WorldWideScience

Sample records for complex respiratory devices

  1. A respiratory monitoring device based on clavicular motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, D G; Aspinall, R; Patel, M K; Lang, P-O; Sinclair, A J

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory rate is one of the key vital signs yet unlike temperature, heart rate or blood pressure, there is no simple and low cost measurement device for medical use. Here we discuss the development of a respiratory sensor based upon clavicular motion and the findings of a pilot study comparing respiratory rate readings derived from clavicular and thoracic motion with an expiratory breath flow reference sensor. Simultaneously sampled data from resting volunteers (n = 8) was analysed to determine the location of individual breaths in the data set and from these, breath periods and frequency were calculated. Clavicular sensor waveforms were found to be more consistent and of greater amplitude than those from the thoracic device, demonstrating good alignment with the reference waveform. On comparing breath by breath periods a close agreement was observed with the reference, with mean clavicular respiratory rate R 2 values of 0.89 (lateral) and 0.98 (longitudinal-axis). This pilot study demonstrates the viability of clavicular respiratory sensing. The sensor is unobtrusive, unaffected by bioelectrical or electrode problems and easier to determine and more consistent than thoracic motion sensing. With relatively basic signal conditioning and processing requirements, it could provide an ideal platform for a low-cost respiratory monitor. (note)

  2. Respiratory protective device design using control system techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, W. A.; Yankovich, D.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of a control system analysis approach to provide a design base for respiratory protective devices is considered. A system design approach requires that all functions and components of the system be mathematically identified in a model of the RPD. The mathematical notations describe the operation of the components as closely as possible. The individual component mathematical descriptions are then combined to describe the complete RPD. Finally, analysis of the mathematical notation by control system theory is used to derive compensating component values that force the system to operate in a stable and predictable manner.

  3. Medical devices; immunology and microbiology devices; classification of nucleic acid-based devices for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and the genetic mutations associated with antibiotic resistance. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-22

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying nucleic acid-based in vitro diagnostic devices for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB-complex) and the genetic mutations associated with MTB-complex antibiotic resistance in respiratory specimens devices into class II (special controls). The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) because special controls, in addition to general controls, will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  4. Filtration of nanoparticles - Application to respiratory protecting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochot, C.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to determine how the respiratory protective devices (RPD), whose performances are qualified for particles above 100 nm, are effective for nanoparticles. Indeed, if the use of a collective filtration is inadequate, wearing a RPD is the last protection recommended. A literature review showed that no research concerned the effectiveness of half-masks for nanoparticles. The test bench ETNA has been sized and built to overcome these lacks. Two half masks were tested according to different configurations: constant flow rate and cyclic flow rate (average flow of 84 L /min), particle size (from 5 to 100 nm), positions of the mask (sealed, usual, or with calibrated leaks). The results show that, since the RPD contain high efficiency filter media (without charged fibers) for the most penetrating particle size (100 nm - 300 nm), the RPD is more efficient for nanoparticles. Furthermore, the results obtained in the presence of actual and calibrated leaks, highlighted the importance of face seal leakages in determining the performance of RPD. A model for calculating the protection factor was established based on the balance between the airflow through the filter and the leak. This model was validated using measurements obtained in the presence of calibrated leaks, and applied for the analysis of our results in usual position. (author)

  5. Deficiency of respiratory chain complex I in Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Franz A; Neureiter, Daniel; Feichtinger, René G; Trost, Andrea; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara; Mayr, Johannes A

    2016-01-01

    Oncocytic cells (OCs) are characterized by an accumulation of mitochondria and their occurrence in the thyroid gland of patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is well known. However, their properties and functional relevance are poorly understood. We investigated OC lesions (n=212) in the thyroid of 12 HT patients. Loss of complex I protein was observed in oncocytic lesions of each of the patients. In addition to isolated complex I deficiency, 25% of oncocytic lesions showed combined deficiency of complex I and IV. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time a defect of respiratory chain complex I in OCs of HT patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Attenuation of earmuffs used simultaneously with respiratory protective devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Kozłowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the work environment, apart from the noise, employees may be exposed to other harmful factors. Therefore, they wear hearing protectors and other personal protective equipment. The aim of the study was to determine whether simultaneous use of earmuffs and respiratory protective devices affects the attenuation of earmuffs. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in laboratory conditions using the subjective REAT (Real Ear Attenuation at Threshold and objective MIRE (Microphone in Real Ear methods. The REAT method was used to measure sound attenuation of earmuffs, while MIRE was used to determine changes in attenuation of earmuffs due to the use of other personal protective equipment. Results: The study showed reduction in attenuation of earmuffs due to the use of a full face mask up to 20 dB. Using a full face mask causes that attenuation of earmuffs in the low frequency range is close to zero. Reduction in attenuation due to the use of half masks for complete with particle filters (half masks is 3–15 dB. Simultaneous use of earmuffs and filtering half masks makes small changes in attenuation not exceeding 3 dB. Conclusions: The study showed that full face masks give the greatest reduction in attenuation of earmuffs. On the other hand, the least reduction is observed in the case of filtering half masks. There is a significant difference between the reduction in attenuation of earmuffs worn with half masks for complete with particle filters because they may be equipped with different kind of the head strap. Med Pr 2017;68(3:349–361

  7. SU-E-J-48: Development of An Abdominal Compression Device for Respiratory Correlated Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T; Kang, S; Kim, D; Suh, T; Kim, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop the abdominal compression device which could control pressure level according to the abdominal respiratory motion and evaluate its feasibility. Methods: In this study, we focused on developing the abdominal compression device which could control pressure level at any point of time so the developed device is possible to use a variety of purpose (gating technique or respiratory training system) while maintaining the merit of the existing commercial device. The compression device (air pad form) was designed to be able to compress the front and side of abdomen and the pressure level of the abdomen is controlled by air flow. Pressure level of abdomen (air flow) was determined using correlation data between external abdominal motion and respiratory volume signal measured by spirometer. In order to verify the feasibility of the device, it was necessary to confirm the correlation between the abdominal respiratory motion and respiratory volume signal and cooperation with respiratory training system also checked. Results: In the previous study, we could find that the correlation coefficient ratio between diaphragm and respiratory volume signal measured by spirometer was 0.95. In this study, we confirmed the correlation between the respiratory volume signal and the external abdominal motion measured by belt-transducer (correlation coefficient ratio was 0.92) and used the correlated respiratory volume data as an abdominal pressure level. It was possible to control the pressure level with negligible time delay and respiratory volume data based guiding waveforms could be properly inserted into the respiratory training system. Conclusion: Through this feasibility study, we confirmed the correlation between the respiratory volume signal and the external abdominal motion. Also initial assessment of the device and its compatibility with the respiratory training system were verified. Further study on application in respiratory gated

  8. Structural basis for energy transduction by respiratory alternative complex III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Joana S; Calisto, Filipa; Langer, Julian D; Mills, Deryck J; Refojo, Patrícia N; Teixeira, Miguel; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Vonck, Janet; Pereira, Manuela M

    2018-04-30

    Electron transfer in respiratory chains generates the electrochemical potential that serves as energy source for the cell. Prokaryotes can use a wide range of electron donors and acceptors and may have alternative complexes performing the same catalytic reactions as the mitochondrial complexes. This is the case for the alternative complex III (ACIII), a quinol:cytochrome c/HiPIP oxidoreductase. In order to understand the catalytic mechanism of this respiratory enzyme, we determined the structure of ACIII from Rhodothermus marinus at 3.9 Å resolution by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. ACIII presents a so-far unique structure, for which we establish the arrangement of the cofactors (four iron-sulfur clusters and six c-type hemes) and propose the location of the quinol-binding site and the presence of two putative proton pathways in the membrane. Altogether, this structure provides insights into a mechanism for energy transduction and introduces ACIII as a redox-driven proton pump.

  9. Lithography requirements in complex VLSI device fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    Fabrication of complex very large scale integration (VLSI) circuits requires continual advances in lithography to satisfy: decreasing minimum linewidths, larger chip sizes, tighter linewidth and overlay control, increasing topography to linewidth ratios, higher yield demands, increased throughput, harsher device processing, lower lithography cost, and a larger part number set with quick turn-around time. Where optical, electron beam, x-ray, and ion beam lithography can be applied to judiciously satisfy the complex VLSI circuit fabrication requirements is discussed and those areas that are in need of major further advances are addressed. Emphasis will be placed on advanced electron beam and storage ring x-ray lithography

  10. Complex cellular logic computation using ribocomputing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Alexander A; Kim, Jongmin; Ma, Duo; Silver, Pamela A; Collins, James J; Yin, Peng

    2017-08-03

    Synthetic biology aims to develop engineering-driven approaches to the programming of cellular functions that could yield transformative technologies. Synthetic gene circuits that combine DNA, protein, and RNA components have demonstrated a range of functions such as bistability, oscillation, feedback, and logic capabilities. However, it remains challenging to scale up these circuits owing to the limited number of designable, orthogonal, high-performance parts, the empirical and often tedious composition rules, and the requirements for substantial resources for encoding and operation. Here, we report a strategy for constructing RNA-only nanodevices to evaluate complex logic in living cells. Our 'ribocomputing' systems are composed of de-novo-designed parts and operate through predictable and designable base-pairing rules, allowing the effective in silico design of computing devices with prescribed configurations and functions in complex cellular environments. These devices operate at the post-transcriptional level and use an extended RNA transcript to co-localize all circuit sensing, computation, signal transduction, and output elements in the same self-assembled molecular complex, which reduces diffusion-mediated signal losses, lowers metabolic cost, and improves circuit reliability. We demonstrate that ribocomputing devices in Escherichia coli can evaluate two-input logic with a dynamic range up to 900-fold and scale them to four-input AND, six-input OR, and a complex 12-input expression (A1 AND A2 AND NOT A1*) OR (B1 AND B2 AND NOT B2*) OR (C1 AND C2) OR (D1 AND D2) OR (E1 AND E2). Successful operation of ribocomputing devices based on programmable RNA interactions suggests that systems employing the same design principles could be implemented in other host organisms or in extracellular settings.

  11. Leveraging respiratory organ motion for non-invasive tumor treatment devices: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möri, Nadia; Jud, Christoph; Salomir, Rares; Cattin, Philippe C.

    2016-06-01

    In noninvasive abdominal tumor treatment, research has focused on minimizing organ motion either by gating, breath holding or tracking of the target. The paradigm shift proposed in this study takes advantage of the respiratory organ motion to passively scan the tumor. In the proposed self-scanning method, the focal point of the HIFU device is held fixed for a given time, while it passively scans the tumor due to breathing motion. The aim of this paper is to present a treatment planning method for such a system and show by simulation its feasibility. The presented planning method minimizes treatment time and ensures complete tumor ablation under free-breathing. We simulated our method on realistic motion patterns from a patient specific statistical respiratory model. With our method, we achieved a shorter treatment time than with the gold-standard motion-compensation approach. The main advantage of the proposed method is that electrically steering of the focal spot is no longer needed. As a consequence, it is much easier to find an optimal solution for both avoiding near field heating and covering the whole tumor. However, the reduced complexity on the beam forming comes at the price of an increased complexity on the planning side as well as a reduced efficiency in the energy distribution. Although we simulate the approach on HIFU, the idea of self-scanning passes over to other tumor treatment modalities such as proton therapy or classical radiation therapy.

  12. The mitochondrial PHB complex: roles in mitochondrial respiratory complex assembly, ageing and degenerative disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijtmans, L.G.J.; Artal-Sanz, M.; Grivell, L.A.; Coates, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Although originally identified as putative negative regulators of the cell cycle, recent studies have demonstrated that the PHB proteins act as a chaperone in the assembly of subunits of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes. The two PHB proteins, Phblp and Phb2p, are located in the

  13. Quantum Calculations of Electron Tunneling in Respiratory Complex III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagras, Muhammad A; Hayashi, Tomoyuki; Stuchebrukhov, Alexei A

    2015-11-19

    The most detailed and comprehensive to date study of electron transfer reactions in the respiratory complex III of aerobic cells, also known as bc1 complex, is reported. In the framework of the tunneling current theory, electron tunneling rates and atomistic tunneling pathways between different redox centers were investigated for all electron transfer reactions comprising different stages of the proton-motive Q-cycle. The calculations reveal that complex III is a smart nanomachine, which under certain conditions undergoes conformational changes gating electron transfer, or channeling electrons to specific pathways. One-electron tunneling approximation was adopted in the tunneling calculations, which were performed using hybrid Broken-Symmetry (BS) unrestricted DFT/ZINDO levels of theory. The tunneling orbitals were determined using an exact biorthogonalization scheme that uniquely separates pairs of tunneling orbitals with small overlaps out of the remaining Franck-Condon orbitals with significant overlap. Electron transfer rates in different redox pairs show exponential distance dependence, in agreement with the reported experimental data; some reactions involve coupled proton transfer. Proper treatment of a concerted two-electron bifurcated tunneling reaction at the Q(o) site is given.

  14. Analyzing non-respiratory movements of the chest: methods and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariaszewska, Katarzyna; Młyńczak, Marcel; Cybulski, Gerard

    2015-09-01

    Respiration is the main reason of the chest movements. However, there are also non-respiratory ones, resulting from e.g. snoring, wheezing, stridor, throat clearing or coughing. They may exist sporadically, however should be examined in case when their incidences increase. Detecting non-respiratory movements is very important, because many of them are symptoms of respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or lung cancer. Assessment of the presence of non-respiratory movements could be important element of effective diagnosis. It is also necessary to provide quantitative and objective results for intra-subject studies. Most of these events generate vibroacoustic signals that contain components of sound and vibrations. This work provides the review of the solutions and devices for monitoring of the non-respiratory movements, primarily considering the accuracy of the chest movements' detection and distinguishing.

  15. Respiratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The words "respiratory" and "respiration" refer to the lungs and breathing. ... Boron WF. Organization of the respiratory system. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 26.

  16. Quantum Electron Tunneling in Respiratory Complex I1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tomoyuki; Stuchebrukhov, Alexei A.

    2014-01-01

    We have simulated the atomistic details of electronic wiring of all Fe/S clusters in complex I, a key enzyme in the respiratory electron transport chain. The tunneling current theory of many-electron systems is applied to the broken-symmetry (BS) states of the protein at the ZINDO level. One-electron tunneling approximation is found to hold in electron tunneling between the anti-ferromagnetic binuclear and tetranuclear Fe/S clusters with moderate induced polarization of the core electrons. Calculated tunneling energy is about 3 eV higher than Fermi level in the band gap of the protein, which supports that the mechanism of electron transfer is quantum mechanical tunneling, as in the rest of electron transport chain. Resulting electron tunneling pathways consist of up to three key contributing protein residues between neighboring Fe/S clusters. A distinct signature of the wave properties of electrons is observed as quantum interferences when multiple tunneling pathways exist. In N6a-N6b, electron tunnels along different pathways depending on the involved BS states, suggesting possible fluctuations of the tunneling pathways driven by the local protein environment. The calculated distance dependence of the electron transfer rates with internal water molecules included are in good agreement with a reported phenomenological relation. PMID:21495666

  17. A microfluidic dialysis device for complex biological mixture SERS analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Perozziello, Gerardo; Candeloro, Patrizio; Gentile, Francesco T.; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Tallerico, Marco; De Grazia, Antonio; Nicastri, Annalisa; Perri, Angela Mena; Parrotta, Elvira; Pardeo, Francesca; Catalano, Rossella; Cuda, Giovanni; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a microfluidic device fabricated with a simple and inexpensive process allowing rapid filtering of peptides from a complex mixture. The polymer microfluidic device can be used for sample preparation in biological

  18. Antitussive pharmaceutical drugs administration in complex therapy of acute respiratory infections in children

    OpenAIRE

    Lokshina, E.; Zajtseva, O.

    2009-01-01

    There is considered the problem of treatment of cough in children with acute respiratory infections in article. In particular, the data on an effective administration of the domestic combined medication framed on basis of medicinal grasses with codeine in complex therapy of acute respiratory infections is presented.

  19. Statistical Study on Respiratory Stability Through RPM Signal Analysis according to Patient Position Under Radiation Therapy and Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Myung Hwan; Seo, Jeong Min; Choi, Byeong Gi; Shin, Eun Hyeok; Song, Gi Won

    2011-01-01

    This study statistically analyzed the difference of the stability of maintaining a respiratory period shown according to position and use of a device to search the tendency and usefulness of a device. The study obtained respiratory signals which maintained a respiratory period for 20 minutes each supine and prone position for 11 subjects. The study obtained respiratory signals in a state of using a belly board for 7 patients in a bad condition of a respiratory period in a prone position to analyze a change in respiration and the stability before and after the use of a device. The supine part showed 54.5%, better than the prone part of 36.4% in a case that the stability for maintaining a respiratory period was in a good condition as a fixed respiratory period was well maintained according to the position. 6 patients (85%) showed a maintenance pattern of a respiratory period significantly different before the use and 4 patients showed a significantly good change in the stability for maintaining a respiratory period as a result that belly boards were used for 7 patients that the maintenance of a respiratory period was not in a good condition on a prone position. It seemed that this study could contribute to the maintenance of respiratory period and of respiratory stability as the optimal position for maintenance of respiration and the use of a device such as a belly board were decided through statistic analysis of respiratory signals and its application even if patient position and use of device were decided by the beam arrangement a treatment part of a patient, location of a target, and an expected plan.

  20. The Ins and Outs of Breath Holding: Simple Demonstrations of Complex Respiratory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skow, Rachel J.; Day, Trevor A.; Fuller, Jonathan E.; Bruce, Christina D.; Steinback, Craig D.

    2015-01-01

    The physiology of breath holding is complex, and voluntary breath-hold duration is affected by many factors, including practice, psychology, respiratory chemoreflexes, and lung stretch. In this activity, we outline a number of simple laboratory activities or classroom demonstrations that illustrate the complexity of the integrative physiology…

  1. Mitochondrial respiratory complex I probed by delayed luminescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Irina; Ionescu, Diana; Privitera, Simona; Scordino, Agata; Mocanu, Maria Magdalena; Musumeci, Francesco; Grasso, Rosaria; Gulino, Marisa; Iftime, Adrian; Tofolean, Ioana Teodora; Garaiman, Alexandru; Goicea, Alexandru; Irimia, Ruxandra; Dimancea, Alexandru; Ganea, Constanta

    2013-12-01

    The role of mitochondrial complex I in ultraweak photon-induced delayed photon emission [delayed luminescence (DL)] of human leukemia Jurkat T cells was probed by using complex I targeting agents like rotenone, menadione, and quercetin. Rotenone, a complex I-specific inhibitor, dose-dependently increased the mitochondrial level of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), decreased clonogenic survival, and induced apoptosis. A strong correlation was found between the mitochondrial levels of NADH and oxidized flavin mononucleotide (FMNox) in rotenone-, menadione- and quercetin-treated cells. Rotenone enhanced DL dose-dependently, whereas quercetin and menadione inhibited DL as well as NADH or FMNox. Collectively, the data suggest that DL of Jurkat cells originates mainly from mitochondrial complex I, which functions predominantly as a dimer and less frequently as a tetramer. In individual monomers, both pairs of pyridine nucleotide (NADH/reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) sites and flavin (FMN-a/FMN-b) sites appear to bind cooperatively their specific ligands. Enhancement of delayed red-light emission by rotenone suggests that the mean time for one-electron reduction of ubiquinone or FMN-a by the terminal Fe/S center (N2) is 20 or 284 μs, respectively. All these findings suggest that DL spectroscopy could be used as a reliable, sensitive, and robust technique to probe electron flow within complex I in situ.

  2. Powerhouse down: Complex II dissociation in the respiratory chain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hwang, M.-S.; Rohlena, Jakub; Dong, L.-F.; Neužil, Jiří; Grimm, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, Part A SI (2014), 20-28 ISSN 1567-7249 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA ČR GAP301/12/1851 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : Mitochondria * Apoptosis * Complex II Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.249, year: 2014

  3. Intractable secretory diarrhea in a Japanese boy with mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kei; Nagasaka, Hironori; Tsuruoka, Tomoko; Omata, Yuko; Horie, Hiroshi; Tregoning, Simone; Thorburn, David R; Takayanagi, Masaki; Ohtake, Akira

    2009-03-01

    The etiology of secretory diarrhea in early life is often unclear. We report a Japanese boy who survived until 3 years of age, despite intractable diarrhea commencing soon after birth. The fecal sodium content was strikingly high (109 mmol/L [normal range, 27-35 mmol/L]) and the osmotic gap was decreased (15 mOsm/kg), consistent with the findings of congenital sodium diarrhea. We examined the mitochondrial respiratory chain function by blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) in-gel enzyme staining, BN-PAGE western blotting, respiratory chain enzyme activity assay, and immunohistochemistry. Liver respiratory chain complex (Co) I activity was undetectable, while other respiratory chain complex activities were increased (Co II, 138%; Co III, 153%; Co IV, 126% versus respective control activities). Liver BN-PAGE in-gel enzyme staining and western blotting showed an extremely weak complex I band, while immunohistochemistry showed extremely weak staining for the 30-kDa subunit of complex I, but normal staining for the 70-kDa subunit of complex II. The patient was, therefore, diagnosed with complex I deficiency. The overall complex I activity of the jejunum was substantially decreased (63% of the control activity). The immunohistochemistry displayed apparently decreased staining of the 30-kDa complex I subunit, together with a slightly enhanced staining of the 70-kDa complex II subunit in intestinal epithelial cells. These data imply that intestinal epithelial cells are also complex I-deficient in this patient. Complex I deficiency is a novel cause of secretory diarrhea and may act via disrupting the supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) needed for the maintenance of ion gradients across membranes.

  4. Structure of the Deactive State of Mammalian Respiratory Complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaza, James N; Vinothkumar, Kutti R; Hirst, Judy

    2018-02-06

    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is central to energy metabolism in mammalian mitochondria. It couples NADH oxidation by ubiquinone to proton transport across the energy-conserving inner membrane, catalyzing respiration and driving ATP synthesis. In the absence of substrates, active complex I gradually enters a pronounced resting or deactive state. The active-deactive transition occurs during ischemia and is crucial for controlling how respiration recovers upon reperfusion. Here, we set a highly active preparation of Bos taurus complex I into the biochemically defined deactive state, and used single-particle electron cryomicroscopy to determine its structure to 4.1 Å resolution. We show that the deactive state arises when critical structural elements that form the ubiquinone-binding site become disordered, and we propose reactivation is induced when substrate binding to the NADH-reduced enzyme templates their reordering. Our structure both rationalizes biochemical data on the deactive state and offers new insights into its physiological and cellular roles. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. High Molecular Weight Forms of Mammalian Respiratory Chain Complex II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářová, Nikola; Mráček, Tomáš; Nůsková, Hana; Holzerová, Eliška; Vrbacký, Marek; Pecina, Petr; Hejzlarová, Kateřina; Klučková, Katarína; Rohlena, Jakub; Neužil, Jiří; Houštěk, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 8 (2013), e71869 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP303/10/P227; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA MZd(CZ) NT12370; GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/10/1937 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : supercomplexes * high molecular weihgt forms of complex II * native electrophoretic systems Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  6. Closed genomes of seven histophilus somni isolates from beef calves with bovine respiratory disease complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histophilus somni is a fastidious gram-negative opportunistic pathogenic Pasteurellacea that affects multiple organ systems and is one of the principle bacterial species contributing to bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in feed yard cattle. Here we present seven closed genomes isolated from...

  7. Study of multiparameter respiratory pattern complexity in surgical critically ill patients during weaning trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maglaveras Nikos K

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Separation from mechanical ventilation is a difficult task, whereas conventional predictive indices have not been proven accurate enough, so far. A few studies have explored changes of breathing pattern variability for weaning outcome prediction, with conflicting results. In this study, we tried to assess respiratory complexity during weaning trials, using different non-linear methods derived from theory of complex systems, in a cohort of surgical critically ill patients. Results Thirty two patients were enrolled in the study. There were 22 who passed and 10 who failed a weaning trial. Tidal volume and mean inspiratory flow were analyzed for 10 minutes during two phases: 1. pressure support (PS ventilation (15-20 cm H2O and 2. weaning trials with PS: 5 cm H2O. Sample entropy (SampEn, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA exponent, fractal dimension (FD and largest lyapunov exponents (LLE of the two respiratory parameters were computed in all patients and during the two phases of PS. Weaning failure patients exhibited significantly decreased respiratory pattern complexity, reflected in reduced sample entropy and lyapunov exponents and increased DFA exponents of respiratory flow time series, compared to weaning success subjects (p 0.1, SampEn and LLE predicted better weaning outcome compared with RSBI, P0.1 and RSBI* P0.1 (conventional model, R2 = 0.874 vs 0.643, p Conclusions We suggest that complexity analysis of respiratory signals can assess inherent breathing pattern dynamics and has increased prognostic impact upon weaning outcome in surgical patients.

  8. Prevention of Medical Device-Related Pressure Injuries Associated With Respiratory Equipment Use in a Critical Care Unit: A Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Cynthia A; Paradis, Heidi; Goodwin, Robert; Lynch, Judith; Hegerich-Bartula, Deborah

    Medical devices have been identified as an extrinsic risk factor for development of pressure injuries, with as many as 30% to 70% of medical device-related pressure injuries resulting from respiratory equipment. This article describes a quality improvement project undertaken to reduce the occurrence of respiratory device-related pressure injuries in a critically care unit. Multiple actions were implemented to achieve this goal. Respiratory therapists were trained to document occurrences on a daily basis, and apparent cause analyses were conducted on each occurrence. An interdisciplinary team conducted biweekly rounds on patients with respiratory devices and consulted other professionals as indicated. Nurses and respiratory therapists attended an evidence-based, collaborative, educational offering and completed a measure of team functioning before the program and at the end of the study period. The occurrence rates of respiratory device-related pressure injuries were reduced over the project period, and these changes were sustained over the subsequent 12 months.

  9. Low-complexity Wireless Monitoring of Respiratory Movements Using Ultra-wideband Impulse Response Estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Sana, Furrukh

    2014-03-01

    In this paper; we present a comprehensive scheme for wireless monitoring of the respiratory movements in humans. Our scheme overcomes the challenges low signal-to-noise ratio, background clutter and high sampling rates. It is based on the estimation of the ultra-wideband channel impulse response. We suggest techniques for dealing with background clutter in situations when it might be time variant. We also present a novel methodology for reducing the required sampling rate of the system significantly while achieving the accuracy offered by the Nyquist rate. Performance results from simulations conducted with pre-recorded respiratory signals demonstrate the robustness of our scheme for tackling the above challenges and providing a low-complexity solution for the monitoring of respiratory movements.

  10. RIBOSOMAL COMPLEX IN PROPHYLAXIS AND TREATMENT OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Alekseeva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory infections (ARI are widespread in children regardless of age and region of living; they are characterized with big amount of infectious agents and absence of a trend to morbidity decrease. Drugs for nonspecific prophylaxis (immunostimulators and immunomodulatory agents are frequently used for prevention of ARI. There are plenty of immunomodulating agents; the wellstudied medication with systemic action with good efficacy and safety in pediatric practice is ribosomal-proteoglycan complex. The article presents the description of clinical experience of treatment with this complex in pediatric practice.Key words: children, acute respiratory infections, prophylaxis, treatment, ribosomal complex.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(6:127-130

  11. Solid state photosensitive devices which employ isolated photosynthetic complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peumans, Peter; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2009-09-22

    Solid state photosensitive devices including photovoltaic devices are provided which comprise a first electrode and a second electrode in superposed relation; and at least one isolated Light Harvesting Complex (LHC) between the electrodes. Preferred photosensitive devices comprise an electron transport layer formed of a first photoconductive organic semiconductor material, adjacent to the LHC, disposed between the first electrode and the LHC; and a hole transport layer formed of a second photoconductive organic semiconductor material, adjacent to the LHC, disposed between the second electrode and the LHC. Solid state photosensitive devices of the present invention may comprise at least one additional layer of photoconductive organic semiconductor material disposed between the first electrode and the electron transport layer; and at least one additional layer of photoconductive organic semiconductor material, disposed between the second electrode and the hole transport layer. Methods of generating photocurrent are provided which comprise exposing a photovoltaic device of the present invention to light. Electronic devices are provided which comprise a solid state photosensitive device of the present invention.

  12. A Comprehensive Genomic Analysis Reveals the Genetic Landscape of Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex Deficiencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu Kohda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial disorders have the highest incidence among congenital metabolic disorders characterized by biochemical respiratory chain complex deficiencies. It occurs at a rate of 1 in 5,000 births, and has phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. Mutations in about 1,500 nuclear encoded mitochondrial proteins may cause mitochondrial dysfunction of energy production and mitochondrial disorders. More than 250 genes that cause mitochondrial disorders have been reported to date. However exact genetic diagnosis for patients still remained largely unknown. To reveal this heterogeneity, we performed comprehensive genomic analyses for 142 patients with childhood-onset mitochondrial respiratory chain complex deficiencies. The approach includes whole mtDNA and exome analyses using high-throughput sequencing, and chromosomal aberration analyses using high-density oligonucleotide arrays. We identified 37 novel mutations in known mitochondrial disease genes and 3 mitochondria-related genes (MRPS23, QRSL1, and PNPLA4 as novel causative genes. We also identified 2 genes known to cause monogenic diseases (MECP2 and TNNI3 and 3 chromosomal aberrations (6q24.3-q25.1, 17p12, and 22q11.21 as causes in this cohort. Our approaches enhance the ability to identify pathogenic gene mutations in patients with biochemically defined mitochondrial respiratory chain complex deficiencies in clinical settings. They also underscore clinical and genetic heterogeneity and will improve patient care of this complex disorder.

  13. Development of respiratory motion reduction device system (RMRDs) for radiotherapy in moving tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Suk; Yang, Dae-Sik; Choil, Myung-Sun; Kim, Chui-Yong

    2004-01-01

    The internal target volume (ITV) for tumors in the abdomen or thorax includes sufficient margin for breathing-related movement of tumor volumes during treatment. Depending on the location of the tumor, the magnitude of the ITV margin extends from 1 to 3 cm, which increases substantially the volume of the irradiated normal tissue, hence resulting in an increase in normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). We developed a simple and handy method which can reduce ITV margins in patients with moving tumors: the respiratory motion reduction device system (RMRDs). The patient's clinical database was structured for moving tumor patients and patient set-up error measurement and immobilization device effects were investigated. The system is composed of the respiration presser device (RPD) utilized in the prone position and the abdominal strip device (ASD) utilized in the supine position, and the analysis program, which enables analysis of patient set-up reproducibility. It was tested for analyzing the diaphragm movement from patients with RMRDs, the magnitude of the ITV margin was determined and the dose-volume histogram (DVH) was computed using treatment planning software. The dose to normal tissue in patients with and without RMRDs was analyzed by comparing the fraction of the normal liver receiving 50% of the isocenter dose. Average diaphragm movement due to respiration was 16±1.9 mm in the case of the supine position, and 12±1.9 mm in the case of the prone position. When utilizing the RMRDs, which was personally developed in our hospital, the value was reduced to 5±1.4 mm, and in the case in which the belt immobilization device was utilized, the value was reduced to 3±0.9 mm. In the case where the strip device was utilized, the value was proven to reduce to 4±0.3 mm. As a result of analyzing the volume of normal liver where 50% of the prescription dose is irradiated in DVH according to the radiation treatment planning, the use of the RMRD can create a reduction

  14. A microfluidic dialysis device for complex biological mixture SERS analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Perozziello, Gerardo

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present a microfluidic device fabricated with a simple and inexpensive process allowing rapid filtering of peptides from a complex mixture. The polymer microfluidic device can be used for sample preparation in biological applications. The device is fabricated by micromilling and solvent assisted bonding, in which a microdialysis membrane (cut-off of 12-14 kDa) is sandwiched in between an upper and a bottom microfluidic chamber. An external frame connects the microfluidic device to external tubes, microvalves and syringe pumps. Bonding strength and interface sealing are pneumatically tested. Microfluidic protocols are also described by using the presented device to filter a sample composed of specific peptides (MW 1553.73 Da, at a concentration of 1.0 ng/μl) derived from the BRCA1 protein, a tumor-suppressor molecule which plays a pivotal role in the development of breast cancer, and albumin (MW 66.5 kDa, at a concentration of 35 μg/μl), the most represented protein in human plasma. The filtered samples coming out from the microfluidic device were subsequently deposited on a SERS (surface enhanced Raman scattering) substrate for further analysis by Raman spectroscopy. By using this approach, we were able to sort the small peptides from the bigger and highly concentrated protein albumin and to detect them by using a label-free technique at a resolution down to 1.0 ng/μl.

  15. Respiratory and cardiovascular response during electronic control device (ECD exposure in law enforcement trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. VanMeenen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Law enforcement represents a large population of workers who may be exposed to electronic control devices (ECDs. Little is known about the potential effect of exposure to these devices on respiration or cardiovascular response during current discharge. Methods: Participants (N=23 were trainees exposed to 5 seconds of an ECD (Taser X26® as a component of training. Trainees were asked to volitionally inhale during exposure. Respiratory recordings involved a continuous waveform recorded throughout the session including during the exposure period. Heart rate was calculated from a continuous pulse oximetry recording. Results: The exposure period resulted in the cessation of normal breathing patterns in all participants and in particular a decrease in inspiratory activity. No significant changes in heart rate during ECD exposure were found. Conclusions: This is the first study to examine breathing patterns during ECD exposure with the resolution to detect changes over this discrete period of time. In contrast to reports suggesting respiration is unaffected by ECDs, present evidence suggests that voluntary inspiration is severely compromised. There is no evidence of cardiac disruption during ECD exposure.

  16. Characterization of mitochondrial respiratory chain energetics in the vestibular nucleus complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, John C; Khalessi, Amirala; Kapoor, Mohit; Clarkson, Andrew; Sammut, Ivan A; Darlington, Cynthia L; Smith, Paul F

    2005-04-01

    Despite having very high neuronal firing rates, the VNC does not have unusually high mitochondrial activity in vitro. This study is the first in which functionally active mitochondria from the hindbrain have been isolated and characterized. Neurons in the vestibular nucleus complex (VNC) have exceptionally high spontaneous firing rates. Neuronal mitochondria generate adenosine triphosphate critical for maintaining the membrane potentials required for axon firing. We therefore hypothesized a high rate of mitochondrial activity in the VNC. To test this hypothesis, we compared mitochondrial activity in the VNC with mitochondrial activity from another area of the hindbrain, the cerebellum. Mitochondrial respiratory activity was assessed by measuring oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial respiratory enzyme complex activity. Assay results were not significantly different in the VNC compared to those obtained with the cerebellum or with rat brain mitochondria in previous studies.

  17. Integrated circuit devices in control systems of coal mining complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Systems of automatic monitoring and control of coal mining complexes developed in the 1960's used electromagnetic relays, thyristors, and flip-flops on transistors of varying conductivity. The circuits' designers, devoted much attention to ensuring spark safety, lowering power consumption, and raising noise immunity and repairability of functional devices. The fast development of integrated circuitry led to the use of microelectronic components in most devices of mine automation. An analysis of specifications and experimental research into integrated circuits (IMS) shows that the series K 176 IMS components made by CMOS technology best meet mine conditions of operation. The use of IMS devices under mine conditions has demonstrated their high reliability. Further development of integrated circuitry involve using microprocessors and microcomputers. (SC)

  18. The Complexities of Developing Accessible Web Content for Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Richard

    This paper is concerned with the development of accessible mobile content and the complexities that arise during this process. The paper gives an overview of the popularity and advantages of mobile devices before tackling the issues surrounding content development, particularly within an educational context. The paper concludes with an overview of an application that was developed for higher education students within a UK college that had a mobile counterpart, allowing the artefact to transcend the typical desktop environment.

  19. Porcine respiratory disease complex: Interaction of vaccination and porcine circovirus type 2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Chanhee

    2016-06-01

    Porcine respiratory disease is a multifactorial and complex disease caused by a combination of infectious pathogens, environmental stressors, differences in production systems, and various management practices; hence the name porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is used. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are considered to be the most important pathogens that cause PRDC. Although interactions among the three major respiratory pathogens are well documented, it is also necessary to understand the interaction between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae are well known to potentiate PCV2-associated lesions; however, PRRSV and mycoplasmal vaccines can both enhance PCV2 viraemia regardless of the effects of the actual PRRSV or M. hyopneumoniae infection. On the other hand, M. hyopneumoniae potentiates the severity of pneumonia induced by PRRSV, and vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone is also able to decrease PRRSV viraemia and PRRSV-induced lung lesions in dually infected pigs. This review focuses on (1) interactions between PCV2, PRRSV, and M. hyopneumoniae; and (2) interactions between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Determinants of functional coupling between astrocytes and respiratory neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schnell

    Full Text Available Respiratory neuronal network activity is thought to require efficient functioning of astrocytes. Here, we analyzed neuron-astrocyte communication in the pre-Bötzinger Complex (preBötC of rhythmic slice preparations from neonatal mice. In astrocytes that exhibited rhythmic potassium fluxes and glutamate transporter currents, we did not find a translation of respiratory neuronal activity into phase-locked astroglial calcium signals. In up to 20% of astrocytes, 2-photon calcium imaging revealed spontaneous calcium fluctuations, although with no correlation to neuronal activity. Calcium signals could be elicited in preBötC astrocytes by metabotropic glutamate receptor activation or after inhibition of glial glutamate uptake. In the latter case, astrocyte calcium elevation preceded a surge of respiratory neuron discharge activity followed by network failure. We conclude that astrocytes do not exhibit respiratory-rhythmic calcium fluctuations when they are able to prevent synaptic glutamate accumulation. Calcium signaling is, however, observed when glutamate transport processes in astrocytes are suppressed or neuronal discharge activity is excessive.

  1. Deficiency of PHB complex impairs respiratory supercomplex formation and activates mitochondrial flashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Chongshu; Xu, Fengli; Hou, Tingting; Sun, Tao; Li, Jinghang; Cheng, Heping; Wang, Xianhua

    2017-08-01

    Prohibitins (PHBs; prohibitin 1, PHB1 or PHB, and prohibitin 2, PHB2) are evolutionarily conserved and ubiquitously expressed mitochondrial proteins. PHBs form multimeric ring complexes acting as scaffolds in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes) are newly discovered mitochondrial signaling events that reflect electrical and chemical excitations of the organelle. Here, we investigate the possible roles of PHBs in the regulation of mitoflash signaling. Downregulation of PHBs increases mitoflash frequency by up to 5.4-fold due to elevated basal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the mitochondria. Mechanistically, PHB deficiency impairs the formation of mitochondrial respiratory supercomplexes (RSCs) without altering the abundance of individual respiratory complex subunits. These impairments induced by PHB deficiency are effectively rescued by co-expression of PHB1 and PHB2, indicating that the multimeric PHB complex acts as the functional unit. Furthermore, downregulating other RSC assembly factors, including SCAFI (also known as COX7A2L), RCF1a (HIGD1A), RCF1b (HIGD2A), UQCC3 and SLP2 (STOML2), all activate mitoflashes through elevating mitochondrial ROS production. Our findings identify the PHB complex as a new regulator of RSC formation and mitoflash signaling, and delineate a general relationship among RSC formation, basal ROS production and mitoflash biogenesis. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Rapid screening for nuclear genes mutations in isolated respiratory chain complex I defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagniez-Mammeri, Hélène; Lombes, Anne; Brivet, Michèle; Ogier-de Baulny, Hélène; Landrieu, Pierre; Legrand, Alain; Slama, Abdelhamid

    2009-04-01

    Complex I or reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH): ubiquinone oxydoreductase deficiency is the most common cause of respiratory chain defects. Molecular bases of complex I deficiencies are rarely identified because of the dual genetic origin of this multi-enzymatic complex (nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA) and the lack of phenotype-genotype correlation. We used a rapid method to screen patients with isolated complex I deficiencies for nuclear genes mutations by Surveyor nuclease digestion of cDNAs. Eight complex I nuclear genes, among the most frequently mutated (NDUFS1, NDUFS2, NDUFS3, NDUFS4, NDUFS7, NDUFS8, NDUFV1 and NDUFV2), were studied in 22 cDNA fragments spanning their coding sequences in 8 patients with a biochemically proved complex I deficiency. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and missense mutations were detected in 18.7% of the cDNA fragments by Surveyor nuclease treatment. Molecular defects were detected in 3 patients. Surveyor nuclease screening is a reliable method for genotyping nuclear complex I deficiencies, easy to interpret, and limits the number of sequence reactions. Its use will enhance the possibility of prenatal diagnosis and help us for a better understanding of complex I molecular defects.

  3. SU-E-J-211: Design and Study of In-House Software Based Respiratory Motion Monitoring, Controlling and Breath-Hold Device for Gated Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugam, Senthilkumar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this present work was to fabricate an in-house software based respiratory monitoring, controlling and breath-hold device using computer software programme which guides the patient to have uniform breath hold in response to request during the gated radiotherapy. Methods: The respiratory controlling device consists of a computer, inhouse software, video goggles, a highly sensitive sensor for measurement of distance, mounting systems, a camera, a respiratory signal device, a speaker and a visual indicator. The computer is used to display the respiratory movements of the patient with digital as well as analogue respiration indicators during the respiration cycle, to control, breath-hold and analyze the respiratory movement using indigenously developed software. Results: Studies were conducted with anthropomophic phantoms by simulating the respiratory motion on phantoms and recording the respective movements using the respiratory monitoring device. The results show good agreement between the simulated and measured movements. Further studies were conducted for 60 cancer patients with several types of cancers in the thoracic region. The respiratory movement cycles for each fraction of radiotherapy treatment were recorded and compared. Alarm indications are provided in the system to indicate when the patient breathing movement exceeds the threshold level. This will help the patient to maintain uniform breath hold during the radiotherapy treatment. Our preliminary clinical test results indicate that our device is highly reliable and able to maintain the uniform respiratory motion and breathe hold during the entire course of gated radiotherapy treatment. Conclusion: An indigenous respiratory monitoring device to guide the patient to have uniform breath hold device was fabricated. The alarm feature and the visual waveform indicator in the system guide the patient to have normal respiration. The signal from the device can be connected to the radiation

  4. SU-E-J-211: Design and Study of In-House Software Based Respiratory Motion Monitoring, Controlling and Breath-Hold Device for Gated Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugam, Senthilkumar [Madurai Medical College ' Govt. Rajaji Hospital, Madurai (India)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this present work was to fabricate an in-house software based respiratory monitoring, controlling and breath-hold device using computer software programme which guides the patient to have uniform breath hold in response to request during the gated radiotherapy. Methods: The respiratory controlling device consists of a computer, inhouse software, video goggles, a highly sensitive sensor for measurement of distance, mounting systems, a camera, a respiratory signal device, a speaker and a visual indicator. The computer is used to display the respiratory movements of the patient with digital as well as analogue respiration indicators during the respiration cycle, to control, breath-hold and analyze the respiratory movement using indigenously developed software. Results: Studies were conducted with anthropomophic phantoms by simulating the respiratory motion on phantoms and recording the respective movements using the respiratory monitoring device. The results show good agreement between the simulated and measured movements. Further studies were conducted for 60 cancer patients with several types of cancers in the thoracic region. The respiratory movement cycles for each fraction of radiotherapy treatment were recorded and compared. Alarm indications are provided in the system to indicate when the patient breathing movement exceeds the threshold level. This will help the patient to maintain uniform breath hold during the radiotherapy treatment. Our preliminary clinical test results indicate that our device is highly reliable and able to maintain the uniform respiratory motion and breathe hold during the entire course of gated radiotherapy treatment. Conclusion: An indigenous respiratory monitoring device to guide the patient to have uniform breath hold device was fabricated. The alarm feature and the visual waveform indicator in the system guide the patient to have normal respiration. The signal from the device can be connected to the radiation

  5. Challenges to validation of a complex nonsterile medical device tray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Daniel; Mastej, Jozef; Hoverman, Isabel; Chatterjee, Raja; Easton, Diana; Behzad, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Validation by steam sterilization of reusable medical devices requires careful attention to many parameters that directly influence whether or not complete sterilization occurs. Complex implant/instrument tray systems have a variety of configurations and components. Geobacillus stearothermophilus biological indicators (BIs) are used in overkill cycles to to simulate worst case conditions and are intended to provide substantial sterilization assurance. Survival of G. stearothermophilus spores was linked to steam access and size of load in the chamber. By a small and reproducible margin, it was determined that placement of the trays in a rigid container into minimally loaded chambers were more difficult to completely sterilize than maximally loaded chambers.

  6. Sprayed films of europium complexes toward light conversion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, Sabrina A.; Aoki, Pedro H.B.; Constantino, Carlos J.L.; Pires, Ana Maria, E-mail: anapires@fct.unesp.br

    2014-09-15

    Rare-earth complexes have become subject of intensive research due to the high quantum efficiency of their emission, very narrow bands, and excellent fluorescence monochromaticity. The chemical design and characterization of Eu complexes based on β-diketone ligands hexafluoroacetylacetate (hfac) and dibenzoylmetanate (dbm) is reported here. K[Eu(dbm){sub 4}] and K[Eu(hfac){sub 4}] complexes were immobilized as thin films by using the spray technique, a promising methodology for practical applications. The latter provides not only a faster layer deposition but also larger coated areas compared to conventional methods, such as layer-by-layer (LbL) and Langmuir–Blodgett (LB). The growth of the sprayed films was monitored through microbalance (QCM) and ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) absorption spectroscopy, which reveal a higher mass and absorbance per deposited layer of K[Eu(dbm){sub 4}] film. Micro-Raman images display a more homogeneous spatial distribution of the K[Eu(dbm){sub 4}] complex throughout the film, when compared to K[Eu(hfac){sub 4}] film. At nanometer scale, atomic force microscopy (AFM) images indicate that the roughness of the K[Eu(hfac){sub 4}] film is approximately one order of magnitude higher than that for the K[Eu(dbm){sub 4}] film, which pattern is kept at micrometer scale according to micro-Raman measurements. The photoluminescence data show that the complexes remain as pure red emitters upon spray immobilization. Besides, the quantum efficiency for the sprayed films are found equivalent to the values achieved for the powders, highlighting the potential of the films for application in light conversion devices. - Highlights: • Rare earth complexes thin films based on β-diketone ligands. • Spraying procedures to fabricate layer-by-layer (LbL) luminescent thin films. • Chemical design of Eu complexes based on hfac and dbm β-diketones ligands immobilized as sprayed films. • Pure red emitters upon spray immobilization. • Sprayed

  7. [Automated RNA amplification for the rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouillon, V; Houriez, F; Buze, M; Lagrange, P; Herrmann, J-L

    2006-01-01

    Rapid and sensitive detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) directly on clinical respiratory specimens is essential for a correct management of patients suspected of tuberculosis. For this purpose PCR-based kits are available to detect MTB in respiratory specimen but most of them need at least 4 hours to be completed. New methods, based on TRC method (TRC: Transcription Reverse transcription Concerted--TRCRapid M. Tuberculosis--Tosoh Bioscience, Tokyo, Japon) and dedicated monitor have been developed. A new kit (TRC Rapid M. tuberculosis and Real-time monitor TRCRapid-160, Tosoh Corporation, Japan) enabling one step amplification and real-time detection of MTB 16S rRNA by a combination of intercalative dye oxazole yellow-linked DNA probe and isothermal RNA amplification directly on respiratory specimens has been tested in our laboratory. 319 respiratory specimens were tested in this preliminary study and results were compared to smear and culture. Fourteen had a positive culture for MTB. Among theses samples, smear was positive in 11 cases (78.6%) and TRC process was positive in 8 cases (57.1%). Overall sensitivity of TRC compared to smear positive samples is 73%. Theses first results demonstrated that a rapid identification of MTB was possible (less than 2 processing hours for 14 specimens and about 1 hour for 1 specimen) in most cases of smear positive samples using ready to use reagents for real time detection of MTB rRNA in clinical samples. New pretreatment and extraction reagents kits to increase the stability of the sputum RNA and the extraction efficiency are now tested in our laboratory.

