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). Parents completed a questionnaire to measure children’s appetitive traits, children’s dietary intake and parenting style. Child BMI z-scores, fruit, snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake were regressed on appetitive traits. Moderation by parenting style was tested by adding interaction terms to the regression analyses. Results Food-approaching appetitive traits were positively, and food-avoidant appetitive traits were negatively related to child BMI z-scores and to child fruit intake. There were no or less consistent associations for snack and sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Authoritative parenting voided the negative association between food fussiness and fruit intake, while neglecting parenting strengthened the positive association between food-approaching appetitive traits and weight. Conclusions Early assessment of appetitive traits could be used to identify children at risk for overweight. As parenting style can moderate the associations between appetitive traits and weight/intake in a favourable way, parents are a promising target group for preventive interventions aimed at influencing the effect of appetitive traits on children. PMID:23227194

  6. The complex role of a salesperson in an appliance sales context ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complex role of a salesperson in an appliance sales context. AC Erasmus, AJ Gothan. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  7. Harnessing complexity: taking advantage of context and relationships in dissemination of school-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Helen; Bowes, Glenn; Drew, Sarah; Glover, Sara; Godfrey, Celia; Patton, George; Trafford, Lea; Bond, Lyndal

    2010-03-01

    Schools and school systems are increasingly asked to use evidence-based strategies to promote the health and well-being of students. The dissemination of school-based health promotion research, however, offers particular challenges to conventional approaches to dissemination. Schools and education systems are multifaceted organizations that sit within constantly shifting broader contexts. This article argues that health promotion dissemination needs to be rethought for school communities as complex systems and that this requires understanding and harnessing the dynamic ecology of the sociopolitical context. In developing this argument, the authors draw on their experience of the dissemination process of a multilevel school-based intervention in a complex educational context. Building on this experience, they argue for the need to move beyond conventional dissemination strategies to a focus on active partnerships between developers and users of school-based intervention research and offer a conceptual tool for planning dissemination.

  8. Diffusion of Telecommunications Services in a Complex Socio-Economic Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismail, Abdullah

    This research aims at creating a detailed account on the diffusion of telecommunications services in a complex socio-economic context, taking Pakistan as a case study. The core research question of this thesis is to investigate why the successful experience of the rapid and an effective diffusion...... of mobile communications services in case of Pakistan couldn’t be replicated in the cases of fixed telephony and internet services. The book investigates those major attributes which play a significant role in the diffusion of telecommunications services in a complex socio-economic and political context...... of telecom services within a complex unit of adoption. The empirical part of the research includes a significantly high number of interviews that were conducted from the key players of the local telecom market, and they essentially represented all the five major domains i.e. the supplier, policy, regulatory...

  9. Studies on fluctuating asymmetry (FA for certain morphological traits in four species of the Drosophila bipectinata complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Parul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA is defined as subtle deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry, evident in differences between the right and the left sides of any given trait. It is a pattern of variation between sides and measures developmental instability. Differences in the level of FA may be used for comparing developmental precision among closely related species and thus may give an idea whether developmental stability was affected during the divergence and separation of populations into distinct species. Keeping this in view, FA was studied in four species of the Drosophila bipectinata complex i.e. D. bipectinata, D. parabipectinata, D. malerkotliana and D. pseudoananassae. In females of all the four species, FA values did not vary significantly for any of the traits considered. However, in case of males, they varied significantly for Wing length (WL and sex comb tooth number (SCTN. Also, while in females Composite fluctuating asymmetry (CFA did not exhibit significant variation, in males it was found to vary significantly across the four species. However, Bonferroni t-tests did not reveal any consistent difference in FA levels between any two species. The magnitude of FA was found to differ significantly among traits and CFA values were found to be higher for males than females in all the four species. Therefore, it may be concluded that the level of FA shows trait specific variations and males are more prone to developmental perturbations. However, the FA levels are more or less similar in all the four species of this complex. Thus, developmental precision remains nearly same in all the four species of this complex irrespective of the degree of evolutionary divergence reached.

  10. Comparison of gene-based rare variant association mapping methods for quantitative traits in a bovine population with complex familial relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Calus, Mario P.L.; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sahana, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is growing interest in the role of rare variants in the variation of complex traits due to increasing evidence that rare variants are associated with quantitative traits. However, association methods that are commonly used for mapping common variants are not effective to map

  11. Context processing in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: How complex could it be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yosef, Dekel; Anaki, David; Golan, Ofer

    2017-03-01

    The ability of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to process context has long been debated: According to the Weak Central Coherence theory, ASD is characterized by poor global processing, and consequently-poor context processing. In contrast, the Social Cognition theory argues individuals with ASD will present difficulties only in social context processing. The complexity theory of autism suggests context processing in ASD will depend on task complexity. The current study examined this controversy through two priming tasks, one presenting human stimuli (facial expressions) and the other presenting non-human stimuli (animal faces). Both tasks presented visual targets, preceded by congruent, incongruent, or neutral auditory primes. Local and global processing were examined by presenting the visual targets in three spatial frequency conditions: High frequency, low frequency, and broadband. Tasks were administered to 16 adolescents with high functioning ASD and 16 matched typically developing adolescents. Reaction time and accuracy were measured for each task in each condition. Results indicated that individuals with ASD processed context for both human and non-human stimuli, except in one condition, in which human stimuli had to be processed globally (i.e., target presented in low frequency). The task demands presented in this condition, and the performance deficit shown in the ASD group as a result, could be understood in terms of cognitive overload. These findings provide support for the complexity theory of autism and extend it. Our results also demonstrate how associative priming could support intact context processing of human and non-human stimuli in individuals with ASD. Autism Res 2017, 10: 520-530. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Transposing reform pedagogy into new contexts: complex instruction in remote Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Peter; Jorgensen, Robyn; Boaler, Jo; Lerman, Steve

    2013-03-01

    This article draws on the outcomes of a 4-year project where complex instruction was used as the basis for a reform in mathematics teaching in remote Aboriginal communities in Australia. The article describes the overall project in terms of the goals and aspirations for learning mathematics among remote Indigenous Australians. Knowing that the approach had been successful in a diverse setting in California, the project team sought to implement and evaluate the possibilities of such reform in a context in which the need for a culturally responsive pedagogy was critical. Elements of complex instruction offered considerable possibilities in aligning with the cultures of the remote communities, but with recognition of the possibility that some elements may not be workable in these contexts. Complex instruction also valued deep knowledge of mathematics rather than a tokenistic, impoverished mathematics. The strategies within complex instruction allowed for mathematical and cultural scaffolding to promote deep learning in mathematics. Such an approach was in line with current reforms in Indigenous education in Australia where there are high expectations of learners in order to break away from the deficit thinking that has permeated much education in remote Australia. The overall intent is to demonstrate what pedagogies are possible within the constraints of the remote context.

  13. The Allelic Landscape of Human Blood Cell Trait Variation and Links to Common Complex Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astle, William J.; Elding, Heather; Jiang, Tao; Allen, Dave; Ruklisa, Dace; Mann, Alice L.; Mead, Daniel; Bouman, Heleen; Riveros-Mckay, Fernando; Kostadima, Myrto A.; Lambourne, John J.; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Downes, Kate; Kundu, Kousik; Bomba, Lorenzo; Berentsen, Kim; Bradley, John R.; Daugherty, Louise C.; Delaneau, Olivier; Freson, Kathleen; Garner, Stephen F.; Grassi, Luigi; Guerrero, Jose; Haimel, Matthias; Janssen-Megens, Eva M.; Kaan, Anita; Kamat, Mihir; Kim, Bowon; Mandoli, Amit; Marchini, Jonathan; Martens, Joost H. A.; Meacham, Stuart; Megy, Karyn; O'Connell, Jared; Petersen, Romina; Sharifi, Nilofar; Sheard, Simon M.; Staley, James R.; Tuna, Salih; van der Ent, Martijn; Walter, Klaudia; Wang, Shuang-Yin; Wheeler, Eleanor; Wilder, Steven P.; Iotchkova, Valentina; Moore, Carmel; Sambrook, Jennifer; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Kaptoge, Stephen; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Carrillo-de-Santa-Pau, Enrique; Juan, David; Rico, Daniel; Valencia, Alfonso; Chen, Lu; Ge, Bing; Vasquez, Louella; Kwan, Tony; Garrido-Martín, Diego; Watt, Stephen; Yang, Ying; Guigo, Roderic; Beck, Stephan; Paul, Dirk S.; Pastinen, Tomi; Bujold, David; Bourque, Guillaume; Frontini, Mattia; Danesh, John; Roberts, David J.; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Butterworth, Adam S.; Soranzo, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Many common variants have been associated with hematological traits, but identification of causal genes and pathways has proven challenging. We performed a genome-wide association analysis in the UK Biobank and INTERVAL studies, testing 29.5 million genetic variants for association with 36 red cell,

  14. Complex pedigree analysis to detect quantitative trait loci in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bink, M.C.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    In dairy cattle, many quantitative traits of economic importance show phenotypic variation. For breeding purposes the analysis of this phenotypic variation and uncovering the contribution of genetic factors is very important. Usually, the individual gene effects contributing to the

  15. Limnephilid taxa revised by speciation traits: Rhadicoleptus, Isogamus, Melampophylax genera, Chaetopteryx rugulosa, Psilopteryx psorosa species groups, Drusus bolivari, Annitella kosciuszkii species complexes (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oláh, J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Speciation traits of paramere, paraproct and aedeagus were applied to find initial split criteria with fine structure analysis in order to prepare diverged trait matrices for delimiting phylogenetic incipient species of unsettled limnephilid taxa in the early stages of reproductive isolation. A brief history is presented how this phenotypic taxonomic tool of the speciation traits was discovered and applied in caddisfly taxonomy. The theoretical basis was elaborated for the phenotypic speciation trait by reviewing several relevant topics in the sciences of taxonomy, molecular genetics and phylogenetics. Perspectives of integrative taxonomy is discussed in context of phenotype versus genotype, immensely complex phenotype versus phenomic challenge, taxonomic impediment versus genetic expedient, taxonomic adaptation of genetic vocabulary versus genetic sophistication and virtualization, New Systematics of Huxley and Mayr versus New Taxonomy of Wheeler. Debates on magic trait, speciation phenotype, speciation trait and super traits are discussed concluding that evolution works with phenotype and why the cryptic species concept is irrelevant. Briefly summarized how speciation traits evolve in sexual selection, through accelerated reproductive isolation with genital evolution through sex-limited speciation traits, including minor sex chromosomes. Why neutral molecular markers are blind compared to the adaptive speciation traits sensitized by fine structure analysis and backed by the potential of high-tech and high-throughput phenotyping and cyber-infrastructure broadly accessible and fed by computable phenotype descriptions. What sort of genetics could really help taxonomy to describe biodiversity of the over 100 million unknown taxa? Collecting new and re-examining old type materials deposited in various collections, the following taxonomic actions were elaborated by speciation traits. Drusus bolivari new species complex has been erected with

  16. FORECAST OF INFLUENCING THE UNDERGROUND COMPLEX CONSTRUCTION ON A CONTEXT AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Orekhov Vyacheslav Valentinovich; Alekseev German Valer’evich

    2017-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with the method, research objective and the results of numerical simulation of change of stress-strain behaviour of soil masses when constructing underground complex. In order to get consistent results of forecast, all major factors affecting the results of design studies have been taken into account, including spatial performance of soil mass, enclosure structure and an adjacent context area, phasing of construction, site investigation, initial stress-strain be...

  17. Large-scale in silico mapping of complex quantitative traits in inbred mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyuan Liu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic basis of common disease and disease-related quantitative traits will aid in the development of diagnostics and therapeutics. The processs of gene discovery can be sped up by rapid and effective integration of well-defined mouse genome and phenome data resources. We describe here an in silico gene-discovery strategy through genome-wide association (GWA scans in inbred mice with a wide range of genetic variation. We identified 937 quantitative trait loci (QTLs from a survey of 173 mouse phenotypes, which include models of human disease (atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, cancer and obesity as well as behavioral, hematological, immunological, metabolic, and neurological traits. 67% of QTLs were refined into genomic regions <0.5 Mb with approximately 40-fold increase in mapping precision as compared with classical linkage analysis. This makes for more efficient identification of the genes that underlie disease. We have identified two QTL genes, Adam12 and Cdh2, as causal genetic variants for atherogenic diet-induced obesity. Our findings demonstrate that GWA analysis in mice has the potential to resolve multiple tightly linked QTLs and achieve single-gene resolution. These high-resolution QTL data can serve as a primary resource for positional cloning and gene identification in the research community.

  18. Regression-based approach for testing the association between multi-region haplotype configuration and complex trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Hongbo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is quite common that the genetic architecture of complex traits involves many genes and their interactions. Therefore, dealing with multiple unlinked genomic regions simultaneously is desirable. Results In this paper we develop a regression-based approach to assess the interactions of haplotypes that belong to different unlinked regions, and we use score statistics to test the null hypothesis of non-genetic association. Additionally, multiple marker combinations at each unlinked region are considered. The multiple tests are settled via the minP approach. The P value of the "best" multi-region multi-marker configuration is corrected via Monte-Carlo simulations. Through simulation studies, we assess the performance of the proposed approach and demonstrate its validity and power in testing for haplotype interaction association. Conclusion Our simulations showed that, for binary trait without covariates, our proposed methods prove to be equal and even more powerful than htr and hapcc which are part of the FAMHAP program. Additionally, our model can be applied to a wider variety of traits and allow adjustment for other covariates. To test the validity, our methods are applied to analyze the association between four unlinked candidate genes and pig meat quality.

  19. A power study of bivariate LOD score analysis of a complex trait and fear/discomfort with strangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Fei; Lee, Dayoung; Mendell, Nancy Role

    2005-12-30

    Complex diseases are often reported along with disease-related traits (DRT). Sometimes investigators consider both disease and DRT phenotypes separately and sometimes they consider individuals as affected if they have either the disease or the DRT, or both. We propose instead to consider the joint distribution of the disease and the DRT and do a linkage analysis assuming a pleiotropic model. We evaluated our results through analysis of the simulated datasets provided by Genetic Analysis Workshop 14. We first conducted univariate linkage analysis of the simulated disease, Kofendrerd Personality Disorder and one of its simulated associated traits, phenotype b (fear/discomfort with strangers). Subsequently, we considered the bivariate phenotype, which combined the information on Kofendrerd Personality Disorder and fear/discomfort with strangers. We developed a program to perform bivariate linkage analysis using an extension to the Elston-Stewart peeling method of likelihood calculation. Using this program we considered the microsatellites within 30 cM of the gene pleiotropic for this simulated disease and DRT. Based on 100 simulations of 300 families we observed excellent power to detect linkage within 10 cM of the disease locus using the DRT and the bivariate trait.

  20. Pain processing in a social context and the link with psychopathic personality traits: An event-related potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, C.H. van; Driessen, J.M.A.; Amato, M.; Berg, M.N. van den; Bhandari, P.; Bilbao-Broch, L.; Farres-Casals, J.; Hendriks, M.; Jodzio, A.C.J.; Luque-Ballesteros, L.; Schöchl, C.A.; Velasco-Angeles, L.R.; Weijer, R.H.A.; Rijn, C.M. van; Jongsma, M.L.A.

    2017-01-01

    Empathy describes the ability to understand another person's feelings. Psychopathy is a disorder that is characterized by a lack of empathy. Therefore, empathy and psychopathy are interesting traits to investigate with respect to experiencing and observing pain. The present study aimed to

  1. Genome-enabled Modeling of Microbial Biogeochemistry using a Trait-based Approach. Does Increasing Metabolic Complexity Increase Predictive Capabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, E.; Karaoz, U.; Molins, S.; Bouskill, N.; Anantharaman, K.; Beller, H. R.; Banfield, J. F.; Steefel, C. I.; Brodie, E.

    2015-12-01

    The biogeochemical functioning of ecosystems is shaped in part by genomic information stored in the subsurface microbiome. Cultivation-independent approaches allow us to extract this information through reconstruction of thousands of genomes from a microbial community. Analysis of these genomes, in turn, gives an indication of the organisms present and their functional roles. However, metagenomic analyses can currently deliver thousands of different genomes that range in abundance/importance, requiring the identification and assimilation of key physiologies and metabolisms to be represented as traits for successful simulation of subsurface processes. Here we focus on incorporating -omics information into BioCrunch, a genome-informed trait-based model that represents the diversity of microbial functional processes within a reactive transport framework. This approach models the rate of nutrient uptake and the thermodynamics of coupled electron donors and acceptors for a range of microbial metabolisms including heterotrophs and chemolithotrophs. Metabolism of exogenous substrates fuels catabolic and anabolic processes, with the proportion of energy used for cellular maintenance, respiration, biomass development, and enzyme production based upon dynamic intracellular and environmental conditions. This internal resource partitioning represents a trade-off against biomass formation and results in microbial community emergence across a fitness landscape. Biocrunch was used here in simulations that included organisms and metabolic pathways derived from a dataset of ~1200 non-redundant genomes reflecting a microbial community in a floodplain aquifer. Metagenomic data was directly used to parameterize trait values related to growth and to identify trait linkages associated with respiration, fermentation, and key enzymatic functions such as plant polymer degradation. Simulations spanned a range of metabolic complexities and highlight benefits originating from simulations

  2. Associations between meal complexity and social context in four Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahma, Nina; Mäkelä, Johanna; Niva, Mari

    2014-01-01

    main meals, lunch and dinner. The analysis builds on the concept of eating system, examining the effect sociability has on meal complexity. In the end we ask whether complexity can better be explained by social context, or if it, rather, results from social differentiation. The data (N=8248) are drawn......Contemporary eating is often portrayed by images of snacking, solitary grazing, disintegration of sociability, demise of family meals, and increasingly irregular eating patterns –what Claude Fischler has famously described as gastroanomy. Inspired by the concept of eating system, this article...... from the Food in Nordic Everyday Life survey conducted in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden in 2012. The Finns and Swedes typically had two hot meals a day, whereas the Danes and Norwegians only had one. Moreover, the differences in the complexity were the greatest in hot dinners, the Danes...

  3. KMgene: a unified R package for gene-based association analysis for complex traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qi; Fang, Zhou; Chen, Wei; Stegle, Oliver

    2018-02-09

    In this report, we introduce an R package KMgene for performing gene-based association tests for familial, multivariate or longitudinal traits using kernel machine (KM) regression under a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) framework. Extensive simulations were performed to evaluate the validity of the approaches implemented in KMgene. http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/KMgene. qi.yan@chp.edu or wei.chen@chp.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Emerging applications of genome-editing technology to examine functionality of GWAS-associated variants for complex traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew J P; Deloukas, Panos; Munroe, Patricia B

    2018-04-13

    Over the last decade, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have propelled the discovery of thousands of loci associated with complex diseases. The focus is now turning towards the function of these association signals, determining the causal variant(s) amongst those in strong linkage disequilibrium, and identifying their underlying mechanisms, such as long-range gene regulation. Genome-editing techniques utilising zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats with Cas9 nuclease (CRISPR-Cas9), are becoming the tools of choice to establish functionality for these variants, due to the ability to assess effects of single variants in vivo. This review will discuss examples of how these technologies have begun to aid functional analysis of GWAS loci for complex traits such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, obesity and autoimmune disease. We focus on analysis of variants occurring within non-coding genomic regions, as these comprise the majority of GWAS variants, providing the greatest challenges to determining functionality, and compare editing strategies that provide different levels of evidence for variant functionality. The review describes molecular insights into some of these potentially causal variants, and how these may relate to the pathology of the trait, and look towards future directions for these technologies in post-GWAS analysis, such as base-editing.

  5. The impact of employees‟ personality traits in perceiving leadership styles and organizational attitude in Saudi Banking context

    OpenAIRE

    Almandeel, Seita Mandeel

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores the influence of employees‟ personality types (Neuroticism (N), Openness to Experience (O), Conscientiousness (C), Agreeableness (A) and Extraversion (E)) on leadership styles (Transformational, Transactional and Avoidant) and on employees‟ attitudes to their organisation (Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention) in banks in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The objectives of this thesis are to identify the impact of personality traits on: perceptions of Leadership behaviour, ...

  6. Peptide biomarkers used for the selective breeding of a complex polygenic trait in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarna, M Marta; Hoover, Shelley E; Huxter, Elizabeth; Higo, Heather; Moon, Kyung-Mee; Domanski, Dominik; Bixby, Miriam E F; Melathopoulos, Andony P; Ibrahim, Abdullah; Peirson, Michael; Desai, Suresh; Micholson, Derek; White, Rick; Borchers, Christoph H; Currie, Robert W; Pernal, Stephen F; Foster, Leonard J

    2017-08-21

    We present a novel way to select for highly polygenic traits. For millennia, humans have used observable phenotypes to selectively breed stronger or more productive livestock and crops. Selection on genotype, using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genome profiling, is also now applied broadly in livestock breeding programs; however, selection on protein/peptide or mRNA expression markers has not yet been proven useful. Here we demonstrate the utility of protein markers to select for disease-resistant hygienic behavior in the European honey bee (Apis mellifera L.). Robust, mechanistically-linked protein expression markers, by integrating cis- and trans- effects from many genomic loci, may overcome limitations of genomic markers to allow for selection. After three generations of selection, the resulting marker-selected stock outperformed an unselected benchmark stock in terms of hygienic behavior, and had improved survival when challenged with a bacterial disease or a parasitic mite, similar to bees selected using a phenotype-based assessment for this trait. This is the first demonstration of the efficacy of protein markers for industrial selective breeding in any agricultural species, plant or animal.

  7. Efficient algorithms for multidimensional global optimization in genetic mapping of complex traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajsa Ljungberg

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Kajsa Ljungberg1, Kateryna Mishchenko2, Sverker Holmgren11Division of Scientific Computing, Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 2Department of Mathematics and Physics, Mälardalen University College, Västerås, SwedenAbstract: We present a two-phase strategy for optimizing a multidimensional, nonconvex function arising during genetic mapping of quantitative traits. Such traits are believed to be affected by multiple so called QTL, and searching for d QTL results in a d-dimensional optimization problem with a large number of local optima. We combine the global algorithm DIRECT with a number of local optimization methods that accelerate the final convergence, and adapt the algorithms to problem-specific features. We also improve the evaluation of the QTL mapping objective function to enable exploitation of the smoothness properties of the optimization landscape. Our best two-phase method is demonstrated to be accurate in at least six dimensions and up to ten times faster than currently used QTL mapping algorithms.Keywords: global optimization, QTL mapping, DIRECT 

  8. Limits to behavioral evolution: the quantitative genetics of a complex trait under directional selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careau, Vincent; Wolak, Matthew E; Carter, Patrick A; Garland, Theodore

    2013-11-01

    Replicated selection experiments provide a powerful way to study how "multiple adaptive solutions" may lead to differences in the quantitative-genetic architecture of selected traits and whether this may translate into differences in the timing at which evolutionary limits are reached. We analyze data from 31 generations (n=17,988) of selection on voluntary wheel running in house mice. The rate of initial response, timing of selection limit, and height of the plateau varied significantly between sexes and among the four selected lines. Analyses of litter size and realized selection differentials seem to rule out counterposing natural selection as a cause of the selection limits. Animal-model analyses showed that although the additive genetic variance was significantly lower in selected than control lines, both before and after the limits, the decrease was not sufficient to explain the limits. Moreover, directional selection promoted a negative covariance between additive and maternal genetic variance over the first 10 generations. These results stress the importance of replication in selection studies of higher-level traits and highlight the fact that long-term predictions of response to selection are not necessarily expected to be linear because of the variable effects of selection on additive genetic variance and maternal effects. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Impacts of population structure and analytical models in genome-wide association studies of complex traits in forest trees: a case study in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo P Cappa

    Full Text Available The promise of association genetics to identify genes or genomic regions controlling complex traits has generated a flurry of interest. Such phenotype-genotype associations could be useful to accelerate tree breeding cycles, increase precision and selection intensity for late expressing, low heritability traits. However, the prospects of association genetics in highly heterozygous undomesticated forest trees can be severely impacted by the presence of cryptic population and pedigree structure. To investigate how to better account for this, we compared the GLM and five combinations of the Unified Mixed Model ( UMM on data of a low-density genome-wide association study for growth and wood property traits carried out in a Eucalyptus globulus population (n = 303 with 7,680 Diversity Array Technology (DArT markers. Model comparisons were based on the degree of deviation from the uniform distribution and estimates of the mean square differences between the observed and expected p-values of all significant marker-trait associations detected. Our analysis revealed the presence of population and family structure. There was not a single best model for all traits. Striking differences in detection power and accuracy were observed among the different models especially when population structure was not accounted for. The UMM method was the best and produced superior results when compared to GLM for all traits. Following stringent correction for false discoveries, 18 marker-trait associations were detected, 16 for tree diameter growth and two for lignin monomer composition (S:G ratio, a key wood property trait. The two DArT markers associated with S:G ratio on chromosome 10, physically map within 1 Mbp of the ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H gene, providing a putative independent validation of this marker-trait association. This study details the merit of collectively integrate population structure and relatedness in association analyses in undomesticated, highly

  10. Impacts of Population Structure and Analytical Models in Genome-Wide Association Studies of Complex Traits in Forest Trees: A Case Study in Eucalyptus globulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Martín N.; Acuña, Cintia; Borralho, Nuno M. G.; Grattapaglia, Dario; Marcucci Poltri, Susana N.

    2013-01-01

    The promise of association genetics to identify genes or genomic regions controlling complex traits has generated a flurry of interest. Such phenotype-genotype associations could be useful to accelerate tree breeding cycles, increase precision and selection intensity for late expressing, low heritability traits. However, the prospects of association genetics in highly heterozygous undomesticated forest trees can be severely impacted by the presence of cryptic population and pedigree structure. To investigate how to better account for this, we compared the GLM and five combinations of the Unified Mixed Model (UMM) on data of a low-density genome-wide association study for growth and wood property traits carried out in a Eucalyptus globulus population (n = 303) with 7,680 Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers. Model comparisons were based on the degree of deviation from the uniform distribution and estimates of the mean square differences between the observed and expected p-values of all significant marker-trait associations detected. Our analysis revealed the presence of population and family structure. There was not a single best model for all traits. Striking differences in detection power and accuracy were observed among the different models especially when population structure was not accounted for. The UMM method was the best and produced superior results when compared to GLM for all traits. Following stringent correction for false discoveries, 18 marker-trait associations were detected, 16 for tree diameter growth and two for lignin monomer composition (S∶G ratio), a key wood property trait. The two DArT markers associated with S∶G ratio on chromosome 10, physically map within 1 Mbp of the ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) gene, providing a putative independent validation of this marker-trait association. This study details the merit of collectively integrate population structure and relatedness in association analyses in undomesticated, highly

  11. Examining the construct validity of the Basic Traits Inventory and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. Metzer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: As there has recently been a need for researchers to consider shorter personality measures, we compared the construct validity of a longer and a shorter personality measure in the South African context. Research purpose: The main purpose of this study was to examine the discriminant and convergent validity of two personality measures that measure the big five personality factors: the longer Basic Traits Inventory (BTI and the shorter Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI. Motivation for the study: Researchers have indicated a need for shorter personality measures, such as the TIPI, to assess personality dimensions. This study assessed the validity of the shorter measure in comparison with the BTI, which is considered cross-culturally valid in the South African context. Research approach, design and method: This study used a quantitative research design. Both personality measures were administered manually to a convenience sample of student participants (n = 662, and data were analysed through factor analysis utilising oblique rotation for all items. Main findings: The main findings indicate that, although the construct validity of both measures was satisfactory, the TIPI yielded unsatisfactory reliability. Practical/managerial implications: The BTI is a more reliable measure than the TIPI, which should only be used when time is limited. Contribution/value-add: In addition to providing insight into how the length of an assessment impacts on the reliability of a measure, this study further reinforces the use of the basic traits inventory as a measure that reliably measures personality in South Africa.

  12. Mediation, moderation, and context: Understanding complex relations among cognition, affect, and health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Ellis, Erin M; Hall, Marissa G; Moss, Jennifer L; Lillie, Sarah E; Brewer, Noel T; Klein, William M P

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have historically treated cognition and affect as separate constructs in motivating health behaviour. We present a framework and empirical evidence for complex relations between cognition and affect in predicting health behaviour. Main Outcome, Design and Results: First, affect and cognition can mediate each other's relation to health behaviour. Second, affect and cognition can moderate the other's impact. Third, context can change the interplay of affect and cognition. Fourth, affect and cognition may be indelibly fused in some psychological constructs (e.g. worry, anticipated regret and reactance). These four propositions in our framework are not mutually exclusive. Examination of the types of complex relations described here can benefit theory development, empirical testing of theories and intervention design. Doing so will advance the understanding of mechanisms involved in regulation of health behaviours and the effectiveness of interventions to change health behaviours.

  13. In Vivo fitness associated with high virulence in a vertebrate virus is a complex trait regulated by host entry, replication, and shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Andrew R.; Kurath, Gael

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between pathogen fitness and virulence is typically examined by quantifying only one or two pathogen fitness traits. More specifically, it is regularly assumed that within-host replication, as a precursor to transmission, is the driving force behind virulence. In reality, many traits contribute to pathogen fitness, and each trait could drive the evolution of virulence in different ways. Here, we independently quantified four viral infection cycle traits, namely, host entry, within-host replication, within-host coinfection fitness, and shedding, in vivo, in the vertebrate virus Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). We examined how each of these stages of the viral infection cycle contributes to the fitness of IHNV genotypes that differ in virulence in rainbow trout. This enabled us to determine how infection cycle fitness traits are independently associated with virulence. We found that viral fitness was independently regulated by each of the traits examined, with the largest impact on fitness being provided by within-host replication. Furthermore, the more virulent of the two genotypes of IHNV we used had advantages in all of the traits quantified. Our results are thus congruent with the assumption that virulence and within-host replication are correlated but suggest that infection cycle fitness is complex and that replication is not the only trait associated with virulence.

  14. Investigation of obsessive-compulsive disorder and assessment of obsessionality as a personality trait in patients with complex partial seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banihashemian K

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Behavioral changes in patients with epilepsy could cause comorbid psychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorders. This study is concerned with investigation of obsessive-compulsive disorders and assessment of obsessionality as a personality trait in patients with complex partial seizure. "n"nMethods: Seventy six patients with complex partial seizure, 74 patients with generalized epilepsy that referred to Shiraz psychiatric professional center during three month (from July to September 2009, and 76 matched healthy controls were randomly selected and evaluated using the Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (Y-BOCS, short form of Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI and clinical interview. "n"nResults: Complex partial seizure and obsessive-compulsive disorder (%13.15 are significantly more prevalent than generalized seizure (%2.70 and than control groups (%1.31 (p<0.001, and mean of psychasthenia scale (Pt scale scores in patients with complex partial seizure is more than mean of Pt scores in generalized epilepsy and control groups (p<0.001. There is significant relationship between total score of Yale-Brown scale and Pt scale in MMPI (r=0.79, p<0.01."n"nConclusions: Patients with complex

  15. Hormones and the Evolution of Complex Traits: Insights from Artificial Selection on Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Theodore; Zhao, Meng; Saltzman, Wendy

    2016-08-01

    Although behavior may often be a fairly direct target of natural or sexual selection, it cannot evolve without changes in subordinate traits that cause or permit its expression. In principle, changes in endocrine function could be a common mechanism underlying behavioral evolution because they are well positioned to mediate integrated responses to behavioral selection. More specifically, hormones can influence both motivational (e.g., brain) and performance (e.g., muscles) components of behavior simultaneously and in a coordinated fashion. If the endocrine system is often "used" as a general mechanism to effect responses to selection, then correlated responses in other aspects of behavior, life history, and organismal performance (e.g., locomotor abilities) should commonly occur because any cell with appropriate receptors could be affected. Ways in which behavior coadapts with other aspects of the phenotype can be studied directly through artificial selection and experimental evolution. Several studies have targeted rodent behavior for selective breeding and reported changes in other aspects of behavior, life history, and lower-level effectors of these organismal traits, including endocrine function. One example involves selection for high levels of voluntary wheel running, one aspect of physical activity, in four replicate High Runner (HR) lines of mice. Circulating levels of several hormones (including insulin, testosterone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine) have been characterized, three of which-corticosterone, leptin, and adiponectin-differ between HR and control lines, depending on sex, age, and generation. Potential changes in circulating levels of other behaviorally and metabolically relevant hormones, as well as in other components of the endocrine system (e.g., receptors), have yet to be examined. Overall, results to date identify promising avenues for further studies on the endocrine basis of activity levels. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University

  16. Understanding the link between state and trait aspects of self-esteem in a social context

    OpenAIRE

    中嶋, 夕湖; 下斗米, 淳; 岡本, 祐子

    2015-01-01

    As people experience various events in everyday life, their assessment of emotion and of self-changes. In recent years, research has increasingly focused on individual fluctuation of short-term emotions as a means of explaining changes in self-esteem. In this study, an association between trait self-esteem (TSE), i.e., self-esteem as a characteristic, and state self-esteem (SSE), the type of self-esteem that is alterable by daily events were examined. Every day for one week, 61 students (23 m...

  17. Capturing complex human behaviors in representative sports contexts with a single camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ricardo; Araújo, Duarte; Fernandes, Orlando; Fonseca, Cristina; Correia, Vanda; Gazimba, Vítor; Travassos, Bruno; Esteves, Pedro; Vilar, Luís; Lopes, José

    2010-01-01

    In the last years, several motion analysis methods have been developed without considering representative contexts for sports performance. The purpose of this paper was to explain and underscore a straightforward method to measure human behavior in these contexts. Procedures combining manual video tracking (with TACTO device) and bidimensional reconstruction (through direct linear transformation) using a single camera were used in order to capture kinematic data required to compute collective variable(s) and control parameter(s). These procedures were applied to a 1vs1 association football task as an illustrative subphase of team sports and will be presented in a tutorial fashion. Preliminary analysis of distance and velocity data identified a collective variable (difference between the distance of the attacker and the defender to a target defensive area) and two nested control parameters (interpersonal distance and relative velocity). Findings demonstrated that the complementary use of TACTO software and direct linear transformation permit to capture and reconstruct complex human actions in their context in a low dimensional space (information reduction).

  18. FORECAST OF INFLUENCING THE UNDERGROUND COMPLEX CONSTRUCTION ON A CONTEXT AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orekhov Vyacheslav Valentinovich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with the method, research objective and the results of numerical simulation of change of stress-strain behaviour of soil masses when constructing underground complex. In order to get consistent results of forecast, all major factors affecting the results of design studies have been taken into account, including spatial performance of soil mass, enclosure structure and an adjacent context area, phasing of construction, site investigation, initial stress-strain behaviour of soil mass and elasto-plastic strain of soils. The authors give assessment of influence of pit excavation and subsequent construction on a context adjacent area and construction of an underground railroad. Results of the studies show that the proposed construction of an underground complex on the Tverskaya Zastava square would not have a significant impact on the surrounding buildings and subway structures. The spreading of the subsidence crater around the excavating pit is projected by 30...80 m. The ground lift directly below the bottom of the excavation pit in the places of metro stations and transport tunnels will be about 0.1 cm.

  19. Epistasis × environment interactions among Arabidopsis thaliana glucosinolate genes impact complex traits and fitness in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, Rachel E; Feusier, Julie; Muok, Alise; Lin, Catherine; Larson, Brandon; Copeland, Daniel; Corwin, Jason A; Rubin, Matthew J; Francisco, Marta; Li, Baohua; Joseph, Bindu; Weinig, Cynthia; Kliebenstein, Daniel J

    2017-08-01

    Despite the growing number of studies showing that genotype × environment and epistatic interactions control fitness, the influences of epistasis × environment interactions on adaptive trait evolution remain largely uncharacterized. Across three field trials, we quantified aliphatic glucosinolate (GSL) defense chemistry, leaf damage, and relative fitness using mutant lines of Arabidopsis thaliana varying at pairs of causal aliphatic GSL defense genes to test the impact of epistatic and epistasis × environment interactions on adaptive trait variation. We found that aliphatic GSL accumulation was primarily influenced by additive and epistatic genetic variation, leaf damage was primarily influenced by environmental variation and relative fitness was primarily influenced by epistasis and epistasis × environment interactions. Epistasis × environment interactions accounted for up to 48% of the relative fitness variation in the field. At a single field site, the impact of epistasis on relative fitness varied significantly over 2 yr, showing that epistasis × environment interactions within a location can be temporally dynamic. These results suggest that the environmental dependency of epistasis can profoundly influence the response to selection, shaping the adaptive trajectories of natural populations in complex ways, and deserves further consideration in future evolutionary studies. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Drosophila and genome-wide association studies: a review and resource for the functional dissection of human complex traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangler, Michael F.; Hu, Yanhui

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified thousands of susceptibility loci for common diseases with complex genetic etiologies. Although the susceptibility variants identified by GWAS usually have only modest effects on individual disease risk, they contribute to a substantial burden of trait variation in the overall population. GWAS also offer valuable clues to disease mechanisms that have long proven to be elusive. These insights could lead the way to breakthrough treatments; however, several challenges hinder progress, making innovative approaches to accelerate the follow-up of results from GWAS an urgent priority. Here, we discuss the largely untapped potential of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, for functional investigation of findings from human GWAS. We highlight selected examples where strong genomic conservation with humans along with the rapid and powerful genetic tools available for flies have already facilitated fine mapping of association signals, elucidated gene mechanisms, and revealed novel disease-relevant biology. We emphasize current research opportunities in this rapidly advancing field, and present bioinformatic analyses that systematically explore the applicability of Drosophila for interrogation of susceptibility signals implicated in more than 1000 human traits, based on all GWAS completed to date. Thus, our discussion is targeted at both human geneticists seeking innovative strategies for experimental validation of findings from GWAS, as well as the Drosophila research community, by whom ongoing investigations of the implicated genes will powerfully inform our understanding of human disease. PMID:28151408

  1. Spatial Patterns in Herbivory on a Coral Reef Are Influenced by Structural Complexity but Not by Algal Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergés, Adriana; Vanderklift, Mathew A.; Doropoulos, Christopher; Hyndes, Glenn A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Patterns of herbivory can alter the spatial structure of ecosystems, with important consequences for ecosystem functions and biodiversity. While the factors that drive spatial patterns in herbivory in terrestrial systems are well established, comparatively less is known about what influences the distribution of herbivory in coral reefs. Methodology and Principal Findings We quantified spatial patterns of macroalgal consumption in a cross-section of Ningaloo Reef (Western Australia). We used a combination of descriptive and experimental approaches to assess the influence of multiple macroalgal traits and structural complexity in establishing the observed spatial patterns in macroalgal herbivory, and to identify potential feedback mechanisms between herbivory and macroalgal nutritional quality. Spatial patterns in macroalgal consumption were best explained by differences in structural complexity among habitats. The biomass of herbivorous fish, and rates of herbivory were always greater in the structurally-complex coral-dominated outer reef and reef flat habitats, which were also characterised by high biomass of herbivorous fish, low cover and biomass of macroalgae and the presence of unpalatable algae species. Macroalgal consumption decreased to undetectable levels within 75 m of structurally-complex reef habitat, and algae were most abundant in the structurally-simple lagoon habitats, which were also characterised by the presence of the most palatable algae species. In contrast to terrestrial ecosystems, herbivory patterns were not influenced by the distribution, productivity or nutritional quality of resources (macroalgae), and we found no evidence of a positive feedback between macroalgal consumption and the nitrogen content of algae. Significance This study highlights the importance of seascape-scale patterns in structural complexity in determining spatial patterns of macroalgal consumption by fish. Given the importance of herbivory in maintaining the

  2. Effects of structural complexity on within-canopy light environments and leaf traits in a northern mixed deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotis, Alexander T; Curtis, Peter S

    2017-10-01

    Canopy structure influences forest productivity through its effects on the distribution of radiation and the light-induced changes in leaf physiological traits. Due to the difficulty of accessing and measuring forest canopies, few field-based studies have quantitatively linked these divergent scales of canopy functioning. The objective of our study was to investigate how canopy structure affects light profiles within a forest canopy and whether leaves of mature trees adjust morphologically and biochemically to the light environments characteristic of canopies with different structural complexity. We used a combination of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and hemispherical photographs to quantify canopy structure and light environments, respectively, and a telescoping pole to sample leaves. Leaf mass per area (LMA), nitrogen on an area basis (Narea) and chlorophyll on a mass basis (Chlmass) were measured in red maple (Acer rubrum), american beech (Fagus grandifolia), white pine (Pinus strobus), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra) at different heights in plots with similar leaf area index but contrasting canopy complexity (rugosity). We found that more complex canopies had greater porosity and reduced light variability in the midcanopy while total light interception was unchanged relative to less complex canopies. Leaf phenotypes of F. grandifolia, Q. rubra and P. strobus were more sun-acclimated in the midstory of structurally complex canopies while leaf phenotypes of A. rubrum were more shade-acclimated (lower LMA) in the upper canopy of more complex stands, despite no differences in total light interception. Broadleaf species showed further differences in acclimation with increased Narea and reduced Chlmass in leaves with higher LMA, while P. strobus showed no change in Narea and Chlmass with higher LMA. Our results provide new insight on how light distribution and leaf acclimation in mature trees might be altered when natural and anthropogenic

  3. Spatial patterns in herbivory on a coral reef are influenced by structural complexity but not by algal traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Vergés

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of herbivory can alter the spatial structure of ecosystems, with important consequences for ecosystem functions and biodiversity. While the factors that drive spatial patterns in herbivory in terrestrial systems are well established, comparatively less is known about what influences the distribution of herbivory in coral reefs.We quantified spatial patterns of macroalgal consumption in a cross-section of Ningaloo Reef (Western Australia. We used a combination of descriptive and experimental approaches to assess the influence of multiple macroalgal traits and structural complexity in establishing the observed spatial patterns in macroalgal herbivory, and to identify potential feedback mechanisms between herbivory and macroalgal nutritional quality. Spatial patterns in macroalgal consumption were best explained by differences in structural complexity among habitats. The biomass of herbivorous fish, and rates of herbivory were always greater in the structurally-complex coral-dominated outer reef and reef flat habitats, which were also characterised by high biomass of herbivorous fish, low cover and biomass of macroalgae and the presence of unpalatable algae species. Macroalgal consumption decreased to undetectable levels within 75 m of structurally-complex reef habitat, and algae were most abundant in the structurally-simple lagoon habitats, which were also characterised by the presence of the most palatable algae species. In contrast to terrestrial ecosystems, herbivory patterns were not influenced by the distribution, productivity or nutritional quality of resources (macroalgae, and we found no evidence of a positive feedback between macroalgal consumption and the nitrogen content of algae.This study highlights the importance of seascape-scale patterns in structural complexity in determining spatial patterns of macroalgal consumption by fish. Given the importance of herbivory in maintaining the ability of coral reefs to reorganise and

  4. TYK2 protein-coding variants protect against rheumatoid arthritis and autoimmunity, with no evidence of major pleiotropic effects on non-autoimmune complex traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothée Diogo

    Full Text Available Despite the success of genome-wide association studies (GWAS in detecting a large number of loci for complex phenotypes such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA susceptibility, the lack of information on the causal genes leaves important challenges to interpret GWAS results in the context of the disease biology. Here, we genetically fine-map the RA risk locus at 19p13 to define causal variants, and explore the pleiotropic effects of these same variants in other complex traits. First, we combined Immunochip dense genotyping (n = 23,092 case/control samples, Exomechip genotyping (n = 18,409 case/control samples and targeted exon-sequencing (n = 2,236 case/controls samples to demonstrate that three protein-coding variants in TYK2 (tyrosine kinase 2 independently protect against RA: P1104A (rs34536443, OR = 0.66, P = 2.3 x 10(-21, A928V (rs35018800, OR = 0.53, P = 1.2 x 10(-9, and I684S (rs12720356, OR = 0.86, P = 4.6 x 10(-7. Second, we show that the same three TYK2 variants protect against systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, Pomnibus = 6 x 10(-18, and provide suggestive evidence that two of the TYK2 variants (P1104A and A928V may also protect against inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; P(omnibus = 0.005. Finally, in a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS assessing >500 phenotypes using electronic medical records (EMR in >29,000 subjects, we found no convincing evidence for association of P1104A and A928V with complex phenotypes other than autoimmune diseases such as RA, SLE and IBD. Together, our results demonstrate the role of TYK2 in the pathogenesis of RA, SLE and IBD, and provide supporting evidence for TYK2 as a promising drug target for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  5. Assessment of complex dissociative disorder patients and simulated dissociation in forensic contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Bethany L; Webermann, Aliya R; Frankel, A Steven

    Few assessors receive training in assessing dissociation and complex dissociative disorders (DDs). Potential differential diagnoses include anxiety, mood, psychotic, substance use, and personality disorders, as well as exaggeration and malingering. Individuals with DDs typically elevate on many clinical and validity scales on psychological tests, yet research indicates that they can be distinguished from DD simulators. Becoming informed about the testing profiles of DD individuals and DD simulators can improve the accuracy of differential diagnoses in forensic settings. In this paper, we first review the testing profiles of individuals with complex DDs and contrast them with DD simulators on assessment measures used in forensic contexts, including the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), and the Structured Inventory of Reported Symptoms (SIRS), as well as dissociation-specific measures such as the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D-R). We then provide recommendations for assessing complex trauma and dissociation through the aforementioned assessments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of biological priors enhances understanding of genetic architecture and genomic prediction of complex traits within and between dairy cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lingzhao; Sahana, Goutam; Ma, Peipei; Su, Guosheng; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Shengli; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sørensen, Peter

    2017-08-10

    A better understanding of the genetic architecture underlying complex traits (e.g., the distribution of causal variants and their effects) may aid in the genomic prediction. Here, we hypothesized that the genomic variants of complex traits might be enriched in a subset of genomic regions defined by genes grouped on the basis of "Gene Ontology" (GO), and that incorporating this independent biological information into genomic prediction models might improve their predictive ability. Four complex traits (i.e., milk, fat and protein yields, and mastitis) together with imputed sequence variants in Holstein (HOL) and Jersey (JER) cattle were analysed. We first carried out a post-GWAS analysis in a HOL training population to assess the degree of enrichment of the association signals in the gene regions defined by each GO term. We then extended the genomic best linear unbiased prediction model (GBLUP) to a genomic feature BLUP (GFBLUP) model, including an additional genomic effect quantifying the joint effect of a group of variants located in a genomic feature. The GBLUP model using a single random effect assumes that all genomic variants contribute to the genomic relationship equally, whereas GFBLUP attributes different weights to the individual genomic relationships in the prediction equation based on the estimated genomic parameters. Our results demonstrate that the immune-relevant GO terms were more associated with mastitis than milk production, and several biologically meaningful GO terms improved the prediction accuracy with GFBLUP for the four traits, as compared with GBLUP. The improvement of the genomic prediction between breeds (the average increase across the four traits was 0.161) was more apparent than that it was within the HOL (the average increase across the four traits was 0.020). Our genomic feature modelling approaches provide a framework to simultaneously explore the genetic architecture and genomic prediction of complex traits by taking advantage of

  7. Cortical dysplasia and autistic trait severity in children with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex : A clinical epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Mous (Sabine); I.E. Overwater (Iris); R. Vidal Gato (Rita); J. Duvekot (Jorieke); L.W. ten Hoopen (Leontine); M. Leguin (Maarten); M.C.Y. de Wit (Marie Claire); G.C. Dieleman (Gwen)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractTuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is characterized by a high prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Little is known about the relation between cortical dysplasia and ASD severity in TSC. We assessed ASD severity (using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Scale), tuber and radial

  8. Use of biological priors enhances understanding of genetic architecture and genomic prediction of complex traits within and between dairy cattle breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lingzhao; Sahana, Goutam; Ma, Peipei

    2017-01-01

    sequence variants in Holstein (HOL) and Jersey (JER) cattle were analysed. We first carried out a post-GWAS analysis in a HOL training population to assess the degree of enrichment of the association signals in the gene regions defined by each GO term. We then extended the genomic best linear unbiased......BACKGROUND: A better understanding of the genetic architecture underlying complex traits (e.g., the distribution of causal variants and their effects) may aid in the genomic prediction. Here, we hypothesized that the genomic variants of complex traits might be enriched in a subset of genomic...

  9. MAIA - Method for Architecture of Information Applied: methodological construct of information processing in complex contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael de Moura Costa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Paper to presentation the MAIA Method for Architecture of Information Applied evolution, its structure, results obtained and three practical applications.Objective: Proposal of a methodological constructo for treatment of complex information, distinguishing information spaces and revealing inherent configurations of those spaces. Metodology: The argument is elaborated from theoretical research of analitical hallmark, using distinction as a way to express concepts. Phenomenology is used as a philosophical position, which considers the correlation between Subject↔Object. The research also considers the notion of interpretation as an integrating element for concepts definition. With these postulates, the steps to transform the information spaces are formulated. Results: This article explores not only how the method is structured to process information in its contexts, starting from a succession of evolutive cicles, divided in moments, which, on their turn, evolve to transformation acts. Conclusions: This article explores not only how the method is structured to process information in its contexts, starting from a succession of evolutive cicles, divided in moments, which, on their turn, evolve to transformation acts. Besides that, the article presents not only possible applications as a cientific method, but also as configuration tool in information spaces, as well as generator of ontologies. At last, but not least, presents a brief summary of the analysis made by researchers who have already evaluated the method considering the three aspects mentioned.