  8. Social marketing campaign promoting the use of respiratory protection devices among farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounds, Lea; Duysen, Ellen; Romberger, Debra; Cramer, Mary E; Wendl, Mary; Rautiainen, Risto

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the formal use of marketing concepts in a systematic approach to influence farmers to voluntarily increase respiratory protective device (RPD) use. The planning process for the project incorporated six key decision or action points, each informed by formative research or health behavior theory. The planning process included developing behavior change strategies based on a 4P model (product, price, place, and promotion). The resulting campaign elements included print and e-mail messages that leveraged motivators related to family and health in order to increase farmers' knowledge about the risks of exposure to dusty environments, four instructional videos related to the primary barriers identified in using RPDs, and a brightly colored storage bag to address barriers to using RPDs related to mask storage. Campaign implementation included a series of e-mails using a bulk e-mail subscription service, use of social media in the form of posting instructional videos on a YouTube channel, and in-person interactions with members of the target audience at farm shows throughout the Central States Center for Agricultural Safety and Health seven-state region. Evaluation of the e-mail campaigns indicated increased knowledge about RPD use and intent to use RPDs in dusty conditions. YouTube analytic data indicated continuing exposure of the instructional videos beyond the life of the campaign. The project demonstrates the efficacy of a planning process that incorporates formative research and clear decision points throughout. This process could be used to plan health behavior change interventions to address other agriculture-related health and safety issues.

  9. Regulation of the Stress-Activated Degradation of Mitochondrial Respiratory Complexes in Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Timón-Gómez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Repair and removal of damaged mitochondria is a key process for eukaryotic cell homeostasis. Here we investigate in the yeast model how different protein complexes of the mitochondrial electron transport chain are subject to specific degradation upon high respiration load and organelle damage. We find that the turnover of subunits of the electron transport complex I equivalent and complex III is preferentially stimulated upon high respiration rates. Particular mitochondrial proteases, but not mitophagy, are involved in this activated degradation. Further mitochondrial damage by valinomycin treatment of yeast cells triggers the mitophagic removal of the same respiratory complexes. This selective protein degradation depends on the mitochondrial fusion and fission apparatus and the autophagy adaptor protein Atg11, but not on the mitochondrial mitophagy receptor Atg32. Loss of autophagosomal protein function leads to valinomycin sensitivity and an overproduction of reactive oxygen species upon mitochondrial damage. A specific event in this selective turnover of electron transport chain complexes seems to be the association of Atg11 with the mitochondrial network, which can be achieved by overexpression of the Atg11 protein even in the absence of Atg32. Furthermore, the interaction of various Atg11 molecules via the C-terminal coil domain is specifically and rapidly stimulated upon mitochondrial damage and could therefore be an early trigger of selective mitophagy in response to the organelles dysfunction. Our work indicates that autophagic quality control upon mitochondrial damage operates in a selective manner.

  10. The role of Mycobacterium avium complex fibronectin attachment protein in adherence to the human respiratory mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, A M; Chadwick, M V; Nicholson, A G; Dewar, A; Groger, R K; Brown, E J; Wilson, R

    2000-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are opportunistic respiratory pathogens that infect non-immunocompromised patients with established lung disease, although they can also cause primary infections. The ability to bind fibronectin is conserved among many mycobacterial species. We have investigated the adherence of a sputum isolate of MAC to the mucosa of organ cultures constructed with human tissue and the contribution of M. avium fibronectin attachment protein (FAP) to the process. MAC adhered to fibrous, but not globular mucus, and to extracellular matrix (ECM) in areas of epithelial damage, but not to intact extruded cells and collagen fibres. Bacteria occasionally adhered to healthy unciliated epithelium and to cells that had degenerated exposing their contents, but never to ciliated cells. The results obtained with different respiratory tissues were similar. Two ATCC strains of MAC gave similar results. There was a significant reduction (P fibrous mucus was unchanged. Immunogold labelling demonstrated fibronectin in ECM as well as in other areas of epithelial damage, but only ECM bound FAP. A Mycobacterium smegmatis strain had the same pattern of adherence to the mucosa as MAC. When the FAP gene was deleted, the strain demonstrated reduced adherence to ECM, and adherence was restored when the strain was transfected with an M. avium FAP expression construct. We conclude that MAC adheres to ECM in areas of epithelial damage via FAP and to mucus with a fibrous appearance via another adhesin. Epithelial damage exposing ECM and poor mucus clearance will predispose to MAC airway infection.

  11. Oxygen therapy devices and portable ventilators for improved physical activity in daily life in patients with chronic respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlanetto, Karina Couto; Pitta, Fabio

    2017-02-01

    Patients with hypoxemia and chronic respiratory failure may need to use oxygen therapy to correct hypoxemia and to use ventilatory support to augment alveolar ventilation, reverse abnormalities in blood gases (in particular hypercapnia) and reduce the work of breathing. Areas covered: This narrative review provides an overview on the use of oxygen therapy devices or portable ventilators for improved physical activity in daily life (PADL) as well as discusses the issue of lower mobility in daily life among stable patients with chronic respiratory disease who present indication for long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) or home-based noninvasive ventilation (NIV). A literature review of these concepts was performed by using all related search terms. Expert commentary: Technological advances led to the development of light and small oxygen therapy devices and portable ventilators which aim to facilitate patients' mobility and ambulation. However, the day-by-day dependence of a device may reduce mobility and partially impair patients' PADL. Nocturnal NIV implementation in hypercapnic patients seems promising to improve PADL. The magnitude of their equipment-related physical inactivity is underexplored up to this moment and more long-term randomized clinical trials and meta-analysis examining the effects of ambulatory oxygen and NIV on PADL are required.

  12. Organotypic slice cultures containing the preBötzinger complex generate respiratory-like rhythms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Wiktor S; Herly, Mikkel; Del Negro, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    containing the preBötzinger complex (preBötC), the core inspiratory rhythm generator of the ventrolateral brainstem. We measured bilateral synchronous network oscillations, using calcium-sensitive fluorescent dyes, in both ventrolateral (presumably the preBötC) and dorsomedial regions of 7-43 days in vitro......Acute brainstem slice preparations in vitro have advanced understanding of the cellular and synaptic mechanisms of respiratory rhythm generation, but their inherent limitations preclude long-term manipulation and recording experiments. Here, we developed an organotypic slice culture preparation...... of the brainstem displayed up to 193% faster burst frequency (22.4 ± 8.3 bursts/min) and higher signal amplitude (340%) compared to acute slices. We conclude that preBötC-containing slice cultures retain inspiratory-like rhythmic function and therefore may facilitate lines of experimentation that involve extended...

  13. The ins and outs of breath holding: simple demonstrations of complex respiratory physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skow, Rachel J; Day, Trevor A; Fuller, Jonathan E; Bruce, Christina D; Steinback, Craig D

    2015-09-01

    The physiology of breath holding is complex, and voluntary breath-hold duration is affected by many factors, including practice, psychology, respiratory chemoreflexes, and lung stretch. In this activity, we outline a number of simple laboratory activities or classroom demonstrations that illustrate the complexity of the integrative physiology behind breath-hold duration. These activities require minimal equipment and are easily adapted to small-group demonstrations or a larger-group inquiry format where students can design a protocol and collect and analyze data from their classmates. Specifically, breath-hold duration is measured during a number of maneuvers, including after end expiration, end inspiration, voluntary prior hyperventilation, and inspired hyperoxia. Further activities illustrate the potential contribution of chemoreflexes through rebreathing and repeated rebreathing after a maximum breath hold. The outcome measures resulting from each intervention are easily visualized and plotted and can comprise a comprehensive data set to illustrate and discuss complex and integrated cardiorespiratory physiology. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  14. Modulation of respiratory frequency by peptidergic input to rhythmogenic neurons in the preBötzinger complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gray, P A; Rekling, J C; Bocchiaro, C M

    1999-01-01

    Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) and mu-opioid receptor (muOR) agonists affected respiratory rhythm when injected directly into the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC), the hypothesized site for respiratory rhythmogenesis in mammals. These effects were mediated by actions on preBötC rhythmogenic neurons....... The distribution of NK1R+ neurons anatomically defined the preBötC. Type 1 neurons in the preBötC, which have rhythmogenic properties, expressed both NK1Rs and muORs, whereas type 2 neurons expressed only NK1Rs. These findings suggest that the preBötC is a definable anatomic structure with unique physiological...... function and that a subpopulation of neurons expressing both NK1Rs and muORs generate respiratory rhythm and modulate respiratory frequency....

  15. SU-F-I-15: Evaluation of a New MR-Compatible Respiratory Motion Device at 3T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soliman, A [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON (Canada); Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); Chugh, B; Keller, B [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Sahgal, A; Song, W [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON (Canada); Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Recent advances in MRI-guided radiotherapy has inspired the development of MRI-compatible motion devices that simulate patient periodic motion in the scanner, particularly respiratory motion. Most commercial devices rely on non MR-safe ferromagnetic stepper motors which are not practical for regular QA testing. This work evaluates the motion performance of a new fully MRI compatible respiratory motion device at 3T. Methods: The QUASAR™ MRI-compatible respiratory motion phantom has been recently developed by Modus QA Inc., London, ON, Canada. The prototype is constructed from diamagnetic materials with linear motion generated using MRI-compatible piezoelectric motors that can be safely inserted in the scanner bore. The tumor was represented by a fillable sphere and is attached to the linear motion generator. The spherical tumor-representative and its surroundings were filled with different concentrations of MnCl2 to produce realistic relaxation times. The motion was generated along the longitudinal (H/F) axis of the bore using sinusoidal reference waveform (amplitude = 15 mm, frequency 0.25 Hz). Imaging was then performed on 3T Philips Achieva using a 32-channel cardiac coil. Fast 2D spoiled gradient-echo was used with a spatial resolution of 1.8 × 1.8 mm{sup 2} and slice thickness of 4 mm. The motion waveform was then measured on the resultant image series by tracking the centroid of the sphere through the time series. This image-derived measured motion was compared to the software-generated reference waveform. Results: No visible distortions from the device were observed on the images. Excellent agreement between the measured and the reference waveforms were obtained. Negligible motion was observed in the lateral (R/L) direction. Conclusion: Our investigation demonstrates that this piezo-electric motor design is effective at simulating periodic motion and is a potential candidate for MRI-radiotherapy respiratory motion simulation. Future work should

  16. SU-F-I-15: Evaluation of a New MR-Compatible Respiratory Motion Device at 3T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, A; Chugh, B; Keller, B; Sahgal, A; Song, W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Recent advances in MRI-guided radiotherapy has inspired the development of MRI-compatible motion devices that simulate patient periodic motion in the scanner, particularly respiratory motion. Most commercial devices rely on non MR-safe ferromagnetic stepper motors which are not practical for regular QA testing. This work evaluates the motion performance of a new fully MRI compatible respiratory motion device at 3T. Methods: The QUASAR™ MRI-compatible respiratory motion phantom has been recently developed by Modus QA Inc., London, ON, Canada. The prototype is constructed from diamagnetic materials with linear motion generated using MRI-compatible piezoelectric motors that can be safely inserted in the scanner bore. The tumor was represented by a fillable sphere and is attached to the linear motion generator. The spherical tumor-representative and its surroundings were filled with different concentrations of MnCl2 to produce realistic relaxation times. The motion was generated along the longitudinal (H/F) axis of the bore using sinusoidal reference waveform (amplitude = 15 mm, frequency 0.25 Hz). Imaging was then performed on 3T Philips Achieva using a 32-channel cardiac coil. Fast 2D spoiled gradient-echo was used with a spatial resolution of 1.8 × 1.8 mm 2 and slice thickness of 4 mm. The motion waveform was then measured on the resultant image series by tracking the centroid of the sphere through the time series. This image-derived measured motion was compared to the software-generated reference waveform. Results: No visible distortions from the device were observed on the images. Excellent agreement between the measured and the reference waveforms were obtained. Negligible motion was observed in the lateral (R/L) direction. Conclusion: Our investigation demonstrates that this piezo-electric motor design is effective at simulating periodic motion and is a potential candidate for MRI-radiotherapy respiratory motion simulation. Future work should focus

  17. Combined Respiratory Chain Deficiency and UQCC2 Mutations in Neonatal Encephalomyopathy: Defective Supercomplex Assembly in Complex III Deficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René G. Feichtinger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate respiratory chain complex III consists of eleven subunits. Mutations in five subunits either mitochondrial (MT-CYB or nuclear (CYC1, UQCRC2, UQCRB, and UQCRQ encoded have been reported. Defects in five further factors for assembly (TTC19, UQCC2, and UQCC3 or iron-sulphur cluster loading (BCS1L and LYRM7 cause complex III deficiency. Here, we report a second patient with UQCC2 deficiency. This girl was born prematurely; pregnancy was complicated by intrauterine growth retardation and oligohydramnios. She presented with respiratory distress syndrome, developed epileptic seizures progressing to status epilepticus, and died at day 33. She had profound lactic acidosis and elevated urinary pyruvate. Exome sequencing revealed two homozygous missense variants in UQCC2, leading to a severe reduction of UQCC2 protein. Deficiency of complexes I and III was found enzymatically and on the protein level. A review of the literature on genetically distinct complex III defects revealed that, except TTC19 deficiency, the biochemical pattern was very often a combined respiratory chain deficiency. Besides complex III, typically, complex I was decreased, in some cases complex IV. In accordance with previous observations, the presence of assembled complex III is required for the stability or assembly of complexes I and IV, which might be related to respirasome/supercomplex formation.

  18. Clinical evaluation of the Abbott RealTime MTB Assay for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-complex from respiratory and non-respiratory samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinić, Vladimira; Feuz, Kinga; Turan, Selda; Berini, Andrea; Frei, Reno; Pfeifer, Karin; Goldenberger, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Rapid and reliable diagnosis is crucial for correct management of tuberculosis. The Abbott RealTime MTB Assay represents a novel qualitative real-time PCR assay for direct detection of M. tuberculosis-complex (MTB) DNA from respiratory samples. The test targets two highly conserved sequences, the multi-copy insertion element IS6110 and the protein antigen B (PAB) gene of MTB, allowing even the detection of IS6610-deficient strains. We evaluated this commercial diagnostic test by analyzing 200 respiratory and, for the first time, 87 non-respiratory clinical specimens from our tertiary care institution and compared its results to our IS6110-based in-house real-time PCR for MTB as well as MTB culture. Overall sensitivity for Abbott RealTime MTB was 100% (19/19) in smear positive and 87.5% (7/8) in smear negative specimens, while the specificity of the assay was 100% (260/260). For both non-respiratory smear positive and smear negative specimens Abbott RealTime MTB tests showed 100% (8/8) sensitivity and 100% (8/8) specificity. Cycle threshold (Ct) value analysis of 16 MTB positive samples showed a slightly higher Ct value of the Abbott RealTime MTB test compared to our in-house MTB assay (mean delta Ct = 2.55). In conclusion, the performance of the new Abbott RealTime MTB Assay was highly similar to culture and in-house MTB PCR. We document successful analysis of 87 non-respiratory samples with the highly automated Abbott RealTime MTB test with no inhibition observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quality assurance device for four-dimensional IMRT or SBRT and respiratory gating using patient-specific intrafraction motion kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, Benjamin E; Ehler, Eric; Bragg, Henry; Tomé, Wolfgang A

    2007-09-17

    Emerging technologies such as four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) and implanted beacons are expected to allow clinicians to accurately model intrafraction motion and to quantitatively estimate internal target volumes (ITVs) for radiation therapy involving moving targets. In the case of intensity-modulated (IMRT) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) delivery, clinicians must consider the interplay between the temporal nature of the modulation and the target motion within the ITV. A need exists for a 4D IMRT/SBRT quality assurance (QA) device that can incorporate and analyze customized intrafraction motion as it relates to dose delivery and respiratory gating. We built a 4D IMRT/SBRT prototype device and entered (X, Y, Z)(T) coordinates representing a motion kernel into a software application that 1. transformed the kernel into beam-specific two-dimensional (2D) motion "projections," 2. previewed the motion in real time, and 3. drove a recision X-Y motorized device that had, atop it, a mounted planar IMRT QA measurement device. The detectors that intersected the target in the beam's-eye-view of any single phase of the breathing cycle (a small subset of all the detectors) were defined as "target detectors" to be analyzed for dose uniformity between multiple fractions. Data regarding the use of this device to quantify dose variation fraction-to-fraction resulting from target motion (for several delivery modalities and with and without gating) have been recently published. A combined software and hardware solution for patient-customized 4D IMRT/SBRT QA is an effective tool for assessing IMRT delivery under conditions of intrafraction motion. The 4D IMRT QA device accurately reproduced the projected motion kernels for all beam's-eye-view motion kernels. This device has been proved to, effectively quantify the degradation in dose uniformity resulting from a moving target within a static planning target volume, and, integrate with a commercial

  20. Quality assurance device for four‐dimensional IMRT or SBRT and respiratory gating using patient‐specific intrafraction motion kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehler, Eric; Bragg, Henry; Tomé, Wolfgang A.

    2007-01-01

    Emerging technologies such as four‐dimensional computed tomography (4D CT) and implanted beacons are expected to allow clinicians to accurately model intrafraction motion and to quantitatively estimate internal target volumes (ITVs) for radiation therapy involving moving targets. In the case of intensity‐modulated (IMRT) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) delivery, clinicians must consider the interplay between the temporal nature of the modulation and the target motion within the ITV. A need exists for a 4D IMRT/SBRT quality assurance (QA) device that can incorporate and analyze customized intrafraction motion as it relates to dose delivery and respiratory gating. We built a 4D IMRT/SBRT prototype device and entered (X, Y, Z)(T) coordinates representing a motion kernel into a software application that transformed the kernel into beam‐specific two‐dimensional (2D) motion “projections,”previewed the motion in real time, anddrove a precision X–Y motorized device that had, atop it, a mounted planar IMRT QA measurement device. The detectors that intersected the target in the beam's‐eye‐view of any single phase of the breathing cycle (a small subset of all the detectors) were defined as “target detectors” to be analyzed for dose uniformity between multiple fractions. Data regarding the use of this device to quantify dose variation fraction‐to‐fraction resulting from target motion (for several delivery modalities and with and without gating) have been recently published. A combined software and hardware solution for patient‐customized 4D IMRT/ SBRT QA is an effective tool for assessing IMRT delivery under conditions of intrafraction motion. The 4D IMRT QA device accurately reproduced the projected motion kernels for all beam's‐eye‐view motion kernels. This device has been proved to • effectively quantify the degradation in dose uniformity resulting from a moving target within a static planning target volume, and • integrate

  1. Mitochondrial respiratory chain Complex I defects in Fanconi anemia complementation group A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, Silvia; Vaccaro, Daniele; Cuccarolo, Paola; Columbaro, Marta; Capanni, Cristina; Bartolucci, Martina; Panfoli, Isabella; Morelli, Alessandro; Dufour, Carlo; Cappelli, Enrico; Degan, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare and complex inherited blood disorder of the child. At least 15 genes are associated with the disease. The highest frequency of mutations belongs to groups A, C and G. Genetic instability and cytokine hypersensitivity support the selection of leukemic over non-leukemic stem cells. FA cellular phenotype is characterized by alterations in red-ox state, mitochondrial functionality and energy metabolism as reported in the past however a clear picture of the altered biochemical phenotype in FA is still elusive and the final biochemical defect(s) still unknown. Here we report an analysis of the respiratory fluxes in FANCA primary fibroblasts, lymphocytes and lymphoblasts. FANCA mutants show defective respiration through Complex I, diminished ATP production and metabolic sufferance with an increased AMP/ATP ratio. Respiration in FANCC mutants is normal. Treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) restores oxygen consumption to normal level. Defective respiration in FANCA mutants appear correlated with the FA pro-oxidative phenotype which is consistent with the altered morphology of FANCA mitochondria. Electron microscopy measures indeed show profound alterations in mitochondrial ultrastructure and shape. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Respiratory chain complex I deficiency due to NDUFA12 mutations as a new cause of Leigh syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Elsebet; Rodenburg, Richard J; van den Brand, Mariël

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated a girl with Leigh syndrome born to first-cousin parents of Pakistani descent with an isolated respiratory chain complex I deficiency in muscle and fibroblasts. Her early development was delayed, and from age 2 years she started losing motor abilities. Cerebral MRI showed...

  3. Reactive oxygen species are generated by the respiratory complex II - evidence for lack of contribution of the reverse electron flow in complex I

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moreno-Sanchez, R.; Hernandez-Esquivel, L.; Rivero-Segura, N.A.; Marin-Hernandez, A.; Neužil, Jiří; Ralph, S. J.; Rodriguez-Enriquez, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 280, č. 3 (2013), s. 927-938 ISSN 1742-464X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : anti-cancer drugs * mitochondria * respiratory complex II Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.986, year: 2013

  4. Crystallization of Mitochondrial Respiratory Complex II fromChicken Heart: A Membrane-Protein Complex Diffracting to 2.0Angstrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Li-shar; Borders, Toni M.; Shen, John T.; Wang, Chung-Jen; Berry, Edward A.

    2004-12-17

    Procedure is presented for preparation of diffraction-quality crystals of a vertebrate mitochondrial respiratory Complex II. The crystals have the potential to diffract to at least 2.0 Angstrom with optimization of post-crystal-growth treatment and cryoprotection. This should allow determination of the structure of this important and medically relevant membrane protein complex at near-atomic resolution and provide great detail of the mode of binding of substrates and inhibitors at the two substrate-binding sites.

  5. Comparison of performance of three different types of respiratory protection devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Robert B; Duling, Matthew G; Calvert, Catherine A; Coffey, Christopher C

    2006-09-01

    Respiratory protection is offered to American workers in a variety of ways to guard against potential inhalation hazards. Two of the most common ways are elastomeric N95 respirators and N95 filtering-facepiece respirators. Some in the health care industry feel that surgical masks provide an acceptable level of protection in certain situations against particular hazards. This study compared the performance of these types of respiratory protection during a simulated workplace test that measured both filter penetration and face-seal leakage. A panel of 25 test subjects with varying face sizes tested 15 models of elastomeric N95 respirators, 15 models of N95 filtering-facepiece respirators, and 6 models of surgical masks. Simulated workplace testing was conducted using a TSI PORTACOUNT Plus model 8020, and consisted of a series of seven exercises. Six simulated workplace tests were performed with redonning of the respirator/mask occurring between each test. The results of these tests produced a simulated workplace protection factor (SWPF). The geometric mean (GM) and the 5th percentile values of the SWPFs were computed by category of respiratory protection using the six overall SWPF values. The level of protection provided by each of the three respiratory protection types was compared. The GM and 5th percentile SWPF values without fit testing were used for the comparison, as surgical masks were not intended to be fit tested. The GM values were 36 for elastomeric N95 respirators, 21 for N95 filtering-facepiece respirators, and 3 for surgical masks. An analysis of variance demonstrated a statistically significant difference between all three. Elastomeric N95 respirators had the highest 5th percentile SWPF of 7. N95 filtering-facepiece respirators and surgical masks had 5th percentile SWPFs of 3 and 1, respectively. A Fisher Exact Test revealed that the 5th percentile SWPFs for all three types of respiratory protection were statistically different. In addition, both

  6. Evaluation of Respiratory Support Devices for Use in the Hyperbaric Chamber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanga, D. F; Beck, G; Chimiak, J. M

    2003-01-01

    .... Navy recompression chambers. The Penlon MK 1 uses a pneumatically driven, mechanically controlled valved bellows - a design that enables the device to be operated in a hyperbaric environment simply by maintaining a pneumatic...

  7. Design and Evaluation of a Low-cost Piezoelectric Device for Remote Diagnosis of Respiratory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Palanki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a piezoelectric film was utilized to develop a low-cost biomedical device for diagnosis and management of breathing disorders. First, it was shown that when a commercial polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF film was subjected to airflow generated from human breath, the voltage generated increased with decreasing film thickness. Then, a device was fabricated that records a patient's breathing pattern and sends this data to a remote email address via the Raspberry Pi, an inexpensive computer. It was shown that the breathing patterns could be recorded in a reproducible manner with this device. Next, the efficacy of the device to detect breathing disorders was tested. A restrictive ventilatory abnormality was simulated by tying a crepe bandage around the chest. It was shown that this device could successfully distinguish between breathing in a normal patient and the breathing of a patient with a restrictive ventilatory abnormality. It is possible to fabricate this device for less than $100, thereby making it accessible to a large number of patients with chronic lung diseases.

  8. Crystal structure of NL63 respiratory coronavirus receptor-binding domain complexed with its human receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kailang; Li, Weikai; Peng, Guiqing; Li, Fang; (Harvard-Med); (UMM-MED)

    2010-03-04

    NL63 coronavirus (NL63-CoV), a prevalent human respiratory virus, is the only group I coronavirus known to use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as its receptor. Incidentally, ACE2 is also used by group II SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We investigated how different groups of coronaviruses recognize the same receptor, whereas homologous group I coronaviruses recognize different receptors. We determined the crystal structure of NL63-CoV spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) complexed with human ACE2. NL63-CoV RBD has a novel {beta}-sandwich core structure consisting of 2 layers of {beta}-sheets, presenting 3 discontinuous receptor-binding motifs (RBMs) to bind ACE2. NL63-CoV and SARS-CoV have no structural homology in RBD cores or RBMs; yet the 2 viruses recognize common ACE2 regions, largely because of a 'virus-binding hotspot' on ACE2. Among group I coronaviruses, RBD cores are conserved but RBMs are variable, explaining how these viruses recognize different receptors. These results provide a structural basis for understanding viral evolution and virus-receptor interactions.

  9. Electrical coupling and excitatory synaptic transmission between rhythmogenic respiratory neurons in the preBötzinger complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Shao, X M; Feldman, J L

    2000-01-01

    Breathing pattern is postulated to be generated by brainstem neurons. However, determination of the underlying cellular mechanisms, and in particular the synaptic interactions between respiratory neurons, has been difficult. Here we used dual recordings from two distinct populations of brainstem...... respiratory neurons, hypoglossal (XII) motoneurons, and rhythmogenic (type-1) neurons in the preBötzinger complex (preBötC), the hypothesized site for respiratory rhythm generation, to determine whether electrical and chemical transmission is present. Using an in vitro brainstem slice preparation from newborn...... mice, we found that intracellularly recorded pairs of XII motoneurons and pairs of preBötC inspiratory type-1 neurons showed bidirectional electrical coupling. Coupling strength was low (neurons was heavily filtered (corner frequency,

  10. Investigating the complexity of respiratory patterns during recovery from severe hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, Metin; Sekine, Noriko

    2004-03-01

    Progressive hypoxemia in anesthetized, peripherally chemodenervated piglets results in initial depression of the phrenic neurogram (PN) culminating in phrenic silence and, eventually, gasping. These changes reverse after the 30 min reoxygenation (recovery) period. To determine if changes in the PN patterns correspond to changes in temporal patterning, we have used the approximate entropy (ApEn) method to examine the effects of maturation on the complexity of breathing patterns in chemodenervated, vagotomized and decerebrated piglets during severe hypoxia and reoxygenation. The phrenic neurogram in piglets was recorded during eupnea (normal breathing), severe hypoxia (gasping) and recovery from severe hypoxia in 31 piglets (2 35 days). Nonlinear dynamical analysis of the phrenic neurogram was performed using the ApEn method. The mean ApEn values for a recording of five consecutive breaths during eupnea, a few phrenic neurogram signals during gasping, the beginning of the recovery period, and five consecutive breaths at every 5 min interval for the 30 min recovery period were calculated. Our data suggest that gasping resulted in reduced duration of the phrenic neurogram, and the gasp-like patterns exist at the beginning of the recovery. But, the durations of phrenic neurograms during recovery were increased after 10 min postreoxygenation, but were restored 30 min post recovery. The ApEn (complexity) values of the phrenic neurogram during eupnea were higher than those of gasping and the early (the onset of) recovery from severe hypoxia (p < 0.01), but were not statistically different than 5 min post recovery regardless of the maturation stages. These results suggest that hypoxia results in a reversible reconfiguration of the central respiratory pattern generator.

  11. Automated touch screen device for recording complex rodent behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, O.S.; Dripps, I.J.; Ramani, S.; Chang, C.; Han, J.L.; Rice, KC; Jutkiewicz, E.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Monitoring mouse behavior is a critical step in the development of modern pharmacotherapies. New Method Here we describe the application of a novel method that utilizes a touch display computer (tablet) and software to detect, record, and report fine motor behaviors. A consumer-grade tablet device is placed in the bottom of a specially made acrylic cage allowing the animal to walk on the device (MouseTrapp). We describe its application in open field (for general locomotor studies) which measures step lengths and velocity. The device can perform light-dark (anxiety) tests by illuminating half of the screen and keeping the other half darkened. A divider is built into the lid of the device allowing the animal free access to either side. Results Treating mice with amphetamine and the delta opioid peptide receptor agonist SNC80 stimulated locomotor activity on the device. Amphetamine increased step velocity but not step length during its peak effect (40–70 min after treatment), thus indicating detection of subtle amphetamine-induced effects. Animals showed a preference (74% of time spent) for the darkened half compared to the illuminated side. Comparison with Existing Method Animals were videotaped within the chamber to compare quadrant crosses to detected motion on the device. The slope, duration and magnitude of quadrant crosses tightly correlated with overall locomotor activity as detected by Mousetrapp. Conclusions We suggest that modern touch display devices such as MouseTrapp will be an important step toward automation of behavioral analyses for characterizing phenotypes and drug effects. PMID:24952323

  12. Short-term effects of humidification devices on respiratory pattern and arterial blood gases during noninvasive ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellouche, François; Pignataro, Claudia; Maggiore, Salvatore Maurizio; Girou, Emmanuelle; Deye, Nicolas; Taillé, Solenne; Fischler, Marc; Brochard, Laurent

    2012-11-01

    The impact of humidification devices on ventilatory and arterial blood gases parameters during noninvasive ventilation (NIV) remains controversial. The aim of the study was to compare the short-term impact of heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) and heated humidifiers (HHs) during NIV for either hypercapnic or hypoxemic acute respiratory failure. Consecutive subjects receiving NIV were successively treated with HME and HH in randomized order for 30 min each. At the end of each period, arterial blood gases were measured and ventilatory parameters were recorded. Eighty-one subjects were enrolled, of whom 52 were hypercapnic (with or without acidosis) and 29 hypoxemic. Minute ventilation was greater with the HME, in comparison with the HH (15 [12-18] vs 12 [10-16] median [interquartile range], P < .001), while P(aCO(2)) was increased when using HME, indicating a dead space effect. This effect was observed in all subjects, but was more pronounced in hypercapnic subjects (P(aCO(2)) 62 ± 17 mm Hg with HME vs 57 ± 14 with HH, P < .001). In a subgroup of 19 subjects with respiratory acidosis, alveolar hypoventilation improved only with the HH. The amplitude of the dead space impact was a function of the degree of hypercapnia. Use of an HME decreased CO(2) elimination during NIV, despite increased minute ventilation, especially in hypercapnic subjects.

  13. Development of a robust and cost-effective 3D respiratory motion monitoring system using the kinect device: Accuracy comparison with the conventional stereovision navigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Myungsoo; Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Namkug

    2018-07-01

    To develop and validate a robust and cost-effective 3D respiratory monitoring system based on a Kinect device with a custom-made simple marker. A 3D respiratory monitoring system comprising the simple marker and the Microsoft Kinect v2 device was developed. The marker was designed for simple and robust detection, and the tracking algorithm was developed using the depth, RGB, and infra-red images acquired from the Kinect sensor. A Kalman filter was used to suppress movement noises. The major movements of the marker attached to the four different locations of body surface were determined from the initially collected tracking points of the marker while breathing. The signal level of respiratory motion with the tracking point was estimated along the major direction vector. The accuracy of the results was evaluated through a comparison with those of the conventional stereovision navigation system (NDI Polaris Spectra). Sixteen normal volunteers were enrolled to evaluate the accuracy of this system. The correlation coefficients between the respiratory motion signal from the Kinect device and conventional navigation system ranged from 0.970 to 0.999 and from 0.837 to 0.995 at the abdominal and thoracic surfaces, respectively. The respiratory motion signal from this system was obtained at 27-30 frames/s. This system with the Kinect v2 device and simple marker could be used for cost-effective, robust and accurate 3D respiratory motion monitoring. In addition, this system is as reliable for respiratory motion signal generation and as practically useful as the conventional stereovision navigation system and is less sensitive to patient posture. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Simple artificial training device for respiratory muscle strength and lung volumes in healthy young male and female subjects: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelarungrayub, Jirakrit; Pinkaew, Decha; Yankai, Araya; Chautrakoon, Busaba; Kuntain, Rungtiwa

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a simple artificial device for respiratory muscle strength training and lung volumes using either combined or non-combined exercise with elastic bands in healthy young participants. Forty healthy young participants (20 male and 20 female) aged 19-24 years old were randomized into two main experiments with four sub-groups; (1) artificial device (n = 10) & standard device (n = 10) training, and (2) artificial device training combined with elastic band (EB) exercise (n = 10) & standard device training combined with EB (n = 10) exercise. Respiratory muscle strength with maximal peak inspiratory pressure (PImax), and lung volumes; tidal volume (TV), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), expiratory reserve volume (ERV) and vital capacity (VC) were evaluated before and after training once daily for 3 weeks. Moreover, the peak dyspnea score and vital sign parameters were compared between the experimental groups after final training. All parameters had no statistical differences (p > 0.5) between the training devices alone and those combined with EB exercise prior to any experiments. Results from the first experiment showed that training with an artificial device increased all parameters (PImax, VC, IRV, ERV) significantly (p artificial device training combined with EB exercise showed a significant increase in all parameters, except for TV, and they were the same as the increased results in training with the standard device combined with EB exercise. There was no significant difference of data between these groups after the training period. Finally, the results of peak dyspnea score and all vital sign parameters from using the artificial device, with or without EB exercise, showed no statistical difference when compared to use of the standard device. This study proposed that a simple artificial device can be used to train the respiratory muscle with or without elastic band exercise in healthy young subjects

  15. Low-complexity Wireless Monitoring of Respiratory Movements Using Ultra-wideband Impulse Response Estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Sana, Furrukh; Ballal, Tarig; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper; we present a comprehensive scheme for wireless monitoring of the respiratory movements in humans. Our scheme overcomes the challenges low signal-to-noise ratio, background clutter and high sampling rates. It is based on the estimation

  16. Respiratory rates measured by a standardised clinical approach, ward staff, and a wireless device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, A; Pedersen, N E; Lippert, A.

    2016-01-01

    in a medical ward. Respiratory rate was measured by three methods: a standardised approach over 60 s while patients lay still and refrained from talking, by ward staff and by a wireless electronic patch (SensiumVitals). The Bland-Altman method was used to compare measurements and three breaths per minute (BPM......) was considered a clinically relevant difference. RESULTS: We included 50 patients. The mean difference between the standardised approach and the electronic measurement was 0.3 (95% CI: -1.4 to 2.0) BPM; 95% limits of agreement were -11.5 (95% CI: -14.5 to -8.6) and 12.1 (95% CI: 9.2 to 15.1) BPM. Removal...... of three outliers with huge differences lead to a mean difference of -0.1 (95% CI: -0.7 to 0.5) BPM and 95% limits of agreement of -4.2 (95% CI: -5.3 to -3.2) BPM and 4.0 (95% CI: 2.9 to 5.0) BPM. The mean difference between staff and electronic measurements was 1.7 (95% CI: -0.5 to 3.9) BPM; 95% limits...

  17. Evaluation of the Survivability of Microorganisms Deposited on Filtering Respiratory Protective Devices under Varying Conditions of Humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Majchrzycka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioaerosols are common biological factors in work environments, which require routine use of filtering respiratory protective devices (FRPDs. Currently, no studies link humidity changes in the filter materials of such devices, during use, with microorganism survivability. Our aim was to determine the microclimate inside FRPDs, by simulating breathing, and to evaluate microorganism survivability under varying humidity conditions. Breathing was simulated using commercial filtering facepiece respirators in a model system. Polypropylene melt-blown nonwoven fabrics with moisture contents of 40%, 80%, and 200%, were used for assessment of microorganisms survivability. A modified AATCC 100-2004 method was used to measure the survivability of ATCC and NCAIM microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. During simulation relative humidity under the facepiece increased after 7 min of usage to 84%–92% and temperature increased to 29–30 °C. S. aureus survived the best on filter materials with 40%–200% moisture content. A decrease in survivability was observed for E. coli and C. albicans when mass humidity decreased. We found that B. subtilis and A. niger proliferated for 48–72 h of incubation and then died regardless of the moisture content. In conclusion, our tests showed that the survivability of microorganisms on filter materials depends on the amount of accumulated moisture and microorganism type.

  18. Evaluation of the Survivability of Microorganisms Deposited on Filtering Respiratory Protective Devices under Varying Conditions of Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Skóra, Justyna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-01-04

    Bioaerosols are common biological factors in work environments, which require routine use of filtering respiratory protective devices (FRPDs). Currently, no studies link humidity changes in the filter materials of such devices, during use, with microorganism survivability. Our aim was to determine the microclimate inside FRPDs, by simulating breathing, and to evaluate microorganism survivability under varying humidity conditions. Breathing was simulated using commercial filtering facepiece respirators in a model system. Polypropylene melt-blown nonwoven fabrics with moisture contents of 40%, 80%, and 200%, were used for assessment of microorganisms survivability. A modified AATCC 100-2004 method was used to measure the survivability of ATCC and NCAIM microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. During simulation relative humidity under the facepiece increased after 7 min of usage to 84%-92% and temperature increased to 29-30 °C. S. aureus survived the best on filter materials with 40%-200% moisture content. A decrease in survivability was observed for E. coli and C. albicans when mass humidity decreased. We found that B. subtilis and A. niger proliferated for 48-72 h of incubation and then died regardless of the moisture content. In conclusion, our tests showed that the survivability of microorganisms on filter materials depends on the amount of accumulated moisture and microorganism type.

  19. Efficient organic light-emitting devices with platinum-complex emissive layer

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2011-01-18

    We report efficient organic light-emitting devices having a platinum-complex emissive layer with the peak external quantum efficiency of 17.5% and power efficiency of 45 lm W−1. Variation in the device performance with platinum-complex layer thickness can be attributed to the interplay between carrier recombination and intermolecular interactions in the layer. Efficient white devices using double platinum-complex layers show the external quantum efficiency of 10%, the Commission Internationale d’Énclairage coordinates of (0.42, 0.41), and color rendering index of 84 at 1000 cd m−2.

  20. Efficient organic light-emitting devices with platinum-complex emissive layer

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui; Wu, Fang-Iy; Haverinen, Hanna; Li, Jian; Cheng, Chien-Hong; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2011-01-01

    We report efficient organic light-emitting devices having a platinum-complex emissive layer with the peak external quantum efficiency of 17.5% and power efficiency of 45 lm W−1. Variation in the device performance with platinum-complex layer thickness can be attributed to the interplay between carrier recombination and intermolecular interactions in the layer. Efficient white devices using double platinum-complex layers show the external quantum efficiency of 10%, the Commission Internationale d’Énclairage coordinates of (0.42, 0.41), and color rendering index of 84 at 1000 cd m−2.

  1. Efficient light-emitting devices based on platinum-complexes-anchored polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane materials

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaohui

    2010-08-24

    The synthesis, photophysical, and electrochemical characterization of macromolecules, consisting of an emissive platinum complex and carbazole moieties covalently attached to a polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) core, is reported. Organic light-emitting devices based on these POSS materials exhibit a peak external quantum efficiency of ca. 8%, which is significantly higher than that of the analogous devices with a physical blend of the platinum complexes and a polymer matrix, and they represent noticeable improvement in the device efficiency of solution-processable phosphorescent excimer devices. Furthermore, the ratio of monomer and excimer/aggregate electroluminescent emission intensity, as well as the device efficiency, increases as the platinum complex moiety presence on the POSS macromolecules decreases. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  2. An Investigation of the Pathology and Pathogens Associated with Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Pors, S. E.; Jensen, H. E.

    2010-01-01

    ), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (both European and US type), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine respiratory coronavirus, porcine cytomegalovirus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. All cases had cranioventral lobular bronchopneumonia consistent with PRDC....... There was a broad range of microscopical lesions and the cases were characterized as acute (n=10), subacute (n=24) or chronic (n=114) bronchopneumonia. Five bacterial species, five viruses and two Mycoplasma spp. were detected in different combinations. PCV2, M. hyopneumoniae, M. hyorhinis and Pasteurella multocida...

  3. Design and Functional Validation of a Complex Impedance Measurement Device for Characterization of Ultrasonic Transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De-Cock, Wouter; Cools, Jan; Leroux, Paul

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the design and practical implementation of a complex impedance measurement device capable of characterization of ultrasonic transducers. The device works in the frequency range used by industrial ultrasonic transducers which is below the measurement range of modern high end network analyzers. The device uses the Goertzel algorithm instead of the more common FFT algorithm to calculate the magnitude and phase component of the impedance under test. A theoretical overview is given followed by a practical approach and measurement results. (authors)

  4. Guarantee of reliability of devices complexes for plastic tube welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskresenskij, L.A.; Zajtsev, A.I.; Nelyubov, V.I.; Fedorov, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Results of calculations and experimental studies on providing reliability of complex for plastic tube welding are presented. Choice of reliability indeces and standards is based. Reliability levels of components are determined. The most waded details are calculated. It is shown that they meet the reqrurements of strength and reliability. Service life tests supported the correct choice of springs. Recommendations on elevating reliability are given. Directions of further developments are shown. 8 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  5. PreBötzinger complex and pacemaker neurons: hypothesized site and kernel for respiratory rhythm generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Feldman, J L

    1998-01-01

    Identification of the sites and mechanisms underlying the generation of respiratory rhythm is of longstanding interest to physiologists and neurobiologists. Recently, with the development of novel experimental preparations, especially in vitro en bloc and slice preparations of rodent brainstem, p...... activity of pacemaker or group-pacemaker neurons....

  6. Evidence that metformin exerts its anti-diabetic effects through inhibition of complex 1 of the mitochondrial respiratory chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, M R; Doran, E; Halestrap, A P

    2000-06-15

    Although metformin is widely used for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes, its mode of action remains unclear. Here we provide evidence that its primary site of action is through a direct inhibition of complex 1 of the respiratory chain. Metformin(50 microM) inhibited mitochondrial oxidation of glutamate+malate in hepatoma cells by 13 and 30% after 24 and 60 h exposure respectively, but succinate oxidation was unaffected. Metformin also caused time-dependent inhibition of complex 1 in isolated mitochondria, whereas in sub-mitochondrial particles inhibition was immediate but required very high metformin concentrations (K(0.5),79 mM). These data are compatible with the slow membrane-potential-driven accumulation of the positively charged drug within the mitochondrial matrix leading to inhibition of complex 1. Metformin inhibition of gluconeogenesis from L-lactate in isolated rat hepatocytes was also time- and concentration-dependent, and accompanied by changes in metabolite levels similar to those induced by other inhibitors of gluconeogenesis acting on complex 1. Freeze-clamped livers from metformin-treated rats exhibited similar changes in metabolite concentrations. We conclude that the drug's pharmacological effects are mediated, at least in part, through a time-dependent, self-limiting inhibition of the respiratory chain that restrains hepatic gluconeogenesis while increasing glucose utilization in peripheral tissues. Lactic acidosis, an occasional side effect, canal so be explained in this way.

  7. System Testability Analysis for Complex Electronic Devices Based on Multisignal Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, B; Tian, S L; Huang, J G

    2006-01-01

    It is necessary to consider the system testability problems for electronic devices during their early design phase because modern electronic devices become smaller and more compositive while their function and structure are more complex. Multisignal model, combining advantage of structure model and dependency model, is used to describe the fault dependency relationship for the complex electronic devices, and the main testability indexes (including optimal test program, fault detection rate, fault isolation rate, etc.) to evaluate testability and corresponding algorithms are given. The system testability analysis process is illustrated for USB-GPIB interface circuit with TEAMS toolbox. The experiment results show that the modelling method is simple, the computation speed is rapid and this method has important significance to improve diagnostic capability for complex electronic devices

  8. BACTERIAL LYSATES IN COMPLEX TREATMENT OF RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN FREQUENTLY SICK CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Lupan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature review analyzes the results of Imudon administration in pediatrics. The drug contains a mixture of purified lyzates of bacteria which are the most frequent causative agents of pathologic processes in oral cavity and throat. Presented data show high efficacy and safety of a drug.Key words: frequently sick children, respiratory infections, topical immunocorrector, clinical studies.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (4: 41–46

  9. [Respiratory hypercapnic-hypoxic training is an effective component of complex therapy of polyneuropathy in children with diabetes type 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, K V; Smirnova, Yu V; Kulikov, V P; Nazarkina, O M

    2018-01-01

    To study the effectiveness of respiratory hypercapnic-hypoxic training in complex treatment of neuropathy due to diabetes type 1. Fifty children, 31 girls and 19 boys, were examined. The inclusion criteria were the presence of polyneuropathy, verified on the basis of clinical data and electromyographic changes. The patients were divided into 2 groups: the main group (n=25, 15 girls and 10 boys, mean age 12.9±1.8 years (M±SD) and the comparison group (n=25, 16 girls and 9 boys, mean age 13.2±2.0 years). Patients of the main group, along with standard therapy received respiratory hypercapnic-hypoxic training. The positive clinical and neurophysiological dynamics was noted in both groups, with more significant changes in children after respiratory training. Hypercapnic exercises significantly contribute to the pathogenetic therapy of diabetes mellitus and polyneuropathy in this disease, have a significant clinical effects reducing serum concentrations of fasting glucose and severity of neurological deficit scores on the NIS-LL, increasing the speed of conduction of excitation through the nerves, reducing the residual latency of EMG activity.

  10. Purification of Ovine Respiratory Complex I Results in a Highly Active and Stable Preparation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, James A.; Degliesposti, Gianluca; Fiedorczuk, Karol; Skehel, Mark; Sazanov, Leonid A.

    2016-01-01

    NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the largest (∼1 MDa) and the least characterized complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Because of the ease of sample availability, previous work has focused almost exclusively on bovine complex I. However, only medium resolution structural analyses of this complex have been reported. Working with other mammalian complex I homologues is a potential approach for overcoming these limitations. Due to the inherent difficulty of expressing large membrane protein complexes, screening of complex I homologues is limited to large mammals reared for human consumption. The high sequence identity among these available sources may preclude the benefits of screening. Here, we report the characterization of complex I purified from Ovis aries (ovine) heart mitochondria. All 44 unique subunits of the intact complex were identified by mass spectrometry. We identified differences in the subunit composition of subcomplexes of ovine complex I as compared with bovine, suggesting differential stability of inter-subunit interactions within the complex. Furthermore, the 42-kDa subunit, which is easily lost from the bovine enzyme, remains tightly bound to ovine complex I. Additionally, we developed a novel purification protocol for highly active and stable mitochondrial complex I using the branched-chain detergent lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol. Our data demonstrate that, although closely related, significant differences exist between the biochemical properties of complex I prepared from ovine and bovine mitochondria and that ovine complex I represents a suitable alternative target for further structural studies. PMID:27672209

  11. Identification of a multi-protein reductive dehalogenase complex in Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain CBDB1 suggests a protein-dependent respiratory electron transport chain obviating quinone involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublik, Anja; Deobald, Darja; Hartwig, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    electrophoresis (BN-PAGE), gel filtration and ultrafiltration an active dehalogenating protein complex with a molecular mass of 250–270 kDa was identified. The active subunit of reductive dehalogenase (RdhA) colocalised with a complex iron-sulfur molybdoenzyme (CISM) subunit (CbdbA195) and an iron-sulfur cluster...... of the dehalogenating complex prior to membrane solubilisation. Taken together, the identification of the respiratory dehalogenase protein complex and the absence of indications for quinone participation in the respiration suggest a quinone-independent protein-based respiratory electron transfer chain in D. mccartyi....

  12. Near-infrared electroluminescence from double-emission-layers devices based on Ytterbium (III) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhefeng; Zhang Hongjie; Yu Jiangbo

    2012-01-01

    We investigated near-infrared electroluminescence properties of two lanthanide complexes Yb(PMBP) 3 Bath [PMBP = tris(1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-(4-tert-butylbenzacyl)-5-pyrazolone); Bath = bathophenanthroline] and Yb(PMIP) 3 TP 2 [PMIP = tris(1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-isobutyryl-5-pyrazolone); TP = triphenyl phosphine oxide] by fabricated the double-emission-layers devices. From the device characteristics, it is known that holes are easier to transport in Yb(PMIP) 3 TP 2 layer and electrons are easier to transport in Yb(PMBP) 3 Bath layer, at the same time, both of the two complexes can be acted as emission layers in the device. The recombination region of carriers has been confined in the interface of Yb(PMIP) 3 TP 2 /Yb(PMBP) 3 Bath, and pure Yb 3+ ion characteristic emission centered at 980 nm has been obtained. The device shows the maximum near-infrared irradiance as 14.7 mW/m 2 at the applied voltage of 17.8 V. - Highlights: ► Near-infrared electroluminescent devices with Yb(III) complexes as emission layers. ► Double-emission layer device structure introduced to balance carriers. ► Improved performance of double-emission layer device.

  13. Efficient red organic electroluminescent devices based on trivalent europium complex obtained by designing the device structure with stepwise energy levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Liang; Jiang, Yunlong; Cui, Rongzhen; Li, Yanan; Zhao, Xuesen; Deng, Ruiping; Zhang, Hongjie, E-mail: hongjie@ciac.ac.cn

    2016-02-15

    In this study, we aim to further enhance the electroluminescence (EL) performances of trivalent europium complex Eu(TTA){sub 3}phen (TTA=thenoyltrifluoroacetone and phen=1,10-phenanthroline) by designing the device structure with stepwise energy levels. The widely used bipolar material 2,6-bis(3-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)pyridine (26DCzPPy) was chosen as host material, while the doping concentration of Eu(TTA){sub 3}phen was optimized to be 4%. To facilitate the injection and transport of holes, MoO{sub 3} anode modification layer and 4,4′,4′′-Tris(carbazole-9-yl)triphenylamine (TcTa) hole transport layer were inserted in sequence. Efficient pure red emission with suppressed efficiency roll-off was obtained attributed to the reduction of accumulation holes, the broadening of recombination zone, and the improved balance of holes and electrons on Eu(TTA){sub 3}phen molecules. Finally, the device with 3 nm MoO{sub 3} and 5 nm TcTa obtained the highest brightness of 3278 cd/m{sup 2}, current efficiency of 12.45 cd/A, power efficiency of 11.50 lm/W, and external quantum efficiency of 6.60%. Such a device design strategy helps to improve the EL performances of emitters with low-lying energy levels and provides a chance to simplify device fabrication processes. - Highlights: • Electroluminescent performances of europium complex were further improved. • Device structure with stepwise energy levels was designed. • Better carriers' balance was realized by improving the injection and transport of holes. • The selection of bipolar host caused the broadening of recombination zone.

  14. Structure of a mitochondrial supercomplex formed by respiratory-chain complexes I and III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dudkina, Natalia V.; Eubel, Holger; Keegstra, Wilko; Boekema, Egbert J.; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondria are central to the efficient provision of energy for eukaryotic cells. The oxidative-phosphorylation system of mitochondria consists of a series of five major membrane complexes: NADH–ubiquinone oxidoreductase (commonly known as complex I), succinate–ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex

  15. Purification of Ovine Respiratory Complex I Results in a Highly Active and Stable Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, James A; Degliesposti, Gianluca; Fiedorczuk, Karol; Skehel, Mark; Sazanov, Leonid A

    2016-11-18

    NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the largest (∼1 MDa) and the least characterized complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Because of the ease of sample availability, previous work has focused almost exclusively on bovine complex I. However, only medium resolution structural analyses of this complex have been reported. Working with other mammalian complex I homologues is a potential approach for overcoming these limitations. Due to the inherent difficulty of expressing large membrane protein complexes, screening of complex I homologues is limited to large mammals reared for human consumption. The high sequence identity among these available sources may preclude the benefits of screening. Here, we report the characterization of complex I purified from Ovis aries (ovine) heart mitochondria. All 44 unique subunits of the intact complex were identified by mass spectrometry. We identified differences in the subunit composition of subcomplexes of ovine complex I as compared with bovine, suggesting differential stability of inter-subunit interactions within the complex. Furthermore, the 42-kDa subunit, which is easily lost from the bovine enzyme, remains tightly bound to ovine complex I. Additionally, we developed a novel purification protocol for highly active and stable mitochondrial complex I using the branched-chain detergent lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol. Our data demonstrate that, although closely related, significant differences exist between the biochemical properties of complex I prepared from ovine and bovine mitochondria and that ovine complex I represents a suitable alternative target for further structural studies. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Application of complex programmable logic devices in memory radiation effects test system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yonghong; He Chaohui; Yang Hailiang; He Baoping

    2005-01-01

    The application of the complex programmable logic device (CPLD) in electronics is emphatically discussed. The method of using software MAX + plus II and CPLD are introduced. A new test system for memory radiation effects is established by using CPLD devices-EPM7128C84-15. The old test system's function are realized and, moreover, a number of small scale integrated circuits are reduced and the test system's reliability is improved. (authors)

  17. TTC19 Plays a Husbandry Role on UQCRFS1 Turnover in the Biogenesis of Mitochondrial Respiratory Complex III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottani, Emanuela; Cerutti, Raffaele; Harbour, Michael E; Ravaglia, Sabrina; Dogan, Sukru Anil; Giordano, Carla; Fearnley, Ian M; D'Amati, Giulia; Viscomi, Carlo; Fernandez-Vizarra, Erika; Zeviani, Massimo

    2017-07-06

    Loss-of-function mutations in TTC19 (tetra-tricopeptide repeat domain 19) have been associated with severe neurological phenotypes and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III deficiency. We previously demonstrated the mitochondrial localization of TTC19 and its link with complex III biogenesis. Here we provide detailed insight into the mechanistic role of TTC19, by investigating a Ttc19 ?/? mouse model that shows progressive neurological and metabolic decline, decreased complex III activity, and increased production of reactive oxygen species. By using both the Ttc19 ?/? mouse model and a range of human cell lines, we demonstrate that TTC19 binds to the fully assembled complex III dimer, i.e., after the incorporation of the iron-sulfur Rieske protein (UQCRFS1). The in situ maturation of UQCRFS1 produces N-terminal polypeptides, which remain bound to holocomplex III. We show that, in normal conditions, these UQCRFS1 fragments are rapidly removed, but when TTC19 is absent they accumulate within complex III, causing its structural and functional impairment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Soluble dendrimers europium(III) β-diketonate complex for organic memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Binbin; Fang Junfeng; Li Bin; You Han; Ma Dongge; Hong Ziruo; Li Wenlian; Su Zhongmin

    2008-01-01

    We report the synthesis of a soluble dendrimers europium(III) complex, tris(dibenzoylmethanato)(1,3,5-tris[2-(2'-pyridyl) benzimidazoly]methylbenzene)-europium(III), and its application in organic electrical bistable memory device. Excellent stability that ensured more than 10 6 write-read-erase-reread cycles has been performed in ambient conditions without current-induced degradation. High-density, low-cost memory, good film-firming property, fascinating thermal and morphological stability allow the application of the dendrimers europium(III) complex as an active medium in non-volatile memory devices

  19. The mitochondrial DNA mutation ND6*14,484C associated with leber hereditary optic neuropathy, leads to deficiency of complex I of the respiratory chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostra, R. J.; van Galen, M. J.; Bolhuis, P. A.; Bleeker-Wagemakers, E. M.; van den Bogert, C.

    1995-01-01

    The electron transfer activity of Complex I of the respiratory chain and Complex I-linked ATP synthesis were investigated in leukocytes of four males affected by Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and a mutation in the ND6 gene at nucleotide position 14,484 of mtDNA. The electron transfer activity in

  20. Respiratory chain complex I, a main regulatory target of the cAMP/PKA pathway is defective in different human diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papa, S.; De Rasmo, D.; Technikova-Dobrova, Z.

    2012-01-01

    In mammals, complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain has 31 supernumerary subunits in addition to the 14 conserved from prokaryotes to humans. Multiplicity of structural protein components, as well as of biogenesis factors, makes complex I a sensible pace-...

  1. Troxerutin attenuates diet-induced oxidative stress, impairment of mitochondrial biogenesis and respiratory chain complexes in mice heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Geetha; Chandrasekaran, Sathiya Priya; Carani Venkatraman, Anuradha

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial abnormality is thought to play a key role in cardiac disease originating from the metabolic syndrome (MS). We evaluated the effect of troxerutin (TX), a semi-synthetic derivative of the natural bioflavanoid rutin, on the respiratory chain complex activity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics in heart of high fat, high fructose diet (HFFD) -induced mouse model of MS. Adult male Mus musculus mice of body weight 25-30 g were fed either control diet or HFFD for 60 days. Mice from each dietary regimen were divided into two groups on the 16th day and were treated or untreated with TX (150 mg/kg body weight [bw], per oral) for the next 45 days. At the end of experimental period, respiratory chain complex activity, uncoupling proteins (UCP)-2 and -3, mtDNA content, mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics, oxidative stress markers and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were analyzed. Reduced mtDNA abundance with alterations in the expression of genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and fission and fusion processes were observed in HFFD-fed mice. Disorganized and smaller mitochondria, reduction in complexes I, III and IV activities (by about 55%) and protein levels of UCP-2 (52%) and UCP-3 (46%) were noted in these mice. TX administration suppressed oxidative stress, improved the oxidative capacity and biogenesis and restored fission/fusion imbalance in the cardiac mitochondria of HFFD-fed mice. TX protects the myocardium by modulating the putative molecules of mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics and by its anti-oxidant function in a mouse model of MS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. The preBötzinger complex as a hub for network activity along the ventral respiratory column in the neonate rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourévitch, Boris; Mellen, Nicholas

    2014-09-01

    In vertebrates, respiratory control is ascribed to heterogeneous respiration-modulated neurons along the Ventral Respiratory Column (VRC) in medulla, which includes the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC), the putative respiratory rhythm generator. Here, the functional anatomy of the VRC was characterized via optical recordings in the sagittaly sectioned neonate rat hindbrain, at sampling rates permitting coupling estimation between neuron pairs, so that each neuron was described using unitary, neuron-system, and coupling attributes. Structured coupling relations in local networks, significantly oriented coupling in the peri-inspiratory interval detected in pooled data, and significant correlations between firing rate and expiratory duration in subsets of neurons revealed network regulation at multiple timescales. Spatially averaged neuronal attributes, including coupling vectors, revealed a sharp boundary at the rostral margin of the preBötC, as well as other functional anatomical features congruent with identified structures, including the parafacial respiratory group and the nucleus ambiguus. Cluster analysis of attributes identified two spatially compact, homogenous groups: the first overlapped with the preBötC, and was characterized by strong respiratory modulation and dense bidirectional coupling with itself and other groups, consistent with a central role for the preBötC in respiratory control; the second lay between preBötC and the facial nucleus, and was characterized by weak respiratory modulation and weak coupling with other respiratory neurons, which is congruent with cardiovascular regulatory networks that are found in this region. Other groups identified using cluster analysis suggested that networks along VRC regulated expiratory duration, and the transition to and from inspiration, but these groups were heterogeneous and anatomically dispersed. Thus, by recording local networks in parallel, this study found evidence for respiratory regulation at

  3. A complex homeopathic preparation for the symptomatic treatment of upper respiratory infections associated with the common cold: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedel, Volker; Klein, Peter

    2006-03-01

    The use of complementary medicines is large and growing in both the United States and Europe. To compare the effects of a complex homeopathic preparation (Engystol; Heel GmbH, Baden-Baden, Germany) with those of conventional therapies with antihistamines, antitussives, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on upper respiratory symptoms of the common cold in a setting closely related to everyday clinical practice. Nonrandomized, observational study over a treatment period of maximally two weeks. Eighty-five general and homeopathic practices in Germany. Three hundred ninety-seven patients with upper respiratory symptoms of the common cold. Engystol-based therapy or common over-the-counter treatments for the common cold. Patients receiving this homeopathic treatment were allowed other short-term medications, but long-term use of analgesics, antibiotics, and antiinflammatory agents was not permitted. Patients were allowed nonpharmacological therapies such as vitamins, thermotherapies, and others. The effects of treatment were evaluated on the variables fatigue, sensation of illness, chill/tremor, aching joints, overall severity of illness, sum of all clinical variables, temperature, and time to symptomatic improvement. Both treatment regimens provided significant symptomatic relief, and this homeopathic treatment was noninferior in a noninferiority analysis. Significantly more patients (P cold in patients and practitioners choosing an integrative approach to medical care.

  4. FOTOSAN DEVICE IMPLEMENTATION IN COMPLEX TREATMENT OF ORAL AND LABIAL MUSCOSA DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Chizhikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data about Fotosan device and its implementation in complex treatment of oral and labial muscosa diseases. The obtained results evidence that 84% of observed patients had significant reduction of pain, swellings and regeneration acceleration in 1.5 – 2 times

  5. The technology level of modular devices in outfitting an oil and gas complex in Western Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezin, V.L.; Permikin, Yu.N.; Sannikov, Yu.V.; Telegin, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    The status of the problem of ensuring the technology level of modular devices (BKU) is analyzed. It is shown that insufficient consideration in design of the specific production, transport and assembly and operational specifications on the technology level is the cause for creation of irrational designs for modular devices and additional expenditures on their realization. A methodology for controlling the technology level of modular devices being designed is described, which increases the effectiveness of their use (in outfitting petroleum pumping stations (NPS), one of the most important elements of the oil and gas complex). A numerical method for designing the technological structures of the modular devices and an algorithm which ensures practical realization of the method on a computer (EVM) are examined.

  6. Development of ultraviolet LED devices containing europium (III) complexes in fluorescence layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanaga, Hiroki; Amano, Akio; Aiga, Fumihiko; Harada, Kohichi; Oguchi, Masayuki

    2006-01-01

    Relations between molecular structures of europium complexes and their luminescent properties were investigated. Europium complex with β-diketones and two different phosphine oxides 8 was highly soluble in fluorinated medium, and realized largest fluorescence intensities. The luminous intensity of ultraviolet light emitting diodes devices (LEDs) whose fluorescence layer consists of fluorinated polymer and 8 was over 200 mcd (20 mA). Fluorescence compounds of this type are promising for application in next-generation white LEDs. Moreover, we proposed a novel molecular design of europium complex with asymmetric diphosphine dioxide

  7. Evaluation of the In Vivo and In Vitro Effects of Fructose on Respiratory Chain Complexes in Tissues of Young Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto António Macongonde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by fructose and fructose-1-phosphate accumulation in tissues and biological fluids of patients. This disease results from a deficiency of aldolase B, which metabolizes fructose in the liver, kidney, and small intestine. We here investigated the effect of acute fructose administration on the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH, and malate dehydrogenase (MDH in cerebral cortex, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle of male 30-day-old Wistar rats. The rats received subcutaneous injection of sodium chloride (0.9%; control group or fructose solution (5 μmol/g; treated group. One hour later, the animals were euthanized and the cerebral cortex, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle were isolated and homogenized for the investigations. Acute fructose administration increased complex I-III activity in liver. On the other hand, decreased complexes II and II-III activities in skeletal muscle and MDH in kidney were found. Interestingly, none of these parameters were affected in vitro. Our present data indicate that fructose administration elicits impairment of mitochondrial energy metabolism, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of the HFI patients.

  8. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacteria That Cause Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Michele Anholt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is the most important illness of feedlot cattle. Disease management targets the associated bacterial pathogens, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, and Trueperella pyogenes. We conducted a cross-sectional study to measure the frequencies of antimicrobial-resistant BRD pathogens using a collaborative network of veterinarians, industry, government, and a diagnostic laboratory. Seven private veterinary practices in southern Alberta collected samples from both living and dead BRD-affected animals at commercial feedlots. Susceptibility testing of 745 isolates showed that 100% of the M. haemolytica, M. bovis, P. multocida, and T. pyogenes isolates and 66.7% of the H. somni isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial class. Resistance to macrolide antimicrobials (90.2% of all isolates was notable for their importance to beef production and human medicine. Multidrug resistance (MDR was high in all target pathogens with 47.2% of the isolates resistant to four or five antimicrobial classes and 24.0% resistance to six to nine classes. We compared the MDR profiles of isolates from two feedlots serviced by different veterinary practices. Differences in the average number of resistant classes were found for M. haemolytica (p < 0.001 and P. multocida (p = 0.002. Compared to previous studies, this study suggests an increasing trend of resistance in BRD pathogens against the antimicrobials used to manage the disease in Alberta. For the veterinary clinician, the results emphasize the importance of ongoing susceptibility testing of BRD pathogens to inform treatment protocols. Surveillance studies that collect additional epidemiological information and manage sampling bias will be necessary to develop strategies to limit the spread of resistance.

  9. Binding of the respiratory chain inhibitor ametoctradin to the mitochondrial bc1 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Marcus; Wolf, Antje; Stammler, Gerd

    2016-03-01

    Ametoctradin is an agricultural fungicide that inhibits the mitochondrial bc1 complex of oomycetes. The bc1 complex has two quinone binding sites that can be addressed by inhibitors. Depending on their binding sites and binding modes, the inhibitors show different degrees of cross-resistance that need to be considered when designing spray programmes for agricultural fungicides. The binding site of ametoctradin was unknown. Cross-resistance analyses, the reduction of isolated Pythium sp. bc1 complex in the presence of different inhibitors and molecular modelling studies were used to analyse the binding site and binding mode of ametoctradin. All three approaches provide data supporting the argument that ametoctradin binds to the Pythium bc1 complex similarly to stigmatellin. The binding mode of ametoctradin differs from other agricultural fungicides such as cyazofamid and the strobilurins. This explains the lack of cross-resistance with strobilurins and related inhibitors, where resistance is mainly caused by G143A amino acid exchange. Accordingly, mixtures or alternating applications of these fungicides and ametoctradin can help to minimise the risk of the emergence of new resistant isolates. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Short term evaluation of respiratory effort by premature infants supported with bubble nasal continuous airway pressure using Seattle-PAP and a standard bubble device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Stephen E.; Rusin, Craig G.; Stanberry, Larissa I.; Mandy, George T.; Gest, Alfred L.; Ford, Jeremy M.; Backes, Carl H.; Richardson, C. Peter; Howard, Christopher R.; Hansen, Thomas N.

    2018-01-01

    Background Almost one million prematurely born infants die annually from respiratory insufficiency, predominantly in countries with limited access to respiratory support for neonates. The primary hypothesis tested in the present study was that a modified device for bubble nasal continuous positive airway pressure (Bn-CPAP) would provide lower work of spontaneous breathing, estimated by esophageal pressure-rate products. Methods Infants born CPAP with FiO2 CPAP, then 2 h with Bn-CPAP using a modified bubble device presently termed Seattle-PAP, which produces a different pattern of pressure fluctuations and which provided greater respiratory support in preclinical studies, then 2 h on standard Bn-CPAP. Results All 40 infants enrolled completed the study and follow-up through 36 wks post menstrual age or hospital discharge, whichever came first. No infants were on supplemental oxygen at completion of follow-up. No infants developed pneumothoraces or nasal trauma, and no adverse events attributed to the study were observed. Pressure-rate products on the two devices were not different, but effort of breathing, assessed by areas under esophageal pressure-time curves, was lower with Seattle-PAP than with standard Bn-CPAP. Conclusion Use of Seattle-PAP to implement Bn-CPAP lowers the effort of breathing exerted even by relatively healthy spontaneously breathing premature neonates. Whether the lower effort of breathing observed with Seattle-PAP translates to improvements in neonatal mortality or morbidity will need to be determined by studies in appropriate patient populations. PMID:29590143

  11. Mammalian complex I: A regulable and vulnerable pacemaker in mitochlondrial respiratory function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Papa, S.; De Rasmo, D.; Scacco, S.; Signorile, A.; Dobrová, Zuzana; Palmisano, G.; Sardanelli, A. M.; Papa, F.; Panelli, D.; Scaringi, R.; Santeramo, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 1777, 7-8 (2008), s. 719-728 ISSN 0005-2728 Grant - others:IT(IT) National Project on "Molecular Mechanisms, Physiology and Pathology of Membrane Bioenergetics System" 2005-Ministero dell Istruzione, Univ. Ricerca, Italy, Res. grant Univ. Bari, Research Foundation cassa di Risparmio di Puglia Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : complex I * proton pump * mitochondrial import Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.447, year: 2008

  12. The cytochrome b p.278Y>C mutation causative of a multisystem disorder enhances superoxide production and alters supramolecular interactions of respiratory chain complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghelli, Anna; Tropeano, Concetta V; Calvaruso, Maria Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    , the examination of respiratory supercomplexes revealed that the amounts of CIII dimer and III2IV1 were reduced, whereas those of I1III2IVn slightly increased. We therefore suggest that the deleterious effects of p.278Y>C mutation on cytochrome b are palliated when CIII is assembled into the supercomplexes I1III2......IVn, in contrast to when it is found alone. These findings underline the importance of supramolecular interactions between complexes for maintaining a basal respiratory chain activity and shed light to the molecular basis of disease manifestations associated with this mutation.......Cytochrome b is the only mtDNA-encoded subunit of the mitochondrial complex III (CIII), the functional bottleneck of the respiratory chain. Previously, the human cytochrome b missense mutation m.15579A>G, which substitutes the Tyr 278 with Cys (p.278Y>C), was identified in a patient with severe...

  13. The promise of bacteriophage therapy for Burkholderia cepacia complex respiratory infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Dawn Semler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, increased attention has been given to evaluating the efficacy of phage therapy, especially in scenarios where the bacterial infectious agent of interest is highly antibiotic resistant. In this regard, phage therapy is especially applicable to infections caused by the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC since members of the BCC are antibiotic pan-resistant. Current studies in BCC phage therapy are unique from many other avenues of phage therapy research in that the research is not only comprised of phage isolation, in vitro phage characterization and in vivo infection model efficacy, but also adapting aerosol drug delivery techniques to aerosol phage formulation delivery and storage.

  14. Chronic intermittent hypoxia alters local respiratory circuit function at the level of the preBötzinger complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J Garcia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH is a common state experienced in several breathing disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and apneas of prematurity. Unraveling how CIH affects the CNS, and in turn how the CNS contributes to apneas is perhaps the most challenging task. The preBötzinger complex (preBötC is a pre-motor respiratory network critical for inspiratory rhythm generation. Here, we test the hypothesis that CIH increases irregular output from the isolated preBötC, which can be mitigated by antioxidant treatment. Electrophysiological recordings from brainstem slices revealed that CIH enhanced burst-to-burst irregularity in period and/or amplitude. Irregularities represented a change in individual fidelity among preBötC neurons, and changed transmission from preBötC to the hypoglossal motor nucleus (XIIn, which resulted in increased transmission failure to XIIn. CIH increased the degree of lipid peroxidation in the preBötC and treatment with the antioxidant, 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis (1-methylpyridinium-4-yl-21H,23H-porphyrin manganese(III pentachloride (MnTMPyP, reduced CIH-mediated irregularities on the network rhythm and improved transmission of preBötC to the XIIn. These findings suggest that CIH promotes a pro-oxidant state that destabilizes rhythmogenesis originating from the preBötC and changes the local rhythm generating circuit which in turn, can lead to intermittent transmission failure to the XIIn. We propose that these CIH-mediated effects represent a part of the central mechanism that may perpetuate apneas and respiratory instability, which are hallmark traits in several dysautonomic conditions.

  15. Effect of High-Carbohydrate Diet on Plasma Metabolome in Mice with Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex III Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasimman Rajendran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial disorders cause energy failure and metabolic derangements. Metabolome profiling in patients and animal models may identify affected metabolic pathways and reveal new biomarkers of disease progression. Using liver metabolomics we have shown a starvation-like condition in a knock-in (Bcs1lc.232A>G mouse model of GRACILE syndrome, a neonatal lethal respiratory chain complex III dysfunction with hepatopathy. Here, we hypothesized that a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD, 60% dextrose will alleviate the hypoglycemia and promote survival of the sick mice. However, when fed HCD the homozygotes had shorter survival (mean ± SD, 29 ± 2.5 days, n = 21 than those on standard diet (33 ± 3.8 days, n = 30, and no improvement in hypoglycemia or liver glycogen depletion. We investigated the plasma metabolome of the HCD- and control diet-fed mice and found that several amino acids and urea cycle intermediates were increased, and arginine, carnitines, succinate, and purine catabolites decreased in the homozygotes. Despite reduced survival the increase in aromatic amino acids, an indicator of liver mitochondrial dysfunction, was normalized on HCD. Quantitative enrichment analysis revealed that glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism, and urea cycle were also partly normalized on HCD. This dietary intervention revealed an unexpected adverse effect of high-glucose diet in complex III deficiency, and suggests that plasma metabolomics is a valuable tool in evaluation of therapies in mitochondrial disorders.

  16. Evidence that the respiratory syncytial virus polymerase complex associates with lipid rafts in virus-infected cells: a proteomic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Terence P.; Pitt, Andrew R.; Brown, Gaie; Rixon, Helen W. McL.; Sugrue, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    The interaction between the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) polymerase complex and lipid rafts was examined in HEp2 cells. Lipid-raft membranes were prepared from virus-infected cells and their protein content was analysed by Western blotting and mass spectrometry. This analysis revealed the presence of the N, P, L, M2-1 and M proteins. However, these proteins appeared to differ from one another in their association with these structures, with the M2-1 protein showing a greater partitioning into raft membranes compared to that of the N, P or M proteins. Determination of the polymerase activity profile of the gradient fractions revealed that 95% of the detectable viral enzyme activity was associated with lipid-raft membranes. Furthermore, analysis of virus-infected cells by confocal microscopy suggested an association between these proteins and the raft-lipid, GM1. Together, these results provide evidence that the RSV polymerase complex is able to associate with lipid rafts in virus-infected cells

  17. Effects of maturation and acidosis on the chaos-like complexity of the neural respiratory output in the isolated brainstem of the tadpole, Rana esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Christian; Samara, Ziyad; Fiamma, Marie-Noëlle; Bautin, Nathalie; Ranohavimparany, Anja; Le Coz, Patrick; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Darré, Pierre; Zelter, Marc; Poon, Chi-Sang; Similowski, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    Human ventilation at rest exhibits mathematical chaos-like complexity that can be described as long-term unpredictability mediated (in whole or in part) by some low-dimensional nonlinear deterministic process. Although various physiological and pathological situations can affect respiratory complexity, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely elucidated. If such chaos-like complexity is an intrinsic property of central respiratory generators, it should appear or increase when these structures mature or are stimulated. To test this hypothesis, we employed the isolated tadpole brainstem model [Rana (Pelophylax) esculenta] and recorded the neural respiratory output (buccal and lung rhythms) of pre- (n = 8) and postmetamorphic tadpoles (n = 8), at physiologic (7.8) and acidic pH (7.4). We analyzed the root mean square of the cranial nerve V or VII neurograms. Development and acidosis had no effect on buccal period. Lung frequency increased with development (P acidosis, but in postmetamorphic tadpoles only (P respiratory central rhythm generator accounts for ventilatory chaos-like complexity, especially in the postmetamorphic stage and at low pH. According to the ventilatory generators homology theory, this may also be the case in mammals.

  18. Complex programmable logic device based alarm sequencer for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khedkar, Ravindra; Solomon, J. Selva; KrishnaKumar, B.

    2001-01-01

    Complex Programmable Logic Device based Alarm Sequencer is an instrument, which detects alarms, memorizes them and displays the sequences of occurrence of alarms. It caters to sixteen alarm signals and distinguishes the sequence among any two alarms with a time resolution of 1 ms. The system described has been designed for continuous operation in process plants, nuclear power plants etc. The system has been tested and found to be working satisfactorily. (author)

  19. MEMS- and NEMS-based complex adaptive smart devices and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.

    2001-10-01

    The microelectronics industry has seen explosive growth during the last thirty years. Extremely large markets for logic and memory devices have driven the development of new materials, and technologies for the fabrication of even more complex devices with feature sizes now down at the sub micron and nanometer level. Recent interest has arisen in employing these materials, tools and technologies for the fabrication of miniature sensors and actuators and their integration with electronic circuits to produce smart devices and systems. This effort offers the promise of: 1) increasing the performance and manufacturability of both sensors and actuators by exploiting new batch fabrication processes developed including micro stereo lithographic and micro molding techniques; 2) developing novel classes of materials and mechanical structures not possible previously, such as diamond like carbon, silicon carbide and carbon nanotubes, micro-turbines and micro-engines; 3) development of technologies for the system level and wafer level integration of micro components at the nanometer precision, such as self-assembly techniques and robotic manipulation; 4) development of control and communication systems for MEMS devices, such as optical and RF wireless, and power delivery systems, etc. A novel composite structure can be tailored by functionalizing carbon nanotubes and chemically bonding them with the polymer matrix e.g. block or graft copolymer, or even cross-linked copolymer, to impart exceptional structural, electronic and surface properties. Bio- and mechanical-MEMS devices derived from this hybrid composite provide a new avenue for future smart systems.

  20. Constraining the Lateral Helix of Respiratory Complex I by Cross-linking Does Not Impair Enzyme Activity or Proton Translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaotong; Vik, Steven B

    2015-08-21

    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is a multisubunit, membrane-bound enzyme of the respiratory chain. The energy from NADH oxidation in the peripheral region of the enzyme is used to drive proton translocation across the membrane. One of the integral membrane subunits, nuoL in Escherichia coli, has an unusual lateral helix of ∼75 residues that lies parallel to the membrane surface and has been proposed to play a mechanical role as a piston during proton translocation (Efremov, R. G., Baradaran, R., and Sazanov, L. A. (2010) Nature 465, 441-445). To test this hypothesis we have introduced 11 pairs of cysteine residues into Complex I; in each pair one is in the lateral helix, and the other is in a nearby region of subunit N, M, or L. The double mutants were treated with Cu(2+) ions or with bi-functional methanethiosulfonate reagents to catalyze cross-link formation in membrane vesicles. The yields of cross-linked products were typically 50-90%, as judged by immunoblotting, but in no case did the activity of Complex I decrease by >10-20%, as indicated by deamino-NADH oxidase activity or rates of proton translocation. In contrast, several pairs of cysteine residues introduced at other interfaces of N:M and M:L subunits led to significant loss of activity, in particular, in the region of residue Glu-144 of subunit M. The results do not support the hypothesis that the lateral helix of subunit L functions like a piston, but rather, they suggest that conformational changes might be transmitted more directly through the functional residues of the proton translocation apparatus. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Quantum transport through complex networks - from light-harvesting proteins to semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreisbeck, Christoph

    2012-06-18

    Electron transport through small systems in semiconductor devices plays an essential role for many applications in micro-electronics. One focus of current research lies on establishing conceptually new devices based on ballistic transport in high mobility AlGaAs/AlGa samples. In the ballistic regime, the transport characteristics are determined by coherent interference effects. In order to guide experimentalists to an improved device design, the characterization and understanding of intrinsic device properties is crucial. We develop a time-dependent approach that allows us to simulate experimentally fabricated, complex devicegeometries with an extension of up to a few micrometers. Particularly, we explore the physical origin of unexpected effects that have been detected in recent experiments on transport through Aharonov-Bohm waveguide-interferometers. Such interferometers can be configured as detectors for transfer properties of embedded quantum systems. We demonstrate that a four-terminal waveguide-ring is a suitable setup for measuring the transmission phase of a harmonic quantum dot. Quantum effects are not restricted exclusively to artificial devices but have been found in biological systems as well. Pioneering experiments reveal quantum effects in light-harvesting complexes, the building blocks of photosynthesis. We discuss the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex, which is a network of coupled bacteriochlorophylls. It acts as an energy wire in the photosynthetic apparatus of green sulfur bacteria. Recent experimental findings suggest that energy transfer takes place in the form of coherent wave-like motion, rather than through classical hopping from one bacteriochlorophyll to the next. However, the question of why and how coherent transfer emerges in light-harvesting complexes is still open. The challenge is to merge seemingly contradictory features that are observed in experiments on two-dimensional spectroscopy into a consistent theory. Here, we provide such a

  2. [The changes of physiological reactivity of cardiorespiratory system to respiratory homeostasis with the use of complex stimulation of special work capacity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, O M

    2012-01-01

    We present the influence of the program of special additional stimulation of work capacity of high-performance athletes on the sensitivity of cardiorespiratory system to hypercapnic and hypoxic shifts in respiratory homeostasis. We found that under the influence of the pre-start complex a decrease in the sensitivity of ventilator responses to CO2-H+ stimuli in combination with a reduction in the thresholds of the reaction take place. This creates conditions for increased mobilization properties of the cardiorespiratory system and economization of its reaction under conditions of changes of respiratory homeostasis characteristic of intense training and competitive loads in the sport.

  3. Potentials and challenges of integration for complex metal oxides in CMOS devices and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y; Pham, C; Chang, J P

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on recent accomplishments on complex metal oxide based multifunctional materials and the potential they hold in advancing integrated circuits. It begins with metal oxide based high-κ materials to highlight the success of their integration since 45 nm complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) devices. By simultaneously offering a higher dielectric constant for improved capacitance as well as providing a thicker physical layer to prevent the quantum mechanical tunnelling of electrons, high-κ materials have enabled the continued down-scaling of CMOS based devices. The most recent technology driver has been the demand to lower device power consumption, which requires the design and synthesis of novel materials, such as complex metal oxides that exhibit remarkable tunability in their ferromagnetic, ferroelectric and multiferroic properties. These properties make them suitable for a wide variety of applications such as magnetoelectric random access memory, radio frequency band pass filters, antennae and magnetic sensors. Single-phase multiferroics, while rare, offer unique functionalities which have motivated much scientific and technological research to ascertain the origins of their multiferroicity and their applicability to potential devices. However, due to the weak magnetoelectric coupling for single-phase multiferroics, engineered multiferroic composites based on magnetostrictive ferromagnets interfacing piezoelectrics or ferroelectrics have shown enhanced multiferroic behaviour from effective strain coupling at the interface. In addition, nanostructuring of the ferroic phases has demonstrated further improvement in the coupling effect. Therefore, single-phase and engineered composite multiferroics consisting of complex metal oxides are reviewed in terms of magnetoelectric coupling effects and voltage controlled ferromagnetic properties, followed by a review on the integration challenges that need to be overcome to realize the

  4. Respiratory acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventilatory failure; Respiratory failure; Acidosis - respiratory ... Causes of respiratory acidosis include: Diseases of the airways (such as asthma and COPD ) Diseases of the lung tissue (such as ...

  5. Coenzyme Q10 defects may be associated with a deficiency of Q10-independent mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina Fragaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 or ubiquinone deficiency can be due either to mutations in genes involved in CoQ10 biosynthesis pathway, or to mutations in genes unrelated to CoQ10 biosynthesis. CoQ10 defect is the only oxidative phosphorylation disorder that can be clinically improved after oral CoQ10 supplementation. Thus, early diagnosis, first evoked by mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC spectrophotometric analysis, then confirmed by direct measurement of CoQ10 levels, is of critical importance to prevent irreversible damage in organs such as the kidney and the central nervous system. It is widely reported that CoQ10 deficient patients present decreased quinone-dependent activities (segments I + III or G3P + III and II + III while MRC activities of complexes I, II, III, IV and V are normal. We previously suggested that CoQ10 defect may be associated with a deficiency of CoQ10-independent MRC complexes. The aim of this study was to verify this hypothesis in order to improve the diagnosis of this disease. RESULTS: To determine whether CoQ10 defect could be associated with MRC deficiency, we quantified CoQ10 by LC-MSMS in a cohort of 18 patients presenting CoQ10-dependent deficiency associated with MRC defect. We found decreased levels of CoQ10 in eight patients out of 18 (45 %, thus confirming CoQ10 disease. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that CoQ10 defect can be associated with MRC deficiency. This could be of major importance in clinical practice for the diagnosis of a disease that can be improved by CoQ10 supplementation.

  6. Effects of maturation and acidosis on the chaos-like complexity of the neural respiratory output in the isolated brainstem of the tadpole, Rana esculenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Ziyad; Fiamma, Marie-Noëlle; Bautin, Nathalie; Ranohavimparany, Anja; Le Coz, Patrick; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Darré, Pierre; Zelter, Marc; Poon, Chi-Sang; Similowski, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Human ventilation at rest exhibits mathematical chaos-like complexity that can be described as long-term unpredictability mediated (in whole or in part) by some low-dimensional nonlinear deterministic process. Although various physiological and pathological situations can affect respiratory complexity, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely elucidated. If such chaos-like complexity is an intrinsic property of central respiratory generators, it should appear or increase when these structures mature or are stimulated. To test this hypothesis, we employed the isolated tadpole brainstem model [Rana (Pelophylax) esculenta] and recorded the neural respiratory output (buccal and lung rhythms) of pre- (n = 8) and postmetamorphic tadpoles (n = 8), at physiologic (7.8) and acidic pH (7.4). We analyzed the root mean square of the cranial nerve V or VII neurograms. Development and acidosis had no effect on buccal period. Lung frequency increased with development (P Chaos-like complexity, assessed through the noise limit, increased from pH 7.8 to pH 7.4 (P chaos-like complexity, especially in the postmetamorphic stage and at low pH. According to the ventilatory generators homology theory, this may also be the case in mammals. PMID:21325645

  7. Celastrol targets mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I to induce reactive oxygen species-dependent cytotoxicity in tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yuanji

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Celastrol is an active ingredient of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Tripterygium Wilfordii, which exhibits significant antitumor activity in different cancer models in vitro and in vivo; however, the lack of information on the target and mechanism of action of this compound have impeded its clinical application. In this study, we sought to determine the mode of action of celastrol by focusing on the processes that mediate its anticancer activity. Methods The downregulation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 client proteins, phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK, and cleavage of PARP, caspase 9 and caspase 3 were detected by western blotting. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS was analyzed by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Cell cycle progression, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP and apoptosis were determined by flow cytometry. Absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC complexes. Results Celastrol induced ROS accumulation, G2-M phase blockage, apoptosis and necrosis in H1299 and HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. N-acetylcysteine (NAC, an antioxidative agent, inhibited celastrol-induced ROS accumulation and cytotoxicity. JNK phosphorylation induced by celastrol was suppressed by NAC and JNK inhibitor SP600125 (SP. Moreover, SP significantly inhibited celastrol-induced loss of MMP, cleavage of PARP, caspase 9 and caspase 3, mitochondrial translocation of Bad, cytoplasmic release of cytochrome c, and cell death. However, SP did not inhibit celastrol-induced ROS accumulation. Celastrol downregulated HSP90 client proteins but did not disrupt the interaction between HSP90 and cdc37. NAC completely inhibited celastrol-induced decrease of HSP90 client proteins, catalase and thioredoxin. The activity of MRC complex I was completely inhibited in H1299 cells treated with 6 μM celastrol in the absence and presence of NAC

  8. Adult patient decision-making regarding implantation of complex cardiac devices: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecki-Ketchell, Alison; Marshall, Paul; Maclean, Joan

    2017-10-01

    Complex cardiac rhythm management device (CRMD) therapy provides an important treatment option for people at risk of sudden cardiac death. Despite the survival benefit, device implantation is associated with significant physical and psychosocial concerns presenting considerable challenges for the decision-making process surrounding CRMD implantation for patients and physicians. The purpose of this scoping review was to explore what is known about how adult (>16 years) patients make decisions regarding implantation of CRMD therapy. Published, peer reviewed, English language studies from 2000 to 2016 were identified in a search across eight healthcare databases. Eligible studies were concerned with patient decision-making for first time device implantation. Quality assessment was completed using the mixed methods appraisal tool for all studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The findings of eight qualitative and seven quantitative studies, including patients who accepted or declined primary or secondary sudden cardiac death prevention devices, were clustered into two themes: knowledge acquisition and the process of decision-making, exposing similarities and distinctions with the treatment decision-making literature. The review revealed some insight in to the way patients approach decision-making but also exposed a lack of clarity and research activity specific to CRMD patients. Further research is recommended to support the development and application of targeted decision support mechanisms.

  9. First Indian single center experience with pipeline embolization device for complex intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Mathew P; Yadav, Manish Kumar; Mehta, Pankaj; Vijayan, K; Arulselvan, V; Jayabalan, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Flow diversion is a novel method of therapy wherein an endoluminal sleeve, the flow diverter stent is placed across the neck of complex aneurysms to curatively reconstruct abnormal vasculature. We present the first Indian single center experience with the pipeline embolization device (PED) and 6 months follow-up results of 5 patients. Five complex or recurrent intracranial aneurysms in five patients were treated with PED. The patients were followed-up with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) after 4 weeks and conventional angiography after 6 months. Feasibility, complications, clinical outcome, early 1-month MRA and 6 months conventional angiographic follow-up results were analyzed. Of the five aneurysms treated, four were in the anterior circulation and one in the posterior circulation. All five patients were treated with a single PED in each, and additionally coils were used in one patient. At 1-month MRA follow-up, complete occlusion was seen in 2 (40%) of the five cases. Post 6 months conventional angiography showed complete occlusion of the aneurysm sac in all five cases (100%). Side branch ostia were covered in three patients, all of which were patent (100%). There was no incidence of major neurological morbidity or mortality. One patient (20%) who had basilar top aneurysm experienced minor neurological disability after 5 days which partially improved. Pipeline embolization device for complex and recurrent aneurysms is technically feasible, safe, offers low complication rate, and definitive vascular reconstruction. PED can be used without fear of occlusion of covered eloquent side branches and perforators.

  10. Electroluminescent devices based on rare-earth tetrakis β-diketonate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirino, W.G.; Legnani, C.; Santos, R.M.B. dos; Teixeira, K.C.; Cremona, M.; Guedes, M.A.; Brito, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the synthesis, photoluminescence and electroluminescence investigation of the novel tetrakis β-diketonate of rare-earth complexes such as, M[Eu(dbm) 4 ] and M[Tb(acac) 4 ] with a variety of cationic ligands, M = Li + , Na + and K + have been investigated. The emission spectra of the Eu 3+ and Tb 3+ complexes displayed characteristic narrow bands arising from intraconfigurational transitions of trivalent rare-earth ions and exhibited red color emission for the Eu 3+ ion ( 5 D 0 → 7 F J , J = 0-6) and green for the Tb 3+ ion ( 5 D 4 → 7 F J , J = 6-0). The lack of the broaden emission bands arising from the ligands suggests the efficient intramolecular energy transfer from the dbm and acac ligands to Eu 3+ and Tb 3+ ions, respectively. In accordance to the expected, the values of PL quantum efficiency (η) of the emitting 5 D 0 state of the tetrakis(β-diketonate) complexes of Eu 3+ were higher compared with those tris-complexes. Therefore, organic electroluminescent (EL) devices were fabricated with the structure as follows: indium tin oxide (ITO)/hole transport layer (HTL) NPB or MTCD/emitter layer M[RE(β-diketonate) 4 ] complexes)/Aluminum (Al). All the films were deposited by thermal evaporation carried out in a high vacuum environment system. The OLED light emission was independent of driving voltage, indicating that the combination of charge carriers generates excitons within the M[RE(β-diketonate) 4 ] layers, and the energy is efficiently transferred to RE 3+ ion. As a best result, a pure red and green electroluminescent emission was observed from the Eu 3+ and Tb 3+ devices, confirmed by (X,Y) color coordinates

  11. Cybersecurity vulnerabilities in medical devices: a complex environment and multifaceted problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patricia Ah; Woodward, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The increased connectivity to existing computer networks has exposed medical devices to cybersecurity vulnerabilities from which they were previously shielded. For the prevention of cybersecurity incidents, it is important to recognize the complexity of the operational environment as well as to catalog the technical vulnerabilities. Cybersecurity protection is not just a technical issue; it is a richer and more intricate problem to solve. A review of the factors that contribute to such a potentially insecure environment, together with the identification of the vulnerabilities, is important for understanding why these vulnerabilities persist and what the solution space should look like. This multifaceted problem must be viewed from a systemic perspective if adequate protection is to be put in place and patient safety concerns addressed. This requires technical controls, governance, resilience measures, consolidated reporting, context expertise, regulation, and standards. It is evident that a coordinated, proactive approach to address this complex challenge is essential. In the interim, patient safety is under threat.

  12. Cybersecurity vulnerabilities in medical devices: a complex environment and multifaceted problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patricia AH; Woodward, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The increased connectivity to existing computer networks has exposed medical devices to cybersecurity vulnerabilities from which they were previously shielded. For the prevention of cybersecurity incidents, it is important to recognize the complexity of the operational environment as well as to catalog the technical vulnerabilities. Cybersecurity protection is not just a technical issue; it is a richer and more intricate problem to solve. A review of the factors that contribute to such a potentially insecure environment, together with the identification of the vulnerabilities, is important for understanding why these vulnerabilities persist and what the solution space should look like. This multifaceted problem must be viewed from a systemic perspective if adequate protection is to be put in place and patient safety concerns addressed. This requires technical controls, governance, resilience measures, consolidated reporting, context expertise, regulation, and standards. It is evident that a coordinated, proactive approach to address this complex challenge is essential. In the interim, patient safety is under threat. PMID:26229513

  13. Quantum Computational Studies of Electron Transfer in Respiratory Complex III and its Application for Designing New Mitocan Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagras, Muhammad Ahmed

    Electron transfer occurs in many biological systems which are imperative to sustain life; oxidative phosphorylation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and photophosphorylation in photosynthetic and plant cells are well-balanced and complementary processes. Investigating electron transfer in those natural systems provides detailed knowledge of the atomistic events that lead eventually to production of ATP, or harvesting light energy. Ubiquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase complex (also known as bc 1 complex, or respiratory complex III) is a middle player in the electron transport proton pumping orchestra, located in the inner-mitochondrial membrane in eukaryotes or plasma membrane in prokaryotes, which converts the free energy of redox reactions to electrochemical proton gradient across the membrane, following the fundamental chemiosmotic principle discovered by Peter Mitchell 1. In humans, the malfunctioned bc1 complex plays a major role in many neurodegenerative diseases, stress-induced aging, and cancer development, because it produces most of the reactive oxygen species, which are also involved in cellular signaling 2. The mitochondrial bc1 complex has an intertwined dimeric structure comprised of 11 subunits in each monomer, but only three of them have catalytic function, and those are the only domains found in bacterial bc1 complex. The core subunits include: Rieske domain, which incorporates iron-sulfur cluster [2Fe-2S]; trans-membrane cytochrome b domain, incorporating low-potential heme group (heme b L) and high-potential heme group (heme b H); and cytochrome c1 domain, containing heme c1 group and two separate binding sites, Qo (or QP) site where the hydrophobic electron carrier ubihydroquinol QH2 is oxidized, and Qi (or QN) site where ubiquinone molecule Q is reduced 3. Electrons and protons in the bc1 complex flow according to the proton-motive Q-cycle proposed by Mitchell, which includes a unique electron flow bifurcation at the Qo site. At this site, one

  14. Data on effects of rotenone on calcium retention capacity, respiration and activities of respiratory chain complexes I and II in isolated rat brain mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Rekuviene

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Rotenone decreases ischemia-induced injury by inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition in mature brains” (Rekuviene et al., 2017 [1]. Data in this article present the direct effects of rotenone on calcium retention capacity (CRC in isolated normal cortex and cerebellum mitochondria, effects of rotenone intravenous infusion on leak and phosphorylating respiration rates of isolated cortex and cerebellum mitochondria, on activities of respiratory chain complexes I and II in freezed-thawed/sonicated cortex and cerebellum mitochondria after brain ischemia. In addition, detailed experimental procedures of isolation of brain mitochondria, measurements of CRC, respiration, activities of respiratory chain complexes and H2O2 generation in cortex and cerebellum mitochondria are described.