  10. Photoprotection in an ecological context: the remarkable complexity of thermal energy dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Adams, William W

    2006-01-01

    This review places photoprotection into the context of ecology and species diversity. The focus is on photoprotection via the safe removal - as thermal energy - of excess solar energy absorbed by the light collecting system, which counteracts the formation of reactive oxygen species. An update on the surprisingly complex, multiple variations of thermal energy dissipation is presented, placing these different forms into ecological and genetic contexts. Zeaxanthin-facilitated, flexible thermal dissipation associated with the PsbS protein and controlled by the trans-thylakoid pH gradient apparently occurs ubiquitously in plants, and can become sustained (and thus less flexible) at low temperatures. Long-lived, slow-growing plants with low intrinsic capacities for photosynthesis have greater capacities for this flexible dissipation than short-lived, fast-growing species. Furthermore, potent, but inflexible (zeaxanthin-facilitated) thermal dissipation, prominent in evergreen species under prolonged environmental stress, is characterized with respect to the involvement of photosystem II core rearrangement and/or degradation as well as the absence of control by trans-thylakoid pH and, possibly, PsbS. A role of PsbS-related proteins in photoprotection is discussed.

  11. Examining the construct validity of the Basic Traits Inventory and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. Metzer

    2014-08-01

    Research purpose: The main purpose of this study was to examine the discriminant and convergent validity of two personality measures that measure the big five personality factors: the longer Basic Traits Inventory (BTI and the shorter Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI. Motivation for the study: Researchers have indicated a need for shorter personality measures, such as the TIPI, to assess personality dimensions. This study assessed the validity of the shorter measure in comparison with the BTI, which is considered cross-culturally valid in the South African context. Research approach, design and method: This study used a quantitative research design. Both personality measures were administered manually to a convenience sample of student participants (n = 662, and data were analysed through factor analysis utilising oblique rotation for all items. Main findings: The main findings indicate that, although the construct validity of both measures was satisfactory, the TIPI yielded unsatisfactory reliability. Practical/managerial implications: The BTI is a more reliable measure than the TIPI, which should only be used when time is limited. Contribution/value-add: In addition to providing insight into how the length of an assessment impacts on the reliability of a measure, this study further reinforces the use of the basic traits inventory as a measure that reliably measures personality in South Africa.

  12. Process evaluation for complex interventions in health services research: analysing context, text trajectories and disruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Jamie

    2016-08-19

    Process evaluations assess the implementation and sustainability of complex healthcare interventions within clinical trials, with well-established theoretical models available for evaluating intervention delivery within specific contexts. However, there is a need to translate conceptualisations of context into analytical tools which enable the dynamic relationship between context and intervention implementation to be captured and understood. In this paper I propose an alternative approach to the design, implementation and analysis of process evaluations for complex health interventions through a consideration of trial protocols as textual documents, distributed and enacted at multiple contextual levels. As an example, I conduct retrospective analysis of a sample of field notes and transcripts collected during the ESTEEM study - a cluster randomised controlled trial of primary care telephone triage. I draw on theoretical perspectives associated with Linguistic Ethnography to examine the delivery of ESTEEM through staff orientation to different texts. In doing so I consider what can be learned from examining the flow and enactment of protocols for notions of implementation and theoretical fidelity (i.e. intervention delivered as intended and whether congruent with the intervention theory). Implementation of the triage intervention required staff to integrate essential elements of the protocol within everyday practice, seen through the adoption and use of different texts that were distributed across staff and within specific events. Staff were observed deploying texts in diverse ways (e.g. reinterpreting scripts, deviating from standard operating procedures, difficulty completing decision support software), providing numerous instances of disruption to maintaining intervention fidelity. Such observations exposed tensions between different contextual features in which the trial was implemented, offering theoretical explanations for the main trial findings. The value of

  13. Context-Dependence, Visibility, and Prediction Using State and Trait Individual Differences as Moderators of ESP in a Ganzfeld Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Pérez-Navarro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for participant classification, based on trait and state, in the experimental evaluation of ESP (extrasensory perception. We conducted three Ganzfeld experiments with a sample of 237 participants. In experiment I (N = 60 twenty participants ranked the target stimulus in the first position, achieving a non-significant rate of correct guesses of 33.3% (z = 1.48, p = .07, one tailed. In experiment II (N = 90 only 26.6% of the participants’ guesses were correct (z = .35, p = .36, one tailed. Weighting trials in the second experiment on the basis of the most successful predictors of the participants’ performance in the first experiment increased the rate of correct guesses from 26.6% to 36.4%. Results in a confirmatory experiment (N = 87 were not significant (32.7%, z = 1.32, p = .09, one tailed. However, overall results in this study were consistent with the effects sizes data reported in previous meta-analyses.

  14. Phenotypic differentiation in love song traits among sibling species of the Lutzomyia longipalpis complex in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigoder, Felipe M; Souza, Nataly A; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Bruno, Rafaela V; Costa, Pietra L; Ritchie, Michael G; Klaczko, Louis B; Peixoto, Alexandre A

    2015-05-28

    Brazilian populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis may constitute a complex of cryptic species, and this report investigates the distribution and number of potential sibling species. One of the main differences observed among Brazilian populations is the type of acoustic signal produced by males during copulation. These copulation song differences seem to be evolving faster than neutral molecular markers and have been suggested to contribute to insemination failure observed in crosses between these sibling species. In previous studies, two main types of copulation songs were found, burst-type and pulse-type. The latter type can, in turn, be further subdivided into five different patterns. We recorded male song from 13 new populations of the L. longipalpis complex from Brazil and compared the songs with 12 already available. Out of these 25 populations, 16 produce burst-type and 9 produce pulse-type songs. We performed a principal component analysis in these two main groups separately and an additional discriminant analysis in the pulse-type group. The pulse-type populations showed a clear separation between the five known patterns with a high correspondence of individuals to their correct group, confirming the differentiation between them. The distinctiveness of the burst-type subgroups was much lower than that observed among the pulse-type groups and no clear population structure was observed. This suggests that the burst-type populations represent a single species. Overall, our results are consistent with the existence in Brazil of at least six species of the L. longipalpis complex, one with a wide distribution comprising all the populations with burst-type songs, and five more closely related allopatric siblings with different pulse-type song patterns and more restricted distribution ranges.

  15. The Complexity of the Implications of Globalization in the Context of the Current Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Ionela CREŢOIU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Globalization represents a controversial phenomenon both because of its complexity and because of the various implications it has on the global economy. Globalization will act simultaneously on many levels, its effects being correlated with the diversity of the angles from which this phenomenon can be approached from – economic, social, politic, cultural, philosophic etc. The article represents an incursion into the issue regarding the implications and effects of globalization grouped in several areas of analysis such as the disappearance of borders, the effects on culture, the effects on the education, the impact on labour market impact and the phenomenon of immigration, the effects of globalization in the context of the food crisis underdevelopment and poverty. To complete the analysis that points out enough elements considered to be negative, at the end of the article, there are also approached the development opportunities that globalization can offer in terms of boosting the economic exchanges, the exchange of genuine cultural values and ensuring a transfer of information at a global scale, so necessary for the scientific and technological progress.  The conclusions of the article weighs the many aspects highlighted, both negative and positive, and suggests a series of useful research directions in order to fathom the complex features of this concept so controversial – globalization.

  16. A power set-based statistical selection procedure to locate susceptible rare variants associated with complex traits with sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hokeun; Wang, Shuang

    2014-08-15

    Existing association methods for rare variants from sequencing data have focused on aggregating variants in a gene or a genetic region because of the fact that analysing individual rare variants is underpowered. However, these existing rare variant detection methods are not able to identify which rare variants in a gene or a genetic region of all variants are associated with the complex diseases or traits. Once phenotypic associations of a gene or a genetic region are identified, the natural next step in the association study with sequencing data is to locate the susceptible rare variants within the gene or the genetic region. In this article, we propose a power set-based statistical selection procedure that is able to identify the locations of the potentially susceptible rare variants within a disease-related gene or a genetic region. The selection performance of the proposed selection procedure was evaluated through simulation studies, where we demonstrated the feasibility and superior power over several comparable existing methods. In particular, the proposed method is able to handle the mixed effects when both risk and protective variants are present in a gene or a genetic region. The proposed selection procedure was also applied to the sequence data on the ANGPTL gene family from the Dallas Heart Study to identify potentially susceptible rare variants within the trait-related genes. An R package 'rvsel' can be downloaded from http://www.columbia.edu/∼sw2206/ and http://statsun.pusan.ac.kr. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. A multilevel trait-based approach to the ecological performance of Microcystis aeruginosa complex from headwaters to the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Carla; Segura, Angel M; Nogueira, Lucía; Alcántara, Ignacio; Calliari, Danilo; Martínez de la Escalera, Gabriela; Carballo, Carmela; Cabrera, Carolina; Sarthou, Florencia; Scavone, Paola; Piccini, Claudia

    2017-12-01

    The Microcystis aeruginosa complex (MAC) clusters cosmopolitan and conspicuous harmful bloom-forming cyanobacteria able to produce cyanotoxins. It is hypothesized that low temperatures and brackish salinities are the main barriers to MAC proliferation. Here, patterns at multiple levels of organization irrespective of taxonomic identity (i.e. a trait-based approach) were analyzed. MAC responses from the intracellular (e.g. respiratory activity) to the ecosystem level (e.g. blooms) were evaluated in wide environmental gradients. Experimental results on buoyancy and respiratory activity in response to increased salinity (0-35) and a literature review of maximum growth rates under different temperatures and salinities were combined with field sampling from headwaters (800km upstream) to the marine end of the Rio de la Plata estuary (Uruguay-South America). Salinity and temperature were the major variables affecting MAC responses. Experimentally, freshwater MAC cells remained active for 24h in brackish waters (salinity=15) while colonies increased their flotation velocity. At the population level, maximum growth rate decreased with salinity and presented a unimodal exponential response with temperature, showing an optimum at 27.5°C and a rapid decrease thereafter. At the community and ecosystem levels, MAC occurred from fresh to marine waters (salinity 30) with a sustained relative increase of large mucilaginous colonies biovolume with respect to individual cells. Similarly, total biomass and, specific and morphological richness decreased with salinity while blooms were only detected in freshwater both at high (33°C) and low (11°C) temperatures. In brackish waters, large mucilaginous colonies presented advantages under osmotic restrictive conditions. These traits values have also been associated with higher toxicity potential. This suggest salinity or low temperatures would not represent effective barriers for the survival and transport of potentially toxic MAC under

  18. Context-dependent effects of cold stress on behavioral, physiological, and life-history traits of the red flour beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Inon; Wertheimer, Keren-Or; Xin, Joy Lim; Gilad, Tomer; Goldenberg, Inna; Subach, Aziz

    2017-06-20

    Animals are exposed in nature to a variety of stressors. While stress is generally harmful, mild stress can also be beneficial and contribute to reproduction and survival. We studied the effect of five cold shock events versus a single cold shock and a control group, representing three levels of stress (harsh, mild, and no stress), on behavioral, physiological, and life-history traits of the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum, Herbst 1797). Beetles exposed to harsh cold stress were less active than a control group: they moved less and failed more frequently to detect a food patch. Their probability to mate was also lower. Beetle pairs exposed to harsh cold stress frequently failed to reproduce at all, and if reproducing, females laid fewer eggs, which were, as larvae in mid-development, smaller than those in the control group. However, harsh cold stress led to improved female starvation tolerance, probably due to enhanced lipid accumulation. Harsh cold shock also improved tolerance to an additional cold shock compared to the control. Finally, a single cold shock event negatively affected fewer measured response variables than the harsh cold stress, but also enhanced neither starvation tolerance nor tolerance to an additional cold shock. The consequences of a harsher cold stress are thus not solely detrimental but might even enhance survival under stressful conditions. Under benign conditions, nevertheless, harsh stress impedes beetle performance. The harsh stress probably shifted the balance point of the survival-reproduction trade-off, a shift that did not take place following exposure to mild stress. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Discovery of rare variants via sequencing: implications for the design of complex trait association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingshan Li

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence that rare variants are involved in complex disease etiology. The first step in implicating rare variants in disease etiology is their identification through sequencing in both randomly ascertained samples (e.g., the 1,000 Genomes Project and samples ascertained according to disease status. We investigated to what extent rare variants will be observed across the genome and in candidate genes in randomly ascertained samples, the magnitude of variant enrichment in diseased individuals, and biases that can occur due to how variants are discovered. Although sequencing cases can enrich for casual variants, when a gene or genes are not involved in disease etiology, limiting variant discovery to cases can lead to association studies with dramatically inflated false positive rates.

  20. Mapping epistasis and environment × QTX interaction based on four -omics genotypes for the detected QTX loci controlling complex traits in tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Zhou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Using newly developed methods and software, association mapping was conducted for chromium content and total sugar in tobacco leaf, based on four -omics datasets. Our objective was to collect data on genotype and phenotype for 60 leaf samples at four developmental stages, from three plant architectural positions and for three cultivars that were grown in two locations. Association mapping was conducted to detect genetic variants at quantitative trait SNP (QTS loci, quantitative trait transcript (QTT differences, quantitative trait protein (QTP variability, and quantitative trait metabolite (QTM changes, which can be summarized as QTX locus variation. The total heritabilities of the four -omics loci for both traits tested were 23.60% for epistasis and 15.26% for treatment interaction. Epistasis and environment × treatment interaction had important impacts on complex traits at all -omics levels. For decreasing chromium content and increasing total sugar in tobacco leaf, six methylated loci can be directly used for marker-assisted selection, and expression of ten QTTs, seven QTPs and six QTMs can be modified by selection or cultivation.

  1. Cynefin as Reference Framework to Facilitate Insight and Decision-Making in Complex Contexts of Biomedical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Kempermann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cynefin scheme is a concept of knowledge management, originally devised to support decision making in management, but more generally applicable to situations, in which complexity challenges the quality of insight, prediction, and decision. Despite the fact that life itself, and especially the brain and its diseases, are complex to the extent that complexity could be considered their cardinal feature, complex problems in biomedicine are often treated as if they were actually not more than the complicated sum of solvable sub-problems. Because of the emergent properties of complex contexts this is not correct. With a set of clear criteria Cynefin helps to set apart complex problems from “simple/obvious,” “complicated,” “chaotic,” and “disordered” contexts in order to avoid misinterpreting the relevant causality structures. The distinction comes with the insight, which specific kind of knowledge is possible in each of these categories and what are the consequences for resulting decisions and actions. From student's theses over the publication and grant writing process to research politics, misinterpretation of complexity can have problematic or even dangerous consequences, especially in clinical contexts. Conceptualization of problems within a straightforward reference language like Cynefin improves clarity and stringency within projects and facilitates communication and decision-making about them.

  2. Integrating Scientific Content with Context to Connect Educators with the Complexities and Consequences of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, R.; Gosselin, D. C.; Oglesby, R. J.; Larson-Miller, C.; Thomas, J.; Mawalagedara, R.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past three years the Nebraska Earth Systems Education Network has designed professional development opportunities for K-12 and extension educators that integrates scientific content into the context of helping educators connect society with the complexities and consequences of climate change. Our professional development approach uses learner-, knowledge-, assessment-, and community-centered strategies to achieve our long-term goal: collaboration of scientists, educators and learners to foster civic literacy about climate change. Two NASA-funded projects, Global Climate Change Literacy for Educators (GCCE, 2009-2012), and the Educators Climatologists Learning Community (ECLC, 2011-2013), have provided the mechanism to provide teachers with scientifically sound and pedagogically relevant educational materials to improve climate and Earth systems literacy among educators. The primary product of the GCCE program is a 16-week, online, distance-delivered, asynchronous course entitled, Laboratory Earth: Human Dimensions of Climate Change. This course consists of four, four-week modules that integrate climate literacy, Earth Systems concepts, and pedagogy focused on active learning processes, building community, action research, and students' sense of place to promote action at the local level to address the challenges of climate change. Overall, the Community of Inquiry Survey (COI) indicated the course was effective in teaching content, developing a community of learners, and engaging students in experiences designed to develop content knowledge. A pre- and post- course Wilcoxan Signed Ranks Test indicated there was a statistically significant increase in participant's beliefs about their personal science teaching efficacy. Qualitative data from concept maps and content mastery assignments support a positive impact on teachers' content knowledge and classroom practice. Service Learning units seemed tohelp teachers connect course learning to their classroom

  3. Providing Context for Complexity: Using Infographics and Conceptual Models to Teach Global Change Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, J. R.; White, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding modern and historical global changes requires interdisciplinary knowledge of the physical and life sciences. The Understanding Global Change website from the UC Museum of Paleontology will use a focal infographic that unifies diverse content often taught in separate K-12 science units. This visualization tool provides scientists with a structure for presenting research within the broad context of global change, and supports educators with a framework for teaching and assessing student understanding of complex global change processes. This new approach to teaching the science of global change is currently being piloted and refined based on feedback from educators and scientists in anticipation of a 2016 website launch. Global change concepts are categorized within the infographic as causes of global change (e.g., burning of fossil fuels, volcanism), ongoing Earth system processes (e.g., ocean circulation, the greenhouse effect), and the changes scientists measure in Earth's physical and biological systems (e.g., temperature, extinctions/radiations). The infographic will appear on all website content pages and provides a template for the creation of flowcharts, which are conceptual models that allow teachers and students to visualize the interdependencies and feedbacks among processes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere. The development of this resource is timely given that the newly adopted Next Generation Science Standards emphasize cross-cutting concepts, including model building, and Earth system science. Flowchart activities will be available on the website to scaffold inquiry-based lessons, determine student preconceptions, and assess student content knowledge. The infographic has already served as a learning and evaluation tool during professional development workshops at UC Berkeley, Stanford University, and the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. At these workshops, scientists and educators used the infographic

  4. The use of genome-wide eQTL associations in lymphoblastoid cell lines to identify novel genetic pathways involved in complex traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josine L Min

    Full Text Available The integrated analysis of genotypic and expression data for association with complex traits could identify novel genetic pathways involved in complex traits. We profiled 19,573 expression probes in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs from 299 twins and correlated these with 44 quantitative traits (QTs. For 939 expressed probes correlating with more than one QT, we investigated the presence of eQTL associations in three datasets of 57 CEU HapMap founders and 86 unrelated twins. Genome-wide association analysis of these probes with 2.2 m SNPs revealed 131 potential eQTLs (1,989 eQTL SNPs overlapping between the HapMap datasets, five of which were in cis (58 eQTL SNPs. We then tested 535 SNPs tagging the eQTL SNPs, for association with the relevant QT in 2,905 twins. We identified nine potential SNP-QT associations (P<0.01 but none significantly replicated in five large consortia of 1,097-16,129 subjects. We also failed to replicate previous reported eQTL associations with body mass index, plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides levels derived from lymphocytes, adipose and liver tissue. Our results and additional power calculations suggest that proponents may have been overoptimistic in the power of LCLs in eQTL approaches to elucidate regulatory genetic effects on complex traits using the small datasets generated to date. Nevertheless, larger tissue-specific expression data sets relevant to specific traits are becoming available, and should enable the adoption of similar integrated analyses in the near future.

  5. Describing joint air defence within operations other than war context as a complex system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available . This paper will firstly investigate the theory of complexity and identify the main characteristics. This will be applied to Systems Engineering and modelling techniques, to propose a method of implementation in the real world. The application... of complexity in warfare is discussed to form a foundation for the discussion of JAD. Finally, the sources of complexity in JAD are identified and an approach to address these proposed. 2 Complex Systems 2.1 Definition of Complex Systems The theory...

  6. The Complexity of the Business Network Context and Its Effect on Subsidiary Relational (Over-) Embeddedness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher; Andersson, Ulf

    Many studies have focused on the effects of MNC subsidiaries’ external relational embeddedness. Little attention has been given to its antecedents and especially to the potential effect that the business network context might have. We try to fill this gap and attempt to explain variation among...... subsidiaries’ degree of relational embeddedness. Our results show a strong and robust effect of the business network context -- i.e. the network context in which the direct business relationships between the subsidiary and its partners are embedded -- on the degree of relational embeddedness. However, contrary...

  7. The Complexity of the Business Network Context and Its Effect on Subsidiary Relational (Over-) Embeddedness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher; Andersson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have focused on the effects of MNC subsidiaries’ external relational embeddedness. Little attention has been given to its antecedents and especially to the potential effect that the business network context might have. We try to fill this gap and attempt to explain variation among...... subsidiaries’ degree of relational embeddedness. Our results show a strong and robust effect of the business network context – i.e. the network context in which the direct business relationships between the subsidiary and its partners are embedded – on the degree of relational embeddedness. However, contrary...

  8. Introducing systems-oriented design for complex societal contexts in design engineering education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Costa Junior, J.; Rodrigues Santos, A.L.; Diehl, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Faced with large-scale wicked problems that include global warming, resource depletion, poverty and humanitarian emergencies, society needs new and more appropriate reasoning models. In particular, these problems pose unfamiliar challenges in contexts with poor financial and infrastructural

  9. The Evolutionary Logic of the Obsessive Trait Complex: Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder as a Complementary Behavioral Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Charles Hertler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Freud noted that the obsessive traits of orderliness, parsimony, and obstinacy incontestably belonged together. This observation has been unfailingly justified, but unsatisfactorily explained. Being a highly heritable pattern essentially unaffected by parental influence, it is counterfactual to continue to explain the obsessive trait constellation as a pathological signature of harsh, authoritarian parenting. Alternatively, the present paper, building upon a previously promulgated evolutionary etiological model, describes how obsessive traits work in unison to enable survival within harsh northerly climates. What appears to be a loosely federated inventory of pathology, after the application of evolutionary reasoning, becomes a coherent behavioral package, adaptive suite, or behavioral syndrome. All three of these terms, taken from behavioral biology, suggest that traits strategically covary, such that the adaptive value of each trait is enhanced by the presence of the others. In this vein, the union of anxious tension and conscientiousness drives the obsessive personality to labor incessantly. The fruits of obsessive labor are then conserved through parsimoniousness, hoarding, vigilance, and niggardliness. And so, obsessive personality is a coherent behavioral package in that the drive to work towards the acquisition of necessities is paired with the drive to conserve and defend them.

  10. The IgA nephropathy Biobank. An important starting point for the genetic dissection of a complex trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexopoulos Efstathios

    2005-12-01

    from the study of Mendelian diseases has shown that the genetic dissection of a complex trait is more powerful when combined linkage-based, association-based, and sequence-based approaches are performed. This Biobank continuously expanded contains a sample size of adequately matched IgAN patients and healthy subjects, extended multiplex pedigrees, parent-child trios, thus permitting the combined genetic approaches with collaborative studies.

  11. Does song complexity matter in an intra-sexual context in common blackbirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesler, Nana; Sacher, Thomas; Coppack, Timothy

    Bird song is thought to be subject of both inter- and intra-sexual selection and song complexity a signal of male quality. One aspect of song complexity, repertoire size, correlates with estimates of male quality in several passerine species.  The Common Blackbird (Turdus merula) has a large repe...

  12. Navigating the Complexity of Qualitative Research in Postmodern Contexts: Assemblage, Critical Reflexivity, and Communion as Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettez, Silvia Cristina

    2015-01-01

    For graduate students and other emerging qualitative researchers, the ever-evolving and sometimes conflicting perspectives, methodologies, and practices within various post-positivist frameworks (e.g. feminist, critical, Indigenous, participatory) can be overwhelming. Qualitative researchers working within postmodern contexts of multiplicity and…

  13. Epistasis × environment interactions among Arabidopsis thaliana glucosinolate genes impact complex traits and fitness in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerwin, Rachel E.; Feusier, Julie; Muok, Alise

    2017-01-01

    (GSL) defense chemistry, leaf damage, and relative fitness using mutant lines of Arabidopsis thaliana varying at pairs of causal aliphatic GSL defense genes to test the impact of epistatic and epistasis × environment interactions on adaptive trait variation. We found that aliphatic GSL accumulation...

  14. Quantitative Trait Loci in Inbred Lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    Quantitative traits result from the influence of multiple genes (quantitative trait loci) and environmental factors. Detecting and mapping the individual genes underlying such 'complex' traits is a difficult task. Fortunately, populations obtained from crosses between inbred lines are relatively

  15. Understanding the Role of Context in the Interpretation of Complex Battlespace Intelligence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Powell, Gerald M; Kokar, Mieczyslaw M; Matheus, Christopher J; Lorenz, David

    2006-01-01

    ... the information and identify critical enemy activities in a timely manner. What makes this information fusion problem particularly difficult is the strong contextual dependency of the interpretation of complex battlespace information...

  16. Complex active travel bout motivations: Gender, place, and social context associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Barbara B; Smith, Ken R

    2017-09-01

    Active travel bouts are healthy, but bout-specific motives, social, and physical contexts have been poorly characterized. Adults (n= 421 in 2012, 436 in 2013) described their moderate activity bouts over the past week, aided by accelerometry/GPS data integration. Participants viewed maps indicating date, time, and starting and ending locations of their past week moderate-to-vigorous active travel bouts of 3 or more minutes. These prompts helped participants recall their social and physical contexts and motives for the bouts. Three bout motivations were modeled: leisure, transportation, and their "T-L" difference scores (transportation minus leisure scores). Blends of leisure and transportation motives characterized most bouts, even though most studies do not allow participants to endorse multiple motives for their active travel. Bouts were often neighborhood-based. Leisure motives were related to pleasant place perceptions, homes, and exercise places; workplaces were associated with stronger transportation and T-L bout motives. Women's bout motives were more closely associated with place than men's. Our novel method of individual bout assessment can illuminate the social-ecological contexts and experiences of everyday healthy bouts of activity.

  17. Implementation of a web-based national child health-care programme in a local context: A complex facilitator role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, Johanna; Olander, Ewy; Anderberg, Peter; Berglund, Johan Sanmartin

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate child health-care coordinators' experiences of being a facilitator for the implementation of a new national child health-care programme in the form of a web-based national guide. The study was based on eight remote, online focus groups, using Skype for Business. A qualitative content analysis was performed. The analysis generated three categories: adapt to a local context, transition challenges and led by strong incentives. There were eight subcategories. In the latent analysis, the theme 'Being a facilitator: a complex role' was formed to express the child health-care coordinators' experiences. Facilitating a national guideline or decision support in a local context is a complex task that requires an advocating and mediating role. For successful implementation, guidelines and decision support, such as a web-based guide and the new child health-care programme, must match professional consensus and needs and be seen as relevant by all. Participation in the development and a strong bottom-up approach was important, making the web-based guide and the programme relevant to whom it is intended to serve, and for successful implementation. The study contributes valuable knowledge when planning to implement a national web-based decision support and policy programme in a local health-care context.

  18. A Chromosome Segment Substitution Library of Weedy Rice for Genetic Dissection of Complex Agronomic and Domestication Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta K Subudhi

    Full Text Available Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs are a powerful alternative for locating quantitative trait loci (QTL, analyzing gene interactions, and providing starting materials for map-based cloning projects. We report the development and characterization of a CSSL library of a U.S. weedy rice accession 'PSRR-1' with genome-wide coverage in an adapted rice cultivar 'Bengal' background. The majority of the CSSLs carried a single defined weedy rice segment with an average introgression segment of 2.8 % of the donor genome. QTL mapping results for several agronomic and domestication traits from the CSSL population were compared with those obtained from two recombinant inbred line (RIL populations involving the same weedy rice accession. There was congruence of major effect QTLs between both types of populations, but new and additional QTLs were detected in the CSSL population. Although, three major effect QTLs for plant height were detected on chromosomes 1, 4, and 8 in the CSSL population, the latter two escaped detection in both RIL populations. Since this was observed for many traits, epistasis may play a major role for the phenotypic variation observed in weedy rice. High levels of shattering and seed dormancy in weedy rice might result from an accumulation of many small effect QTLs. Several CSSLs with desirable agronomic traits (e.g. longer panicles, longer grains, and higher seed weight identified in this study could be useful for rice breeding. Since weedy rice is a reservoir of genes for many weedy and agronomic attributes, the CSSL library will serve as a valuable resource to discover latent genetic diversity for improving crop productivity and understanding the plant domestication process through cloning and characterization of the underlying genes.

  19. Assessing the value of phenotypic information from non-genotyped animals for QTL mapping of complex traits in real and simulated populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Thaise P; Takada, Luciana; Baldi, Fernando; Oliveira, Henrique N; Dias, Marina M; Neves, Haroldo H R; Schenkel, Flavio S; Albuquerque, Lucia G; Carvalheiro, Roberto

    2016-06-21

    QTL mapping through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is challenging, especially in the case of low heritability complex traits and when few animals possess genotypic and phenotypic information. When most of the phenotypic information is from non-genotyped animals, GWAS can be performed using the weighted single-step GBLUP (WssGBLUP) method, which permits to combine all available information, even that of non-genotyped animals. However, it is not clear to what extent phenotypic information from non-genotyped animals increases the power of QTL detection, and whether factors such as the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the population and weighting SNPs in WssGBLUP affect the importance of using information from non-genotyped animals in GWAS. These questions were investigated in this study using real and simulated data. Analysis of real data showed that the use of phenotypes of non-genotyped animals affected SNP effect estimates and, consequently, QTL mapping. Despite some coincidence, the most important genomic regions identified by the analyses, either using or ignoring phenotypes of non-genotyped animals, were not the same. The simulation results indicated that the inclusion of all available phenotypic information, even that of non-genotyped animals, tends to improve QTL detection for low heritability complex traits. For populations with low levels of LD, this trend of improvement was less pronounced. Stronger shrinkage on SNPs explaining lower variance was not necessarily associated with better QTL mapping. The use of phenotypic information from non-genotyped animals in GWAS may improve the ability to detect QTL for low heritability complex traits, especially in populations in which the level of LD is high.

  20. Fitness effects of a selfish gene (the Mus t complex) are revealed in an ecological context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Lara S; Meagher, Shawn; Morrison, Linda; Penn, Dustin J; Potts, Wayne K

    2004-06-01

    In wild house mice, genes linked to the t transmission distortion complex cause meiotic drive by sabotaging wild-type gametes. The t complex is consequently inherited at frequencies higher than 90%. Yet, for unclear reasons, in wild mouse populations this selfish DNA is found at frequencies much lower than expected. Here, we examine selection on the t complex in 10 seminatural populations of wild mice based on data from 234 founders and nearly 2000 progeny. Eight of the 10 populations decreased in t frequency over one generation, and the overall frequency of t haplotypes across all 10 populations was 48.5% below expectations based on transmission distortion and 34.3% below Mendelian (or Hardy-Weinberg) expectations. Behavioral and reproductive data were collected for 10 months for each population, and microsatellite genotyping was performed on seven of the populations to determine parentage. These combined data show t-associated fitness declines in both males and females. This is the first study to show evidence for a reduction in the ability of +/t males to maintain territories. Because females tend to mate with dominant males, impairment of territorial success can explain much of the selection against t observed in our populations. In nature, selection against heterozygote carriers of the t complex helps solve the puzzlingly low t frequencies found in wild populations. This ecological approach for determining fitness consequences of genetic variants has broad application for the discovery of gene function in general.

  1. Complex Personhood as the Context for Intimate Partner Victimization: One American Indian Woman's Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sharon; Lemire, Lynne; Wisman, Mindi

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative case study explores one American Indian (AI) woman's experience of intimate partner violence and the subsequent murder of her abusive partner. The lens of complex personhood (Gordon, 1997) has been applied as a method for understanding "Annie's" multiple identities of AI woman, victim of intimate partner violence, mother, and…

  2. The Effect of Social Trust on Citizens’ Health Risk Perception in the Context of a Petrochemical Industrial Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Tortosa-Edo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Perceived risk of environmental threats often translates into psychological stress with a wide range of effects on health and well-being. Petrochemical industrial complexes constitute one of the sites that can cause considerable pollution and health problems. The uncertainty around emissions results in a perception of risk for citizens residing in neighboring areas, which translates into anxiety and physiological stress. In this context, social trust is a key factor in managing the perceived risk. In the case of industrial risks, it is essential to distinguish between trust in the companies that make up the industry, and trust in public institutions. In the context of a petrochemical industrial complex located in the port of Castellón (Spain, this paper primarily discusses how trust — both in the companies located in the petrochemical complex and in the public institutions — affects citizens’ health risk perception. The research findings confirm that while the trust in companies negatively affects citizens’ health risk perception, trust in public institutions does not exert a direct and significant effect. Analysis also revealed that trust in public institutions and health risk perception are essentially linked indirectly (through trust in companies.

  3. The Effect of Social Trust on Citizens’ Health Risk Perception in the Context of a Petrochemical Industrial Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Navarro, Miguel Ángel; Llorens-Monzonís, Jaume; Tortosa-Edo, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Perceived risk of environmental threats often translates into psychological stress with a wide range of effects on health and well-being. Petrochemical industrial complexes constitute one of the sites that can cause considerable pollution and health problems. The uncertainty around emissions results in a perception of risk for citizens residing in neighboring areas, which translates into anxiety and physiological stress. In this context, social trust is a key factor in managing the perceived risk. In the case of industrial risks, it is essential to distinguish between trust in the companies that make up the industry, and trust in public institutions. In the context of a petrochemical industrial complex located in the port of Castellón (Spain), this paper primarily discusses how trust—both in the companies located in the petrochemical complex and in the public institutions—affects citizens’ health risk perception. The research findings confirm that while the trust in companies negatively affects citizens’ health risk perception, trust in public institutions does not exert a direct and significant effect. Analysis also revealed that trust in public institutions and health risk perception are essentially linked indirectly (through trust in companies). PMID:23337129

  4. TYK2 protein-coding variants protect against rheumatoid arthritis and autoimmunity, with no evidence of major pleiotropic effects on non-autoimmune complex traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diogo, Dorothée; Bastarache, Lisa; Liao, Katherine P.; Graham, Robert R.; Fulton, Robert S.; Greenberg, Jeffrey D.; Eyre, Steve; Bowes, John; Cui, Jing; Lee, Annette; Pappas, Dimitrios A.; Kremer, Joel M.; Barton, Anne; Coenen, Marieke J. H.; Franke, Barbara; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Mariette, Xavier; Richard-Miceli, Corrine; Canhão, Helena; Fonseca, João E.; de Vries, Niek; Tak, Paul P.; Crusius, J. Bart A.; Nurmohamed, Michael T.; Kurreeman, Fina; Mikuls, Ted R.; Okada, Yukinori; Stahl, Eli A.; Larson, David E.; Deluca, Tracie L.; O'Laughlin, Michelle; Fronick, Catrina C.; Fulton, Lucinda L.; Kosoy, Roman; Ransom, Michael; Bhangale, Tushar R.; Ortmann, Ward; Cagan, Andrew; Gainer, Vivian; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Kohane, Isaac; Murphy, Shawn N.; Martin, Javier; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Klareskog, Lars; Padyukov, Leonid; Worthington, Jane; Mardis, Elaine R.; Seldin, Michael F.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Behrens, Timothy; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Denny, Joshua C.; Plenge, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the success of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in detecting a large number of loci for complex phenotypes such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility, the lack of information on the causal genes leaves important challenges to interpret GWAS results in the context of the disease

  5. Associations between meal complexity and social context in four Nordic countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kahma, Nina; Mäkelä, Johanna; Niva, Mari; Lund, Thomas Bøker

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary eating is often portrayed by images of snacking, solitary grazing, disintegration of sociability, demise of family meals, and increasingly irregular eating patterns –what Claude Fischler has famously described as gastroanomy. Inspired by the concept of eating system, this article contributes to the discussion about the ongoing changes by examining the relation between meal complexity, sociability and the duration of meals in contemporary Nordic societies. We examine the differenc...

  6. Context matters — the complex interplay between resistome genotypes and resistance phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantas, Gautam; Sommer, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Application of metagenomic functional selections to study antibiotic resistance genes is revealing a highly diverse and complex network of genetic exchange between bacterial pathogens and environmental reservoirs, which likely contributes significantly to increasing resistance levels in pathogens...... the resistome genotype, and we highlight examples of genes and their hosts where this distinction becomes important in order to understand the relevance of environmental niches that contribute most to clinical problems associated with antibiotic resistance....

  7. Accounting for Complexity in Home Telemonitoring: A Need for Context-Centred Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Patrick; Seto, Emily; Ross, Heather J

    2018-01-31

    Heart failure represents a significant burden for patients and the Canadian health care system. Home telemonitoring is proposed as an intervention that can improve heart failure outcomes by identifying opportunities for earlier clinical intervention and by providing patients with self-management support between scheduled clinic visits. The objective of this review is to provide clarity with respect to the most recent evidence of the effect of home telemonitoring on heart failure outcomes. Despite some strong evidence that telemonitoring can reduce the risk of mortality and heart failure-related hospitalizations, important inconsistencies exist in the evidence. This article proposes that much of the inconsistency results from differences in the patient population being studied, the type of home telemonitoring intervention, and the implementation setting. Also important is the degree to which intervention fidelity is maintained throughout the course of a study; this is emphasized through a review of the factors that influence the degree to which patients and health care providers use home telemonitoring interventions as intended. In this article we propose that for researchers to produce definitive answers regarding the effect of home telemonitoring on heart failure outcomes, interventions and studies need to be designed and tailored according to the characteristics of the target patient population and the implementation context. Copyright © 2018 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensemaking in a Value Based Context for Large Scale Complex Engineered Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkandar Basha, Nazareen

    The design and the development of Large-Scale Complex Engineered Systems (LSCES) requires the involvement of multiple teams and numerous levels of the organization and interactions with large numbers of people and interdisciplinary departments. Traditionally, requirements-driven Systems Engineering (SE) is used in the design and development of these LSCES. The requirements are used to capture the preferences of the stakeholder for the LSCES. Due to the complexity of the system, multiple levels of interactions are required to elicit the requirements of the system within the organization. Since LSCES involves people and interactions between the teams and interdisciplinary departments, it should be socio-technical in nature. The elicitation of the requirements of most large-scale system projects are subjected to creep in time and cost due to the uncertainty and ambiguity of requirements during the design and development. In an organization structure, the cost and time overrun can occur at any level and iterate back and forth thus increasing the cost and time. To avoid such creep past researches have shown that rigorous approaches such as value based designing can be used to control it. But before the rigorous approaches can be used, the decision maker should have a proper understanding of requirements creep and the state of the system when the creep occurs. Sensemaking is used to understand the state of system when the creep occurs and provide a guidance to decision maker. This research proposes the use of the Cynefin framework, sensemaking framework which can be used in the design and development of LSCES. It can aide in understanding the system and decision making to minimize the value gap due to requirements creep by eliminating ambiguity which occurs during design and development. A sample hierarchical organization is used to demonstrate the state of the system at the occurrence of requirements creep in terms of cost and time using the Cynefin framework. These

  9. Measuring unintended effects in peacebuilding: What the field of international cooperation can learn from innovative approaches shaped by complex contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Adrienne; Pinet, Mélanie

    2018-06-01

    Capturing unintended impacts has been a persistent struggle in all fields of international development, and the field of peacebuilding is no exception. However, because peacebuilding focuses on relationships in complex contexts, the field of peacebuilding has, by necessity, made efforts towards finding practical ways to reflect upon both the intended and unintended effects of this work. To explore what lessons can be learned from the peacebuilding field, this study examines the evaluations of Search for Common Ground, a peacebuilding organisation working in over 35 countries across the world. Analysis focuses on 96 evaluations completed between 2013 and 2016 in 24 countries across Africa, Asia, and the MENA regions that found unintended effects. Programmes focusing on women, youth, and radio were most effective at identifying and explaining unintended effects, likely because the project design guided broader lines of questioning from the beginning. The paper argues that OECD-DAC guidelines are not enough on their own to guide evaluators into exploration of unintended effects, and teams instead need to work together to decide where, when and how they will look for them. Different approaches were also used to capture positive and negative outcomes, suggesting that evaluators need to decide at what level they are evaluating and how to tie effects back to the project's contribution. This study explores evaluation techniques and approaches used to understand impact in complex contexts in the peacebuilding field, and draws on lessons learned for the benefit of other fields dealing with similar complexities in international development and cooperation among actors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The complexity of rural contexts experienced by community disability workers in three southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Booyens

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of rural communities is fundamental to effective community-based rehabilitation work with persons with disabilities. By removing barriers to community participation, persons with disabilities are enabled to satisfy their fundamental human needs. However, insufficient attention has been paid to the challenges that rural community disability workers (CDWs face in trying to realise these objectives. This qualitative interpretive study, involving in-depth interviews with 16 community disability workers in Botswana, Malawi and South Africa, revealed the complex ways in which poverty, inappropriately used power and negative attitudes of service providers and communities combine to create formidable barriers to the inclusion of persons with disabilities in families and rural communities. The paper highlights the importance of understanding and working with the concept of ‘disability’ from a social justice and development perspective. It stresses that by targeting attitudes, actions and relationships, community disability workers can bring about social change in the lives of persons with disabilities and the communities in which they live.

  11. From Inclusive Identities to Inclusive Societies: Exploring Complex Social Identity in the Macedonian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Ali Pajaziti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Macedonia is an entity described as cultural mosaic, with strong multiethnic and multi-confessional basis, it is a point where East and West meet, it is well-known for the system of Macedonian salad. But, this society even after 25 year of social transition and 2001 Ohrid Agreement did not achieve to find the way of conclusive peace, stability and social eudemonia. The diversity is issue that from time to time produces turbulences, especially at the line of two main identity groups Macedonians-Christian Orthodox and Albanians-Muslim community. Quantitative data in this study were obtained on a sample of 219 young adults from Skopje (95 of Macedonian and 17 of Albanian ethnicity and Tetovo (76 of Albanian and 31 of Macedonian ethnicity, aged from 18 to 35 years (M = 24.85, SD = 3.2. Main research question is that if there exist differences between young Macedonians and Albanians in their ethnic, religious and national identity? The objective of this paper is to give a scientific picture how categories as gender, marriage, family, ethnicity, religion, living place, Balkan, Europe are perceived by the youth, all this in favour of using them in producing affirmative actions, more productive societal policies and constructive society-building. Multiple social identities: their complexity and inclusiveness, the correlation of identity variables with SII and SIC are among issues analyzed in this paper. National dominance was more frequent among Macedonians. Our findings demonstrate that Albanian participants expressed strong social identity, as Albanians and as being Muslims. Only social identity inclusiveness is significantly related to societal and political attitudes, but ethnicity should be taken into consideration when this relationship is explored.

  12. Impulse Control and Callous-Unemotional Traits Distinguish Patterns of Delinquency and Substance Use in Justice Involved Adolescents: Examining the Moderating Role of Neighborhood Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, James V; Thornton, Laura C; Frick, Paul J; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Both callous-unemotional (CU) traits and impulse control are known risk factors associated with delinquency and substance use. However, research is limited in how contextual factors such as neighborhood conditions influence the associations between these two dispositional factors and these two externalizing behaviors. The current study utilized latent class analysis (LCA) to identify unique classes of delinquency and substance use within an ethnically diverse sample (n = 1216) of justice-involved adolescents (ages 13 to 17) from three different sites. Neighborhood disorder, CU traits, and impulse control were all independently associated with membership in classes with more extensive histories of delinquency and substance use. The effects of CU traits and impulse control in distinguishing delinquent classes was invariant across levels of neighborhood disorder, whereas neighborhood disorder moderated the association between impulse control and substance use. Specifically, the probability of being in more severe substance using classes for those low in impulse control was stronger in neighborhoods with fewer indicators of social and physical disorder.

  13. Systems Biology for Smart Crops and Agricultural Innovation: Filling the Gaps between Genotype and Phenotype for Complex Traits Linked with Robust Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Rajesh Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Gaur, Vikram Singh; Pandey, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, rapid developments in several omics platforms and next generation sequencing technology have generated a huge amount of biological data about plants. Systems biology aims to develop and use well-organized and efficient algorithms, data structure, visualization, and communication tools for the integration of these biological data with the goal of computational modeling and simulation. It studies crop plant systems by systematically perturbing them, checking the gene, protein, and informational pathway responses; integrating these data; and finally, formulating mathematical models that describe the structure of system and its response to individual perturbations. Consequently, systems biology approaches, such as integrative and predictive ones, hold immense potential in understanding of molecular mechanism of agriculturally important complex traits linked to agricultural productivity. This has led to identification of some key genes and proteins involved in networks of pathways involved in input use efficiency, biotic and abiotic stress resistance, photosynthesis efficiency, root, stem and leaf architecture, and nutrient mobilization. The developments in the above fields have made it possible to design smart crops with superior agronomic traits through genetic manipulation of key candidate genes. PMID:26484978

  14. HaploReg v4: systematic mining of putative causal variants, cell types, regulators and target genes for human complex traits and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Lucas D; Kellis, Manolis

    2016-01-04

    More than 90% of common variants associated with complex traits do not affect proteins directly, but instead the circuits that control gene expression. This has increased the urgency of understanding the regulatory genome as a key component for translating genetic results into mechanistic insights and ultimately therapeutics. To address this challenge, we developed HaploReg (http://compbio.mit.edu/HaploReg) to aid the functional dissection of genome-wide association study (GWAS) results, the prediction of putative causal variants in haplotype blocks, the prediction of likely cell types of action, and the prediction of candidate target genes by systematic mining of comparative, epigenomic and regulatory annotations. Since first launching the website in 2011, we have greatly expanded HaploReg, increasing the number of chromatin state maps to 127 reference epigenomes from ENCODE 2012 and Roadmap Epigenomics, incorporating regulator binding data, expanding regulatory motif disruption annotations, and integrating expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) variants and their tissue-specific target genes from GTEx, Geuvadis, and other recent studies. We present these updates as HaploReg v4, and illustrate a use case of HaploReg for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-associated SNPs with putative brain regulatory mechanisms. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Genomic prediction in contrast to a genome-wide association study in explaining heritable variation of complex growth traits in breeding populations of Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Bárbara S F; Neves, Leandro G; de Almeida Filho, Janeo E; Resende, Márcio F R; Muñoz, Patricio R; Dos Santos, Paulo E T; Filho, Estefano Paludzyszyn; Kirst, Matias; Grattapaglia, Dario

    2017-07-11

    capture large proportions of trait heritability and predict growth traits in trees with accuracies equal or better than those attainable by phenotypic selection. Additionally, our results document the superiority of the whole-genome regression approach in accounting for large proportions of the heritability of complex traits such as growth in contrast to the limited value of the local GWAS approach toward breeding applications in forest trees.

  16. Health Systems Research in a Complex and Rapidly Changing Context: Ethical Implications of Major Health Systems Change at Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Hayley; Bloom, Gerald

    2016-12-01

    This paper discusses health policy and systems research in complex and rapidly changing contexts. It focuses on ethical issues at stake for researchers working with government policy makers to provide evidence to inform major health systems change at scale, particularly when the dynamic nature of the context and ongoing challenges to the health system can result in unpredictable outcomes. We focus on situations where 'country ownership' of HSR is relatively well established and where there is significant involvement of local researchers and close ties and relationships with policy makers are often present. We frame our discussion around two country case studies with which we are familiar, namely China and South Africa and discuss the implications for conducting 'embedded' research. We suggest that reflexivity is an important concept for health system researchers who need to think carefully about positionality and their normative stance and to use such reflection to ensure that they can negotiate to retain autonomy, whilst also contributing evidence for health system change. A research process informed by the notion of reflexive practice and iterative learning will require a longitudinal review at key points in the research timeline. Such review should include the convening of a deliberative process and should involve a range of stakeholders, including those most likely to be affected by the intended and unintended consequences of change. © 2016 The Authors Developing World Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A Flexible Computational Framework Using R and Map-Reduce for Permutation Tests of Massive Genetic Analysis of Complex Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjani, Behrang; Toor, Salman; Nettelblad, Carl; Holmgren, Sverker

    2017-01-01

    In quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping significance of putative QTL is often determined using permutation testing. The computational needs to calculate the significance level are immense, 10 4 up to 10 8 or even more permutations can be needed. We have previously introduced the PruneDIRECT algorithm for multiple QTL scan with epistatic interactions. This algorithm has specific strengths for permutation testing. Here, we present a flexible, parallel computing framework for identifying multiple interacting QTL using the PruneDIRECT algorithm which uses the map-reduce model as implemented in Hadoop. The framework is implemented in R, a widely used software tool among geneticists. This enables users to rearrange algorithmic steps to adapt genetic models, search algorithms, and parallelization steps to their needs in a flexible way. Our work underlines the maturity of accessing distributed parallel computing for computationally demanding bioinformatics applications through building workflows within existing scientific environments. We investigate the PruneDIRECT algorithm, comparing its performance to exhaustive search and DIRECT algorithm using our framework on a public cloud resource. We find that PruneDIRECT is vastly superior for permutation testing, and perform 2 ×10 5 permutations for a 2D QTL problem in 15 hours, using 100 cloud processes. We show that our framework scales out almost linearly for a 3D QTL search.

  18. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Traits)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The traits database was compiled for a project on climate change effects on river and stream ecosystems. The traits data, gathered from multiple sources, focused on information published or otherwise well-documented by trustworthy sources.