  15. A novel rheo-optical device for studying complex fluids in a double shear plate geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitte, Jean-Baptiste; Vizcaïno, Claude; Benyahia, Lazhar; Herry, Jean-Marie; Michon, Camille; Hayert, Murielle

    2013-01-01

    A new rheo-optical shearing device was designed to investigate the structural evolution of complex material under shear flow. Seeking to keep the area under study constantly within the field of vision, it was conceived to produce shear flow by relying on the uniaxial translation of two parallel plates. The device features three modes of translation motion: step strain (0.02-320), constant shear rate (0.01-400 s-1), and oscillation (0.01-20 Hz) flow. Because the temperature is controlled by using a Peltier module coupled with a water cooling system, temperatures can range from 10 to 80 °C. The sample is loaded onto a user-friendly plate on which standard glasses can be attached with a depression vacuum pump. The principle innovation of the proposed rheo-optical shearing device lies in the fact that this suction system renders the microscopy glasses one with the plates, thereby ensuring their perfect planarity and parallelism. The gap width between the two plates can range from 0 to 5 mm. The device was designed to fit on any inverted confocal laser scanning microscope. In terms of controlled deformation, the conception and technical solutions achieve a high level of accuracy. Moreover, user-friendly software has been developed to control both shear flow parameters and temperature. The validation of specifications as well as the three modes of motion was carried out, first of all without a sample, and then by tracking fluorescent particles in a model system, in our case a micro-gel. Real values agreed well with those we targeted. In addition, an experiment with bread dough deformation under shear flow was initiated to gain some insight into the potential use of our device. These results show that the RheOptiCAD® promises to be a useful tool to better understand, from both a fundamental and an industrial point of view, the rheological behavior of the microstructure of complex fluids under controlled thermo-mechanical parameters in the case of food and non

  16. Cybersecurity vulnerabilities in medical devices: a complex environment and multifaceted problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams PAH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Patricia AH Williams, Andrew J Woodward eHealth Research Group and Security Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA, Australia Abstract: The increased connectivity to existing computer networks has exposed medical devices to cybersecurity vulnerabilities from which they were previously shielded. For the prevention of cybersecurity incidents, it is important to recognize the complexity of the operational environment as well as to catalog the technical vulnerabilities. Cybersecurity protection is not just a technical issue; it is a richer and more intricate problem to solve. A review of the factors that contribute to such a potentially insecure environment, together with the identification of the vulnerabilities, is important for understanding why these vulnerabilities persist and what the solution space should look like. This multifaceted problem must be viewed from a systemic perspective if adequate protection is to be put in place and patient safety concerns addressed. This requires technical controls, governance, resilience measures, consolidated reporting, context expertise, regulation, and standards. It is evident that a coordinated, proactive approach to address this complex challenge is essential. In the interim, patient safety is under threat. Keywords: cybersecurity, security, safety, wireless, risk, medical devices

  17. Distinct respiratory responses of soils to complex organic substrate are governed predominantly by soil architecture and its microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, F C; Todman, L C; Corstanje, R; Deeks, L K; Harris, J A; Pawlett, M; Whitmore, A P; Ritz, K

    2016-12-01

    Factors governing the turnover of organic matter (OM) added to soils, including substrate quality, climate, environment and biology, are well known, but their relative importance has been difficult to ascertain due to the interconnected nature of the soil system. This has made their inclusion in mechanistic models of OM turnover or nutrient cycling difficult despite the potential power of these models to unravel complex interactions. Using high temporal-resolution respirometery (6 min measurement intervals), we monitored the respiratory response of 67 soils sampled from across England and Wales over a 5 day period following the addition of a complex organic substrate (green barley powder). Four respiratory response archetypes were observed, characterised by different rates of respiration as well as different time-dependent patterns. We also found that it was possible to predict, with 95% accuracy, which type of respiratory behaviour a soil would exhibit based on certain physical and chemical soil properties combined with the size and phenotypic structure of the microbial community. Bulk density, microbial biomass carbon, water holding capacity and microbial community phenotype were identified as the four most important factors in predicting the soils' respiratory responses using a Bayesian belief network. These results show that the size and constitution of the microbial community are as important as physico-chemical properties of a soil in governing the respiratory response to OM addition. Such a combination suggests that the 'architecture' of the soil, i.e. the integration of the spatial organisation of the environment and the interactions between the communities living and functioning within the pore networks, is fundamentally important in regulating such processes.

  18. Dembo polymerase chain reaction technique for detection of bovine abortion, diarrhea, and respiratory disease complex infectious agents in potential vectors and reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahpaya, Sayed Samim; Tsuchiaka, Shinobu; Kishimoto, Mai; Oba, Mami; Katayama, Yukie; Nunomura, Yuka; Kokawa, Saki; Kimura, Takashi; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Kirino, Yumi; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Nonaka, Nariaki; Mekata, Hirohisa; Aoki, Hiroshi; Shiokawa, Mai; Umetsu, Moeko; Morita, Tatsushi; Hasebe, Ayako; Otsu, Keiko; Asai, Tetsuo; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Makino, Shinji; Murata, Yoshiteru; Abi, Ahmad Jan; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Mizutani, Tetsuya

    2018-05-31

    Bovine abortion, diarrhea, and respiratory disease complexes, caused by infectious agents, result in high and significant economic losses for the cattle industry. These pathogens are likely transmitted by various vectors and reservoirs including insects, birds, and rodents. However, experimental data supporting this possibility are scarce. We collected 117 samples and screened them for 44 bovine abortive, diarrheal, and respiratory disease complex pathogens by using Dembo polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is based on TaqMan real-time PCR. Fifty-seven samples were positive for at least one pathogen, including bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine enterovirus, Salmonella enterica ser. Dublin, Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium, and Neospora caninum ; some samples were positive for multiple pathogens. Bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine enterovirus were the most frequently detected pathogens, especially in flies, suggesting an important role of flies in the transmission of these viruses. Additionally, we detected the N. caninum genome from a cockroach sample for the first time. Our data suggest that insects (particularly flies), birds, and rodents are potential vectors and reservoirs of abortion, diarrhea, and respiratory infectious agents, and that they may transmit more than one pathogen at the same time.

  19. Packaging Concerns and Techniques for Large Devices: Challenges for Complex Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is going to have to accept the use of non-hermetic packages for complex devices. There are a large number of packaging options available. Space application subjects the packages to stresses that they were probably not designed for (vacuum for instance). NASA has to find a way of having assurance in the integrity of the packages. There are manufacturers interested in qualifying non-hermetic packages to MIL-PRF-38535 Class V. Government space users are agreed that Class V should be for hermetic packages only. NASA is working on a new Class for non-hermetic packages for M38535 Appendix B, "Class Y". Testing for package integrity will be required but can be package specific as described by a Package Integrity Test Plan. The plan is developed by the manufacturer and approved by DSCC and government space.

  20. Red polymer light-emitting devices based on an oxadiazole-functionalized europium(III) complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yu; Wang, Yafei; Li, Chun; Huang, Ying; Dang, Dongfeng; Zhu, Meixiang; Zhu, Weiguo; Cao, Yong

    2014-01-01

    A novel tris(dibenzoylmethanato)[5-(2-(4-tert-butylbenzenyl)-5-benzenyl-1,3, 4-oxadiazole-4′)-1,10-phenanthroline]europium(III) [Eu(DBM) 3 (BuOXD-Phen)] containing an electron-transporting oxadiazole-functionalized phenanthroline ligand was synthesized and characterized. Its UV–vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL), as well as the electroluminescence (EL) in polymer light-emitting devices (PLEDs) were investigated. The double-layer PLEDs with a configuration of ITO/PEDOT:PSS (50 nm)/PVK (40 nm)/PFO:PBD (30%):Eu(DBM) 3 (BuOXD-Phen) (1–8 wt %) (80 nm)/Ba (4 nm)/Al (150 nm) were fabricated. Saturated red Eu 3+ ion emission, based on the 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 transition, is centered at a wavelength of 614 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 10 nm. The highest external quantum efficiency (QE ext ) of 1.26% at current density of 1.65 mA cm −2 , with a maximum brightness of 568 cd m −2 at 137.8 mA cm −2 was achieved from the device at 1 wt % dopant concentration. - Highlights: • An oxadiazole-functionalized europium(III) complex of Eu(DBM) 3 (BuOXD-Phen) was presented. • The optophysical properties of Eu(DBM) 3 (BuOXD-Phen) were investigated. • Saturated red emission was observed in the PLEDs. • An external quantum efficiency of 1.26% was obtained in these devices

  1. Synthesis and optoelectronic properties of oxadiazole-functionalized iridium complexes in the poly(vinylcarbazole)-hosted devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhonglian; Luo Cuiping; Jiang Changyun; Zhu Meixiang; Cao, Yong; Zhu Weiguo

    2008-01-01

    A class of oxadiazole-functionalized iridium complexes was used as phosphor emitters in poly (vinylcarbazole)-hosted devices. Efficient green electrophosphorescences were achieved in the devices with a maximum luminance efficiency of 9.3 cd/A at 10.6 mA/cm 2 and brightness of 3882 cd/m 2 at 92.1 mA/cm 2 . More importantly, the iridium complexes-doped devices exhibited a low turn-on voltage of 7.0 V and an applied voltage of 9.2 V at 500 cd/m 2 . The good optoelectronic properties of the complexes were attributed to the enhanced electron-injection and transport properties resulting from the effect of oxadiazole ligands in the complexes

  2. Mycoplasma detection by triplex real-time PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from bovine respiratory disease complex cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Jan B.W.J.; Bree, de Freddy M.; Wal, van der Fimme J.; Kooij, Engbert A.; Koene, Miriam G.J.; Bossers, Alex; Smid, Bregtje; Antonis, Adriaan F.; Wisselink, Henk J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In this study we evaluated the RespoCheck Mycoplasma triplex real-time PCR for the detection in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of Mycoplasma (M.) dispar, M. bovis and M. bovirhinis, all three associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Primers and probes of the RespoCheck

  3. Respiratory alkalosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkalosis - respiratory ... leads to shortness of breath can also cause respiratory alkalosis (such as pulmonary embolism and asthma). ... Treatment is aimed at the condition that causes respiratory alkalosis. Breathing into a paper bag -- or using ...

  4. Numerical simulation of a device with two spin crossover complexes: application for temperature and pressure sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Jorge; Eddine Allal, Salah; Dahoo, Pierre Richard; Garcia, Yann

    2017-12-01

    The spin-crossover (SCO) phenomenon is related to the ability of a transition metal to change its spin state vs. a given perturbation. For an iron(II) SCO complexes the reversible changes involve the diamagnetic low-spin (S = 0) and the paramagnetic high-spin (HS S = 2) states [1,2,3]. In this contribution we simulate the HS Fraction (nHS) for different set values of temperature and pressure for a device using two SCO complexes with weak elastic interactions. We improve the calculation given by Linares et al. [4], taking also into account different volume (VHS, VLS) changes of the SCO. We perform all the calculation in the frame work of an Ising-like model solved in the mean-field approximation. The two SCO show in the case of “weak elastic interactions”, gradual spin transitions such that both temperature and pressure values can be obtained from the optical observation in the light of calculations discussed in this article.

  5. Device with Complex System for Heat Utilization and Reduction of Hazardous Air Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kascheeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations concern heat utilization and reduction of hazardous emissions occurring in residential buildings and accompanying operation of a great number of industrial enterprises in particular heat and power objects, and firstly, heat-generating units of small power located in densely populated residential areas without centralized heat supply.The investigation target is to reduce cost of heat produced by independent system of building heat supply, reduction of air pollution  due to hazardous gas emissions and reduction of heat pollution of the environment as a result of building ventilation system operation, ventilation of their internal and external sewerage network and higher reliability of their operation.The target is achieved because the device with complex system for heat utilization and reduction of hazardous air emissions has additionally an assembly tank for mixing flue gases, ventilation emissions and atmospheric air, heat pump. Evaporation zone of the pump is a condensator of the gas mixture and its condensate zone contains a heat supply line for a heat consumer. The line is equipped with assembling  and distributing collectors, pipeline connecting the heat supply line with the system of direct and return delivery water from a boiler house, a separator for division of liquid and gaseous mixture phases, neutralizing devices for separate reduction of concentrations of hazardous and odorous substances being released in gaseous and liquid portions of the mixture, a pipeline for periodic supply of air with higher concentration of hazardous and odorous substances in the boiler furnace. The supplied air is obtained as a result of its passing through gas filters at their regeneration when their exchange capacity is exhausted.

  6. Evaluation of Fast Technology Analysis (FTA) Cards as an improved method for specimen collection and shipment targeting viruses associated with Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Chigerwe, Munashe; Hietala, Sharon K; Crossley, Beate M

    2014-06-01

    In order to improve the analytic quality of respiratory specimens collected from cattle for nucleic acid-based diagnosis, a study was undertaken to verify realtime PCR efficiency of specimens collected and stabilized on FTA Cards™, filter paper which is treated chemically. Nucleic acids collected using FTA Cards without the need for a cold-chain or special liquid media handling provided realtime PCR results consistent (96.8% agreement, kappa 0.923 [95% CI=0.89-0.96]) with the same specimens collected using traditional viral transport media and shipped on ice using the U.S. Department of Transportation mandated liquid handling requirements. Nucleic acid stabilization on FTA Cards was evaluated over a temperature range (-27 °C to +46 °C) for up to 14 days to mimic environmental conditions for diagnostic sample handling between collection and processing in a routine veterinary laboratory. No significant difference (P≥0.05) was observed in realtime PCR cycle threshold values over the temperature range and time storage conditions for Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus, Bovine Respiratory Syncytial virus, Bovine Coronavirus, and Bovine Herpesvirus I. The four viruses evaluated in the study are associated with Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex where improvements in ease and reliability of specimen collection and shipping would enhance the diagnostic quality of specimens collected in the field, and ultimately improve diagnostic efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. CT evaluation of patient deep inspiration self-breath-holding: How precisely can patients reproduce the tumor position in the absence of respiratory monitoring devices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Hiroshi; Kuriyama, Kengo; Komiyama, Takafumi; Tanaka, Shiho; Ueki, Junko; Sano, Naoki; Araki, Tsutomu; Ikenaga, Satoshi; Tateda, Yoshihito; Aikawa, Yoshihito

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reproducibility of tumor position under patient deep inspiration self-breath-holding in the absence of respiratory monitoring devices, as well as to compare the reproducibility of deep inspiration self-breath-holding on the verbal command of a radiation technologist (Passive mode) with that initiated by patients' own estimation (Active mode). Twenty patients with lung cancer were shown how the tumor and diaphragm move during the respiration cycle. Patients were instructed to hold their breath during deep inspiration and reproduce identical tumor position as well as possible either by the Active mode or by the Passive mode. After patients had practiced self-breath-holding during deep inspiration, a set of three CT scans was obtained for each of the two modes of self-breath-holding (6 CT scans total) to obtain randomly timed images of 2 mm thickness in the vicinity of the tumor. The first three scans were performed during breath-hold using the Active mode, and next three scans were using the Passive mode. Maximum difference in tumor position for the three CT scans was then calculated along three axes: cranial-caudal (C-C); anterior-posterior (A-P); and right-left (R-L). In the 20 patients who underwent analysis of self-breath-holding, mean maximum difference in tumor position obtained under breath-hold using the Active and the Passive modes were: 2.2 and 3.1 mm along the C-C axis; 1.4 and 2.4 mm along the A-P axis; and 1.3 and 2.2 mm along the R-L axis, respectively. These differences in all axes were significantly smaller (p<0.05) for the Active mode than for the Passive mode. Most tumors displayed maximal respiratory movement along the C-C axis, and minimal movement along the R-L axis, but tumors located in the upper lung displayed maximal movement along the A-P axis. Significant correlation (p<0.05) was observed between differences along three axes in either mode of breath-hold. In conclusion, the reproducibility of

  8. BINDING OF THE RESPIRATORY CHAIN INHIBITOR ANTIMYCIN TO THE MITOCHONDRIAL bc1 COMPLEX: A NEW CRYSTAL STRUCTURE REVEALS AN ALTERED INTRAMOLECULAR HYDROGEN-BONDING PATTERN.

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Li-shar; Cobessi, David; Tung, Eric Y.; Berry, Edward A.

    2005-01-01

    Antimycin A (antimycin), one of the first known and most potent inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, binds to the quinone reduction site of the cytochrome bc1 complex. Structure-activity-relationship studies have shown that the N-formylamino-salicyl-amide group is responsible for most of the binding specificity, and suggested that a low pKa for the phenolic OH group and an intramolecular H-bond between that OH and the carbonyl O of the salicylamide linkage are important. Tw...

  9. The microbiota of the respiratory tract : Gatekeeper to respiratory health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Man, Wing Ho; De Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A.A.; Bogaert, Debby

    2017-01-01

    The respiratory tract is a complex organ system that is responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The human respiratory tract spans from the nostrils to the lung alveoli and is inhabited by niche-specific communities of bacteria. The microbiota of the respiratory tract probably acts

  10. CATALYSTS BASED ON UKRAINIAN NATURAL SORBENTS FOR LOW-TEMPERATURE CARBON MONOXIDE OXIDATION MEANT FOR INDIVIDUAL RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Rakyts’ka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a great number of patented formulas of catalysts for neutralization of carbon monoxide (CO which is the most widespread atmospheric pollutant, only batch-produced hopcalite and alumina supported palladium (Pd/Al2O3 are used in practice. The named catalysts have significant defects: hopcalite is poisonable in the presence of water vapor and Pd/Al2O3 is characterized by the great content of palladium. We have found the possibility of using inexpensive Ukrainian natural sorbents differing by their mineralogical and chemical compositions, i.e. zeolites, bentonites, basalt tuffs, and disperse silicas, as supports for development and subsequent application of palladium(II and copper(II based catalysts for carbon monoxide oxidation. Acid-thermally modified Ukrainian sorbents have been found to be proper for obtaining supported copper-palladium complexes the most catalytically active in the reaction. Application of Ukrainian natural tripolis permitted to avoid the step of acid-thermal modification complicating the technique of catalyst production. As was found, the origin and phase composition of tripolis affect the activity of catalysts supported on them in the reaction of low-temperature Co oxidation. The most active catalyst permitting sanitary purification of air from CO to a level permissible for atmosphere of populated areas have been obtained in the case of insignificantly (thermally or hydrothermally modified tripoli from Konoplianskoe deposit.

  11. A new member of a family of ATPases is essential for assembly of mitochondrial respiratory chain and ATP synthetase complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzagoloff, A; Yue, J; Jang, J; Paul, M F

    1994-10-21

    Respiration-defective pet mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, assigned to complementation group G25, are grossly deficient in mitochondrial respiratory and ATPase complexes. This phenotype is usually found in strains impaired in mitochondrial protein synthesis. The G25 mutants, however, synthesize all of the proteins encoded by mitochondrial DNA. The mutants are also able to import and process cytoplasmically derived subunits of these enzymes. These results are most compatible with the idea that the gene defined by G25 mutants (RCA1) codes for a protein essential for the assembly of functional respiratory and ATPase complexes. The RCA1 gene has been cloned by complementation of an rca1 mutant with a yeast genomic library. The sequence of the encoded product shows Rca1 protein to be a new member of a recently described family of ATPases. The Rca1 protein is a mitochondrial membrane protein and is the third known member of this family implicated to function in the biogenesis of mitochondria. The primary structure of Rca1 protein indicates several distinct domains in addition to the common purine nucleotide binding region shared by all members of this protein family. One, located in the amino-terminal half, contains two hydrophobic stretches of sufficient length to span a membrane lipid bilayer.

  12. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide increases mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II activity and protects against oxygen-glucose deprivation in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Dujuan; Wang, Luna; Zhang, Jun; Qian, Lai; Li, Qiming; Li, Jin; Qian, Jian; Gu, Shuangshuang; Han, Ling; Xu, Peng; Xu, Yun

    2014-09-25

    The mechanisms of ischemic stroke, a main cause of disability and death, are complicated. Ischemic stroke results from the interaction of various factors including oxidative stress, a key pathological mechanism that plays an important role during the acute stage of ischemic brain injury. This study demonstrated that cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide, specifically CART55-102, increased the survival rate, but decreased the mortality of neurons exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), in a dose-dependent manner. The above-mentioned effects of CART55-102 were most significant at 0.4nM. These results indicated that CART55-102 suppressed neurotoxicity and enhanced neuronal survival after oxygen-glucose deprivation. CART55-102 (0.4nM) significantly diminished reactive oxygen species levels and markedly increased the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II in oxygen-glucose deprived neurons. In summary, CART55-102 suppressed oxidative stress in oxygen-glucose deprived neurons, possibly through elevating the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II. This result provides evidence for the development of CART55-102 as an antioxidant drug. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Respiratory Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, ... brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can' ...

  14. Respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  15. Blood Mononuclear Cell Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex IV Activity is Decreased in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: Effects of β-Interferon Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Hargreaves

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Evidence of mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC dysfunction and oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS. However, at present, there is no reliable low invasive surrogate available to evaluate mitochondrial function in these patients. In view of the particular sensitivity of MRC complex IV to oxidative stress, the aim of this study was to assess blood mononuclear cell (BMNC MRC complex IV activity in MS patients and compare these results to age matched controls and MS patients on β-interferon treatment. Methods: Spectrophotometric enzyme assay was employed to measure MRC complex IV activity in blood mononuclear cell obtained multiple sclerosis patients and aged matched controls. Results: MRC Complex IV activity was found to be significantly decreased (p < 0.05 in MS patients (2.1 ± 0.8 k/nmol × 10−3; mean ± SD] when compared to the controls (7.2 ± 2.3 k/nmol × 10−3. Complex IV activity in MS patients on β-interferon (4.9 ± 1.5 k/nmol × 10−3 was not found to be significantly different from that of the controls. Conclusions: This study has indicated evidence of peripheral MRC complex IV deficiency in MS patients and has highlighted the potential utility of BMNCs as a potential means to evaluate mitochondrial function in this disorder. Furthermore, the reported improvement of complex IV activity may provide novel insights into the mode(s of action of β-interferon.

  16. High performance yellow organic electroluminescent devices by doping iridium(III) complex into host materials with stepwise energy levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Rongzhen; Zhou, Liang, E-mail: zhoul@ciac.ac.cn; Jiang, Yunlong; Li, Yanan; Zhao, Xuesen; Zhang, Hongjie, E-mail: hongjie@ciac.ac.cn

    2015-10-15

    In this work, we aim to further improve the electroluminescent (EL) performances of a yellow light-emitting iridium(III) complex by designing double light-emitting layers (EMLs) devices having stepwise energy levels. Compared with single-EML devices, these designed double-EML devices showed improved EL efficiency and brightness attributed to better balance in carriers. In addition, the stepwise distribution in energy levels of host materials is instrumental in broadening the recombination zone, thus delaying the roll-off of EL efficiency. Based on the investigation of carriers' distribution, device structure was further optimized by adjusting the thickness of deposited layers. Finally, yellow EL device (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.446, 0.542)) with maximum current efficiency, power efficiency and brightness up to 78.62 cd/A (external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 21.1%), 82.28 lm/W and 72,713 cd/m{sup 2}, respectively, was obtained. Even at the high brightness of 1000 cd/m{sup 2}, EL efficiency as high as 65.54 cd/A (EQE=17.6%) can be retained. - Highlights: • Yellow electroluminescent devices were designed and fabricated. • P-type and n-type materials having stepwise energy levels were chosen as host materials. • Better balance of holes and electrons causes the enhanced efficiencies. • Improved carriers' trapping suppresses the emission of host material.

  17. High-efficiency and heavily doped organic light-emitting devices based on quench-resistant red iridium complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qi [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zhao, Juan; Wang, Jun [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Li, Ming [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Lu, Zhiyun, E-mail: luzhiyun@scu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2013-02-15

    Highly efficient red phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices had been fabricated using a new iridium complex, bis[2-(9,9-dimethyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl) benzothiazolato-N,C{sup 2'}]iridium(III) (acetylacetonate) [(fbt){sub 2}Ir(acac)] as phosphor. With a high doping concentration of 15 wt%, the device exhibited a maximum luminance efficiency, power efficiency and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 35.2 cd/A, 21.3 lm/W, 18.2%, respectively, indicating an excellent quench-resistant property of (fbt){sub 2}Ir(acac). The results are appealing towards the development of 'easy-to-make' OLEDs. It has been demonstrated that the high efficiency arises from more balanced charge carriers in the emissive layer. - Highlight: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtained efficient OLEDs based on newly synthesized quench-resistant phosphor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak performance was obtained with 15 wt% (fbt){sub 2}Ir(acac) doped device. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our devices gave one of the best performance among heavily-doped red devices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Balanced carrier transport is crucial for the high performance of our devices.

  18. Atomistic materials modeling of complex systems: Carbynes, carbon nanotube devices and bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Weiqi

    The key to understanding and predicting the behavior of materials is the knowledge of their structures. Many properties of materials samples are not solely determined by their average chemical compositions which one may easily control. Instead, they are profoundly influenced by structural features of different characteristic length scales. Starting in the last century, metallurgical engineering has mostly been microstructure engineering. With the further evolution of materials science, structural features of smaller length scales down to the atomic structure, have become of interest for the purpose of properties engineering and functionalizing materials and are, therefore, subjected to study. As computer modeling is becoming more powerful due to the dramatic increase of computational resources and software over the recent decades, there is an increasing demand for atomistic simulations with the goal of better understanding materials behavior on the atomic scale. Density functional theory (DFT) is a quantum mechanics based approach to calculate electron distribution, total energy and interatomic forces with high accuracy. From these, atomic structures and thermal effects can be predicted. However, DFT is mostly applied to relatively simple systems because it is computationally very demanding. In this thesis, the current limits of DFT applications are explored by studying relatively complex systems, namely, carbynes, carbon nanotube (CNT) devices and bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). Special care is taken to overcome the limitations set by small system sizes and time scales that often prohibit DFT from being applied to realistic systems under realistic external conditions. In the first study, we examine the possible existence of a third solid phase of carbon with linear bonding called carbyne, which has been suggested in the literature and whose formation has been suggested to be detrimental to high-temperature carbon materials. We have suggested potential structures for

  19. A microfluidic device for simultaneous measurement of viscosity and flow rate of blood in a complex fluidic network

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Kang, Yang; Yeom, Eunseop; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Blood viscosity has been considered as one of important biophysical parameters for effectively monitoring variations in physiological and pathological conditions of circulatory disorders. Standard previous methods make it difficult to evaluate variations of blood viscosity under cardiopulmonary bypass procedures or hemodialysis. In this study, we proposed a unique microfluidic device for simultaneously measuring viscosity and flow rate of whole blood circulating in a complex fluidic network i...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3480 - Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3480... respiratory syncytial viruses from clinical specimens or from tissue culture isolates derived from clinical...

  1. Binding of the respiratory chain inhibitor antimycin to the mitochondrial bc1 complex: a new crystal structure reveals an altered intramolecular hydrogen-bonding pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Shar; Cobessi, David; Tung, Eric Y; Berry, Edward A

    2005-08-19

    Antimycin A (antimycin), one of the first known and most potent inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, binds to the quinone reduction site of the cytochrome bc1 complex. Structure-activity relationship studies have shown that the N-formylamino-salicyl-amide group is responsible for most of the binding specificity, and suggested that a low pKa for the phenolic OH group and an intramolecular H-bond between that OH and the carbonyl O of the salicylamide linkage are important. Two previous X-ray structures of antimycin bound to vertebrate bc1 complex gave conflicting results. A new structure reported here of the bovine mitochondrial bc1 complex at 2.28 A resolution with antimycin bound, allows us for the first time to reliably describe the binding of antimycin and shows that the intramolecular hydrogen bond described in solution and in the small-molecule structure is replaced by one involving the NH rather than carbonyl O of the amide linkage, with rotation of the amide group relative to the aromatic ring. The phenolic OH and formylamino N form H-bonds with conserved Asp228 of cytochrome b, and the formylamino O H-bonds via a water molecule to Lys227. A strong density, the right size and shape for a diatomic molecule is found between the other side of the dilactone ring and the alphaA helix.

  2. THE RESPIRATORY SUBSTRATE RHODOQUINOL INDUCES Q-CYCLE BYPASS REACTIONS IN THE YEAST CYTOCHROME bc1 COMPLEX - MECHANISTIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cape, Jonathan L.; Strahan, Jeff R.; Lenaeus, Michael J.; Yuknis, Brook A.; Le, Trieu T.; Shepherd, Jennifer; Bowman, Michael K.; Kramer, David M.

    2005-01-01

    The mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex catalyzes the transfer of electrons from ubiquinol to cyt c, while generating a proton motive force for ATP synthesis, via the ''Qcycle'' mechanism. Under certain conditions, electron flow through the Q-cycle is blocked at the level of a reactive intermediate in the quinol oxidase site of the enzyme, resulting in ''bypass reactions'', some of which lead to superoxide production. Using analogs of the respiratory substrates, ubiquinol-3 and rhodoquinol-3, we show that the relative rates of Q-cycle bypass reactions in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cyt bc1 complex are highly dependent, by a factor of up to one hundred-fold, on the properties of the substrate quinol. Our results suggest that the rate of Q-cycle bypass reactions is dependent on the steady state concentration of reactive intermediates produced at the quinol oxidase site of the enzyme. We conclude that normal operation of the Q-cycle requires a fairly narrow window of redox potentials, with respect to the quinol substrate, to allow normal turnover of the complex while preventing potentially damaging bypass reactions

  3. Binding of the Respiratory Chain Inhibitor Antimycin to theMitochondrial bc1 Complex: A New Crystal Structure Reveals an AlteredIntramolecular Hydrogen-Bonding Pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Li-shar; Cobessi, David; Tung, Eric Y.; Berry, Edward A.

    2005-05-10

    Antimycin A (antimycin), one of the first known and most potent inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, binds to the quinone reduction site of the cytochrome bc1 complex.Structure-activity-relationship studies have shown that the N-formylamino-salicyl-amide group is responsible for most of the binding specificity, and suggested that a low pKa for the phenolic OH group and an intramolecular H-bond between that OH and the carbonyl O of the salicylamide linkage are important. Two previous X-ray structures of antimycin bound to vertebrate bc1 complex gave conflicting results. A new structure reported here of the bovine mitochondrial bc1 complex at 2.28Angstrom resolution with antimycin bound, allows us for the first time to reliably describe the binding of antimycin and shows that the intramolecular hydrogen bond described in solution and in the small-molecule structure is replaced by one involving the NH rather than carbonyl O of the amide linkage, with rotation of the amide group relative to the aromatic ring. The phenolic OH and formylamino N form H-bonds with conserved Asp228 of cyt b, and the formylamino O H-bonds via a water molecule to Lys227. A strong density the right size and shape for a diatomic molecule is found between the other side of the dilactone ring and the alpha-A helix.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of nitrite, nitric oxide, and nitrous oxide respiratory enzymes reveal a complex evolutionary history for denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher M; Stres, Blaz; Rosenquist, Magnus; Hallin, Sara

    2008-09-01

    Denitrification is a facultative respiratory pathway in which nitrite (NO2(-)), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrous oxide (N2O) are successively reduced to nitrogen gas (N(2)), effectively closing the nitrogen cycle. The ability to denitrify is widely dispersed among prokaryotes, and this polyphyletic distribution has raised the possibility of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) having a substantial role in the evolution of denitrification. Comparisons of 16S rRNA and denitrification gene phylogenies in recent studies support this possibility; however, these results remain speculative as they are based on visual comparisons of phylogenies from partial sequences. We reanalyzed publicly available nirS, nirK, norB, and nosZ partial sequences using Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic inference. Concomitant analysis of denitrification genes with 16S rRNA sequences from the same organisms showed substantial differences between the trees, which were supported by examining the posterior probability of monophyletic constraints at different taxonomic levels. Although these differences suggest HGT of denitrification genes, the presence of structural variants for nirK, norB, and nosZ makes it difficult to determine HGT from other evolutionary events. Additional analysis using phylogenetic networks and likelihood ratio tests of phylogenies based on full-length sequences retrieved from genomes also revealed significant differences in tree topologies among denitrification and 16S rRNA gene phylogenies, with the exception of the nosZ gene phylogeny within the data set of the nirK-harboring genomes. However, inspection of codon usage and G + C content plots from complete genomes gave no evidence for recent HGT. Instead, the close proximity of denitrification gene copies in the genomes of several denitrifying bacteria suggests duplication. Although HGT cannot be ruled out as a factor in the evolution of denitrification genes, our analysis suggests that other phenomena, such gene

  5. Suppression of tumor growth in vivo by the mitocan alpha-tocopheryl succinate requires respiratory complex II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dong, L.F.; Freeman, R.; Liu, J.; Zobalová, Renata; Marin-Hernandez, A.; Stantic, M.; Rohlena, Jakub; Vališ, Karel; Rodriguez-Enriquez, S.; Butcher, B.; Goodwin, J.; Brunk, U.T.; Witting, P. K.; Moreno-Sanchez, R.; Scheffler, I.E.; Ralph, S.J.; Neužil, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 5 (2009), s. 1593-1600 ISSN 1078-0432 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/08/0811; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500520702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : SDHC-mutants * mitocans * mitochondrial complex II Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.747, year: 2009

  6. Complex composition film condensation in the sluice device of an electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukuev, V.I.; Lesovoj, M.V.; Vlasov, D.A.; Malygin, M.V.; Domashevskaya, Eh.P.; Tomashpol'skij, Yu.Ya.

    1994-01-01

    Based on the sluice device of an electron microscope a system is developed for material laser evaporation and vapor condensation on a substrate, situated in the microscope specimen holder. Substrate heating by laser radiation to 100 deg C is used. The system is applied for investigating growth of high-temperature superconductor films

  7. Acadian variant of Fanconi syndrome is caused by mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I deficiency due to a non-coding mutation in complex I assembly factor NDUFAF6

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartmannová, H.; Piherová, L.; Tauchmannová, Kateřina; Kidd, K.; Acott, P. D.; Crocker, J. F. S.; Oussedik, Y.; Mallet, M.; Hodaňová, K.; Stránecký, V.; Přistoupilová, A.; Barešová, V.; Jedličková, I.; Živná, M.; Sovová, J.; Hůlková, H.; Robins, V.; Vrbacký, Marek; Pecina, Petr; Kaplanová, Vilma; Houštěk, Josef; Mráček, Tomáš; Thibeault, Y.; Bleyer, A. J.; Kmoch, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 18 (2016), s. 4062-4079 ISSN 0964-6906 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GB14-36804G; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Acadian variant of Fanconi syndrome * mitochondrial complex I deficiency * NDUFAF6 * C8ORF38 * non-coding mutation * alternative splicing variant * protein isoforms Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.340, year: 2016

  8. Learning from simple ebooks, online cases or classroom teaching when acquiring complex knowledge. A randomized controlled trial in respiratory physiology and pulmonology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, Bjarne Skjødt

    2013-01-01

    E-learning is developing fast because of the rapid increased use of smartphones, tablets and portable computers. We might not think of it as e-learning, but today many new e-books are in fact very complex electronic teaching platforms. It is generally accepted that e-learning is as effective as classroom teaching methods, but little is known about its value in relaying contents of different levels of complexity to students. We set out to investigate e-learning effects on simple recall and complex problem-solving compared to classroom teaching. 63 nurses specializing in anesthesiology were evenly randomized into three groups. They were given internet-based knowledge tests before and after attending a teaching module about respiratory physiology and pulmonology. The three groups was either an e-learning group with eBook teaching material, an e-learning group with case-based teaching or a group with face-to-face case-based classroom teaching. After the module the students were required to answer a post-test. Time spent and the number of logged into the system was also measured. For simple recall, all methods were equally effective. For problem-solving, the eCase group achieved a comparable knowledge level to classroom teaching, while textbook learning was inferior to both (p<0.01). The textbook group also spent the least amount of time on acquiring knowledge (33 minutes, p<0.001), while the eCase group spent significantly more time on the subject (53 minutes, p<0.001) and logged into the system significantly more (2.8 vs 1.6, p<0.001). E-learning based cases are an effective tool for teaching complex knowledge and problem-solving ability, but future studies using higher-level e-learning are encouraged.Simple recall skills, however, do not require any particular learning method.

  9. Voltage-Dependent Rhythmogenic Property of Respiratory Pre-Bötzinger Complex Glutamatergic, Dbx1-Derived, and Somatostatin-Expressing Neuron Populations Revealed by Graded Optogenetic Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hidehiko; Mosher, Bryan; Tariq, Mohammad F; Zhang, Ruli; Koshiya, Naohiro; Smith, Jeffrey C

    2016-01-01

    The rhythm of breathing in mammals, originating within the brainstem pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC), is presumed to be generated by glutamatergic neurons, but this has not been directly demonstrated. Additionally, developmental expression of the transcription factor Dbx1 or expression of the neuropeptide somatostatin (Sst), has been proposed as a marker for the rhythmogenic pre-BötC glutamatergic neurons, but it is unknown whether these other two phenotypically defined neuronal populations are functionally equivalent to glutamatergic neurons with regard to rhythm generation. To address these problems, we comparatively investigated, by optogenetic approaches, the roles of pre-BötC glutamatergic, Dbx1-derived, and Sst-expressing neurons in respiratory rhythm generation in neonatal transgenic mouse medullary slices in vitro and also more intact adult perfused brainstem-spinal cord preparations in situ. We established three different triple-transgenic mouse lines with Cre-driven Archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch) expression selectively in glutamatergic, Dbx1-derived, or Sst-expressing neurons for targeted photoinhibition. In each line, we identified subpopulations of rhythmically active, Arch-expressing pre-BötC inspiratory neurons by whole-cell recordings in medullary slice preparations in vitro, and established that Arch-mediated hyperpolarization of these inspiratory neurons was laser power dependent with equal efficacy. By site- and population-specific graded photoinhibition, we then demonstrated that inspiratory frequency was reduced by each population with the same neuronal voltage-dependent frequency control mechanism in each state of the respiratory network examined. We infer that enough of the rhythmogenic pre-BötC glutamatergic neurons also have the Dbx1 and Sst expression phenotypes, and thus all three phenotypes share the same voltage-dependent frequency control property.

  10. Voltage-Dependent Rhythmogenic Property of Respiratory Pre-Bötzinger Complex Glutamatergic, Dbx1-Derived, and Somatostatin-Expressing Neuron Populations Revealed by Graded Optogenetic Inhibition123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hidehiko; Mosher, Bryan; Tariq, Mohammad F.; Zhang, Ruli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The rhythm of breathing in mammals, originating within the brainstem pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC), is presumed to be generated by glutamatergic neurons, but this has not been directly demonstrated. Additionally, developmental expression of the transcription factor Dbx1 or expression of the neuropeptide somatostatin (Sst), has been proposed as a marker for the rhythmogenic pre-BötC glutamatergic neurons, but it is unknown whether these other two phenotypically defined neuronal populations are functionally equivalent to glutamatergic neurons with regard to rhythm generation. To address these problems, we comparatively investigated, by optogenetic approaches, the roles of pre-BötC glutamatergic, Dbx1-derived, and Sst-expressing neurons in respiratory rhythm generation in neonatal transgenic mouse medullary slices in vitro and also more intact adult perfused brainstem-spinal cord preparations in situ. We established three different triple-transgenic mouse lines with Cre-driven Archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch) expression selectively in glutamatergic, Dbx1-derived, or Sst-expressing neurons for targeted photoinhibition. In each line, we identified subpopulations of rhythmically active, Arch-expressing pre-BötC inspiratory neurons by whole-cell recordings in medullary slice preparations in vitro, and established that Arch-mediated hyperpolarization of these inspiratory neurons was laser power dependent with equal efficacy. By site- and population-specific graded photoinhibition, we then demonstrated that inspiratory frequency was reduced by each population with the same neuronal voltage-dependent frequency control mechanism in each state of the respiratory network examined. We infer that enough of the rhythmogenic pre-BötC glutamatergic neurons also have the Dbx1 and Sst expression phenotypes, and thus all three phenotypes share the same voltage-dependent frequency control property. PMID:27275007

  11. Performance of the new automated Abbott RealTime MTB assay for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J H K; She, K K K; Kwong, T-C; Wong, O-Y; Siu, G K H; Leung, C-C; Chang, K-C; Tam, C-M; Ho, P-L; Cheng, V C C; Yuen, K-Y; Yam, W-C

    2015-09-01

    The automated high-throughput Abbott RealTime MTB real-time PCR assay has been recently launched for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) clinical diagnosis. This study would like to evaluate its performance. We first compared its diagnostic performance with the Roche Cobas TaqMan MTB assay on 214 clinical respiratory specimens. Prospective analysis of a total 520 specimens was then performed to further evaluate the Abbott assay. The Abbott assay showed a lower limit of detection at 22.5 AFB/ml, which was more sensitive than the Cobas assay (167.5 AFB/ml). The two assays demonstrated a significant difference in diagnostic performance (McNemar's test; P = 0.0034), in which the Abbott assay presented significantly higher area under curve (AUC) than the Cobas assay (1.000 vs 0.880; P = 0.0002). The Abbott assay demonstrated extremely low PCR inhibition on clinical respiratory specimens. The automated Abbott assay required only very short manual handling time (0.5 h), which could help to improve the laboratory management. In the prospective analysis, the overall estimates for sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott assay were both 100 % among smear-positive specimens, whereas the smear-negative specimens were 96.7 and 96.1 %, respectively. No cross-reactivity with non-tuberculosis mycobacterial species was observed. The superiority in sensitivity of the Abbott assay for detecting MTBC in smear-negative specimens could further minimize the risk in MTBC false-negative detection. The new Abbott RealTime MTB assay has good diagnostic performance which can be a useful diagnostic tool for rapid MTBC detection in clinical laboratories.

  12. Highly efficient and heavily-doped organic light-emitting devices based on an orange phosphorescent iridium complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shunliang; Wang, Qi [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China); Li, Ming [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Lu, Zhiyun, E-mail: luzhiyun@scu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Heavily doped and highly efficient phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices (PhOLEDs) had been fabricated by utilizing an orange iridium complex, bis[2-(3′,5′-di-tert-butylbiphenyl-4-yl)benzothiazolato-N,C{sup 2'}]iridium(III) (acetylacetonate) [(tbpbt){sub 2}Ir(acac)], as a phosphor. When the doping concentration of [(tbpbt){sub 2}Ir(acac)] reached as high as 15 wt%, the PhOLEDs exhibited a power efficiency, current efficiency, and external quantum efficiency of 24.5 lm/W, 32.1 cd/A, 15.7%, respectively, implying a promising quenching-resistant characteristics of this novel phosphor. Furthermore, the efficient white PhOLEDs had been obtained by employing (tbpbt){sub 2}Ir(acac) as a self-host orange emitter, indicating that (tbpbt){sub 2}Ir(acac) could serve as a promising phosphor to fabricate white organic light-emitting devices with simplified manufacturing process. - Highlights: • Efficient phosphorescent devices were fabricated. • Optimized phosphor doping ratio reached as high as 15 wt%. • The results proved a promising quench-resistant property of the phosphor. • Efficient white devices based on this phosphor as self-host layer had been realized.

  13. Highly efficient and heavily-doped organic light-emitting devices based on an orange phosphorescent iridium complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Shunliang; Wang, Qi; Li, Ming; Lu, Zhiyun; Yu, Junsheng

    2014-01-01

    Heavily doped and highly efficient phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices (PhOLEDs) had been fabricated by utilizing an orange iridium complex, bis[2-(3′,5′-di-tert-butylbiphenyl-4-yl)benzothiazolato-N,C 2' ]iridium(III) (acetylacetonate) [(tbpbt) 2 Ir(acac)], as a phosphor. When the doping concentration of [(tbpbt) 2 Ir(acac)] reached as high as 15 wt%, the PhOLEDs exhibited a power efficiency, current efficiency, and external quantum efficiency of 24.5 lm/W, 32.1 cd/A, 15.7%, respectively, implying a promising quenching-resistant characteristics of this novel phosphor. Furthermore, the efficient white PhOLEDs had been obtained by employing (tbpbt) 2 Ir(acac) as a self-host orange emitter, indicating that (tbpbt) 2 Ir(acac) could serve as a promising phosphor to fabricate white organic light-emitting devices with simplified manufacturing process. - Highlights: • Efficient phosphorescent devices were fabricated. • Optimized phosphor doping ratio reached as high as 15 wt%. • The results proved a promising quench-resistant property of the phosphor. • Efficient white devices based on this phosphor as self-host layer had been realized

  14. Observation of near infrared and enhanced visible emissions from electroluminescent devices with organo samarium(III) complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, B [Key Laboratory of the Excited States Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16-Dong NanHu Road, Economic Development Area, Changchun, 130033 (China); Li, W L [Key Laboratory of the Excited States Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16-Dong NanHu Road, Economic Development Area, Changchun, 130033 (China); Hong, Z R [Key Laboratory of the Excited States Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16-Dong NanHu Road, Economic Development Area, Changchun, 130033 (China); Zang, F X [Key Laboratory of the Excited States Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16-Dong NanHu Road, Economic Development Area, Changchun, 130033 (China); Wei, H Z [Key Laboratory of the Excited States Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16-Dong NanHu Road, Economic Development Area, Changchun, 130033 (China); Wang, D Y [Key Laboratory of the Excited States Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16-Dong NanHu Road, Economic Development Area, Changchun, 130033 (China); Li, M T [Key Laboratory of the Excited States Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16-Dong NanHu Road, Economic Development Area, Changchun, 130033 (China); Lee, C S [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Lee, S T [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2006-11-07

    Samarium (dibenzoylmethanato){sub 3} bathophenanthroline (Sm(DBM){sub 3} bath) was employed as an emitting and electron transport layer in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), and narrow electroluminescent (EL) emissions of a Sm{sup 3+} ion were observed in the visible and near infrared (NIR) region, differing from those of the same devices with Eu{sup 3+}- or Tb{sup 3+}-complex EL devices with the same structure. The EL emissions of the Sm{sup 3+}-devices originate from transitions from {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} to the lower respective levels of Sm{sup 3+} ions. A maximum luminance of 490 cd m{sup -2} at 15 V and an EL efficiency of 0.6% at 0.17 mA cm{sup -2} were obtained in the visible region, and the improved efficiency should be attributed to introducing a transitional layer between the N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-diphenyl-4,4'-diamine (TPD) film and the Sm(DBM){sub 3} bath film and the avoidance of interfacial exciplex emission in devices. Sharp emissions of Sm{sup 3+} ions in the NIR region were also observed under a lower threshold value less than 4.5 V.

  15. Synthesis and Optical Characterization of Mixed Ligands Beryllium Complexes for Display Device Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandna Nishal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and photoluminescent behaviour of mixed ligand based beryllium complexes with 2-(2-hydroxyphenylbenzoxazole (HPB and 5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinoline (Clq or 5,7-dichloro-8-hydroxyquinoline (Cl2q or 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (Meq or 8-hydroxyquinoline (q are reported in this work. These complexes, that is, [BeHPB(Clq], [BeHPB(Cl2q], [BeHPB(Meq], and [BeHPB(q], were prepared and their structures were confirmed by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. The beryllium complexes exhibited good thermal stability up to ~300°C temperature. The photophysical properties of beryllium complexes were studied using ultraviolet-visible absorption and photoluminescence emission spectroscopy. The complexes showed absorption peaks due to π-π∗ and n-π∗ electronic transitions. The complexes emitted greenish blue light with peak wavelength at 496 nm, 510 nm, 490 nm, and 505 nm, respectively, consisting of high intensity. Color tuning was observed with changing the substituents in quinoline ring ligand in metal complexes. The emitted light had Commission Internationale d’Eclairage color coordinates values at x=0.15 and y=0.43 for [BeHPB(Clq], x=0.21 and y=0.56 for [BeHPB(Cl2q], x=0.14 and y=0.38 for [BeHPB(Meq], x=0.17 and y=0.41 for [BeHPB(q]. Theoretical calculations using DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d,p method were performed to reveal the three-dimensional geometries and the frontier molecular orbital energy levels of these synthesized metal complexes.