  19. Limnephilid taxa revised by speciation traits: Rhadicoleptus, Isogamus, Melampophylax genera, Chaetopteryx rugulosa, Psilopteryx psorosa species groups, Drusus bolivari, Annitella kosciuszkii species complexes (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oláh, J.; Chvojka, P.; Coppa, G.; Godunko, Roman J.; Lodovici, O.; Majecka, K.; Majecki, J.; Szczęsny, B.; Urbanic, G.; Valle, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2015), s. 3-117 ISSN 0237-5419 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : speciation traits * neutral and adaptive molecular markers * neutral and adaptive traits Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  20. Comparative sequence analyses of the major quantitative trait locus phosphorus uptake 1 (Pup1) reveal a complex genetic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Sigrid; Lu, Xiaochun; Chin, Joong Hyoun; Tanaka, Juan Pariasca; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Takashi; De Leon, Teresa; Ulat, Victor Jun; Ismail, Abdelbagi M; Yano, Masahiro; Wissuwa, Matthias

    2009-06-01

    The phosphorus uptake 1 (Pup1) locus was identified as a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for tolerance of phosphorus deficiency in rice. Near-isogenic lines with the Pup1 region from tolerant donor parent Kasalath typically show threefold higher phosphorus uptake and grain yield in phosphorus-deficient field trials than the intolerant parent Nipponbare. In this study, we report the fine mapping of the Pup1 locus to the long arm of chromosome 12 (15.31-15.47 Mb). Genes in the region were initially identified on the basis of the Nipponbare reference genome, but did not reveal any obvious candidate genes related to phosphorus uptake. Kasalath BAC clones were therefore sequenced and revealed a 278-kbp sequence significantly different from the syntenic regions in Nipponbare (145 kb) and in the indica reference genome of 93-11 (742 kbp). Size differences are caused by large insertions or deletions (INDELs), and an exceptionally large number of retrotransposon and transposon-related elements (TEs) present in all three sequences (45%-54%). About 46 kb of the Kasalath sequence did not align with the entire Nipponbare genome, and only three Nipponbare genes (fatty acid alpha-dioxygenase, dirigent protein and aspartic proteinase) are highly conserved in Kasalath. Two Nipponbare genes (expressed proteins) might have evolved by at least three TE integrations in an ancestor gene that is still present in Kasalath. Several predicted Kasalath genes are novel or unknown genes that are mainly located within INDEL regions. Our results highlight the importance of sequencing QTL regions in the respective donor parent, as important genes might not be present in the current reference genomes.

  1. Be quick about it. Endogenous estradiol level, menstrual cycle phase and trait impulsiveness predict impulsive choice in the context of reward acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekhof, Esther K

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and Cognition". Variations in the steroid hormone 17ß-estradiol (E2) may promote intra-individual differences in reward seeking behavior and temporal decision-making (Reimers et al., 2014; Front. Neurosci. 8: 401). Yet, in humans the exact role of E2 in impulsive choice still needs to be determined. The present study assessed the effect of a cycle-dependent rise in endogenous E2 on temporal response adaptation across the follicular phase (FP). For this purpose a reward acquisition paradigm was employed that is sensitive to hormone-induced changes in central dopamine (DA) level. The present data show that women acted more impulsively in the early as opposed to the late FP. Early follicular E2 further correlated with an increased capacity to speed up for reward maximization, while simultaneously the ability to wait for higher reward was compromised. This correlation was most pronounced in women with low trait impulsiveness. In contrast, E2 and optimized response speed failed to correlate in women with high trait impulsiveness and in the late FP, despite a generally higher E2 level. Collectively, these findings support the theory that E2 may act as an endogenous DA agonist. The fact that the hormone-behavior relationship was restricted to women with low trait impulsiveness and thus supposedly lower central DA level provides indirect support for this idea. Yet, choices became relatively less impulsive in the state of heightened E2 (i.e., in the late FP), suggesting that the relationship between E2 and impulsive choice may not be linear, but might resemble an inverted U-function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Social traits, social networks and evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D N; McAdam, A G

    2017-12-01

    effects) provides the potential to understand how entire networks of social interactions in populations influence phenotypes and predict how these traits may evolve. By theoretical integration of social network analysis and quantitative genetics, we hope to identify areas of compatibility and incompatibility and to direct research efforts towards the most promising areas. Continuing this synthesis could provide important insights into the evolution of traits expressed in a social context and the evolutionary consequences of complex and nuanced social phenotypes. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: managing rural China health system development in complex and dynamic contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiulan; Bloom, Gerald; Xu, Xiaoxin; Chen, Lin; Liang, Xiaoyun; Wolcott, Sara J

    2014-08-26

    This paper explores the evolution of schemes for rural finance in China as a case study of the long and complex process of health system development. It argues that the evolution of these schemes has been the outcome of the response of a large number of agents to a rapidly changing context and of efforts by the government to influence this adaptation process and achieve public health goals. The study draws on several sources of data including a review of official policy documents and academic papers and in-depth interviews with key policy actors at national level and at a sample of localities. The study identifies three major transition points associated with changes in broad development strategy and demonstrates how the adaptation of large numbers of actors to these contextual changes had a major impact on the performance of the health system. Further, it documents how the Ministry of Health viewed its role as both an advocate for the interests of health facilities and health workers and as the agency responsible for ensuring that government health system objectives were met. It is argued that a major reason for the resilience of the health system and its ability to adapt to rapid economic and institutional change was the ability of the Ministry to provide overall strategy leadership. Additionally, it postulates that a number of interest groups have emerged, which now also seek to influence the pathway of health system development. This history illustrates the complex and political nature of the management of health system development and reform. The paper concludes that governments will need to increase their capacity to analyze the health sector as a complex system and to manage change processes.

  4. Adaptive practices in heart failure care teams: implications for patient-centered care in the context of complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tait GR

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Glendon R Tait,1 Joanna Bates,2 Kori A LaDonna,3 Valerie N Schulz,4 Patricia H Strachan,5 Allan McDougall,3 Lorelei Lingard3 1Department of Psychiatry and Division of Medical Education, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, 2Centre for Health Education Scholarship, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, BC, 3Centre for Education Research and Innovation, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, 4Palliative Care, London Health Sciences Centre, University Hospital, London; 5School of Nursing, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Background: Heart failure (HF, one of the three leading causes of death, is a chronic, progressive, incurable disease. There is growing support for integration of palliative care’s holistic approach to suffering, but insufficient understanding of how this would happen in the complex team context of HF care. This study examined how HF care teams, as defined by patients, work together to provide care to patients with advanced disease. Methods: Team members were identified by each participating patient, generating team sampling units (TSUs for each patient. Drawn from five study sites in three Canadian provinces, our dataset consists of 209 interviews from 50 TSUs. Drawing on a theoretical framing of HF teams as complex adaptive systems (CAS, interviews were analyzed using the constant comparative method associated with constructivist grounded theory. Results: This paper centers on the dominant theme of system practices, how HF care delivery is reported to work organizationally, socially, and practically, and describes two subthemes: “the way things work around here”, which were commonplace, routine ways of doing things, and “the way we make things work around here”, which were more conscious, effortful adaptations to usual practice in response to emergent needs. An adaptive practice, often a small alteration to routine, could have amplified effects beyond those intended by the innovating team

  5. Comparison of gene-based rare variant association mapping methods for quantitative traits in a bovine population with complex familial relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Calus, Mario P L; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sahana, Goutam

    2016-08-17

    There is growing interest in the role of rare variants in the variation of complex traits due to increasing evidence that rare variants are associated with quantitative traits. However, association methods that are commonly used for mapping common variants are not effective to map rare variants. Besides, livestock populations have large half-sib families and the occurrence of rare variants may be confounded with family structure, which makes it difficult to disentangle their effects from family mean effects. We compared the power of methods that are commonly applied in human genetics to map rare variants in cattle using whole-genome sequence data and simulated phenotypes. We also studied the power of mapping rare variants using linear mixed models (LMM), which are the method of choice to account for both family relationships and population structure in cattle. We observed that the power of the LMM approach was low for mapping a rare variant (defined as those that have frequencies lower than 0.01) with a moderate effect (5 to 8 % of phenotypic variance explained by multiple rare variants that vary from 5 to 21 in number) contributing to a QTL with a sample size of 1000. In contrast, across the scenarios studied, statistical methods that are specialized for mapping rare variants increased power regardless of whether multiple rare variants or a single rare variant underlie a QTL. Different methods for combining rare variants in the test single nucleotide polymorphism set resulted in similar power irrespective of the proportion of total genetic variance explained by the QTL. However, when the QTL variance is very small (only 0.1 % of the total genetic variance), these specialized methods for mapping rare variants and LMM generally had no power to map the variants within a gene with sample sizes of 1000 or 5000. We observed that the methods that combine multiple rare variants within a gene into a meta-variant generally had greater power to map rare variants compared

  6. High-resolution mapping of a fruit firmness-related quantitative trait locus in tomato reveals epistatic interactions associated with a complex combinatorial locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Natalie H; Bonnet, Julien; Grivet, Laurent; Lynn, James; Graham, Neil; Smith, Rebecca; Sun, Guiping; Walley, Peter G; Poole, Mervin; Causse, Mathilde; King, Graham J; Baxter, Charles; Seymour, Graham B

    2012-08-01

    Fruit firmness in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is determined by a number of factors including cell wall structure, turgor, and cuticle properties. Firmness is a complex polygenic trait involving the coregulation of many genes and has proved especially challenging to unravel. In this study, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for fruit firmness was mapped to tomato chromosome 2 using the Zamir Solanum pennellii interspecific introgression lines (ILs) and fine-mapped in a population consisting of 7,500 F2 and F3 lines from IL 2-3 and IL 2-4. This firmness QTL contained five distinct subpeaks, Fir(s.p.)QTL2.1 to Fir(s.p.)QTL2.5, and an effect on a distal region of IL 2-4 that was nonoverlapping with IL 2-3. All these effects were located within an 8.6-Mb region. Using genetic markers, each subpeak within this combinatorial locus was mapped to a physical location within the genome, and an ethylene response factor (ERF) underlying Fir(s.p.)QTL2.2 and a region containing three pectin methylesterase (PME) genes underlying Fir(s.p.)QTL2.5 were nominated as QTL candidate genes. Statistical models used to explain the observed variability between lines indicated that these candidates and the nonoverlapping portion of IL 2-4 were sufficient to account for the majority of the fruit firmness effects. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the expression of each candidate gene. ERF showed increased expression associated with soft fruit texture in the mapping population. In contrast, PME expression was tightly linked with firm fruit texture. Analysis of a range of recombinant lines revealed evidence for an epistatic interaction that was associated with this combinatorial locus.

  7. Tectonic context of the penetrative fracture system origin in the Early Paleozoic shale complex (Baltic Basin, Poland/Sweden).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosiński, Marek; Gluszynski, Andrzej; Bobek, Kinga; Dyrka, Ireneusz

    2017-04-01

    Characterization of natural fracture and fault pattern play significant role for reservoir stimulation design and evaluation of its results. Having structural observations limited to immediate borehole surrounding it is a common need to build up a fracture model of reservoir in a range of stimulation reservoir volume or even beyond. To do this we need both a 3D seismic model and a consistent concept of the regional tectonic evolution. We present the result of integrated tectonic study in several deep boreholes target the Lower Paleozoic shale complex of Baltic Basin (BB), combined with analysis of 3D seismic survey and outcrop screening in Scania (Swedish part of the BB). During deposition of shale complex in the Ordovician and Silurian the research area was located 200-300 km away from the continental margin of Baltica involved in the Caledonian collision with the Eastern Avalonia. This distance allowed the shale complex to avoid significant tectonic deformation. Regional seismic cross section reveals the general pattern of the BB infill characteristic for the foreland basin underwent post-collisional isostatic rebound. Due to stress changes in collisional context the shale complex was cross-cut by steep, mostly inverse faults trending NW-SE and NE-SW. The fault zones oriented NW-SE are associated with an array of en echelon faults characteristic for strike-slip displacement. In our interpretation, these faults of Silurian (Wenlock) age create pattern of the regional pop-up structure, which is simultaneously involved in the plate flexure extension. Seismic attributes (e.g. curvature or ant tracking) highlight lineaments which mostly mimic the faults orientation. However, attributes show also some artefacts that come from regular array of seismic sources and receivers, which mimic the orthogonal joint system. Structural observations on borehole core lead us to conclusion that regular, orthogonal fracture system developed after maximum burial of the complex

  8. Exploring the Virtuality Continuum for Complex Rule-Set Education in the Context of Soccer Rule Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés N. Vargas González

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present an exploratory study to assess the benefits of using Augmented Reality (AR in training sports rule comprehension. Soccer is the chosen context for this study due to the wide range of complexity in the rules and regulations. Observers must understand and holistically evaluate the proximity of players in the game to the ball and other visual objects, such as the goal, penalty area, and other players. Grounded in previous literature investigating the effects of Virtual Reality (VR scenarios on transfer of training (ToT, we explore how three different interfaces influence user perception using both qualitative and quantitative measures. To better understand how effective augmented reality technology is when combined with learning systems, we compare results on the effects of learning outcomes in three interface conditions: AR, VR and a traditional Desktop interface. We also compare these interfaces as measured by user experience, engagement, and immersion. Results show that there were no significance difference among VR and AR; however, these participants outperformed the Desktop group which needed a higher number of adaptations to acquire the same knowledge.

  9. Operation Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stüben, Henning; Tietjen, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: This paper seeks to challenge the notion of context from an operational perspective. Can we grasp the forces that shape the complex conditions for an architectural or urban design within the notion of context? By shifting the gaze towards the agency of architecture, contextual analysis...

  10. GENERAL AND SPECIFIC COMBINING ABILITY OF INITIAL PARENTAL FORMS IN TOMATO FOR COMPLEX OF ECONOMICALLY VALUABLE TRAITS TO DEVELOP HYBRIDS F1 OF CHERRY AND COCKTAIL TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Rechets

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of estimation of general and specific combining ability of male and female parental tomato forms were given for complex of traits. The estimation was carried out according to incomplete diallel crosses 15x15. Such varities   as   ‘Trapeza’,  Rosovaya  kapelka’,  ‘Seniorita’, ‘Ocharovanie’,  ‘Tigris’   ‘Vishnya  Zheltaya’  (Gavrish, ‘Denezhnoye Derevo’ (national breeding, and  lines: ‘46/06’,  ‘49/09’,  ‘295/09’,  ‘336/11’,  ‘354/11’,  ‘357/11’, ‘388/09’ (nor, ‘498’ (selection of TARI were used as intial breeding accessions, differing in bush type (determinate and indeterminate, duration of vegetative phase (ultraearly,  early, medium early, middle-ripening, fruit  shape (rounded, oval, fruit color (red, pink, black, orange, tiger and with the gene nor, fruit weight (10 g. and more, brush structure (dense, friable. As a results, ‘Trapeza’, ‘Vishnya Zheltaya’, ‘Ocharovaniye’, ‘Seniorita’, and lines: ‘295/10’, ‘49/09’,  ‘498’,  ‘357/11’,  ‘354/11’,  ‘388/09’  (nor were selected and recommended to be used in breeding program for development of heterotic hybrids with high fruit setting and generative bush type. The promising hybrids F1 with high constants of specific combining ability for a complex of economically valuable traits have been observed. Because of different lines and accessions were used in crossings, these hybrids varied in internode length of cluster type, classical or shorten; rounded or oval fruit shape; fruit  color, red (F1   combinations ‘354/11’ х ‘Seniorita’, ‘Trapeza’ х  ‘L.49/09’,  L.  ‘49/09’  х  L.354/11, pink (F1 combination ‘Rosovaya Kapelka’ х ‘L.354/11’, yellow (F1 combination ‘Ocharovaniye’ х  ‘Vishiya Zheltaya’, deep brown (F1 combination  ‘L.357/11’ х ‘L.354/11’.

  11. Predicting complex traits using a diffusion kernel on genetic markers with an application to dairy cattle and wheat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Arguably, genotypes and phenotypes may be linked in functional forms that are not well addressed by the linear additive models that are standard in quantitative genetics. Therefore, developing statistical learning models for predicting phenotypic values from all available molecular information that are capable of capturing complex genetic network architectures is of great importance. Bayesian kernel ridge regression is a non-parametric prediction model proposed for this purpose. Its essence is to create a spatial distance-based relationship matrix called a kernel. Although the set of all single nucleotide polymorphism genotype configurations on which a model is built is finite, past research has mainly used a Gaussian kernel. Results We sought to investigate the performance of a diffusion kernel, which was specifically developed to model discrete marker inputs, using Holstein cattle and wheat data. This kernel can be viewed as a discretization of the Gaussian kernel. The predictive ability of the diffusion kernel was similar to that of non-spatial distance-based additive genomic relationship kernels in the Holstein data, but outperformed the latter in the wheat data. However, the difference in performance between the diffusion and Gaussian kernels was negligible. Conclusions It is concluded that the ability of a diffusion kernel to capture the total genetic variance is not better than that of a Gaussian kernel, at least for these data. Although the diffusion kernel as a choice of basis function may have potential for use in whole-genome prediction, our results imply that embedding genetic markers into a non-Euclidean metric space has very small impact on prediction. Our results suggest that use of the black box Gaussian kernel is justified, given its connection to the diffusion kernel and its similar predictive performance. PMID:23763755

  12. Attachment to parents and friends as a context for development of self-concept in adolescence: The personality traits as mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Ksenija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to study developmental relations between attachment to mother, father and friends and dimensions of adolescents’ self-concept. More specifically, we examine if this relation is direct or mediated by some personality construct. A sample of 878 students (13 and 16 years old from Belgrade urban lower secondary and upper secondary schools participated in this research. Participants completed ECR for mother, father and friend; Selfperception profile for adolescents and NEOFFI. The results have indicated that dimensions of attachment are correlated with dimensions of self-concept, and that they can explain 13% of variance in dimensions of self-concept. When the personality traits are introduced as mediators, attachment dimensions explain only 4.5% of variance in self-concept. The quality of attachment relations with parents is not related to adolescents’ self-concept, while attachment to friends is correlated with social dimensions of self-concept. Hence, this study suggests that adolescents with particular parental attachment styles differ according to their self-concept profiles, but that peer attachment is important for adolescents’ social self. Beside that, this study reveals significant gender differences: relation between parental and peer attachment and adolescents’ self-concepts is not the same for boys and girls. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018: Identification, measurement and development of cognitive and emotional competences important for a society oriented toward European integrations

  13. Simple, standardized incorporation of genetic risk into non-genetic risk prediction tools for complex traits: coronary heart disease as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Goldstein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Genetic risk assessment is becoming an important component of clinical decision-making. Genetic Risk Scores (GRSs allow the composite assessment of genetic risk in complex traits. A technically and clinically pertinent question is how to most easily and effectively combine a GRS with an assessment of clinical risk derived from established non-genetic risk factors as well as to clearly present this information to patient and health care providers. Materials & Methods: We illustrate a means to combine a GRS with an independent assessment of clinical risk using a log-link function. We apply the method to the prediction of coronary heart disease (CHD in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC cohort. We evaluate different constructions based on metrics of effect change, discrimination, and calibration.Results: The addition of a GRS to a clinical risk score (CRS improves both discrimination and calibration for CHD in ARIC. Results are similar regardless of whether external vs. internal coefficients are used for the CRS, risk factor SNPs are included in the GRS, or subjects with diabetes at baseline are excluded. We outline how to report the construction and the performance of a GRS using our method and illustrate a means to present genetic risk information to subjects and/or their health care provider. Conclusion: The proposed method facilitates the standardized incorporation of a GRS in risk assessment.

  14. Quantitative genetic methods depending on the nature of the phenotypic trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villemereuil, Pierre

    2018-01-24

    A consequence of the assumptions of the infinitesimal model, one of the most important theoretical foundations of quantitative genetics, is that phenotypic traits are predicted to be most often normally distributed (so-called Gaussian traits). But phenotypic traits, especially those interesting for evolutionary biology, might be shaped according to very diverse distributions. Here, I show how quantitative genetics tools have been extended to account for a wider diversity of phenotypic traits using first the threshold model and then more recently using generalized linear mixed models. I explore the assumptions behind these models and how they can be used to study the genetics of non-Gaussian complex traits. I also comment on three recent methodological advances in quantitative genetics that widen our ability to study new kinds of traits: the use of "modular" hierarchical modeling (e.g., to study survival in the context of capture-recapture approaches for wild populations); the use of aster models to study a set of traits with conditional relationships (e.g., life-history traits); and, finally, the study of high-dimensional traits, such as gene expression. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Phylogenetic Structure of Foliar Spectral Traits in Tropical Forest Canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M. McManus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Spectranomics approach to tropical forest remote sensing has established a link between foliar reflectance spectra and the phylogenetic composition of tropical canopy tree communities vis-à-vis the taxonomic organization of biochemical trait variation. However, a direct relationship between phylogenetic affiliation and foliar reflectance spectra of species has not been established. We sought to develop this relationship by quantifying the extent to which underlying patterns of phylogenetic structure drive interspecific variation among foliar reflectance spectra within three Neotropical canopy tree communities with varying levels of soil fertility. We interpreted the resulting spectral patterns of phylogenetic signal in the context of foliar biochemical traits that may contribute to the spectral-phylogenetic link. We utilized a multi-model ensemble to elucidate trait-spectral relationships, and quantified phylogenetic signal for spectral wavelengths and traits using Pagel’s lambda statistic. Foliar reflectance spectra showed evidence of phylogenetic influence primarily within the visible and shortwave infrared spectral regions. These regions were also selected by the multi-model ensemble as those most important to the quantitative prediction of several foliar biochemical traits. Patterns of phylogenetic organization of spectra and traits varied across sites and with soil fertility, indicative of the complex interactions between the environmental and phylogenetic controls underlying patterns of biodiversity.

  16. The Effect of Trait Self-Awareness, Self-Reflection, and Perceptions of Choice Meaningfulness on Indicators of Social Identity within a Decision-Making Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishon, Noam; Oldmeadow, Julian A; Critchley, Christine; Kaufman, Jordy

    2017-01-01

    Theorists operating from within a narrative identity framework have suggested that self-reflective reasoning plays a central role in the development of the self. Typically, however, narrative identity researchers have investigated this relationship using correlational rather than experimental methods. In the present study, leveraging on a classic research paradigm from within the social identity literature we developed an experiment to test the extent to which self-reflection might have a causal impact on the self-concept within a decision-making context. In a minimal group paradigm participants were prompted to reflect on their painting choices either before or after allocating points to in-group∖ out-group members. As anticipated, self-reflection augmented social identification, but only when participants felt their choices were personally meaningful. Participants who reasoned about their choices and felt they were subjectively meaningful showed stronger similarity and liking for in-group members compared to those who did not reflect on their choices or found them to be subjectively meaningless. Hence, reflecting on and finding meaning in one's choices may be an important step in linking behavior with in-group identification and thus the self-concept in turn. The absence of any effects on in-group favoritism (a third indicator of social identification measured) as well as implications of the study's findings for self-perception, cognitive dissonance and social identity processes are also discussed.

  17. Genetic and QTL analyses of yield and a set of physiological traits in pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alimi, N.A.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Dieleman, J.A.; Nicolaï, M.; Wubs, M.; Heuvelink, E.; Magan, J.; Voorrips, R.E.; Jansen, J.; Rodrigues, P.C.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Vercauteren, A.; Vuylsteke, M.; Song, Y.; Glasbey, C.; Barocsi, A.; Lefebvre, V.; Palloix, A.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2013-01-01

    An interesting strategy for improvement of a complex trait dissects the complex trait in a number of physiological component traits, with the latter having hopefully a simple genetic basis. The complex trait is then improved via improvement of its component traits. As first part of such a strategy

  18. Structural insight of dopamine β-hydroxylase, a drug target for complex traits, and functional significance of exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Kapoor

    Full Text Available Human dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH is an important therapeutic target for complex traits. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have also been identified in DBH with potential adverse physiological effect. However, difficulty in obtaining diffractable crystals and lack of a suitable template for modeling the protein has ensured that neither crystallographic three-dimensional structure nor computational model for the enzyme is available to aid rational drug design, prediction of functional significance of SNPs or analytical protein engineering.Adequate biochemical information regarding human DBH, structural coordinates for peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase and computational data from a partial model of rat DBH were used along with logical manual intervention in a novel way to build an in silico model of human DBH. The model provides structural insight into the active site, metal coordination, subunit interface, substrate recognition and inhibitor binding. It reveals that DOMON domain potentially promotes tetramerization, while substrate dopamine and a potential therapeutic inhibitor nepicastat are stabilized in the active site through multiple hydrogen bonding. Functional significance of several exonic SNPs could be described from a structural analysis of the model. The model confirms that SNP resulting in Ala318Ser or Leu317Pro mutation may not influence enzyme activity, while Gly482Arg might actually do so being in the proximity of the active site. Arg549Cys may cause abnormal oligomerization through non-native disulfide bond formation. Other SNPs like Glu181, Glu250, Lys239 and Asp290 could potentially inhibit tetramerization thus affecting function.The first three-dimensional model of full-length human DBH protein was obtained in a novel manner with a set of experimental data as guideline for consistency of in silico prediction. Preliminary physicochemical tests validated the model. The model confirms, rationalizes and

  19. Structural insight of dopamine β-hydroxylase, a drug target for complex traits, and functional significance of exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Abhijeet; Shandilya, Manish; Kundu, Suman

    2011-01-01

    Human dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) is an important therapeutic target for complex traits. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have also been identified in DBH with potential adverse physiological effect. However, difficulty in obtaining diffractable crystals and lack of a suitable template for modeling the protein has ensured that neither crystallographic three-dimensional structure nor computational model for the enzyme is available to aid rational drug design, prediction of functional significance of SNPs or analytical protein engineering. Adequate biochemical information regarding human DBH, structural coordinates for peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase and computational data from a partial model of rat DBH were used along with logical manual intervention in a novel way to build an in silico model of human DBH. The model provides structural insight into the active site, metal coordination, subunit interface, substrate recognition and inhibitor binding. It reveals that DOMON domain potentially promotes tetramerization, while substrate dopamine and a potential therapeutic inhibitor nepicastat are stabilized in the active site through multiple hydrogen bonding. Functional significance of several exonic SNPs could be described from a structural analysis of the model. The model confirms that SNP resulting in Ala318Ser or Leu317Pro mutation may not influence enzyme activity, while Gly482Arg might actually do so being in the proximity of the active site. Arg549Cys may cause abnormal oligomerization through non-native disulfide bond formation. Other SNPs like Glu181, Glu250, Lys239 and Asp290 could potentially inhibit tetramerization thus affecting function. The first three-dimensional model of full-length human DBH protein was obtained in a novel manner with a set of experimental data as guideline for consistency of in silico prediction. Preliminary physicochemical tests validated the model. The model confirms, rationalizes and provides

  20. Complexity as AN Epistemic Revolution: Considerations on the New Science in the Context of Western Intellectual History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popolo, Damian

    The paper will seek to present a genesis of complexity in European philosophical thought. Following the works of Gleick and Hobsbawn it is possible to discern the emergence of complexity's ethos in the `age of revolutions'. Gleick, for example, has noted the influence of natural philosophy on the first precursors of chaos theory. Natural philosophy itself was deeply anchored in German romanticism. The paper will thus seek to present, following Foucault, an `Archaeology of Complexity' which considers Foucault's definition of epistemes as evolving modes of thought. In particular, the paper will seek to use Foucault's description of the modern episteme in order to detect the novelty inherent within the ethos of Complexity.

  1. One Problem, Many Solutions : Simple Statistical Approaches Help Unravel the Complexity of the Immune System in an Ecological Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buehler, Deborah M.; Versteegh, Maaike A.; Matson, Kevin D.; Tieleman, Irene

    2011-01-01

    The immune system is a complex collection of interrelated and overlapping solutions to the problem of disease. To deal with this complexity, researchers have devised multiple ways to measure immune function and to analyze the resulting data. In this way both organisms and researchers employ many

  2. One problem, many solutions: simple statistical approaches help unravel the complexity of th eimmune system in an ecological context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buehler, D.M.; Versteegh, M.A.; Matson, K.D.; Tieleman, B.I.

    2011-01-01

    The immune system is a complex collection of interrelated and overlapping solutions to the problem of disease. To deal with this complexity, researchers have devised multiple ways to measure immune function and to analyze the resulting data. In this way both organisms and researchers employ many

  3. Meeting the ‘Anthropocene’ in the context of intractability and complexity: infusing resilience narratives with intersubjectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powell, N.S.; Larsen, R.K.; Bommel, van S.

    2014-01-01

    Insufficient attention has been paid to how concepts of resilience can be operationalised in wicked, contested situations. Within the environmental sciences, the contemporary social-ecological resilience narrative is not geared to examining social dilemmas in ill-defined problem contexts. These

  4. A Crystallographic Study of the Role of Sequence Context in Thymine Glycol Bypass by a Replicative DNA Polymerase Serendipitously Sheds Light on the Exonuclease Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aller, Pierre; Duclos, Stéphanie; Wallace, Susan S.; Doublié, Sylvie (Vermont)

    2012-06-27

    Thymine glycol (Tg) is the most common oxidation product of thymine and is known to be a strong block to replicative DNA polymerases. A previously solved structure of the bacteriophage RB69 DNA polymerase (RB69 gp43) in complex with Tg in the sequence context 5'-G-Tg-G shed light on how Tg blocks primer elongation: The protruding methyl group of the oxidized thymine displaces the adjacent 5'-G, which can no longer serve as a template for primer elongation [Aller, P., Rould, M. A., Hogg, M, Wallace, S. S. and Doublie S. (2007). A structural rationale for stalling of a replicative DNA polymerase at the most common oxidative thymine lesion, thymine glycol. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104, 814-818.]. Several studies showed that in the sequence context 5'-C-Tg-purine, Tg is more likely to be bypassed by Klenow fragment, an A-family DNA polymerase. We set out to investigate the role of sequence context in Tg bypass in a B-family polymerase and to solve the crystal structures of the bacteriophage RB69 DNA polymerase in complex with Tg-containing DNA in the three remaining sequence contexts: 5'-A-Tg-G, 5'-T-Tg-G, and 5'-C-Tg-G. A combination of several factors - including the associated exonuclease activity, the nature of the 3' and 5' bases surrounding Tg, and the cis-trans interconversion of Tg - influences Tg bypass. We also visualized for the first time the structure of a well-ordered exonuclease complex, allowing us to identify and confirm the role of key residues (Phe123, Met256, and Tyr257) in strand separation and in the stabilization of the primer strand in the exonuclease site.

  5. Personality traits in learning and education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, B.

    Personality traits judged relevant for the context of learning and education are identified as a subset of a comprehensive set of 1203 trait descriptive adjectives, constructed by Brokken (1979). The identification procedure is described and relevant statistics are provided. Self- and peer-ratings

  6. Trait evolution, resource specialization and vulnerability to plant extinctions among Antillean hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Kennedy, Jonathan D; Simmons, Benno I; Baquero, Andrea C; Martín González, Ana M; Timmermann, Allan; Maruyama, Pietro K; McGuire, Jimmy A; Ollerton, Jeff; Sutherland, William J; Rahbek, Carsten

    2018-03-28

    Species traits are thought to predict feeding specialization and the vulnerability of a species to extinctions of interaction partners, but the context in which a species evolved and currently inhabits may also matter. Notably, the predictive power of traits may require that traits evolved to fit interaction partners. Furthermore, local abiotic and biotic conditions may be important. On islands, for instance, specialized and vulnerable species are predicted to be found mainly in mountains, whereas species in lowlands should be generalized and less vulnerable. We evaluated these predictions for hummingbirds and their nectar-food plants on Antillean islands. Our results suggest that the rates of hummingbird trait divergence were higher among ancestral mainland forms before the colonization of the Antilles. In correspondence with the limited trait evolution that occurred within the Antilles, local abiotic and biotic conditions-not species traits-correlate with hummingbird resource specialization and the vulnerability of hummingbirds to extinctions of their floral resources. Specifically, hummingbirds were more specialized and vulnerable in conditions with high topographical complexity, high rainfall, low temperatures and high floral resource richness, which characterize the Antillean Mountains. These findings show that resource specialization and species vulnerability to extinctions of interaction partners are highly context-dependent. © 2018 The Author(s).

  7. Optimization of muscle activity for task-level goals predicts complex changes in limb forces across biomechanical contexts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Lucas McKay

    Full Text Available Optimality principles have been proposed as a general framework for understanding motor control in animals and humans largely based on their ability to predict general features movement in idealized motor tasks. However, generalizing these concepts past proof-of-principle to understand the neuromechanical transformation from task-level control to detailed execution-level muscle activity and forces during behaviorally-relevant motor tasks has proved difficult. In an unrestrained balance task in cats, we demonstrate that achieving task-level constraints center of mass forces and moments while minimizing control effort predicts detailed patterns of muscle activity and ground reaction forces in an anatomically-realistic musculoskeletal model. Whereas optimization is typically used to resolve redundancy at a single level of the motor hierarchy, we simultaneously resolved redundancy across both muscles and limbs and directly compared predictions to experimental measures across multiple perturbation directions that elicit different intra- and interlimb coordination patterns. Further, although some candidate task-level variables and cost functions generated indistinguishable predictions in a single biomechanical context, we identified a common optimization framework that could predict up to 48 experimental conditions per animal (n = 3 across both perturbation directions and different biomechanical contexts created by altering animals' postural configuration. Predictions were further improved by imposing experimentally-derived muscle synergy constraints, suggesting additional task variables or costs that may be relevant to the neural control of balance. These results suggested that reduced-dimension neural control mechanisms such as muscle synergies can achieve similar kinetics to the optimal solution, but with increased control effort (≈2× compared to individual muscle control. Our results are consistent with the idea that hierarchical, task

  8. Emotion regulation in context: the jealousy complex between young siblings and its relations with child and family characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volling, Brenda L; McElwain, Nancy L; Miller, Alison L

    2002-01-01

    Jealousy is a social emotion that has received little attention by developmental researchers. The current study examined sibling jealousy and its relations to child and family characteristics in 60 families with a 16-month-old toddler and an older preschool-age sibling. Sibling jealousy was elicited in social triads consisting of a parent (mother or father) and the two siblings. Positive marital relationship quality (i.e., love and relationship maintenance) was a particularly strong predictor of the older siblings' abilities to regulate jealousy reactions in the mother sessions. Younger siblings' jealous affect with mothers was linked to the child's temperament, whereas older siblings' jealous affect with mothers was related to the child's emotional understanding. Younger siblings displayed more behavioral dysregulation in the mother-sibling triads if there was greater sibling rivalry reported by mothers. Session order (i.e., which sibling was challenged first in the jealousy paradigm) had a strong effect on both the affect and behavioral dysregulation displayed by the older and younger siblings. Results are discussed with respect to the need for future research to consider social relationships as developmental contexts for young children's emotion regulation.

  9. Urban regeneration in the context of climate change, on the example of adaptive re-use of the military complex in the Bela Crkva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manić Božidar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of sustainable development and climate change open up the new possibilities in understanding the importance, principles and methodologies of urban renewal. The paper discusses the problem of abandoned buildings and complexes and their possible reuse in the context of climate change and sustainability at an example of the study of repurposing the military barracks complex in Bela Crkva conducted in the Institute of Architecture and Urban & Spatial Planning of Serbia in 2012. The conceptual solution of the variant 2, based on the idea of climate-aware and socially responsible design, has been embedded into the basic program scheme of the new complex, which includes the establishment of a university campus, construction of experimental social housing, cultural and artistic facilities, as well as urban agriculture, including the use of alternative energy sources and respecting the principles of energy efficiency. The problems of the abandonment of military buildings and complexes, as well as the recommendations for their adaptation, taking into account the past experience and the current environmental problems, are pointed out in the concluding remarks.

  10. Larval Performance in the Context of Ecological Diversification and Speciation in Lycaeides Butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia F. Scholl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of ecology in diversification has been widely investigated, though few groups have been studied in enough detail to allow comparisons of different ecological traits that potentially contribute to reproductive isolation. We investigated larval performance within a species complex of Lycaeides butterflies. Caterpillars from seven populations were reared on five host plants, asking if host-specific, adaptive larval traits exist. We found large differences in performance across plants and fewer differences among populations. The patterns of performance are complex and suggest both conserved traits (i.e., plant effects across populations and more recent dynamics of local adaptation, in particular for L. melissa that has colonized an exotic host. We did not find a relationship between oviposition preference and larval performance, suggesting that preference did not evolve to match performance. Finally, we put larval performance within the context of several other traits that might contribute to ecologically based reproductive isolation in the Lycaeides complex. This larger context, involving multiple ecological and behavioral traits, highlights the complexity of ecological diversification and emphasizes the need for detailed studies on the strength of putative barriers to gene flow in order to fully understand the process of ecological speciation.

  11. XRCC1 coordinates disparate responses and multiprotein repair complexes depending on the nature and context of the DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanssen-Bauer, Audun; Solvang-Garten, Karin; Sundheim, Ottar

    2011-01-01

    . We demonstrate that the laser dose used for introducing DNA damage determines the repertoire of DNA repair proteins recruited. Furthermore, we demonstrate that recruitment of POLß and PNK to regions irradiated with low laser dose requires XRCC1 and that inhibition of PARylation by PARP......-inhibitors only slightly reduces the recruitment of XRCC1, PNK, or POLß to sites of DNA damage. Recruitment of PCNA and FEN-1 requires higher doses of irradiation and is enhanced by XRCC1, as well as by accumulation of PARP-1 at the site of DNA damage. These data improve our understanding of recruitment of BER......XRCC1 is a scaffold protein capable of interacting with several DNA repair proteins. Here we provide evidence for the presence of XRCC1 in different complexes of sizes from 200 to 1500 kDa, and we show that immunoprecipitates using XRCC1 as bait are capable of complete repair of AP sites via both...

  12. New insights into the regulatory function of CYFIP1 in the context of WAVE- and FMRP-containing complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Abekhoukh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic FMRP interacting protein 1 (CYFIP1 is a candidate gene for intellectual disability (ID, autism, schizophrenia and epilepsy. It is a member of a family of proteins that is highly conserved during evolution, sharing high homology with its Drosophila homolog, dCYFIP. CYFIP1 interacts with the Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP, encoded by the FMR1 gene, whose absence causes Fragile X syndrome, and with the translation initiation factor eIF4E. It is a member of the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC, thus representing a link between translational regulation and the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we present data showing a correlation between mRNA levels of CYFIP1 and other members of the WRC. This suggests a tight regulation of the levels of the WRC members, not only by post-translational mechanisms, as previously hypothesized. Moreover, we studied the impact of loss of function of both CYFIP1 and FMRP on neuronal growth and differentiation in two animal models – fly and mouse. We show that these two proteins antagonize each other's function not only during neuromuscular junction growth in the fly but also during new neuronal differentiation in the olfactory bulb of adult mice. Mechanistically, FMRP and CYFIP1 modulate mTor signaling in an antagonistic manner, likely via independent pathways, supporting the results obtained in mouse as well as in fly at the morphological level. Collectively, our results illustrate a new model to explain the cellular roles of FMRP and CYFIP1 and the molecular significance of their interaction.

  13. Brief Report: Effect of Spatial Complexity on Visual Short-Term Memory and Self-Reported Autistic-Like Traits in Typically Developed Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Junichi; Gyoba, Jiro; Yamawaki, Nozomi

    2013-01-01

    This report examines effects of the spatial complexity of configurations on visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity for individuals from the general population differing on autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) scores. During each trial, nine-line segments with various orientations were arrayed in simple or complex configurations and presented in both…

  14. What theory, for whom and in which context? Reflections on the application of theory in the development and evaluation of complex population health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Graham F; Evans, Rhiannon E

    2017-12-01

    Recent years have seen a growing emphasis on the value of building and testing middle range theory throughout the development and evaluation of complex population health interventions. We agree that a coherent theoretical basis for intervention development, and use of evaluation to test key causal assumptions and build theory, are crucial. However, in this editorial, we argue that such recommendations have often been operationalised in somewhat simplistic terms with potentially perverse consequences, and that an uncritical assumption that an intervention explicitly based on theory is inherently superior carries significant risks. We first argue that the drive for theory-based approaches may have exacerbated a propensity to select 'off-the-shelf' theories, leading to the selection of inappropriate theories which distract attention from the mechanisms through which a problem is actually sustained. Second, we discuss a tendency toward over-reliance on individual-level theorising. Finally, we discuss the relatively slow progress of population health intervention research in attending to issues of context, and the ecological fit of interventions with the systems whose functioning they attempt to change. We argue that while researchers should consider a broad range of potential theoretical perspectives on a given population health problem, citing a popular off-the-shelf theory as having informed an intervention and its evaluation does not inherently make for better science. Before identifying or developing a theory of change, researchers should develop a clear understanding of how the problem under consideration is created and sustained in context. A broader conceptualisation of theory that reaches across disciplines is vital if theory is to enhance, rather than constrain, the contribution of intervention research. Finally, intervention researchers need to move away from viewing interventions as discrete packages of components which can be described in isolation from

  15. Reduced Cortisol in Boys with Early-Onset Conduct Disorder and Callous-Unemotional Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg G. von Polier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A growing body of evidence suggests an association between altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity and the development of persistent antisocial behavior in children. However the effects of altered cortisol levels remain poorly understood in the complex context of conduct disorder, callous-unemotional (CU personality traits, and frequent comorbidities, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The aim of the current study was to investigate associations among CU traits, antisocial behavior, and comorbid ADHD symptomatology with cortisol levels in male children and adolescents. Methods. The study included 37 boys with early-onset conduct disorder (EO-CD, mean age 11.9 years and 38 healthy boys (mean age 12.5 years. Participants were subjected to multiple daytime salivary cortisol measurements and a psychometric characterization. Results. Subjects in the EO-CD group with elevated CU traits showed a diminished cortisol awakening response compared to healthy participants. In the EO-CD group, high CU traits and impulsivity were associated with decreased diurnal cortisol levels, while associations with antisocial behavior were not detected. The cortisol awakening response was significantly inversely associated with hyperactivity (P=0.02 and marginally significant with CU traits (P=0.07. Conclusions. These results indicate a specific association between CU traits and a diminished stress response, which is not explained by antisocial behavior in general.

  16. Student Affairs in Complex Contexts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dissatisfaction and frustration with political leaders have sent students ... In the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Minister of Higher Education has ordered a ... Student Affairs will need to anticipate and find innovative ways to adjust ... Razia Mayet's article focuses on the effectiveness of learning development interventions.

  17. Student Affairs in Complex Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Schreiber

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available While the Western world – with Brexit, Trump, Festung Europa, and so forth – seems to be increasingly retreating into narrow nationalism, the Journal of Student Affairs in Africa is connecting African academics, executives and administrators and is becoming an evermore accessed international, African platform for publishing research on higher education and Student Affairs in Africa. In this issue, we do not only publish several commentaries on the recent Global Summit of Student Affairs and Services held in October 2016 at Stellenbosch University, South Africa. We also publish contributions from Ethiopia alongside articles from Australia, the USA, and universities in South Africa (University of the Free State, University of Johannesburg.

  18. Survey of the Heritability and Sparse Architecture of Gene Expression Traits across Human Tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather E Wheeler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic architecture of gene expression traits is key to elucidating the underlying mechanisms of complex traits. Here, for the first time, we perform a systematic survey of the heritability and the distribution of effect sizes across all representative tissues in the human body. We find that local h2 can be relatively well characterized with 59% of expressed genes showing significant h2 (FDR < 0.1 in the DGN whole blood cohort. However, current sample sizes (n ≤ 922 do not allow us to compute distal h2. Bayesian Sparse Linear Mixed Model (BSLMM analysis provides strong evidence that the genetic contribution to local expression traits is dominated by a handful of genetic variants rather than by the collective contribution of a large number of variants each of modest size. In other words, the local architecture of gene expression traits is sparse rather than polygenic across all 40 tissues (from DGN and GTEx examined. This result is confirmed by the sparsity of optimal performing gene expression predictors via elastic net modeling. To further explore the tissue context specificity, we decompose the expression traits into cross-tissue and tissue-specific components using a novel Orthogonal Tissue Decomposition (OTD approach. Through a series of simulations we show that the cross-tissue and tissue-specific components are identifiable via OTD. Heritability and sparsity estimates of these derived expression phenotypes show similar characteristics to the original traits. Consistent properties relative to prior GTEx multi-tissue analysis results suggest that these traits reflect the expected biology. Finally, we apply this knowledge to develop prediction models of gene expression traits for all tissues. The prediction models, heritability, and prediction performance R2 for original and decomposed expression phenotypes are made publicly available (https://github.com/hakyimlab/PrediXcan.

  19. Transplantation of epiphytic bioaccumulators (Tillandsia capillaris) for high spatial resolution biomonitoring of trace elements and point sources deconvolution in a complex mining/smelting urban context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goix, Sylvaine; Resongles, Eléonore; Point, David; Oliva, Priscia; Duprey, Jean Louis; de la Galvez, Erika; Ugarte, Lincy; Huayta, Carlos; Prunier, Jonathan; Zouiten, Cyril; Gardon, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring atmospheric trace elements (TE) levels and tracing their source origin is essential for exposure assessment and human health studies. Epiphytic Tillandsia capillaris plants were used as bioaccumulator of TE in a complex polymetallic mining/smelting urban context (Oruro, Bolivia). Specimens collected from a pristine reference site were transplanted at a high spatial resolution (˜1 sample/km2) throughout the urban area. About twenty-seven elements were measured after a 4-month exposure, also providing new information values for reference material BCR482. Statistical power analysis for this biomonitoring mapping approach against classical aerosols surveys performed on the same site showed the better aptitude of T. Capillaris to detect geographical trend, and to deconvolute multiple contamination sources using geostatistical principal component analysis. Transplanted specimens in the vicinity of the mining and smelting areas were characterized by extreme TE accumulation (Sn > Ag > Sb > Pb > Cd > As > W > Cu > Zn). Three contamination sources were identified: mining (Ag, Pb, Sb), smelting (As, Sn) and road traffic (Zn) emissions, confirming results of previous aerosol survey.

  20. Genetic Characterization of Dog Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilska, Joanna; Haskell, Marie J; Blott, Sarah C; Sánchez-Molano, Enrique; Polgar, Zita; Lofgren, Sarah E; Clements, Dylan N; Wiener, Pamela

    2017-06-01

    The genetic architecture of behavioral traits in dogs is of great interest to owners, breeders, and professionals involved in animal welfare, as well as to scientists studying the genetics of animal (including human) behavior. The genetic component of dog behavior is supported by between-breed differences and some evidence of within-breed variation. However, it is a challenge to gather sufficiently large datasets to dissect the genetic basis of complex traits such as behavior, which are both time-consuming and logistically difficult to measure, and known to be influenced by nongenetic factors. In this study, we exploited the knowledge that owners have of their dogs to generate a large dataset of personality traits in Labrador Retrievers. While accounting for key environmental factors, we demonstrate that genetic variance can be detected for dog personality traits assessed using questionnaire data. We identified substantial genetic variance for several traits, including fetching tendency and fear of loud noises, while other traits revealed negligibly small heritabilities. Genetic correlations were also estimated between traits; however, due to fairly large SEs, only a handful of trait pairs yielded statistically significant estimates. Genomic analyses indicated that these traits are mainly polygenic, such that individual genomic regions have small effects, and suggested chromosomal associations for six of the traits. The polygenic nature of these traits is consistent with previous behavioral genetics studies in other species, for example in mouse, and confirms that large datasets are required to quantify the genetic variance and to identify the individual genes that influence behavioral traits. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  1. Influencing agent group behavior by adjusting cultural trait values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuli, Gaurav; Hexmoor, Henry

    2010-10-01

    Social reasoning and norms among individuals that share cultural traits are largely fashioned by those traits. We have explored predominant sociological and cultural traits. We offer a methodology for parametrically adjusting relevant traits. This exploratory study heralds a capability to deliberately tune cultural group traits in order to produce a desired group behavior. To validate our methodology, we implemented a prototypical-agent-based simulated test bed for demonstrating an exemplar from intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance scenario. A group of simulated agents traverses a hostile territory while a user adjusts their cultural group trait settings. Group and individual utilities are dynamically observed against parametric values for the selected traits. Uncertainty avoidance index and individualism are the cultural traits we examined in depth. Upon the user's training of the correspondence between cultural values and system utilities, users deliberately produce the desired system utilities by issuing changes to trait. Specific cultural traits are without meaning outside of their context. Efficacy and timely application of traits in a given context do yield desirable results. This paper heralds a path for the control of large systems via parametric cultural adjustments.

  2. Whole Trait Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeson, William; Jayawickreme, Eranda

    2014-01-01

    Personality researchers should modify models of traits to include mechanisms of differential reaction to situations. Whole Trait Theory does so via five main points. First, the descriptive side of traits should be conceptualized as density distributions of states. Second, it is important to provide an explanatory account of the Big 5 traits. Third, adding an explanatory account to the Big 5 creates two parts to traits, an explanatory part and a descriptive part, and these two parts should be recognized as separate entities that are joined into whole traits. Fourth, Whole Trait Theory proposes that the explanatory side of traits consists of social-cognitive mechanisms. Fifth, social-cognitive mechanisms that produce Big-5 states should be identified. PMID:26097268

  3. Analysing the Conversion of a Cultural Heritage to a Multi-functional Complex in the Context of Sustainability: Example of Fiume Veneto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemen SAY ÖZER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiume Veneto, was established on the banks of the river Fiume near the city of Pordenone in northern Italy. What makes this settlement distinctive is the huge yarn factory which was founded sometime between 1880 and 1885. The textile factory has offices and a clean electrical power plant (hydroelectric, both located on an island of about 100,000 square metres. There is also a building located outside the factory, in which there had been a grain mill serving the locals since the XIIIth century up until its closure in 1999. Following its closure, Isola del Fiume Company purchased the former textile factory together with the island in order to construct a multi-functional complex. In 2003, The City Council Planning Committee and the Italian Chamber of Architects decided to organize an international ‘architectural design competition’ under the supervision and policy of the International Union of Architects. The aim was to decide the best strategy to reuse the property as a whole and in consideration with the economic viability, an important criterion for the company. After setting up a jury, a programme was announced which included housing, facilities, the renovation of the mill and hydroelectric plant, the establishment/protection of green spaces, sports facilities, a civic centre and town hall, a museum and an auditorium as well as the necessary infrastructure related to the new development. The main theme of this article is an architectural competition in the context of sustainability and the ways in which structural comfort is achieved in the architectural solutions provided.