  16. Elevated levels of mitochonrial respiratory complexes activities and ATP production in 17-β-estradiol-induced prolactin-secretory tumor cells in male rats are inhibited by melatonin in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-Qiang; Yang, Quan-Hui; Xu, Rong-Kun; Xu, Jian-Ning

    2013-01-01

    Our earlier studies indicate that melatonin inhibits the proliferation of prolactinoma and induces apoptosis of pituitary prolactin-secreting tumor in rats. Melatonin has also been shown to induce apoptosis and to reduce the production of ATP in breast tumor cells. This study analyzed the levels of the four mitochondrial respiratory complexes and the production of ATP and also the effects of melatonin treatment of prolactinoma. In the in vivo study, mitochondria were harvested from control pituitaries or prolactinoma collected from the pituitaries of melatonin- and 17-β-estradiol (E2)-treated male rats. In the in vitro study, prolactinoma cells mitochondria were harvested. Activities of the four mitochondrial respiratory complexes were assayed using fluorometer. ATP production of prolactinoma cells was estimated using bioluminescent methods. Elevated levels of four mitochondrial respiratory complexes activities and ATP production were recorded in prolactinoma cells. Moreover, in both in vivo and in vitro studies, melatonin inhibited the activities of mitochondrial respiratory complexes and the production of ATP in prolactinoma cells. There is a link between mitochondrial function increase and tumorigenesis. Melatonin induces apoptosis of pituitary prolactin-secreting tumor of rats via the induction of mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of energy metabolism.

  17. Switching Performance Evaluation of Commercial SiC Power Devices (SiC JFET and SiC MOSFET) in Relation to the Gate Driver Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    and JFETs. The recent introduction of SiC MOSFET has proved that it is possible to have highly performing SiC devices with a minimum gate driver complexity; this made SiC power devices even more attractive despite their device cost. This paper presents an analysis based on experimental results...... of the switching losses of various commercially available Si and SiC power devices rated at 1200 V (Si IGBTs, SiC JFETs and SiC MOSFETs). The comparison evaluates the reduction of the switching losses which is achievable with the introduction of SiC power devices; this includes analysis and considerations...

  18. Respiratory mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Theodore A

    2016-01-01

    This book thoroughly covers each subfield of respiratory mechanics: pulmonary mechanics, the respiratory pump, and flow. It presents the current understanding of the field and serves as a guide to the scientific literature from the golden age of respiratory mechanics, 1960 - 2010. Specific topics covered include the contributions of surface tension and tissue forces to lung recoil, the gravitational deformation of the lung, and the interdependence forces that act on pulmonary airways and blood vessels. The geometry and kinematics of the ribs is also covered in detail, as well as the respiratory action of the external and internal intercostal muscles, the mechanics of the diaphragm, and the quantitative compartmental models of the chest wall is also described. Additionally, flow in the airways is covered thoroughly, including the wave-speed and viscous expiratory flow-limiting mechanisms; convection, diffusion and the stationary front; and the distribution of ventilation. This is an ideal book for respiratory ...

  19. Renal oncocytoma characterized by the defective complex I of the respiratory chain boosts the synthesis of the ROS scavenger glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kürschner, Gerrit; Zhang, Qingzhou; Clima, Rosanna; Xiao, Yi; Busch, Jonas Felix; Kilic, Ergin; Jung, Klaus; Berndt, Nikolaus; Bulik, Sascha; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg; Gasparre, Giuseppe; Attimonelli, Marcella; Babu, Mohan; Meierhofer, David

    2017-12-01

    Renal oncocytomas are rare benign tumors of the kidney and characterized by a deficient complex I (CI) enzyme activity of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system caused by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. Yet, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms and alterations of metabolic pathways in this tumor. We compared renal oncocytomas with adjacent matched normal kidney tissues on a global scale by multi-omics approaches, including whole exome sequencing (WES), proteomics, metabolomics, and metabolic pathway simulation. The abundance of proteins localized to mitochondria increased more than 2-fold, the only exception was a strong decrease in the abundance for CI subunits that revealed several pathogenic heteroplasmic mtDNA mutations by WES. We also observed renal oncocytomas to dysregulate main metabolic pathways, shunting away from gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism. Nevertheless, the abundance of energy carrier molecules such as NAD + , NADH, NADP, ATP, and ADP were significantly higher in renal oncocytomas. Finally, a substantial 5000-fold increase of the reactive oxygen species scavenger glutathione can be regarded as a new hallmark of renal oncocytoma. Our findings demonstrate that renal oncocytomas undergo a metabolic switch to eliminate ATP consuming processes to ensure a sufficient energy supply for the tumor.

  20. Automatic QRS complex detection algorithm designed for a novel wearable, wireless electrocardiogram recording device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saadi, Dorthe Bodholt; Egstrup, Kenneth; Branebjerg, Jens

    2012-01-01

    We have designed and optimized an automatic QRS complex detection algorithm for electrocardiogram (ECG) signals recorded with the DELTA ePatch platform. The algorithm is able to automatically switch between single-channel and multi-channel analysis mode. This preliminary study includes data from ...

  1. Flectofold—a biomimetic compliant shading device for complex free form facades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, A.; Born, L.; Mader, A.; Sachse, R.; Saffarian, S.; Westermeier, A. S.; Poppinga, S.; Bischoff, M.; Gresser, G. T.; Milwich, M.; Speck, T.; Knippers, J.

    2018-01-01

    Smart and adaptive outer façade shading systems are of high interest in modern architecture. For long lasting and reliable systems, the abandonment of hinges which often fail due to mechanical wear during repetitive use is of particular importance. Drawing inspiration from the hinge-less motion of the underwater snap-trap of the carnivorous waterwheel plant (Aldrovanda vesiculosa), the compliant façade shading device Flectofold was developed. Based on computational simulations of the biological role-model’s elastic and reversible motion, the actuation principle of the plant can be identified. The enclosed geometric motion principle is abstracted into a simplified curved-line folding geometry with distinct flexible hinge-zones. The kinematic behaviour is translated into a quantitative kinetic model, using finite element simulation which allows the detailed analyses of the influence of geometric parameters such as curved-fold line radius and various pneumatically driven actuation principles on the motion behaviour, stress concentrations within the hinge-zones, and actuation forces. The information regarding geometric relations and material gradients gained from those computational models are then used to develop novel material combinations for glass fibre reinforced plastics which enabled the fabrication of physical prototypes of the compliant façade shading device Flectofold.

  2. AN ADVANCED CALIBRATION PROCEDURE FOR COMPLEX IMPEDANCE SPECTRUM MEASUREMENTS OF ADVANCED ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William H. Morrison; Jon P. Christophersen; Patrick Bald; John L. Morrison

    2012-06-01

    With the increasing demand for electric and hybrid electric vehicles and the explosion in popularity of mobile and portable electronic devices such as laptops, cell phones, e-readers, tablet computers and the like, reliance on portable energy storage devices such as batteries has likewise increased. The concern for the availability of critical systems in turn drives the availability of battery systems and thus the need for accurate battery health monitoring has become paramount. Over the past decade the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Montana Tech of the University of Montana (Tech), and Qualtech Systems, Inc. (QSI) have been developing the Smart Battery Status Monitor (SBSM), an integrated battery management system designed to monitor battery health, performance and degradation and use this knowledge for effective battery management and increased battery life. Key to the success of the SBSM is an in-situ impedance measurement system called the Impedance Measurement Box (IMB). One of the challenges encountered has been development of an accurate, simple, robust calibration process. This paper discusses the successful realization of this process.

  3. Clinical value of IS6110-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, Ehsan; Makvandi, Manoochehr; Farajzadeh, Ahmad; Huygen, Kris; Alvandi, Amir-Hooshang; Gouya, Mohammad-Mehdi; Sadrizadeh, Ali; Romano, Marta

    2013-06-01

    A fundamental to global tuberculosis (TB) control is timely and accurate diagnosis of infectious cases of the disease. Among various methods, techniques based on nucleic acid amplification are the ones with promising prospects. The present study evaluates the diagnostic value of the recently developed IS6110-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in sputum specimens. In this cross-sectional study (2008-2009), IS6110-LAMP was evaluated on 101 sputum specimens from 93 highly suspected TB patients and compared to Amplicor MTB test and in-house IS6110-PCR and -nested PCR assays. Culture results or clinical recovery following anti-TB therapy was considered as a reference to prove the TB cases. The overall sensitivity of IS6110-LAMP, Amplicor, nPCR, and PCR were respectively 89.6% (69/77 specimens; 95% confidence interval [CI], 80.5-95.4%), 76.6% (59/77 specimens; CI, 65.6-85.5%), 79.2% (61/77 specimens; CI, 68.5-87.6%) and 59.7% (46/77 specimens; CI, 47.9-70.8%). The specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) were 100% for all the tests, and the negative predictive value (NPV) of IS6110-LAMP, Amplicor, nPCR, and PCR were respectively 75%, 57.1%, 60%, and 43.6%. There was an excellent overall agreement between LAMP and nPCR (k 0.828), and between LAMP and Amplicor (k 0.746), in addition to a better tolerance of IS6110-LAMP to inhibitors present in clinical specimens. The better diagnostic performance of IS6110-LAMP compared to Amplicor (p = 0.009), nPCR (p = 0.013) and PCR (p < 0.0001) besides its rapidity, simplicity, and cost-effectiveness makes it a valuable method for the detection of MTBC in clinical samples, particularly in resource-limited settings. Copyright © 2013 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [The cinema as a device for teaching complexity in mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delego, Adriana; Carroll, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes the use of Cinema as an instrument for a complex approach to Teaching in the field of Clinical Psychiatry and Psychopathology in Mental Health. With this aim, intends a different look that pretends the approach not only to the conceptual structures on Psychopathology, but also to the complexity involved, choosing Cinema as a powerful way of "empathic recreation". Based on previous work by several authors, the theoretical framework that supports this modality is presented in the philosophical, cognitive, pedagogical-didactic aspects and their consequences into teaching within Mental Health. This task also implies addressing the historical evolution of the representation of subjectivity in fiction. In this way, a new perspective to those working in the field of mental health, as subjects involved in continuous learning processes, is presented. This perspective emphasizes the interactions underlying psychic problematical.

  5. Research on Control Strategy of Complex Systems through VSC-HVDC Grid Parallel Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Mei-Juan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After the completion of grid parallel, the device can turn to be UPFC, STATCOM, SSSC, research on the conversion circuit and transform method by corresponding switching operation. Accomplish the grid parallel and comprehensive control of the tie-line and stable operation and control functions of grid after parallel. Defines the function select operation switch matrix and grid parallel system branch variable, forming a switch matrix to achieve corresponding function of the composite system. Formed a criterion of the selection means to choose control strategy according to the switch matrix, to accomplish corresponding function. Put the grid parallel, STATCOM, SSSC and UPFC together as a system, improve the stable operation and flexible control of the power system.

  6. Organic light-emitting devices based on solution-processible quinolato-complex supramolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, J.-A.; Chen, Chin H.; Shieh, H.-P.D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses a new type of supramolecular material tris{5-N-[3-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)propyl]-N-(4-methylphenyl) aminesulfonyl-8-hydroxyquinolato} aluminum(III), Al(SCarq) 3 , which we synthesized using three 5-N-[3-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)propyl]-N-(4-methylphenyl) aminesulfonyl-8-hydroxyquinoline as bidentate ligands. The peak photoluminescence in the solid phase appears at 488 nm. In cyclic voltammetric measurement, two oxidation peaks, which were obtained at -5.6 and -5.9 eV, correspond to HOMO sites of carbazoyl and aluminum quinolates, respectively. In the investigation of solid morphological thin film, the flat surface was investigated using an atomic force microscope. The root mean square (rms) and mean roughness (R a ) were respectively measured to be 0.427 and 0.343 nm. For the fabrication of organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) using spin-coating techniques, the turn-on voltage and maximum luminescence of the optimized electroluminescence device, glass/ITO (20 nm)/PEDOT:PSS (75 nm)/Al(SCarq) 3 (85 nm)/BCP (8 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (200 nm), were respectively 9.6 V and 35.0 cd m -2 . Due to the electroplex formation between the carbazole (electron-donor) and the aluminum quinolates (electron-acceptor) moieties under an applied DC bias, the chromaticity of electroluminescence shifted to green-yellow with 1931 CIE x,y (0.40, 0.47)

  7. Organic light-emitting devices based on solution-processible quinolato-complex supramolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, J.-A. [Department of Photonics and Display Institute, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: jacheng.ac89g@nctu.edu.tw; Chen, Chin H. [Microelectronics and Information System Research Center, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Shieh, H.-P.D. [Department of Photonics and Display Institute, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)

    2009-02-15

    This paper discusses a new type of supramolecular material tris{l_brace}5-N-[3-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)propyl]-N-(4-methylphenyl) aminesulfonyl-8-hydroxyquinolato{r_brace} aluminum(III), Al(SCarq){sub 3}, which we synthesized using three 5-N-[3-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)propyl]-N-(4-methylphenyl) aminesulfonyl-8-hydroxyquinoline as bidentate ligands. The peak photoluminescence in the solid phase appears at 488 nm. In cyclic voltammetric measurement, two oxidation peaks, which were obtained at -5.6 and -5.9 eV, correspond to HOMO sites of carbazoyl and aluminum quinolates, respectively. In the investigation of solid morphological thin film, the flat surface was investigated using an atomic force microscope. The root mean square (rms) and mean roughness (R{sub a}) were respectively measured to be 0.427 and 0.343 nm. For the fabrication of organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) using spin-coating techniques, the turn-on voltage and maximum luminescence of the optimized electroluminescence device, glass/ITO (20 nm)/PEDOT:PSS (75 nm)/Al(SCarq){sub 3} (85 nm)/BCP (8 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (200 nm), were respectively 9.6 V and 35.0 cd m{sup -2}. Due to the electroplex formation between the carbazole (electron-donor) and the aluminum quinolates (electron-acceptor) moieties under an applied DC bias, the chromaticity of electroluminescence shifted to green-yellow with 1931 CIE{sub x,y} (0.40, 0.47)

  8. A lossless multichannel bio-signal compression based on low-complexity joint coding scheme for portable medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Sun; Kwon, Jin-San

    2014-09-18

    Research on real-time health systems have received great attention during recent years and the needs of high-quality personal multichannel medical signal compression for personal medical product applications are increasing. The international MPEG-4 audio lossless coding (ALS) standard supports a joint channel-coding scheme for improving compression performance of multichannel signals and it is very efficient compression method for multi-channel biosignals. However, the computational complexity of such a multichannel coding scheme is significantly greater than that of other lossless audio encoders. In this paper, we present a multichannel hardware encoder based on a low-complexity joint-coding technique and shared multiplier scheme for portable devices. A joint-coding decision method and a reference channel selection scheme are modified for a low-complexity joint coder. The proposed joint coding decision method determines the optimized joint-coding operation based on the relationship between the cross correlation of residual signals and the compression ratio. The reference channel selection is designed to select a channel for the entropy coding of the joint coding. The hardware encoder operates at a 40 MHz clock frequency and supports two-channel parallel encoding for the multichannel monitoring system. Experimental results show that the compression ratio increases by 0.06%, whereas the computational complexity decreases by 20.72% compared to the MPEG-4 ALS reference software encoder. In addition, the compression ratio increases by about 11.92%, compared to the single channel based bio-signal lossless data compressor.

  9. A microfluidic device for simultaneous measurement of viscosity and flow rate of blood in a complex fluidic network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun Kang, Yang; Yeom, Eunseop; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Blood viscosity has been considered as one of important biophysical parameters for effectively monitoring variations in physiological and pathological conditions of circulatory disorders. Standard previous methods make it difficult to evaluate variations of blood viscosity under cardiopulmonary bypass procedures or hemodialysis. In this study, we proposed a unique microfluidic device for simultaneously measuring viscosity and flow rate of whole blood circulating in a complex fluidic network including a rat, a reservoir, a pinch valve, and a peristaltic pump. To demonstrate the proposed method, a twin-shaped microfluidic device, which is composed of two half-circular chambers, two side channels with multiple indicating channels, and one bridge channel, was carefully designed. Based on the microfluidic device, three sequential flow controls were applied to identify viscosity and flow rate of blood, with label-free and sensorless detection. The half-circular chamber was employed to achieve mechanical membrane compliance for flow stabilization in the microfluidic device. To quantify the effect of flow stabilization on flow fluctuations, a formula of pulsation index (PI) was analytically derived using a discrete fluidic circuit model. Using the PI formula, the time constant contributed by the half-circular chamber is estimated to be 8 s. Furthermore, flow fluctuations resulting from the peristaltic pumps are completely removed, especially under periodic flow conditions within short periods (T viscosity with respect to varying flow rate conditions [(a) known blood flow rate via a syringe pump, (b) unknown blood flow rate via a peristaltic pump]. As a result, the flow rate and viscosity of blood can be simultaneously measured with satisfactory accuracy. In addition, the proposed method was successfully applied to identify the viscosity of rat blood, which circulates in a complex fluidic network. These observations confirm that the proposed method can be used for

  10. The effectiveness of an immobilization device in conformal radiotherapy for lung tumor: reduction of respiratory tumor movement and evaluation of the daily setup accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negoro, Yoshiharu; Nagata, Yasushi; Aoki, Tetsuya; Mizowaki, Takashi; Araki, Norio; Takayama, Kenji; Kokubo, Masaki; Yano, Shinsuke; Koga, Sachiko; Sasai, Keisuke; Shibamoto, Yuta; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the daily setup accuracy and the reduction of respiratory tumor movement using a body frame in conformal therapy for solitary lung tumor. Methods and Materials: Eighteen patients with a solitary lung tumor underwent conformal therapy using a body frame. The body shell of the frame was shaped to the patient's body contour. The respiratory tumor movement was estimated using fluoroscopy, and if it was greater than 5 mm, pressure was applied to the patient's abdomen with the goal of minimizing tumor movement. CT images were then obtained, and a treatment planning was made. A total dose of 40 or 48 Gy was delivered in 4 fractions. Portal films were obtained at each treatment, and the field displacements between them and the simulation films were measured for daily setup errors. The patients were repositioned if the setup error was greater than 3 mm. Correlations were analyzed between patient characteristics and the tumor movement, or the tumor movement reduction and the daily setup errors. Results: Respiratory tumor movement ranged from 0 to 20 mm (mean 7.7 mm). The abdominal press reduced the tumor movement significantly from a range of 8 to 20 mm to a range of 2 to 11 mm (p=0.0002). Daily setup errors were within 5 mm in 90%, 100%, and 93% of all verifications in left-right, anterior-posterior, and cranio-caudal directions, respectively. Patient repositioning was performed in 25% of all treatments. No significant correlation was detected between patient characteristics and tumor movement, tumor movement reduction, and the daily setup errors. Conclusions: The abdominal press was successful in reducing the respiratory tumor movement. Daily setup accuracy using the body frame was acceptable. Verification should be performed at each treatment in hypofractionated conformal therapy

  11. Learning from simple ebooks, online cases or classroom teaching when acquiring complex knowledge. A randomized controlled trial in respiratory physiology and pulmonology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarne Skjødt Worm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: E-learning is developing fast because of the rapid increased use of smartphones, tablets and portable computers. We might not think of it as e-learning, but today many new e-books are in fact very complex electronic teaching platforms. It is generally accepted that e-learning is as effective as classroom teaching methods, but little is known about its value in relaying contents of different levels of complexity to students. We set out to investigate e-learning effects on simple recall and complex problem-solving compared to classroom teaching. METHODS: 63 nurses specializing in anesthesiology were evenly randomized into three groups. They were given internet-based knowledge tests before and after attending a teaching module about respiratory physiology and pulmonology. The three groups was either an e-learning group with eBook teaching material, an e-learning group with case-based teaching or a group with face-to-face case-based classroom teaching. After the module the students were required to answer a post-test. Time spent and the number of logged into the system was also measured. RESULTS: For simple recall, all methods were equally effective. For problem-solving, the eCase group achieved a comparable knowledge level to classroom teaching, while textbook learning was inferior to both (p<0.01. The textbook group also spent the least amount of time on acquiring knowledge (33 minutes, p<0.001, while the eCase group spent significantly more time on the subject (53 minutes, p<0.001 and logged into the system significantly more (2.8 vs 1.6, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: E-learning based cases are an effective tool for teaching complex knowledge and problem-solving ability, but future studies using higher-level e-learning are encouraged.Simple recall skills, however, do not require any particular learning method.

  12. Design and implementation of efficient low complexity biomedical artifact canceller for nano devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zia Ur RAHMAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current day scenario, with the rapid development of communication technology remote health care monitoring becomes as an intense research area. In remote health care monitoring, the primary aim is to facilitate the doctor with high resolution biomedical data. In order to cancel various artifacts in clinical environment in this paper we propose some efficient adaptive noise cancellation techniques. To obtain low computational complexity we combine clipping the data or error with Least Mean Square (LMS algorithm. This results sign regressor LMS (SRLMS, sign LMS (SLMS and sign LMS (SSLMS algorithms. Using these algorithms, we design Very-large-scale integration (VLSI architectures of various Biomedical Noise Cancellers (BNCs. In addition, the filtering capabilities of the proposed implementations are measured using real biomedical signals. Among the various BNCs tested, SRLMS based BNC is found to be better with reference to convergence speed, filtering capability and computational complexity. The main advantage of this technique is it needs only one multiplication to compute next weight. In this manner SRLMS based BNC is independent of filter length with reference to its computations. Whereas, the average signal to noise ratio achieved in the noise cancellation experiments are recorded as 7.1059dBs, 7.1776dBs, 6.2795dBs and 5.8847dBs for various BNCs based on LMS, SRLMS, SLMS and SSSLMS algorithms respectively. Based on the filtering characteristics, convergence and computational complexity, the proposed SRLMS based BNC architecture is well suited for nanotechnology applications.

  13. New cyclometalated iridium(III) complex as a phosphorescent dopant in organic light emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, P.; Tomova, R.; Petrova, P.; Stanimirov, S.; Petkov, I.

    2014-05-01

    A new cyclometalated iridium (III) bis[2-(4-chlorophenyl)benzothiazolato-N,C2]-acetylacetonate, (Cl-bt)2Ir(acac), was synthesized and identified by 1H NMR and elemental analysis. The application was studied of the new compound as a dopant in the hole transporting layer (HTL) of the following organic light emitting diode (OLED) structure: HTL/EL/ETL, where HTL was 4,4'-bis(9H-carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) or N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N'-diphenylbenzidine (TPD), incorporated in a poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) matrix; EL was an electroluminescent layer of bis(8-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline)-(4-phenylpheno-xy) aluminum (BAlq); and ETL was an electron-transporting layer of bis[2-(2-benzothiazoly) phenolato]zinc(II) (Zn(btz)2). We established that the electroluminescence spectra of the OLEDs at different dopant concentrations were basically the sum of the greenish-blue emission of BAlq and the yellowish-green emission of the Ir complex. It was also found that increasing the dopant concentration resulted in an increase in the relative electroluminescent intensity of the Ir complex emission, while that of BAlq decreased, thus a fine tuning of the OLED color was observed.

  14. Non-destructive failure analysis and measurement for molded devices and complex assemblies with X-ray CT and 3D image processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Xiaoming; Liew, Seaw Jia; Jiang, Ting Ying; Xu, Jian; Kakarala, Ramakrishna

    2013-01-01

    In both automotive and healthcare sectors, reliable failure analysis and accurate measurement of molded devices and complex assemblies are important. Current methods of failure analysis and measurement require these molded parts to be cross-sectioned so that internal features or dimensions can be accessible. As a result, the parts are deemed unusable and additional failure introduced by sectioning may cause misinterpretation of the results. X-ray CT and 3D image processing techniques provide a new nondestructive solution for failure analysis and measurement of molded devices and complex assemblies. These techniques simplify failure analysis and measurement of molded devices and assemblies, and improve the productivity of molding manufacturing significantly.

  15. Influence of temperature and light intensity on Ru(II) complex based organic-inorganic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asubay, Sezai; Durap, Feyyaz; Aydemir, Murat; Baysal, Akin; Ocak, Yusuf Selim; Tombak, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    An organic-inorganic junction was fabricated by forming [Ru(Cy_2PNHCH_2-C_4H_3O)(η"6-p-cymene)Cl_2] complex thin film using spin coating technique on n-Si and evaporating Au metal on the film. It was seen that the structure had perfect rectification property. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were carried out in dark and under various illumination conditions (between 50-100 mW/cm"2) and with the temperature range from 303 to 380 K. The structure showed unusually forward and reverse bias temperature and light sensing behaviors. It was seen that the current both in forward and reverse bias increased with the increase in light intensity and temperature.

  16. Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex III: Neutron Devices and Computational and Sample Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Sakasai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Neutron devices such as neutron detectors, optical devices including supermirror devices and 3He neutron spin filters, and choppers are successfully developed and installed at the Materials Life Science Facility (MLF of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC, Tokai, Japan. Four software components of MLF computational environment, instrument control, data acquisition, data analysis, and a database, have been developed and equipped at MLF. MLF also provides a wide variety of sample environment options including high and low temperatures, high magnetic fields, and high pressures. This paper describes the current status of neutron devices, computational and sample environments at MLF.

  17. The association between calfhood bovine respiratory disease complex and subsequent departure from the herd, milk production, and reproduction in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Aaron P; Larson, Robert L; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Hanzlicek, Gregg A; Bartle, Steven J; Thomson, Daniel U

    2016-05-15

    OBJECTIVE To describe the frequency of calfhood producer-identified bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in Holstein replacement heifers on 1 large farm and determine associations between development of BRDC at ≤ 120 days of age (BRDC120) with milk production estimate, calving interval, and risk of departure from the herd (DFH). DESIGN Retrospective, observational study. ANIMALS 14,024 Holstein heifer calves born on 1 farm. PROCEDURES Data were obtained from herd management records. Cox proportional hazard and generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to assess associations for variables of interest (BRDC120 status, demographic data, and management factors) with DFH, milk production estimate, and calving interval. RESULTS Except for the year 2007, animals identified as having BRDC120 were 1.62 to 4.98 times as likely to leave the herd before first calving, compared with those that did not have this designation. Calves identified as having BRDC prior to weaning were 2.62 times as likely to have DFH before first calving as those classified as developing BRDC after weaning. Cows identified as having BRDC120 were 1.28 times as likely to have DFH between the first and second calving as were other cows. The BRDC120 designation was associated with a 233-kg (513-lb) lower 305-day mature equivalent value for first lactation milk production, but was not associated with longer or shorter calving intervals at maturity. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Dairy cattle identified as having BRDC120 had increased risk of DFH before the first or second calving and lower first-lactation milk production estimates, compared with results for cattle without this finding. Further investigation of these associations is warranted.

  18. Complex-envelope alternating-direction-implicit FDTD method for simulating active photonic devices with semiconductor/solid-state media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Ravi, Koustuban; Wang, Qian; Ho, Seng-Tiong

    2012-06-15

    A complex-envelope (CE) alternating-direction-implicit (ADI) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approach to treat light-matter interaction self-consistently with electromagnetic field evolution for efficient simulations of active photonic devices is presented for the first time (to our best knowledge). The active medium (AM) is modeled using an efficient multilevel system of carrier rate equations to yield the correct carrier distributions, suitable for modeling semiconductor/solid-state media accurately. To include the AM in the CE-ADI-FDTD method, a first-order differential system involving CE fields in the AM is first set up. The system matrix that includes AM parameters is then split into two time-dependent submatrices that are then used in an efficient ADI splitting formula. The proposed CE-ADI-FDTD approach with AM takes 22% of the time as the approach of the corresponding explicit FDTD, as validated by semiconductor microdisk laser simulations.

  19. Peptide aptamer-assisted immobilization of green fluorescent protein for creating biomolecule-complexed carbon nanotube device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii, Daisuke; Nozawa, Yosuke; Miyachi, Mariko; Yamanoi, Yoshinori; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Tomo, Tatsuya; Shimada, Yuichiro

    2017-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes are a novel material for next-generation applications. In this study, we generated carbon nanotube and green fluorescent protein (GFP) conjugates using affinity binding peptides. The carbon nanotube-binding motif was introduced into the N-terminus of the GFP through molecular biology methods. Multiple GFPs were successfully aligned on a single-walled carbon nanotube via the molecular recognition function of the peptide aptamer, which was confirmed through transmission electron microscopy and optical analysis. Fluorescence spectral analysis results also suggested that the carbon nanotube-GFP complex was autonomously formed with orientation and without causing protein denaturation during immobilization. This simple process has a widespread potential for fabricating carbon nanotube-biomolecule hybrid devices.

  20. Face mask spirometry and respiratory pressures in normal subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wohlgemuth, M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Padberg, G.W.A.M.; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Spirometry and maximal respiratory pressures are pulmonary function parameters commonly used to evaluate respiratory function. Prediction values are available for conventional lung function devices using a standard tube or flanged type of mouthpiece connection. This equipment is not suitable for

  1. Respiratory Home Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Home > Healthy Living > Living With Lung Disease > Respiratory Home Health Care Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources ... Teenagers Living With Lung Disease Articles written by Respiratory Experts Respiratory Home Health Care Respiratory care at ...

  2. Data-mining analysis of the provision of mobility devices in the United States with emphasis on complex rehab technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprigle, Stephen; Johnson Taylor, Susan

    2017-11-28

    The objective of this study was to describe the provision of wheeled-mobility equipment from the perspective of a large equipment supplier in the United States. The records of clients who were prescribed a mobility device over a 6-month period were randomly sampled to product a dataset of 1,689 clients. Analysis was limited to descriptive statistics and measures of relationships. The majority of the clients were adults (72%) and female (58%) with 62% receiving a manual wheelchair. The majority of interventions (58%) included some contribution from the client or client's family. Overall, 86% of all prescribed wheelchairs were classified as complex rehab technology (CRT). About half (52%) of all interventions involved a therapist. Therapist involvement was 2.5 times more likely during CRT interventions compared to standard durable medical equipment (StdDME). The project provides a novel description of mobility-related equipment provision using a large retrospective dataset. The analysis demonstrates the utility of analyzing a large number of client interventions. The capabilities of such analyses have business, clinical, and policy implications. Combining the data available from suppliers with prospective collection of client-specific information, such as outcomes, would be a more powerful means to assess the provision of wheeled-mobility equipment.

  3. Use of the Boomerang catalyst advantage closure device to facilitate complex multistaged percutaneous revascularization procedures for the treatment of critical limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Joel A; Casserly, Ivan P

    2009-07-01

    An increasing spectrum of complex peripheral arterial disease may be successfully treated using percutaneous revascularization techniques. A pair of challenging peripheral revascularization procedures in patients with critical limb ischemia is presented, where an array of interventional tools and techniques were required, and the off-label use of the Boomerang catalyst system closure device was important in managing a variety of complex arterial access issues and ultimately allowing procedural success. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Preparation and characterization of electroluminescent devices based on complexes of β-diketonates of Tb3+, Eu3+, Gd3+ ions with macrocyclic ligands and UO22+ films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibelli, Edison Bessa

    2010-01-01

    Complexes containing Rare Earth ions are of great interest in the manufacture of electro luminescent devices as organic light emitting devices (OLED). These devices, using rare earth trivalent ions (TR 3+ ) as emitting centers, show high luminescence with extremely fine spectral bands due to the structure of their energy levels, long life time and high quantum efficiency. This work reports the preparation of Rare Earth β-diketonate complexes (Tb 3+ , Eu 3+ and Gd 3+ ) and (tta - thenoyltrifluoroacetonate and acac - acetylacetonate) containing a ligand macrocyclic crown ether (DB18C6 - dibenzo18coroa6) and polymer films of UO 2 2+ . The materials were characterized by complexometric titration with EDTA, CH elemental analysis, near infrared absorption spectroscopy, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction (powder method) and luminescence spectroscopy. For manufacturing the OLED it was used the technique of deposition of thin films by physical vapor (PVD, Physical Vapor Deposition). (author)

  5. Randomized controlled trial of two methods of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (N-CPAP) in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome: underwater bubbly CPAP vs. Medijet system device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mohammad Bagher; Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Balila, Masumeh; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Janani, Raheleh; Safavi-nia, Sima; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad; Alikhah, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the application of non-invasive respiratory support in preterm infants, and different types of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (N-CPAP) devices are being used in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). The objective of the present study was to compare the duration of CPAP need and possible complications of two methods of (N-CPAP) delivery: Bubble CPAP (B-CPAP) and Medijet (MJ) system device in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). This prospective randomized clinical trial was performed on 161 preterm infants (28-37 weeks of gestational age) with RDS and eligible for CPAP therapy. The infants were inborn and admitted in a level III NICU of Al-Zahra Teaching Hospital (Tabriz, Iran) from April 2010 to September 2011. All infants were randomized in the first hour of life to B-CPAP or MJ system. Short binasal prongs were used in both groups and CPAP was set at the level of 5-6 cm H2O. The primary outcome of this study was duration of CPAP need (hour). Other outcomes, such as complications of the two methods of N-CPAP, were evaluated using a checklist. Ninety infants were randomized to the MJ system, and 71 were randomized to B-CPAP. The mean gestational age and birth weight were similar in the two groups, as was the duration of CPAP need (44.3 ± 20.64 vs. 49.2 ± 21.2 hours, respectively; p=0.66). Moreover, the probability of complications, such as CPAP failure rate, pulmonary hemorrhage, pneumothorax, intraventricular hemorrhage, abdominal distention, necrotizing enterocolitis, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia, was the same between the two study groups (p>0.05). There was a trend of more hyperemia of the nose in the B-CPAP group in comparison to the MJ system group (10% versus 3.3%, respectively), but the difference was not significant (p=0.08). In conclusion, the MJ system is as effective as B-CPAP in the management of infants with RDS.

  6. 42 CFR 84.52 - Respiratory hazards; classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respiratory hazards; classification. 84.52 Section... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Classification of Approved Respirators; Scope of Approval; Atmospheric Hazards; Service Time § 84.52 Respiratory...

  7. A Review on Human Respiratory Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafarian, Pardis; Jamaati, Hamidreza; Hashemian, Seyed Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Input impedance of the respiratory system is measured by forced oscillation technique (FOT). Multiple prior studies have attempted to match the electromechanical models of the respiratory system to impedance data. Since the mechanical behavior of airways and the respiratory system as a whole are similar to an electrical circuit in a combination of series and parallel formats some theories were introduced according to this issue. It should be noted that, the number of elements used in these models might be less than those required due to the complexity of the pulmonary-chest wall anatomy. Various respiratory models have been proposed based on this idea in order to demonstrate and assess the different parts of respiratory system related to children and adults data. With regard to our knowledge, some of famous respiratory models in related to obstructive, restrictive diseases and also Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) are reviewed in this article.

  8. Efficient blue-green and green electroluminescent devices obtained by doping iridium complexes into hole-block material as supplementary light-emitting layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Liang [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zheng, Youxuan, E-mail: yxzheng@mail.nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Deng, Ruiping; Feng, Jing; Song, Mingxing; Hao, Zhaomin [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zhang, Hongjie, E-mail: hongjie@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zuo, Jinglin; You, Xiaozeng [State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-04-15

    In this work, organic electroluminescent (EL) devices with dominant and supplementary light-emitting layers (EMLs) were designed to further improve the EL performances of two iridium{sup III}-based phosphorescent complexes, which have been reported to provide EL devices with slow EL efficiency roll-off. The widely used hole-block material 2,2′,2''-(1,3,5-Benzinetriyl)-tris(1-phenyl-1-H-benzimidazole) (TPBi) was selected as host material to construct the supplementary EML. Compared with single-EML devices, double-EMLs devices showed higher EL efficiencies, higher brightness, and lower operation voltage attributed to wider recombination zone and better balance of carriers. In addition, the insertion of supplementary EML is instrumental in facilitating carriers trapping, thus improving the color purity. Finally, high performance blue-green and green EL devices with maximum current efficiencies of 35.22 and 90.68 cd/A, maximum power efficiencies of 26.36 and 98.18 lm/W, and maximum brightness of 56,678 and 112,352 cd/m{sup 2}, respectively, were obtained by optimizing the doping concentrations. Such a device design strategy extends the application of a double EML device structure and provides a chance to simplify device fabrication processes. -- Highlights: • Electroluminescent devices with supplementary light-emitting layer were fabricated. • Doping concentrations and thicknesses were optimized. • Better balance of holes and electrons causes the enhanced efficiency. • Improved carrier trapping suppresses the emission of host material.

  9. Respiratory and metabolic acidosis differentially affect the respiratory neuronal network in the ventral medulla of neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yasumasa; Masumiya, Haruko; Tamura, Yoshiyasu; Oku, Yoshitaka

    2007-11-01

    Two respiratory-related areas, the para-facial respiratory group/retrotrapezoid nucleus (pFRG/RTN) and the pre-Bötzinger complex/ventral respiratory group (preBötC/VRG), are thought to play key roles in respiratory rhythm. Because respiratory output patterns in response to respiratory and metabolic acidosis differ, we hypothesized that the responses of the medullary respiratory neuronal network to respiratory and metabolic acidosis are different. To test these hypotheses, we analysed respiratory-related activity in the pFRG/RTN and preBötC/VRG of the neonatal rat brainstem-spinal cord in vitro by optical imaging using a voltage-sensitive dye, and compared the effects of respiratory and metabolic acidosis on these two populations. We found that the spatiotemporal responses of respiratory-related regional activities to respiratory and metabolic acidosis are fundamentally different, although both acidosis similarly augmented respiratory output by increasing respiratory frequency. PreBötC/VRG activity, which is mainly inspiratory, was augmented by respiratory acidosis. Respiratory-modulated pixels increased in the preBötC/VRG area in response to respiratory acidosis. Metabolic acidosis shifted the respiratory phase in the pFRG/RTN; the pre-inspiratory dominant pattern shifted to inspiratory dominant. The responses of the pFRG/RTN activity to respiratory and metabolic acidosis are complex, and involve either augmentation or reduction in the size of respiratory-related areas. Furthermore, the activation pattern in the pFRG/RTN switched bi-directionally between pre-inspiratory/inspiratory and post-inspiratory. Electrophysiological study supported the results of our optical imaging study. We conclude that respiratory and metabolic acidosis differentially affect activities of the pFRG/RTN and preBötC/VRG, inducing switching and shifts of the respiratory phase. We suggest that they differently influence the coupling states between the pFRG/RTN and preBötC/VRG.

  10. Deposited power in a complex device by gamma radiation of test reactors; experiments and calculations carried out at SILOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitcolas, H.; Besson, A.; Bevilacqua, A.; Cosoli, G.

    1984-09-01

    Eight samples, which represent different materials used in testing reactors, were irradiated in the device ''CYRANO'' placed in the water reflector at different distances from the reactor core. The power dissipated in the device was measured by the ''CYRANO'' equipment itself, whereas the calorimeter juxtaposed served to monitor the gamma flux. Parallel to each experiment, the power deposited in the samples, the device materials and the calorimeter was calculated by the code MERCURE 4. The measured values were compared with the calculated ones, both in relative and in absolute values, for each sample and for each distance in the reflector. The comparison shows very good agreement [fr

  11. Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth / For Parents / Lungs and Respiratory System ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't ...

  12. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... improves slowly after that. Some infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome will die. This most often occurs ...

  13. Structural analysis of respiratory syncytial virus reveals the position of M2-1 between the matrix protein and the ribonucleoprotein complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Gabriella; Holl, Jens M; Williams, Grant M; Alonas, Eric; Vanover, Daryll; Lifland, Aaron W; Gudheti, Manasa; Guerrero-Ferreira, Ricardo C; Nair, Vinod; Yi, Hong; Graham, Barney S; Santangelo, Philip J; Wright, Elizabeth R

    2014-07-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a member of the Paramyxoviridae family of nonsegmented, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA genome viruses, is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants, young children, and the elderly or immunocompromised. There are many open questions regarding the processes that regulate human RSV (hRSV) assembly and budding. Here, using cryo-electron tomography, we identified virus particles that were spherical, filamentous, and asymmetric in structure, all within the same virus preparation. The three particle morphologies maintained a similar organization of the surface glycoproteins, matrix protein (M), M2-1, and the ribonucleoprotein (RNP). RNP filaments were traced in three dimensions (3D), and their total length was calculated. The measurements revealed the inclusion of multiple full-length genome copies per particle. RNP was associated with the membrane whenever the M layer was present. The amount of M coverage ranged from 24% to 86% in the different morphologies. Using fluorescence light microscopy (fLM), direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM), and a proximity ligation assay (PLA), we provide evidence illustrating that M2-1 is located between RNP and M in isolated viral particles. In addition, regular spacing of the M2-1 densities was resolved when hRSV viruses were imaged using Zernike phase contrast (ZPC) cryo-electron tomography. Our studies provide a more complete characterization of the hRSV virion structure and substantiation that M and M2-1 regulate virus organization. hRSV is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children as well as elderly or immunocompromised individuals. We used cryo-electron tomography and Zernike phase contrast cryo-electron tomography to visualize populations of purified hRSV in 3D. We observed the three distinct morphologies, spherical, filamentous, and asymmetric, which maintained comparable organizational profiles

  14. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV): A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik

    2000-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is the major cause of respiratory disease in calves during the first year of life. The study of the virus has been difficult because of its lability and very poor growth in cell culture. However, during the last decade, the introduction of new...... complex and unpredictable which makes the diagnosis and subsequent therapy very difficult. BRSV is closely related to human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) which is an important cause of respiratory disease in young children. In contrast to BRSV, the recent knowledge of HRSV is regularly extensively...

  15. Multiple Functional Domains and Complexes of the Two Nonstructural Proteins of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Contribute to Interferon Suppression and Cellular Location▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedan, Samer; Andrews, Joel; Majumdar, Tanmay; Musiyenko, Alla; Barik, Sailen

    2011-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a major cause of severe respiratory diseases, efficiently suppresses cellular innate immunity, represented by type I interferon (IFN), using its two unique nonstructural proteins, NS1 and NS2. In a search for their mechanism, NS1 was previously shown to decrease levels of TRAF3 and IKKε, whereas NS2 interacted with RIG-I and decreased TRAF3 and STAT2. Here, we report on the interaction, cellular localization, and functional domains of these two proteins. We show that recombinant NS1 and NS2, expressed in lung epithelial A549 cells, can form homo- as well as heteromers. Interestingly, when expressed alone, substantial amounts of NS1 and NS2 localized to the nuclei and to the mitochondria, respectively. However, when coexpressed with NS2, as in RSV infection, NS1 could be detected in the mitochondria as well, suggesting that the NS1-NS2 heteromer localizes to the mitochondria. The C-terminal tetrapeptide sequence, DLNP, common to both NS1 and NS2, was required for some functions, but not all, whereas only the NS1 N-terminal region was important for IKKε reduction. Finally, NS1 and NS2 both interacted specifically with host microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B). The contribution of MAP1B in NS1 function was not tested, but in NS2 it was essential for STAT2 destruction, suggesting a role of the novel DLNP motif in protein-protein interaction and IFN suppression. PMID:21795342

  16. Respiratory care management information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Richard M

    2004-04-01

    Hospital-wide computerized information systems evolved from the need to capture patient information and perform billing and other financial functions. These systems, however, have fallen short of meeting the needs of respiratory care departments regarding work load assessment, productivity management, and the level of outcome reporting required to support programs such as patient-driven protocols. The respiratory care management information systems (RCMIS) of today offer many advantages over paper-based systems and hospital-wide computer systems. RCMIS are designed to facilitate functions specific to respiratory care, including assessing work demand, assigning and tracking resources, charting, billing, and reporting results. RCMIS incorporate mobile, point-of-care charting and are highly configurable to meet the specific needs of individual respiratory care departments. Important and substantial benefits can be realized with an RCMIS and mobile, wireless charting devices. The initial and ongoing costs of an RCMIS are justified by increased charge capture and reduced costs, by way of improved productivity and efficiency. It is not unusual to recover the total cost of an RCMIS within the first year of its operation. In addition, such systems can facilitate and monitor patient-care protocols and help to efficiently manage the vast amounts of information encountered during the practitioner's workday. Respiratory care departments that invest in RCMIS have an advantage in the provision of quality care and in reducing expenses. A centralized respiratory therapy department with an RCMIS is the most efficient and cost-effective way to monitor work demand and manage the hospital-wide allocation of respiratory care services.

  17. The NDUFB6 subunit of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I is required for electron transfer activity: A proof of principle study on stable and controlled RNA interference in human cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loublier, Sandrine; Bayot, Aurelien; Rak, Malgorzata; El-Khoury, Riyad; Benit, Paule [Inserm U676, Hopital Robert Debre, F-75019 Paris (France); Universite Paris 7, Faculte de medecine Denis Diderot, IFR02 Paris (France); Rustin, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.rustin@inserm.fr [Inserm U676, Hopital Robert Debre, F-75019 Paris (France); Universite Paris 7, Faculte de medecine Denis Diderot, IFR02 Paris (France)

    2011-10-22

    Highlights: {yields} NDUFB6 is required for activity of mitochondrial complex I in human cell lines. {yields} Lentivirus based RNA interference results in frequent off target insertions. {yields} Flp-In recombinase mediated miRNA insertion allows gene-specific extinction. -- Abstract: Molecular bases of inherited deficiencies of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I are still unknown in a high proportion of patients. Among 45 subunits making up this large complex, more than half has unknown function(s). Understanding the function of these subunits would contribute to our knowledge on mitochondrial physiology but might also reveal that some of these subunits are not required for the catalytic activity of the complex. A direct consequence of this finding would be the reduction of the number of candidate genes to be sequenced in patients with decreased complex I activity. In this study, we tested two different methods to stably extinct complex I subunits in cultured cells. We first found that lentivirus-mediated shRNA expression frequently resulted in the unpredicted extinction of additional gene(s) beside targeted ones. This can be ascribed to uncontrolled genetic material insertions in the genome of the host cell. This approach thus appeared inappropriate to study unknown functions of a gene. Next, we found it possible to specifically extinct a CI subunit gene by direct insertion of a miR targeting CI subunits in a Flp site (HEK293 Flp-In cells). By using this strategy we unambiguously demonstrated that the NDUFB6 subunit is required for complex I activity, and defined conditions suitable to undertake a systematic and stable extinction of the different supernumerary subunits in human cells.

  18. The NDUFB6 subunit of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I is required for electron transfer activity: A proof of principle study on stable and controlled RNA interference in human cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loublier, Sandrine; Bayot, Aurelien; Rak, Malgorzata; El-Khoury, Riyad; Benit, Paule; Rustin, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → NDUFB6 is required for activity of mitochondrial complex I in human cell lines. → Lentivirus based RNA interference results in frequent off target insertions. → Flp-In recombinase mediated miRNA insertion allows gene-specific extinction. -- Abstract: Molecular bases of inherited deficiencies of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I are still unknown in a high proportion of patients. Among 45 subunits making up this large complex, more than half has unknown function(s). Understanding the function of these subunits would contribute to our knowledge on mitochondrial physiology but might also reveal that some of these subunits are not required for the catalytic activity of the complex. A direct consequence of this finding would be the reduction of the number of candidate genes to be sequenced in patients with decreased complex I activity. In this study, we tested two different methods to stably extinct complex I subunits in cultured cells. We first found that lentivirus-mediated shRNA expression frequently resulted in the unpredicted extinction of additional gene(s) beside targeted ones. This can be ascribed to uncontrolled genetic material insertions in the genome of the host cell. This approach thus appeared inappropriate to study unknown functions of a gene. Next, we found it possible to specifically extinct a CI subunit gene by direct insertion of a miR targeting CI subunits in a Flp site (HEK293 Flp-In cells). By using this strategy we unambiguously demonstrated that the NDUFB6 subunit is required for complex I activity, and defined conditions suitable to undertake a systematic and stable extinction of the different supernumerary subunits in human cells.

  19. Learning from simple ebooks, online cases or classroom teaching when acquiring complex knowledge. A randomized controlled trial in respiratory physiology and pulmonology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Bjarne Skjødt

    2013-01-01

    E-learning is developing fast because of the rapid increased use of smartphones, tablets and portable computers. We might not think of it as e-learning, but today many new e-books are in fact very complex electronic teaching platforms. It is generally accepted that e-learning is as effective...... as classroom teaching methods, but little is known about its value in relaying contents of different levels of complexity to students. We set out to investigate e-learning effects on simple recall and complex problem-solving compared to classroom teaching....