  4. Major-histocompatibility-complex-associated variation in secondary sexual traits of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): evidence for good-genes advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchkoff, S S; Lochmiller, R L; Masters, R E; Hoofer, S R; Van Den Bussche, R A

    2001-03-01

    Good-genes hypotheses predict that development of secondary sexual characters can be an honest advertisement of heritable male quality. We explored this hypothesis using a cervid model (adult, male white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus) to determine whether antler development could provide an honest signal of a male's genetic quality and condition to adversaries. We compared antler, morphometric, hormonal, and parasitic data collected from hunter-harvested deer to characteristics of the Mhc-DRB (Odvi), the most widely studied gene of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in Artiodactyla. We detected associations between genetic characteristics at Odvi-DRB and antler development and body mass, suggesting that antler development and body mass may be associated with pathogen resistance in deer and thus may be an honest signal of genetic quality. We also detected associations between Odvi-DRB characteristics and serum testosterone during the breeding season, suggesting that certain MHC characteristics may help deer cope with stresses related to breeding activity. In addition, we observed a negative relationship between degree of antler development and overall abundance of abomasal helminths. Our observations provide support for the hypothesis that antler development in white-tailed deer is an honest signal of quality.

  5. Quantitative genetics of disease traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, N R; Visscher, P M

    2015-04-01

    John James authored two key papers on the theory of risk to relatives for binary disease traits and the relationship between parameters on the observed binary scale and an unobserved scale of liability (James Annals of Human Genetics, 1971; 35: 47; Reich, James and Morris Annals of Human Genetics, 1972; 36: 163). These two papers are John James' most cited papers (198 and 328 citations, November 2014). They have been influential in human genetics and have recently gained renewed popularity because of their relevance to the estimation of quantitative genetics parameters for disease traits using SNP data. In this review, we summarize the two early papers and put them into context. We show recent extensions of the theory for ascertained case-control data and review recent applications in human genetics. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Traits traded off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueffler, Claus

    2006-01-01

    The course of evolution is restricted by constraints. A special type of constraint is a trade-off where different traits are negatively correlated. In this situation a mutant type that shows an improvement in one trait suffers from a decreased performance through another trait. In a fixed fitness

  7. Emotional intelligence, teamwork effectiveness, and job performance: the moderating role of job context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farh, Crystal I C Chien; Seo, Myeong-Gu; Tesluk, Paul E

    2012-07-01

    We advance understanding of the role of ability-based emotional intelligence (EI) and its subdimensions in the workplace by examining the mechanisms and context-based boundary conditions of the EI-performance relationship. Using a trait activation framework, we theorize that employees with higher overall EI and emotional perception ability exhibit higher teamwork effectiveness (and subsequent job performance) when working in job contexts characterized by high managerial work demands because such contexts contain salient emotion-based cues that activate employees' emotional capabilities. A sample of 212 professionals from various organizations and industries indicated support for the salutary effect of EI, above and beyond the influence of personality, cognitive ability, emotional labor job demands, job complexity, and demographic control variables. Theoretical and practical implications of the potential value of EI for workplace outcomes under contexts involving managerial complexity are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Middleware Support for Quality of Context in Pervasive Context-Aware Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheikh, K.; Wegdam, M.; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    Middleware support for pervasive context-aware systems relieves context-aware applications from dealing with the complexity of context-specific operations such as context acquisition, aggregation, reasoning and distribution. The middleware decouples applications from the underlying heterogeneous

  9. A Tricky Trait: Applying the Fruits of the "Function Debate" in the Philosophy of Biology to the "Venom Debate" in the Science of Toxinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Timothy N W; Fry, Bryan G

    2016-09-07

    The "function debate" in the philosophy of biology and the "venom debate" in the science of toxinology are conceptually related. Venom systems are complex multifunctional traits that have evolved independently numerous times throughout the animal kingdom. No single concept of function, amongst those popularly defended, appears adequate to describe these systems in all their evolutionary contexts and extant variations. As such, a pluralistic view of function, previously defended by some philosophers of biology, is most appropriate. Venom systems, like many other functional traits, exist in nature as points on a continuum and the boundaries between "venomous" and "non-venomous" species may not always be clearly defined. This paper includes a brief overview of the concept of function, followed by in-depth discussion of its application to venom systems. A sound understanding of function may aid in moving the venom debate forward. Similarly, consideration of a complex functional trait such as venom may be of interest to philosophers of biology.

  10. Integrative Systems Biology: Elucidating Complex Traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pers, Tune Hannes

    . In section ., I outline results from our bioinformaticsbased analysis of the FTO locus. Genetic variation within the FTO locus provides the hitherto strongest association between common SNPs and obesity, but the mechanisms leading to this association are still unknown. In Paper III, we demonstrate...

  11. Association of candidate genes with drought tolerance traits in diverse perennial ryegrass accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoqing Yu; Guihua Bai; Shuwei Liu; Na Luo; Ying Wang; Douglas S. Richmond; Paula M. Pijut; Scott A. Jackson; Jianming Yu; Yiwei. Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Drought is a major environmental stress limiting growth of perennial grasses in temperate regions. Plant drought tolerance is a complex trait that is controlled by multiple genes. Candidate gene association mapping provides a powerful tool for dissection of complex traits. Candidate gene association mapping of drought tolerance traits was conducted in 192 diverse...

  12. "I Could Have Done Everything and Why Not?": Young Women's Complex Constructions of Sexual Agency in the Context of Sexualities Education in Life Orientation in South African Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Lou-Marie; Shefer, Tamara; Oakes, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    Progressive policies protecting women's rights to make reproductive decisions and the recent increase in literature exploring female sexual agency do not appear to have impacted on more equitable sexual relations in all contexts. In South Africa, gender power inequalities, intersecting with other forms of inequality in society, pose a challenge…

  13. Personality traits and group-based information behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette

    2009-01-01

    followed during a project assignment. The long version of the commonly-used NEO-PI-R test instrument was employed to describe and compare each group member's personality traits at a more detailed level. Data were also collected through a process survey, a diary and an interview. Analysis. The calculation....... Information behaviour associated with personality traits was identified, but the presence of personality effects tended to vary with the perceived presence of the social context. Conclusions. Some matches were identified between group members' personality traits and their actual information behaviour...... but there were also deviations, which were found that seemed to be related to the group-work context. The importance of studying personality traits in context has further been confirmed....

  14. QTL analyses on genotype-specific component traits in a crop simulation model for capsicum annuum L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, A.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Dieleman, J.A.; Magan, J.J.; Palloix, A.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: QTL for a complex trait like yield tend to be unstable across environments and show QTL by environment interaction. Direct improvement of complex traits by selecting on QTL is therefore difficult. For improvement of complex traits, crop growth models can be useful, as such models can

  15. Screening for depressed mood in an adolescent psychiatric context by brief self-assessment scales -- testing psychometric validity of WHO-5 and BDI-6 indices by latent trait analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Eva Henje; Bech, Per; Högberg, Göran

    2012-01-01

    of two such scales, which may be used in a two-step screening procedure, the WHO-Five Well-being Index (WHO-5) and the six-item version of Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-6). METHOD: 66 adolescent psychiatric patients with a clinical diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD), 60 girls and 6 boys......, aged 14--18 years, mean age 16.8 years, completed the WHO-5 scale as well as the BDI-6. Statistical validity was tested by Mokken and Rasch analyses. RESULTS: The correlation between WHO-5 and BDI-6 was -0.49 (p=0.0001). Mokken analyses showed a coefficient of homogeneity for the WHO-5 of 0.......52 and for the BDI-6 of 0.46. Rasch analysis also accepted unidimensionality when testing males versus females (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The WHO-5 is psychometrically valid in an adolescent psychiatric context including both genders to assess the wellness dimension and applicable as a first step in screening for MDD...

  16. Trait-based model development to support breeding programs. A case study for salt tolerance and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleari, Livia; Movedi, Ermes; Confalonieri, Roberto

    2017-06-28

    Eco-physiological models are increasingly used to analyze G × E × M interactions to support breeding programs via the design of ideotypes for specific contexts. However, available crop models are only partly suitable for this purpose, since they often lack clear relationships between parameters and traits breeders are working on. Taking salt stress tolerance and rice as a case study, we propose a paradigm shift towards the building of ideotyping-specific models explicitly around traits involved in breeding programs. Salt tolerance is a complex trait relying on different physiological processes that can be alternatively selected to improve the overall crop tolerance. We developed a new model explicitly accounting for these traits and we evaluated its performance using data from growth chamber experiments (e.g., R 2 ranged from 0.74 to 0.94 for the biomass of different plant organs). Using the model, we were able to show how an increase in the overall tolerance can derive from completely different physiological mechanisms according to soil/water salinity dynamics. The study demonstrated that a trait-based approach can increase the usefulness of mathematical models for supporting breeding programs.

  17. Environmental sensitivity in dairy cattle with focus on fertility traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismael, Ahmed; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling

    2012-01-01

    Dairy cattle differ in production, fertility, health, and other important traits in the different environment as both the phenopypic and genetic level (Winding et la., 2005 and Calus et al., 2005). Fertility of Nordic dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Red, Jersey) is a complex trait and the heritabi...

  18. A Genetic Epidemiological Study of Behavioral Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Amin (Najaf)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractHuman behavioural genetics aims to unravel the genetic and environmental contributions to variations in human behaviour. Behaviour is a complex trait, involving multiple genes that are affected by a variety of other factors. Genetic epidemiological research of behaviour goes back to

  19. Context in a wider context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Traxler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to review and reconsider the role of context in mobile learning and starts by outlining definitions of context-aware mobile learning as the technologies have become more mature, more robust and more widely available and as the notion of context has become progressively richer. The future role of context-aware mobile learning is considered within the context of the future of mobile learning as it moves from the challenges and opportunities of pedagogy and technology to the challenges and opportunities of policy, scale, sustainability, equity and engagement with augmented reality, «blended learning», «learner devices», «user-generated contexts» and the «internet of things». This is essentially a perspective on mobile learning, and other forms of technology-enhanced learning (TEL, where educators and their institutions set the agenda and manage change. There are, however, other perspectives on context. The increasing availability and use of smart-phones and other personal mobile devices with similar powerful functionality means that the experience of context for many people, in the form of personalized or location-based services, is an increasingly social and informal experience, rather than a specialist or educational experience. This is part of the transformative impact of mobility and connectedness on our societies brought about by these universal, ubiquitous and pervasive technologies. This paper contributes a revised understanding of context in the wider context (sic of the transformations taking place in our societies. These are subtle but pervasive transformations of jobs, work and the economy, of our sense of time, space and place, of knowing and learning, and of community and identity. This leads to a radical reconsideration of context as the notions of ‹self› and ‹other› are transformed.

  20. Exploring the complexities of leprosy-related stigma and the potential of a socio-economic intervention in a public health context in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dadun,; Peters, Ruth; Lusli, Mimi; Miranda-Galarza, Beatriz; Van Brakel, Wim; Zweekhorst, Marjolein; Damayanti, Rita; Irwanto, A.; Bunders-Aelen, J.G.F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores the complexities of leprosy-related stigma and the potential effectiveness of a socio-economic intervention in Cirebon District, Indonesia. Methods: A qualitative approach was adopted. 53 people affected by leprosy were interviewed, and 17 focus group discussions were

  1. Developing Leadership Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Susan King

    1980-01-01

    Defines six leadership traits that are necessary to and fostered by editing a college newspaper: delegating authority, developing subordinates, motivating others, being approachable, commanding respect, and bringing out optimum performances in others. (TJ)

  2. Same Traits, Different Variance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie S. Churchyard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Personality trait questionnaires are regularly used in individual differences research to examine personality scores between participants, although trait researchers tend to place little value on intra-individual variation in item ratings within a measured trait. The few studies that examine variability indices have not considered how they are related to a selection of psychological outcomes, so we recruited 160 participants (age M = 24.16, SD = 9.54 who completed the IPIP-HEXACO personality questionnaire and several outcome measures. Heterogenous within-subject differences in item ratings were found for every trait/facet measured, with measurement error that remained stable across the questionnaire. Within-subject standard deviations, calculated as measures of individual variation in specific item ratings within a trait/facet, were related to outcomes including life satisfaction and depression. This suggests these indices represent valid constructs of variability, and that researchers administering behavior statement trait questionnaires with outcome measures should also apply item-level variability indices.

  3. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and five-factor model traits in a clinical sample: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouse, Laura E; Traeger, Lara; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Safren, Steven A

    2013-10-01

    Relationships among attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and adult personality traits have not been examined in larger clinically diagnosed samples. We collected multisource ADHD symptom and self-report NEO Five-Factor Inventory (Costa and McCrae [Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc, 1992) data from 117 adults with ADHD and tested symptom-trait associations using structural equation modeling. The final model fit the data. Inattention was positively associated with neuroticism and negatively associated with conscientiousness. On the basis of ADHD expression in adulthood, hyperactivity and impulsivity were estimated as separate constructs and showed differential relationships to extraversion and agreeableness. A significant positive relationship between hyperactivity and conscientiousness arose in the context of other pathways. ADHD symptoms are reliably associated with personality traits, suggesting a complex interplay across development that warrants prospective study into adulthood.

  4. Context-dependent protein folding of a virulence peptide in the bacterial and host environments: structure of an SycH–YopH chaperone–effector complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujanac, Milos; Stebbins, C. Erec

    2013-01-01

    The structure of a SycH–YopH chaperone–effector complex from Yersinia reveals the bacterial state of a protein that adopts different folds in the host and pathogen environments. Yersinia pestis injects numerous bacterial proteins into host cells through an organic nanomachine called the type 3 secretion system. One such substrate is the tyrosine phosphatase YopH, which requires an interaction with a cognate chaperone in order to be effectively injected. Here, the first crystal structure of a SycH–YopH complex is reported, determined to 1.9 Å resolution. The structure reveals the presence of (i) a nonglobular polypeptide in YopH, (ii) a so-called β-motif in YopH and (iii) a conserved hydrophobic patch in SycH that recognizes the β-motif. Biochemical studies establish that the β-motif is critical to the stability of this complex. Finally, since previous work has shown that the N-terminal portion of YopH adopts a globular fold that is functional in the host cell, aspects of how this polypeptide adopts radically different folds in the host and in the bacterial environments are analysed

  5. An atlas of genetic correlations across human diseases and traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Finucane, Hilary K; Anttila, Verneri

    2015-01-01

    Identifying genetic correlations between complex traits and diseases can provide useful etiological insights and help prioritize likely causal relationships. The major challenges preventing estimation of genetic correlation from genome-wide association study (GWAS) data with current methods are t...

  6. Health promotion in context:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liveng, Anne; Andersen, Heidi Myglegård; Lehn Christiansen, Sine

    2018-01-01

    Health promotion constitutes a complex field of study, as it addresses multifaceted problems and involves a range of methods and theories. Students in the field of health promotion can find this challenging. To raise their level of reflexivity and support learning we have developed the “context m...

  7. Plasticity Regulators Modulate Specific Root Traits in Discrete Nitrogen Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Miriam L.; Banta, Joshua A.; Katari, Manpreet S.; Hulsmans, Jo; Chen, Lisa; Ristova, Daniela; Tranchina, Daniel; Purugganan, Michael D.; Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Birnbaum, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    Plant development is remarkably plastic but how precisely can the plant customize its form to specific environments? When the plant adjusts its development to different environments, related traits can change in a coordinated fashion, such that two traits co-vary across many genotypes. Alternatively, traits can vary independently, such that a change in one trait has little predictive value for the change in a second trait. To characterize such “tunability” in developmental plasticity, we carried out a detailed phenotypic characterization of complex root traits among 96 accessions of the model Arabidopsis thaliana in two nitrogen environments. The results revealed a surprising level of independence in the control of traits to environment – a highly tunable form of plasticity. We mapped genetic architecture of plasticity using genome-wide association studies and further used gene expression analysis to narrow down gene candidates in mapped regions. Mutants in genes implicated by association and expression analysis showed precise defects in the predicted traits in the predicted environment, corroborating the independent control of plasticity traits. The overall results suggest that there is a pool of genetic variability in plants that controls traits in specific environments, with opportunity to tune crop plants to a given environment. PMID:24039603

  8. Power and Autistic Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Overskeid

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others – which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness -- and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question – and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members’ needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper’s thesis – and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone’s effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits

  9. Power and Autistic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overskeid, Geir

    2016-01-01

    Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others – which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness – and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question – and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members’ needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper’s thesis – and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone’s effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits becoming more

  10. DSM-5 Personality Traits and DSM-IV Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Two issues pertinent to the DSM-5 proposal for personality pathology, the recovery of DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) by proposed DSM-5 traits and the validity of the proposed DSM-5 hybrid model which incorporates both personality pathology symptoms and maladaptive traits, were evaluated in a large undergraduate sample (N = 808). Proposed DSM-5 traits as assessed with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 explained a substantial proportion of variance in DSM-IV PDs as assessed with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+, and trait indicators of the six proposed DSM-5 PDs were mostly specific to those disorders with some exceptions. Regression analyses support the DSM-5 hybrid model in that pathological traits and an indicator of general personality pathology severity provided incremental information about PDs. Findings are discussed in the context of broader issues around the proposed DSM-5 model of personality disorders. PMID:22250660

  11. Function Allocation in Complex Socio-Technical Systems: Procedure usage in nuclear power and the Context Analysis Method for Identifying Design Solutions (CAMIDS) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Kara Anne

    This research aims to prove that strict adherence to procedures and rigid compliance to process in the US Nuclear Industry may not prevent incidents or increase safety. According to the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, the nuclear power industry has seen a recent rise in events, and this research claims that a contributing factor to this rise is organizational, cultural, and based on peoples overreliance on procedures and policy. Understanding the proper balance of function allocation, automation and human decision-making is imperative to creating a nuclear power plant that is safe, efficient, and reliable. This research claims that new generations of operators are less engaged and thinking because they have been instructed to follow procedures to a fault. According to operators, they were once to know the plant and its interrelations, but organizationally more importance is now put on following procedure and policy. Literature reviews were performed, experts were questioned, and a model for context analysis was developed. The Context Analysis Method for Identifying Design Solutions (CAMIDS) Model was created, verified and validated through both peer review and application in real world scenarios in active nuclear power plant simulators. These experiments supported the claim that strict adherence and rigid compliance to procedures may not increase safety by studying the industry's propensity for following incorrect procedures, and when it directly affects the outcome of safety or security of the plant. The findings of this research indicate that the younger generations of operators rely highly on procedures, and the organizational pressures of required compliance to procedures may lead to incidents within the plant because operators feel pressured into following the rules and policy above performing the correct actions in a timely manner. The findings support computer based procedures, efficient alarm systems, and skill of the craft matrices. The solution to

  12. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise eComas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length (SRL, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less ‘leaky’ and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g. functional differences between fine and coarse roots needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria and rice (Oryza show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait

  13. Motor adaptation in complex sports - the influence of visual context information on the adaptation of the three-point shot to altered task demands in expert basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckel, Tino; Fries, Udo

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of visual context information on skilled motor behaviour and motor adaptation in basketball. The rules of basketball in Europe have recently changed, such that that the distance for three-point shots increased from 6.25 m to 6.75 m. As such, we tested the extent to which basketball experts can adapt to the longer distance when a) only the unfamiliar, new three-point line was provided as floor markings (NL group), or b) the familiar, old three-point line was provided in addition to the new floor markings (OL group). In the present study 20 expert basketball players performed 40 three-point shots from 6.25 m and 40 shots from 6.75 m. We assessed the percentage of hits and analysed the landing position of the ball. Results showed better adaptation of throwing performance to the longer distance when the old three-point line was provided as a visual landmark, compared to when only the new three-point line was provided. We hypothesise that the three-point line delivered relevant information needed to successfully adapt to the greater distance in the OL group, whereas it disturbed performance and ability to adapt in the NL group. The importance of visual landmarks on motor adaptation in basketball throwing is discussed relative to the influence of other information sources (i.e. angle of elevation relative to the basket) and sport practice.

  14. Factors that motivate and influence excellence in human performance: A case study of inspection personnel in the complex context of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, S.

    1988-01-01

    This study investigates the problem of poor performance among nuclear power plant inspection personnel both in training and in the field. First, a systems perspective is employed to explore the psychological processes and relevant human factors that may be associated with workers' inadequate performance. Second, two separate yet related approaches are used to clarify the definition of competence: (a) a theory-based (or top-down) approach, in which effective performance is construed as a product of a skillful, motivated person interacting with a responsive environment; and (b) an empirical (or bottom-up) approach, in which key person and context characteristics are generated based on the opinions of experts in the industry. Using a series of semistructured interviews, two empirical studies were conducted in the latter approach. Workers motivational characteristics appeared to be largely a function of their current working conditions. Overall, the results of both studies converged with the theoretical analysis emphasizing (a) the reciprocal and dynamic interplay of contextual and motivational factors influencing performance, and (b) the salient role of supervisory practices in terms of support, cooperation, and efficiency in contributing to the outcome of performance

  15. Cerebellum and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosini, Laura; Cutuli, Debora; Picerni, Eleonora; Laricchiuta, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    Personality traits are multidimensional traits comprising cognitive, emotional, and behavioral characteristics, and a wide array of cerebral structures mediate individual variability. Differences in personality traits covary with brain morphometry in specific brain regions. A cerebellar role in emotional and affective processing and on personality characteristics has been suggested. In a large sample of healthy subjects of both sexes and differently aged, the macro- and micro-structural variations of the cerebellum were correlated with the scores obtained in the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) by Cloninger. Cerebellar volumes were associated positively with Novelty Seeking scores and negatively with Harm Avoidance scores. Given the cerebellar contribution in personality traits and emotional processing, we investigated the cerebellar involvement even in alexithymia, construct of personality characterized by impairment in cognitive, emotional, and affective processing. Interestingly, the subjects with high alexithymic traits had larger volumes in the bilateral Crus 1. The cerebellar substrate for some personality dimensions extends the relationship between personality and brain areas to a structure up to now thought to be involved mainly in motor and cognitive functions, much less in emotional processes and even less in personality individual differences. The enlarged volumes of Crus 1 in novelty seekers and alexithymics support the tendency to action featuring both personality constructs. In fact, Novelty Seeking and alexithymia are rooted in behavior and inescapably have a strong action component, resulting in stronger responses in the structures more focused on action and embodiment, as the cerebellum is.

  16. Clinical and evoked pain, personality traits, and emotional states: can familial confounding explain the associations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Eric; Poeschla, Brian; Dansie, Elizabeth; Succop, Annemarie; Chopko, Laura; Afari, Niloofar

    2015-01-01

    Pain is a complex phenomenon influenced by context and person-specific factors. Affective dimensions of pain involve both enduring personality traits and fleeting emotional states. We examined how personality traits and emotional states are linked with clinical and evoked pain in a twin sample. 99 female twin pairs were evaluated for clinical and evoked pain using the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and dolorimetry, and completed the 120-item International Personality Item Pool (IPIP), the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), and ratings of stress and mood. Using a co-twin control design we examined a) the relationship of personality traits and emotional states with clinical and evoked pain and b) whether genetics and common environment (i.e. familial factors) may account for the associations. Neuroticism was associated with the sensory component of the MPQ; this relationship was not confounded by familial factors. None of the emotional state measures was associated with the MPQ. PANAS negative affect was associated with lower evoked pressure pain threshold and tolerance; these associations were confounded by familial factors. There were no associations between IPIP traits and evoked pain. A relationship exists between neuroticism and clinical pain that is not confounded by familial factors. There is no similar relationship between negative emotional states and clinical pain. In contrast, the relationship between negative emotional states and evoked pain is strong while the relationship with enduring personality traits is weak. The relationship between negative emotional states and evoked pain appears to be non-causal and due to familial factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Context matters!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    for granted and unproblematic, although it is agreed to be of great importance. By crystallising three different modes of contextualised competence thinking (prescriptive, descriptive and analytical) the paper shows that the underlying assumptions about context - the interaction between the individual...... and the social - has major consequences for the specific enactment of competence. The paper argues in favour of a second order observation strategy for the context of competence. But in doing so it also shows that prevailing second-order competence theories so far, in criticising (counter) positions (and...

  18. From user context states to context-aware applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shishkov, Boris; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Filipe, J.; Cordeiro, J.; Cardoso, J.

    2008-01-01

    In many cases, in order to be effective, software applications need to allow sensitivity to user context state changes. This implies however additional complexity associated with the need for applications’ adaptability (being capable of capturing context, interpreting it and reacting on it). Hence,

  19. Structural context and variation of ocean plate stratigraphy, Franciscan Complex, California: insight into mélange origins and subduction-accretion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, John

    2017-12-01

    The transfer (accretion) of materials from a subducting oceanic plate to a subduction-accretionary complex has produced rock assemblages recording the history of the subducted oceanic plate from formation to arrival at the trench. These rock assemblages, comprising oceanic igneous rocks progressively overlain by pelagic sedimentary rocks (chert and/or limestone) and trench-fill clastic sedimentary rocks (mostly sandstone, shale/mudstone), have been called ocean plate stratigraphy (OPS). During accretion of OPS, megathrust slip is accommodated by imbricate faults and penetrative strain, shortening the unit and leading to tectonic repetition of the OPS sequence, whereas OPS accreted at different times are separated by non-accretionary megathrust horizons. The Franciscan subduction complex of California accreted episodically over a period of over 150 million years and incorporated OPS units with a variety of characteristics separated by non-accretionary megathrust horizons. Most Franciscan OPS comprises MORB (mid-ocean-ridge basalt) progressively overlain by chert and trench-fill clastic sedimentary rocks that are composed of variable proportions of turbidites and siliciclastic and serpentinite-matrix olistostromes (sedimentary mélanges). Volumetrically, the trench-fill component predominates in most Franciscan OPS, but some units have a significant component of igneous and pelagic rocks. Ocean island basalt (OIB) overlain by limestone is less common than MORB-chert assemblages, as are abyssal serpentinized peridotite slabs. The earliest accreted OPS comprises metabasite of supra-subduction zone affinity imbricated with smaller amounts of metaultramafic rocks and metachert, but lacking a clastic component. Most deformation of Franciscan OPS is localized along discrete faults rather than being distributed in the form of penetrative strain. This deformation locally results in block-in-matrix tectonic mélanges, in contrast to the sedimentary mélanges making up part of

  20. When music flows. State and Trait Flow in musical performance, composition and listening: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice eChirico

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is not unusual to experience a sense of total absorption, concentration, action-awareness, distortion of time and intrinsic enjoyment during an activity that involves music. Indeed, it is noted that there is a special relationship between these two aspects (i.e., music and flow experience. In order to deeply explore flow in the musical domain, it is crucial to consider the complexity of the flow experience—both as a state and as a trait. Secondly, since music is a multifaceted domain, it is necessary to concentrate on specific music settings, such as (i musical composition; (ii listening; and (iii musical performance. To address these issues, the current review aims to outline flow experience as a trait and as a state in the three above-mentioned musical domains. Clear and useful guidelines to distinguish between flow as a state and as a trait are provided by literature concerning flow assessment. For this purpose, three aspects of the selected studies are discussed and analyzed: (i the characteristics of the flow assessments used; (ii the experimental design; (iii the results; and (iv the interrelations between the three domains. Results showed that the dispositional approach is predominant in the above-mentioned settings, mainly regarding music performance. Several aspects concerning musical contexts still need to be deeply analyzed.Future challenges could include the role of a group level of analysis, overcoming a frequency approach towards dispositional flow, and integrating both state and dispositional flow perspectives in order to deepen comprehension of how flow takes place in musical contexts.Finally, to explain the complex relationship between these two phenomena, we suggest that music and flow could be seen as an emergent embodied system.

  1. Going beyond the hero in leadership development: the place of healthcare context, complexity and relationships: Comment on "Leadership and leadership development in healthcare settings - a simplistic solution to complex problems?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jackie

    2015-04-01

    There remains a conviction that the torrent of publications and the financial outlay on leadership development will create managers with the skills and characters of perfect leaders, capable of guiding healthcare organisations through the challenges and crises of the 21st century. The focus of much attention continues to be the search for the (illusory) core set of heroic qualities, abilities or competencies that will enable the development of leaders to achieve levels of supreme leadership and organisational performance. This brief commentary adds support to McDonald's (1) call for recognition of the complexity of the undertaking.

  2. Going beyond the Hero in Leadership Development: The Place of Healthcare Context, Complexity and Relationships; Comment on “Leadership and Leadership Development in Healthcare Settings – A Simplistic Solution to Complex Problems?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Ford

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There remains a conviction that the torrent of publications and the financial outlay on leadership development will create managers with the skills and characters of perfect leaders, capable of guiding healthcare organisations through the challenges and crises of the 21st century. The focus of much attention continues to be the search for the (illusory core set of heroic qualities, abilities or competencies that will enable the development of leaders to achieve levels of supreme leadership and organisational performance. This brief commentary adds support to McDonald’s (1 call for recognition of the complexity of the undertaking.

  3. Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Calving Traits in Danish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, J R; Guldbrandtsen, B; Sørensen, P

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting direct and maternal calving traits at first calving in the Danish Holstein population, 2) to distinguish between pleiotropic and linked QTL for chromosome regions affecting more than one trait, and 3) to detect...

  4. Quantitative trait loci for behavioural traits in chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, A.J.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Siwek, M.Z.; Cornelissen, S.J.B.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Koene, P.; Bovenhuis, H.; Poel, van der J.J.

    2005-01-01

    The detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) of behavioural traits has mainly been focussed on mouse and rat. With the rapid development of molecular genetics and the statistical tools, QTL mapping for behavioural traits in farm animals is developing. In chicken, a total of 30 QTL involved in

  5. Generative Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Dan Allen

    Educational research has identified how science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) practice and education have underperforming metrics in racial and gender diversity, despite decades of intervention. These disparities are part of the construction of a culture of science that is alienating to these populations. Recent studies in a social science framework described as "Generative Justice" have suggested that the context of social and scientific practice might be modified to bring about more just and equitable relations among the disenfranchised by circulating the value they and their non-human allies create back to them in unalienated forms. What is not known are the underlying principles of social and material space that makes a system more or less generative. I employ an autoethnographic method at four sites: a high school science class; a farm committed to "Black and Brown liberation"; a summer program geared towards youth environmental mapping; and a summer workshop for Harlem middle school students. My findings suggest that by identifying instances where material affinity, participatory voice, and creative solidarity are mutually reinforcing, it is possible to create educational contexts that generate unalienated value, and circulate it back to the producers themselves. This cycle of generation may help explain how to create systems of justice that strengthen and grow themselves through successive iterations. The problem of lack of diversity in STEM may be addressed not merely by recruiting the best and the brightest from underrepresented populations, but by changing the context of STEM education to provide tools for its own systematic restructuring.

  6. Quantifying the effects of ecological constraints on trait expression using novel trait-gradient analysis parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, Gianluigi; Tsakalos, James L; Keppel, Gunnar; Mucina, Ladislav

    2018-01-01

    Complex processes related to biotic and abiotic forces can impose limitations to assembly and composition of plant communities. Quantifying the effects of these constraints on plant functional traits across environmental gradients, and among communities, remains challenging. We define ecological constraint ( C i ) as the combined, limiting effect of biotic interactions and environmental filtering on trait expression (i.e., the mean value and range of functional traits). Here, we propose a set of novel parameters to quantify this constraint by extending the trait-gradient analysis (TGA) methodology. The key parameter is ecological constraint, which is dimensionless and can be measured at various scales, for example, on population and community levels. It facilitates comparing the effects of ecological constraints on trait expressions across environmental gradients, as well as within and among communities. We illustrate the implementation of the proposed parameters using the bark thickness of 14 woody species along an aridity gradient on granite outcrops in southwestern Australia. We found a positive correlation between increasing environmental stress and strength of ecological constraint on bark thickness expression. Also, plants from more stressful habitats (shrublands on shallow soils and in sun-exposed locations) displayed higher ecological constraint for bark thickness than plants in more benign habitats (woodlands on deep soils and in sheltered locations). The relative ease of calculation and dimensionless nature of C i allow it to be readily implemented at various scales and make it widely applicable. It therefore has the potential to advance the mechanistic understanding of the ecological processes shaping trait expression. Some future applications of the new parameters could be investigating the patterns of ecological constraints (1) among communities from different regions, (2) on different traits across similar environmental gradients, and (3) for the same

  7. Expression and Regulation of Attachment-Related Emotions in Children with Conduct Problems and Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadds, Mark R; Gale, Nyree; Godbee, Megan; Moul, Caroline; Pasalich, Dave S; Fink, Elian; Hawes, David J

    2016-08-01

    Callous-unemotional traits (CU) are defined by low responsiveness to, and unfeeling disregard for the emotions of others. There is controversial evidence, however, that children with high CU traits can demonstrate affective responsiveness under certain conditions, namely those associated with attachment threat. We tested this using 'fear + amusing' and 'attachment rich' stimuli from the Lion King film. Of N = 76, 4-14 years old children, 56 were clinic-referred children divided into high and low CU traits groups, and 20 children were drawn from the community. Participants watched film sequences of fearful, attachment-related and neutral stimuli and their affective responses and emotion-regulation strategies were coded by independent observers. Children in the high CU traits group were able to disengage from the fear stimuli by showing more 'happiness' to a brief slapstick interlude. In the attachment scenario, high CU children expressed similar or trends toward higher emotional responses and emotion regulation strategies, compared to low-CU children and control children. The results support the idea that high CU children may have the potential for emotional responsiveness to complex emotional stimuli in attachment contexts. Implications of these results for the development of interventions are discussed.

  8. Autistic traits in children with ADHD index clinical and cognitive problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Miriam; Martin, Joanna; Langley, Kate; Hamshere, Marian; Thapar, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Traits of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) occur frequently in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the significance of their presence in terms of phenotype and underlying neurobiology is not properly understood. This analysis aimed to determine whether higher levels of autistic traits, as measured by the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), index a more severe presentation in a large, rigorously phenotyped sample of children with ADHD (N=711). Regression analyses were used to examine association of SCQ scores with core ADHD features, clinical comorbidities and cognitive and developmental features, with adjustment for putative confounders. For outcomes showing association with total SCQ score, secondary analyses determined levels of differential association of the three ASD sub-domains. Results suggest that increasing ASD symptomatology within ADHD is associated with a more severe phenotype in terms of oppositional, conduct and anxiety symptoms, lower full-scale IQ, working memory deficits and general motor problems. These associations persisted after accounting for ADHD severity, suggesting that autistic symptomatology independently indexes the severity of comorbid impairments in the context of ADHD. Sub-domain scores did not show unique contributions to most outcomes, except that social deficits were independently associated with oppositional symptoms and repetitive behaviours independently predicted hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and motor problems. It would be worthwhile for clinicians to consider levels of socio-communicative and repetitive traits in those with ADHD who do not meet diagnostic criteria for ASD, as they index higher levels of phenotypic complexity, which may have implications for efficacy of interventions.

  9. Microgeographic variation in locomotor traits among lizards in a human-built environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Donihue

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microgeographic variation in fitness-relevant traits may be more common than previously appreciated. The fitness of many vertebrates is directly related to their locomotor capacity, a whole-organism trait integrating behavior, morphology, and physiology. Because locomotion is inextricably related to context, I hypothesized that it might vary with habitat structure in a wide-ranging lizard, Podarcis erhardii, found in the Greek Cyclade Islands. I compared lizard populations living on human-built rock walls, a novel habitat with complex vertical structure, with nearby lizard populations that are naive to human-built infrastructure and live in flat, loose-substrate habitat. I tested for differences in morphology, behavior, and performance. Lizards from built sites were larger and had significantly (and relatively longer forelimbs and hindlimbs. The differences in hindlimb morphology were especially pronounced for distal components—the foot and longest toe. These morphologies facilitated a significant behavioral shift in jumping propensity across a rocky experimental substrate. I found no difference in maximum velocity between these populations; however, females originating from wall sites potentially accelerated faster over the rocky experimental substrate. The variation between these closely neighboring populations suggests that the lizards inhabiting walls have experienced a suite of trait changes enabling them to take advantage of the novel habitat structure created by humans.

  10. Linking agricultural practices, mycorrhizal fungi, and traits mediating plant-insect interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Nicholas A; Kiers, E Toby; Theis, Nina; Hazzard, Ruth V; Adler, Lynn S

    2013-10-01

    effects on growth may overlook changes in plant traits that have the potential to influence interactions, and hence yield, on farms. Given the effects of AMF on plant traits documented here, and the great importance of both herbivores and pollinators to wild and cultivated plants, we advocate for comprehensive assessments of mycorrhizal effects in complex community contexts, with the aim of incorporating multispecies interactions both above and below the soil surface.

  11. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality

    OpenAIRE

    Siegling, Alexander B.; Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K. V.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invari...

  12. The Trait Lady Speaks Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culham, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    The acknowledged expert on the 6+1 traits of writing explains what the traits are and what they are not: The traits are not a curriculum; they are part and parcel of the writing process; they are a model, not a program; they are not a prepackaged replacement for teaching writing; and they are the language of the writing workshop. The author…

  13. Genetic effects at pleiotropic loci are context-dependent with consequences for the maintenance of genetic variation in populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A Lawson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Context-dependent genetic effects, including genotype-by-environment and genotype-by-sex interactions, are a potential mechanism by which genetic variation of complex traits is maintained in populations. Pleiotropic genetic effects are also thought to play an important role in evolution, reflecting functional and developmental relationships among traits. We examine context-dependent genetic effects at pleiotropic loci associated with normal variation in multiple metabolic syndrome (MetS components (obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes-related traits. MetS prevalence is increasing in Western societies and, while environmental in origin, presents substantial variation in individual response. We identify 23 pleiotropic MetS quantitative trait loci (QTL in an F(16 advanced intercross between the LG/J and SM/J inbred mouse strains (Wustl:LG,SM-G16; n = 1002. Half of each family was fed a high-fat diet and half fed a low-fat diet; and additive, dominance, and parent-of-origin imprinting genotypic effects were examined in animals partitioned into sex, diet, and sex-by-diet cohorts. We examine the context-dependency of the underlying additive, dominance, and imprinting genetic effects of the traits associated with these pleiotropic QTL. Further, we examine sequence polymorphisms (SNPs between LG/J and SM/J as well as differential expression of positional candidate genes in these regions. We show that genetic associations are different in different sex, diet, and sex-by-diet settings. We also show that over- or underdominance and ecological cross-over interactions for single phenotypes may not be common, however multidimensional synthetic phenotypes at loci with pleiotropic effects can produce situations that favor the maintenance of genetic variation in populations. Our findings have important implications for evolution and the notion of personalized medicine.

  14. Quantitative traits and diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzJohn, Richard G

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative traits have long been hypothesized to affect speciation and extinction rates. For example, smaller body size or increased specialization may be associated with increased rates of diversification. Here, I present a phylogenetic likelihood-based method (quantitative state speciation and extinction [QuaSSE]) that can be used to test such hypotheses using extant character distributions. This approach assumes that diversification follows a birth-death process where speciation and extinction rates may vary with one or more traits that evolve under a diffusion model. Speciation and extinction rates may be arbitrary functions of the character state, allowing much flexibility in testing models of trait-dependent diversification. I test the approach using simulated phylogenies and show that a known relationship between speciation and a quantitative character could be recovered in up to 80% of the cases on large trees (500 species). Consistent with other approaches, detecting shifts in diversification due to differences in extinction rates was harder than when due to differences in speciation rates. Finally, I demonstrate the application of QuaSSE to investigate the correlation between body size and diversification in primates, concluding that clade-specific differences in diversification may be more important than size-dependent diversification in shaping the patterns of diversity within this group.

  15. Trait Perception Accuracy and Acquaintance Within Groups: Tracking Accuracy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jill A; Bernieri, Frank

    2017-05-01

    Previous work on trait perception has evaluated accuracy at discrete stages of relationships (e.g., strangers, best friends). A relatively limited body of literature has investigated changes in accuracy as acquaintance within a dyad or group increases. Small groups of initially unacquainted individuals spent more than 30 hr participating in a wide range of activities designed to represent common interpersonal contexts (e.g., eating, traveling). We calculated how accurately each participant judged others in their group on the big five traits across three distinct points within the acquaintance process: zero acquaintance, after a getting-to-know-you conversation, and after 10 weeks of interaction and activity. Judgments of all five traits exhibited accuracy above chance levels after 10 weeks. An examination of the trait rating stability revealed that much of the revision in judgments occurred not over the course of the 10-week relationship as suspected, but between zero acquaintance and the getting-to-know-you conversation.

  16. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K. V.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invariant between genders, with Neuroticism and Extraversion being the strongest trait EI correlates, followed by Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness. However, there was some evidence indicating that the gender-specific contributions of the Big Five to trait EI vary depending on the personality measure used, being more consistent for women. Discussion focuses on the validity of the TEIQue as a measure of trait EI and its psychometric properties, more generally. PMID:25866439

  17. QTLs for seedling traits under salinity stress in hexaploid wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Yongzhe; Xu, Yanhua; Teng, Wan; Li, Bin; Lin, Tongbao

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Soil salinity limits agricultural production and is a major obstacle for increasing crop yield. Common wheat is one of the most important crops with allohexaploid characteristic and a highly complex genome. QTL mapping is a useful way to identify genes for quantitative traits such as salinity tolerance in hexaploid wheat. In the present study, a hydroponic trial was carried out to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with salinity tolerance of wheat under 150mM NaCl co...

  18. Phylogeny and species traits predict bird detectability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solymos, Peter; Matsuoka, Steven M.; Stralberg, Diana; Barker, Nicole K. S.; Bayne, Erin M.

    2018-01-01

    Avian acoustic communication has resulted from evolutionary pressures and ecological constraints. We therefore expect that auditory detectability in birds might be predictable by species traits and phylogenetic relatedness. We evaluated the relationship between phylogeny, species traits, and field‐based estimates of the two processes that determine species detectability (singing rate and detection distance) for 141 bird species breeding in boreal North America. We used phylogenetic mixed models and cross‐validation to compare the relative merits of using trait data only, phylogeny only, or the combination of both to predict detectability. We found a strong phylogenetic signal in both singing rates and detection distances; however the strength of phylogenetic effects was less than expected under Brownian motion evolution. The evolution of behavioural traits that determine singing rates was found to be more labile, leaving more room for species to evolve independently, whereas detection distance was mostly determined by anatomy (i.e. body size) and thus the laws of physics. Our findings can help in disentangling how complex ecological and evolutionary mechanisms have shaped different aspects of detectability in boreal birds. Such information can greatly inform single‐ and multi‐species models but more work is required to better understand how to best correct possible biases in phylogenetic diversity and other community metrics.

  19. Beta-thalassaemia trait: haematological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousafzai, Y.M.; Khan, S.; Raziq, F.

    2010-01-01

    Thalassaemia syndromes are a group of hereditary disorders characterised by a genetic deficiency in the synthesis of --globin genes. The objective of this study was to determine the haematological features -thalassaemia trait (BTT), and to determine the sensitivity of Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH) and -thalassaemia trait. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar from May 2009 to May 2010 with 203 subjects having BTT. Blood samples were collected in EDTA anti-coagulated tubes. RBC indices were taken as part of complete blood count (CBC) by haematology analyser, and Haemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis was done to determine the HbA2 percentage. The data was collected and analyzed on statistical software for demographic details, RBC indices and HBA2 levels. Results: Out of 203 patients, 92 (45%) were males and 111 (55%) were females. Most patients tested were in the 15-45 year age group. One-hundred-sixty (79%) patients had anaemia. MCV was lower than 76 fl in all the cases. Mean MCV was 59.1 fl. MCH was low, the mean MCH being 19.3 g/dl. MCH <26 gave sensitivity of 99% in detecting BTT. We calculated MI for these cases and found out that it was <12 in 75% of cases and <15 in 197 (97%). Conclusion: Beta-thalassaemia traits present with a microcytic hypochromic blood picture, detected on simple haematology analysers as low MCV and MCH and MI which provide a beta- thalassaemia trait. (author)

  20. Revisiting the Holy Grail: using plant functional traits to understand ecological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jennifer L; Larson, Julie E; Ames, Gregory M; Butterfield, Bradley J; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Firn, Jennifer; Laughlin, Daniel C; Sutton-Grier, Ariana E; Williams, Laura; Wright, Justin

    2017-05-01

    One of ecology's grand challenges is developing general rules to explain and predict highly complex systems. Understanding and predicting ecological processes from species' traits has been considered a 'Holy Grail' in ecology. Plant functional traits are increasingly being used to develop mechanistic models that can predict how ecological communities will respond to abiotic and biotic perturbations and how species will affect ecosystem function and services in a rapidly changing world; however, significant challenges remain. In this review, we highlight recent work and outstanding questions in three areas: (i) selecting relevant traits; (ii) describing intraspecific trait variation and incorporating this variation into models; and (iii) scaling trait data to community- and ecosystem-level processes. Over the past decade, there have been significant advances in the characterization of plant strategies based on traits and trait relationships, and the integration of traits into multivariate indices and models of community and ecosystem function. However, the utility of trait-based approaches in ecology will benefit from efforts that demonstrate how these traits and indices influence organismal, community, and ecosystem processes across vegetation types, which may be achieved through meta-analysis and enhancement of trait databases. Additionally, intraspecific trait variation and species interactions need to be incorporated into predictive models using tools such as Bayesian hierarchical modelling. Finally, existing models linking traits to community and ecosystem processes need to be empirically tested for their applicability to be realized. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  1. Perceptual processing of a complex auditory context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quiroga Martinez, David Ricardo; Hansen, Niels Christian; Højlund, Andreas

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) is a brain response elicited by deviants in a series of repetitive sounds. It reflects the perception of change in low-level sound features and reliably measures perceptual auditory memory. However, most MMN studies use simple tone patterns as stimuli, failing...

  2. Trait-mediated trophic interactions: is foraging theory keeping up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven F. Railsback; Bret C. Harvey

    2013-01-01

    Many ecologists believe that there is a lack of foraging theory that works in community contexts, for populations of unique individuals each making trade-offs between food and risk that are subject to feedbacks from behavior of others. Such theory is necessary to reproduce the trait-mediated trophic interactions now recognized as widespread and strong. Game theory can...

  3. Putting tumours in context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissell, Mina J.; Radisky, Derek

    2001-10-01

    The interactions between cancer cells and their micro- and macroenvironment create a context that promotes tumor growth and protects it from immune attack. The functional association of cancer cells with their surrounding tissues forms a new 'organ' that changes as malignancy progresses. Investigation of this process might provide new insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and could also lead to new therapeutic targets. Under normal conditions, ORGANS are made up of TISSUES that exchange information with other cell types via cell-cell contact, cytokines and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM). The ECM, which is produced by collaboration between STROMAL fibroblasts and EPITHELIAL cells, provides structural scaffolding for cells, as well as contextual information. The endothelial vasculature provides nutrients and oxygen, and cells of the immune system combat pathogens and remove apoptotic cells. Epithelial cells associate into intact, polarized sheets. These tissues communicate through a complex network of interactions: physically, through direct contact or through the intervening ECM, and biochemically, through both soluble and insoluble signalling molecules. In combination, these interactions provide the information that is necessary to maintain cellular differentiation and to create complex tissue structures. Occasionally, the intercellular signals that define the normal context become disrupted. Alterations in epithelial tissues can lead to movement of epithelial sheets and proliferation - for example, after activation of mesenchymal fibroblasts due to wounding.Normally, these conditions are temporary and reversible, but when inflammation is sustained, an escalating feedback loop ensues.Under persistent inflammatory conditions, continual upregulation of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by stromal fibroblasts can disrupt the ECM, and invading immune cells can overproduce factors that promote abnormal proliferation. As this process

  4. Sounds in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan

    A sound is never just a sound. It is becoming increasingly clear that auditory processing is best thought of not as a one-way afferent stream, but rather as an ongoing interaction between interior processes and the environment. Even the earliest stages of auditory processing in the nervous system...... time-course of contextual influence on auditory processing in three different paradigms: a simple mismatch negativity paradigm with tones of differing pitch, a multi-feature mismatch negativity paradigm in which tones were embedded in a complex musical context, and a cross-modal paradigm, in which...... auditory processing of emotional speech was modulated by an accompanying visual context. I then discuss these results in terms of their implication for how we conceive of the auditory processing stream....

  5. Effects on the family context of a complex psychosocial intervention in children with TDAH - Efectos sobre el contexto familiar de una intervención psicosocial compleja en niños con TDAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Miranda

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The attention deficit with hyperactivity disorder has a complex negative impact on the family system that has not been thoroughly examined. This study analyzes the effects of psychosocial treatment on a wide range of aspects of family dynamics, such as to what degree the families overcome the difficulties they experience in the social and economic areas, improvements in the feelings and attitudes of the parents, or the tension between siblings or the within the couple. The purpose is also to analyze whether the presence of associated behavioral problems modulates the effects of the intervention.The participants in the study were 42 families divided into two groups, with and without treatment. The intervention included 3 programs differentiated according to the context in which they were implemented: directly with the children, with the parents and with the teachers. Each program included techniques of behavior modification, self-regulation, academic accommodations and social skills. The results show the beneficial effect of the multi-component intervention performed on all the family aspects analyzed, especially for the group of children without associated behavior problems.

  6. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for inflorescence length traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lablab purpureus (L.) sweet is an ancient legume species whose immature pods serve as a vegetable in south and south-east Asia. The objective of this study is to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with quantitative traits such as inflorescence length, peduncle length from branch to axil, peduncle length from ...

  7. Associations between animal traits, carcass traits and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study the associations between animal traits, carcass traits and carcass classification within cattle, sheep and pigs slaughtered in a high throughput abattoir were determined. Classes of carcasses from cattle, sheep and pigs delivered for slaughter at this abattoir were recorded and analysed. Significant associations ...

  8. Motivational Basis of Personality Traits: A Meta-Analysis of Value-Personality Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ronald; Boer, Diana

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the relationships between personality traits and basic value dimensions. Furthermore, we developed novel country-level hypotheses predicting that contextual threat moderates value-personality trait relationships. We conducted a three-level v-known meta-analysis of correlations between Big Five traits and Schwartz's (1992) 10 values involving 9,935 participants from 14 countries. Variations in contextual threat (measured as resource threat, ecological threat, and restrictive social institutions) were used as country-level moderator variables. We found systematic relationships between Big Five traits and human values that varied across contexts. Overall, correlations between Openness traits and the Conservation value dimension and Agreeableness traits and the Transcendence value dimension were strongest across all samples. Correlations between values and all personality traits (except Extraversion) were weaker in contexts with greater financial, ecological, and social threats. In contrast, stronger personality-value links are typically found in contexts with low financial and ecological threats and more democratic institutions and permissive social context. These effects explained on average more than 10% of the variability in value-personality correlations. Our results provide strong support for systematic linkages between personality and broad value dimensions, but they also point out that these relations are shaped by contextual factors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Uncovering the genetic landscape for multiple sleep-wake traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Winrow

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research in defining sleep-wake properties in mammals, little is known about the nature or identity of genes that regulate sleep, a fundamental behaviour that in humans occupies about one-third of the entire lifespan. While genome-wide association studies in humans and quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses in mice have identified candidate genes for an increasing number of complex traits and genetic diseases, the resources and time-consuming process necessary for obtaining detailed quantitative data have made sleep seemingly intractable to similar large-scale genomic approaches. Here we describe analysis of 20 sleep-wake traits from 269 mice from a genetically segregating population that reveals 52 significant QTL representing a minimum of 20 genomic loci. While many (28 QTL affected a particular sleep-wake trait (e.g., amount of wake across the full 24-hr day, other loci only affected a trait in the light or dark period while some loci had opposite effects on the trait during the light vs. dark. Analysis of a dataset for multiple sleep-wake traits led to previously undetected interactions (including the differential genetic control of number and duration of REM bouts, as well as possible shared genetic regulatory mechanisms for seemingly different unrelated sleep-wake traits (e.g., number of arousals and REM latency. Construction of a Bayesian network for sleep-wake traits and loci led to the identification of sub-networks of linkage not detectable in smaller data sets or limited single-trait analyses. For example, the network analyses revealed a novel chain of causal relationships between the chromosome 17@29cM QTL, total amount of wake, and duration of wake bouts in both light and dark periods that implies a mechanism whereby overall sleep need, mediated by this locus, in turn determines the length of each wake bout. Taken together, the present results reveal a complex genetic landscape underlying multiple sleep-wake traits

  10. A Trait-Based Approach to Advance Coral Reef Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madin, Joshua S; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Connolly, Sean R; Darling, Emily S; Falster, Daniel S; Huang, Danwei; Keith, Sally A; Mizerek, Toni; Pandolfi, John M; Putnam, Hollie M; Baird, Andrew H

    2016-06-01

    Coral reefs are biologically diverse and ecologically complex ecosystems constructed by stony corals. Despite decades of research, basic coral population biology and community ecology questions remain. Quantifying trait variation among species can help resolve these questions, but progress has been hampered by a paucity of trait data for the many, often rare, species and by a reliance on nonquantitative approaches. Therefore, we propose filling data gaps by prioritizing traits that are easy to measure, estimating key traits for species with missing data, and identifying 'supertraits' that capture a large amount of variation for a range of biological and ecological processes. Such an approach can accelerate our understanding of coral ecology and our ability to protect critically threatened global ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantitative trait loci for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viitala Sirja M

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A whole genome scan was carried out to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle. The mapping population consisted of 12 bulls and 493 sons. Estimated breeding values for days open, fertility treatments, maternal calf mortality and paternal non-return rate were used as phenotypic data. In a granddaughter design, 171 markers were typed on all 29 bovine autosomes. Associations between markers and traits were analysed by multiple marker regression. Multi-trait analyses were carried out with a variance component based approach for the chromosomes and trait combinations, which were observed significant in the regression method. Twenty-two chromosome-wise significant QTL were detected. Several of the detected QTL areas were overlapping with milk production QTL previously identified in the same population. Multi-trait QTL analyses were carried out to test if these effects were due to a pleiotropic QTL affecting fertility and milk yield traits or to linked QTL causing the effects. This distinction could only be made with confidence on BTA1 where a QTL affecting milk yield is linked to a pleiotropic QTL affecting days open and fertility treatments.

  12. A Source Area Approach Demonstrates Moderate Predictive Ability but Pronounced Variability of Invasive Species Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Klonner

    Full Text Available The search for traits that make alien species invasive has mostly concentrated on comparing successful invaders and different comparison groups with respect to average trait values. By contrast, little attention has been paid to trait variability among invaders. Here, we combine an analysis of trait differences between invasive and non-invasive species with a comparison of multidimensional trait variability within these two species groups. We collected data on biological and distributional traits for 1402 species of the native, non-woody vascular plant flora of Austria. We then compared the subsets of species recorded and not recorded as invasive aliens anywhere in the world, respectively, first, with respect to the sampled traits using univariate and multiple regression models; and, second, with respect to their multidimensional trait diversity by calculating functional richness and dispersion metrics. Attributes related to competitiveness (strategy type, nitrogen indicator value, habitat use (agricultural and ruderal habitats, occurrence under the montane belt, and propagule pressure (frequency were most closely associated with invasiveness. However, even the best multiple model, including interactions, only explained a moderate fraction of the differences in invasive success. In addition, multidimensional variability in trait space was even larger among invasive than among non-invasive species. This pronounced variability suggests that invasive success has a considerable idiosyncratic component and is probably highly context specific. We conclude that basing risk assessment protocols on species trait profiles will probably face hardly reducible uncertainties.

  13. The Impact of Personality Traits on Conflict Management Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Tuna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the personality traits influence the occurrence of conflicts and that the managers have important responsibilities to deal with these conflicts. The subject of this work is to find the relationship between the personal traits of the managers and the conflict management methods that they use. Within this context, a survey was conducted on A group travel agencies and three, four and five star hotels operating in the seven regions of Turkey. Reliability and validity of the scale used to measure the opinions of the 1098 managers has been analyzed and correlation and regression analysis have been conducted. The findings suggest that the managers with dominant, revengeful and cold personal traits employ the management method of domination, that the introvert managers and the managers that can be exploited use the avoidance method and that the altruistic and the extrovert managers employ the accomodation method of conflict management.

  14. Application of integrative genomics and systems biology to conventional and in vitro reproductive traits in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzoni, Gianluca; Pedersen, Hanne S.; de Oliveira Junior, Gerson A.

    2017-01-01

    by both conventional and ARTs such as OPU-IVP. The integration of systems biology information across different biological layers generates a complete view of the different molecular networks that control complex traits and can provide a strong contribution to the understanding of traits related to ARTs....

  15. Protein quantitative trait locus study in obesity during weight-loss identifies a leptin regulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carayol, Jérôme; Chabert, Christian; Di Cara, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    of an organism. Proteome analysis especially can provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of complex traits like obesity. The role of genetic variation in determining protein level variation has not been assessed in obesity. To address this, we design a large-scale protein quantitative trait locus (p...

  16. Genetic, Genomic, and Breeding Approaches to Further Explore Kernel Composition Traits and Grain Yield in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Helena Sofia Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Maize ("Zea mays L.") is a model species well suited for the dissection of complex traits which are often of commercial value. The purpose of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the genetic control of maize kernel composition traits starch, protein, and oil concentration, and also kernel weight and grain yield. Germplasm with…

  17. Quantitative Trait Loci for Fertility Traits in Finnish Ayrshire Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulman, Nina F; Sahana, Goutam; Lund, Mogens S

    2008-01-01

    A whole genome scan was carried out to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle. The mapping population consisted of 12 bulls and 493 sons. Estimated breeding values for days open, fertility treatments, maternal calf mortality and paternal non-return rate...... combinations, which were observed significant in the regression method. Twenty-two chromosome-wise significant QTL were detected. Several of the detected QTL areas were overlapping with milk production QTL previously identified in the same population. Multi-trait QTL analyses were carried out to test...... if these effects were due to a pleiotropic QTL affecting fertility and milk yield traits or to linked QTL causing the effects. This distinction could only be made with confidence on BTA1 where a QTL affecting milk yield is linked to a pleiotropic QTL affecting days open and fertility treatments...

  18. Quantitative trait loci mapping for stomatal traits in interspecific ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Sumathi

    2018-02-23

    Feb 23, 2018 ... Journal of Genetics, Vol. ... QTL analysis was carried out to identify the chromosomal regions affecting ... Keywords. linkage map; quantitative trait loci; stomata; stress ..... of India for providing financial support for the project.

  19. Coping skills: role of trait sport confidence and trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Scott; Hodge, Ken

    2004-04-01

    The current research assesses relationships among coping skills, trait sport confidence, and trait anxiety. Two samples (n=47 and n=77) of international competitors from surf life saving (M=23.7 yr.) and touch rugby (M=26.2 yr.) completed the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory, Trait Sport Confidence Inventory, and Sport Anxiety Scale. Analysis yielded significant correlations amongst trait anxiety, sport confidence, and coping. Specifically confidence scores were positively associated with coping with adversity scores and anxiety scores were negatively associated. These findings support the inclusion of the personality characteristics of confidence and anxiety within the coping model presented by Hardy, Jones, and Gould, Researchers should be aware that confidence and anxiety may influence the coping processes of athletes.

  20. Sibling bullying perpetration: associations with gender, grade, peer perpetration, trait anger, and moral disengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanrikulu, Ibrahim; Campbell, Marilyn A

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated bullying among siblings in both traditional and cyber forms, and the associations of gender, grade, peer bullying perpetration, trait anger, and moral disengagement. The participants were 455 children in Grades 5 to 12 (262 girls and 177 boys with 16 unknown gender) who had a sibling. As the number of siblings who only bullied by technology was low, these associations were not able to be calculated. However, the findings showed that the percentage of sibling traditional bullying perpetration (31.6%) was higher than peer bullying perpetration (9.8%). Sibling bullies reported engaging in complex behaviors of perpetration and victimization in both the physical and in cyber settings, although the number was small. Gender, trait anger, moral disengagement, and bullying peers at school (but not grade) were all significantly associated with sibling traditional bullying perpetration. The implications of the findings are discussed for bullying intervention and prevention programs to understand childhood bullying in diverse contexts. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. A Meta-analysis of Plant Photosynthetic Traits and Water-use efficiency Responses to Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Drought is predicted to become more intense and frequent in many regions of the world in the context of climate change, especially in the semi-arid regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Understanding the plant photosynthetic traits (Pn, Gs and Tr) and water use efficiency (WUE) response to drought is very important with regard to plant growth and productivity, which could reflect the terrestrial primary productivity worldwide. We used a meta-analysis based on studies of a worldwide range and full plant species Pn, Gs, Tr and WUE under drought condition and aimed to determine the responses of Pn, Gs, Tr and WUE of different drought intensities (mild, moderate and severe), different photosynthetic pathways (C3 and C4) and growth forms (herbs, shrubs, trees and lianas). Furthermore, reveal the differences from different plant groups (e.g. C3 and C4 plants; annual (A-herbs) and perennial (P-herbs) herbs; conifer, deciduous and evergreen trees) under the same drought intensities. Additionally, we analyzed the relationship between stomatal conductance (Gs) with Pn, Tr and WUE. Our results were as follows: 1) drought decreased the photosynthetic traits with the drought stress increasing, but increased the water use efficiency, and increased to the greatest extent in lianas, compared with herbs, shrubs and trees. 2) Furthermore, C4 plants had an advantage in photosynthesis compared to C3 plants under the same drought conditions. However, the WUE in C4 plants was not promoted as in C3 plants. The photosynthesis traits showed a more substantial decrease in P-herbs than in A-herbs. The drought promoted the WUE in P-herbs, but inhibited it in A-herbs. Compared with conifer and deciduous trees, the photosynthesis traits declined the most in evergreen tree. The WUE in deciduous trees showed a more obvious increase among the three leaf habits. 3) Finally, the Gs showed a close relationship with photosynthesis rate (Pn) and transpiration rate (Tr), which could explain 50% of the

  2. Studio CONTEXT at Studio Mumbai

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilberth, Thomas Roger

    2017-01-01

    Studio CONTEXT @ STUDIO MUMBAI Studio CONTEXT deals with a sustainable architecture based on complexity on all scales of a specific context, that involves geographical, historical, anthropological and social reflections, a cross cultural involvement and mutual learning as well as investigations...... into the most basic elements to define the core qualities of architecture: space, light and material. During three semesters Studio CONTEXT engaged in collaboration with the renowned Indian architectural office STUDIO MUMBAI, at the time located under the palm trees of Nagaon near Ali Bagh in Maharashtra...... MUMBAI, which whom we worked side by side on their premises, we developed proposals for a new square and different typologies of social housing. The projects were then presented for the local council and the community and left with them with the possibility of implementation. After a thorough phase...

  3. Online Social Network Users’ Attitudes toward Personality Traits Predict Behaviour of their Friends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei A. Shchebetenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research considers attitudes toward personality traits in online social network (OSN Vkontakte users’ behaviour. Users’ friends’ activity on a given user’s profile was supposed to be affected by attitudes toward traits of the latter. Within a broader context, the role of metacognitive type of characteristic adaptations as a key element of the five-factor theory of personality is studied. Accordingly, along with attitudes toward traits, other metacognitive characteristic adaptations are examined (e.g. dispositional efficiency, reflected trait, and reflected attitude toward a trait. 1030 undergraduates participated in the study. The research results confirm that extraversion is the most important predictor of OSN behavior among other personality traits. The information presented in this research is obtained using behavioural data instead of more convenient self-reports. Moreover, these behavioural data characterise other users’ (friends’ behaviour while addressing a certain user’s profile. Positive attitudes toward each Big Five traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience separately affected the number of “Likes” of the avatars representing users’ photographs. Furthermore, revealed correlations between traits and “Likes” were subsequently eliminated by the attitudes toward respective traits. Positive attitudes toward conscientiousness predicted the increase of friends’ number unlike trait conscientiousness. Positive attitude toward agreeableness predicted the increase of the number of posts written by friends on user’s wall unlike trait agreeableness. Attitudes toward traits are argued to affect social environment governed by an individual: one may select those social relationships and partners that fit better one’s attitudes toward traits. This, in turn, may affect actions of other people towards the given individual including those of online behaviour.

  4. Thickened cranial vault and parasagittal keeling: correlated traits and autapomorphies of Homo erectus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzeau, Antoine

    2013-06-01

    Homo erectus sensu lato (s.l.) is a key species in the hominin fossil record for the study of human evolution, being one of the first species discovered and perhaps the most documented, but also because of its long temporal range and having dispersed out of Africa earlier than any other human species. Here I test two proposed autapomorphic traits of H. erectus, namely the increased thickness of the upper cranial vault and parasagittal keeling. The definition of these two anatomical features and their expression and variation among hominids are discussed. The results of this study indicate that the upper vault in Asian H. erectus is not absolutely thicker compared with fossil anatomically modern Homo sapiens, whereas Broken Hill and Petralona have values above the range of variation of H. erectus. Moreover, this anatomical region in Asian H. erectus is not significantly thicker compared with Pan paniscus. In addition, these results demonstrate that cranial vault thickness should not be used to make hypotheses regarding sexual attribution of fossil hominin specimens. I also show that the relation between relief on the external surface of the upper vault, parasagittal keeling and bregmatic eminence, and bone thickness is complex. In this context, the autapomorphic status of the two analysed traits in H. erectus may be rejected. Nevertheless, different patterns in the distribution of bone thickness on the upper vault were identified. Some individual variations are visible, but specificities are observable in samples of different species. The pattern of bone thickness distribution observed in Asian H. erectus, P. paniscus, possibly australopiths, and early Homo or Homo ergaster/erectus appears to be shared by these different species and would be a plesiomorphic trait among hominids. In contrast, two apomorphic states for this feature were identified for Neandertals and H. sapiens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Tricky Trait: Applying the Fruits of the “Function Debate” in the Philosophy of Biology to the “Venom Debate” in the Science of Toxinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Timothy N. W.; Fry, Bryan G.

    2016-01-01

    The “function debate” in the philosophy of biology and the “venom debate” in the science of toxinology are conceptually related. Venom systems are complex multifunctional traits that have evolved independently numerous times throughout the animal kingdom. No single concept of function, amongst those popularly defended, appears adequate to describe these systems in all their evolutionary contexts and extant variations. As such, a pluralistic view of function, previously defended by some philosophers of biology, is most appropriate. Venom systems, like many other functional traits, exist in nature as points on a continuum and the boundaries between “venomous” and “non-venomous” species may not always be clearly defined. This paper includes a brief overview of the concept of function, followed by in-depth discussion of its application to venom systems. A sound understanding of function may aid in moving the venom debate forward. Similarly, consideration of a complex functional trait such as venom may be of interest to philosophers of biology. PMID:27618098

  6. A Tricky Trait: Applying the Fruits of the “Function Debate” in the Philosophy of Biology to the “Venom Debate” in the Science of Toxinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy N. W. Jackson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The “function debate” in the philosophy of biology and the “venom debate” in the science of toxinology are conceptually related. Venom systems are complex multifunctional traits that have evolved independently numerous times throughout the animal kingdom. No single concept of function, amongst those popularly defended, appears adequate to describe these systems in all their evolutionary contexts and extant variations. As such, a pluralistic view of function, previously defended by some philosophers of biology, is most appropriate. Venom systems, like many other functional traits, exist in nature as points on a continuum and the boundaries between “venomous” and “non-venomous” species may not always be clearly defined. This paper includes a brief overview of the concept of function, followed by in-depth discussion of its application to venom systems. A sound understanding of function may aid in moving the venom debate forward. Similarly, consideration of a complex functional trait such as venom may be of interest to philosophers of biology.

  7. Relationships between nutrient-related plant traits and combinations of soil N and P fertility measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yuki; van Bodegom, Peter M; Witte, Jan-Philip M

    2013-01-01

    Soil fertility and nutrient-related plant functional traits are in general only moderately related, hindering the progress in trait-based prediction models of vegetation patterns. Although the relationships may have been obscured by suboptimal choices in how soil fertility is expressed, there has never been a systematic investigation into the suitability of fertility measures. This study, therefore, examined the effect of different soil fertility measures on the strength of fertility-trait relationships in 134 natural plant communities. In particular, for eight plot-mean traits we examined (1) whether different elements (N or P) have contrasting or shared influences, (2) which timescale of fertility measures (e.g. mineralization rates for one or five years) has better predictive power, and (3) if integrated fertility measures explain trait variation better than individual fertility measures. Soil N and P had large mutual effects on leaf nutrient concentrations, whereas they had element-specific effects on traits related to species composition (e.g. Grime's CSR strategy). The timescale of fertility measures only had a minor impact on fertility-trait relationships. Two integrated fertility measures (one reflecting overall fertility, another relative availability of soil N and P) were related significantly to most plant traits, but were not better in explaining trait variation than individual fertility measures. Using all fertility measures together, between-site variations of plant traits were explained only moderately for some traits (e.g. 33% for leaf N concentrations) but largely for others (e.g. 66% for whole-canopy P concentration). The moderate relationships were probably due to complex regulation mechanisms of fertility on traits, rather than to a wrong choice of fertility measures. We identified both mutual (i.e. shared) and divergent (i.e. element-specific and stoichiometric) effects of soil N and P on traits, implying the importance of explicitly

  8. Context Aware Middleware Architectures: Survey and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context aware applications, which can adapt their behaviors to changing environments, are attracting more and more attention. To simplify the complexity of developing applications, context aware middleware, which introduces context awareness into the traditional middleware, is highlighted to provide a homogeneous interface involving generic context management solutions. This paper provides a survey of state-of-the-art context aware middleware architectures proposed during the period from 2009 through 2015. First, a preliminary background, such as the principles of context, context awareness, context modelling, and context reasoning, is provided for a comprehensive understanding of context aware middleware. On this basis, an overview of eleven carefully selected middleware architectures is presented and their main features explained. Then, thorough comparisons and analysis of the presented middleware architectures are performed based on technical parameters including architectural style, context abstraction, context reasoning, scalability, fault tolerance, interoperability, service discovery, storage, security & privacy, context awareness level, and cloud-based big data analytics. The analysis shows that there is actually no context aware middleware architecture that complies with all requirements. Finally, challenges are pointed out as open issues for future work.

  9. Personality Traits in Huntington's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ida Unmack; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Vinther-Jensen, Tua

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with risk for developing psychiatric symptoms. Vulnerability or resilience to psychiatric symptoms may be associated with personality traits. This exploratory study, aimed to investigate personality traits in a large cohort of HD carriers and at risk gene......-expansion negative individuals (HD non-carriers), exploring whether carrying the HD gene or growing up in an HD family influences personality traits. Forty-seven HD carriers, Thirty-nine HD non-carriers, and 121 healthy controls answered the Danish version of the revised NEO personality inventory. Comparisons...... symptoms. Our findings suggest that, there is no direct effect of the HD gene on personality traits, but that personality assessment may be relevant to use when identifying individuals from HD families who are vulnerable to develop psychiatric symptoms....

  10. Authoritarian Personality Traits Among Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, J.

    1973-01-01

    The results are reported of an investigation into the social attitudes of the total population (800) of one English university using Adorno's F scale to measure authoritarian personality traits. (Author)

  11. Seed dimorphism nutrients and salinity differentially affect seed traits of the desert halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica via multiple maternal effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.; Baskin, J.M.; Baskin, C.C.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Dong, M.; Huang, Z.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maternal effects may influence a range of seed traits simultaneously and are likely to be context-dependent. Disentangling the interactions of plant phenotype and growth environment on various seed traits is important for understanding regeneration and establishment of species in natural

  12. Dark triad traits and health outcomes: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Hudek-Knežević

    2016-04-01

    in the context of possible mechanisms through which DarkTriad traits may exert negative, but also positive effects on various health outcomes.

  13. Species-area relationships are controlled by species traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzén, Markus; Schweiger, Oliver; Betzholtz, Per-Eric

    2012-01-01

    The species-area relationship (SAR) is one of the most thoroughly investigated empirical relationships in ecology. Two theories have been proposed to explain SARs: classical island biogeography theory and niche theory. Classical island biogeography theory considers the processes of persistence, extinction, and colonization, whereas niche theory focuses on species requirements, such as habitat and resource use. Recent studies have called for the unification of these two theories to better explain the underlying mechanisms that generates SARs. In this context, species traits that can be related to each theory seem promising. Here we analyzed the SARs of butterfly and moth assemblages on islands differing in size and isolation. We tested whether species traits modify the SAR and the response to isolation. In addition to the expected overall effects on the area, traits related to each of the two theories increased the model fit, from 69% up to 90%. Steeper slopes have been shown to have a particularly higher sensitivity to area, which was indicated by species with restricted range (slope = 0.82), narrow dietary niche (slope= 0.59), low abundance (slope= 0.52), and low reproductive potential (slope = 0.51). We concluded that considering species traits by analyzing SARs yields considerable potential for unifying island biogeography theory and niche theory, and that the systematic and predictable effects observed when considering traits can help to guide conservation and management actions.

  14. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 controls type I IFN induction in chicken macrophage HD-11 cells: a polygenic trait that involves NS1 and the polymerase complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Influenza A viruses are well characterized to antagonize type I IFN induction in infected mammalian cells. However, limited information is available for avian cells. It was hypothesised that avian influenza viruses (AIV) with distinct virulence may interact differently with the avian innate immune system. Therefore, the type I IFN responses induced by highly virulent and low virulent H5N1 AIV and reassortants thereof were analysed in chicken cells. Results The highly pathogenic (HP) AIV A/chicken/Yamaguchi/7/04 (H5N1) (Yama) did not induce type I IFN in infected chicken HD-11 macrophage-like cells. This contrasted with an NS1 mutant Yama virus (Yama-NS1A144V) and with the attenuated H5N1 AIV A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-1/04 (Vac) carrying the haemagglutinin (HA) of the Yama virus (Vac-Yama/HA), that both induced type I IFN in these cells. The substitution of the NS segment from Yama with that from Vac in the Yama backbone resulted in induction of type I IFN secretion in HD-11 cells. However, vice versa, the Yama NS segment did not prevent type I IFN induction by the Vac-Yama/HA virus. This was different with the PB1/PB2/PA segment reassortant Yama and Vac-Yama/HA viruses. Whereas the Yama virus with the Vac PB1/PB2/PA segments induced type I IFN in HD-11 cells, the Vac-Yama/HA virus with the Yama PB1/PB2/PA segments did not. As reported for mammalian cells, the expression of H5N1 PB2 inhibited the activation of the IFN-β promoter in chicken DF-1 fibroblast cells. Importantly, the Yama PB2 was more potent at inhibiting the IFN-β promoter than the Vac PB2. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that the NS1 protein and the polymerase complex of the HPAIV Yama act in concert to antagonize chicken type I IFN secretion in HD-11 cells. PB2 alone can also exert a partial inhibitory effect on type I IFN induction. In conclusion, the control of type I IFN induction by H5N1 HPAIV represents a complex phenotype that involves a particular viral gene constellation

  15. Economic weights for maternal traits of sows, including sow longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, P R; Ludemann, C I; Hermesch, S

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a transparent, comprehensive, and flexible model for each trait for the formulation of breeding objectives for sow traits in swine breeding programs. Economic values were derived from submodels considering a typical Australian pig production system. Differences in timing and expressions of traits were accounted for to derive economic weights that were compared on the basis of their relative size after multiplication by their corresponding genetic standard deviation to account for differences in scale and genetic variability present for each trait. The number of piglets born alive had the greatest contribution (27.1%) to a subindex containing only maternal traits, followed by daily gain (maternal; 22.0%) and sow mature weight (15.0%). Other traits considered in the maternal breeding objective were preweaning survival (11.8%), sow longevity (12.5%), gilt age at puberty (8.7%), and piglet survival at birth (3.1%). The economic weights for number of piglets born alive and preweaning piglet survival were found to be highly dependent on the definition of scale of enterprise, with each economic value increasing by approximately 100% when it was assumed that the value of extra output per sow could be captured, rather than assuming a consequent reduction in the number of sows to maintain a constant level of output from a farm enterprise. In the context of a full maternal line index that must account also for the expression of direct genetic traits by the growing piglet progeny of sows, the maternal traits contributed approximately half of the variation in the overall breeding objective. Deployment of more comprehensive maternal line indexes incorporating the new maternal traits described would lead to more balanced selection outcomes and improved survival of pigs. Future work could facilitate evaluation of the economic impacts of desired-gains indexes, which could further improve animal welfare through improved sow and piglet

  16. Three Nightmare Traits in Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinout E. de Vries

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This review offers an integration of dark leadership styles with dark personality traits. The core of dark leadership consists of Three Nightmare Traits (TNT—leader dishonesty, leader disagreeableness, and leader carelessness—that are conceptualized as contextualized personality traits aligned with respectively (low honesty-humility, (low agreeableness, and (low conscientiousness. It is argued that the TNT, when combined with high extraversion and low emotionality, can have serious (“explosive” negative consequences for employees and their organizations. A Situation-Trait-Outcome Activation (STOA model is presented in which a description is offered of situations that are attractive to TNT leaders (situation activation, situations that activate TNT traits (trait activation, and the kinds of outcomes that may result from TNT behaviors (outcome activation. Subsequently, the TNT and STOA models are combined to offer a description of the organizational actions that may strengthen or weaken the TNT during six career stages: attraction, selection, socialization, production, promotion, and attrition. Except for mainly negative consequences of the TNT, possible positive consequences of TNT leadership are also explored, and an outline of a research program is offered that may provide answers to the most pressing questions in dark leadership research.

  17. Complexity and technological evolution: What everybody knows?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaesen, K.; Houkes, W.N.

    2018-01-01

    The consensus among cultural evolutionists seems to be that human cultural evolution is cumulative, which is commonly understood in the specific sense that cultural traits, especially technological traits, increase in complexity over generations. Here we argue that there is insufficient credible

  18. Trait emotional intelligence in initial teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Molero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the emotional intelligence (EI in teachers during their initial training following the trait EI model, namely the wellness model Bar-On (2002; 2006. 460 students participated (age in years M=22.57, SD=±3.39 of the University of Jaen (Spain who responded to the scale EQ-i Short Form Spanish version (López-Zafra, Pulido-Martos, & Berrios-Martos, 2014, that includes 4 factors (Interpersonal, Adaptability, Stress management and Intrapersonal. There are significant differences (p<.05 on various factors based on gender, age, degree of participants and the educational level of the same. The variables considered in the regression analysis that most predict global IE are Stress Management, Adaptability followed, Intrapersonal and Interpersonal. The results are consistent with those obtained in other studies in similar contexts.

  19. Defensive traits exhibit an evolutionary trade-off and drive diversification in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Benjamin D; Moreau, Corrie S

    2017-02-01

    Evolutionary biologists have long predicted that evolutionary trade-offs among traits should constrain morphological divergence and species diversification. However, this prediction has yet to be tested in a broad evolutionary context in many diverse clades, including ants. Here, we reconstruct an expanded ant phylogeny representing 82% of ant genera, compile a new family-wide trait database, and conduct various trait-based analyses to show that defensive traits in ants do exhibit an evolutionary trade-off. In particular, the use of a functional sting negatively correlates with a suite of other defensive traits including spines, large eye size, and large colony size. Furthermore, we find that several of the defensive traits that trade off with a sting are also positively correlated with each other and drive increased diversification, further suggesting that these traits form a defensive suite. Our results support the hypothesis that trade-offs in defensive traits significantly constrain trait evolution and influence species diversification in ants. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Intergenerational Similarity in Callous-Unemotional Traits: Contributions of Hostile Parenting and Household Chaos during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Rachel E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; King-Casas, Brooks; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2016-01-01

    Extant research has examined both genetic and environmental risk involved in the transmission of callous-unemotional traits in youth populations, yet no study has examined the intergenerational similarity of these traits between parents and their offspring. The current study examined whether the association between parent callous-unemotional traits and child callous-unemotional traits was mediated by parenting behavior and whether this association was moderated by household environment. Participants included 115 dyads of adolescents (48% female; Mean age = 13.97) and their primary caregivers (87% female; Mean age = 42.54). Measures of callous-unemotional traits, hostile parenting, and household chaos were collected from both adolescents and parents. A two group structural equation modeling revealed that hostile parenting serves as a mediating process in the association between parent and adolescent callous-unemotional traits, but only in the context of high household chaos. Our findings suggest that hostile parenting practices are a mediating process that may explain intergenerational similarity in callous-unemotional traits. Additionally, household chaos may exacerbate the effects of hostile parenting on callous-unemotional traits within adolescents, resulting in heightened vulnerability to intergenerational transmission of callous-unemotional traits. PMID:28029442

  1. Context: The strategic management Rosetta Stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Weeks

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse context as a means for interpreting and making sense of evolving strategic management theory and practice. Problem investigated: Traditional strategic management theory based on rational deductive methodologies assumes contextual predictability, yet contemporary conditions tend to contradict this assumption. In response, alternative theories and practices for dealing with complex contexts have emerged (Brews & Purohit, 2006; Grant, 2003; Kurt & Snowden, 2003and Stacey, 1995. Methodology: A literature study was undertaken to determine the nature of emergent strategic management theory and practice, in response to contextual complexity and how it differs from traditional practice (Mintzberg, 1994 and Weeks &Lessing, 1993. Findings: An important conclusion drawn from the study is that context acts as a determinant for making sense of the evolution of strategic management theory and practice. While traditional strategic management practice still assumes relevance in contexts of linear causality, it breaks down in complex contexts. Emergent strategic management theory, based on complex adaptive systems, is increasingly assuming relevance. Notably, many institutions are still attempting to make use of scenario planning in an attempt to deal with contextual complexity, a practice not supported by leading researchers(Stacey, 1995 and Kurt & Snowden, 2003. Value of the research: The insights gained from the study assume relevance, in view of the contextual complexity confronting modern-day institutions. The findings suggest that emergent strategy based on complex adaptive system theory needs to be considered as a means for dealing with increasing environmental turbulence. Conclusion: It is concluded that context serves as the Rosetta stone for making sense of strategic management theory and practice. In view of the research findings, as reflected in the literature, it would seem that the use of complex

  2. Cultural Context and Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2009-01-01

    cultural context plays an important role in translation. Because translation is a cross-culture activity, the culture context that influ-ences translating is consisted of both the culture contexts of source language and target language. This article firstly analyzes the concept of context and cultural context, then according to the procedure of translating classifies cultural context into two stages and talks about how they respectively influence translating.

  3. Strategies for defining traits when calculating economic values for livestock breeding: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfová, M; Wolf, J

    2013-09-01

    The objective of the present review was (i) to survey different approaches for choosing the complex of traits for which economic values (EVs) are calculated, (ii) to call attention to the proper definition of traits and (iii) to discuss the manner and extent to which relationships among traits have been considered in the calculation of EVs. For this purpose, papers dealing with the estimation of EVs of traits in livestock were reviewed. The most important reasons for incompatibility of EVs for similar traits estimated in different countries and by different authors were found to be inconsistencies in trait definitions and in assumptions being made about relationships among traits. An important problem identified was how to choose the most appropriate criterion to characterise production or functional ability for a particular class of animals. Accordingly, the review covered the following three topics: (i) which trait(s) would best characterise the growth ability of an animal; (ii) how to define traits expressed repeatedly in subsequent reproductive cycles of breeding females and (iii) how to deal with traits that differ in average value between sexes or among animal groups. Various approaches that have been used to solve these problems were discussed. Furthermore, the manner in which diverse authors chose one or more traits from a group of alternatives for describing a specific biological potential were reviewed and commented on. The consequences of including or excluding relationships among economically important traits when estimating the EV for a specific trait were also examined. An important conclusion of the review is that, for a better comparability and interpretability of estimated EVs in the literature, it is desirable that clear and unique definitions of the traits, complete information on assumptions used in analytical models and details on inter-relationships between traits are documented. Furthermore, the method and the model used for the genetic

  4. Modeling trust context in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Adali, Sibel

    2013-01-01

    We make complex decisions every day, requiring trust in many different entities for different reasons. These decisions are not made by combining many isolated trust evaluations. Many interlocking factors play a role, each dynamically impacting the others.? In this brief, 'trust context' is defined as the system level description of how the trust evaluation process unfolds.Networks today are part of almost all human activity, supporting and shaping it. Applications increasingly incorporate new interdependencies and new trust contexts. Social networks connect people and organizations throughout

  5. Phenotypic and genetic relations between the HEXACO dimensions and trait emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselka, Livia; Petrides, K V; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Cherkas, Lynn F; Spector, Tim D; Vernon, Philip A

    2010-02-01

    The present study investigated the location of trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) within the context of the HEXACO model - a more comprehensive personality framework than the conventional Big Five structure. A total of 666 MZ and 526 DZ adult twin pairs from the United Kingdom completed the short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue-SF) and the short form of the HEXACO Personality Inventory (HEXACO-60). Many significant phenotypic correlations between the TEIQue-SF and the HEXACO-60 were obtained, which were strongest for HEXACO Extraversion, and weakest for HEXACO Honesty-Humility. As was expected, Emotionality was the only HEXACO dimension to correlate negatively with TEIQue-SF scores. Bivariate behavioral genetic analyses revealed that all phenotypic correlations were attributable to common genetic and common nonshared environmental factors. The study confirms the validity of trait EI as a constellation of emotional self-perceptions located at the lower levels of personality.

  6. Heritability studies for seed quality traits in introgressed segregating populations of brassica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhatullah, S.; Nasim, A.; Fayyaz, L.

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of genetic parameters in the context of trait characterization is an essential component of future targeted crop improvement programs. Collection of knowledge about genetic behavior such as genetic variability and heritability etc., of the germplasm is the basic step for initiation of any breeding program. Genetic variability and Broad sense heritability for various seed quality traits in 10 brassica genotypes and their 12 F2 progenies comprising of introgressed hybrids were studied. The genotypes had highly significant variation for oil content, protein, glucosinolates contents, oleic, linolenic and erucic acid contents. Glucosinolates content and erucic acid showed high heritability in all F2 populations, while rest of the traits showed variable trends. The cross combination 547 x 118 (B. napus x B. campestris) proved to be a good interspecific hybrid that had high proportion of introgression and has high heritability for beneficial traits. The individual plants having combination of desirable traits were also identified from the F2 populations. (author)

  7. Hybrid context aware recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rajshree; Tyagi, Jaya; Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Alam, Taj

    2017-10-01

    Recommender systems and context awareness is currently a vital field of research. Most hybrid recommendation systems implement content based and collaborative filtering techniques whereas this work combines context and collaborative filtering. The paper presents a hybrid context aware recommender system for books and movies that gives recommendations based on the user context as well as user or item similarity. It also addresses the issue of dimensionality reduction using weighted pre filtering based on dynamically entered user context and preference of context. This unique step helps to reduce the size of dataset for collaborative filtering. Bias subtracted collaborative filtering is used so as to consider the relative rating of a particular user and not the absolute values. Cosine similarity is used as a metric to determine the similarity between users or items. The unknown ratings are calculated and evaluated using MSE (Mean Squared Error) in test and train datasets. The overall process of recommendation has helped to personalize recommendations and give more accurate results with reduced complexity in collaborative filtering.

  8. Context analysis : sky, water and motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javanbakhti, S.; Zinger, S.; With, de P.H.N.

    2011-01-01

    Interpreting the events present in the video is a complex task, and the same gesture or motion can be understood in several ways depending on the context of the event and/or the scene. Therefore the context of the scene can contribute to the semantic understanding of the video. In this paper, we

  9. A Formal Model for Context-Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Bunde-Pedersen, Jonathan

    here is a definite lack of formal support for modeling real- istic context-awareness in pervasive computing applications. The Conawa calculus presented in this paper provides mechanisms for modeling complex and interwoven sets of context-information by extending ambient calculus with new construc...

  10. Relationships of Big Five personality traits and nonverbal intelligence at high school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronina Irina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of study on the relationship of personality traits and intelligence in Russian high school students. The study focused on Big Five personality traits - Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness - and the structure of their relationships with nonverbal intelligence, as measured by the test “Standard Progressive Matrices”. Significant correlations were only found between nonverbal intelligence and Openness (r = 0.26, p < 0.05. The results are interpreted in the context of investment theory, which assumes that personality traits can promote the formation of individual differences in intelligence.

  11. Complex bioclimatic and soil gradients shape leaf trait variation in Embothrium coccineum (Proteaceae among austral forests in Patagonia Gradientes bioclimáticos y edáficos modelan la variación en caracteres foliares de Embothrium coccineum (Proteaceae en los bosques australes de la Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CINTIA P SOUTO

    2009-06-01

    nutrient conditions are useful predictors for leaf size and structure in the widespread E. coccineum. The SLA patterns probably resulted from lower values in long lasting leaves, in addition to increasing soil nitrogen, so leaves in the south are thicker. Alternatively, it could be consequence from non-isometrical scaling of LA and DM, so larger leaves such as those under oceanic western climates have lower SLA. Patterns of multiple leaf trait variation along complex environmental gradients may become uncoupled from each other, differing from what is suggested in the literature for traits that vary along simple environmental gradients.Los patrones de variación de un rasgo pueden ser adaptativos cuando varían en relación a un gradiente ambiental. En particular, los caracteres foliares pueden afectar la productividad y la habilidad competitiva de las plantas. Identificamos patrones de variación en el tamaño y forma de la hoja con la heterogeneidad ambiental en una de las especies de más amplia distribución del bosque templado de Sudamérica: Embothrium coccineum (Proteaceae. Colectamos hojas y muestras compuestas de suelo de 35 poblaciones entre los 38° y 55° de latitud S, cubriendo un amplio rango de precipitación media anual (MAP y de temperatura media anual (MAT. En cada localidad se midieron nueve caracteres morfológicos foliares, algunos de los cuales están correlacionados entre sí, de manera que enfocaremos en algunos rasgos representativos. Predecimos que el área de la hoja (LA, el peso seco (DM, y el área foliar específica (SLA tenderán a aumentar y la forma de la hoja se alargará con el aumento de la temperatura, la precipitación y la disponibilidad de nutrientes en el suelo. También esperamos que el clima de la estación de crecimiento esté más asociado con los rasgos foliares que las métricas climáticas anuales. Utilizamos regresiones múltiples bivariadas y paso a paso reversas para analizar la dependencia de los rasgos morfológicos con

  12. Root phenotyping: from component trait in the lab to breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijken, René C P; van Eeuwijk, Fred A; Marcelis, Leo F M; Bouwmeester, Harro J

    2015-09-01

    In the last decade cheaper and faster sequencing methods have resulted in an enormous increase in genomic data. High throughput genotyping, genotyping by sequencing and genomic breeding are becoming a standard in plant breeding. As a result, the collection of phenotypic data is increasingly becoming a limiting factor in plant breeding. Genetic studies on root traits are being hampered by the complexity of these traits and the inaccessibility of the rhizosphere. With an increasing interest in phenotyping, breeders and scientists try to overcome these limitations, resulting in impressive developments in automated phenotyping platforms. Recently, many such platforms have been thoroughly described, yet their efficiency to increase genetic gain often remains undiscussed. This efficiency depends on the heritability of the phenotyped traits as well as the correlation of these traits with agronomically relevant breeding targets. This review provides an overview of the latest developments in root phenotyping and describes the environmental and genetic factors influencing root phenotype and heritability. It also intends to give direction to future phenotyping and breeding strategies for optimizing root system functioning. A quantitative framework to determine the efficiency of phenotyping platforms for genetic gain is described. By increasing heritability, managing effects caused by interactions between genotype and environment and by quantifying the genetic relation between traits phenotyped in platforms and ultimate breeding targets, phenotyping platforms can be utilized to their maximum potential. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Selection for components of complex characteristics - indirect selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haensel, H.

    1984-01-01

    A hierarchy of complexity exists in plant characteristics. The efficiency of indirect selection for a complex characteristic by a sub-trait depends on the heritability of the complex characteristic (hsub(c)), the heritability of the sub-trait (hsub(s)), and the genotypic correlation between sub-trait and complex characteristic (rsub(s.c)). In 1961 hsub(s)Xrsub(s.c)>hsub(c) was postulated, when indirect selection becomes more efficient than direct selection. Numerical examples for this relationship are given and a table for indirect selection for yield in wheat is elaborated. Efficiency ranking of sub-traits in indirect selection may change with climate, conditions of cultivation, the level of other sub-traits, the level of the complex characteristic already reached by breeding, and the breeding material. An example shows that regression analysis for different sub-traits on the same complex characteristic, and an estimation of the differences of the within - and the between - variety slopes, may help to select the more efficient sub-trait. In another example, where simultaneous selection was made for two polygenic characteristics, one directly and the other indirectly by two sub-traits, less than half the F 5 -lines had to be continued, when using the more efficient sub-trait. (author)

  14. [Perspectives on resilience : trait or aptitude ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin, H; Fossion, P; Kotsou, I; Leys, C

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss various issues related to the concept of resilience, which is conventionally defined as a dynamic process allowing for a positive adaptation in a context of significant adversity. First, we try to draw the reader's attention to the importance of the concept of resilience in terms of public health. Second, we address the difficulty of measuring resilience in a relevant and operational manner. Third, we then address the question of whether resilience can be conceived only in the context of a confrontation with trauma, or whether its application can be relevant to the everyday nontraumatic adversity. In this regard, we introduce and define another coping strategy which is the Sense of Coherence (SOC). Fourth, we discuss the nature of resilience, that is to say, whether it should be considered as a personality trait or as an aptitude. We try to show that this problem arises from the difficulty to specify the emotional processes involved in resilience. Finally, we propose future research perspectives that should allow us to better understand the concept of resilience.

  15. Intraspecific variation in stomatal traits, leaf traits and physiology reflects adaptation along aridity gradients in a South African shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jane E; Adams, Christopher A; Holsinger, Kent E

    2016-01-01

    increasing transpiration and cooling, but predominately in drier, hotter climates. This study uniquely shows context-dependent benefits of stomatal density--a trait rarely linked to local adaptation in plants. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Trait Sources of Spirituality Scale: Assessing Trait Spirituality More Inclusively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Charles J.; Davis, Don E.; McElroy, Stacey E.; Brubaker, Kacy; Choe, Elise; Karaga, Sara; Dooley, Matt; O'Bryant, Brittany L.; Van Tongeren, Daryl R.; Hook, Joshua

    2018-01-01

    We develop the Trait Sources of Spirituality Scale (TSSS), which assesses experiences of closeness to the sacred, within and outside a religious tradition. After using factor analysis to finalize the scale, we examine evidence of construct validity, including latent profile analysis that reveals 5 patterns of how spirituality is experienced.

  17. Quantitative trait loci mapping for stomatal traits in interspecific ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dr.YASODHA

    seedling raising, field planting and maintenance of the mapping population. ... tereticornis and production of interspecific hybrids displaying hybrid vigour in terms of .... A total of 114, 115 and 129 SSR, ISSR and SRAP markers were generated .... stomatal traits with yield and adaptability would help to improve productivity of ...

  18. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for inflorescence length traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-02

    May 2, 2011 ... character affected by ecological surroundings, growth ... developed from each F2 by bud self-pollination for QTL analysis. ... Quantitative traits measured for the each individual plant in F2 the population and F3 families ..... sex and parental interactions (Liu et al., 1996). ... evolution of solanaceous species.

  19. Global energy context: future scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretta, Gian Paolo

    2006-01-01

    After a brief analysis of the history of global energy consumption, this paper discusses a plausible scenario of energy needs and related carbon emissions for the rest of the century. The global outlook and the probable evolution of several factors that impact on energy policy considerations - even on the local scale - demonstrate the great complexity and planetary dimension of the problems, as well as the almost certain sterility of out-of-context domestic energy-policy measures [it

  20. Facilitating Organizational Learning in the Russian Business Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molodchik, Mariia; Jardon, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to identify particular traits of the Russian context which condition two key enablers of organizational learning--organizational culture and transformational leadership. Design/methodology/approach: Drawing on a literature review, the study determines management challenges by implementation of organizational learning in the…

  1. Use of genetic data to infer population-specific ecological and phenotypic traits from mixed aggregations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Moran

    Full Text Available Many applications in ecological genetics involve sampling individuals from a mixture of multiple biological populations and subsequently associating those individuals with the populations from which they arose. Analytical methods that assign individuals to their putative population of origin have utility in both basic and applied research, providing information about population-specific life history and habitat use, ecotoxins, pathogen and parasite loads, and many other non-genetic ecological, or phenotypic traits. Although the question is initially directed at the origin of individuals, in most cases the ultimate desire is to investigate the distribution of some trait among populations. Current practice is to assign individuals to a population of origin and study properties of the trait among individuals within population strata as if they constituted independent samples. It seemed that approach might bias population-specific trait inference. In this study we made trait inferences directly through modeling, bypassing individual assignment. We extended a Bayesian model for population mixture analysis to incorporate parameters for the phenotypic trait and compared its performance to that of individual assignment with a minimum probability threshold for assignment. The Bayesian mixture model outperformed individual assignment under some trait inference conditions. However, by discarding individuals whose origins are most uncertain, the individual assignment method provided a less complex analytical technique whose performance may be adequate for some common trait inference problems. Our results provide specific guidance for method selection under various genetic relationships among populations with different trait distributions.

  2. Use of genetic data to infer population-specific ecological and phenotypic traits from mixed aggregations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Paul; Bromaghin, Jeffrey F.; Masuda, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Many applications in ecological genetics involve sampling individuals from a mixture of multiple biological populations and subsequently associating those individuals with the populations from which they arose. Analytical methods that assign individuals to their putative population of origin have utility in both basic and applied research, providing information about population-specific life history and habitat use, ecotoxins, pathogen and parasite loads, and many other non-genetic ecological, or phenotypic traits. Although the question is initially directed at the origin of individuals, in most cases the ultimate desire is to investigate the distribution of some trait among populations. Current practice is to assign individuals to a population of origin and study properties of the trait among individuals within population strata as if they constituted independent samples. It seemed that approach might bias population-specific trait inference. In this study we made trait inferences directly through modeling, bypassing individual assignment. We extended a Bayesian model for population mixture analysis to incorporate parameters for the phenotypic trait and compared its performance to that of individual assignment with a minimum probability threshold for assignment. The Bayesian mixture model outperformed individual assignment under some trait inference conditions. However, by discarding individuals whose origins are most uncertain, the individual assignment method provided a less complex analytical technique whose performance may be adequate for some common trait inference problems. Our results provide specific guidance for method selection under various genetic relationships among populations with different trait distributions.

  3. Prediction and Cross-Situational Consistency of Daily Behavior across Cultures: Testing Trait and Cultural Psychology Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, A. Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S.; Reyes, Jose Alberto S.; Salanga, Maria Guadalupe C.; Miramontes, Lilia A.; Adams, Nerissa B.

    2008-01-01

    Trait and cultural psychology perspectives on the cross-situational consistency of behavior, and the predictive validity of traits, were tested in a daily process study in the United States (N = 68), an individualistic culture, and the Philippines (N = 80), a collectivistic culture. Participants completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992) and a measure of self-monitoring, then reported their daily behaviors and associated situational contexts for approximately 30 days. Consistent with trait perspectives, the Big Five traits predicted daily behaviors in both cultures, and relative (interindividual) consistency was observed across many, although not all, situational contexts. The frequency of various Big Five behaviors varied across relevant situational contexts in both cultures and, consistent with cultural psychology perspectives, there was a tendency for Filipinos to exhibit greater situational variability than Americans. Self-monitoring showed some ability to account for individual differences in situational variability in the American sample, but not the Filipino sample. PMID:22146866

  4. Context-aware system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christine S.; Ostertag, Michael H.; Akyürek, Alper Sinan; Šimunić Rosing, Tajana

    2017-05-01

    The Internet of Things envisions a web-connected infrastructure of billions of sensors and actuation devices. However, the current state-of-the-art presents another reality: monolithic end-to-end applications tightly coupled to a limited set of sensors and actuators. Growing such applications with new devices or behaviors, or extending the existing infrastructure with new applications, involves redesign and redeployment. We instead propose a modular approach to these applications, breaking them into an equivalent set of functional units (context engines) whose input/output transformations are driven by general-purpose machine learning, demonstrating an improvement in compute redundancy and computational complexity with minimal impact on accuracy. In conjunction with formal data specifications, or ontologies, we can replace application-specific implementations with a composition of context engines that use common statistical learning to generate output, thus improving context reuse. We implement interconnected context-aware applications using our approach, extracting user context from sensors in both healthcare and grid applications. We compare our infrastructure to single-stage monolithic implementations with single-point communications between sensor nodes and the cloud servers, demonstrating a reduction in combined system energy by 22-45%, and multiplying the battery lifetime of power-constrained devices by at least 22x, with easy deployment across different architectures and devices.