  20. Complex studies of mockups of electric insulators of cryoresistive coils of the T-15 device electromagnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, O.E.; Gringof, V.G.; Il'in, G.V.; Lapenas, A.A.; Stepanov, A.N.; Ulmanis, U.A.

    1982-01-01

    The test results are presented for multilayer electrical insulation of coils in the T-15 thermonuclear device electromagnet system. The insulation is made ion the base of polyimide tape with adhesive coating. In the 77-93 K range the tape insulating strength is 35 MV/m, the dielectric loss tangent is less than 10 -5 , dielectric permeability is 2.5, volume resistivity is more than 10 5 Ohmxcm. The insulation has been tested for radiation effects in the IRT-2000 nuclear reactor. Different batches of insulation mockups 0.7 mm thick have been irradiated up to the integral fast neutron flux within the 10 16 -5x10 18 neutr./cm 2 range (E >= 0.1 MeV), (J=10 11 -10 12 neutr./cm 2 xs) at the corresponding temperature between 390 and 420 K. The given data on insulating strength point to a high radiation resistance of the multilayer polyimide insulation. To make sure finally that the developed insulation system meets the requirements of the operating conditions for thermonuclear device electromagnet system coils the device has been tested for operational life. On the basis of the test results a conclusion can be made that at the present development stage the multilayer polyimide insulation based on the adhesive tape meets to the utmost degree the requirements corresponding to the complicated operating conditions of the T-15 thermonuclear devices

  1. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  2. Respiratory rate estimation from the built-in cameras of smartphones and tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yunyoung; Lee, Jinseok; Chon, Ki H

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a method for respiratory rate estimation using the camera of a smartphone, an MP3 player or a tablet. The iPhone 4S, iPad 2, iPod 5, and Galaxy S3 were used to estimate respiratory rates from the pulse signal derived from a finger placed on the camera lens of these devices. Prior to estimation of respiratory rates, we systematically investigated the optimal signal quality of these 4 devices by dividing the video camera's resolution into 12 different pixel regions. We also investigated the optimal signal quality among the red, green and blue color bands for each of these 12 pixel regions for all four devices. It was found that the green color band provided the best signal quality for all 4 devices and that the left half VGA pixel region was found to be the best choice only for iPhone 4S. For the other three devices, smaller 50 × 50 pixel regions were found to provide better or equally good signal quality than the larger pixel regions. Using the green signal and the optimal pixel regions derived from the four devices, we then investigated the suitability of the smartphones, the iPod 5 and the tablet for respiratory rate estimation using three different computational methods: the autoregressive (AR) model, variable-frequency complex demodulation (VFCDM), and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) approaches. Specifically, these time-varying spectral techniques were used to identify the frequency and amplitude modulations as they contain respiratory rate information. To evaluate the performance of the three computational methods and the pixel regions for the optimal signal quality, data were collected from 10 healthy subjects. It was found that the VFCDM method provided good estimates of breathing rates that were in the normal range (12-24 breaths/min). Both CWT and VFCDM methods provided reasonably good estimates for breathing rates that were higher than 26 breaths/min but their accuracy degraded concomitantly with increased respiratory rates

  3. The roles of complement receptors type 1 (CR1, CD35) and type 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18) in the regulation of the immune complex-elicited respiratory burst of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C H; Antonsen, S; Matthiesen, S H

    1997-01-01

    The binding of immune complexes (IC) to polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and the consequent respiratory burst (RB) were investigated in whole blood cell preparations suspended in 75% human serum, using flow cytometry. Blockade of the complement receptor (CR)1 receptor sites for C3b on whole blood...... cells using the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 3D9 resulted in a 1.9-fold increase in the IC-elicited PMN RB after 5 min of incubation, rising to 3.1-fold after 40 min. This enhancement was not due to increased IC deposition on PMN. Blockade of CR3 abrogated the mAb 3D9-induced rise in RB activity...

  4. Possible applications of a hybrid thermonuclear energy source based on a DPF device in modern energy complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribkov, V.A.; Tyagunov, M.G.

    1983-01-01

    A source of thermonuclear energy based on the dense plasma focus (DPF) device in a hybrid fusion-fission version is proposed. In its initial operating phase such a facility would be a net energy consumer and would breed fissile material; as the fissile content in the blanket increases, the installation would become a net energy producer. Under the proposed scheme of blanket operation, up to 50% of the uranium could be burned while maintaining electrical output and without refabrication of fuel elements. If desired, operation could continue after the fuel is almost completely exhausted to burn the nuclear waste. It is thought that the new source could become both technologically and economically feasible in the near future. Smooth control should present no problem and the speed at which the device could be brought up to full load should greatly improve the flexibility of the overall electrical supply system

  5. An integrated bioimpedance—ECG gating technique for respiratory and cardiac motion compensation in cardiac PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivumäki, Tuomas; Nekolla, Stephan G; Fürst, Sebastian; Loher, Simone; Schwaiger, Markus; Vauhkonen, Marko; Hakulinen, Mikko A

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory motion may degrade image quality in cardiac PET imaging. Since cardiac PET studies often involve cardiac gating by ECG, a separate respiratory monitoring system is required increasing the logistic complexity of the examination, in case respiratory gating is also needed. Thus, we investigated the simultaneous acquisition of both respiratory and cardiac gating signals using II limb lead mimicking electrode configuration during cardiac PET scans of 11 patients. In addition to conventional static and ECG-gated images, bioimpedance technique was utilized to generate respiratory- and dual-gated images. The ability of the bioimpedance technique to monitor intrathoracic respiratory motion was assessed estimating cardiac displacement between end-inspiration and -expiration. The relevance of dual gating was evaluated in left ventricular volume and myocardial wall thickness measurements. An average 7.6  ±  3.3 mm respiratory motion was observed in the study population. Dual gating showed a small but significant increase (4 ml, p = 0.042) in left ventricular myocardial volume compared to plain cardiac gating. In addition, a thinner myocardial wall was observed in dual-gated images (9.3  ±  1.3 mm) compared to cardiac-gated images (11.3  ±  1.3 mm, p = 0.003). This study shows the feasibility of bioimpedance measurements for dual gating in a clinical setting. The method enables simultaneous acquisition of respiratory and cardiac gating signals using a single device with standard ECG electrodes. (paper)

  6. Respiratory signal analysis of liver cancer patients with respiratory-gated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong Im; Jung, Sang Hoon; Kim, Chul Jong; Park, Hee Chul; Choi, Byung Ki

    2015-01-01

    External markers respiratory movement measuring device (RPM; Real-time Position Management, Varian Medical System, USA) Liver Cancer Radiation Therapy Respiratory gated with respiratory signal with irradiation time and the actual research by analyzing the respiratory phase with the breathing motion measurement device respiratory tuning evaluate the accuracy of radiation therapy May-September 2014 Novalis Tx. (Varian Medical System, USA) and liver cancer radiotherapy using respiratory gated RPM (Duty Cycle 20%, Gating window 40%-60%) of 16 patients who underwent total when recording the analyzed respiratory movement. After the breathing motion of the external markers recorded on the RPM was reconstructed by breathing through the acts phase analysis, for Beam-on Time and Duty Cycle recorded by using the reconstructed phase breathing breathing with RPM gated the prediction accuracy of the radiation treatment analysis and analyzed the correlation between prediction accuracy and Duty Cycle in accordance with the reproducibility of the respiratory movement. Treatment of 16 patients with respiratory cycle during the actual treatment plan was analyzed with an average difference -0.03 seconds (range -0.50 seconds to 0.09 seconds) could not be confirmed statistically significant difference between the two breathing (p = 0.472). The average respiratory period when treatment is 4.02 sec (0.71 sec), the average value of the respiratory cycle of the treatment was characterized by a standard deviation 7.43% (range 2.57 to 19.20%). Duty Cycle is that the actual average 16.05% (range 13.78 to 17.41%), average 56.05 got through the acts of the show and then analyzed% (range 39.23 to 75.10%) is planned in respiratory research phase (40% to 60%) in was confirmed. The investigation on the correlation between the ratio Duty Cycle and planned respiratory phase and the standard deviation of the respiratory cycle was analyzed in each -0.156 (p = 0.282) and -0.385 (p = 0.070). This study is

  7. Probing the mechanistic role of the long α-helix in subunit L of respiratory Complex I from Escherichia coli by site-directed mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belevich, Galina; Knuuti, Juho; Verkhovsky, Michael I; Wikström, Mårten; Verkhovskaya, Marina

    2011-01-01

    The C-terminus of the NuoL subunit of Complex I includes a long amphipathic α-helix positioned parallel to the membrane, which has been considered to function as a piston in the proton pumping machinery. Here, we have introduced three types of mutations into the nuoL gene to test the piston-like function. First, NuoL was truncated at its C- and N-termini, which resulted in low production of a fragile Complex I with negligible activity. Second, we mutated three partially conserved residues of the amphipathic α-helix: Asp and Lys residues and a Pro were substituted for acidic, basic or neutral residues. All these variants exhibited almost a wild-type phenotype. Third, several substitutions and insertions were made to reduce rigidity of the amphipathic α-helix, and/or to change its geometry. Most insertions/substitutions resulted in a normal growth phenotype, albeit often with reduced stability of Complex I. In contrast, insertion of six to seven amino acids at a site of the long α-helix between NuoL and M resulted in substantial loss of proton pumping efficiency. The implications of these results for the proton pumping mechanism of Complex I are discussed. PMID:22060017

  8. About the role of stylistic and syntactic devices of expansion in the informational complex of dicteme of a German advertising text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Артур Нарманович Мамедов

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights stylistic and syntactic devices of expansion, which act as compositional means, vary normative syntactic structure of an advertising text, contribute to sense formation, creating conditions for the purpose of advertiser’s intent. By means of these language elements expressing invariant tactic sense the advertiser consciously expands and/or complicates the informative complex of dicteme, an acting text unit, transmitting superfluous impressive information together with factual one. Combination of factual and impressive items of information activates both rational and emotional perceptional channels of prospective consumer, intensifies the positioning process of an advertised article.

  9. The respiratory microbiome and respiratory infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unger, Stefan A.; Bogaert, Debby

    2017-01-01

    Despite advances over the past ten years lower respiratory tract infections still comprise around a fifth of all deaths worldwide in children under five years of age with the majority in low- and middle-income countries. Known risk factors for severe respiratory infections and poor chronic

  10. Highly efficient and concentration-insensitive organic light-emitting devices based on self-quenching-resistant orange–red iridium complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Yige; Wang, Xu [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China); Li, Ming [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Lu, Zhiyun, E-mail: luzhiyun@scu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Orange–red phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices (PHOLEDs) with high efficiency and concentration insensitivity based on a novel iridium complex, bis[2-(biphenyl-4-yl)benzothiazole-N,C{sup 2}′]iridium(III) (acetylacetonate) [(4Phbt){sub 2}Ir(acac)], were fabricated. With the heavily doped emissive layer (EML) of 4,4′-N,N′-dicarbazolylbiphenyl (CBP): (4Phbt){sub 2}Ir(acac) in a wide and easily controlled dopant concentration range from 12 wt% to 24 wt%, a maximum power efficiency of 29 lm/W and an external quantum efficiency of >16% of the PHOLEDs were obtained, implying the insensitivity of electroluminescence (EL) properties to doping concentration. Meanwhile, a maximum power efficiency of 5.0 lm/W was achieved from a non-doped device with neat (4Phbt){sub 2}Ir(acac) as the EML, indicating a superior property of self-quenching resistance. The mechanism of direct exciton formation, in which exciton-formation regions are distributed throughout the EML, is responsible for the significant alleviation of triplet–triplet annihilation and superior EL performance. - Highlights: • Highly efficient and concentration-insensitive PHOLEDs were obtained. • The high efficiency of non-doped PHOLEDs indicated a quenching-resistant property. • The independence of EL spectra on doping concentration was observed. • The heavily doped devices were dominated by mechanism of direct exciton formation.

  11. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Credit: CDC This is the ... the United States. Why Is the Study of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) a Priority for NIAID? In ...

  12. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    RSV; Palivizumab; Respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin; Bronchiolitis - RSV ... Crowe JE. Respiratory syncytial virus. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ...

  13. Respiratory Issues in OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory Issues in Osteogenesis Imperfecta \\ Introduction The respiratory system’s job is to bring oxygen into the body and remove carbon dioxide, the waste product of breathing. Because oxygen is the fuel ...

  14. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000103.htm Acute respiratory distress syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening lung ...

  15. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  16. Avian respiratory system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  17. Respiratory manifestations in endocrine diseases

    OpenAIRE

    LENCU, CODRU?A; ALEXESCU, TEODORA; PETRULEA, MIRELA; LENCU, MONICA

    2016-01-01

    The control mechanisms of respiration as a vital function are complex: voluntary ? cortical, and involuntary ? metabolic, neural, emotional and endocrine. Hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides (that act as neurotrasmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system) play a role in the regulation of respiration and in bronchopulmonary morphology. This article presents respiratory manifestations in adult endocrine diseases that evolve with hormone deficit or hypersecretion. In hyperthy...

  18. What Is Respiratory Distress Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Respiratory Distress Syndrome Respiratory Distress Syndrome Also known as What Is Respiratory ... This condition is called apnea (AP-ne-ah). Respiratory Distress Syndrome Complications Depending on the severity of ...

  19. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SARS; Respiratory failure - SARS ... Complications may include: Respiratory failure Liver failure Heart failure ... 366. McIntosh K, Perlman S. Coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). ...

  20. New cyclometalated Iridium(III) beta-dicetone complex as phosphorescent dopant in Organic light emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, P.; Petrova, P.; Stanimirov, S.; Tomova, R.

    2017-01-01

    A new Bis[4-(benzothiazolato-N,C2‧-2-yl)-N,N-dimethylaniline]Iridium(III) acetylacetonate (Me2N-bt) 2Ir(acac) was synthesized and identified by 1H NMR and elemental analysis. The application of the new compound as a dopant in the hole transporting layer (HTL) of Organic light emitting diode (OLED) structure: HTL/EL/ETL, where HTL was N,N’-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N’-diphenylbenzidine (TPD), incorporated in Poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) matrix, EL - electroluminescent layer of Bis(8-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline)-(4-phenylpheno-xy)aluminum (BAlq) and ETL - electron-transporting layer of Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) or Bis[2-(2-benzothiazoly) phenolato]zinc (Zn(btz)2). We established that the electroluminescent spectra of OLEDs at different concentrations of the dopant were basically the sum of the greenish-blue emission of BAlq and yellowish-green emission of Ir complex. It was found that with increasing of the dopant concentration the relative electroluminescent intensity of Iridium complex emission increased and this of BAlq decreased and as a result the fine tuning of OLED color was observed.

  1. Understanding the use of continuous oscillating positive airway pressure (bubble CPAP) to treat neonatal respiratory disease: an engineering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manilal-Reddy, P I; Al-Jumaily, A M

    2009-01-01

    A continuous oscillatory positive airway pressure with pressure oscillations incidental to the mean airway pressure (bubble CPAP) is defined as a modified form of traditional continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) delivery where pressure oscillations in addition to CPAP are administered to neonates with lung diseases. The mechanical effect of the pressure oscillations on lung performance is investigated by formulating mathematical models of a typical bubble CPAP device and a simple representation of a neonatal respiratory system. Preliminary results of the respiratory system's mechanical response suggest that bubble CPAP may improve lung performance by minimizing the respiratory system impedance and that the resonant frequency of the respiratory system may be a controlling factor. Additional steps in terms of clinical trials and a more complex respiratory system model are required to gain a deeper insight into the mechanical receptiveness of the respiratory system to pressure oscillations. However, the current results are promising in that they offer a deeper insight into the trends of variations that can be expected in future extended models as well as the model philosophies that need to be adopted to produce results that are compatible with experimental verification.

  2. Episodic medical home interventions in severe bedridden chronic respiratory failure patients: a 4 year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbano, L; Bertella, E; Vitacca, M

    2009-09-01

    Home care for respiratory patients includes a complex array of services delivered in an uncontrolled setting. The role of a respiratory specialist inside the home healthcare team has been scarcely studied up to now. Our aims were to analyse the number and quality of episodic home visits performed by respiratory physicians to severe bedridden Chronic Respiratory Failure (CRF) patients, and also to evaluate the safety of tracheotomy tube substitutions at home. 231 home interventions (59.8/year) in 123 CRF patients (59 males; age 63 +/- 17 y, 24 on oxygen therapy, 35 under non invasive mechanical ventilation, 46 under invasive ventilation, 74 with tracheostomy) located 35 +/- 16 km far from referred hospital, were revised in a period of 4 years (2005-2008). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) (31%) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) (28%) were the more frequent diagnoses. Interventions were: tracheotomy tube substitution (64%) presenting 22% of minor adverse events and 1.4% of major adverse events; change or new oxygen prescription (37%); nocturnal pulsed saturimetric trend prescription (24%); change in mechanical ventilation (MV) setting (4%); new MV adaptation (7%). After medical intervention, new home medical equipment devices (oxygen and MV) were prescribed in 36% of the cases while rehabilitative hospital admission and home respiratory physiotherapy prescription was proposed in 9% and 6% of the cases respectively. Patient/caregiver's satisfaction was reported on average 8.48 +/- 0.79 (1 = the worst; 10 = the higher). The local health care system (HCS) reimbursed 70 euros for each home intervention. Families saved 42 +/- 20 euros per visit for ambulance transportation. Home visits performed by a respiratory physician to bedridden patients with chronic respiratory failure: 1. include predominantly patients affected by COPD and ALS; 2. determine a very good satisfaction to patients/caregivers; 3. allow money saving to caregivers; 4. are predominantly

  3. Exact exchange and Wilson-Levy correlation: a pragmatic device for studying complex weakly-bonded systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, T R

    2005-02-07

    The Wilson-Levy (WL) correlation functional is used together with Hartree-Fock (HF) theory to evaluate interaction energies at intermediate separations (i.e. around equilibrium separation) for several weakly-bonded systems. The HF+WL approach reproduces binding trends for all complexes studied: selected rare-gas dimers, isomers of the methane dimer, benzene dimer and naphthalene dimer, and base-pair stacking structures for pyrimidine, cytosine, uracil and guanine dimers. These HF+WL data are contrasted against results obtained from some popular functionals (including B3LYP and PBE), as well as two newly-developed functionals, X3LYP and xPBE. The utility of HF+WL, with reference to exact-exchange (EXX) density-functional theory, is discussed in terms of a suggested EXXWL exchange-correlation functional.

  4. Exciplex emission and Auger process assistant green organic electrophosphorescence devices with very low doped level of iridium complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongyu; Li Wenlian; Chu Bei; Li Xiao; Su Zisheng; Han Liangliang; Li Tianle; Chen Yiren; Yan Fei; Wu Shuanghong; Zhang Zhiqiang; Hu Zhizhi

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate efficient and simple structure phosphorescence organic light-emitting diodes, in which 4, 4', 4''-tris[3-methyl-pheny(phenyl)-amino]triphenyl -amine (m-MTDATA) and 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) are used as hole transport and electron transport layers, respectively, accompanied by 3 wt% fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium doped in 1,3,5-tris(N-phenylbenzimidazol-2-yl)-benzene (Ir : TPBi) as the emitting layer. As a result, a 29 lm W -1 peak power efficiency and 2.2 V turn-on voltage are achieved, respectively. The achievement of excellent electroluminescence (EL) properties was attributed to the contribution of exciplex formation at the interface of m-MTDATA/Ir : TPBi and the Auger-type two-step process of charge carrier injection. The competition between the interfacial exciplex and Ir-complex emissions in the EL processes was also discussed.

  5. Exciplex emission and Auger process assistant green organic electrophosphorescence devices with very low doped level of iridium complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Dongyu; Li Wenlian; Chu Bei; Li Xiao; Su Zisheng; Han Liangliang; Li Tianle; Chen Yiren; Yan Fei; Wu Shuanghong [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Zhang Zhiqiang; Hu Zhizhi [Organic Photoelectronic Materials and Technology Development Center, Liaoning University of Science and Technology, Anshan (China)], E-mail: wllioel@yahoo.com.cn, E-mail: beichu@163.com

    2008-12-21

    We demonstrate efficient and simple structure phosphorescence organic light-emitting diodes, in which 4, 4', 4''-tris[3-methyl-pheny(phenyl)-amino]triphenyl -amine (m-MTDATA) and 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) are used as hole transport and electron transport layers, respectively, accompanied by 3 wt% fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium doped in 1,3,5-tris(N-phenylbenzimidazol-2-yl)-benzene (Ir : TPBi) as the emitting layer. As a result, a 29 lm W{sup -1} peak power efficiency and 2.2 V turn-on voltage are achieved, respectively. The achievement of excellent electroluminescence (EL) properties was attributed to the contribution of exciplex formation at the interface of m-MTDATA/Ir : TPBi and the Auger-type two-step process of charge carrier injection. The competition between the interfacial exciplex and Ir-complex emissions in the EL processes was also discussed.

  6. PT-1 selectively activates AMPK-γ1 complexes in mouse skeletal muscle, but activates all three γ subunit complexes in cultured human cells by inhibiting the respiratory chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt; Ross, Fiona A; Kleinert, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    strategy to combat diseases such as cancer and type 2 diabetes. We report that the AMPK activator PT-1 selectively increased the activity of γ1- but not γ3-containing complexes in incubated mouse muscle. PT-1 increased the AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of the autophagy-regulating kinase ULK1 on Ser555...

  7. IMPROVED ALGORITHM FOR CALCULATING COMPLEX NON-EQUIPOTENTIAL GROUNDING DEVICES OF ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS TAKING INTO ACCOUNT CONDUCTIVITY OF NATURAL GROUNDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Starkov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The method of natural concentrated groundings substitution by the set of electrodes taking them into account in the algorithm of electric characteristics calculation for complicated grounding connections of electric installation is offered. An equivalent model as a set of linear electrodes is chosen in accordance with two criteria: leakage resistance and potentials on the ground surface. Methodology. We have applied induced potential method and methods for computing branched electrical circuits with distributed parameters. Results. We have obtained the algorithm for calculating complex non-equipotential grounding connections, which makes it possible to obtain refined values of the potential distribution in the electric stations and substations with outdoor switchgear. Originality. For the first time, we have taking into account the conductivity of natural concentrated grounds by a set of vertical and horizontal electrodes based on equivalent electrical characteristics applied to a two-layer ground. Practical value. The using of the proposed calculation algorithm in the electric grids of JSC «Kharkivoblenergo» made it possible to determine the values of the potential distribution at short circuit in electrical substation taking into account the influence of the conductivity of natural concentrated groundings.

  8. Perspectives of the Si3N4-TiN ceramic composite as a biomaterial and manufacturing of complex-shaped implantable devices by electrical discharge machining (EDM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucciotti, Francesco; Mazzocchi, Mauro; Bellosi, Alida

    2010-01-01

    In this work we investigated the suitability of electroconductive silicon nitride/titanium nitride composite for biomedical implantable devices with particular attention on the processing route that allows the net-shaping of complex components by electrical discharge machining (EDM). The composite, constituted mainly of a beta-Si3N4, dispersed TiN grains and a glassy grain boundary phase, exhibited a low density and high hardness, strength and toughness. Bulk, surface characteristics and properties of the Si3N4-TiN composite were analyzed. After the EDM process, the microstructure of the machined surface was examined. The obtained results showed that the Si3N4-TiN ceramic composite together with the EDM manufacturing process might potentially play a key role in implantable load-bearing prosthesis applications.

  9. mCSF1, a nucleus-encoded CRM protein required for the processing of many mitochondrial introns, is involved in the biogenesis of respiratory complexes I and IV in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmudjak, Michal; Colas des Francs-Small, Catherine; Keren, Ido; Shaya, Felix; Belausov, Eduard; Small, Ian; Ostersetzer-Biran, Oren

    2013-07-01

    The coding regions of many mitochondrial genes in plants are interrupted by intervening sequences that are classified as group II introns. Their splicing is essential for the expression of the genes they interrupt and hence for respiratory function, and is facilitated by various protein cofactors. Despite the importance of these cofactors, only a few of them have been characterized. CRS1-YhbY domain (CRM) is a recently recognized RNA-binding domain that is present in several characterized splicing factors in plant chloroplasts. The Arabidopsis genome encodes 16 CRM proteins, but these are largely uncharacterized. Here, we analyzed the intracellular location of one of these hypothetical proteins in Arabidopsis, mitochondrial CAF-like splicing factor 1 (mCSF1; At4 g31010), and analyzed the growth phenotypes and organellar activities associated with mcsf1 mutants in plants. Our data indicated that mCSF1 resides within mitochondria and its functions are essential during embryogenesis. Mutant plants with reduced mCSF1 displayed inhibited germination and retarded growth phenotypes that were tightly associated with reduced complex I and IV activities. Analogously to the functions of plastid-localized CRM proteins, analysis of the RNA profiles in wildtype and mcsf1 plants showed that mCSF1 acts in the splicing of many of the group II intron RNAs in Arabidopsis mitochondria. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. 3D printing of an aortic aneurysm to facilitate decision making and device selection for endovascular aneurysm repair in complex neck anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Matthew D B S; Laycock, Stephen D; Brown, James R I; Jakeways, Matthew

    2013-12-01

    To describe rapid prototyping or 3-dimensional (3D) printing of aneurysms with complex neck anatomy to facilitate endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). A 75-year-old man had a 6.6-cm infrarenal aortic aneurysm that appeared on computed tomographic angiography to have a sharp neck angulation of ~90°. However, although the computed tomography (CT) data were analyzed using centerline of flow, the true neck length and relations of the ostial origins were difficult to determine. No multidisciplinary consensus could be reached as to which stent-graft to use owing to these borderline features of the neck anatomy. Based on past experience with rapid prototyping technology, a decision was taken to print a model of the aneurysm to aid in visualization of the neck anatomy. The CT data were segmented, processed, and converted into a stereolithographic format representing the lumen as a 3D volume, from which a full-sized replica was printed within 24 hours. The model demonstrated that the neck was adequate for stent-graft repair using the Aorfix device. Rapid prototyping of aortic aneurysms is feasible and can aid decision making and device delivery. Further work is required to test the value of 3D replicas in planning procedures and their impact on procedure time, radiation dose, and procedure cost.

  11. Respiratory challenge MRI: Practical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona C. Moreton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory challenge MRI is the modification of arterial oxygen (PaO2 and/or carbon dioxide (PaCO2 concentration to induce a change in cerebral function or metabolism which is then measured by MRI. Alterations in arterial gas concentrations can lead to profound changes in cerebral haemodynamics which can be studied using a variety of MRI sequences. Whilst such experiments may provide a wealth of information, conducting them can be complex and challenging. In this paper we review the rationale for respiratory challenge MRI including the effects of oxygen and carbon dioxide on the cerebral circulation. We also discuss the planning, equipment, monitoring and techniques that have been used to undertake these experiments. We finally propose some recommendations in this evolving area for conducting these experiments to enhance data quality and comparison between techniques.

  12. Neurological Respiratory Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Rudrappa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus infection in humans is mostly asymptomatic. Less than 1% of neuro-invasive cases show a fatality rate of around 10%. Acute flaccid paralysis of respiratory muscles leading to respiratory failure is the most common cause of death. Although the peripheral nervous system can be involved, isolated phrenic nerve palsy leading to respiratory failure is rare and described in only two cases in the English literature. We present another case of neurological respiratory failure due to West Nile virus-induced phrenic nerve palsy. Our case reiterates the rare, but lethal, consequences of West Nile virus infection, and the increase of its awareness among physicians.

  13. ACETHYLCYSTEIN IN INFANTILE RESPIRATORY PATHOLOGY TREATMENT CONTINUOUS PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Davidova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucolytics are widely used in pediatric respiratory pathology treatment. This review contains information about main groups of mucolytics. Special attention is given to acetylcystein. It also includes substantiation report of mucolytics in complex treatment of acute and chronic bronchopulmonary disorders in children.Key words: acetylcystein, mucocillary clearence, acute respiratory viral infection, bronchoobstructive syndrome, respiratory function. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 62–66

  14. Transsutural distraction osteogenesis applied to maxillary complex with new internalized distraction device: analysis of the feasibility and long-term osteogenesis outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Haizhou; Gao, Feng; Yin, Jiapeng; Zhang, Xiangyu; Zhang, Chen; Yin, Ningbei; Zhao, Zhenmin

    2015-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effects of transsutural distraction osteogenesis applied to the maxillary complex with a new internalized distraction device and to analyze the long-term osteogenesis outcome. Three-month-old beagle dogs were treated with a self-designed internalized distractor. The feasibility was evaluated, and the effects of the maxillary growth were measured using radiography and computed tomography (CT). The regenerated bone was examined with micro-CT, biomechanical testing, and histology 1 year after the distraction. The experimental group showed significantly larger forward displacement of maxillary during the distraction. One year after the distraction, the micro-CT showed more incompact structure and bone volume/total volume was significantly less in the experimental group. Biomechanical testing also showed a significantly lower yield but with no difference in stiffness. Histologic staining found osteoclasts deposited in the region of the suture and osteoblasts on the bone surface. The immunohistochemical staining of osteoprotegrin and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κ B ligand showed evidence of expression in suture area components and osteocytes with no difference between the groups. Transsutural distraction osteogenesis using an internalized distractor with skull anchorage demonstrated feasibility. It is expected that this device may provide new thoughts in developing an appropriate appliance for clinical use in young patients with midfacial hypoplasia. Moreover, the long-term osteogenesis analysis findings suggest that the metabolism of sutural area still remained active, which enhanced our understanding of bone remodeling in the sutural area to manage maxillary relapse after transsutural distraction osteogenesis.

  15. Development of a home screening system for pediatric respiratory sleep studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jong Yong Abdiel; Lim, Chu Sing

    2006-12-01

    To develop a simple and portable home screening monitor for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children. In such a system, identifying the respiratory events and occurrences of motional artifacts are two essential elements that can affect the accuracy of the study. Moreover, such a system needs to be easy to set up and user friendly. The proposed system includes the following: electrocardiogram, pulse oximeter, microcontroller-based computation device, and a tri-axial accelerometer. Three physiologic parameters derived with this device were used to identify central (CE) and obstructive (OE) respiratory events. The criteria used were based on documented evidence and compared against corresponding standard polysomnographic scorings. In addition, a module was constructed in conjunction with a RS232 chip to transmit the recorded data to a personal computer. The accelerometer was used as a motion artifact detector. Detectable signals were acquired from the accelerometer when artifacts were induced on the photoplethysmography by motions in three regulated test activities lasting at least 30 seconds each. In classifying respiratory events, the combined use of oxygen saturation, heart rate, and pulse transit time to produce a complex classification (logic OR) showed promise. For OE, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.828 and 0.859, respectively. For CE, these values were 0.868 and 0.762, respectively. The proposed system potentially fulfils the criterion as a home screening tool and can form an indispensable addition to the SDB investigation in the pediatric population.

  16. Comparative Study between Sequential Automatic and Manual Home Respiratory Polygraphy Scoring Using a Three-Channel Device: Impact of the Manual Editing of Events to Identify Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. According to current guidelines, autoscoring of respiratory events in respiratory polygraphy requires manual scoring. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreement between automatic analysis and manual scoring to identify patients with suspected OSA. Methods. This retrospective study analyzed 791 records from respiratory polygraphy (RP performed at home. The association grade between automatic scoring and manual scoring was evaluated using Kappa coefficient and the agreement using Bland and Altman test and intraclass correlation coefficient (CCI. To determine the accuracy in the identification of AHI≥30 eV/h, the ROC curve analysis was used. Results. The population analyzed consisted of 493 male (62.3% and 298 female patients, with an average age of 54.7±14.20 years and BMI of 32.7±8.21 kg/m2. There was no significant difference between automatic and manual apnea/hypopnea indexes (aAHI, mAHI: aAHI 17.25 (SD: 17.42 versus mAHI 21.20±7.96 (p; NS. The agreement between mAHI and aAHI to AHI≥30 was 94%, with a Kappa coefficient of 0.83 (p<0.001 and a CCI of 0.83. The AUC-ROC, sensitivity, and specificity were 0.99 (CI 95%: 0.98-0.99, p<0.001, 86% (CI 95%: 78.7–91.4, and 97% (CI 95%: 96–98.3, respectively. Conclusions. We observed good agreement between automatic scoring and sequential manual scoring to identify subjects with AHI≥30 eV/h.

  17. Phytotherapy of Acute Respiratory Viral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Ershova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays phytotherapy is increasingly being implemented into medical practice, especially for the prevention and treatment of many diseases. Acute respiratory viral infections are most common in childhood and in adults. Acute rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, nasopharyngitis and acute laryngitis refer to diseases of the upper respiratory tract. The main reason for respiratory diseases in recurrent respiratory infection child is disorders of mucociliary and immune protection. The therapeutic value of medicinal plants is determined by their biologically active substances. The method of application of phytotherpy is an integral part of traditional medicine. Herbal medicine can be used at home and does not require special equipment. The main indications for the herbal medicine use in pediatrics are the initial stage of the disease as a primary method of treatment due to mild and low toxicity; as a supporting treatment for enhancing the protective forces of the child’s body during the disease deterioration. During the recovery period herbal medicine again occupies a leading position, especially in case of chronic diseases because it can be used for a long time and is well combined with synthetic drugs. The terms of appointment of herbs for children: prescription of medicinal plants for children must be individual according to indications, taking into account the child’s age; it is recommended to take into account the form and nature of the course of the main disease and comorbidities as well; at the initial stage of the treatment it is better to use some medicinal plants or species consisting of 2–3 plants and in the future a more complex composition; therapy with medicinal plants requires a long period to be used use, especially in chronic diseases; in the treatment of chronic diseases a good effect preventive courses of herbal medicine was revealed, which are appointed during seasonal exacerbations; in case of intolerance

  18. Respiratory processes in non-photosynthetic plastids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renato, Marta; Boronat, Albert; Azcón-Bieto, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Chlororespiration is a respiratory process located in chloroplast thylakoids which consists in an electron transport chain from NAD(P)H to oxygen. This respiratory chain involves the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex, the plastoquinone pool and the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX), and it probably acts as a safety valve to prevent the over-reduction of the photosynthetic machinery in stress conditions. The existence of a similar respiratory activity in non-photosynthetic plastids has been less studied. Recently, it has been reported that tomato fruit chromoplasts present an oxygen consumption activity linked to ATP synthesis. Etioplasts and amyloplasts contain several electron carriers and some subunits of the ATP synthase, so they could harbor a similar respiratory process. This review provides an update on the study about respiratory processes in chromoplasts, identifying the major gaps that need to be addressed in future research. It also reviews the proteomic data of etioplasts and amyloplasts, which suggest the presence of a respiratory electron transport chain in these plastids. PMID:26236317

  19. Respiratory processes in non-photosynthetic plastids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eRenato

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlororespiration is a respiratory process located in chloroplast thylakoids which consists in an electron transport chain from NAD(PH to oxygen. This respiratory chain involves the NAD(PH dehydrogenase complex, the plastoquinone pool and the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX, and it probably acts as a safety valve to prevent the over-reduction of the photosynthetic machinery in stress conditions. The existence of a similar respiratory activity in non-photosynthetic plastids has been less studied. Recently, it has been reported that tomato fruit chromoplasts present an oxygen consumption activity linked to ATP synthesis. Etioplasts and amyloplasts contain several electron carriers and some subunits of the ATP synthase, so they could harbor a similar respiratory process. This review provides an update on the study about respiratory processes in chromoplasts, identifying the major gaps that need to be addressed in future research. It also reviews the proteomic data of etioplasts and amyloplasts, which suggest the presence of a respiratory electron transport chain in these plastids.

  20. Respiratory medicine of reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Juergen

    2011-05-01

    Noninfectious and infectious causes have been implicated in the development of respiratory tract disease in reptiles. Treatment modalities in reptiles have to account for species differences in response to therapeutic agents as well as interpretation of diagnostic findings. Data on effective drugs and dosages for the treatment of respiratory diseases are often lacking in reptiles. Recently, advances have been made on the application of advanced imaging modalities, especially computed tomography for the diagnosis and treatment monitoring of reptiles. This article describes common infectious and noninfectious causes of respiratory disease in reptiles, including diagnostic and therapeutic regimen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bidirectional Cardio-Respiratory Interactions in Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola N. Radovanović

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated cardio-respiratory coupling in patients with heart failure by quantification of bidirectional interactions between cardiac (RR intervals and respiratory signals with complementary measures of time series analysis. Heart failure patients were divided into three groups of twenty, age and gender matched, subjects: with sinus rhythm (HF-Sin, with sinus rhythm and ventricular extrasystoles (HF-VES, and with permanent atrial fibrillation (HF-AF. We included patients with indication for implantation of implantable cardioverter defibrillator or cardiac resynchronization therapy device. ECG and respiratory signals were simultaneously acquired during 20 min in supine position at spontaneous breathing frequency in 20 healthy control subjects and in patients before device implantation. We used coherence, Granger causality and cross-sample entropy analysis as complementary measures of bidirectional interactions between RR intervals and respiratory rhythm. In heart failure patients with arrhythmias (HF-VES and HF-AF there is no coherence between signals (p < 0.01, while in HF-Sin it is reduced (p < 0.05, compared with control subjects. In all heart failure groups causality between signals is diminished, but with significantly stronger causality of RR signal in respiratory signal in HF-VES. Cross-sample entropy analysis revealed the strongest synchrony between respiratory and RR signal in HF-VES group. Beside respiratory sinus arrhythmia there is another type of cardio-respiratory interaction based on the synchrony between cardiac and respiratory rhythm. Both of them are altered in heart failure patients. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is reduced in HF-Sin patients and vanished in heart failure patients with arrhythmias. Contrary, in HF-Sin and HF-VES groups, synchrony increased, probably as consequence of some dominant neural compensatory mechanisms. The coupling of cardiac and respiratory rhythm in heart failure patients varies depending on the

  2. Bidirectional Cardio-Respiratory Interactions in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanović, Nikola N; Pavlović, Siniša U; Milašinović, Goran; Kirćanski, Bratislav; Platiša, Mirjana M

    2018-01-01

    We investigated cardio-respiratory coupling in patients with heart failure by quantification of bidirectional interactions between cardiac (RR intervals) and respiratory signals with complementary measures of time series analysis. Heart failure patients were divided into three groups of twenty, age and gender matched, subjects: with sinus rhythm (HF-Sin), with sinus rhythm and ventricular extrasystoles (HF-VES), and with permanent atrial fibrillation (HF-AF). We included patients with indication for implantation of implantable cardioverter defibrillator or cardiac resynchronization therapy device. ECG and respiratory signals were simultaneously acquired during 20 min in supine position at spontaneous breathing frequency in 20 healthy control subjects and in patients before device implantation. We used coherence, Granger causality and cross-sample entropy analysis as complementary measures of bidirectional interactions between RR intervals and respiratory rhythm. In heart failure patients with arrhythmias (HF-VES and HF-AF) there is no coherence between signals ( p respiratory signal in HF-VES. Cross-sample entropy analysis revealed the strongest synchrony between respiratory and RR signal in HF-VES group. Beside respiratory sinus arrhythmia there is another type of cardio-respiratory interaction based on the synchrony between cardiac and respiratory rhythm. Both of them are altered in heart failure patients. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is reduced in HF-Sin patients and vanished in heart failure patients with arrhythmias. Contrary, in HF-Sin and HF-VES groups, synchrony increased, probably as consequence of some dominant neural compensatory mechanisms. The coupling of cardiac and respiratory rhythm in heart failure patients varies depending on the presence of atrial/ventricular arrhythmias and it could be revealed by complementary methods of time series analysis.

  3. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-04

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.  Created: 2/4/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases (DVD).   Date Released: 2/13/2013.

  4. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Zammit, Christopher; Liddicoat, Helen; Moonsie, Ian; Makker, Himender

    2010-01-01

    Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ produ...

  5. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Confalonieri, Marco; Salton, Francesco; Fabiano, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Since its first description, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been acknowledged to be a major clinical problem in respiratory medicine. From July 2015 to July 2016 almost 300 indexed articles were published on ARDS. This review summarises only eight of them as an arbitrary overview of clinical relevance: definition and epidemiology, risk factors, prevention and treatment. A strict application of definition criteria is crucial, but the diverse resource-setting scenarios foste...

  6. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Dudas, Robert A.; Karron, Ruth A.

    1998-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of viral lower respiratory tract illness (LRI) in infants and children worldwide and causes significant LRI in the elderly and in immunocompromised patients. The goal of RSV vaccination is to prevent serious RSV-associated LRI. There are several obstacles to the development of successful RSV vaccines, including the need to immunize very young infants, who may respond inadequately to vaccination; the existence of two antigenically d...

  7. Managing respiratory problems in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, James H; Ansley, Les; Robson-Ansley, Paula; Parsons, Jonathan P

    2012-08-01

    Respiratory problems are common in athletes of all abilities and can significantly impact upon their health and performance. In this article, we provide an overview of respiratory physiology in athletes. We also discuss the assessment and management of common clinical respiratory conditions as they pertain to athletes, including airways disease, respiratory tract infection and pneumothorax. We focus on providing a pragmatic approach and highlight important caveats for the physician treating respiratory conditions in this highly specific population.

  8. New ICRP human respiratory tract model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The new ICRP dosimetric model for the human respiratory tract is based on the premise that the large differences in radiation sensitivity of respiratory tract tissues, and the wide range of doses they receive argue for calculating specific tissue doses rather than average lung doses. The model is also directly applicable to the worldwide population of both workers and the public. The requirement to describe intake, and deposition, clearance and dosimetry in each respiratory tract region, for a wide range of subjects at various levels of exercise necessarily means that the model is more complex than that of ICRP Publication 30. The widespread use of powerful personal computers, and the availability of user-friendly software to implement the model, however, will make it widely and readily accessible when the report is published. (Author)

  9. 42 CFR 84.1141 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for respiratory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mist respirators designed for respiratory protection against fumes of various metals having an air... HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist....1141 Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for respiratory...

  10. Evaluation of Respiratory Muscles Activity by means of Cross Mutual Information Function at Different Levels of Ventilatory Effort

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso López, Joan Francesc; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Ángel; Hoyer, Dirk; Bruce, Eugene N.; Zbigniew L., Topor

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of respiratory muscles activity is an effective technique for the study of pulmonary diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Respiratory diseases, especially those associated with changes in the mechanical properties of the respiratory apparatus, are often associated with disruptions of the normally highly coordinated contractions of respiratory muscles. Due to the complexity of the respiratory control, the assessment of OSAS related dysfunctions by linear ...

  11. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Zammit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.Keywords: obesity, lung function, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, anesthesia

  12. Respiratory manifestations of hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Jesper Roed; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism has been associated with increased pulmonary morbidity and overall mortality. We conducted a systematic review to identify the prevalence and underlying mechanisms of respiratory problems among patients with thyroid insufficiency. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE databases were...... searched for relevant literature from January 1950 through January 2015 with study eligibility criteria: English-language publications; Adult subclinical or overt hypothyroid patients; Intervention, observational or retrospective studies; and respiratory manifestations. We followed the PRISMA statement...... and used the Cochrane's risk of bias tool. RESULTS: A total of 1699 papers were screened by two independent authors for relevant titles. Of 109 relevant abstracts, 28 papers underwent full text analyses, of which 22 were included in the review. We identified possible mechanisms explaining respiratory...

  13. Respiratory care manpower issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Paul; Drumheller, Lois; Carlow, John J

    2006-03-01

    Although respiratory care is a relatively new profession, its practitioners are deeply involved in providing patient care in the critical care. In preparation for writing this article, we sought to explore the respiratory therapy manpower needs and activities designed to fulfill those needs in critical care practice. We began by delineating the historical development of respiratory care as a profession, the development of its education, and the professional credentialing system. We then conducted several literature reviews with few articles generated. We requested and received data from the American Association for Respiratory Care (AARC), The National Board for Respiratory Care (NBRC), and the Committee on Accreditation of Respiratory Care education (CoARC) relative to their membership, number of credentialed individuals, and educational program student and graduate data for 2000 through 2004. We then conducted two electronic surveys. Survey 1 was a six-item survey that examined the use of mandatory overtime in respiratory care departments. We used a convenience sample of 30 hospitals stratified by size (or=500 beds). Survey 2 was a five-item instrument distributed by blast E-mail to the Society of Critical Care Medicine's Respiratory Care Section members and members of the RC_World list serve. This survey elicited 51 usable and non-duplicative responses from geographically and size-varied institutions. We analyzed these data in several ways from distribution analysis to one-way analysis of variance procedure and appropriate post hoc analysis techniques. Where appropriate, a matched-pairs analysis was performed and these were compared across the variables intensive care unit (ICU) beds per actual number of respiratory care practitioners (RCPs) and ICU beds per preferred number of RCPs. The data gathered from the professional organizations indicated a relatively stable attrition rate (35.2%+/-1.7-3.1%), even in the face of varying enrollments (6,231 in 2004 vs. 4

  14. Wearable technology: role in respiratory health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliverti, Andrea

    2017-06-01

    In the future, diagnostic devices will be able to monitor a patient's physiological or biochemical parameters continuously, under natural physiological conditions and in any environment through wearable biomedical sensors. Together with apps that capture and interpret data, and integrated enterprise and cloud data repositories, the networks of wearable devices and body area networks will constitute the healthcare's Internet of Things. In this review, four main areas of interest for respiratory healthcare are described: pulse oximetry, pulmonary ventilation, activity tracking and air quality assessment. Although several issues still need to be solved, smart wearable technologies will provide unique opportunities for the future or personalised respiratory medicine.

  15. Direct Application of the INNO-LiPA Rif.TB Line-Probe Assay for Rapid Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strains and Detection of Rifampin Resistance in 360 Smear-Positive Respiratory Specimens from an Area of High Incidence of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveiros, Miguel; Leandro, Clara; Rodrigues, Liliana; Almeida, Josefina; Bettencourt, Rosário; Couto, Isabel; Carrilho, Lurdes; Diogo, José; Fonseca, Ana; Lito, Luís; Lopes, João; Pacheco, Teresa; Pessanha, Mariana; Quirim, Judite; Sancho, Luísa; Salfinger, Max; Amaral, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    The INNO-LiPA Rif.TB assay for the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains and the detection of rifampin (RIF) resistance has been evaluated with 360 smear-positive respiratory specimens from an area of high incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The sensitivity when compared to conventional identification/culture methods was 82.2%, and the specificity was 66.7%; the sensitivity and specificity were 100.0% and 96.9%, respectively, for the detection of RIF resistance. This assay has the potential to provide rapid information that is essential for the effective management of MDR-TB. PMID:16145166

  16. A versatile hydraulically operated respiratory servo system for ventilation and lung function testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M; Slama, H

    1983-09-01

    A description is given of the design and performance of a microcomputer-controlled respiratory servo system that incorporates the characteristics of a mechanical ventilator and also allows the performance of a multitude of test procedures required for assessment of pulmonary function in paralyzed animals. The device consists of a hydraulically operated cylinder-piston assembly and solenoid valves that direct inspiratory and expiratory gas flow and also enable switching to different test gas sources. The system operates as a volume-flow-preset ventilator but may be switched to other operational cycling modes. Gas flow rates may be constant or variable. The system operates as an assister-controller and, combined with a gas analyzer, can function as a "demand" ventilator allowing for set-point control of end-tidal PCO2 and PO2. Complex breathing maneuvers for a variety of single- and multiple-breath lung function tests are automatically performed. Because of the flexibility in selection and timing of respiratory parameters, the system is particularly suitable for respiratory gas studies.