  5. Ecological interactions drive evolutionary loss of traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellers, Jacintha; Kiers, E Toby; Currie, Cameron R; McDonald, Bradon R; Visser, Bertanne

    2012-10-01

    Loss of traits can dramatically alter the fate of species. Evidence is rapidly accumulating that the prevalence of trait loss is grossly underestimated. New findings demonstrate that traits can be lost without affecting the external phenotype, provided the lost function is compensated for by species interactions. This is important because trait loss can tighten the ecological relationship between partners, affecting the maintenance of species interactions. Here, we develop a new perspective on so-called `compensated trait loss' and how this type of trait loss may affect the evolutionary dynamics between interacting organisms. We argue that: (1) the frequency of compensated trait loss is currently underestimated because it can go unnoticed as long as ecological interactions are maintained; (2) by analysing known cases of trait loss, specific factors promoting compensated trait loss can be identified and (3) genomic sequencing is a key way forwards in detecting compensated trait loss. We present a comprehensive literature survey showing that compensated trait loss is taxonomically widespread, can involve essential traits, and often occurs as replicated evolutionary events. Despite its hidden nature, compensated trait loss is important in directing evolutionary dynamics of ecological relationships and has the potential to change facultative ecological interactions into obligatory ones. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  6. Assessing the Impact of Transgenerational Epigenetic Variation on Complex Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johannes, Frank; Porcher, Emmanuelle; Teixeira, Felipe K.; Saliba-Colombani, Vera; Simon, Matthieu; Agier, Nicolas; Bulski, Agnes; Albuisson, Juliette; Heredia, Fabiana; Audigier, Pascal; Bouchez, David; Dillmann, Christine; Guerche, Philippe; Hospital, Frederic; Colot, Vincent

    Loss or gain of DNA methylation can affect gene expression and is sometimes transmitted across generations. Such epigenetic alterations are thus a possible source of heritable phenotypic variation in the absence of DNA sequence change. However, attempts to assess the prevalence of stable epigenetic

  7. Integrating the context-appropriate balanced attention model and reinforcement sensitivity theory: Towards a domain-general personality process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael D; Jackson, Chris J; Walker, Benjamin R; O'Connor, Peter J; Gardiner, Elliroma

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 40 years or more the personality literature has been dominated by trait models based on the Big Five (B5). Trait-based models describe personality at the between-person level but cannot explain the within-person mental mechanisms responsible for personality. Nor can they adequately account for variations in emotion and behavior experienced by individuals across different situations and over time. An alternative, yet understated, approach to personality architecture can be found in neurobiological theories of personality, most notably reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST). In contrast to static trait-based personality models like the B5, RST provides a more plausible basis for a personality process model, namely, one that explains how emotions and behavior arise from the dynamic interaction between contextual factors and within-person mental mechanisms. In this article, the authors review the evolution of a neurobiologically based personality process model based on RST, the response modulation model and the context-appropriate balanced attention model. They argue that by integrating this complex literature, and by incorporating evidence from personality neuroscience, one can meaningfully explain personality at both the within- and between-person levels. This approach achieves a domain-general architecture based on RST and self-regulation that can be used to align within-person mental mechanisms, neurobiological systems and between-person measurement models. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Description logics of context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klarman, S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Description Logics of Context (DLCs) - an extension of Description Logics (DLs) for context-based reasoning. Our approach descends from J. McCarthy's tradition of treating contexts as formal objects over which one can quantify...

  9. Quantitative trait loci analysis of swine meat quality traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, H D; Lund, M S; Christensen, O F

    2010-01-01

    loss, and the Minolta color measurements L*, a*, and b* representing meat lightness, redness, and yellowness, respectively. The families consist of 3,883 progenies of 12 Duroc boars that were evaluated to identify the QTL. The linkage map consists of 462 SNP markers on 18 porcine autosomes...... were estimated from a posterior distribution of the QTL position. In total, 31 QTL for the 6 meat quality traits were found to be significant at the 5% chromosome-wide level, among which 11 QTL were significant at the 5% genome-wide level and 5 of these were significant at the 0.1% genome-wide level...... will be helpful for fine mapping and identifying genes affecting meat quality traits, and tightly linked markers may be incorporated into marker-assisted selection programs...

  10. Trait-mediated trophic interactions: is foraging theory keeping up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railsback, Steven F; Harvey, Bret C

    2013-02-01

    Many ecologists believe that there is a lack of foraging theory that works in community contexts, for populations of unique individuals each making trade-offs between food and risk that are subject to feedbacks from behavior of others. Such theory is necessary to reproduce the trait-mediated trophic interactions now recognized as widespread and strong. Game theory can address feedbacks but does not provide foraging theory for unique individuals in variable environments. 'State- and prediction-based theory' (SPT) is a new approach that combines existing trade-off methods with routine updating: individuals regularly predict future food availability and risk from current conditions to optimize a fitness measure. SPT can reproduce a variety of realistic foraging behaviors and trait-mediated trophic interactions with feedbacks, even when the environment is unpredictable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Personality Traits, Learning and Academic Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increased interest in personality traits (especially the five-factor model) in relation to education and learning over the last decade. Previous studies have shown a relation between personality traits and learning, and between personality traits and academic achievement. The latter is typically described in terms of Grade Point…

  12. Ecological interactions drive evolutionary loss of traits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellers, J.; Kiers, E.T.; Currie, C.R.; McDonald, B.R.; Visser, B.

    2012-01-01

    Loss of traits can dramatically alter the fate of species. Evidence is rapidly accumulating that the prevalence of trait loss is grossly underestimated. New findings demonstrate that traits can be lost without affecting the external phenotype, provided the lost function is compensated for by species

  13. Effects of autonomy, traffic conditions and driver personality traits on attitudes and trust towards in-vehicle agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, H.; Evers, V.; Kemper, N.; Wielinga, B.; Li, Y.; Pasi, G.; Zhang, C.; Cercone, N.; Cao, L.

    2008-01-01

    In-vehicle agents can potentially avert dangerous driving situations by adapting to the driver, context and traffic conditions. However, perceptions of system autonomy, the way agents offer assistance, driving contexts and users’ personality traits can all affect acceptance and trust. This paper

  14. Functional mapping imprinted quantitative trait loci underlying developmental characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gengxin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic imprinting, a phenomenon referring to nonequivalent expression of alleles depending on their parental origins, has been widely observed in nature. It has been shown recently that the epigenetic modification of an imprinted gene can be detected through a genetic mapping approach. Such an approach is developed based on traditional quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping focusing on single trait analysis. Recent studies have shown that most imprinted genes in mammals play an important role in controlling embryonic growth and post-natal development. For a developmental character such as growth, current approach is less efficient in dissecting the dynamic genetic effect of imprinted genes during individual ontology. Results Functional mapping has been emerging as a powerful framework for mapping quantitative trait loci underlying complex traits showing developmental characteristics. To understand the genetic architecture of dynamic imprinted traits, we propose a mapping strategy by integrating the functional mapping approach with genomic imprinting. We demonstrate the approach through mapping imprinted QTL controlling growth trajectories in an inbred F2 population. The statistical behavior of the approach is shown through simulation studies, in which the parameters can be estimated with reasonable precision under different simulation scenarios. The utility of the approach is illustrated through real data analysis in an F2 family derived from LG/J and SM/J mouse stains. Three maternally imprinted QTLs are identified as regulating the growth trajectory of mouse body weight. Conclusion The functional iQTL mapping approach developed here provides a quantitative and testable framework for assessing the interplay between imprinted genes and a developmental process, and will have important implications for elucidating the genetic architecture of imprinted traits.

  15. A trait-based approach to advance coral reef science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madin, Joshua S.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Connolly, Sean R.

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are biologically diverse and ecologically complex ecosystems constructed by stony corals. Despite decades of research, basic coral population biology and community ecology questions remain. Quantifying trait variation among species can help resolve these questions, but progress has been...... a large amount of variation for a range of biological and ecological processes. Such an approach can accelerate our understanding of coral ecology and our ability to protect critically threatened global ecosystems....

  16. Association genetics of growth and adaptive traits in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) using whole-exome-discovered polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengmeng Lu; Konstantin V. Krutovsky; C. Dana Nelson; Jason B. West; Nathalie A. Reilly; Carol A. Loopstra

    2017-01-01

    In the USA, forest genetics research began over 100 years ago and loblolly pine breeding programs were established in the 1950s. However, the genetics underlying complex traits of loblolly pine remains to be discovered. To address this, adaptive and growth traits were measured and analyzed in a clonally tested loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) population. Over 2.8 million...

  17. CNV-association meta-analysis in 191,161 European adults reveals new loci associated with anthropometric traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macé, Aurélien; Tuke, Marcus A; Deelen, Patrick; Kristiansson, Kati; Mattsson, Hannele; Nõukas, Margit; Sapkota, Yadav; Schick, Ursula; Porcu, Eleonora; Rüeger, Sina; McDaid, Aaron F; Porteous, David; Winkler, Thomas W; Salvi, Erika; Shrine, Nick; Liu, Xueping; Ang, Wei Q; Zhang, Weihua; Feitosa, Mary F; Venturini, Cristina; van der Most, Peter J; Rosengren, Anders; Wood, Andrew R; Beaumont, Robin N; Jones, Samuel E; Ruth, Katherine S; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Tyrrell, Jessica; Havulinna, Aki S; Boers, Harmen; Mägi, Reedik; Kriebel, Jennifer; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Perola, Markus; Nieminen, Markku; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma S; Geller, Frank; Lahti, Jari; Palotie, Aarno; Koponen, Päivikki; Lundqvist, Annamari; Rissanen, Harri; Bottinger, Erwin P; Afaq, Saima; Wojczynski, Mary K; Lenzini, Petra; Nolte, Ilja M; Sparsø, Thomas; Schupf, Nicole; Christensen, Kaare; Perls, Thomas T; Newman, Anne B; Werge, Thomas; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Timothy D; Chambers, John C; Koskinen, Seppo; Melbye, Mads; Raitakari, Olli T; Lehtimäki, Terho; Tobin, Martin D; Wain, Louise V; Sinisalo, Juha; Peters, Annette; Meitinger, Thomas; Martin, Nicholas G; Wray, Naomi R; Montgomery, Grant W; Medland, Sarah E; Swertz, Morris A; Vartiainen, Erkki; Borodulin, Katja; Männistö, Satu; Murray, Anna; Bochud, Murielle; Jacquemont, Sébastien; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hansen, Thomas F; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Mangino, Massimo; Province, Michael A; Deloukas, Panos; Kooner, Jaspal S; Freathy, Rachel M; Pennell, Craig; Feenstra, Bjarke; Strachan, David P; Lettre, Guillaume; Hirschhorn, Joel; Cusi, Daniele; Heid, Iris M; Hayward, Caroline; Männik, Katrin; Beckmann, Jacques S; Loos, Ruth J F; Nyholt, Dale R; Metspalu, Andres; Eriksson, Johan G; Weedon, Michael N; Salomaa, Veikko; Franke, Lude; Reymond, Alexandre; Frayling, Timothy M; Kutalik, Zoltán

    2017-01-01

    There are few examples of robust associations between rare copy number variants (CNVs) and complex continuous human traits. Here we present a large-scale CNV association meta-analysis on anthropometric traits in up to 191,161 adult samples from 26 cohorts. The study reveals five CNV associations at

  18. General Inattentiveness Is a Long-Term Reliable Trait Independently Predictive of Psychological Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Niclasen, Janni; Vangkilde, Signe

    2016-01-01

    The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) measures perceived degree of inattentiveness in different contexts and is often used as a reversed indicator of mindfulness. MAAS is hypothesized to reflect a psychological trait or disposition when used outside attentional training contexts, but the l......The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) measures perceived degree of inattentiveness in different contexts and is often used as a reversed indicator of mindfulness. MAAS is hypothesized to reflect a psychological trait or disposition when used outside attentional training contexts......, but the long-term test-retest reliability of MAAS scores is virtually untested. It is unknown whether MAAS predicts psychological health after controlling for standardized socioeconomic status classifications. First, MAAS translated to Danish was validated psychometrically within a randomly invited healthy...... adult community sample (N = 490). Factor analysis confirmed that MAAS scores quantified a unifactorial construct of excellent composite reliability and consistent convergent validity. Structural equation modeling revealed that MAAS scores contributed independently to predicting psychological distress...

  19. Identifying plant traits: a key aspect for suitable species selection in ecological restoration of semiarid slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochet, Esther; García-Fayos, Patricio

    2017-04-01

    In the context of ecological restoration, one of the greatest challenges for practitioners and scientists is to select suitable species for revegetation purposes. In semiarid environments where restoration projects often fail, little attention has been paid so far to the contribution of plant traits to species success. The objective of this study was to (1) identify plant traits associated with species success on four roadside situations along an erosion-productivity gradient, and (2) to provide an ecological framework for selecting suitable species on the basis of their morphological and functional traits, applied to semiarid environments. We analyzed the association of 10 different plant traits with species success of 296 species surveyed on the four roadside situations in a semiarid region (Valencia, Spain). Plant traits included general plant traits (longevity, woodiness) and more specific root-, seed- and leaf-related traits (root type, sprouting ability, seed mucilage, seed mass, seed susceptibility to removal, specific leaf area and leaf dry matter content). All of them were selected according to the prevailing limiting ecogeomorphological processes acting along the erosion-productivity gradient. We observed strong shifts along the erosion-productivity gradient in the traits associated to species success. At the harshest end of the gradient, the most intensely eroded and driest one, species success was mainly associated to seed resistance to removal by runoff and to resistance to drought. At the opposite end of the gradient, the most productive one, species success was associated to a competitive-ruderal plant strategy (herbaceous successful species with high specific leaf area and low leaf dry matter content). Our study provides an ecologically-based approach for selecting suitable native species on the basis or their morphological and functional traits and supports a differential trait-based selection of species as regards roadslope type and aspect. In

  20. Expansion of a globally pervasive grass occurs without substantial trait differences between home and away populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifso, A; MacDougall, A S; Husband, B; Hierro, J L; Köchy, M; Pärtel, M; Peltzer, D A

    2012-12-01

    The global expansion of species beyond their ancestral ranges can derive from mechanisms that are trait-based (e.g., post-establishment evolved differences compared to home populations) or circumstantial (e.g., propagule pressure, with no trait-based differences). These mechanisms can be difficult to distinguish following establishment, but each makes unique predictions regarding trait similarity between ancestral ('home') and introduced ('away') populations. Here, we tested for trait-based population differences across four continents for the globally distributed grass Dactylis glomerata, to assess the possible role of trait evolution in its worldwide expansion. We used a common-environment glasshouse experiment to quantify trait differences among home and away populations, and the potential relevance of these differences for competitive interactions. Few significant trait differences were found among continents, suggesting minimal change during global expansion. All populations were polyploids, with similar foliar carbon:nitrogen ratios (a proxy for defense), chlorophyll content, and biomass. Emergence time and growth rate favored home populations, resulting in their competitive superiority over away populations. Small but significant trait differences among away populations suggest different introductory histories or local adaptive responses following establishment. In summary, the worldwide distribution of this species appears to have arisen from its pre-adapted traits promoting growth, and its repeated introduction with cultivation and intense propagule pressure. Global expansion can thus occur without substantial shifts in growth, reproduction, or defense. Rather than focusing strictly on the invader, invasion success may also derive from the traits found (or lacking) in the recipient community and from environmental context including human disturbance.

  1. A trait database for marine copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brun, Philipp Georg; Payne, Mark R.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    was more limited for quantitative traits related to reproduction and physiology. The database may be used to investigate relationships between traits, to produce trait biogeographies, or to inform and validate trait-based marine ecosystem models. The data can be downloaded from PANGAEA, doi:10.1594/PANGAEA......, and organised the data into a structured database. We collected 9345 records for 14 functional traits. Particular attention was given to body size, feeding mode, egg size, spawning strategy, respiration rate and myelination (presence of nerve sheathing). Most records were reported on the species level, but some...

  2. A trait database for marine copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brun, Philipp Georg; Payne, Mark; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    , while information was more limited for quantitative traits related to reproduction and physiology. The database may be used to investigate relationships between traits, to produce trait biogeographies, or to inform and validate trait-based marine ecosystem models. The data can be downloaded from PANGAEA...... and organized the data into a structured database. We collected 9306 records for 14 functional traits. Particular attention was given to body size, feeding mode, egg size, spawning strategy, respiration rate, and myelination (presence of nerve sheathing). Most records were reported at the species level...

  3. Too much of a good thing: curvilinear relationships between personality traits and job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Huy; Oh, In-Sue; Robbins, Steven B; Ilies, Remus; Holland, Ed; Westrick, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The relationships between personality traits and performance are often assumed to be linear. This assumption has been challenged conceptually and empirically, but results to date have been inconclusive. In the current study, we took a theory-driven approach in systematically addressing this issue. Results based on two different samples generally supported our expectations of the curvilinear relationships between personality traits, including Conscientiousness and Emotional Stability, and job performance dimensions, including task performance, organizational citizenship behavior, and counterproductive work behaviors. We also hypothesized and found that job complexity moderated the curvilinear personality–performance relationships such that the inflection points after which the relationships disappear were lower for low-complexity jobs than they were for high-complexity jobs. This finding suggests that high levels of the two personality traits examined are more beneficial for performance in high- than low-complexity jobs. We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for the use of personality in personnel selection.

  4. Introduction to the Special Issue: Beyond traits: integrating behaviour into plant ecology and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, James F

    2015-10-26

    The way that plants are conceptualized in the context of ecological understanding is changing. In one direction, a reductionist school is pulling plants apart into a list of measured 'traits', from which ecological function and outcomes of species interactions may be inferred. This special issue offers an alternative, and more holistic, view: that the ecological functions performed by a plant will be a consequence not only of their complement of traits but also of the ways in which their component parts are used in response to environmental and social conditions. This is the realm of behavioural ecology, a field that has greatly advanced our understanding of animal biology, ecology and evolution. Included in this special issue are 10 articles focussing not on the tried and true metaphor that plant growth is similar to animal movement, but instead on how application of principles from animal behaviour can improve our ability to understand plant biology and ecology. The goals are not to draw false parallels, nor to anthropomorphize plant biology, but instead to demonstrate how existing and robust theory based on fundamental principles can provide novel understanding for plants. Key to this approach is the recognition that behaviour and intelligence are not the same. Many organisms display complex behaviours despite a lack of cognition (as it is traditionally understood) or any hint of a nervous system. The applicability of behavioural concepts to plants is further enhanced with the realization that all organisms face the same harsh forces of natural selection in the context of finding resources, mates and coping with neighbours. As these ecological realities are often highly variable in space and time, it is not surprising that all organisms-even plants-exhibit complex behaviours to handle this variability. The articles included here address diverse topics in behavioural ecology, as applied to plants: general conceptual understanding, plant nutrient foraging, root

  5. Imagining Another Context during Encoding Offsets Context-Dependent Forgetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masicampo, E. J.; Sahakyan, Lili

    2014-01-01

    We tested whether imagining another context during encoding would offset context-dependent forgetting. All participants studied a list of words in Context A. Participants who remained in Context A during the test recalled more than participants who were tested in another context (Context B), demonstrating the standard context-dependent forgetting…

  6. Cultural ecologies of adaptive vs. maladaptive traits: A simple nonlinear model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoci, Angelo; Russu, Paolo; Sacco, Pier Luigi

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we generalize a model by Enquist and Ghirlanda [12] to analyze the "macro" dynamics of cumulative culture in a context where there is a coexistence of adaptive and maladaptive cultural traits. In particular, we introduce a different, nonlinear specification of the main processes at work in the cumulative culture dynamics: imperfect transmission of traits, generation of new traits, and switches from adaptive to maladaptive and vice-versa. We find that the system exhibits a variety of dynamic behaviors where the crucial force is the switching between the adaptive and maladaptive nature of a certain trait, with the other processes playing a modulating role. We identify in particular a number of dynamic regimes with distinctive characteristics.

  7. Using Extreme Phenotype Sampling to Identify the Rare Causal Variants of Quantitative Traits in Association Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dalin; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Gauderman, William J.; Murcray, Cassandra Elizabeth; Conti, David

    2011-01-01

    Variants identified in recent genome-wide association studies based on the common-disease common-variant hypothesis are far from fully explaining the hereditability of complex traits. Rare variants may, in part, explain some of the missing hereditability. Here, we explored the advantage of the extreme phenotype sampling in rare-variant analysis and refined this design framework for future large-scale association studies on quantitative traits. We first proposed a power calculation approach fo...

  8. Comparison of statistical tests for association between rare variants and binary traits.

    OpenAIRE

    Bacanu, SA; Nelson, MR; Whittaker, JC

    2012-01-01

    : Genome-wide association studies have found thousands of common genetic variants associated with a wide variety of diseases and other complex traits. However, a large portion of the predicted genetic contribution to many traits remains unknown. One plausible explanation is that some of the missing variation is due to the effects of rare variants. Nonetheless, the statistical analysis of rare variants is challenging. A commonly used method is to contrast, within the same region (gene), the fr...

  9. QTLs for seedling traits under salinity stress in hexaploid wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhe Ren

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Soil salinity limits agricultural production and is a major obstacle for increasing crop yield. Common wheat is one of the most important crops with allohexaploid characteristic and a highly complex genome. QTL mapping is a useful way to identify genes for quantitative traits such as salinity tolerance in hexaploid wheat. In the present study, a hydroponic trial was carried out to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs associated with salinity tolerance of wheat under 150mM NaCl concentration using a recombinant inbred line population (Xiaoyan 54×Jing 411. Values of wheat seedling traits including maximum root length (MRL, root dry weight (RDW, shoot dry weight (SDW, total dry weight (TDW and the ratio of TDW of wheat plants between salt stress and control (TDWR were evaluated or calculated. A total of 19QTLs for five traits were detected through composite interval mapping method by using QTL Cartographer version 2.5 under normal and salt stress conditions. These QTLs distributed on 12 chromosomes explained the percentage of phenotypic variation by individual QTL varying from 7.9% to 19.0%. Among them, 11 and six QTLs were detected under normal and salt stress conditions, respectively and two QTLs were detected for TDWR. Some salt tolerance related loci may be pleiotropic. Chromosome 1A, 3A and 7A may harbor crucial candidate genes associated with wheat salt tolerance. Our results would be helpful for the marker assisted selection to breed wheat varieties with improved salt tolerance.

  10. Genetic Parameters of Reproductive and Meat Quality Traits in Korean Berkshire Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Ho Lee

    2015-10-01

    carcass traits, an appropriate breeding scheme is required that carefully considers the complexity of genetic parameters and applicability of data.

  11. Implicit self- and other-associations in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weertman, A.; Arntz, A.R.; Jong, P.J. de; Rinck, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated automatic associations with the self and with others in the context of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). Participants scoring high (n=20) or low (n=20) on DSM-IV OCPD traits performed three irrelevant-feature tasks in which language of the words (Dutch vs.

  12. Collembolan trait patterns with climate modifications along a European gradient: the VULCAN case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfanti, Jonathan; Cortet, Jérôme; Hedde, Mickaël

    In a climate change context, soil ecosystem services can be threatened, notably through impacts on soil fauna. Collembola can be therefore used for bioindication of soil mesofauna functionality. Here we aim (i) to link distribution of the collembolan communities with their functional traits...

  13. Personality traits of a music teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogunović Blanka D.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of individual musical instrument teaching, pedagogical abilities of a music teacher and the atmosphere he creates, result from his personality traits and can be of crucial importance for the initial and further progress of his students. The paper seeks to: describe the personality of a music instrument teacher, determine the differences in comparison to a group of non-musicians, and determine the position of personal characteristics in the structure of general and professional teacher profile. The sample comprised 60 individuals, teaching various musical instruments in five primary music schools. The research method is explorative and based on the use of the five-factor personality model (NEO PI-R was administered. The findings show that music teachers display a higher level of: openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness. The degree of congruence with the findings of other research is discussed and certain similarities were found, as well as differences stemming from professional and cultural specificities. Differences are proved to exist in relation to gender, musical instrument, working experience, degree of musical education and active public performance. Compared to non-musical population, it is confirmed that teachers of instrument in musical education represent a distinctive group. There are also differences between teachers who are oriented to pedagogic work only and those who, in addition, actively perform in public. Selection of teachers, according to characteristics which may be connected to students’ accomplishment, is a practical implication relevant for the music education.

  14. TRANSLATION OF ORALITY TRAITS IN LITERARY DIALOGUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorea Ajanić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates traits of fictive orality and their translations by studying dialogues from Bernhard Schlink’s novel Der Vorleser and their translations into the Croatian and English language. In the first part of the paper the term fictive orality is explained in the context of classification given by Koch and Oesterreicher (1985, which distinguishes between „the language of immediacy” (“Sprache der Nähe” which refers to speech, and “the language of distance” (“Sprache der Distanz” which refers to writing. The ways in which writers create orality in their works, as well as the ways in which it can be recognized in texts, are also represented. In the second part of the paper, selected dialogues from the novel Der Vorleser are analyzed in the source text and in translations. The analysis of dialogues indicates the presence of the following means for expressing fictive orality: punctuation, exclamations, repetition, and descriptions of nonverbal behaviour. These means refer to spoken communication and characters’ emotions – e.g. punctuation is used to express confusion, insecurity, or hesitation in conversations; exclamations are used to express emotions, tone and mood in the analyzed conversations. Additionally, the analysis of translation strategies reveals that the most frequently utilised translation strategies (as proposed by Baker are cultural substitution and paraphrase.

  15. Caliper Context Annotation Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-30

    To understand the performance of parallel programs, developers need to be able to relate performance measurement data with context information, such as the call path / line numbers or iteration numbers where measurements were taken. Caliper provides a generic way to specify and collect multi-dimensional context information across the software stack, and provide ti to third-party measurement tools or write it into a file or database in the form of context streams.

  16. Perceived emotional intelligence in nursing: psychometric properties of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradilla-Herrero, Amor; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Gómez-Benito, Juana

    2014-04-01

    To examine the psychometric properties of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale in the nursing context and to determine the relationships between emotional intelligence, self-esteem, alexithymia and death anxiety. The Trait Meta-Mood Scale is one of the most widely used self-report measures for assessing perceived emotional intelligence. However, in the nursing context, no extensive analysis has been conducted to examine its psychometric properties. Cross-sectional and observational study. A total of 1417 subjects participated in the study (1208 nursing students and 209 hospital nurses). The Trait Meta-Mood Scale, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Death Anxiety Inventory were all applied to half of the sample (n = 707). A confirmatory factor analysis was carried out, and statistical analyses examined the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, as well as its relationship with relevant variables. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the three dimensions of the original scale (Attention, Clarity and Repair). The instrument showed adequate internal consistency and temporal stability. Correlational results indicated that nurses with high scores on emotional Attention experience more death anxiety, report greater difficulties identifying feelings and have less self-esteem. By contrast, nurses with high levels of emotional Clarity and Repair showed less death anxiety and higher levels of self-esteem. The Trait Meta-Mood Scale is an effective, valid and reliable tool for measuring perceived emotional intelligence in the nursing context. Training programmes should seek to promote emotional abilities among nurses. Use of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale in the nursing context would provide information about nurses' perceived abilities to interpret and manage emotions when interacting with patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Matching consumer feeding behaviours and resource traits: a fourth-corner problem in food-web theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Angelo Barbosa; Faria, Lucas Del Bianco

    2018-06-06

    For decades, food web theory has proposed phenomenological models for the underlying structure of ecological networks. Generally, these models rely on latent niche variables that match the feeding behaviour of consumers with their resource traits. In this paper, we used a comprehensive database to evaluate different hypotheses on the best dependency structure of trait-matching patterns between consumers and resource traits. We found that consumer feeding behaviours had complex interactions with resource traits; however, few dimensions (i.e. latent variables) could reproduce the trait-matching patterns. We discuss our findings in the light of three food web models designed to reproduce the multidimensionality of food web data; additionally, we discuss how using species traits clarify food webs beyond species pairwise interactions and enable studies to infer ecological generality at larger scales, despite potential taxonomic differences, variations in ecological conditions and differences in species abundance between communities. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  18. Personality traits among burnt out and non-burnt out health-care personnel at the same workplaces: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Gabriella; Persson, Birgitta; Eriksson, Sture; Norberg, Astrid; Strandberg, Gunilla

    2009-10-01

    Stress-related illnesses, such as burnout, have increased over the last decade, but not everyone at the same workplace develops burnout, suggesting that individual factors may contribute to this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to describe patterns of personality traits among two groups of health-care personnel from the same workplaces, one group on sick leave due to medically-assessed burnout, and one group with no indication of burnout, respectively. Fourteen psychiatric- (n = 7) and elderly (n = 7)-care units, located in one specific area in a municipality in northern Sweden, participated in this questionnaire-based study. The participants (n = 40), on sick leave due to medically-assessed burnout (n = 20), and those with no indication of burnout (n = 20), respectively, completed Cattell's 16 Personality Factors Questionnaire between February and December 2004. Conventional statistical methods and partial least square regression were used to analyze data. The results showed that the burnout group had lower scores regarding emotional stability and higher scores regarding anxiety than the non-burnout group, but the results also showed a wide variation of personality traits within groups. The most important indicators for belonging to the burnout group were 'openness to changes' and 'anxiety', and for belonging to the non-burnout group, 'emotional stability', 'liveliness', 'privateness' (i.e. forthright or discreet), and 'tension'. The result indicates complex interactions between personality traits and the context in which the individual lives. It seems to be important to increase our awareness of when personality traits may constitute opportunities versus risks in dealing with one's existing circumstances.

  19. On the holistic approach in cellular and cancer biology: nonlinearity, complexity, and quasi-determinism of the dynamic cellular network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, P; Molski, M; Konarski, J

    1998-06-01

    A keystone of the molecular reductionist approach to cellular biology is a specific deductive strategy relating genotype to phenotype-two distinct categories. This relationship is based on the assumption that the intermediary cellular network of actively transcribed genes and their regulatory elements is deterministic (i.e., a link between expression of a gene and a phenotypic trait can always be identified, and evolution of the network in time is predetermined). However, experimental data suggest that the relationship between genotype and phenotype is nonbijective (i.e., a gene can contribute to the emergence of more than just one phenotypic trait or a phenotypic trait can be determined by expression of several genes). This implies nonlinearity (i.e., lack of the proportional relationship between input and the outcome), complexity (i.e. emergence of the hierarchical network of multiple cross-interacting elements that is sensitive to initial conditions, possesses multiple equilibria, organizes spontaneously into different morphological patterns, and is controlled in dispersed rather than centralized manner), and quasi-determinism (i.e., coexistence of deterministic and nondeterministic events) of the network. Nonlinearity within the space of the cellular molecular events underlies the existence of a fractal structure within a number of metabolic processes, and patterns of tissue growth, which is measured experimentally as a fractal dimension. Because of its complexity, the same phenotype can be associated with a number of alternative sequences of cellular events. Moreover, the primary cause initiating phenotypic evolution of cells such as malignant transformation can be favored probabilistically, but not identified unequivocally. Thermodynamic fluctuations of energy rather than gene mutations, the material traits of the fluctuations alter both the molecular and informational structure of the network. Then, the interplay between deterministic chaos, complexity, self

  20. Context Sensitive Health Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuziemsky, Craig; Nøhr, Christian; Aarts, Jos

    2013-01-01

    Context is a key consideration when designing and evaluating health information technology (HIT) and cannot be overstated. Unintended consequences are common post HIT implementation and even well designed technology may not achieve desired outcomes because of contextual issues. While context should...... be considered in the design and evaluation of health information systems (HISs) there is a shortcoming of empirical research on contextual aspects of HIT. This conference integrates the sociotechnical and Human-Centered-Design (HCD) approaches and showcases current research on context sensitive health...... informatics. The papers and presentations outlines theories and models for studying contextual issues and insights on how we can better design HIT to accommodate different healthcare contexts....

  1. Associations between informant ratings of personality disorder traits, self-reports of personality, and directly observed behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaurin, Aleksandra; Sauerberger, Kyle S; Funder, David C

    2018-03-02

    Diagnoses of personality disorders (PD) must rely on judgments of observers-either clinicians or acquaintances-because personality disorders are primarily defined in terms of maladaptive interpersonal behavior. Little is known, however, about how closely acquaintances' judgments of PD traits relate to self-reports of theoretically relevant Big Five traits or directly observed behavioral outcomes in interpersonal situations. The present study examines associations between judgments of the 10 PD traits provided by close acquaintances, self-reports of PD-relevant Big Five personality traits, and observed interpersonal behaviors across three different three-person laboratory interactions (i.e., unstructured chat, cooperative task, competitive game). The sample consisted of 256 undergraduate students (130 females; M age  = 19.83, SD = 1.25). Four unacquainted observers independently rated participants' behaviors from video recordings. In line with previous work, informant reports of PD traits demonstrate strong convergent validity with relevant self-reported Big Five traits (as identified by Lynam & Widiger, 2001). Directly observed behavior is meaningfully associated with acquaintances' judgments and self-reports of PD-relevant traits, and the associations between these judgments and behavior are strongest for traits associated with histrionic and schizoid PD. Vector correlations between behavioral profiles associated with informant and self-reports show that both assessments have similar behavioral correlates. Associations between PD trait ratings and behavior appeared to differ as a function of gender, with males showing more and stronger correlations. Informants' ratings of PD traits are impressively accurate, converging both with self-reports of relevant traits and directly observed interpersonal behavior. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of PDs and associated traits can be augmented by information from multiple acquaintances who have the

  2. Theory and context / Theory in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    trans-disciplinary manner. Consideration needs to be given as well to connected scholarship focusing on imagination, innova-tion, and improvisation. Last but not least, an expanded the-ory of context cannot ignore the institutional context of doing research on creativity. Creativity scholars are facing......It is debatable whether the psychology of creativity is a field in crisis or not. There are clear signs of increased fragmenta-tion and a scarcity of integrative efforts, but is this necessari-ly bad? Do we need more comprehensive theories of creativ-ity and a return to old epistemological...... questions? This de-pends on how one understands theory. Against a view of theoretical work as aiming towards generality, universality, uniformity, completeness, and singularity, I advocate for a dynamic perspective in which theory is plural, multifaceted, and contextual. Far from ‘waiting for the Messiah...

  3. Contexts as Shared Commitments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eGarcía-Carpintero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary semantics assumes two different notions of context: one coming from Kaplan (1989, on which contexts are sets of predetermined parameters, and another originated in Stalnaker (1978, on which contexts are sets of propositions that are common ground. The latter is deservedly more popular, given its flexibility to account for context-dependent aspects of language beyond manifest indexicals, such as epistemic modals, predicates of taste, and so on and so forth; in fact, properly dealing with demonstratives (perhaps ultimately all indexicals requires that further flexibility. Even if we acknowledge Lewis (1980 point that, in a sense, Kaplanian contexts already include common ground contexts, it is better to be clear and explicit about what contexts constitutively are. Now, Stalnaker (1978, 2002, 2014 defines context-as-common-ground as a set of propositions, but recent work shows that this is not an accurate conception. The paper explains why, and provides an alternative. The main reason is that several phenomena (presuppositional treatments of pejoratives and predicates of taste, forces other than assertion require that the common ground includes non-doxastic attitudes such as appraisals, emotions, etc. Hence the common ground should not be taken to include merely contents (propositions, but those together with attitudes concerning them: shared commitments, as I will defend.

  4. Talking wearables exploit context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldof, S.; Terken, J.M.B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of how natural language generation technology can contribute to less intrusive wearable devices. Based on the investigation of how humans adapt the form of their utterances to the context of their hearer, we propose a strategy to relate (physical) context to the

  5. Average Revisited in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane; Chick, Helen

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the responses of 247 middle school students to items requiring the concept of average in three different contexts: a city's weather reported in maximum daily temperature, the number of children in a family, and the price of houses. The mixed but overall disappointing performance on the six items in the three contexts indicates…

  6. Genetic correlations among and between wool, growth and reproduction traits in Merino sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, E; Fogarty, N M; Gilmour, A R; Atkins, K D; Mortimer, S I; Swan, A A; Brien, F D; Greeff, J C; van der Werf, J H J

    2007-04-01

    Data from seven research resource flocks across Australia were combined to provide accurate estimates of genetic correlations among production traits in Merino sheep. The flocks represented contemporary Australian Merino fine, medium and broad wool strains over the past 30 years. Over 110,000 records were available for analysis for each of the major wool traits, and 50,000 records for reproduction and growth traits with over 2700 sires and 25,000 dams. Individual models developed from the single trait analyses were extended to the various combinations of two-trait models to obtain genetic correlations among six wool traits [clean fleece weight (CFW), greasy fleece weight, fibre diameter (FD), yield, coefficient of variation of fibre diameter and standard deviation of fibre diameter], four growth traits [birth weight, weaning weight, yearling weight (YWT), and hogget weight] and four reproduction traits [fertility, litter size, lambs born per ewe joined, lambs weaned per ewe joined (LW/EJ)]. This study has provided for the first time a comprehensive matrix of genetic correlations among these 14 wool, growth and reproduction traits. The large size of the data set has also provided estimates with very low standard errors. A moderate positive genetic correlation was observed between CFW and FD (0.29 +/- 0.02). YWT was positively correlated with CFW (0.23 +/- 0.04), FD (0.17 +/- 0.04) and LWEJ (0.58 +/- 0.06), while LW/EJ was negatively correlated with CFW (-0.26 +/- 0.05) and positively correlated with FD (0.06 +/- 0.04) and LS (0.68 +/- 0.04). These genetic correlations, together with the estimates of heritability and other parameters provide the basis for more accurate prediction of outcomes in complex sheep-breeding programmes designed to improve several traits.

  7. Different Phylogenetic and Environmental Controls of First-order Root Morphological and Chemical Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Wang, Q.; Zhao, N.; Yu, G.; He, N.

    2017-12-01

    Fine roots are the most distal roots that act as the primary belowground organs in acquiring limiting nutrients and water from the soil. However, limited by the inconsistency in definitions of fine roots and the different protocols among studies, knowledge of root system traits has, to date, still lagged far behind our understanding of above-ground traits. In particular, whether variation in fine root traits among the plant species along a single root economics spectrum and this underlying mechanism are still hotly debated. In this study, we sampled the first-order root using the standardized protocols, and measured six important root traits related to resource use strategies, from 181 plant species from subtropical to boreal forests. Base on this large dataset, we concluded that different phylogenetic and environmental factors affected on root thickness and nutrient, resulting in the decoupled pattern between them. Specifically, variation in species-level traits related to root thickness (including root diameter, RD and specific root length, SRL) was restricted by common ancestry and little plastic to the changing environments, whereas the large-scale variation in woody root nutrient was mainly controlled by environmental differences, especially soil variables. For community-level traits, mean annual temperature (MAT) mainly influenced the community-level root thickness through the direct effect of changes in plant species composition, while soil P had a positive influence effect on community-level root nitrogen concentration (CWM_RN), reflecting the strong influence of soil fertility on belowground root nutrient. The different environmental constraints and selective pressures acting between root thickness and nutrient traits allows for multiple ecological strategies to adapt to complex environmental conditions. In addition, strong relationships between community-level root traits and environmental variables, due to environmental filters, indicate that in contrast

  8. Differences between height- and light-dependent changes in shoot traits in five deciduous tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Noriyuki; Okabe, Yoshihiko; Hayashi, Daisuke; Katsuyama, Tomonori; Tokuchi, Naoko

    2014-01-01

    The effects of tree height on shoot traits may in some cases differ in magnitude and direction from the effects of light. Nevertheless, general patterns of change in shoot traits in relation to variations in height and light have not so far been revealed. A comprehensive analysis of the differences between the effects of height and light on a range of leaf and shoot traits is important for the scaling of these traits to individual trees. We investigated the biomass allocation and structure of current-year shoots at the top of the crowns of five deciduous tree species in Japan. Height effect was investigated by comparing shoot traits among trees of different heights growing under a high light environment. The effects of light were examined by comparing saplings growing in high- and low-light environments. The effects of light were significant for most traits, while those of height were not significant for some traits. The magnitudes of the effects of light were larger than those of height for most traits related to biomass allocation. There was an extreme difference between the effects of height and light in the direction of change in the length of current-year shoots and in the number of standing leaves. The measures of both parameters increased with the increase in light, but decreased with the increase in tree height. Thus, the effects of height and light on diverse traits at the level of current-year shoots were not always similar. These results suggest that great care must be taken when scaling shoot traits from small trees to tall trees because the effects of height and light can be complex.

  9. Intrapreneurial behavior: an empirical investigation of personality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrukh Muhammad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the impact of personality traits on intrapreneurial behavior. Data was collected from 306 employees working in higher education institutions. Structural equation modeling technique was utilized with the help of SmartPLS software. The findings of the study revealed a positive association of extroversion, openness to experiences and emotional stability with intrapreneurial behavior, while a negative impact of conscientiousness, agreeableness on intrapreneurial behavior was recorded. The findings of this study have several implications in the context of HEIs. To enhance the intrapreneurial behavior in the higher educational institutes, the management of the institutions should take positive steps to ensure that employees have personality traits which have shown a significant impact on the intraprenuerial behavior in this study. One strategy top management could consider is that, at the time of recruitment, preference should be given to candidates with higher levels of extroversion, openness to experience and emotional stability. However, among all the traits, the most indicative marker is extroversions followed by emotional stability. Therefore, hiring employees with high levels of extroversion and emotional stability could facilitate more intraprenuerial behavior, which ultimately, will help improve the performance of HEIs. This study with its focus on the micro level foundations of intrapreneurial behavior is one of the first studies in the domain of intrapreneurship.

  10. Evaluation in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaap, Kamps; Lalmas, Mounia; Larsen, Birger

    All search happens in a particular context - such as the particular collection of a digital library, its associated search tasks, and its associated users. Information retrieval researchers usually agree on the importance of context, but they rarely address the issue. In particular, evaluation in......, e.g. those that suit a particular task scenario, and zoom in on the relative performance for such a group of topics.......All search happens in a particular context - such as the particular collection of a digital library, its associated search tasks, and its associated users. Information retrieval researchers usually agree on the importance of context, but they rarely address the issue. In particular, evaluation....../assessors - by designing targeted questionnaires. The questionnaire data becomes part of the evaluation test-suite as valuable data on the context of the search requests.We have experimented with this questionnaire approach during the evaluation campaign of the INitiative for the Evaluation of XML Retrieval (INEX...

  11. Plants with useful traits and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Sally Ann; De la Rosa Santamaria, Roberto

    2016-10-25

    The present invention provides methods for obtaining plants that exhibit useful traits by transient suppression of the MSH1 gene of the plants. Methods for identifying genetic loci that provide for useful traits in plants and plants produced with those loci are also provided. In addition, plants that exhibit the useful traits, parts of the plants including seeds, and products of the plants are provided as well as methods of using the plants.

  12. Predator attack rate evolution in space: the role of ecology mediated by complex emergent spatial structure and self-shading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Susanna M; Ostling, Annette

    2013-11-01

    Predation interactions are an important element of ecological communities. Population spatial structure has been shown to influence predator evolution, resulting in the evolution of a reduced predator attack rate; however, the evolutionary role of traits governing predator and prey ecology is unknown. The evolutionary effect of spatial structure on a predator's attack rate has primarily been explored assuming a fixed metapopulation spatial structure, and understood in terms of group selection. But endogenously generated, emergent spatial structure is common in nature. Furthermore, the evolutionary influence of ecological traits may be mediated through the spatial self-structuring process. Drawing from theory on pathogens, the evolutionary effect of emergent spatial structure can be understood in terms of self-shading, where a voracious predator limits its long-term invasion potential by reducing local prey availability. Here we formalize the effects of self-shading for predators using spatial moment equations. Then, through simulations, we show that in a spatial context self-shading leads to relationships between predator-prey ecology and the predator's attack rate that are not expected in a non-spatial context. Some relationships are analogous to relationships already shown for host-pathogen interactions, but others represent new trait dimensions. Finally, since understanding the effects of ecology using existing self-shading theory requires simplifications of the emergent spatial structure that do not apply well here, we also develop metrics describing the complex spatial structure of the predator and prey populations to help us explain the evolutionary effect of predator and prey ecology in the context of self-shading. The identification of these metrics may provide a step towards expansion of the predictive domain of self-shading theory to more complex spatial dynamics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Exercise and diet affect quantitative trait loci for body weight and composition traits in an advanced intercross population of mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Scott A.; Hua, Kunjie; Pomp, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Driven by the recent obesity epidemic, interest in understanding the complex genetic and environmental basis of body weight and composition is great. We investigated this by searching for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting a number of weight and adiposity traits in a G10 advanced intercross population produced from crosses of mice in inbred strain C57BL/6J with those in a strain selected for high voluntary wheel running. The mice in this population were fed either a high-fat or a control diet throughout the study and also measured for four exercise traits prior to death, allowing us to test for pre- and postexercise QTLs as well as QTL-by-diet and QTL-by-exercise interactions. Our genome scan uncovered a number of QTLs, of which 40% replicated QTLs previously found for similar traits in an earlier (G4) generation. For those replicated QTLs, the confidence intervals were reduced from an average of 19 Mb in the G4 to 8 Mb in the G10. Four QTLs on chromosomes 3, 8, 13, and 18 were especially prominent in affecting the percentage of fat in the mice. About of all QTLs showed interactions with diet, exercise, or both, their genotypic effects on the traits showing a variety of patterns depending on the diet or level of exercise. It was concluded that the indirect effects of these QTLs provide an underlying genetic basis for the considerable variability in weight or fat loss typically found among individuals on the same diet and/or exercise regimen. PMID:23048196

  14. A trait database for marine copepods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Philipp; Payne, Mark R.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    The trait-based approach is gaining increasing popularity in marine plankton ecology but the field urgently needs more and easier accessible trait data to advance. We compiled trait information on marine pelagic copepods, a major group of zooplankton, from the published literature and from experts and organized the data into a structured database. We collected 9306 records for 14 functional traits. Particular attention was given to body size, feeding mode, egg size, spawning strategy, respiration rate, and myelination (presence of nerve sheathing). Most records were reported at the species level, but some phylogenetically conserved traits, such as myelination, were reported at higher taxonomic levels, allowing the entire diversity of around 10 800 recognized marine copepod species to be covered with a few records. Aside from myelination, data coverage was highest for spawning strategy and body size, while information was more limited for quantitative traits related to reproduction and physiology. The database may be used to investigate relationships between traits, to produce trait biogeographies, or to inform and validate trait-based marine ecosystem models. The data can be downloaded from PANGAEA, PANGAEA.862968" target="_blank">doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.862968.

  15. The bovine QTL viewer: a web accessible database of bovine Quantitative Trait Loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Suresh R

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many important agricultural traits such as weight gain, milk fat content and intramuscular fat (marbling in cattle are quantitative traits. Most of the information on these traits has not previously been integrated into a genomic context. Without such integration application of these data to agricultural enterprises will remain slow and inefficient. Our goal was to populate a genomic database with data mined from the bovine quantitative trait literature and to make these data available in a genomic context to researchers via a user friendly query interface. Description The QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus data and related information for bovine QTL are gathered from published work and from existing databases. An integrated database schema was designed and the database (MySQL populated with the gathered data. The bovine QTL Viewer was developed for the integration of QTL data available for cattle. The tool consists of an integrated database of bovine QTL and the QTL viewer to display QTL and their chromosomal position. Conclusion We present a web accessible, integrated database of bovine (dairy and beef cattle QTL for use by animal geneticists. The viewer and database are of general applicability to any livestock species for which there are public QTL data. The viewer can be accessed at http://bovineqtl.tamu.edu.

  16. AIDS e enfermagem: atitudes versus traços de personalidade no contexto do atendimento hospitalar SIDA y enfermería: actitudes x trazos de personalidad en el contexto del atendimiento hospitalar AIDS and nursing: attitudes versus personality traits within the context of hospital care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio de Castro Figueiredo

    1994-01-01

    tratamiento de apoyo, el estigma asociado al paciente, la impotencia del profesional, el rapport con el enfermo y las dificuldades frente a las condiciones en que atendimiento se realiza. Posteriormente, fue realizada una avaluación de trazos de personalidad de eses 56 sujetos con fundamento en la aplicación del Cuestinário 16 PF de CATTEL y EBER (1954. Estudios de correlación y análisis de contingencia verificaron, tomandose como criterio un nivel de significancia p = .05, interacciones de actitudes frente a algunos factores y los resultados obtenidos en el 16 PF. Partiendo de estes resultados una análisis detallada de la relación personalidad/actitude frente a la SIDA fue hecha en conjuncíon con trabajos anteriores.The objective of the present study was to determine possible relations between attitudes towards some aspects of facing AIDS and personality traits in nursing personnel for later elaboration of a program of guidance and follow-up of professionals who treat the disease. On the basics of the attitude scales constructed by the theoretical model of FISHBEIN and AJZEN (1975, a survey was carried out on 56 professional of Nursing Service of the University Hospital of Ribeirão Preto to determine their attitudes towards the six dimensions of AIDS treatment: the disease itself, support treatment, the stigma attached to the patient, the impotence of the professional, the rapport with the patient and the embarrassment due to the conditions of care provided. The personality traits of these 56 subjects were later evaluated by applying Questionnaire 16 PF of CATTEL and EBER (1954. Correlation studies and contingency analysis interaction between attitudes towards some factors and results obtained with the 16 PF, with the level of significance set at p = .05. A detailed analysis of the personality/Attitudes towards AIDS relationship was then performed from the results obtained, in combination with data obtained in previous studies.

  17. Enhanced discrimination between threatening and safe contexts in high-anxious individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotzbach-Schoon, Evelyn; Tadda, Regina; Andreatta, Marta; Tröger, Christian; Ewald, Heike; Grillon, Christian; Pauli, Paul; Mühlberger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Trait anxiety, a stable personality trait associated with increased fear responses to threat, is regarded as a risk factor for the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Although the effect of trait anxiety has been examined with regard to explicit threat cues, little is known about the effect of trait anxiety on contextual threat learning. To assess this issue, extreme groups of low and high trait anxiety underwent a contextual fear conditioning protocol using virtual reality. Two virtual office rooms served as the conditioned contexts. One virtual office room (CXT+) was paired with unpredictable electrical stimuli. In the other virtual office room, no electrical stimuli were delivered (CXT−). High-anxious participants tended to show faster acquisition of startle potentiation in the CXT+ versus the CXT− than low-anxious participants. This enhanced contextual fear learning might function as a risk factor for anxiety disorders that are characterized by sustained anxiety. PMID:23384512

  18. Why did an effective Dutch complex psycho-social intervention for people with dementia not work in the German healthcare context? Lessons learnt from a process evaluation alongside a multicentre RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt-Radloff, Sebastian; Graff, Maud; Leonhart, Rainer; Hüll, Michael; Rikkert, Marcel Olde; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra

    2011-08-09

    Background The positive effects of the Dutch Community Occupational Therapy in Dementia programme on patients' daily functioning were not found in a multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) in Germany. Objectives To evaluate possible effect modification on the primary outcome within the German RCT with regard to (1) participant characteristics, (2) treatment performance and (3) healthcare service utilisation; and (4) to compare the design and primary outcome between the German and the original Dutch study. Methods (1) The impact of participant baseline data on the primary outcome was analysed in exploratory ANCOVA and regression analyses. (2) Therapists completed questionnaires on context and performance problems. The main problems were identified by a qualitative content analysis and focus-group discussion. Associations of the primary outcome with scores of participant adherence and treatment performance were evaluated by regression analysis. (3) Utilisation rates of healthcare services were controlled for significant group differences. (4) Differences in the Dutch and German study design were identified, and the primary outcome was contrasted at the item level. Results (1) Participant characteristics could not explain more than 5% of outcome variance. (2) The treatment performance of some active intervention components was poor but not significantly associated with the primary outcome. (3) There were no significant group differences in the utilisation of healthcare resources. (4) In contrast to the Dutch waiting-control group, the active intervention in the German control group may have reduced group differences in the current RCT. The German patients demonstrated a higher independence at baseline and less improvement in instrumental activities of daily living. Conclusion The differences in outcome may be explained by a more active control treatment, partially poor experimental treatment and less room for improvement in the German sample. Future cross

  19. Stress generation in adolescence: Contributions from five-factor model (FFM) personality traits and childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Shauna C; Bagby, R Michael; Harkness, Kate L

    2017-04-01

    Youth with depression are theorized to generate stress in their lives because of a complex interaction between their personal characteristics and their chronic environmental context. Using a moderated regression approach, we provided a novel test of this hypothesis by examining whether adolescent 5-factor model personality traits moderate the associations between early emotional, physical, and sexual maltreatment and life events experienced in the past 6 months. Participants in this cross-sectional study were 110 adolescents (M = 16.24, SD = 1.53, age range = 13-17, 74.5% female) with major depressive disorder. The relation of physical maltreatment to dependent interpersonal life events was moderated by extraversion. Among physically maltreated youth, dependent interpersonal events were positively associated with extraversion. Further, the relation of sexual maltreatment to independent events were moderated by extraversion and agreeableness. Among sexually maltreated youth, independent events were negatively associated with extraversion and positively associated with agreeableness. The observed vulnerability-risk interactions are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding the role of stress generation mechanisms in an integrated model of depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Genomic Prediction and Association Mapping of Curd-Related Traits in Gene Bank Accessions of Cauliflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorwarth, Patrick; Yousef, Eltohamy A A; Schmid, Karl J

    2018-02-02

    Genetic resources are an important source of genetic variation for plant breeding. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic prediction greatly facilitate the analysis and utilization of useful genetic diversity for improving complex phenotypic traits in crop plants. We explored the potential of GWAS and genomic prediction for improving curd-related traits in cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea var. botrytis ) by combining 174 randomly selected cauliflower gene bank accessions from two different gene banks. The collection was genotyped with genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and phenotyped for six curd-related traits at two locations and three growing seasons. A GWAS analysis based on 120,693 single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified a total of 24 significant associations for curd-related traits. The potential for genomic prediction was assessed with a genomic best linear unbiased prediction model and BayesB. Prediction abilities ranged from 0.10 to 0.66 for different traits and did not differ between prediction methods. Imputation of missing genotypes only slightly improved prediction ability. Our results demonstrate that GWAS and genomic prediction in combination with GBS and phenotyping of highly heritable traits can be used to identify useful quantitative trait loci and genotypes among genetically diverse gene bank material for subsequent utilization as genetic resources in cauliflower breeding. Copyright © 2018 Thorwarth et al.

  1. Early warm-rewarding parenting moderates the genetic contributions to callous-unemotional traits in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Jeffrey; Dionne, Ginette; Viding, Essi; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel

    2018-04-23

    Previous gene-environment interaction studies of CU traits have relied on the candidate gene approach, which does not account for the entire genetic load of complex phenotypes. Moreover, these studies have not examined the role of positive environmental factors such as warm/rewarding parenting. The aim of the present study was to determine whether early warm/rewarding parenting moderates the genetic contributions (i.e., heritability) to callous-unemotional (CU) traits at school age. Data were collected in a population sample of 662 twin pairs (Quebec Newborn Twin Study - QNTS). Mothers reported on their warm/rewarding parenting. Teachers assessed children's CU traits. These reports were subjected to twin modeling. Callous-unemotional traits were highly heritable, with the remaining variance accounted for by nonshared environmental factors. Warm/rewarding parenting significantly moderated the role of genes in CU traits; heritability was lower when children received high warm/rewarding parenting than when they were exposed to low warm/rewarding parenting. High warm/rewarding parenting may partly impede the genetic expression of CU traits. Developmental models of CU traits need to account for such gene-environment processes. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  2. Genetic Analysis of Kernel Traits in Maize-Teosinte Introgression Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengbin Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed traits have been targeted by human selection during the domestication of crop species as a way to increase the caloric and nutritional content of food during the transition from hunter-gather to early farming societies. The primary seed trait under selection was likely seed size/weight as it is most directly related to overall grain yield. Additional seed traits involved in seed shape may have also contributed to larger grain. Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays kernel weight has increased more than 10-fold in the 9000 years since domestication from its wild ancestor, teosinte (Z. mays ssp. parviglumis. In order to study how size and shape affect kernel weight, we analyzed kernel morphometric traits in a set of 10 maize-teosinte introgression populations using digital imaging software. We identified quantitative trait loci (QTL for kernel area and length with moderate allelic effects that colocalize with kernel weight QTL. Several genomic regions with strong effects during maize domestication were detected, and a genetic framework for kernel traits was characterized by complex pleiotropic interactions. Our results both confirm prior reports of kernel domestication loci and identify previously uncharacterized QTL with a range of allelic effects, enabling future research into the genetic basis of these traits.

  3. Genomic Prediction and Association Mapping of Curd-Related Traits in Gene Bank Accessions of Cauliflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Thorwarth

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic resources are an important source of genetic variation for plant breeding. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS and genomic prediction greatly facilitate the analysis and utilization of useful genetic diversity for improving complex phenotypic traits in crop plants. We explored the potential of GWAS and genomic prediction for improving curd-related traits in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis by combining 174 randomly selected cauliflower gene bank accessions from two different gene banks. The collection was genotyped with genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS and phenotyped for six curd-related traits at two locations and three growing seasons. A GWAS analysis based on 120,693 single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified a total of 24 significant associations for curd-related traits. The potential for genomic prediction was assessed with a genomic best linear unbiased prediction model and BayesB. Prediction abilities ranged from 0.10 to 0.66 for different traits and did not differ between prediction methods. Imputation of missing genotypes only slightly improved prediction ability. Our results demonstrate that GWAS and genomic prediction in combination with GBS and phenotyping of highly heritable traits can be used to identify useful quantitative trait loci and genotypes among genetically diverse gene bank material for subsequent utilization as genetic resources in cauliflower breeding.

  4. Handprints of the Mind: Decoding Personality Traits and Handwritings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Mahesh Ramanina; Harish, Nikitha; Aslam, Arun; Padmanabiah, Mangala; Magaji, Radhika

    2015-01-01

    Context: Handwriting analysis is a unique, specialized and emerging scientific process that has been carried out and applied for centuries now. However, its reliability and effectiveness as a method of assessing personality and behavior is not established and is still a debatable issue. The present paper aimed to examine the possibility of a correlation between clinical diagnosis and graphological analysis and to explore the key links between the underlying personality traits and its manifestations in handwriting among children. Aim: The aim was to study the possibility of a correlation between clinical diagnosis and graphological analysis. Objectives: To explore the key links between the underlying personality traits and its manifestations in handwriting among children. To study the possibility of using Graphotherapy as a remedial tool in aid of teaching/learning techniques and behavior modifications. Hypothesis: There are no significant and concrete differences between the psychodiagnostic assessment of personality through Children's Personality Questionnaire (CPQ) and handwriting analysis. Materials and Methods: N = 60, age group = 8-12 years. Tools: CPQ - a 16 personality factor scale and a semi-structured proforma. Simple random sampling technique was used. Results: The P values for the study sample were found to be greater than 0.05 at 5% level of significance to all the 14 dimensions of personality hence going in line with the null hypothesis that states “there are no significant and concrete differences between the psychodiagnostic assessment of Personality through CPQ and handwriting analysis.” Graphologists were thoroughly trained to interpret on the same 14 dimensions of personality as that of CPQ, most samples were analyzed to have a lying loop, a trait, which might also be attributed to the difference found in Trait-H, further asserting the subjective limitations of most psychological tests. PMID:26702172

  5. Kin selection and the evolution of plant reproductive traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawa, Kamaljit S

    2016-11-16

    Competition among developing seeds and sibling rivalry within multiovulated ovaries can be deleterious for both the maternal parent and the siblings. Increased genetic relatedness of seeds within the ovary may foster kin selection and reduce the deleterious consequences of sibling competition. The pollen parent may also be selected for siring all progeny within a fruit. I propose a series of hypotheses to explain the evolution of a number of reproductive traits in angiosperms in the context of kin selection and sibling rivalry within the ovaries of angiosperms. I present evidence to show that a single-pollen parent, indeed, often sires seeds within multiovulated ovaries. Various types of pollen aggregations and transfer of such pollen masses to the stigmas of flowers by specialized pollinators make this increased genetic relatedness possible. An alternative mode to reduce sibling rivalry may be the reduction of ovule number to one, an evolutionary trend that has independently occurred many times in flowering plants. Finally, I build on previously established correlations to predict two sets of correlations among reproductive traits. In the first case, large showy flowers, transfer of pollen en masse by specialized pollinators, and multiovulated ovaries and multisided fruits seem to be correlated. In the second case, the previously established correlations among small and inconspicuous flowers, pollination by wind, water or generalist insects, flowers and fruits with few or single ovules and seeds, respectively, may also include monoecy or dioecy. Although correlations among many of these traits have been established in the past, I invoke kin selection and sibling competition to explain the evolution of correlated traits as two distinct evolutionary pathways in angiosperms. © 2016 The Authors.

  6. CONTEXT 2015 Doctorial Symposium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund, Peter; wegener, rebekah

    2015-01-01

    What is the CONTEXT 2015 Doctoral Symposium? The CONTEXT 2015 Doctoral Symposium is an opportunity for doctoral researchers to showcase their work and discuss problems, challenges, and ideas in an open and collegial environment with expert feedback. The Doctoral Symposium is a workshop for doctoral...... feedback and general advice in a constructive atmosphere. Doctoral researchers will present and discuss their research in a supportive atmosphere with other doctoral researchers and an international panel of established researchers that provide expert feedback. The workshop will take place on a single full...... day, Monday November 2, 2015, the day prior to the start of the main CONTEXT 2015 conference....

  7. Context updates are hierarchical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Karl Ingason

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This squib studies the order in which elements are added to the shared context of interlocutors in a conversation. It focuses on context updates within one hierarchical structure and argues that structurally higher elements are entered into the context before lower elements, even if the structurally higher elements are pronounced after the lower elements. The crucial data are drawn from a comparison of relative clauses in two head-initial languages, English and Icelandic, and two head-final languages, Korean and Japanese. The findings have consequences for any theory of a dynamic semantics.

  8. Measuring School Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra L. Muller PhD

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes issues in measuring school contexts with an eye toward understanding students’ experiences and outcomes. I begin with an overview of the conceptual underpinnings related to measuring contexts, briefly describe the initiatives at the National Center for Education Statistics to measure school contexts, and identify possible gaps in those initiatives that if filled could provide valuable new data for researchers. Next, I discuss new approaches and opportunities for measurement, and special considerations related to diverse populations and youth development. I conclude with recommendations for future priorities.

  9. Aversive Learning and Trait Aggression Influence Retaliatory Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molapour, Tanaz; Lindström, Björn; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments (n = 35, n = 34), we used a modified fear-conditioning paradigm to investigate the role of aversive learning in retaliatory behavior in social context. Participants first completed an initial aversive learning phase in which the pairing of a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; i.e., neutral face) with a naturally aversive unconditioned stimulus (US; electric shock) was learned. Then they were given an opportunity to interact (i.e., administer 0-2 shocks) with the same faces again, during a Test phase. In Experiment 2, we used the same paradigm with the addition of online trial-by-trial ratings (e.g., US expectancy and anger) to examine the role of aversive learning, anger, and the learned expectancy of receiving punishment more closely. Our results indicate that learned aversions influenced future retaliation in a social context. In both experiments, participants showed largest skin conductance responses (SCRs) to the faces paired with one or two shocks, demonstrating successful aversive learning. Importantly, participants administered more shocks to the faces paired with the most number of shocks when the opportunity was given during test. Also, our results revealed that aggressive traits (Buss and Perry Aggression scale) were associated with retaliation only toward CSs associated with aversive experiences. These two experiments show that aggressive traits, when paired with aversive learning experiences enhance the likelihood to act anti-socially toward others.

  10. Interactive effects of trait and state affect on top-down control of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Juyoen; Miller, Gregory A; McDavitt, Jenika R B; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Crocker, Laura D; Infantolino, Zachary P; Towers, David N; Warren, Stacie L; Heller, Wendy

    2015-08-01

    Few studies have investigated how attentional control is affected by transient affective states while taking individual differences in affective traits into consideration. In this study, participants completed a color-word Stroop task immediately after undergoing a positive, neutral or negative affective context manipulation (ACM). Behavioral performance was unaffected by any ACM considered in isolation. For individuals high in trait negative affect (NA), performance was impaired by the negative but not the positive or neutral ACM. Neuroimaging results indicate that activity in primarily top-down control regions of the brain (inferior frontal gyrus and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex) was suppressed in the presence of emotional arousal (both negative and positive ACMs). This effect appears to have been exacerbated or offset by co-occurring activity in other top-down control regions (parietal) and emotion processing regions (orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala and nucleus accumbens) as a function of the valence of state affect (positive or negative) and trait affect (trait NA or trait PA). Neuroimaging results are consistent with behavioral findings. In combination, they indicate both additive and interactive influences of trait and state affect on top-down control of attention. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of pod related traits in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... assistant breeding selection. Key words: Soybean, pod traits, QTL, different environments. INTRODUCTION. Yield related traits in soybean are generally controlled by multiple genes and environmental dependent (Kwon and. Torrie, 1964). Epigenetics of genes controlling these traits also affect the yield.

  12. Quantitative trait loci analysis of osteocondrosis traits in the elbow joint of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, O F; Busch, M E; Gregersen, V R

    2010-01-01

    Osteochondrosis is a growth disorder in the cartilage of young animals and is characterised by lesions found in the cartilage and bone. This study identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with six osteochondrosis lesion traits in the elbow joint of finishing pigs. The traits were: thi...

  13. Cross-species analyses unravel the complexity of H3K27me3 and H4K20me3 in the context of neural stem progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T. Rhodes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem progenitor cells (NSPCs in the human subventricular zone (SVZ potentially contribute to lifelong neurogenesis, yet subtypes of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM contain NSPC signatures that highlight the importance of cell fate regulation. Among numerous regulatory mechanisms, the posttranslational methylations onto histone tails are crucial regulator of cell fate. The work presented here focuses on the role of 2 repressive chromatin marks trimethylations on histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3 and histone H4 lysine 20 (H4K20me3 in the adult NSPC within the SVZ. To best model healthy human NSPCs as they exist in vivo for epigenetic profiling of H3K27me3 and H4K20me3, we used NSPCs isolated from the adult SVZ of baboon brain (Papio anubis with brain structure and genomic level similar to human. The putative role of H3K27me3 in normal NSPCs predominantly falls into the regulation of gene expression, cell cycle, and differentiation, whereas H4K20me3 is involved in DNA replication/repair, metabolism, and cell cycle. Using conditional knockout mouse models to diminish Ezh2 and Suv4-20h responsible for H3K27me3 and H4K20me3, respectively, we found that both repressive marks have irrefutable function for cell cycle regulation in the NSPC population. Although both EZH2/H3K27me3 and Suv4-20h/H4K20me3 have implication in cancers, our comparative genomics approach between healthy NSPCs and human GBM specimens revealed that substantial sets of genes enriched with H3K27me3 and H4K20me3 in the NSPCs are altered in the human GBM. In sum, our integrated analyses across species highlight important roles of H3K27me3 and H4K20me3 in normal and disease conditions in the context of NSPC.

  14. Cross-species Analyses Unravel the Complexity of H3K27me3 and H4K20me3 in the Context of Neural Stem Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christopher T; Sandstrom, Richard S; Huang, Shu-Wei Angela; Wang, Yufeng; Schotta, Gunnar; Berger, Mitchel S; Lin, Chin-Hsing Annie

    2016-06-01

    Neural stem progenitor cells (NSPCs) in the human subventricular zone (SVZ) potentially contribute to life-long neurogenesis, yet subtypes of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) contain NSPC signatures that highlight the importance of cell fate regulation. Among numerous regulatory mechanisms, the post-translational methylations onto histone tails are crucial regulator of cell fate. The work presented here focuses on the role of two repressive chromatin marks tri-methylations on histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) and histone H4 lysine 20 (H4K20me3) in the adult NSPC within the SVZ. To best model healthy human NSPCs as they exist in vivo for epigenetic profiling of H3K27me3 and H4K20me3, we utilized NSPCs isolated from the adult SVZ of baboon brain ( Papio anubis ) with brain structure and genomic level similar to human. The putative role of H3K27me3 in normal NSPCs predominantly falls into the regulation of gene expression, cell cycle, and differentiation, whereas H4K20me3 is involved in DNA replication/repair, metabolism, and cell cycle. Using conditional knock-out mouse models to diminish Ezh2 and Suv4-20h responsible for H3K27me3 and H4K20me3, respectively, we found that both repressive marks have irrefutable function for cell cycle regulation in the NSPC population. While both EZH2/H3K27me3 and Suv4-20h/H4K20me3 have implication in cancers, our comparative genomics approach between healthy NSPCs and human GBM specimens revealed that substantial sets of genes enriched with H3K27me3 and H4K20me3 in the NSPCs are altered in the human GBM. In sum, our integrated analyses across species highlight important roles of H3K27me3 and H4K20me3 in normal and disease conditions in the context of NSPC.

  15. On the challenges of using field spectroscopy to measure the impact of soil type on leaf traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Nunes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the causes of variation in functional plant traits is a central issue in ecology, particularly in the context of global change. Spectroscopy is increasingly used for rapid and non-destructive estimation of foliar traits, but few studies have evaluated its accuracy when assessing phenotypic variation in multiple traits. Working with 24 chemical and physical leaf traits of six European tree species growing on strongly contrasting soil types (i.e. deep alluvium versus nearby shallow chalk, we asked (i whether variability in leaf traits is greater between tree species or soil type, and (ii whether field spectroscopy is effective at predicting intraspecific variation in leaf traits as well as interspecific differences. Analysis of variance showed that interspecific differences in traits were generally much stronger than intraspecific differences related to soil type, accounting for 25 % versus 5 % of total trait variation, respectively. Structural traits, phenolic defences and pigments were barely affected by soil type. In contrast, foliar concentrations of rock-derived nutrients did vary: P and K concentrations were lower on chalk than alluvial soils, while Ca, Mg, B, Mn and Zn concentrations were all higher, consistent with the findings of previous ecological studies. Foliar traits were predicted from 400 to 2500 nm reflectance spectra collected by field spectroscopy using partial least square regression, a method that is commonly employed in chemometrics. Pigments were best modelled using reflectance data from the visible region (400–700 nm, while all other traits were best modelled using reflectance data from the shortwave infrared region (1100–2500 nm. Spectroscopy delivered accurate predictions of species-level variation in traits. However, it was ineffective at detecting intraspecific variation in rock-derived nutrients (with the notable exception of P. The explanation for this failure is that rock

  16. METRIC context unit architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    METRIC is an architecture for a simple but powerful Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC). Its speed comes from the simultaneous processing of several instruction streams, with instructions from the various streams being dispatched into METRIC's execution pipeline as they become available for execution. The pipeline is thus kept full, with a mix of instructions for several contexts in execution at the same time. True parallel programming is supported within a single execution unit, the METRIC Context Unit. METRIC's architecture provides for expansion through the addition of multiple Context Units and of specialized Functional Units. The architecture thus spans a range of size and performance from a single-chip microcomputer up through large and powerful multiprocessors. This research concentrates on the specification of the METRIC Context Unit at the architectural level. Performance tradeoffs made during METRIC's design are discussed, and projections of METRIC's performance are made based on simulation studies.

  17. Context Sensitive Health Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    involves careful consideration of both human and organizational factors. This book presents the proceedings of the Context Sensitive Health Informatics (CSHI) conference, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2013. The theme of this year’s conference is human and sociotechnical approaches. The Human...... different healthcare contexts. Healthcare organizations, health policy makers and regulatory bodies globally are starting to acknowledge this essential role of human and organizational factors for safe and effective health information technology. This book will be of interest to all those involved......Healthcare information technologies are now routinely deployed in a variety of healthcare contexts. These contexts differ widely, but the smooth integration of IT systems is crucial, so the design, implementation, and evaluation of safe, effective, efficient and easy to adopt health informatics...

  18. Relating Stomatal Conductance to Leaf Functional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröber, Wenzel; Plath, Isa; Heklau, Heike; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-10-12

    Leaf functional traits are important because they reflect physiological functions, such as transpiration and carbon assimilation. In particular, morphological leaf traits have the potential to summarize plants strategies in terms of water use efficiency, growth pattern and nutrient use. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is a recognized framework in functional plant ecology and reflects a gradient of increasing specific leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and cation content, and decreasing leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and carbon nitrogen ratio (CN). The LES describes different strategies ranging from that of short-lived leaves with high photosynthetic capacity per leaf mass to long-lived leaves with low mass-based carbon assimilation rates. However, traits that are not included in the LES might provide additional information on the species' physiology, such as those related to stomatal control. Protocols are presented for a wide range of leaf functional traits, including traits of the LES, but also traits that are independent of the LES. In particular, a new method is introduced that relates the plants' regulatory behavior in stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit. The resulting parameters of stomatal regulation can then be compared to the LES and other plant functional traits. The results show that functional leaf traits of the LES were also valid predictors for the parameters of stomatal regulation. For example, leaf carbon concentration was positively related to the vapor pressure deficit (vpd) at the point of inflection and the maximum of the conductance-vpd curve. However, traits that are not included in the LES added information in explaining parameters of stomatal control: the vpd at the point of inflection of the conductance-vpd curve was lower for species with higher stomatal density and higher stomatal index. Overall, stomata and vein traits were more powerful predictors for explaining stomatal regulation than traits used in the LES.

  19. Canonical, stable, general mapping using context schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Adam M; Rosen, Yohei; Haussler, David; Paten, Benedict

    2015-11-15

    Sequence mapping is the cornerstone of modern genomics. However, most existing sequence mapping algorithms are insufficiently general. We introduce context schemes: a method that allows the unambiguous recognition of a reference base in a query sequence by testing the query for substrings from an algorithmically defined set. Context schemes only map when there is a unique best mapping, and define this criterion uniformly for all reference bases. Mappings under context schemes can also be made stable, so that extension of the query string (e.g. by increasing read length) will not alter the mapping of previously mapped positions. Context schemes are general in several senses. They natively support the detection of arbitrary complex, novel rearrangements relative to the reference. They can scale over orders of magnitude in query sequence length. Finally, they are trivially extensible to more complex reference structures, such as graphs, that incorporate additional variation. We demonstrate empirically the existence of high-performance context schemes, and present efficient context scheme mapping algorithms. The software test framework created for this study is available from https://registry.hub.docker.com/u/adamnovak/sequence-graphs/. anovak@soe.ucsc.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The genetic architecture of growth and fillet traits in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsin Yuan; Hamilton, Alastair; Guy, Derrick R; Tinch, Alan E; Bishop, Stephen C; Houston, Ross D

    2015-05-19

    Performance and quality traits such as harvest weight, fillet weight and flesh color are of economic importance to the Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry. The genetic factors underlying these traits are of scientific and commercial interest. However, such traits are typically polygenic in nature, with the number and size of QTL likely to vary between studies and populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic basis of several growth and fillet traits measured at harvest in a large farmed salmon population by using SNP markers. Due to the marked heterochiasmy in salmonids, an efficient two-stage mapping approach was applied whereby QTL were detected using a sire-based linkage analysis, a sparse SNP marker map and exploiting low rates of recombination, while a subsequent dam-based analysis focused on the significant chromosomes with a denser map to confirm QTL and estimate their position. The harvest traits all showed significant heritability, ranging from 0.05 for fillet yield up to 0.53 for the weight traits. In the sire-based analysis, 1695 offspring with trait records and their 20 sires were successfully genotyped for the SNPs on the sparse map. Chromosomes 13, 18, 19 and 20 were shown to harbor genome-wide significant QTL affecting several growth-related traits. The QTL on chr. 13, 18 and 20 were detected in the dam-based analysis using 512 offspring from 10 dams and explained approximately 6-7 % of the within-family variation in these traits. We have detected several QTL affecting economically important complex traits in a commercial salmon population. Overall, the results suggest that the traits are relatively polygenic and that QTL tend to be pleiotropic (affecting the weight of several components of the harvested fish). Comparison of QTL regions across studies suggests that harvest trait QTL tend to be relatively population-specific. Therefore, the application of marker or genomic selection for improvement in these traits is likely to be

  1. Towards context aware food sales prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zliobaite, I.; Bakker, J.; Pechenizkiy, M.

    2009-01-01

    Sales prediction is a complex task because of a large number of factors affecting the demand. We present a context aware sales prediction approach, which selects the base predictor depending on the structural properties of the historical sales. In the experimental part we show that there exist

  2. Experimentally reduced root–microbe interactions reveal limited plasticity in functional root traits in Acer and Quercus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei-Ho; Comas, Louise H.; Callahan, Hilary S.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Interactions between roots and soil microbes are critical components of below-ground ecology. It is essential to quantify the magnitude of root trait variation both among and within species, including variation due to plasticity. In addition to contextualizing the magnitude of plasticity relative to differences between species, studies of plasticity can ascertain if plasticity is predictable and whether an environmental factor elicits changes in traits that are functionally advantageous. Methods To compare functional traits and trait plasticities in fine root tissues with natural and reduced levels of colonization by microbial symbionts, trimmed and surface-sterilized root segments of 2-year-old Acer rubrum and Quercus rubra seedlings were manipulated. Segments were then replanted into satellite pots filled with control or heat-treated soil, both originally derived from a natural forest. Mycorrhizal colonization was near zero in roots grown in heat-treated soil; roots grown in control soil matched the higher colonization levels observed in unmanipulated root samples collected from field locations. Key Results Between-treatment comparisons revealed negligible plasticity for root diameter, branching intensity and nitrogen concentration across both species. Roots from treated soils had decreased tissue density (approx. 10–20 %) and increased specific root length (approx. 10–30 %). In contrast, species differences were significant and greater than treatment effects in traits other than tissue density. Interspecific trait differences were also significant in field samples, which generally resembled greenhouse samples. Conclusions The combination of experimental and field approaches was useful for contextualizing trait plasticity in comparison with inter- and intra-specific trait variation. Findings that root traits are largely species dependent, with the exception of root tissue density, are discussed in the context of current literature on root

  3. Experimentally reduced root-microbe interactions reveal limited plasticity in functional root traits in Acer and Quercus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei-Ho; Comas, Louise H; Callahan, Hilary S

    2014-02-01

    Interactions between roots and soil microbes are critical components of below-ground ecology. It is essential to quantify the magnitude of root trait variation both among and within species, including variation due to plasticity. In addition to contextualizing the magnitude of plasticity relative to differences between species, studies of plasticity can ascertain if plasticity is predictable and whether an environmental factor elicits changes in traits that are functionally advantageous. To compare functional traits and trait plasticities in fine root tissues with natural and reduced levels of colonization by microbial symbionts, trimmed and surface-sterilized root segments of 2-year-old Acer rubrum and Quercus rubra seedlings were manipulated. Segments were then replanted into satellite pots filled with control or heat-treated soil, both originally derived from a natural forest. Mycorrhizal colonization was near zero in roots grown in heat-treated soil; roots grown in control soil matched the higher colonization levels observed in unmanipulated root samples collected from field locations. Between-treatment comparisons revealed negligible plasticity for root diameter, branching intensity and nitrogen concentration across both species. Roots from treated soils had decreased tissue density (approx. 10-20 %) and increased specific root length (approx. 10-30 %). In contrast, species differences were significant and greater than treatment effects in traits other than tissue density. Interspecific trait differences were also significant in field samples, which generally resembled greenhouse samples. The combination of experimental and field approaches was useful for contextualizing trait plasticity in comparison with inter- and intra-specific trait variation. Findings that root traits are largely species dependent, with the exception of root tissue density, are discussed in the context of current literature on root trait variation, interactions with symbionts and recent

  4. Sexual Conflict and Gender Gap Effects: Associations between Social Context and Sex on Rated Attractiveness and Economic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouda-Vossos, Amany; Dixson, Barnaby J; Brooks, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    Human mate choice research often concerns sex differences in the importance of traits such as physical attractiveness and social status. A growing number of studies indicate that cues to social context, including other people who appear in stimulus photographs, can alter that individual's attractiveness. Fewer studies, however, consider judgements of traits other than physical attractiveness, such as wealth. Here we manipulate the presence/absence of other people in photographs of target models, and test the effects on judgments of both attractiveness and earnings (a proxy for status). Participants (N = 2044) rated either male or female models for either physical attractiveness or social/economic status when presented alone, with same sex others or with opposite sex others. We collectively refer to this manipulation as 'social context'. Male and female models received similar responses for physical attractiveness, but social context affected ratings of status differently for women and men. Males presented alongside other men received the highest status ratings while females presented alone were given the highest status ratings. Further, the status of females presented alongside a male was constrained by the rated status of that male. Our results suggests that high status may not directly lead to high attractiveness in men, but that status is more readily attributed to men than to women. This divide in status between the sexes is very clear when men and women are presented together, possibly reflecting one underlying mechanism of the modern day gender gap and sexist attitudes to women's economic participation. This adds complexity to our understanding of the relationship between attractiveness, status, and sex in the light of parental investment theory, sexual conflict and economic theory.

  5. Personality traits and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Meng; Cui, Qingbin; Fu, Liping

    2015-01-01

    As a cost-effective solution to energy conservation, behavior based method focuses on changing people's behavior through normative feedback for energy efficiency. While the application of behavior-based method is promising, the challenge exists to achieve efficiently sustainable behavioral change. Based on multi-period observation of energy behavior at the Joint Base Andrews in Maryland, this paper presents a model-based approach aimed to improve the nationally popular and deep-seated benchmark setting strategy for normative feedback used in home energy reports. The improved approach has its merits of countering the undesirable boomerang effect and enhancing the effectiveness of normative feedback targeting different personalities. By introducing a modified opinion dynamics model, this paper simulates the process of energy behavior change and therefore identifies the driver and elementary rules of behavioral change. In particular, the paper defines various behavioral zones in accordance with people's personality and proposes a new customized energy reporting mechanism that maps normative benchmark to personality trait. The new energy reporting policy has strong industrial implication for promoting behavior-based method towards a sustained energy conservation movement. -- Highlights: •We explore the personality driving resident behavior change under peer pressure. •We map the distribution of behavior clusters driven by personality and benchmarks. •The model is tested using data from an experiment conducted in Maryland, U.S. •The population exposed to normative feedback can be divided into six categories. •A personality trait-based home energy reporting mechanism is proposed

  6. Lack of Ecological and Life History Context Can Create the Illusion of Social Interactions in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Ricardo; Tarnita, Corina E

    2016-12-01

    Studies of social microbes often focus on one fitness component (reproductive success within the social complex), with little information about or attention to other stages of the life cycle or the ecological context. This can lead to paradoxical results. The life cycle of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum includes a multicellular stage in which not necessarily clonal amoebae aggregate upon starvation to form a possibly chimeric (genetically heterogeneous) fruiting body made of dead stalk cells and spores. The lab-measured reproductive skew in the spores of chimeras indicates strong social antagonism that should result in low genotypic diversity, which is inconsistent with observations from nature. Two studies have suggested that this inconsistency stems from the one-dimensional assessment of fitness (spore production) and that the solution lies in tradeoffs between multiple life-history traits, e.g.: spore size versus viability; and spore-formation (via aggregation) versus staying vegetative (as non-aggregated cells). We develop an ecologically-grounded, socially-neutral model (i.e. no social interactions between genotypes) for the life cycle of social amoebae in which we theoretically explore multiple non-social life-history traits, tradeoffs and tradeoff-implementing mechanisms. We find that spore production comes at the expense of time to complete aggregation, and, depending on the experimental setup, spore size and viability. Furthermore, experimental results regarding apparent social interactions within chimeric mixes can be qualitatively recapitulated under this neutral hypothesis, without needing to invoke social interactions. This allows for simple potential resolutions to the previously paradoxical results. We conclude that the complexities of life histories, including social behavior and multicellularity, can only be understood in the appropriate multidimensional ecological context, when considering all stages of the life cycle.

  7. Personality traits, income, and economic ideology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.N.

    2017-01-01

    While the psychological underpinnings of social ideology are well established, less is known about the psychological underpinnings of economic ideology. In this study I assess whether Big Five personality traits are associated with economic ideology and when personality traits are more strongly or

  8. Determination of chromosomes that control physiological traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of chromosomes that control physiological traits associated with salt tolerance in barley at the seedling stage. ... The phenotypic traits under study included: chlorophyll contents, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fo, Fv, Fv/Fm), proline and carbohydrate rates, relative water content (RWC) and dry and wet weight of ...

  9. Global Land Carbon Uptake from Trait Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, E. E.; Datta, A.; Flores-Moreno, H.; Fazayeli, F.; Chen, M.; Wythers, K. R.; Banerjee, A.; Atkin, O. K.; Kattge, J.; Reich, P. B.

    2016-12-01

    Historically, functional diversity in land surface models has been represented through a range of plant functional types (PFTs), each of which has a single value for all of its functional traits. Here we expand the diversity of the land surface by using a distribution of trait values for each PFT. The data for these trait distributions is from a sub-set of the global database of plant traits, TRY, and this analysis uses three leaf traits: mass based nitrogen and phosphorus content and specific leaf area, which influence both photosynthesis and respiration. The data are extrapolated into continuous surfaces through two methodologies. The first, a categorical method, classifies the species observed in TRY into satellite estimates of their plant functional type abundances - analogous to how traits are currently assigned to PFTs in land surface models. Second, a Bayesian spatial method which additionally estimates how the distribution of a trait changes in accord with both climate and soil covariates. These two methods produce distinct patterns of diversity which are incorporated into a land surface model to estimate how the range of trait values affects the global land carbon budget.

  10. Trait variation and genetic diversity in a banana genomic selection training population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Nyine

    Full Text Available Banana (Musa spp. is an important crop in the African Great Lakes region in terms of income and food security, with the highest per capita consumption worldwide. Pests, diseases and climate change hamper sustainable production of bananas. New breeding tools with increased crossbreeding efficiency are being investigated to breed for resistant, high yielding hybrids of East African Highland banana (EAHB. These include genomic selection (GS, which will benefit breeding through increased genetic gain per unit time. Understanding trait variation and the correlation among economically important traits is an essential first step in the development and selection of suitable GS models for banana. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that trait variations in bananas are not affected by cross combination, cycle, field management and their interaction with genotype. A training population created using EAHB breeding material and its progeny was phenotyped in two contrasting conditions. A high level of correlation among vegetative and yield related traits was observed. Therefore, genomic selection models could be developed for traits that are easily measured. It is likely that the predictive ability of traits that are difficult to phenotype will be similar to less difficult traits they are highly correlated with. Genotype response to cycle and field management practices varied greatly with respect to traits. Yield related traits accounted for 31-35% of principal component variation under low and high input field management conditions. Resistance to Black Sigatoka was stable across cycles but varied under different field management depending on the genotype. The best cross combination was 1201K-1xSH3217 based on selection response (R of hybrids. Genotyping using simple sequence repeat (SSR markers revealed that the training population was genetically diverse, reflecting a complex pedigree background, which was mostly influenced by the male parents.

  11. Trait variation and genetic diversity in a banana genomic selection training population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyine, Moses; Uwimana, Brigitte; Swennen, Rony; Batte, Michael; Brown, Allan; Christelová, Pavla; Hřibová, Eva; Lorenzen, Jim; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important crop in the African Great Lakes region in terms of income and food security, with the highest per capita consumption worldwide. Pests, diseases and climate change hamper sustainable production of bananas. New breeding tools with increased crossbreeding efficiency are being investigated to breed for resistant, high yielding hybrids of East African Highland banana (EAHB). These include genomic selection (GS), which will benefit breeding through increased genetic gain per unit time. Understanding trait variation and the correlation among economically important traits is an essential first step in the development and selection of suitable GS models for banana. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that trait variations in bananas are not affected by cross combination, cycle, field management and their interaction with genotype. A training population created using EAHB breeding material and its progeny was phenotyped in two contrasting conditions. A high level of correlation among vegetative and yield related traits was observed. Therefore, genomic selection models could be developed for traits that are easily measured. It is likely that the predictive ability of traits that are difficult to phenotype will be similar to less difficult traits they are highly correlated with. Genotype response to cycle and field management practices varied greatly with respect to traits. Yield related traits accounted for 31-35% of principal component variation under low and high input field management conditions. Resistance to Black Sigatoka was stable across cycles but varied under different field management depending on the genotype. The best cross combination was 1201K-1xSH3217 based on selection response (R) of hybrids. Genotyping using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers revealed that the training population was genetically diverse, reflecting a complex pedigree background, which was mostly influenced by the male parents.

  12. Trait variation and genetic diversity in a banana genomic selection training population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyine, Moses; Uwimana, Brigitte; Swennen, Rony; Batte, Michael; Brown, Allan; Christelová, Pavla; Hřibová, Eva; Lorenzen, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important crop in the African Great Lakes region in terms of income and food security, with the highest per capita consumption worldwide. Pests, diseases and climate change hamper sustainable production of bananas. New breeding tools with increased crossbreeding efficiency are being investigated to breed for resistant, high yielding hybrids of East African Highland banana (EAHB). These include genomic selection (GS), which will benefit breeding through increased genetic gain per unit time. Understanding trait variation and the correlation among economically important traits is an essential first step in the development and selection of suitable GS models for banana. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that trait variations in bananas are not affected by cross combination, cycle, field management and their interaction with genotype. A training population created using EAHB breeding material and its progeny was phenotyped in two contrasting conditions. A high level of correlation among vegetative and yield related traits was observed. Therefore, genomic selection models could be developed for traits that are easily measured. It is likely that the predictive ability of traits that are difficult to phenotype will be similar to less difficult traits they are highly correlated with. Genotype response to cycle and field management practices varied greatly with respect to traits. Yield related traits accounted for 31–35% of principal component variation under low and high input field management conditions. Resistance to Black Sigatoka was stable across cycles but varied under different field management depending on the genotype. The best cross combination was 1201K-1xSH3217 based on selection response (R) of hybrids. Genotyping using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers revealed that the training population was genetically diverse, reflecting a complex pedigree background, which was mostly influenced by the male parents. PMID:28586365

  13. Dissection of additive, dominance, and imprinting effects for production and reproduction traits in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jicai; Shen, Botong; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; VanRaden, Paul M; Cole, John B; Ma, Li

    2017-05-30

    Although genome-wide association and genomic selection studies have primarily focused on additive effects, dominance and imprinting effects play an important role in mammalian biology and development. The degree to which these non-additive genetic effects contribute to phenotypic variation and whether QTL acting in a non-additive manner can be detected in genetic association studies remain controversial. To empirically answer these questions, we analyzed a large cattle dataset that consisted of 42,701 genotyped Holstein cows with genotyped parents and phenotypic records for eight production and reproduction traits. SNP genotypes were phased in pedigree to determine the parent-of-origin of alleles, and a three-component GREML was applied to obtain variance decomposition for additive, dominance, and imprinting effects. The results showed a significant non-zero contribution from dominance to production traits but not to reproduction traits. Imprinting effects significantly contributed to both production and reproduction traits. Interestingly, imprinting effects contributed more to reproduction traits than to production traits. Using GWAS and imputation-based fine-mapping analyses, we identified and validated a dominance association signal with milk yield near RUNX2, a candidate gene that has been associated with milk production in mice. When adding non-additive effects into the prediction models, however, we observed little or no increase in prediction accuracy for the eight traits analyzed. Collectively, our results suggested that non-additive effects contributed a non-negligible amount (more for reproduction traits) to the total genetic variance of complex traits in cattle, and detection of QTLs with non-additive effect is possible in GWAS using a large dataset.

  14. L2 willingness to communicate (WTC and international posture in the Polish educational context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mystkowska-Wiertelak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Speaking, the language skill whose mastering appears to be the ultimate aim of every attempt at learning a foreign language, constitutes a formidable challenge. Apart from involving the online interaction of complex processes of conceptualization, formulation, articulation and monitoring (Levelt, 1989, it appears prone to numerous psychological and social influences that, being difficult to control, may consistently hinder development. One of such factors, closely related to the concept of anxiety, is L2 willingness to communicate (WTC, called “the most immediate determinant of L2 use” (Clement, Baker, & MacIntyre, 2003, p. 191. Perceived as either a personality trait or/and a context-related feature, WTC seems capable of accounting for a person’s first and second language communication. Interestingly it can be related to the learner’s disposition towards the target language culture, general interest in international affairs, willingness to travel and sustain contacts with speakers of other languages, which, defined as international posture (Yashima, 2002, serves as a strong predictor of success in language learning. The present paper reports the results of a survey conducted among 111 students of English, in the majority prospect teachers of English. The aim was to establish the degree of correlation between their international posture and WTC. The results do not corroborate the outcomes of other studies performed in the field (cf. Yashima, 2002, 2009, which might point to the unique characteristics of the Polish educational context.

  15. Querying Social Practices in Hospital Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Bruntse; Dignum, Virginia; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    and capabilities. Social practices can therefore simplify deliberation and planning in complex contexts. In the context of patient-centered planning, hospitals seek means to ensure that patients and their families are at the center of decisions and planning of the healthcare processes. This requires on one hand......Understanding the social contexts in which actions and interactions take place is of utmost importance for planning one’s goals and activities. People use social practices as means to make sense of their environment, assessing how that context relates to past, common experiences, culture...... that patients are aware of the practices being in place at the hospital and on the other hand that hospitals have the means to evaluate and adapt current practices to the needs of the patients. In this paper we apply a framework for formalizing social practices of an organization to an emergency department...

  16. Hypnosis and Empathy: A Complex Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Deirdre

    2016-01-01

    This article takes its inspiration from Wickramasekera II's empathic involvement theory of hypnosis. That model illuminates the mutual territory of hypnosis and empathy-common to much interaction between hypnotist and subject, and to the internal process of subjects as they enact suggestions of the hypnotist. However, the present article suggests that the overlap is not as ubiquitous as the empathic involvement theory asserts. Other aspects of hypnosis involve disengagement from real persons in the environment and dissociating from other ego states of the self. Amnesia and certain uses of focused attention in the hypnotic context run counter to empathy. The fantasizer type of high hypnotizables experiences hypnosis more empathically than do the equally hypnotizable dissociater type. This article also explores the relationship of hypnosis and empathy to other related states, including meditation, dreaming, and psychedelic drugs. The conclusion is that empathy is an important component of many hypnotic phenomena, but that the relationship is as partial and complex as the manner in which other traits, such as imagery ability and dissociation, map onto hypnosis.

  17. Cultural traits as units of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Michael J; Lyman, R Lee; Mesoudi, Alex; VanPool, Todd L

    2010-12-12

    Cultural traits have long been used in anthropology as units of transmission that ostensibly reflect behavioural characteristics of the individuals or groups exhibiting the traits. After they are transmitted, cultural traits serve as units of replication in that they can be modified as part of an individual's cultural repertoire through processes such as recombination, loss or partial alteration within an individual's mind. Cultural traits are analogous to genes in that organisms replicate them, but they are also replicators in their own right. No one has ever seen a unit of transmission, either behavioural or genetic, although we can observe the effects of transmission. Fortunately, such units are manifest in artefacts, features and other components of the archaeological record, and they serve as proxies for studying the transmission (and modification) of cultural traits, provided there is analytical clarity over how to define and measure the units that underlie this inheritance process.

  18. Trait-based approaches to zooplankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtman, E.; Ohman, M.D.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    in ecosystem models. Characterizing zooplankton traits and trade-offs will also be helpful in understanding the selection pressures and diversity patterns that emerge in different ecosystems along major environmental gradients. Zooplankton traits can be characterized according to their function and type. Some......; develop novel predictive models that explicitly incorporate traits and associated trade-offs; and utilize these traits to explain and predict zooplankton community structure and dynamics under different environmental conditions, including global change scenarios......Zooplankton are major primary consumers and predators in most aquatic ecosystems. They exhibit tremendous diversity of traits, ecological strategies and, consequently, impacts on other trophic levels and the cycling of materials and energy. An adequate representation of this diversity in community...

  19. Alpha band frequency differences between low-trait and high-trait anxious individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Richard T; Smith, Shelby L; Kraus, Brian T; Allen, Anna V; Moses, Michael A; Simon-Dack, Stephanie L

    2018-01-17

    Trait anxiety has been shown to cause significant impairments on attentional tasks. Current research has identified alpha band frequency differences between low-trait and high-trait anxious individuals. Here, we further investigated the underlying alpha band frequency differences between low-trait and high-trait anxious individuals during their resting state and the completion of an inhibition executive functioning task. Using human participants and quantitative electroencephalographic recordings, we measured alpha band frequency in individuals both high and low in trait anxiety during their resting state, and while they completed an Eriksen Flanker Task. Results indicated that high-trait anxious individuals exhibit a desynchronization in alpha band frequency from a resting state to when they complete the Eriksen Flanker Task. This suggests that high-trait anxious individuals maintain fewer attentional resources at rest and must martial resources for task performance as compared with low-trait anxious individuals, who appear to maintain stable cognitive resources between rest and task performance. These findings add to the cognitive neuroscience literature surrounding the role of alpha band frequency in low-trait and high-trait anxious individuals.

  20. Logistic analysis of the effects of shovel trait on Carabelli's trait in a Mongoloid population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, P L; Hsu, J W; Lin, L M; Liu, K M

    1996-08-01

    Mongoloid populations differ from Caucasoids by having a high prevalence of shovel trait and a low prevalence of Carabelli's trait. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the shovel trait on Carabelli's trait in a Mongoloid population. The research design sought a population that resides in an isolated area and exhibits low admixture with neighboring populations. The Mongoloid group selected for study was the Bunun tribe of aborigines who inhabit an alpine area in Taiwan. The effects of sex and age on Carabelli's trait were controlled in this investigation, as was the association between tooth size and Carabelli's trait. Results show that males were more likely to have Carabelli's trait expressed on teeth than females. The buccolingual diameter of Carabelli's trait teeth was larger than that of teeth without the trait. After adjusting for sex, age, and tooth size, the existence of the shovel trait increased the likelihood of having Carabelli's trait by a factor of three, an effect that is significant.

  1. Alexithymia in anorexia and bulimia: Ubiquitous and primary trait?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Amianto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alexithymia is associated to Eating Disorders (ED and relevant for their prognosis but it is uncertain if it is ubiquitous, primary and necessary for ED outburst. Methods: 124 ED outpatients and 80 healthy controls were compared with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, personality and psychopathology measures. Alexithymia and the other features are compared between anorexia nervosa (AN, bulimia nervosa (BN and control groups. Alexithymia-based clusters were explored and compared with controls. Alexithymia traits are correlated with the other features. Results: Difficulty in identifying feelings was ubiquitous in ED subjects. A Non-Alexithymic Cluster (NAC and an Alexithymic Cluster (ALC were found with no difference in AN/BN distribution. ALC displays disordered personality and high psychopathology. Self-directiveness and interoceptive awareness were independently related to alexithymia and to depressive feelings. These two features along with depressive features completely accounted for alexithymia variance. Conclusion: even though the difficulty in identifying feelings is ubiquitous in ED subjects, Alexithymia may not represent a primary trait but a complex dysfunction consequent to co-occurring character immaturity, altered interoceptive awareness, and depressive traits.