  17. Adult respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, J.; Jespersen, J.; Skjoedt, T.

    1986-01-01

    Our present-day knowledge concerning the clinico-chemical and radiological findings in adult respiratory distress syndrome are described. Three typical case histories have been selected to illustrate this condition; they were due to multiple trauma or sepsis. It is stressed that radiology is in a key position for making the diagnosis and for observing the course of the illness. (orig) [de

  18. European Respiratory Society statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Dirksen, Asger; Ferrarotti, Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    lung disease. A large proportion of individuals affected remain undiagnosed and therefore without access to appropriate care and treatment.The most recent international statement on AATD was published by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society in 2003. Since then there has...

  19. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.

  20. Respiratory problems in foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, J

    1985-04-01

    Despite major advances in our knowledge and ability to treat respiratory diseases in neonatal foals, neonatal respiratory medicine is still in its infancy. It is hoped that this article may serve as a guideline for diagnosis and treatment. Specific antibiotic regimens and emergency procedures are covered in other articles in this symposium. Because management factors play a critical role in the pathogenesis of respiratory disease, education of clients as to their importance would help both prophylactically and therapeutically. The necessity of very careful monitoring of neonates, which is critical to early detection of disease, should be stressed. As respiratory diseases can be fulminant and rapidly fatal, it is imperative not to delay diagnosis and therapy. Thorough examination and implementation of appropriate diagnostic techniques, as well as prompt early referral to a more sophisticated facility when indicated, would prevent many deaths. Although sophisticated support systems are vital for survival of some of these foals, good basic intensive nursing care combined with selection of appropriate drug therapy very early in the course of the disease is all that many foals require and can significantly improve survival rates.

  1. Respiratory Symptoms in Firefighters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greven, Frans E.; Rooyackers, Jos M.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Heederik, Dick J.

    Background The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with respiratory symptoms in common firefighters in the Netherlands. Methods A total of 1,330 firefighters from the municipal fire brigades of three provinces of the Netherlands were included in the

  2. Textbook of respiratory medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.F.; Nadel, J.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents a clinical reference of respiratory medicine. It also details basic science aspects of pulmonary physiology and describes recently developed, sophisticated diagnostic tools and therapeutic methods. It also covers anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, and pathology; microbiologic, radiologic, nuclear medicine, and biopsy methods for diagnosis

  3. Complex sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Juan Wang,1,* Yan Wang,1,* Jing Feng,1,2 Bao-yuan Chen,1 Jie Cao1 1Respiratory Department of Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA *The first two authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Complex sleep apnea syndrome (CompSAS is a distinct form of sleep-disordered breathing characterized as central sleep apnea (CSA, and presents in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA patients during initial treatment with a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP device. The mechanisms of why CompSAS occurs are not well understood, though we have a high loop gain theory that may help to explain it. It is still controversial regarding the prevalence and the clinical significance of CompSAS. Patients with CompSAS have clinical features similar to OSA, but they do exhibit breathing patterns like CSA. In most CompSAS cases, CSA events during initial CPAP titration are transient and they may disappear after continued CPAP use for 4–8 weeks or even longer. However, the poor initial experience of CompSAS patients with CPAP may not be avoided, and nonadherence with continued therapy may often result. Treatment options like adaptive servo-ventilation are available now that may rapidly resolve the disorder and relieve the symptoms of this disease with the potential of increasing early adherence to therapy. But these approaches are associated with more expensive and complicated devices. In this review, the definition, potential plausible mechanisms, clinical characteristics, and treatment approaches of CompSAS will be summarized. Keywords: complex sleep apnea syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea, central sleep apnea, apnea threshold, continuous positive airway pressure, adaptive servo-ventilation

  4. ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also known as What Is ARDS, or acute respiratory distress syndrome, is a lung condition that leads ... treat ARDS. Other Names Acute lung injury Adult respiratory distress syndrome Increased-permeability pulmonary edema Noncardiac pulmonary ...

  5. Respiratory gating in cardiac PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Martin Lyngby; Rasmussen, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory motion due to breathing during cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) results in spatial blurring and erroneous tracer quantification. Respiratory gating might represent a solution by dividing the PET coincidence dataset into smaller respiratory phase subsets. The aim...... of our study was to compare the resulting imaging quality by the use of a time-based respiratory gating system in two groups administered either adenosine or dipyridamole as the pharmacological stress agent. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were randomized to adenosine or dipyridamole cardiac...... stress (82)RB-PET. Respiratory rates and depths were measured by a respiratory gating system in addition to registering actual respiratory rates. Patients undergoing adenosine stress showed a decrease in measured respiratory rate from initial to later scan phase measurements [12.4 (±5.7) vs 5.6 (±4...

  6. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Novel coronavirus; nCoV ... for Disease Control and Prevention website. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS): Frequently asked questions and answers. www. ...

  7. Acute respiratory infections at children

    OpenAIRE

    Delyagin, V.

    2009-01-01

    The common signs of virus respiratory diseases, role of pathological inclination to infections, value of immunodeficiency are presented at lecture. Features of most often meeting respiratory virus infections are given.

  8. Climate change and respiratory disease: European Respiratory Society position statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, J G; Forsberg, B; Annesi-Maesano, I; Dey, R; Ebi, K L; Helms, P J; Medina-Ramón, M; Windt, M; Forastiere, F

    2009-08-01

    Climate change will affect individuals with pre-existing respiratory disease, but the extent of the effect remains unclear. The present position statement was developed on behalf of the European Respiratory Society in order to identify areas of concern arising from climate change for individuals with respiratory disease, healthcare workers in the respiratory sector and policy makers. The statement was developed following a 2-day workshop held in Leuven (Belgium) in March 2008. Key areas of concern for the respiratory community arising from climate change are discussed and recommendations made to address gaps in knowledge. The most important recommendation was the development of more accurate predictive models for predicting the impact of climate change on respiratory health. Respiratory healthcare workers also have an advocatory role in persuading governments and the European Union to maintain awareness and appropriate actions with respect to climate change, and these areas are also discussed in the position statement.

  9. Evaluation of respiratory pattern during respiratory-gated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobashi, Suguru; Mori, Shinichiro

    2014-01-01

    The respiratory cycle is not strictly regular, and generally varies in amplitude and period from one cycle to the next. We evaluated the characteristics of respiratory patterns acquired during respiratory gating treatment in more than 300 patients. A total 331 patients treated with respiratory-gated carbon-ion beam therapy were selected from a group of patients with thoracic and abdominal conditions. Respiratory data were acquired for a total of 3,171 fractions using an external respiratory sensing monitor and evaluated for respiratory cycle, duty cycle, magnitude of baseline drift, and intrafractional/interfractional peak inhalation/exhalation positional variation. Results for the treated anatomical sites and patient positioning were compared. Mean ± SD respiratory cycle averaged over all patients was 4.1 ± 1.3 s. Mean ± SD duty cycle averaged over all patients was 36.5 ± 7.3 %. Two types of baseline drift were seen, the first decremental and the second incremental. For respiratory peak variation, the mean intrafractional variation in peak-inhalation position relative to the amplitude in the first respiratory cycle (15.5 ± 9.3 %) was significantly larger than that in exhalation (7.5 ± 4.6 %). Interfractional variations in inhalation (17.2 ± 18.5 %) were also significantly greater than those in exhalation (9.4 ± 10.0 %). Statistically significant differences were observed between patients in the supine position and those in the prone position in mean respiratory cycle, duty cycle, and intra-/interfractional variations. We quantified the characteristics of the respiratory curve based on a large number of respiratory data obtained during treatment. These results might be useful in improving the accuracy of respiratory-gated treatment.

  10. Respiratory guiding system for respiratory motion management in respiratory gated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seong Hee; Kim, Dong Su; Kim, Tae Ho; Suh, Tae Suk

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory guiding systems have been shown to improve the respiratory regularity. This, in turn, improves the efficiency of synchronized moving aperture radiation therapy, and it reduces the artifacts caused by irregular breathing in imaging techniques such as four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT), which is used for treatment planning in RGRT. We have previously developed a respiratory guiding system that incorporates an individual-specific guiding waveform, which is easy to follow for each volunteer, to improve the respiratory regularity. The present study evaluates the application of this system to improve the respiratory regularity for respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT). In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of an in-house-developed respiratory guiding system incorporating an individual specific guiding waveform to improve the respiratory regularity for RGRT. Most volunteers showed significantly less residual motion at each phase during guided breathing owing to the improvement in respiratory regularity. Therefore, the respiratory guiding system can clearly reduce the residual, or respiratory, motion in each phase. From the result, the CTV and the PTV margins during RGRT can be reduced by using the respiratory guiding system, which reduces the residual motions, thus improving the accuracy of RGRT

  11. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneyber, Martin C. J.; van Heerde, Marc; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Plotz, Frans B.; Markhors, Dick G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of

  12. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneijber, M.C.J.; van Heerde, M.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Plotz, F.; Markhorst, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of

  13. Divergent mitochondrial respiratory chains in phototrophic relatives of apicomplexan parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Flegontov, Pavel

    2015-02-06

    Four respiratory complexes and ATP-synthase represent central functional units in mitochondria. In some mitochondria and derived anaerobic organelles, a few or all of these respiratory complexes have been lost during evolution. We show that the respiratory chain of Chromera velia, a phototrophic relative of parasitic apicomplexans, lacks complexes I and III, making it a uniquely reduced aerobic mitochondrion. In Chromera, putative lactate:cytochrome c oxidoreductases are predicted to transfer electrons from lactate to cytochrome c, rendering complex III unnecessary. The mitochondrial genome of Chromera has the smallest known protein-coding capacity of all mitochondria, encoding just cox1 and cox3 on heterogeneous linear molecules. In contrast, another photosynthetic relative of apicomplexans, Vitrella brassicaformis, retains the same set of genes as apicomplexans and dinoflagellates (cox1, cox3, and cob). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. Divergent mitochondrial respiratory chains in phototrophic relatives of apicomplexan parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Flegontov, Pavel; Michá lek, Jan; Janouškovec, Jan; Lai, De Hua; Jirků, Milan; Hajdušková , Eva; Tomčala, Aleš; Otto, Thomas D.; Keeling, Patrick J.; Pain, Arnab; Oborní k, Miroslav; Lukeš, J.

    2015-01-01

    Four respiratory complexes and ATP-synthase represent central functional units in mitochondria. In some mitochondria and derived anaerobic organelles, a few or all of these respiratory complexes have been lost during evolution. We show that the respiratory chain of Chromera velia, a phototrophic relative of parasitic apicomplexans, lacks complexes I and III, making it a uniquely reduced aerobic mitochondrion. In Chromera, putative lactate:cytochrome c oxidoreductases are predicted to transfer electrons from lactate to cytochrome c, rendering complex III unnecessary. The mitochondrial genome of Chromera has the smallest known protein-coding capacity of all mitochondria, encoding just cox1 and cox3 on heterogeneous linear molecules. In contrast, another photosynthetic relative of apicomplexans, Vitrella brassicaformis, retains the same set of genes as apicomplexans and dinoflagellates (cox1, cox3, and cob). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  15. New and emerging pathogens in canine infectious respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestnall, S L; Mitchell, J A; Walker, C A; Erles, K; Brownlie, J

    2014-03-01

    Canine infectious respiratory disease is a common, worldwide disease syndrome of multifactorial etiology. This review presents a summary of 6 viruses (canine respiratory coronavirus, canine pneumovirus, canine influenza virus, pantropic canine coronavirus, canine bocavirus, and canine hepacivirus) and 2 bacteria (Streptococcus zooepidemicus and Mycoplasma cynos) that have been associated with respiratory disease in dogs. For some pathogens a causal role is clear, whereas for others, ongoing research aims to uncover their pathogenesis and contribution to this complex syndrome. Etiology, clinical disease, pathogenesis, and epidemiology are described for each pathogen, with an emphasis on recent discoveries or novel findings.

  16. Megacomplex organization of the oxidative phosphorylation system by structural analysis of respiratory supercomplexes from potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bultema, Jelle B.; Braun, Hans-Peter; Boekema, Egbert J.; Kouřil, Roman

    The individual protein complexes of the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS complexes 1 to V) specifically interact and form defined supramolecular structures, the so-called "respiratory supercomplexes". Some supercomplexes appear to associate into larger structures, or megacomplexes, such as a

  17. Real-time tumor motion estimation using respiratory surrogate via memory-based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruijiang; Lewis, John H.; Berbeco, Ross I.; Xing, Lei

    2012-08-01

    Respiratory tumor motion is a major challenge in radiation therapy for thoracic and abdominal cancers. Effective motion management requires an accurate knowledge of the real-time tumor motion. External respiration monitoring devices (optical, etc) provide a noninvasive, non-ionizing, low-cost and practical approach to obtain the respiratory signal. Due to the highly complex and nonlinear relations between tumor and surrogate motion, its ultimate success hinges on the ability to accurately infer the tumor motion from respiratory surrogates. Given their widespread use in the clinic, such a method is critically needed. We propose to use a powerful memory-based learning method to find the complex relations between tumor motion and respiratory surrogates. The method first stores the training data in memory and then finds relevant data to answer a particular query. Nearby data points are assigned high relevance (or weights) and conversely distant data are assigned low relevance. By fitting relatively simple models to local patches instead of fitting one single global model, it is able to capture highly nonlinear and complex relations between the internal tumor motion and external surrogates accurately. Due to the local nature of weighting functions, the method is inherently robust to outliers in the training data. Moreover, both training and adapting to new data are performed almost instantaneously with memory-based learning, making it suitable for dynamically following variable internal/external relations. We evaluated the method using respiratory motion data from 11 patients. The data set consists of simultaneous measurement of 3D tumor motion and 1D abdominal surface (used as the surrogate signal in this study). There are a total of 171 respiratory traces, with an average peak-to-peak amplitude of ∼15 mm and average duration of ∼115 s per trace. Given only 5 s (roughly one breath) pretreatment training data, the method achieved an average 3D error of 1.5 mm and 95

  18. Real-time tumor motion estimation using respiratory surrogate via memory-based learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ruijiang; Xing Lei; Lewis, John H; Berbeco, Ross I

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory tumor motion is a major challenge in radiation therapy for thoracic and abdominal cancers. Effective motion management requires an accurate knowledge of the real-time tumor motion. External respiration monitoring devices (optical, etc) provide a noninvasive, non-ionizing, low-cost and practical approach to obtain the respiratory signal. Due to the highly complex and nonlinear relations between tumor and surrogate motion, its ultimate success hinges on the ability to accurately infer the tumor motion from respiratory surrogates. Given their widespread use in the clinic, such a method is critically needed. We propose to use a powerful memory-based learning method to find the complex relations between tumor motion and respiratory surrogates. The method first stores the training data in memory and then finds relevant data to answer a particular query. Nearby data points are assigned high relevance (or weights) and conversely distant data are assigned low relevance. By fitting relatively simple models to local patches instead of fitting one single global model, it is able to capture highly nonlinear and complex relations between the internal tumor motion and external surrogates accurately. Due to the local nature of weighting functions, the method is inherently robust to outliers in the training data. Moreover, both training and adapting to new data are performed almost instantaneously with memory-based learning, making it suitable for dynamically following variable internal/external relations. We evaluated the method using respiratory motion data from 11 patients. The data set consists of simultaneous measurement of 3D tumor motion and 1D abdominal surface (used as the surrogate signal in this study). There are a total of 171 respiratory traces, with an average peak-to-peak amplitude of ∼15 mm and average duration of ∼115 s per trace. Given only 5 s (roughly one breath) pretreatment training data, the method achieved an average 3D error of 1.5 mm and 95

  19. Luminescent zinc(ii) and copper(i) complexes for high-performance solution-processed monochromic and white organic light-emitting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gang; So, Gary Kwok-Ming; To, Wai-Pong; Chen, Yong; Kwok, Chi-Chung; Ma, Chensheng; Guan, Xiangguo; Chang, Xiaoyong; Kwok, Wai-Ming; Che, Chi-Ming

    2015-08-01

    The synthesis and spectroscopic properties of luminescent tetranuclear zinc(ii) complexes of substituted 7-azaindoles and a series of luminescent copper(i) complexes containing 7,8-bis(diphenylphosphino)-7,8-dicarba- nido -undecaborate ligand are described. These complexes are stable towards air and moisture. Thin film samples of the luminescent copper(i) complexes in 2,6-dicarbazolo-1,5-pyridine and zinc(ii) complexes in poly(methyl methacrylate) showed emission quantum yields of up to 0.60 (for Cu-3 ) and 0.96 (for Zn-1 ), respectively. Their photophysical properties were examined by ultrafast time-resolved emission spectroscopy, temperature dependent emission lifetime measurements and density functional theory calculations. Monochromic blue and orange solution-processed OLEDs with these Zn(ii) and Cu(i) complexes as light-emitting dopants have been fabricated, respectively. Maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 5.55% and Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.16, 0.19) were accomplished with the optimized Zn-1 -OLED while these values were, respectively 15.64% and (0.48, 0.51) for the optimized Cu-3 -OLED. Solution-processed white OLEDs having maximum EQE of 6.88%, CIE coordinates of (0.42, 0.44), and colour rendering index of 81 were fabricated by using these luminescent Zn(ii) and Cu(i) complexes as blue and orange light-emitting dopant materials, respectively.

  20. Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

  1. Nanotechnology in respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlor, Albert Joachim; Nguyen, Juliane; Bals, Robert; Dinh, Quoc Thai

    2015-05-29

    Like two sides of the same coin, nanotechnology can be both boon and bane for respiratory medicine. Nanomaterials open new ways in diagnostics and treatment of lung diseases. Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems can help against diseases such as lung cancer, tuberculosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, nanoparticles can be loaded with DNA and act as vectors for gene therapy in diseases like cystic fibrosis. Even lung diagnostics with computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profits from new nanoparticle based contrast agents. However, the risks of nanotechnology also have to be taken into consideration as engineered nanomaterials resemble natural fine dusts and fibers, which are known to be harmful for the respiratory system in many cases. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles in the respiratory tract can influence the immune system, can create oxidative stress and even cause genotoxicity. Another important aspect to assess the safety of nanotechnology based products is the absorption of nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that the amount of pulmonary nanoparticle uptake not only depends on physical and chemical nanoparticle characteristics but also on the health status of the organism. The huge diversity in nanotechnology could revolutionize medicine but makes safety assessment a challenging task.

  2. Adult respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.H.; Colvin, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Due to improved emergency resuscitation procedures, and with advancing medical technology in the field of critical care, an increasing number of patients survive the acute phase of shock and catastrophic trauma. Patients who previously died of massive sepsis, hypovolemic or hypotensive shock, multiple fractures, aspiration, toxic inhalation, and massive embolism are now surviving long enough to develop previously unsuspected and unrecognized secondary effects. With increasing frequency, clinicians are recognizing the clinical and radiographic manifestations of pathologic changes in the lungs occurring secondary to various types of massive insult. This paper gives a list of diseases that have been shown to precipitate or predispose to diffuse lung damage. Various terms have been used to describe the lung damage and respiratory failure secondary to these conditions. The term adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is applied to several cases of sudden respiratory failure in patients with previously healthy lungs following various types of trauma or shock. Numerous investigations and experiments have studied the pathologic changes in ARDS, and, while there is still no clear indication of why it develops, there is now some correlation of the sequential pathologic developments with the clinical and radiographic changes

  3. Respiratory risks in broiler production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M do CB de Alencar

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many situations that involve health risks to the Brazilian rural worker, and animal production is just one of them. Inhalation of organic dust, which has many microorganisms, leads in general to respiratory allergic reactions in some individuals, "asthma-like syndrome", and mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, that is a complex of nasal, eye, and throat complaints. Furthermore, workers might have farmer's hypersensitivity pneumonia, that is a respiratory health risk along the years. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential pulmonary health risks in poultry production workers in the region of Curitiba, PR, Brazil. Interviews using a pre-elaborated questionnaire with 40 questions were made with 37 broiler production workers, which were submitted to a pulmonary function test. Results of restrictive function with lower FEV1 (the maximum respiratory potential, the forced expiratory volume in the first second of exhalation and FVC (forced vital capacity represented 24.32% of the total of workers, and severe obstruction represented 2.70%. Other symptoms were found in 67.57% of the workers as well. The results showed that those who work more than 4 years and within more than one poultry house, exceeding 5 hours per day of work, presented higher pulmonary health risks. It is concluded that the activities within broiler houses may induce allergic respiratory reaction in workers. The use of IPE (individual protection equipment besides special attention to the air quality inside the housing may be advised in a preventive way.

  4. Haemodynamic and respiratory effects of an abdominal compression binder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, M.H.; Bulow, J.; Simonsen, L.

    2008-01-01

    In order to elucidate the circulatory and respiratory effects of a newly developed abdominal compression binder 25 healthy, normal weight subjects were studied. In supine position the central haemodynamics were measured and estimated with a Finapress device. Lower extremity venous haemodynamics...

  5. Effective deployment of technology-supported management of chronic respiratory conditions: a call for stakeholder engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Richard W; Dima, Alexandra L; Ryan, Dermot; McIvor, R Andrew; Boycott, Kay; Chisholm, Alison; Price, David; Blakey, John D

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare systems are under increasing strain, predominantly due to chronic non-communicable diseases. Connected healthcare technologies are becoming ever more capable and their components cheaper. These innovations could facilitate both self-management and more efficient use of healthcare resources for common respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, newer technologies can only facilitate major changes in practice, and cannot accomplish them in isolation. There are now large numbers of devices and software offerings available. However, the potential of such technologies is not being realised due to limited engagement with the public, clinicians and providers, and a relative paucity of evidence describing elements of best practice in this complex and evolving environment. Indeed, there are clear examples of wasted resources and potential harm. We therefore call on interested parties to work collaboratively to begin to realize the potential benefits and reduce the risks of connected technologies through change in practice. We highlight key areas where such partnership can facilitate the effective and safe use of technology in chronic respiratory care: developing data standards and fostering inter-operability, making collaborative testing facilities available at scale for small to medium enterprises, developing and promoting new adaptive trial designs, developing robust health economic models, agreeing expedited approval pathways, and detailed planning of dissemination to use. The increasing capability and availability of connected technologies in respiratory care offers great opportunities and significant risks. A co-ordinated collaborative approach is needed to realize these benefits at scale. Using newer technologies to revolutionize practice relies on widespread engagement and cannot be delivered by a minority of interested specialists. Failure to engage risks a costly and inefficient chapter in respiratory care.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of pure and Li⁺ activated Alq₃ complexes for green and blue organic light emitting diodes and display devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, S A; Borghate, S V; Kalyani, N Thejo; Dhoble, S J

    2014-08-01

    Pure and Li(+)-doped Alq3 complexes were synthesized by simple precipitation method at room temperature, maintaining the stoichiometric ratio. These complexes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible absorption and Fourier transform infrared and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the crystalline nature of the synthesized complexes, while Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirm the molecular structure, the completion of quinoline ring formation and presence of quinoline structure in the metal complex. Ultraviolet-visible and PL spectra revealed that Li(+) activated Alq3 complexes exhibit the highest intensity in comparison to pure Alq3 phosphor. Thus, Li(+) enhances PL emission intensity when doped into Alq3 phosphor. The excitation spectra lie in the range of 383-456 nm. All the synthesized complexes other than Liq give green emission, while Liq gives blue emission with enhanced intensity. Thus, he synthesized phosphors are the best suitable candidates for green- and blue-emitting organic light emitting diode, PL liquid-crystal display and solid-state lighting applications. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. DEVICE FOR CONTROL OF OXYGEN PARTIAL PRESSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradner, H.; Gordon, H.S.

    1957-12-24

    A device is described that can sense changes in oxygen partial pressure and cause a corresponding mechanical displacement sufficient to actuate meters, valves and similar devices. A piston and cylinder arrangement contains a charge of crystalline metal chelate pellets which have the peculiar property of responding to variations in the oxygen content of the ambient atmosphere by undergoing a change in dimension. A lever system amplifies the relative displacement of the piston in the cylinder, and actuates the controlled valving device. This partial pressure oxygen sensing device is useful in controlled chemical reactions or in respiratory devices such as the oxygen demand meters for high altitude aircraft.

  8. Computational Models and Emergent Properties of Respiratory Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce G.; Rybak, Ilya A.; Smith, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    Computational models of the neural control system for breathing in mammals provide a theoretical and computational framework bringing together experimental data obtained from different animal preparations under various experimental conditions. Many of these models were developed in parallel and iteratively with experimental studies and provided predictions guiding new experiments. This data-driven modeling approach has advanced our understanding of respiratory network architecture and neural mechanisms underlying generation of the respiratory rhythm and pattern, including their functional reorganization under different physiological conditions. Models reviewed here vary in neurobiological details and computational complexity and span multiple spatiotemporal scales of respiratory control mechanisms. Recent models describe interacting populations of respiratory neurons spatially distributed within the Bötzinger and pre-Bötzinger complexes and rostral ventrolateral medulla that contain core circuits of the respiratory central pattern generator (CPG). Network interactions within these circuits along with intrinsic rhythmogenic properties of neurons form a hierarchy of multiple rhythm generation mechanisms. The functional expression of these mechanisms is controlled by input drives from other brainstem components, including the retrotrapezoid nucleus and pons, which regulate the dynamic behavior of the core circuitry. The emerging view is that the brainstem respiratory network has rhythmogenic capabilities at multiple levels of circuit organization. This allows flexible, state-dependent expression of different neural pattern-generation mechanisms under various physiological conditions, enabling a wide repertoire of respiratory behaviors. Some models consider control of the respiratory CPG by pulmonary feedback and network reconfiguration during defensive behaviors such as cough. Future directions in modeling of the respiratory CPG are considered. PMID:23687564

  9. The management of respiratory motion in radiation oncology report of AAPM Task Group 76

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keall, Paul J.; Mageras, Gig S.; Balter, James M.

    2006-01-01

    This document is the report of a task group of the AAPM and has been prepared primarily to advise medical physicists involved in the external-beam radiation therapy of patients with thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic tumors affected by respiratory motion. This report describes the magnitude of respiratory motion, discusses radiotherapy specific problems caused by respiratory motion, explains techniques that explicitly manage respiratory motion during radiotherapy and gives recommendations in the application of these techniques for patient care, including quality assurance (QA) guidelines for these devices and their use with conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy. The technologies covered by this report are motion-encompassing methods, respiratory gated techniques, breath-hold techniques, forced shallow-breathing methods, and respiration-synchronized techniques. The main outcome of this report is a clinical process guide for managing respiratory motion. Included in this guide is the recommendation that tumor motion should be measured (when possible) for each patient for whom respiratory motion is a concern. If target motion is greater than 5 mm, a method of respiratory motion management is available, and if the patient can tolerate the procedure, respiratory motion management technology is appropriate. Respiratory motion management is also appropriate when the procedure will increase normal tissue sparing. Respiratory motion management involves further resources, education and the development of and adherence to QA procedures

  10. An In-defect complex as a possible explanation for high luminous efficacy of InGaN and AlInN based devices

    CERN Document Server

    Kessler, Patrick; Miranda, Sérgio MC; Correia, João Guilherme; Johnston, Karl; Vianden, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    The role of indium in GaN and AlN films is investigated with the method of the perturbed angular correlation (PAC). Using the PAC probe $^{111}$In in addition to indium on substitutional cation sites a large fraction of probes is found in a distinctly different microscopic environment which was attributed to the formation of an indium nitrogen-vacancy (VN) complex. The influence of an electron capture induced after ef fect is ruled out by additional measurements with the PAC probes $^{111m}$Cd and $^{117}$Cd and using GaN with different dopants. It is shown that the VN is not bound to substitutional Cd impurities suggesting that the In-VN complex formation is a particularity of In in GaN and AlN. Finally, a preliminary model is presented to explain the temperature behavior of the electric field gradient, observed in the In-VN complex measured with $^{111}$In.

  11. Respiratory diagnostic possibilities during closed circuit anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkaaik, A P; Erdmann, W

    1990-01-01

    An automatic feed back controlled totally closed circuit system (Physioflex) has been developed for quantitative practice of inhalation anesthesia and ventilation. In the circuit system the gas is moved unidirectionally around by a blower at 70 l/min. In the system four membrane chambers are integrated for ventilation. Besides end-expiratory feed back control of inhalation anesthetics, and inspiratory closed loop control of oxygen, the system offers on-line registration of flow, volume and respiratory pressures as well as a capnogram and oxygen consumption. Alveolar ventilation and static compliance can easily be derived. On-line registration of oxygen consumption has proven to be of value for determination of any impairment of tissue oxygen supply when the oxygen delivery has dropped to critical values. Obstruction of the upper or lower airways are immediately detected and differentiated. Disregulations of metabolism, e.g. in malignant hyperthermia, are seen in a pre-crisis phase (increase of oxygen consumption and of CO2 production), and therapy can be started extremely early and before a disastrous condition has developed. Registration of compliance is only one of the continuously available parameters that guarantee a better and adequate control of lung function (e.g. atalectasis is early detected). The newly developed sophisticated anesthesia device enlarges tremendously the monitoring and respiratory diagnostic possibilities of artificial ventilation, gives new insights in the (patho)physiology and detects disturbances of respiratory parameters and metabolism in an early stage.

  12. Occupational Respiratory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care Working With Your Doctor Drugs, Procedures & Devices Over-the- ...

  13. Submersion and acute respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jang Su

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Submersion patients who are hypothermic on arrival of emergency department (ED are risky to respiratory failure and older, more hypothermic, longer hospital stay in suicidal submersion patients.

  14. Management of Postoperative Respiratory Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Michael S; Berfield, Kathleen S; Abbaszadeh, Ryan V

    2015-11-01

    Despite best efforts, postoperative complications such as postoperative respiratory failure may occur and prompt recognition of the process and management is required. Postoperative respiratory failure, such as postoperative pneumonia, postpneumonectomy pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress-like syndromes, and pulmonary embolism, are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The causes of these complications are multifactorial and depend on preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors, some of which are modifiable. The article identifies some of the risk factors, causes, and treatment strategies for successful management of the patient with postoperative respiratory failure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Respiratory mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostert, J.W. (Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Anesthesiology)

    1983-06-01

    The high degree of technical perfection of the respiratory mass spectrometer has rendered the instrument feasible for routine monitoring of anesthetized patients. It is proposed that the difference between inspired and expired oxygen tension in mm Hg be equated with whole body oxygen consumption in ml/min/M/sup 2/ body-surface area at STPD, by the expedient of multiplying tension-differences by a factor of 2. Years of experience have confirmed the value of promptly recognizing sudden drops in this l/E tension difference below 50 mm Hg indicative of metabolic injury from hypovolemia or respiratory depression. Rises in l/E tension-differences were associated with shivering as well as voluntary muscle activity. Tension differences of less than 25 mm Hg (equated with a whole-body O/sub 2/ consumption of less than 50 ml O/sub 2//min/M/sup 2/) occurred in a patient in the sitting position for posterior fossa exploration without acidosis, hypoxia or hypotension for several hours prior to irreversible cardiac arrest. The value of clinical monitoring by mass spectrometry is especially impressive in open-heart surgery.

  16. The respiratory mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostert, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The high degree of technical perfection of the respiratory mass spectrometer has rendered the instrument feasible for routine monitoring of anesthetized patients. It is proposed that the difference between inspired and expired oxygen tension in mm Hg be equated with whole body oxygen consumption in ml/min/M 2 body-surface area at STPD, by the expedient of multiplying tension-differences by a factor of 2. Years of experience have confirmed the value of promptly recognizing sudden drops in this l/E tension difference below 50 mm Hg indicative of metabolic injury from hypovolemia or respiratory depression. Rises in l/E tension-differences were associated with shivering as well as voluntary muscle activity. Tension differences of less than 25 mm Hg (equated with a whole-body O 2 consumption of less than 50 ml O 2 /min/M 2 ) occurred in a patient in the sitting position for posterior fossa exploration without acidosis, hypoxia or hypotension for several hours prior to irreversible cardiac arrest. The value of clinical monitoring by mass spectrometry is especially impressive in open-heart surgery

  17. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sílvia Valente Barbas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, based on relevant literature articles and the authors' clinical experience, presents a goal-oriented respiratory management for critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS that can help improve clinicians' ability to care for these patients. Early recognition of ARDS modified risk factors and avoidance of aggravating factors during hospital stay such as nonprotective mechanical ventilation, multiple blood products transfusions, positive fluid balance, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and gastric aspiration can help decrease its incidence. An early extensive clinical, laboratory, and imaging evaluation of “at risk patients” allows a correct diagnosis of ARDS, assessment of comorbidities, and calculation of prognostic indices, so that a careful treatment can be planned. Rapid administration of antibiotics and resuscitative measures in case of sepsis and septic shock associated with protective ventilatory strategies and early short-term paralysis associated with differential ventilatory techniques (recruitment maneuvers with adequate positive end-expiratory pressure titration, prone position, and new extracorporeal membrane oxygenation techniques in severe ARDS can help improve its prognosis. Revaluation of ARDS patients on the third day of evolution (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA, biomarkers and response to infection therapy allows changes in the initial treatment plans and can help decrease ARDS mortality.

  18. Respiratory symptoms of megaesophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Di Stefano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Megaesophagus as the end result of achalasia is the consequence of disordered peristalsis and the slow decompensation of the esophageal muscular layer. The main symptoms of achalasia are dysphagia, regurgitation, chest pain and weight loss, but respiratory symptoms, such as coughing, particularly when patients lie in a horizontal position, may also be common due to microaspiration. A 70-year old woman suffered from a nocturnal cough and shortness of breath with stridor. She reported difficulty in swallowing food over the past ten years, but had adapted by eating a semi-liquid diet. Chest X-ray showed right hemithorax patchy opacities projecting from the posterior mediastinum. Chest computed tomography scan showed a marked dilatation of the esophagus with abundant food residues. Endoscopy confirmed the diagnosis of megaesophagus due to esophageal achalasia, excluding other causes of obstruction, such as secondary esophagitis, polyps, leiomyoma or leiomyosarcoma. In the elderly population, swallowing difficulties due to esophageal achalasia are often underestimated and less troublesome than the respiratory symptoms that are caused by microaspiration. The diagnosis of esophageal achalasia, although uncommon, should be considered in patients with nocturnal chronic coughs and shortness of breath with stridor when concomitant swallowing difficulties are present.

  19. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Confalonieri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since its first description, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS has been acknowledged to be a major clinical problem in respiratory medicine. From July 2015 to July 2016 almost 300 indexed articles were published on ARDS. This review summarises only eight of them as an arbitrary overview of clinical relevance: definition and epidemiology, risk factors, prevention and treatment. A strict application of definition criteria is crucial, but the diverse resource-setting scenarios foster geographic variability and contrasting outcome data. A large international multicentre prospective cohort study including 50 countries across five continents reported that ARDS is underdiagnosed, and there is potential for improvement in its management. Furthermore, epidemiological data from low-income countries suggest that a revision of the current definition of ARDS is needed in order to improve its recognition and global clinical outcome. In addition to the well-known risk-factors for ARDS, exposure to high ozone levels and low vitamin D plasma concentrations were found to be predisposing circumstances. Drug-based preventive strategies remain a major challenge, since two recent trials on aspirin and statins failed to reduce the incidence in at-risk patients. A new disease-modifying therapy is awaited: some recent studies promised to improve the prognosis of ARDS, but mortality and disabling complications are still high in survivors in intensive care.

  20. Photovoltaic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Jason A; Keenihan, James R; Gaston, Ryan S; Kauffmann, Keith L; Langmaid, Joseph A; Lopez, Leonardo; Maak, Kevin D; Mills, Michael E; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R

    2017-03-21

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  1. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-06-02

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  2. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-09-01

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device (10) with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly (100) and a body portion (200) joined at an interface region (410) and including an intermediate layer (500), at least one interconnecting structural member (1500), relieving feature (2500), unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  3. An alternative respiratory sounds classification system utilizing artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami J Oweis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Computerized lung sound analysis involves recording lung sound via an electronic device, followed by computer analysis and classification based on specific signal characteristics as non-linearity and nonstationarity caused by air turbulence. An automatic analysis is necessary to avoid dependence on expert skills. Methods: This work revolves around exploiting autocorrelation in the feature extraction stage. All process stages were implemented in MATLAB. The classification process was performed comparatively using both artificial neural networks (ANNs and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS toolboxes. The methods have been applied to 10 different respiratory sounds for classification. Results: The ANN was superior to the ANFIS system and returned superior performance parameters. Its accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity were 98.6%, 100%, and 97.8%, respectively. The obtained parameters showed superiority to many recent approaches. Conclusions: The promising proposed method is an efficient fast tool for the intended purpose as manifested in the performance parameters, specifically, accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. Furthermore, it may be added that utilizing the autocorrelation function in the feature extraction in such applications results in enhanced performance and avoids undesired computation complexities compared to other techniques.

  4. Computational Fluid and Particle Dynamics in the Human Respiratory System

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, Jiyuan; Ahmadi, Goodarz

    2013-01-01

    Traditional research methodologies in the human respiratory system have always been challenging due to their invasive nature. Recent advances in medical imaging and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have accelerated this research. This book compiles and details recent advances in the modelling of the respiratory system for researchers, engineers, scientists, and health practitioners. It breaks down the complexities of this field and provides both students and scientists with an introduction and starting point to the physiology of the respiratory system, fluid dynamics and advanced CFD modeling tools. In addition to a brief introduction to the physics of the respiratory system and an overview of computational methods, the book contains best-practice guidelines for establishing high-quality computational models and simulations. Inspiration for new simulations can be gained through innovative case studies as well as hands-on practice using pre-made computational code. Last but not least, students and researcher...

  5. Respiratory variability preceding and following sighs: a resetter hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlemincx, Elke; Van Diest, Ilse; Lehrer, Paul M; Aubert, André E; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2010-04-01

    Respiratory behavior is characterized by complex variability with structured and random components. Assuming that both a lack of variability and too much randomness represent suboptimal breathing regulation, we hypothesized that sighing acts as a resetter inducing structured variability. Spontaneous breathing was measured in healthy persons (N=42) during a 20min period of quiet sitting using the LifeShirt(®) System. Four blocks of 10 breaths with a 50% window overlap were determined before and after spontaneous sighs. Total respiratory variability of minute ventilation was measured using the coefficient of variation and structured (correlated) variability was quantified using autocorrelation. Towards a sigh, total variability gradually increased without concomittant changes in correlated variability, suggesting that randomness increased. After a sigh, correlated variability increased. No changes in variability were found in comparable epochs without intermediate sighs. We conclude that a sigh resets structured respiratory variability, enhancing information processing in the respiratory system. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Advanced Role of Neutrophils in Common Respiratory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory diseases, always being a threat towards the health of people all over the world, are most tightly associated with immune system. Neutrophils serve as an important component of immune defense barrier linking innate and adaptive immunity. They participate in the clearance of exogenous pathogens and endogenous cell debris and play an essential role in the pathogenesis of many respiratory diseases. However, the pathological mechanism of neutrophils remains complex and obscure. The traditional roles of neutrophils in severe asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD, pneumonia, lung cancer, pulmonary fibrosis, bronchitis, and bronchiolitis had already been reviewed. With the development of scientific research, the involvement of neutrophils in respiratory diseases is being brought to light with emerging data on neutrophil subsets, trafficking, and cell death mechanism (e.g., NETosis, apoptosis in diseases. We reviewed all these recent studies here to provide you with the latest advances about the role of neutrophils in respiratory diseases.

  7. Evaluation of respiratory muscles activity by means of cross mutual information function at different levels of ventilatory effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Joan Francesc; Mañanas, Miguel A; Hoyer, Dirk; Topor, Zbigniew L; Bruce, Eugene N

    2007-09-01

    Analysis of respiratory muscles activity is an effective technique for the study of pulmonary diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Respiratory diseases, especially those associated with changes in the mechanical properties of the respiratory apparatus, are often associated with disruptions of the normally highly coordinated contractions of respiratory muscles. Due to the complexity of the respiratory control, the assessment of OSAS related dysfunctions by linear methods are not sufficient. Therefore, the objective of this study was the detection of diagnostically relevant nonlinear complex respiratory mechanisms. Two aims of this work were: (1) to assess coordination of respiratory muscles contractions through evaluation of interactions between respiratory signals and myographic signals through nonlinear analysis by means of cross mutual information function (CMIF); (2) to differentiate between functioning of respiratory muscles in patients with OSAS and in normal subjects. Electromyographic (EMG) and mechanomyographic (MMG) signals were recorded from three respiratory muscles: genioglossus, sternomastoid and diaphragm. Inspiratory pressure and flow were also acquired. All signals were measured in eight patients with OSAS and eight healthy subjects during an increased respiratory effort while awake. Several variables were defined and calculated from CMIF in order to describe correlation between signals. The results indicate different nonlinear couplings of respiratory muscles in both populations. This effect is progressively more evident at higher levels of respiratory effort.

  8. Chemical functionalization of crystalline silicon surface with complexes of type (M3 (Dpa) 4X2) for the development of electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Zamora, Maria Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    New surfaces on crystalline silicon (100) diamines have been developed. The diamines 4-aminopyridine, 4-aminomethylpyridine and 1,12-dodecildiame, and self-assembled surfaces Si-diamine-metallic complexes, with cooper (II) acetate and trimetal Cu 3 (dpa) 4 CI 2 were studied. These surfaces are characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), chemical force microscopy (CFM), by contact angle and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The XPS has suggested the formation of diamines monolayers with covalent binding to crystalline silicon, and modification of these surfaces, with metal complexes by coordination chemistry. The CFM has confirmed that surfaces are modified with diamines and cooper (II) acetate, and that were determined different chemical forces according to the change. The contact angle has been suggested that the functionalized surface with 4-aminomethylpyridine has had similar basicity to 1,12-dodecildiame, and more than 4-aminopyridine. This implies that the coordination with metallics complexes is benefited with 4-aminopyridine, which in turn is reflected with electrochemical data. Cyclic voltammetry analysis have showed that silicon surfaces with 4-aminomethylpyridine and 4-aminopyridine with cooper (II) acetate and trimetal have been electrochemically active. Thus, the surfaces could to have interesting applications in molecular electronics. (author) [es

  9. Verification and compensation of respiratory motion using an ultrasound imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Ho-Chiao; Hsu, Hsiao-Yu; Chiu, Wei-Hung; Tien, Der-Chi; Wu, Ren-Hong; Hsu, Chung-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if it is feasible to use ultrasound imaging as an aid for moving the treatment couch during diagnosis and treatment procedures associated with radiation therapy, in order to offset organ displacement caused by respiratory motion. A noninvasive ultrasound system was used to replace the C-arm device during diagnosis and treatment with the aims of reducing the x-ray radiation dose on the human body while simultaneously being able to monitor organ displacements. Methods: This study used a proposed respiratory compensating system combined with an ultrasound imaging system to monitor the compensation effect of respiratory motion. The accuracy of the compensation effect was verified by fluoroscopy, which means that fluoroscopy could be replaced so as to reduce unnecessary radiation dose on patients. A respiratory simulation system was used to simulate the respiratory motion of the human abdomen and a strain gauge (respiratory signal acquisition device) was used to capture the simulated respiratory signals. The target displacements could be detected by an ultrasound probe and used as a reference for adjusting the gain value of the respiratory signal used by the respiratory compensating system. This ensured that the amplitude of the respiratory compensation signal was a faithful representation of the target displacement. Results: The results show that performing respiratory compensation with the assistance of the ultrasound images reduced the compensation error of the respiratory compensating system to 0.81–2.92 mm, both for sine-wave input signals with amplitudes of 5, 10, and 15 mm, and human respiratory signals; this represented compensation of the respiratory motion by up to 92.48%. In addition, the respiratory signals of 10 patients were captured in clinical trials, while their diaphragm displacements were observed simultaneously using ultrasound. Using the respiratory compensating system to offset, the diaphragm

  10. 10 CFR 850.28 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Respiratory protection. 850.28 Section 850.28 Energy... Respiratory protection. (a) The responsible employer must establish a respiratory protection program that complies with the respiratory protection program requirements of 29 CFR 1910.134, Respiratory Protection...

  11. Doping and respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, L; Pinchi, G; Puxeddu, E

    2007-03-01

    Historically many different drugs have been used to enhance sporting performances. The magic elixir is still elusive and the drugs are still used despite the heavy adverse effects. The respiratory system is regularly involved in this research probably because of its central location in the body with several connections to the cardiovascular system. Moreover people are aware that O2 consumption and its delivery to mitochondria firstly depend on ventilation and on the respiratory exchanges. The second step consists in the tendency to increase V'O2 max and to prolong its availability with the aim of improving the endurance time and to relieve the fatigue. Many methods and substances had been used in order to gain an artificial success. Additional oxygen, autologous and homologous transfusion and erythropoietin, mainly the synthetic type, have been administered with the aim of increasing the amount of oxygen being delivered to the tissues. Some compounds like stimulants and caffeine are endowed of excitatory activity on the CNS and stimulate pulmonary ventilation. They did not prove to have any real activity in supporting the athletic performances. Beta-adrenergic drugs, particularly clenbuterol, when administered orally or parenterally develop a clear illicit activity on the myosin fibres and on the muscles as a whole. Salbutamol, terbutaline, salmeterol and formoterol are legally admitted when administrated by MDI in the treatment of asthma. The prevalence of asthma and bronchial hyperactivity is higher in athletes than amongst the general population. This implies that clear rules must be provided to set a correct diagnosis of asthma in the athletes and a correct therapy to align with the actual guidelines according to the same rights of the "other" asthmatic patients.

  12. Study of efficiency and current use of respiratory protective devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linauskas, S.H.; Kalos, F.

    1984-12-01

    The efficiency of a helmet-type powered air-purifying respirator was studied in the work environment of an underground uranium mine. Workplace protection factors (WPF) were measured, using approximately 30-minute air sampling periods and repeated sampling throughout the work shifts for six miners during three shifts each. The WPF of the modified Racal AH-5 helmet was 17.8 (geometric mean) with new filters in the respirator; the WPF dropped to 5.3 when four-day-old filters were used. The WPF results were lognormally distributed. The test population appeared to be a homogeneous set: there was no significant difference in the mean WPFs of individual test subjects. The study could not resolve any effect of elapsed time within the work shift or of ambient Working Level on the WPF. The actual use levels and the problems associated with respirator use were studied at the same time, principally via a user survey. The respirators have a high level of acceptance among the user population of underground uranium miners and 72.5 percent of the 207 survey respondents stated six or more hours use with the visor in the correct 'down' position per shift

  13. Flow diversion in vasculitic intracranial aneurysms? Repair of giant complex cavernous carotid aneurysm in polyarteritis nodosa using Pipeline embolization devices: first reported case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Santos, Jaime; Kaderali, Zul; Spears, Julian; Rubin, Laurence A; Marotta, Thomas R

    2016-07-01

    Intracranial aneurysms in polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) are exceedingly rare lesions with unpredictable behavior that pose real challenges to microsurgical and endovascular interventions owing to their inflammatory nature. We introduce a safe and effective alternative for treating these aneurysms using Pipeline embolization devices (PEDs). A 20-year-old man presented with diplopia, headaches, chronic abdominal pain, and weight loss. Diagnostic evaluations confirmed PAN, including bilateral giant cavernous carotid aneurysms. Cyclophosphamide and steroids achieved significant and sustained clinical improvement, with a decision to follow the aneurysms serially. Seven years later the left unruptured aneurysm enlarged, causing a sudden severe headache and a cavernous sinus syndrome. Treatment of the symptomatic aneurysm was pursued using flow diversion (PED) and the internal carotid artery was successfully reconstructed with a total of four overlapping PEDs. At 6 months follow-up, complete exclusion of the aneurysm was demonstrated, with symptomatic recovery. This is the first description of using a flow-diverting technique in an inflammatory vasculitis. In this case, PEDs not only attained a definitive closure of the aneurysm but also reconstructed the damaged and fragile arterial segment affected with vasculitis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Whole Genome Analysis of Two Novel Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses with Complex Genome Recombination between Lineage 8, 3, and 1 Strains Identified in Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Zhou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Recombination among porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSVs is thought to contribute to the emergence of new PRRSV variants. In this study, two newly emerged PRRSV strains, designated SCcd16 and SCya17, are isolated from lung tissues of piglets in Southwestern China. Genome comparative analysis reveals that SCcd16/SCya17 exhibit 93.1%/93.2%, 86.9%/87.0%, 85.3%/85.7%, and 83.6%/82.0% nucleotide similarity to PRRSVs JXA1, VR-2332, QYYZ and NADC30, respectively. They only exhibit 44.8%/45.1% sequence identity with LV (PRRSV-1, indicating that both emergent strains belong to the PRRSV-2 genotype. Genomic sequence alignment shows that SCcd16 and SCya17 have the same discontinuous 30-amino acid (aa deletion in Nsp2 of the highly pathogenic Chinese PRRSV strain JXA1, when compared to strain VR-2332. Notably, SCya17 shows a unique 5-nt deletion in its 3’-UTR. Phylogenetic analysis shows that both of the isolates are classified in the QYYZ-like lineage based on ORF5 genotyping, whereas they appear to constitute an inter-lineage between JXA1-like and QYYZ-like lineages based on their genomic sequences. Furthermore, recombination analyses reveal that the two newly emerged PRRSV isolates share the same novel recombination pattern. They have both likely originated from multiple recombination events between lineage 8 (JXA1-like, lineage 1 (NADC30-like, and lineage 3 (QYYZ-like strains that have circulated in China recently. The genomic data from SCcd16 and SCya17 indicate that there is on going evolution of PRRSV field strains through genetic recombination, leading to outbreaks in the pig populations in Southwestern China.