  2. Volumetric associations between uncinate fasciculus, amygdala, and trait anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baur Volker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent investigations of white matter (WM connectivity suggest an important role of the uncinate fasciculus (UF, connecting anterior temporal areas including the amygdala with prefrontal-/orbitofrontal cortices, for anxiety-related processes. Volume of the UF, however, has rarely been investigated, but may be an important measure of structural connectivity underlying limbic neuronal circuits associated with anxiety. Since UF volumetric measures are newly applied measures, it is necessary to cross-validate them using further neural and behavioral indicators of anxiety. Results In a group of 32 subjects not reporting any history of psychiatric disorders, we identified a negative correlation between left UF volume and trait anxiety, a finding that is in line with previous results. On the other hand, volume of the left amygdala, which is strongly connected with the UF, was positively correlated with trait anxiety. In addition, volumes of the left UF and left amygdala were inversely associated. Conclusions The present study emphasizes the role of the left UF as candidate WM fiber bundle associated with anxiety-related processes and suggests that fiber bundle volume is a WM measure of particular interest. Moreover, these results substantiate the structural relatedness of UF and amygdala by a non-invasive imaging method. The UF-amygdala complex may be pivotal for the control of trait anxiety.

  3. Advances in remote sensing of vegetation function and traits

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus

    2015-07-09

    Remote sensing of vegetation function and traits has advanced significantly over the past half-century in the capacity to retrieve useful plant biochemical, physiological and structural quantities across a range of spatial and temporal scales. However, the translation of remote sensing signals into meaningful descriptors of vegetation function and traits is still associated with large uncertainties due to complex interactions between leaf, canopy, and atmospheric mediums, and significant challenges in the treatment of confounding factors in spectrum-trait relations. This editorial provides (1) a background on major advances in the remote sensing of vegetation, (2) a detailed timeline and description of relevant historical and planned satellite missions, and (3) an outline of remaining challenges, upcoming opportunities and key research objectives to be tackled. The introduction sets the stage for thirteen Special Issue papers here that focus on novel approaches for exploiting current and future advancements in remote sensor technologies. The described enhancements in spectral, spatial and temporal resolution and radiometric performance provide exciting opportunities to significantly advance the ability to accurately monitor and model the state and function of vegetation canopies at multiple scales on a timely basis.

  4. ICT-policy in a geographical context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sten Lorentzon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available L’introduction des Technologies de l’Information et de la Communication (TIC en Suède s’est effectuée dans un contexte politico-institutionnel centralisé qui s’est toujours efforcé de maintenir les activités situées dans les îles, ces espaces périphériques peu peuplés. Dans un contexte où l’utilisation des TIC est perçue comme un moyen de corriger les déséquilibres régionaux, il n’en reste pas moins que le développement suédois vers une société de l’information et de la connaissance tend naturellement à renforcer le rôle de Stockholm comme nœud dominant. Cet article traite de la territorialisation des TIC en Suède à un niveau local, régional, national et international. Le rôle des acteurs territoriaux à ces différents niveaux est en particulier souligné pour montrer que les autorités locales, malgré un contexte centralisé, jouent un rôle important dans le soutien à la mise en place de la société de l’information.

  5. Assessing vocal performance in complex birdsong: a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberzahn, Nicole; Aubin, Thierry

    2014-08-06

    Vocal performance refers to the ability to produce vocal signals close to physical limits. Such motor skills can be used by conspecifics to assess a signaller's competitive potential. For example it is difficult for birds to produce repeated syllables both rapidly and with a broad frequency bandwidth. Deviation from an upper-bound regression of frequency bandwidth on trill rate has been widely used to assess vocal performance. This approach is, however, only applicable to simple trilled songs, and even then may be affected by differences in syllable complexity. Using skylarks (Alauda arvensis) as a birdsong model with a very complex song structure, we detected another performance trade-off: minimum gap duration between syllables was longer when the frequency ratio between the end of one syllable and the start of the next syllable (inter-syllable frequency shift) was large. This allowed us to apply a novel measure of vocal performance ¿ vocal gap deviation: the deviation from a lower-bound regression of gap duration on inter-syllable frequency shift. We show that skylarks increase vocal performance in an aggressive context suggesting that this trait might serve as a signal for competitive potential. We suggest using vocal gap deviation in future studies to assess vocal performance in songbird species with complex structure.

  6. Selection for production and reproduction traits in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de A.G.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction

    Reproduction traits are important for piglet production, whereas production traits are important for fattening. Pig breeding organizations improve both groups of traits by selection in nucleus populations. Optimization of selection in these nucleus populations

  7. New handbook for standardised measurement of plant functional traits worldwide.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez-Harguindeguy, N.; Diaz, S.; Garnier, E.; Lavorel, S.; Poorter, H.; Jaureguiberry, P.; Bret-Harte, M.S.; Cornwell, W.K.; Craine, J.M.; Gurvich, D.E.; Urcelay, C.; Veneklaas, E.J.; Reich, P.B.; Poorter, L.; Wright, I.J.; Ray, P.; Enrico, L.; Pausas, J.G.; de Vos, A.C.; Buchmann, N.; Funes, G.; Quetier, F.; Hodgson, J.G.; Thompson, K.; Morgan, H.D.; ter Steege, H.; van der Heijden, M.G.A.; Sack, L.; Blonder, B.; Poschlod, P.; Vaieretti, M.V.; Conti, G.; Staver, A.C.; Aquino, S.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.

    2013-01-01

    Plant functional traits are the features (morphological, physiological, phenological) that represent ecological strategies and determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels and influence ecosystem properties. Variation in plant functional traits, and trait

  8. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  9. Theorising context in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to address the issue of what context is and how it can be incorporated in psychological theory by using the case study of creativity research. It starts from a basic definition of context as the spatiotemporal continuum that, together with psychological phenomena, constitutes...... a totality and should be considered a single, integrated whole. As such, contexts are neither subjective, existing only in perception, nor are they a set of variables external to the person, but participate directly in the processes under study in psychology. We can therefore distinguish between “flat......” theorising, one-dimensional and overconcerned with intra-psychological factors, and “3-D” models trying to articulate the psychological, the spatial (sociomaterial), and the temporal. These categories are illustrated by different theoretical approaches to creativity. It is argued here that a cultural...

  10. Decisions in poverty contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, Eldar

    2017-12-01

    The circumstances surrounding poverty-tight financial challenges, instability of income and expenses, low savings, no insurance, and several other stressors-translate into persistent and cognitively taxing hardship for people in poverty contexts. Thoughts about money and expenses loom large, shape mental associations, interfere with other experiences, and are difficult to suppress. The persistent juggling of insufficient resources affects attention, cognitive resources, and ensuing decisions. Despite the demanding struggle with challenging circumstances, people in poverty encounter disdain rather than admiration, and obstacles rather than support. Societal appreciation for the power of context, along with behaviorally informed programs designed to facilitate life under poverty, are essential for those in poverty contexts to be able to make the most of their challenging circumstances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Context, you need

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Line Burholt

    Two clauses can contain the same information, yet display differences with respect to information structure. As an example, “He invited her” and “Her, he invited” contain the same information, but display syntactic differences. Previous language experiments, e.g. from German and English, have shown......, he invited” depends on the context – it is therefore relevant to take contextual factors into account when examining how language users process information structure. The dissertation is based on a psycholinguistic reading experiment and three neuroimaging experiments that all examine the interplay...... between context and information structure. The experimental results indicate that context plays a significant role when it comes to sentence comprehension and that the activity in Broca’s area is also affected by contextual factors. Based on the results of the four language experiments, it is also argued...

  12. Algorithmic Relative Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cerra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Information content and compression are tightly related concepts that can be addressed through both classical and algorithmic information theories, on the basis of Shannon entropy and Kolmogorov complexity, respectively. The definition of several entities in Kolmogorov’s framework relies upon ideas from classical information theory, and these two approaches share many common traits. In this work, we expand the relations between these two frameworks by introducing algorithmic cross-complexity and relative complexity, counterparts of the cross-entropy and relative entropy (or Kullback-Leibler divergence found in Shannon’s framework. We define the cross-complexity of an object x with respect to another object y as the amount of computational resources needed to specify x in terms of y, and the complexity of x related to y as the compression power which is lost when adopting such a description for x, compared to the shortest representation of x. Properties of analogous quantities in classical information theory hold for these new concepts. As these notions are incomputable, a suitable approximation based upon data compression is derived to enable the application to real data, yielding a divergence measure applicable to any pair of strings. Example applications are outlined, involving authorship attribution and satellite image classification, as well as a comparison to similar established techniques.

  13. Context-dependent Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan A Taylor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of generalization following motor learning can provide a probe on the neural mechanisms underlying learning. For example, the breadth of generalization to untrained regions of space after visuomotor adaptation to targets in a restricted region of space has been attributed to the directional tuning properties of neurons in the motor system. Building on this idea, the effect of different types of perturbations on generalization (e.g., rotation versus visual translation have been attributed to the selection of differentially tuned populations. Overlooked in this discussion is consideration of how the context of the training environment may constrain generalization. Here, we explore the role of context by having participants learn a visuomotor rotation or a translational shift in two different contexts, one in which the array of targets were presented in a circular arrangement and the other in which they were presented in a rectilinear arrangement. The perturbation and environments were either consistent (e.g., rotation with circular arrangement or inconsistent (e.g., rotation with rectilinear arrangement. The pattern of generalization across the workspace was much more dependent on the context of the environment than on the perturbation, with broad generalization for the rectilinear arrangement for both types of perturbations. Moreover, the generalization pattern for this context was evident, even when the perturbation was introduced in a gradual manner, precluding the use of an explicit strategy. We describe how current models of generalization might be modified to incorporate these results, building on the idea that context provides a strong bias for how the motor system infers the nature of the visuomotor perturbation and, in turn, how this information influences the pattern of generalization.

  14. Complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon

    2006-06-01

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  15. Learning in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2007-01-01

    This article offers a re-description of the concept of learning context. Drawing on Niklas Luhmann and Gregory Bateson it suggests an alternative to situated, social learning and activity theory. The conclusion is that learning context designates an individual's reconstruction of the environment...... through contingent handling of differences and that the individual emerge as learning through the actual construction. Selection of differences is influenced by the learner's actual knowledge, the nature of the environment and the current horizon of meaning in which the current adaptive perspective...... becomes a significant factor. The re-description contributes to didaktik  through renewed understandings of participants' background in teaching and learning....

  16. Mobile Context Toolbox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Skomail, Lukasz

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe an open framework utilizing sensors and application data on the Maemo mobile platform enabling rapid prototyping of context-aware mobile applications. The framework has an extensible layered architecture allowing new hardware and software sensors and features to be added...... to the context framework. We present initial results from in-the-wild experiments where contextual data was acquired using the tool. In the experiments 6 participants were using a Nokia N900 mobile phone continuously with a logger application for an average of 33 days. The study has provided valuable insights...

  17. Cue conflicts in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Poulsen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    When learning their first language, children develop strategies for assigning semantic roles to sentence structures, depending on morphosyntactic cues such as case and word order. Traditionally, comprehension experiments have presented transitive clauses in isolation, and crosslinguistically...... preschoolers. However, object-first clauses may be context-sensitive structures, which are infelicitous in isolation. In a second act-out study we presented OVS clauses in supportive and unsupportive discourse contexts and in isolation and found that five-to-six-year-olds’ OVS comprehension was enhanced...

  18. The value of extended pedigrees for next-generation analysis of complex disease in the rhesus macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Amanda; Prongay, Kamm; Ferguson, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    Complex diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, among many others) pose the biggest threat to human health worldwide and are among the most challenging to investigate. Susceptibility to complex disease may be caused by multiple genetic variants (GVs) and their interaction, by environmental factors, and by interaction between GVs and environment, and large study cohorts with substantial analytical power are typically required to elucidate these individual contributions. Here, we discuss the advantages of both power and feasibility afforded by the use of extended pedigrees of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) for genetic studies of complex human disease based on next-generation sequence data. We present these advantages in the context of previous research conducted in rhesus macaques for several representative complex diseases. We also describe a single, multigeneration pedigree of Indian-origin rhesus macaques and a sample biobank we have developed for genetic analysis of complex disease, including power of this pedigree to detect causal GVs using either genetic linkage or association methods in a variance decomposition approach. Finally, we summarize findings of significant heritability for a number of quantitative traits that demonstrate that genetic contributions to risk factors for complex disease can be detected and measured in this pedigree. We conclude that the development and application of an extended pedigree to analysis of complex disease traits in the rhesus macaque have shown promising early success and that genome-wide genetic and higher order -omics studies in this pedigree are likely to yield useful insights into the architecture of complex human disease.

  19. Design in new industrial contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    The output of industrial process is becoming more and more complex as a result of saturation of markets and the fine segmentation of the demand, which follows the multiplication of needs, lifestyles and behaviours. Services addressing such needs, are replacing material products as an object...... of exchange in modern markets. This context is addressing industrial production towards new models, characterised by highly personalised and localised solutions, to be developed by a network of actors, rather than a single company. New solution oriented partnerships (SOP) need to be created, involving...... and localised solutions should be expressed according to an industrial logic. The cooperation, within the production system of companies, local actors and even users may address this problem, however the industrialisation of such solutions is a methodological approach that has not yet generated an appropriate...

  20. Gendered contexts: Psychopathy and drug use in relation to sex work and exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Bethany G; Verona, Edelyn

    2016-05-01

    Few scholars have examined psychopathology correlates of sex work. It has been suggested that sex work may reflect manifestations of impulsive-antisocial psychopathic traits (e.g., reckless disregard, delinquency) in women more than men. The current work examined relative contributions of drug dependence and distinct psychopathic features in relation to traditional forms of sex work (i.e., prostitution) in women, along with gender differences in psychopathy relationships with casual forms of sex exchange (i.e., trading sex for necessities). Study 1 included 171 community-dwelling women offenders, and Study 2 included 319 participants (42.3% women) with histories of drug use and/or violence. Participants completed the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version, prostitution was measured as self-report and/or public record data across studies, and sex exchange in Study 2 was assessed using a questionnaire based on prior research on sexual risk-taking. Findings across both studies demonstrated that although psychopathic traits, particularly impulsive-antisocial features, were associated with prostitution in women above the use of drugs, drug dependence did not moderate the relationship between psychopathic traits and prostitution in women. Analyses of Study 2 data revealed that impulsive-antisocial traits were associated with sex exchange at low, but not high, levels of interpersonal-affective traits across participants. As well, interpersonal-affective traits were significantly positively related to sex exchange in men and not significantly (and negatively) related in women. In sum, impulsive-antisocial traits related to prostitution among women, suggesting that women may manifest these traits within intimate contexts. Moreover, findings indicated gender differences in the manifestation of interpersonal-affective traits within sexual exchange contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Gendered contexts: psychopathy and drug use in relation to sex work and exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Bethany G.; Verona, Edelyn

    2016-01-01

    Few scholars have examined psychopathology correlates of sex work. It has been suggested that sex work may reflect manifestations of impulsive-antisocial psychopathic traits (e.g., reckless disregard, delinquency) in women more than men. The current work examined relative contributions of drug dependence and distinct psychopathic features in relation to traditional forms of sex work (i.e., prostitution) in women, along with gender differences in psychopathy relationships with casual forms of sex exchange (i.e., trading sex for necessities). Study 1 included 171 community-dwelling women offenders, and Study 2 included 319 participants (42.3% women) with histories of drug use and/or violence. Participants completed the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version, prostitution was measured as self-report and/or public record data across studies, and sex exchange in Study 2 was assessed using a questionnaire based on prior research on sexual risk-taking. Findings across both studies demonstrated that while psychopathic traits, particularly impulsive-antisocial features, were associated with prostitution in women above the use of drugs, drug dependence did not moderate the relationship between psychopathic traits and prostitution in women. Analyses of Study 2 data revealed that impulsive-antisocial traits were associated with sex exchange at low, but not high, levels of interpersonal-affective traits across participants. As well, interpersonal-affective traits were significantly positively related to sex exchange in men and not significantly (and negatively) related in women. In sum, impulsive-antisocial traits related to prostitution among women, suggesting that women may manifest these traits within intimate contexts. Moreover, findings indicated gender differences in the manifestation of interpersonal-affective traits within sexual exchange contexts. PMID:27030996

  2. Phylogenetic perspectives on reef fish functional traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floeter, Sergio R; Bender, Mariana G; Siqueira, Alexandre C; Cowman, Peter F

    2018-02-01

    Functional traits have been fundamental to the evolution and diversification of entire fish lineages on coral reefs. Yet their relationship with the processes promoting speciation, extinction and the filtering of local species pools remains unclear. We review the current literature exploring the evolution of diet, body size, water column use and geographic range size in reef-associated fishes. Using published and new data, we mapped functional traits on to published phylogenetic trees to uncover evolutionary patterns that have led to the current functional diversity of fishes on coral reefs. When examining reconstructed patterns for diet and feeding mode, we found examples of independent transitions to planktivory across different reef fish families. Such transitions and associated morphological alterations may represent cases in which ecological opportunity for the exploitation of different resources drives speciation and adaptation. In terms of body size, reconstructions showed that both large and small sizes appear multiple times within clades of mid-sized fishes and that extreme body sizes have arisen mostly in the last 10 million years (Myr). The reconstruction of range size revealed many cases of disparate range sizes among sister species. Such range size disparity highlights potential vicariant processes through isolation in peripheral locations. When accounting for peripheral speciation processes in sister pairs, we found a significant relationship between labrid range size and lineage age. The diversity and evolution of traits within lineages is influenced by trait-environment interactions as well as by species and trait-trait interactions, where the presence of a given trait may trigger the development of related traits or behaviours. Our effort to assess the evolution of functional diversity across reef fish clades adds to the burgeoning research focusing on the evolutionary and ecological roles of functional traits. We argue that the combination of a

  3. Assessing the Utility of Compound Trait Estimates of Narrow Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credé, Marcus; Harms, Peter D; Blacksmith, Nikki; Wood, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued that approximations of narrow traits can be made through linear combinations of broad traits such as the Big Five personality traits. Indeed, Hough and Ones ( 2001 ) used a qualitative analysis of scale content to arrive at a taxonomy of how Big Five traits might be combined to approximate various narrow traits. However, the utility of such compound trait approximations has yet to be established beyond specific cases such as integrity and customer service orientation. Using data from the Eugene-Springfield Community Sample (Goldberg, 2008 ), we explore the ability of linear composites of scores on Big Five traits to approximate scores on 127 narrow trait measures from 5 well-known non-Big-Five omnibus measures of personality. Our findings indicate that individuals' standing on more than 30 narrow traits can be well estimated from 3 different types of linear composites of scores on Big Five traits without a substantial sacrifice in criterion validity. We discuss theoretical accounts for why such relationships exist as well as the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for researchers and practitioners.

  4. The effect of shovel trait on Carabelli's trait in Taiwan Chinese and Aboriginal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, J W; Tsai, P L; Hsiao, T H; Chang, H P; Lin, L M; Liu, K M; Yu, H S; Ferguson, D

    1997-09-01

    Chinese and other Mongoloid populations differ from Caucasoids by having a high prevalence of shovel trait and a low prevalence of Carabelli's trait. This study was conducted to compare the association between the shovel and the Carabelli's traits between Chinese and aboriginal Mongoloid populations. The research is designed to sample randomly a Chinese population and an aboriginal population having low admixture with neighboring populations. The Mongoloid aboriginal group was from the Bunun tribe who resides in an isolated alpine area in Taiwan. The effects of sex and age on Carabelli's trait were controlled in this study, as was the association between tooth size and Carabelli's trait. Our results show that males had more Carabelli's trait expressed on teeth than females in both of these two Mongoloid populations. The buccolingual diameter of Carabelli's trait teeth was larger than that of teeth without the trait. After controlling for sex, age, and tooth size, the existence of the shovel trait significantly increased the likelihood of having Carabelli's trait, especially in Chinese, which implies another significant ethnic feature for Mongoloid identification.

  5. Towards a unified model for leaf trait and trait-environment relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Harrison, S. P.; Prentice, I. C.; Peng, C.; Yang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    A widely accepted core set of leaf traits describes key aspects of plant function including the coupling among carbon, nitrogen and water cycles at the leaf, plant and ecosystem scales. Our current research focuses on two questions: (1) what dimensions of correlated variation among traits apply across all vascular plants irrespective of environment; (2) how, and to what extent, can variations in community mean values of leaf traits be predicted along environmental gradients? Based on a large quantitative trait data set covering the major environmental gradients across China, we are tackling these questions via two complementary approaches: multivariate analysis of trait-trait, trait-site, and trait-environment relationships, and the development of conceptual models and testable hypotheses for the dependencies of each trait on other traits and/or specific environmental predictors. Preliminary multivariate analyses suggest the existence of at least two independent axes of variation in leaf traits, and show robust relationships between trait syndromes and growing-season climate variables. A minimal conceptual model then considers nitrogen per unit leaf area (Narea) as a function of leaf mass per unit area (LMA) and carboxylation capacity (Vcmax); LMA as a function of irradiance, temperature and water and/or nutrient stress; Vcmax as a function of irradiance, temperature and the long-term ci:ca ratio (indexed by δ13C); and the ci:ca ratio as a function of vapour pressure deficit, temperature and atmospheric pressure. Each of these dependencies has support from observations, pointing the way towards a comprehensive set of equations to predict community-mean values of core traits in next-generation terrestrial ecosystem models.

  6. Verified Subtyping with Traits and Mixins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asankhaya Sharma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traits allow decomposing programs into smaller parts and mixins are a form of composition that resemble multiple inheritance. Unfortunately, in the presence of traits, programming languages like Scala give up on subtyping relation between objects. In this paper, we present a method to check subtyping between objects based on entailment in separation logic. We implement our method as a domain specific language in Scala and apply it on the Scala standard library. We have verified that 67% of mixins used in the Scala standard library do indeed conform to subtyping between the traits that are used to build them.

  7. Using traits to uncover tropical forest function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, Nate G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Xu, Chonggang [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 USA

    2017-04-11

    Plant traits reflect their evolutionary history and influence physiological processes (Reich, 2014). For example, the embolism risk taken by plants, called the embolism safety margin, is a good predictor of stomatal conductance, and hence photosynthesis (Skelton et al., 2015). Trait-science has grown dramatically in the last decade as we have found niversal patterns governing the carbon and nutrient economies of plants (Bloom et al., 1985). Perhaps the greatest value of studying plant functional traits is that they yield understanding of plant functional processes.

  8. Induced mutations for quantitative traits in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, B.N.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics and frequency of micro-mutations induced in quantitative traits by radiation treatment and the extent of heterozygotic effects of different recessive chlorophyll-mutant-genes on quantitative trait has been presented. Mutagenic treatments increased the variance for quantitative traits in all cases although the magnitude of increase varied depending on the treatment and the selection procedure adopted. The overall superiority of the chlorophyll-mutant heterozygotes over the corresponding wild homozygotes, as noted in consecutive two seasons, was not observed when these were grown at a high level of nitrogen fertiliser. (author)

  9. The Policy Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2016-01-01

    Green project. The term ‘green’ is used in the sustainability context, meaning that it features economic and social dimensions in addition to the usual environmental one. The most important EU transport policy documents are reviewed and briefly presented by transportation mode. Horizontal documents covering all...

  10. The uncomfortable context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmøller, Kathrin; Bernays, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    A reflexive account of the influence of context and time on accessing and understanding young people's experiences of parental substance misuse. The account draws on the case of Emily, a 13 year-old girl, to illustrate the dilemmas involved in capturing the fluidity of young people's coping over ...

  11. Agency, Context and Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkmann, Mads Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    The paper is a meta-discursive contribution to the discussion of how design can be understood as a medium of meaning formation and questioning of meaning. Further, the paper builds on plea for the role of humanities in relation to formulate relevant questions in design through conceptualizing the...... of meaning formulation and cultural contexts and, by this, contest design. In reflecting the foundational ground of design in terms of its agency, contexts and meaning constituents, design and its questioning of meaning can be critically reframed.......The paper is a meta-discursive contribution to the discussion of how design can be understood as a medium of meaning formation and questioning of meaning. Further, the paper builds on plea for the role of humanities in relation to formulate relevant questions in design through conceptualizing...... history, 2) the question of context in and of design, i.e. which contexts give meaning to design; this question calls for interpretive models of cultural analysis of the circuit of design in acknowledging phases and aspects of production, mediation and consumption, and 3) the question of the meaning...

  12. Generation and Context Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Lozito, Jeffrey P.; Rosner, Zachary A.

    2006-01-01

    Generation enhances memory for occurrence but may not enhance other aspects of memory. The present study further delineates the negative generation effect in context memory reported in N. W. Mulligan (2004). First, the negative generation effect occurred for perceptual attributes of the target item (its color and font) but not for extratarget…

  13. Putting tumours in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissell, M J; Radisky, D

    2001-10-01

    The interactions between cancer cells and their micro- and macroenvironment create a context that promotes tumour growth and protects it from immune attack. The functional association of cancer cells with their surrounding tissues forms a new 'organ' that changes as malignancy progresses. Investigation of this process might provide new insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and could also lead to new therapeutic targets.

  14. Context Construction through Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    This paper examines the relation between the evolution of statehood and institutionalised competition in the European context. The first half of the paper develops a historical-sociological view on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe while the second half the paper...

  15. Context Construction Through Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the evolution of statehood and competition in the European context. To begin with, a particular take on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe is developed. Against this background, the article reconstructs how the instit...

  16. A principal component meta-analysis on multiple anthropometric traits identifies novel loci for body shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Janina S.; Jeff M., Janina; Chu, Audrey Y.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; van Dongen, Jenny; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Cadby, Gemma; Eklund, Niina; Eriksson, Joel; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F.; Goel, Anuj; Gorski, Mathias; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Jackson, Anne U.; Jokinen, Eero; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kristiansson, Kati; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lahti, Jari; Luan, Jian'an; Mägi, Reedik; Mahajan, Anubha; Mangino, Massimo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Monda, Keri L.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Pérusse, Louis; Prokopenko, Inga; Qi, Lu; Rose, Lynda M.; Salvi, Erika; Smith, Megan T.; Snieder, Harold; Stančáková, Alena; Ju Sung, Yun; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Teumer, Alexander; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; van der Harst, Pim; Walker, Ryan W.; Wang, Sophie R.; Wild, Sarah H.; Willems, Sara M.; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Couto Alves, Alexessander; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Barlassina, Cristina; Bartz, Traci M.; Beilby, John; Bellis, Claire; Bergman, Richard N.; Bergmann, Sven; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Campbell, Harry; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chiang, Charleston W. K.; Chines, Peter S.; Collins, Francis S; Cucca, Fracensco; Cupples, L Adrienne; D'Avila, Francesca; de Geus, Eco J .C.; Dedoussis, George; Dimitriou, Maria; Döring, Angela; Eriksson, Johan G.; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Farrall, Martin; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Forouhi, Nita G.; Friedrich, Nele; Gjesing, Anette Prior; Glorioso, Nicola; Graff, Mariaelisa; Grallert, Harald; Grarup, Niels; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Hamsten, Anders; Harder, Marie Neergaard; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hastie, Nicholas; Hattersley, Andrew Tym; Havulinna, Aki S.; Heliövaara, Markku; Hillege, Hans; Hofman, Albert; Holmen, Oddgeir; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hui, Jennie; Husemoen, Lise Lotte; Hysi, Pirro G.; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; Jalilzadeh, Shapour; James, Alan L.; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti; Marie Justesen, Johanne; Justice, Anne E.; Kähönen, Mika; Karaleftheri, Maria; Tee Khaw, Kay; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Kinnunen, Leena; Knekt, Paul B.; Koistinen, Heikki A.; Kolcic, Ivana; Kooner, Ishminder K.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Laitinen, Tomi; Langenberg, Claudia; Lewin, Alexandra M.; Lichtner, Peter; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Lindström, Jaana; Linneberg, Allan; Lorbeer, Roberto; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luben, Robert; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Manunta, Paolo; Leach, Irene Mateo; McArdle, Wendy L.; Mcknight, Barbara; Mohlke, Karen L.; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Montasser, May E.; Morris, Andrew P.; Müller, Gabriele; Musk, Arthur W.; Narisu, Narisu; Ong, Ken K.; Oostra, Ben A.; Osmond, Clive; Palotie, Aarno; Pankow, James S.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Penninx, Brenda W.; Pichler, Irene; Pilia, Maria G.; Polašek, Ozren; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rayner, Nigel W.; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Rice, Treva K.; Richards, Marcus; Ridker, Paul M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Ryan, Kathy A.; Sanna, Serena; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Scholtens, Salome; Scott, Robert A.; Sebert, Sylvain; Southam, Lorraine; Sparsø, Thomas Hempel; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stolk, Ronald P.; Strauch, Konstantin; Stringham, Heather M.; Swertz, Morris A.; Swift, Amy J.; Tönjes, Anke; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; van der Most, Peter J.; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Vartiainen, Erkki; Venturini, Cristina; Verweij, Niek; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Vonk, Judith M.; Waeber, Gérard; Widén, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Winkler, Thomas W.; Wright, Alan F.; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Hua Zhao, Jing; Carola Zillikens, M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bouchard, Claude; Chambers, John C.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Cusi, Daniele; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gieger, Christian; Hansen, Torben; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hu, Frank; Hveem, Kristian; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Metspalu, Andres; Njølstad, Inger; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Pedersen, Oluf; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Psaty, Bruce M.; Puolijoki, Hannu; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Shudiner, Alan R.; Smit, Jan H.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Spector, Timothy D.; Stefansson, Kari; Stumvoll, Michael; Tremblay, Angelo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G.; Uusitupa, Matti; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Wilson, James F.; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Fox, Caroline; Groop, Leif C.; Heid, Iris M.; Hunter, David J.; Kaplan, Robert C.; McCarthy, Mark I.; North, Kari E.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Schlessinger, David; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Strachan, David P.; Frayling, Timothy; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2016-01-01

    Large consortia have revealed hundreds of genetic loci associated with anthropometric traits, one trait at a time. We examined whether genetic variants affect body shape as a composite phenotype that is represented by a combination of anthropometric traits. We developed an approach that calculates averaged PCs (AvPCs) representing body shape derived from six anthropometric traits (body mass index, height, weight, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio). The first four AvPCs explain >99% of the variability, are heritable, and associate with cardiometabolic outcomes. We performed genome-wide association analyses for each body shape composite phenotype across 65 studies and meta-analysed summary statistics. We identify six novel loci: LEMD2 and CD47 for AvPC1, RPS6KA5/C14orf159 and GANAB for AvPC3, and ARL15 and ANP32 for AvPC4. Our findings highlight the value of using multiple traits to define complex phenotypes for discovery, which are not captured by single-trait analyses, and may shed light onto new pathways. PMID:27876822

  17. A method to prioritize quantitative traits and individuals for sequencing in family-based studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaanan P Shah

    Full Text Available Owing to recent advances in DNA sequencing, it is now technically feasible to evaluate the contribution of rare variation to complex traits and diseases. However, it is still cost prohibitive to sequence the whole genome (or exome of all individuals in each study. For quantitative traits, one strategy to reduce cost is to sequence individuals in the tails of the trait distribution. However, the next challenge becomes how to prioritize traits and individuals for sequencing since individuals are often characterized for dozens of medically relevant traits. In this article, we describe a new method, the Rare Variant Kinship Test (RVKT, which leverages relationship information in family-based studies to identify quantitative traits that are likely influenced by rare variants. Conditional on nuclear families and extended pedigrees, we evaluate the power of the RVKT via simulation. Not unexpectedly, the power of our method depends strongly on effect size, and to a lesser extent, on the frequency of the rare variant and the number and type of relationships in the sample. As an illustration, we also apply our method to data from two genetic studies in the Old Order Amish, a founder population with extensive genealogical records. Remarkably, we implicate the presence of a rare variant that lowers fasting triglyceride levels in the Heredity and Phenotype Intervention (HAPI Heart study (p = 0.044, consistent with the presence of a previously identified null mutation in the APOC3 gene that lowers fasting triglyceride levels in HAPI Heart study participants.

  18. Genome-wide association studies dissect the genetic networks underlying agronomical traits in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chao; Ma, Yanming; Wu, Shiwen; Liu, Zhi; Wang, Zheng; Yang, Rui; Hu, Guanghui; Zhou, Zhengkui; Yu, Hong; Zhang, Min; Pan, Yi; Zhou, Guoan; Ren, Haixiang; Du, Weiguang; Yan, Hongrui; Wang, Yanping; Han, Dezhi; Shen, Yanting; Liu, Shulin; Liu, Tengfei; Zhang, Jixiang; Qin, Hao; Yuan, Jia; Yuan, Xiaohui; Kong, Fanjiang; Liu, Baohui; Li, Jiayang; Zhang, Zhiwu; Wang, Guodong; Zhu, Baoge; Tian, Zhixi

    2017-08-24

    Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) is one of the most important oil and protein crops. Ever-increasing soybean consumption necessitates the improvement of varieties for more efficient production. However, both correlations among different traits and genetic interactions among genes that affect a single trait pose a challenge to soybean breeding. To understand the genetic networks underlying phenotypic correlations, we collected 809 soybean accessions worldwide and phenotyped them for two years at three locations for 84 agronomic traits. Genome-wide association studies identified 245 significant genetic loci, among which 95 genetically interacted with other loci. We determined that 14 oil synthesis-related genes are responsible for fatty acid accumulation in soybean and function in line with an additive model. Network analyses demonstrated that 51 traits could be linked through the linkage disequilibrium of 115 associated loci and these links reflect phenotypic correlations. We revealed that 23 loci, including the known Dt1, E2, E1, Ln, Dt2, Fan, and Fap loci, as well as 16 undefined associated loci, have pleiotropic effects on different traits. This study provides insights into the genetic correlation among complex traits and will facilitate future soybean functional studies and breeding through molecular design.

  19. Successful Graduate Students: The Roles of Personality Traits and Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grehan, Patrick M.; Flanagan, Rosemary; Malgady, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    Given the complex role of school psychologists, it is in the interest of stakeholders to identify characteristics related to student success in graduate training, which is suggestive of their effectiveness as practitioners. This study explores the relationship of personality traits and Emotional Intelligence (EI) to graduate students' performance…

  20. Behavioral trait genetics in mice; Opportunities for translational research of psychiatric endophenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij-van Malsen, J.G. de

    2009-01-01

    Mood disorders have powerful effects on the lives of many people. Finding the mechanisms underlying these disorders is essential to develop selective treatment. In this thesis, interspecies trait genetics are used on behavioural domains to unravel the complex genetics of involved endophenotypes. We

  1. Stereotypes in a context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnilica, Karel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the study we tested some hypotheses concerning the influence of a context on stereotypes. Our first hypothesis concerns explicit stereotypes. According to it Czech respondents will ascribe to their own category more positive attributes if a list of categories will include only Czech and Roma people than when it will include also some categories which are more positively evaluated than Czechs. The next hypothesis concerns implicit stereotypes. According to it when using IAT (Implicit Association Test; Greenwald et al., 1998, where there are compared two categories, we will ascertain a more profound difference between attitudes to Czech and Roma people than when we use BFP (Bona Fide Pipeline; Fazio et al., 1995, in which there is no such a comparison. Our next two hypotheses concern consensual stereotypes. According to one of them the content of a consensual stereotype will overlap with content of a no personal stereotype. According to the other, the valences of consensual stereotypes will be more polarized than the mean valences of personal stereotypes. The context will have similar influences on consensual and personal stereotypes. In our two researches there took part two samples (N1 = 86, N2 = 201 of adult members. To ascertain the content of explicit stereotypes we used an open-form technique. The first sample adduced attributes of members of two categories, the second sample adduced attributes of members of twelve categories. We define the consensual stereotype as a set of ten most often cited attributes. To measure implicit stereotypes, we used IAT and BFP. Results show that responses of the respondents were influenced by context in the directions expected. The content of no personal stereotype overlapped with the content of any consensual stereotype. The context had influence on both explicit and implicit measures. At the same time it was found that context had on personal and consensual stereotypes similar, but not identical

  2. Migration of cells in a social context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Søren; Tay, Savas; Johnston, Darius M

    2013-01-01

    In multicellular organisms and complex ecosystems, cells migrate in a social context. Whereas this is essential for the basic processes of life, the influence of neighboring cells on the individual remains poorly understood. Previous work on isolated cells has observed a stereotypical migratory...... behavior characterized by short-time directional persistence with long-time random movement. We discovered a much richer dynamic in the social context, with significant variations in directionality, displacement, and speed, which are all modulated by local cell density. We developed a mathematical model...

  3. When music “flows”. State and trait in musical performance, composition and listening: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Alice; Serino, Silvia; Cipresso, Pietro; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    It is not unusual to experience a sense of total absorption, concentration, action-awareness, distortion of time and intrinsic enjoyment during an activity that involves music. Indeed, it is noted that there is a special relationship between these two aspects (i.e., music and flow experience). In order to deeply explore flow in the musical domain, it is crucial to consider the complexity of the flow experience—both as a “state” and as a “trait.” Secondly, since music is a multifaceted domain, it is necessary to concentrate on specific music settings, such as (i) musical composition; (ii) listening; and (iii) musical performance. To address these issues, the current review aims to outline flow experience as a “trait” and as a “state” in the three above-mentioned musical domains. Clear and useful guidelines to distinguish between flow as a “state” and as a “trait” are provided by literature concerning flow assessment. For this purpose, three aspects of the selected studies are discussed and analyzed: (i) the characteristics of the flow assessments used; (ii) the experimental design; (iii) the results; and (iv) the interrelations between the three domains. Results showed that the dispositional approach is predominant in the above-mentioned settings, mainly regarding music performance. Several aspects concerning musical contexts still need to be deeply analyzed. Future challenges could include the role of a group level of analysis, overcoming a frequency approach toward dispositional flow, and integrating both state and dispositional flow perspectives in order to deepen comprehension of how flow takes place in musical contexts. Finally, to explain the complex relationship between these two phenomena, we suggest that music and flow could be seen as an emergent embodied system. PMID:26175709

  4. Using Structured Knowledge Representation for Context-Sensitive Probabilistic Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sakhanenko, Nikita A; Luger, George F

    2008-01-01

    We propose a context-sensitive probabilistic modeling system (COSMOS) that reasons about a complex, dynamic environment through a series of applications of smaller, knowledge-focused models representing contextually relevant information...

  5. Assessment in the global context: From ozone to ecosystems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, B

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This presentation discusses the assessment in the global context: From ozone to ecosystems. Process to evaluate the status of knowledge on complex problems relevant to societies. A key element of the contemporary science-policy interface....

  6. Class-Based Context Quality Optimization For Context Management Frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shawky, Ahmed; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2012-01-01

    Context-awareness is a key requirement in many of today's networks, services and applications. Context Management systems are in this respect used to provide access to distributed, dynamic context information. The reliability of remotely accessed dynamic context information is challenged by network...

  7. Trait- and size-based descriptions of trophic links in freshwater food webs: current status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Boukal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Biotic interactions in aquatic communities are dominated by predation, and the distribution of trophic link strengths in aquatic food webs crucially impacts their dynamics and stability. Although individual body size explains a large proportion of variation in trophic link strengths in aquatic habitats, current predominately body size-based views can gain additional realism by incorporating further traits. Functional traits that potentially affect the strength of trophic links can be classified into three groups: i body size, ii traits that identify the spatiotemporal overlap between the predators and their prey, and iii predator foraging and prey vulnerability traits, which are readily available for many taxa. Relationship between these trait groups and trophic link strength may be further modified by population densities, habitat complexity, temperature and other abiotic factors. I propose here that this broader multi-trait framework can utilize concepts, ideas and existing data from research on metabolic ecology, ecomorphology, animal personalities and role of habitats in community structuring. The framework can be used to investigate non-additive effects of traits on trophic interactions, shed more light on the structuring of local food webs and evaluate the merits of taxonomic and functional group approaches in the description of predator-prey interactions. Development of trait- and size-based descriptions of food webs could be particularly fruitful in limnology given the relative paucity of well resolved datasets in standing waters. 

  8. Cancer and life-history traits: lessons from host-parasite interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujvari, Beata; Beckmann, Christa; Biro, Peter A; Arnal, Audrey; Tasiemski, Aurelie; Massol, Francois; Salzet, Michel; Mery, Frederic; Boidin-Wichlacz, Celine; Misse, Dorothee; Renaud, Francois; Vittecoq, Marion; Tissot, Tazzio; Roche, Benjamin; Poulin, Robert; Thomas, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    Despite important differences between infectious diseases and cancers, tumour development (neoplasia) can nonetheless be closely compared to infectious disease because of the similarity of their effects on the body. On this basis, we predict that many of the life-history (LH) responses observed in the context of host-parasite interactions should also be relevant in the context of cancer. Parasites are thought to affect LH traits of their hosts because of strong selective pressures like direct and indirect mortality effects favouring, for example, early maturation and reproduction. Cancer can similarly also affect LH traits by imposing direct costs and/or indirectly by triggering plastic adjustments and evolutionary responses. Here, we discuss how and why a LH focus is a potentially productive but under-exploited research direction for cancer research, by focusing our attention on similarities between infectious disease and cancer with respect to their effects on LH traits and their evolution. We raise the possibility that LH adjustments can occur in response to cancer via maternal/paternal effects and that these changes can be heritable to (adaptively) modify the LH traits of their offspring. We conclude that LH adjustments can potentially influence the transgenerational persistence of inherited oncogenic mutations in populations.

  9. Evolution of novel signal traits in the absence of female preferences in Neoconocephalus katydids (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Bush

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND SIGNIFICANCE: Communication signals that function to bring together the sexes are important for maintaining reproductive isolation in many taxa. Changes in male calls are often attributed to sexual selection, in which female preferences initiate signal divergence. Natural selection can also influence signal traits if calls attract predators or parasitoids, or if calling is energetically costly. Neutral evolution is often neglected in the context of acoustic communication.We describe a signal trait that appears to have evolved in the absence of either sexual or natural selection. In the katydid genus Neoconocephalus, calls with a derived pattern in which pulses are grouped into pairs have evolved five times independently. We have previously shown that in three of these species, females require the double pulse pattern for call recognition, and hence the recognition system of the females is also in a derived state. Here we describe the remaining two species and find that although males produce the derived call pattern, females use the ancestral recognition mechanism in which no pulse pattern is required. Females respond equally well to the single and double pulse calls, indicating that the derived trait is selectively neutral in the context of mate recognition.These results suggest that 1 neutral changes in signal traits could be important in the diversification of communication systems, and 2 males rather than females may be responsible for initiating signal divergence.

  10. Segmenting consumers according to experiential preferences based on personality type vs. personality traits – a latent class analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jeanne

    Differences in consumers’ preferences for experiences have been suggested to be based on personality among other things. Personality in consumer research has primarily been operationalized as personality traits using the Five Factor theory. An old, re-emerged discussion in psychology is pointing...... at personality type rather than single personality traits to better understand behavior. Personality type represents “typical configurations of the dispositional attributes that define individuals” (Donnellan and Robins, 2010: 1). Type accounts for the necessity of understanding not only a person’s defining...... trait but also how this interacts with other traits providing a person centered rather than an attribute centered understanding. This allows for a classification of people rather than a classification of attributes of people. In the context of segmentation the objective is classifying people rather than...

  11. Association analysis of three diverse rice (Oryza sativa L.) germplasm collections for loci regulating grain quality traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    In rice (Oryza sativa L.), end-use/cooking quality is vital for producers and millions of consumers worldwide. Grain quality is a complex trait with interacting genetic and environmental factors. Deciphering the complex genetic architecture associated with grain quality, will provide vital informati...

  12. Model-driven design of context-aware applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shishkov, Boris; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Cardoso, J.; Cordeiro, J.; Filipe, J.

    2007-01-01

    In many cases, in order to be effective, software applications need to allow sensitivity to context changes. This implies however additional complexity associated with the need for applications’ adaptability (being capable of capturing context, interpreting it and reacting on it). Hence, we envision

  13. Multivariate Survival Mixed Models for Genetic Analysis of Longevity Traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pimentel Maia, Rafael; Madsen, Per; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    A class of multivariate mixed survival models for continuous and discrete time with a complex covariance structure is introduced in a context of quantitative genetic applications. The methods introduced can be used in many applications in quantitative genetics although the discussion presented co...... applications. The methods presented are implemented in such a way that large and complex quantitative genetic data can be analyzed......A class of multivariate mixed survival models for continuous and discrete time with a complex covariance structure is introduced in a context of quantitative genetic applications. The methods introduced can be used in many applications in quantitative genetics although the discussion presented...... concentrates on longevity studies. The framework presented allows to combine models based on continuous time with models based on discrete time in a joint analysis. The continuous time models are approximations of the frailty model in which the hazard function will be assumed to be piece-wise constant...

  14. Multivariate Survival Mixed Models for Genetic Analysis of Longevity Traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pimentel Maia, Rafael; Madsen, Per; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    A class of multivariate mixed survival models for continuous and discrete time with a complex covariance structure is introduced in a context of quantitative genetic applications. The methods introduced can be used in many applications in quantitative genetics although the discussion presented co...... applications. The methods presented are implemented in such a way that large and complex quantitative genetic data can be analyzed......A class of multivariate mixed survival models for continuous and discrete time with a complex covariance structure is introduced in a context of quantitative genetic applications. The methods introduced can be used in many applications in quantitative genetics although the discussion presented...... concentrates on longevity studies. The framework presented allows to combine models based on continuous time with models based on discrete time in a joint analysis. The continuous time models are approximations of the frailty model in which the hazard function will be assumed to be piece-wise constant...

  15. The use of traits and contextual information in free personality descriptions across ethnocultural groups in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valchev, Velichko H; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Nel, J Alewyn; Rothmann, Sebastiaan; Meiring, Deon

    2013-06-01

    The present study investigates the differences between 3 ethnocultural groups in South Africa in the use of traits and contextual information for personality descriptions and the interaction of these differences with social distance from the target person and with personality domains. Semistructured interviews asking for self- and other-descriptions were conducted with 1,027 Blacks, 84 Coloureds and Indians, and 105 Whites, representing the country's 11 official languages. In Part 1 we found similarities in the total set of categories used most often for personality description across the 3 groups-traits, behaviors, preferences, and perceptions (over 86%), which were context-free (over 66%)-as well as substantial differences between the groups in the relative use of these categories. In Part 2 we found that distance from the target person plays a role in cross-cultural differences in trait use and contextualization. In Part 3 we found significant interactions of culture with the use of traits and contextual information across agency-communion and 9 indigenous South African personality clusters similar to the Big Five. The responses of Blacks confirmed expectations for collectivistic groups (fewer traits and more contextualization) and of Whites for individualistic groups (more traits and less contextualization), and Coloureds and Indians had an intermediate pattern. The results are discussed in the framework of the trait and cultural psychology perspectives on personality. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Quantitative traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MSS

    2012-11-13

    Nov 13, 2012 ... Of the quantitative traits in wheat, spike length, number of spikes per m2, grain mass per spike, number ... design with four liming variants along with three replications, in which the experimental field .... The sampling was done.

  17. Heteroscedastic Latent Trait Models for Dichotomous Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Dylan

    2015-09-01

    Effort has been devoted to account for heteroscedasticity with respect to observed or latent moderator variables in item or test scores. For instance, in the multi-group generalized linear latent trait model, it could be tested whether the observed (polychoric) covariance matrix differs across the levels of an observed moderator variable. In the case that heteroscedasticity arises across the latent trait itself, existing models commonly distinguish between heteroscedastic residuals and a skewed trait distribution. These models have valuable applications in intelligence, personality and psychopathology research. However, existing approaches are only limited to continuous and polytomous data, while dichotomous data are common in intelligence and psychopathology research. Therefore, in present paper, a heteroscedastic latent trait model is presented for dichotomous data. The model is studied in a simulation study, and applied to data pertaining alcohol use and cognitive ability.

  18. Effects of Personality Traits, Religiousness/ Spirituality on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religiousness Index (IWSRI), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) were administered to 412 randomly selected senior secondary school students to evaluate personality traits, spirituality/religiousness, and psychopathology respectively.

  19. Trait-based plant ecology: moving towards a unifying species coexistence theory : Features of the Special Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Functional traits are the center of recent attempts to unify key ecological theories on species coexistence and assembling in populations and communities. While the plethora of studies on the role of functional traits to explain patterns and dynamics of communities has rendered a complex picture due to the idiosyncrasies of each study system and approach, there is increasing evidence on their actual relevance when aspects such as different spatial scales, intraspecific variability and demography are considered.

  20. Young Children's Self-Concepts Include Representations of Abstract Traits and the Global Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpian, Andrei; Hammond, Matthew D; Mazza, Giulia; Corry, Grace

    2017-11-01

    There is debate about the abstractness of young children's self-concepts-specifically, whether they include representations of (a) general traits and abilities and (b) the global self. Four studies (N = 176 children aged 4-7) suggested these representations are indeed part of early self-concepts. Studies 1 and 2 reexamined prior evidence that young children cannot represent traits and abilities. The results suggested that children's seemingly immature judgments in previous studies were due to peculiarities of the task context not the inadequacy of children's self-concepts. Similarly, Studies 3 and 4 revealed that, contrary to claims of immaturity in reasoning about the global self, young children update their global self-evaluations in flexible, context-sensitive ways. This evidence suggests continuity in the structure of self-concepts across childhood. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.