  15. Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis or Laryngeal Papillomatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis or Laryngeal Papillomatosis On this page: What ... find additional information about RRP? What is recurrent respiratory papillomatosis? Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a disease ...

  16. Is recurrent respiratory infection associated with allergic respiratory disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Tiago Bittencourt; Klering, Everton Andrei; da Veiga, Ana Beatriz Gorini

    2018-03-13

    Respiratory infections cause high morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study aims to estimate the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases with the occurrence of recurrent respiratory infection (RRI) in children and adolescents. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire and a questionnaire that provides data on the history of respiratory infections and the use of antibiotics were used to obtain data from patients. The relationship between the presence of asthma or allergic rhinitis and the occurrence of respiratory infections in childhood was analyzed. We interviewed the caregivers of 531 children aged 0 to 15 years. The average age of participants was 7.43 years, with females accounting for 52.2%. This study found significant relationship between: presence of asthma or allergic rhinitis with RRI, with prevalence ratio (PR) of 2.47 (1.51-4.02) and 1.61 (1.34-1.93), respectively; respiratory allergies with use of antibiotics for respiratory problems, with PR of 5.32 (2.17-13.0) for asthma and of 1.64 (1.29-2.09) for allergic rhinitis; asthma and allergic rhinitis with diseases of the lower respiratory airways, with PR of 7.82 (4.63-13.21) and 1.65 (1.38-1.96), respectively. In contrast, no relationship between upper respiratory airway diseases and asthma and allergic rhinitis was observed, with PR of 0.71 (0.35-1.48) and 1.30 (0.87-1.95), respectively. RRI is associated with previous atopic diseases, and these conditions should be considered when treating children.

  17. Sealing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2013-12-10

    A sealing device for sealing a gap between a dovetail of a bucket assembly and a rotor wheel is disclosed. The sealing device includes a cover plate configured to cover the gap and a retention member protruding from the cover plate and configured to engage the dovetail. The sealing device provides a seal against the gap when the bucket assemply is subjected to a centrifugal force.

  18. Microfluidic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Lin, Jeffrey Chun-Hui (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey L. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Described herein are particular embodiments relating to a microfluidic device that may be utilized for cell sensing, counting, and/or sorting. Particular aspects relate to a microfabricated device that is capable of differentiating single cell types from dense cell populations. One particular embodiment relates a device and methods of using the same for sensing, counting, and/or sorting leukocytes from whole, undiluted blood samples.

  19. Gauging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qurnell, F.D.; Patterson, C.B.

    1979-01-01

    A gauge supporting device for measuring say a square tube comprises a pair of rods or guides in tension between a pair of end members, the end members being spaced apart by a compression member or members. The tensioned guides provide planes of reference for measuring devices moved therealong on a carriage. The device is especially useful for making on site dimensional measurements of components, such as irradiated and therefore radioactive components, that cannot readily be transported to an inspection laboratory. (UK)

  20. Dysrhythmias of the respiratory oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paydarfar, David; Buerkel, Daniel M.

    1995-03-01

    Breathing is regulated by a central neural oscillator that produces rhythmic output to the respiratory muscles. Pathological disturbances in rhythm (dysrhythmias) are observed in the breathing pattern of children and adults with neurological and cardiopulmonary diseases. The mechanisms responsible for genesis of respiratory dysrhythmias are poorly understood. The present studies take a novel approach to this problem. The basic postulate is that the rhythm of the respiratory oscillator can be altered by a variety of stimuli. When the oscillator recovers its rhythm after such perturbations, its phase may be reset relative to the original rhythm. The amount of phase resetting is dependent upon stimulus parameters and the level of respiratory drive. The long-range hypothesis is that respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli that impinge upon or arise within the respiratory oscillator with certain combinations of strength and timing relative to the respiratory cycle. Animal studies were performed in anesthetized or decerebrate preparations. Neural respiratory rhythmicity is represented by phrenic nerve activity, allowing use of open-loop experimental conditions which avoid negative chemical feedback associated with changes in ventilation. In animal experiments, respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli having specific combinations of strength and timing. Newborn animals readily exhibit spontaneous dysrhythmias which become more prominent at lower respiratory drives. In human subjects, swallowing was studied as a physiological perturbation of respiratory rhythm, causing a pattern of phase resetting that is characterized topologically as type 0. Computational studies of the Bonhoeffer-van der Pol (BvP) equations, whose qualitative behavior is representative of many excitable systems, supports a unified interpretation of these experimental findings. Rhythmicity is observed when the BvP model exhibits recurrent periods of excitation alternating with

  1. PROGRAM RATIONALE OF TREATMENT AND PREVENTION IN CHILDREN WITH FREQUENT RESPIRATORY DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Deryusheva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of complex clinical and laboratory examination of 146 children aged 2—3 years attending kindergarten were presented. The leading predictors of frequent respiratory disease: disturbance of microbiocenosis oropharyngeal mucosa, immunoglobulins decrease, respiratory allergic pathology were established and scientifically substantiated. The results obtained prove the main directions of therapeutic and preventive measures.

  2. Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Tina; Windisch, Wolfram

    2018-07-01

    In sarcoidosis, muscle involvement is common, but mostly asymptomatic. Currently, little is known about respiratory muscle and diaphragm involvement and function in patients with sarcoidosis. Reduced inspiratory muscle strength and/or a reduced diaphragm function may contribute to exertional dyspnea, fatigue and reduced health-related quality of life. Previous studies using volitional and non-volitional tests demonstrated a reduced inspiratory muscle strength in sarcoidosis compared to control subjects, and also showed that respiratory muscle function may even be significantly impaired in a subset of patients. Areas covered: This review examines the evidence on respiratory muscle involvement and its implications in sarcoidosis with emphasis on pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of respiratory muscle dysfunction. The presented evidence was identified by a literature search performed in PubMed and Medline for articles about respiratory and skeletal muscle function in sarcoidosis through to January 2018. Expert commentary: Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is an underdiagnosed condition, which may have an important impact on dyspnea and health-related quality of life. Further studies are needed to understand the etiology, pathogenesis and extent of respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

  3. Analysis of a dielectric EAP as smart component for a neonatal respiratory simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognarelli, S; Deri, L; Cecchi, F; Scaramuzzo, R; Cuttano, A; Laschi, C; Menciassi, A; Dario, P

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, respiratory syndrome represents the most common neonatal pathology. Nevertheless, being respiratory assistance in newborns a great challenge for neonatologists and nurses, use of simulation-based training is quickly becoming a valid meaning of clinical education for an optimal therapy outcome. Commercially available simulators, are, however, not able to represent complex breathing patterns and to evaluate specific alterations. The purpose of this work has been to develop a smart, lightweight, compliant system with variable rigidity able to replicate the anatomical behavior of the neonatal lung, with the final aim to integrate such system into an innovative mechatronic simulator device. A smart material based-system has been proposed and validated: Dielectric Electro Active Polymers (DEAP), coupled to a purposely shaped silicone camera, has been investigated as active element for a compliance change simulator able to replicate both physiological and pathological lung properties. Two different tests have been performed by using a bi-components camera (silicone shape coupled to PolyPower film) both as an isolated system and connected to an infant ventilator. By means of a pressure sensor held on the silicon structure, pressure values have been collected and compared for active and passive PolyPower working configuration. The obtained results confirm a slight pressure decrease in active configuration, that is in agreement with the film stiffness reduction under activation and demonstrates the real potentiality of DEAP for active volume changing of the proposed system.

  4. Respiratory effort from the photoplethysmogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Paul S

    2017-03-01

    The potential for a simple, non-invasive measure of respiratory effort based on the pulse oximeter signal - the photoplethysmogram or 'pleth' - was investigated in a pilot study. Several parameters were developed based on a variety of manifestations of respiratory effort in the signal, including modulation changes in amplitude, baseline, frequency and pulse transit times, as well as distinct baseline signal shifts. Thirteen candidate parameters were investigated using data from healthy volunteers. Each volunteer underwent a series of controlled respiratory effort maneuvers at various set flow resistances and respiratory rates. Six oximeter probes were tested at various body sites. In all, over three thousand pleth-based effort-airway pressure (EP) curves were generated across the various airway constrictions, respiratory efforts, respiratory rates, subjects, probe sites, and the candidate parameters considered. Regression analysis was performed to determine the existence of positive monotonic relationships between the respiratory effort parameters and resulting airway pressures. Six of the candidate parameters investigated exhibited a distinct positive relationship (poximeter probe and an ECG (P2E-Effort) and the other using two pulse oximeter probes placed at different peripheral body sites (P2-Effort); and baseline shifts in heart rate, (BL-HR-Effort). In conclusion, a clear monotonic relationship was found between several pleth-based parameters and imposed respiratory loadings at the mouth across a range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions. The results suggest that the pleth may provide a measure of changing upper airway dynamics indicative of the effort to breathe. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Auscultation of the respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Malay; Madabhavi, Irappa; Niranjan, Narasimhalu; Dogra, Megha

    2015-01-01

    Auscultation of the lung is an important part of the respiratory examination and is helpful in diagnosing various respiratory disorders. Auscultation assesses airflow through the trachea-bronchial tree. It is important to distinguish normal respiratory sounds from abnormal ones for example crackles, wheezes, and pleural rub in order to make correct diagnosis. It is necessary to understand the underlying pathophysiology of various lung sounds generation for better understanding of disease processes. Bedside teaching should be strengthened in order to avoid erosion in this age old procedure in the era of technological explosion. PMID:26229557

  6. Auscultation of the respiratory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malay Sarkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Auscultation of the lung is an important part of the respiratory examination and is helpful in diagnosing various respiratory disorders. Auscultation assesses airflow through the trachea-bronchial tree. It is important to distinguish normal respiratory sounds from abnormal ones for example crackles, wheezes, and pleural rub in order to make correct diagnosis. It is necessary to understand the underlying pathophysiology of various lung sounds generation for better understanding of disease processes. Bedside teaching should be strengthened in order to avoid erosion in this age old procedure in the era of technological explosion.

  7. Fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of thermonuclear fusion devices currently under development are reviewed for an electric utilities management audience. Overall design features of laser fusion, tokamak, and magnetic mirror type reactors are described and illustrated. Thrusts and trends in current research on these devices that promise to improve performance are briefly reviewed. Twenty photographs and drawings are included

  8. BRAKE DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, T.J.

    1959-03-10

    A brake device is described for utilization in connection with a control rod. The device comprises a pair of parallelogram link mechanisms, a control rod moveable rectilinearly therebetween in opposite directions, and shoes resiliently supported by the mechanism for frictional engagement with the control rod.

  9. USE OF IMMUNOMODULATORS IN ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION TREATMENT IN FREQUENTLY ILL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Ivardava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory infections, relapses of ear, nose, throat infections, acute and chronic bronchial infections — these are the most common infantile infections. Regardless the wide range of medications, treatment of recurrent ENT and respiratory infections is not always effective especially in the group of frequently ill children. This article contains analysis of the necessity of immunomodulation therapy of recurrent respiratory infections as a part of complex prophylaxis and treatment of infants.Key words: children, acute respiratory infection, polyoxidonium, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (3: 103–107

  10. 78 FR 42779 - Authorization of Emergency Use of an In Vitro Diagnostic for Detection of Middle East Respiratory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0754] Authorization of Emergency Use of an In Vitro Diagnostic for Detection of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome... Authorization) for an in vitro diagnostic device for detection of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus...

  11. PLASMA DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, J.D.; Wilcox, J.M.

    1961-12-26

    A device is designed for producing and confining highenergy plasma from which neutrons are generated in copious quantities. A rotating sheath of electrons is established in a radial electric field and axial magnetic field produced within the device. The electron sheath serves as a strong ionizing medium to gas introdueed thereto and also functions as an extremely effective heating mechanism to the resulting plasma. In addition, improved confinement of the plasma is obtained by ring magnetic mirror fields produced at the ends of the device. Such ring mirror fields are defined by the magnetic field lines at the ends of the device diverging radially outward from the axis of the device and thereafter converging at spatial annular surfaces disposed concentrically thereabout. (AFC)

  12. Respiratory Viruses in Febrile Neutropenic Patients with Respiratory Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Meidani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Respiratory infections are a frequent cause of fever in neutropenic patients, whereas respiratory viral infections are not frequently considered as a diagnosis, which causes high morbidity and mortality in these patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was performed on 36 patients with neutropenia who admitted to hospital were eligible for inclusion with fever (single temperature of >38.3°C or a sustained temperature of >38°C for more than 1 h, upper and lower respiratory symptoms. Sampling was performed from the throat of the patient by the sterile swab. All materials were analyzed by quantitative real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction covering the following viruses; influenza, parainfluenza virus (PIV, rhinovirus (RV, human metapneumovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. Results: RV was the most frequently detected virus and then RSV was the most. PIV was not present in any of the tested samples. Furthermore, no substantial differences in the distribution of specific viral species were observed based on age, sex, neutropenia duration, hematological disorder, and respiratory tract symptoms and signs (P > 0.05. Conclusion: Our prospective study supports the hypothesis that respiratory viruses play an important role in the development of neutropenic fever, and thus has the potential to individualize infection treatment and to reduce the extensive use of antibiotics in immunocompromised patients with neutropenia.

  13. Bovine coronavirus antibody titers at weaning negatively correlate with incidence of bovine respiratory disease in the feed yard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is a multifactorial disease caused by complex interactions among viral and bacterial pathogens, stressful management practices and host genetic variability. Although vaccines and antibiotic treatments are readily available to prevent and treat infection caus...

  14. Compressed optimization of device architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frees, Adam [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Gamble, John King [Microsoft Research, Redmond, WA (United States). Quantum Architectures and Computation Group; Ward, Daniel Robert [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Computing Research; Blume-Kohout, Robin J [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Computing Research; Eriksson, M. A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Friesen, Mark [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Coppersmith, Susan N. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2014-09-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have enabled researchers to control individual quantum mechanical objects with unprecedented accuracy, opening the door for both quantum and extreme- scale conventional computation applications. As these devices become more complex, designing for facility of control becomes a daunting and computationally infeasible task. Here, motivated by ideas from compressed sensing, we introduce a protocol for the Compressed Optimization of Device Architectures (CODA). It leads naturally to a metric for benchmarking and optimizing device designs, as well as an automatic device control protocol that reduces the operational complexity required to achieve a particular output. Because this protocol is both experimentally and computationally efficient, it is readily extensible to large systems. For this paper, we demonstrate both the bench- marking and device control protocol components of CODA through examples of realistic simulations of electrostatic quantum dot devices, which are currently being developed experimentally for quantum computation.

  15. Life-threatening hypokalemia following rapid correction of respiratory acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Kendra; You, David; Collins, Eileen G; Leehey, David J; Laghi, Franco

    2013-01-01

    A 56-year-old woman with a history of paraplegia and chronic pain due to neuromyelitis optica (Devic's syndrome) was admitted to a spinal cord injury unit for management of a sacral decubitus ulcer. During the hospitalization, she required emergency transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU) because of progressive deterioration of respiratory muscle function, severe respiratory acidosis, obtundation and hypotension. Upon transfer to the ICU, arterial blood gas revealed severe acute-on-chronic respiratory acidosis (pH 7.00, PCO2 120 mm Hg, PO2 211 mm Hg). The patient was immediately intubated and mechanically ventilated. Intravenous fluid boluses of normal saline (10.5 L in about 24 h) and vasopressors were started with rapid correction of hypotension. In addition, she was given hydrocortisone. Within 40 min of initiation of mechanical ventilation, there was improvement in acute respiratory acidosis. Sixteen hours later, however, the patient developed life-threatening hypokalemia (K(+) of 2.1 mEq/L) and hypomagnesemia (Mg of 1.4 mg/dL). Despite aggressive potassium supplementation, hypokalemia continued to worsen over the next several hours (K(+) of 1.7 mEq/L). Urine studies revealed renal potassium wasting. We reason that the recalcitrant life-threatening hypokalemia was caused by several mechanisms including total body potassium depletion (chronic respiratory acidosis), a shift of potassium from the extracellular to intracellular space (rapid correction of respiratory acidosis with mechanical ventilation), increased sodium delivery to the distal nephron (normal saline resuscitation), hyperaldosteronism (secondary to hypotension plus administration of hydrocortisone) and hypomagnesemia. We conclude that rapid correction of respiratory acidosis, especially in the setting of hypotension, can lead to life-threatening hypokalemia. Serum potassium levels must be monitored closely in these patients, as failure to do so can lead to potentially lethal consequences

  16. Disclosing respiratory co-infections: a broad-range panel assay for avian respiratory pathogens on a nanofluidic PCR platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croville, Guillaume; Foret, Charlotte; Heuillard, Pauline; Senet, Alexis; Delpont, Mattias; Mouahid, Mohammed; Ducatez, Mariette F; Kichou, Faouzi; Guerin, Jean-Luc

    2018-06-01

    Respiratory syndromes (RS) are among the most significant pathological conditions in edible birds and are caused by complex coactions of pathogens and environmental factors. In poultry, low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses, metapneumoviruses, infectious bronchitis virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, Mycoplasma spp. Escherichia coli and/or Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in turkeys are considered as key co-infectious agents of RS. Aspergillus sp., Pasteurella multocida, Avibacterium paragallinarum or Chlamydia psittaci may also be involved in respiratory outbreaks. An innovative quantitative PCR method, based on a nanofluidic technology, has the ability to screen up to 96 samples with 96 pathogen-specific PCR primers, at the same time, in one run of real-time quantitative PCR. This platform was used for the screening of avian respiratory pathogens: 15 respiratory agents, including viruses, bacteria and fungi potentially associated with respiratory infections of poultry, were targeted. Primers were designed and validated for SYBR green real-time quantitative PCR and subsequently validated on the Biomark high throughput PCR nanofluidic platform (Fluidigm©, San Francisco, CA, USA). As a clinical assessment, tracheal swabs were sampled from turkeys showing RS and submitted to this panel assay. Beside systematic detection of E. coli, avian metapneumovirus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae were frequently detected, with distinctive co-infection patterns between French and Moroccan flocks. This proof-of-concept study illustrates the potential of such panel assays for unveiling respiratory co-infection profiles in poultry.

  17. House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence on the e......Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence...... not extend beyond the end of treatment. Finally, allergen immunotherapy has a poor but improving evidence base (notably on sublingual tablets) and its benefits last after treatment ends. This review identifies needs for deeper physician knowledge on the extent and impact of HDM allergy in respiratory disease...... and therapy of HDM respiratory allergy in practice....

  18. Employee guide to respiratory protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    This employee guide discusses use of respiratory protective equipment for particulates, gases, vapors, supplied air, and self-contained breathing apparatus. It also covers equipment selection medical factors, fitting criteria; care; and employee responsibilities

  19. Building Evacuation with Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Merkel, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly growing world population and increasingly dense settlements demand ever-larger and more complex buildings from today's engineers. In comparison to this technological progress, a building's equipment for emergency evacuation has been hardly developed further. This work presents a concept for a building evacuation system based on mobile devices. Furthermore, various algorithms for route planning with mobile devices and for indoor localization of mobile devices are addressed.

  20. [Two patients with mitochondrial respiratory chain disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangma, H R; Smit, G P A; Kuks, J B M; Grevink, R G; Wolffenbuttel, B H R

    2008-10-18

    A 23-year-old woman and a 13-year-old boy were diagnosed with mitochondrial respiratory chain disease. The woman had muscle pain, fatigue and bilateral ophthalmoplegia--symptoms consistent with Kearns-Sayre syndrome. The boy had aspecific symptoms; eventually, reduced activity of complex 1 was found to be the cause of the mitochondrial respiratory chain disease in the boy and his mother, who had suffered from unexplained fatigue and muscle pain for 15 years. Mitochondrial diseases often involve several organ systems. Diagnosis can be difficult, because laboratory tests such as serum and urinary lactate and creatine kinase have low sensitivity and specificity. Biochemical assessment of muscle biopsy can reveal reduced oxidation ATP synthesis and sometimes specific abnormalities in individual protein complexes. DNA analysis may be helpful in demonstrating mitochondrial or nuclear mutations or deletions. The goal of treatment is to increase mitochondrial ATP production, improve clinical symptoms and enhance stamina. Replacement of the following substances (also referred to as cofactors) may be attempted: co-enzyme Q10, antioxidants (lipoic acid, vitamins C and E), riboflavin, thiamine, creatine and carnitine. Evidence regarding the optimal treatment approach is lacking; one usually has to rely on observing effects in the individual patient.

  1. The scientific basis for postoperative respiratory care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Richard D

    2013-11-01

    Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) are common and expensive. Costs, morbidity, and mortality are higher with PPCs than with cardiac or thromboembolic complications. Preventing and treating PPCs is a major focus of respiratory therapists, using a wide variety of techniques and devices, including incentive spirometry, CPAP, positive expiratory pressure, intrapulmonary percussive ventilation, and chest physical therapy. The scientific evidence for these techniques is lacking. CPAP has some evidence of benefit in high risk patients with hypoxemia. Incentive spirometry is used frequently, but the evidence suggests that incentive spirometry alone has no impact on PPC. Chest physical therapy, which includes mechanical clapping and postural drainage, appears to worsen atelectasis secondary to pain and splinting. As with many past respiratory therapy techniques, the profession needs to take a hard look at these techniques and work to provide only practices based on good evidence. The idea of a PPC bundle has merit and should be studied in larger, multicenter trials. Additionally, intraoperative ventilation may play a key role in the development of PPCs and should receive greater attention.

  2. Climate Change and Respiratory Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Motahari, Hooman; Taghizadeh Khamesi, Mojdeh; Sharifi, Arash; Campos, Michael; Schraufnagel, Dean E

    2016-08-01

    The rate of global warming has accelerated over the past 50 years. Increasing surface temperature is melting glaciers and raising the sea level. More flooding, droughts, hurricanes, and heat waves are being reported. Accelerated changes in climate are already affecting human health, in part by altering the epidemiology of climate-sensitive pathogens. In particular, climate change may alter the incidence and severity of respiratory infections by affecting vectors and host immune responses. Certain respiratory infections, such as avian influenza and coccidioidomycosis, are occurring in locations previously unaffected, apparently because of global warming. Young children and older adults appear to be particularly vulnerable to rapid fluctuations in ambient temperature. For example, an increase in the incidence in childhood pneumonia in Australia has been associated with sharp temperature drops from one day to the next. Extreme weather events, such as heat waves, floods, major storms, drought, and wildfires, are also believed to change the incidence of respiratory infections. An outbreak of aspergillosis among Japanese survivors of the 2011 tsunami is one such well-documented example. Changes in temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, and air pollution influence viral activity and transmission. For example, in early 2000, an outbreak of Hantavirus respiratory disease was linked to a local increase in the rodent population, which in turn was attributed to a two- to threefold increase in rainfall before the outbreak. Climate-sensitive respiratory pathogens present challenges to respiratory health that may be far greater in the foreseeable future.

  3. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus ISCOMs - protection in the presence of maternal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Sara; Hu, Ke-Fei; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2004-01-01

    The protection induced by immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) was evaluated and compared to that of a commercial inactivated vaccine (CV) in calves with BRSV-specific maternal antibodies. Following experimental challenge, controls (n = 4...

  4. 33 CFR 142.39 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 142.39... Respiratory protection. (a) Personnel in an atmosphere specified under ANSI Z88.2, requiring the use of respiratory protection equipment shall wear the type of respiratory protection equipment specified in ANSI Z88...

  5. Sealing devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulson, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A sealing device for minimising the leakage of toxic or radioactive contaminated environments through a biological shield along an opening through which a flexible component moves that penetrates the shield. The sealing device comprises an outer tubular member which extends over a length not less than the maximum longitudinal movement of the component along the opening. An inner sealing block is located intermediate the length of the component by connectors and is positioned in the bore of the outer tubular member to slide in the bore and effect a seal over the entire longitudinal movement of the component. The cross-section of the device may be circular and the block may be of polytetrafluoroethylene or of nylon impregnated with molybdenum or may be metallic. A number of the sealing devices may be combined into an assembly for a plurality of adjacent longitudinally movable components, each adapted to sustain a tensile load, providing the various drives of a master-slave manipulator. (author)

  6. Ferroelectric devices

    CERN Document Server

    Uchino, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Updating its bestselling predecessor, Ferroelectric Devices, Second Edition assesses the last decade of developments-and setbacks-in the commercialization of ferroelectricity. Field pioneer and esteemed author Uchino provides insight into why this relatively nascent and interdisciplinary process has failed so far without a systematic accumulation of fundamental knowledge regarding materials and device development.Filling the informational void, this collection of information reviews state-of-the-art research and development trends reflecting nano and optical technologies, environmental regulat

  7. A new low-cost negative-pressure wound therapy versus a commercially available therapy device widely used to treat complex traumatic injuries: a prospective, randomized, non-inferiority trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Kamamoto

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Negative-pressure wound therapy has been widely adopted to reduce the complexity of treating a broad range of acute and chronic wounds. However, its cost is high. The objective of this study was to evaluate the following two different methods of negative-pressure wound therapy in terms of healing time: a low-cost method of negative-pressure wound therapy (a pressure stabilizer device connected to a hospital wall-vacuum system with a gauze-sealed dressing, USP and the standard of care (vacuum-assisted closure, VAC. METHODS: This is a randomized, controlled, non-inferiority, unblinded trial. Patients admitted with complex injuries to a trauma center in a public referral hospital who were indicated for orthopedic surgery were randomized to a USP or VAC group. The primary outcome was the time required to achieve a “ready for surgery condition”, which was defined as a wound bed with healthy granulation tissue and without necrosis or purulent secretion. Wound bed area contraction, granulation tissue growth and the direct costs of the dressings were secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Variation in area and granulation tissue growth were essentially the same between the systems, and healing time was equal between the groups (p=0.379. In both systems, serial debridement increased wound area (p=0.934, and granulation tissue was also increased (p=0.408. The mean treatment cost was US$ 15.15 in the USP group and US$ 872.59 in the VAC group. CONCLUSIONS: For treating complex traumatic injuries, USP was non-inferior to and less expensive than VAC.

  8. A new low-cost negative-pressure wound therapy versus a commercially available therapy device widely used to treat complex traumatic injuries: a prospective, randomized, non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamamoto, Fabio; Lima, Ana Lucia Munhoz; Rezende, Marcelo Rosa de; Mattar-Junior, Rames; Leonhardt, Marcos de Camargo; Kojima, Kodi Edson; Santos, Carla Chineze Dos

    2017-12-01

    Negative-pressure wound therapy has been widely adopted to reduce the complexity of treating a broad range of acute and chronic wounds. However, its cost is high. The objective of this study was to evaluate the following two different methods of negative-pressure wound therapy in terms of healing time: a low-cost method of negative-pressure wound therapy (a pressure stabilizer device connected to a hospital wall-vacuum system with a gauze-sealed dressing, USP) and the standard of care (vacuum-assisted closure, VAC). This is a randomized, controlled, non-inferiority, unblinded trial. Patients admitted with complex injuries to a trauma center in a public referral hospital who were indicated for orthopedic surgery were randomized to a USP or VAC group. The primary outcome was the time required to achieve a "ready for surgery condition", which was defined as a wound bed with healthy granulation tissue and without necrosis or purulent secretion. Wound bed area contraction, granulation tissue growth and the direct costs of the dressings were secondary outcomes. Variation in area and granulation tissue growth were essentially the same between the systems, and healing time was equal between the groups (p=0.379). In both systems, serial debridement increased wound area (p=0.934), and granulation tissue was also increased (p=0.408). The mean treatment cost was US$ 15.15 in the USP group and US$ 872.59 in the VAC group. For treating complex traumatic injuries, USP was non-inferior to and less expensive than VAC.

  9. ERS statement on the multidisciplinary respiratory management of ataxia telangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayesh M. Bhatt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T is a rare, progressive, multisystem disease that has a large number of complex and diverse manifestations which vary with age. Patients with A-T die prematurely with the leading causes of death being respiratory diseases and cancer. Respiratory manifestations include immune dysfunction leading to recurrent upper and lower respiratory infections; aspiration resulting from dysfunctional swallowing due to neurodegenerative deficits; inefficient cough; and interstitial lung disease/pulmonary fibrosis. Malnutrition is a significant comorbidity. The increased radiosensitivity and increased risk of cancer should be borne in mind when requesting radiological investigations. Aggressive proactive monitoring and treatment of these various aspects of lung disease under multidisciplinary expertise in the experience of national multidisciplinary clinics internationally forms the basis of this statement on the management of lung disease in A-T. Neurological management is outwith the scope of this document.

  10. Device Applications of Nonlinear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Baglio, Salvatore

    2006-01-01

    This edited book is devoted specifically to the applications of complex nonlinear dynamic phenomena to real systems and device applications. While in the past decades there has been significant progress in the theory of nonlinear phenomena under an assortment of system boundary conditions and preparations, there exist comparatively few devices that actually take this rich behavior into account. "Device Applications of Nonlinear Dynamics" applies and exploits this knowledge to make devices which operate more efficiently and cheaply, while affording the promise of much better performance. Given the current explosion of ideas in areas as diverse as molecular motors, nonlinear filtering theory, noise-enhanced propagation, stochastic resonance and networked systems, the time is right to integrate the progress of complex systems research into real devices.

  11. Guide device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, C.M. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a fuel handling guide tube centering device for use in nuclear reactors during fuel assembly handling operations. The device comprises an outer ring secured to the flange of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel, a rotatable table rotatably coupled to the outer ring, and a plurality of openings through the table. Truncated locating cones are positioned in each of the openings in the table, and the locating cones center the guide tube during fuel handling operations. The openings in the table are located such that each fuel assembly in the nuclear core may be aligned with one of the openings by a suitable rotation of the table. The locating cones thereby provide alignment between the fuel handling mechanism located in the guide tube and the individual fuel assemblies of the cone. The need for a device to provide alignment is especially critical for floating nuclear power plants, where wave motion may exist during fuel handling operations. 5 claims, 4 figures

  12. [Respiratory treatments in neuromuscular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Carrasco, C; Cols Roig, M; Salcedo Posadas, A; Sardon Prado, O; Asensio de la Cruz, O; Torrent Vernetta, A

    2014-10-01

    In a previous article, a review was presented of the respiratory pathophysiology of the patient with neuromuscular disease, as well as their clinical evaluation and the major complications causing pulmonary deterioration. This article presents the respiratory treatments required to preserve lung function in neuromuscular disease as long as possible, as well as in special situations (respiratory infections, spinal curvature surgery, etc.). Special emphasis is made on the use of non-invasive ventilation, which is changing the natural history of many of these diseases. The increase in survival and life expectancy of these children means that they can continue their clinical care in adult units. The transition from pediatric care must be an active, timely and progressive process. It may be slightly stressful for the patient before the adaptation to this new environment, with multidisciplinary care always being maintained. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. [Detection of respiratory tract diseases among rural population during the team-work mass screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, E Z; Galkin, V B; Stepanova, G Ia

    1990-01-01

    A screening complex for the examination of the rural population has been worked out to detect bronchopulmonary pathology and form groups of risk for respiratory diseases. The complex of methods included compulsory questionnaires and ++fluoro-functional examination, spirometry if indicated and bacterial tests. Out of 1, 131 persons examined, 328 were found to have respiratory diseases. Chronic non-specific respiratory diseases were detected in 103 subjects, including 62 of them having obstructive bronchitis. A risk group developing chronic non-specific respiratory diseases, including 202 persons with disturbed ventilation activity of the lungs, post-tuberculous inadequate changes and other pathology. Pulmonary tuberculosis was registered in 7 subjects. The given data indicate the necessity of a complex examination of the population.

  14. Respiratory tract infection during Hajj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzeer Abdulaziz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infection during Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca is a common illness, and it is responsible for most of the hospital admissions. Influenza virus is the leading cause of upper respiratory tract infection during Hajj, and pneumonia can be serious. Taking into account the close contacts among the pilgrims, as well as the crowding, the potential for transmission of M. tuberculosis is expected to be high. These pilgrims can be a source for spreading infection on their return home. Although vaccination program for influenza is implemented, its efficacy is uncertain in this religious season. Future studies should concentrate on prevention and mitigation of these infections.

  15. Respiratory correlated cone beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Zijp, Lambert; Remeijer, Peter; Herk, Marcel van

    2005-01-01

    A cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanner integrated with a linear accelerator is a powerful tool for image guided radiotherapy. Respiratory motion, however, induces artifacts in CBCT, while the respiratory correlated procedures, developed to reduce motion artifacts in axial and helical CT are not suitable for such CBCT scanners. We have developed an alternative respiratory correlated procedure for CBCT and evaluated its performance. This respiratory correlated CBCT procedure consists of retrospective sorting in projection space, yielding subsets of projections that each corresponds to a certain breathing phase. Subsequently, these subsets are reconstructed into a four-dimensional (4D) CBCT dataset. The breathing signal, required for respiratory correlation, was directly extracted from the 2D projection data, removing the need for an additional respiratory monitor system. Due to the reduced number of projections per phase, the contrast-to-noise ratio in a 4D scan reduced by a factor 2.6-3.7 compared to a 3D scan based on all projections. Projection data of a spherical phantom moving with a 3 and 5 s period with and without simulated breathing irregularities were acquired and reconstructed into 3D and 4D CBCT datasets. The positional deviations of the phantoms center of gravity between 4D CBCT and fluoroscopy were small: 0.13±0.09 mm for the regular motion and 0.39±0.24 mm for the irregular motion. Motion artifacts, clearly present in the 3D CBCT datasets, were substantially reduced in the 4D datasets, even in the presence of breathing irregularities, such that the shape of the moving structures could be identified more accurately. Moreover, the 4D CBCT dataset provided information on the 3D trajectory of the moving structures, absent in the 3D data. Considerable breathing irregularities, however, substantially reduces the image quality. Data presented for three different lung cancer patients were in line with the results obtained from the phantom study. In

  16. Thresholds in chemical respiratory sensitisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Stella A; Arts, Josje H E; Ehnes, Colin; Hindle, Stuart; Hollnagel, Heli M; Poole, Alan; Suto, Hidenori; Kimber, Ian

    2015-07-03

    There is a continuing interest in determining whether it is possible to identify thresholds for chemical allergy. Here allergic sensitisation of the respiratory tract by chemicals is considered in this context. This is an important occupational health problem, being associated with rhinitis and asthma, and in addition provides toxicologists and risk assessors with a number of challenges. In common with all forms of allergic disease chemical respiratory allergy develops in two phases. In the first (induction) phase exposure to a chemical allergen (by an appropriate route of exposure) causes immunological priming and sensitisation of the respiratory tract. The second (elicitation) phase is triggered if a sensitised subject is exposed subsequently to the same chemical allergen via inhalation. A secondary immune response will be provoked in the respiratory tract resulting in inflammation and the signs and symptoms of a respiratory hypersensitivity reaction. In this article attention has focused on the identification of threshold values during the acquisition of sensitisation. Current mechanistic understanding of allergy is such that it can be assumed that the development of sensitisation (and also the elicitation of an allergic reaction) is a threshold phenomenon; there will be levels of exposure below which sensitisation will not be acquired. That is, all immune responses, including allergic sensitisation, have threshold requirement for the availability of antigen/allergen, below which a response will fail to develop. The issue addressed here is whether there are methods available or clinical/epidemiological data that permit the identification of such thresholds. This document reviews briefly relevant human studies of occupational asthma, and experimental models that have been developed (or are being developed) for the identification and characterisation of chemical respiratory allergens. The main conclusion drawn is that although there is evidence that the

  17. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Soraia Carvalho; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Garcia, Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Investigacao]. E-mail: prmrocco@biof.ufrj.br

    2008-12-15

    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases. (author)

  18. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Soraia Carvalho; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Garcia, Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases. (author)

  19. Activation of respiratory muscles during respiratory muscle training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterspacher, Stephan; Pietsch, Fabian; Walker, David Johannes; Röcker, Kai; Kabitz, Hans-Joachim

    2018-01-01

    It is unknown which respiratory muscles are mainly activated by respiratory muscle training. This study evaluated Inspiratory Pressure Threshold Loading (IPTL), Inspiratory Flow Resistive Loading (IFRL) and Voluntary Isocapnic Hyperpnea (VIH) with regard to electromyographic (EMG) activation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM), parasternal muscles (PARA) and the diaphragm (DIA) in randomized order. Surface EMG were analyzed at the end of each training session and normalized using the peak EMG recorded during maximum inspiratory maneuvers (Sniff nasal pressure: SnPna, maximal inspiratory mouth occlusion pressure: PImax). 41 healthy participants were included. Maximal activation was achieved for SCM by SnPna; the PImax activated predominantly PARA and DIA. Activations of SCM and PARA were higher in IPTL and VIH than for IFRL (p<0.05). DIA was higher applying IPTL compared to IFRL or VIH (p<0.05). IPTL, IFRL and VIH differ in activation of inspiratory respiratory muscles. Whereas all methods mainly stimulate accessory respiratory muscles, diaphragm activation was predominant in IPTL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Medical Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerke, Gijsbertus Jacob; Mahieu, H.F.; Geertsema, A.A.; Hermann, I.F.; van Horn, J.R.; Hummel, J. Marjan; van Loon, J.P.; Mihaylov, D.; van der Plaats, A.; Schraffordt Koops, H.; Schutte, H.K.; Veth, R.P.H.; de Vries, M.P.; Rakhorst, G.; Shi, Donglu

    2004-01-01

    The development of new medical devices is a very time-consuming and costly process. Besides the time between the initial idea and the time that manufacturing and testing of prototypes takes place, the time needed for the development of production facilities, production of test series, marketing,

  1. Electrochemical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Patrick G.; Einstein, Harry; Bellows, Richard J.

    1988-01-12

    A tunnel protected electrochemical device features channels fluidically communicating between manifold, tunnels and cells. The channels are designed to provide the most efficient use of auxiliary power. The channels have a greater hydraulic pressure drop and electrical resistance than the manifold. This will provide a design with the optimum auxiliary energy requirements.

  2. Assistive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have a disability or injury, you may use a number of assistive devices. These are tools, products or types of equipment that help you perform tasks and activities. They may help you move around, see, communicate, eat, or get ...

  3. Detection device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.E.

    1981-02-27

    The present invention is directed to a detection device comprising: (1) an entrance chamber; (2) a central chamber; and (3) an exit chamber. The central chamber includes an ionizing gas, anode, and means for connecting the anode with an external power supply and pulse counter.

  4. Atorvastatin affects negatively respiratory function of isolated endothelial mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broniarek, Izabela; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to elucidate the direct effects of two popular blood cholesterol-lowering drugs used to treat cardiovascular diseases, atorvastatin and pravastatin, on respiratory function, membrane potential, and reactive oxygen species formation in mitochondria isolated from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EA.hy926 cell line). Hydrophilic pravastatin did not significantly affect endothelial mitochondria function. In contrast, hydrophobic calcium-containing atorvastatin induced a loss of outer mitochondrial membrane integrity, an increase in hydrogen peroxide formation, and reductions in maximal (phosphorylating or uncoupled) respiratory rate, membrane potential and oxidative phosphorylation efficiency. The atorvastatin-induced changes indicate an impairment of mitochondrial function at the level of ATP synthesis and at the level of the respiratory chain, likely at complex I and complex III. The atorvastatin action on endothelial mitochondria was highly dependent on calcium ions and led to a disturbance in mitochondrial calcium homeostasis. Uptake of calcium ions included in atorvastatin molecule induced mitochondrial uncoupling that enhanced the inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain by atorvastatin. Our results indicate that hydrophobic calcium-containing atorvastatin, widely used as anti-atherosclerotic agent, has a direct negative action on isolated endothelial mitochondria. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Cooling device in thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Tsutomu.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent loss of cooling effect over the entire torus structure directly after accidental toubles in a cooling device of a thermonuclear device. Constitution: Coolant recycling means of a cooling device comprises two systems, which are alternately connected with in-flow pipeways and exit pipeways of adjacent modules. The modules are cooled by way of the in-flow pipeways and the exist pipeways connected to the respective modules by means of the coolant recycling means corresponding to the respective modules. So long as one of the coolant recycling means is kept operative, since every one other modules of the torus structure is still kept cooled, the heat generated from the module put therebetween, for which the coolant recycling is interrupted, is removed by means of heat conduction or radiation from the module for which the cooling is kept continued. No back-up emergency cooling system is required and it can provide high economic reliability. (Kamimura, M.)

  6. Climate change and respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Daniel A; Kellerman, Roy A

    2014-10-01

    To discuss the nature of climate change and both its immediate and long-term effects on human respiratory health. This review is based on information from a presentation of the American College of Chest Physicians course on Occupational and Environmental Lung Disease held in Toronto, Canada, June 2013. It is supplemented by a PubMed search for climate change, global warming, respiratory tract diseases, and respiratory health. It is also supplemented by a search of Web sites including the Environmental Protection Agency, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, World Meteorological Association, National Snow and Ice Data Center, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change, and the World Health Organization. Health effects of climate change include an increase in the prevalence of certain respiratory diseases, exacerbations of chronic lung disease, premature mortality, allergic responses, and declines in lung function. Climate change, mediated by greenhouse gases, causes adverse health effects to the most vulnerable patient populations-the elderly, children, and those in distressed socioeconomic strata.

  7. [Undernutrition in chronic respiratory diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Tadeusz M; Hadzik-Błaszczyk, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory diseases such as asthma, COPD, lung cancer, infections, including also tuberculosis constitute the most frequent diseases in the word. Undernutrition frequently accompanies these diseases. Early diagnosis of malnutrition and implementation of appropriate treatment is very important. A nutritional interview and anthropometric examinations, such as body mass index, fat free mass and fat mass are used to diagnose it. Nutritional therapy affects the course and prognosis of these diseases. Diet should be individually adjusted to the calculated caloric intake that increases during exacerbation of disease, because of increased respiratory effort. Too large supply of energy can cause increase metabolism, higher oxygen consumption and PaCO2 increase each dangerous for patients with respiratory insufficiency. Main source of carbohydrates for these patients should be products with low glycemic index and with high dietary fiber contents. Large meals should be avoided since they cause rapid satiety, abdominal discomfort and have negative impact on the work of the respiratory muscles, especially of the diaphragm. Dietary supplements can be used in case of ineffectiveness of diet or for the patients with severe undernutrition.

  8. Respiratory effects of borax dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabrant, D H; Bernstein, L; Peters, J M; Smith, T J; Wright, W E

    1985-12-01

    The relation of respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function, and abnormalities of chest radiographs to estimated exposures of borax dust has been investigated in a cross sectional study of 629 actively employed borax workers. Ninety three per cent of the eligible workers participated in the study and exposures ranged from 1.1 mg/m3 to 14.6 mg/m3. Symptoms of acute respiratory irritation such as dryness of the mouth, nose, or throat, dry cough, nose bleeds, sore throat, productive cough, shortness of breath, and chest tightness were related to exposures of 4.0 mg/m3 or more, and were infrequent at exposures of 1.1 mg/m3. Symptoms of persistent respiratory irritation meeting the definition of chronic simple bronchitis were related to exposure among non-smokers. Decrements in the FEV1 as a percentage of predicted were seen among smokers who had heavy cumulative borax exposures (greater than or equal to 80 mg/m3 years) but were not seen among less exposed smokers or among non-smokers. Radiographic abnormalities were uncommon and were not related to dust exposure. Borax dust appears to act as a simple respiratory irritant and perhaps causes small changes in the FEV1 among smokers who are heavily exposed.

  9. Guide to industrial respiratory protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, J.A.

    1977-03-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 has increased the emphasis on proper selection and use of respirators in situations where engineering controls are not feasible or are being implemented. Although a great deal of information on respiratory protection has been published, most of it is more technical than necessary for the average user faced with day-to-day problems of respiratory protection in industrial environments. This Guide is to provide the industrial user a single reference source containing enough information for establishing and maintaining a respirator program that meets the OSHA requirements outlined in 29 CFR Part 1910.134. It includes chapters on respirator selection, use, maintenance, and inspection, a complete description of all types of respirators and their advantages and limitations, and chapters on respirator fitting and wearer training, respiratory physiology, respiratory hazards, and physiological and psychological limitations. Also included are samples of the decision logic used in respirator selection, guidance on setting up an adequate respirator program through formulation of written standard operating procedures, and discussion of the meaning of the approved respirator

  10. [Respiratory diseases in metallurgy production workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shliapnikov, D M; Vlasova, E M; Ponomareva, T A

    2012-01-01

    The authors identified features of respiratory diseases in workers of various metallurgy workshops. Cause-effect relationships are defined between occupational risk factors and respiratory diseases, with determining the affection level.

  11. Assessment of respiratory involvement in children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) are classified into seven clinical types based on eleven known lysosomal enzyme deficiencies of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) metabolism. Respiratory involvement seen in most MPS types includes recurrent respiratory infections, upper and lower airway obstruction, tracheomalacia ...

  12. Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COAL WORKERS' HEALTH SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases Coal mining-related respiratory ...

  13. Respiratory physiology during early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, J

    1999-08-01

    Despite the rapid adaptation to extrauterine life, the respiratory system of an infant is not simply a miniaturized version of that of an adult, since the rapid somatic growth that occurs during the first year of life is accompanied by major developmental changes in respiratory physiology. The highly compliant chest wall of the infant results in relatively low transpulmonary pressures at end expiration with increased tendency of the small peripheral airways to close during tidal breathing. This not only impairs gas exchange and ventilation-perfusion balance, particularly in dependent parts of the lung, but, together with the small absolute size of the airways, renders the infant and young child particularly susceptible to airway obstruction. Premature airways are highly compliant structures compared with those of mature newborns or adults. This increased compliance can cause airway collapse, resulting in increased airways resistance, flow limitation, poor gas exchange and increased work of breathing. Although there is clear evidence that airway reactivity is present from birth, its role in wheezing lower respiratory tract illnesses in young infants may be overshadowed by pre-existing abnormalities of airway geometry and lung mechanics, or by pathological changes such as airway oedema and mucus hypersecretion. Attempts to assess age-related changes in airway reactivity or response to aerosol therapy in the very young is confounded by changes in breathing patterns and the fact that infants are preferential nose breathers. There is increasing evidence that pre-existing abnormalities of respiratory function, associated with adverse events during foetal life (including maternal smoking during pregnancy), and familial predisposition to wheezing are important determinants of wheezing illnesses during the first years of life. This emphasizes the need to identify and minimize any factors that threaten the normal development of the lung during this critical period if

  14. Respiratory symptoms in insect breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Roberts, J; Fishwick, D; Tate, P; Rawbone, R; Stagg, S; Barber, C M; Adisesh, A

    2011-08-01

    A number of specialist food suppliers in the UK breed and distribute insects and insect larvae as food for exotic pets, such as reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates. To investigate the extent of work-related (WR) symptoms and workplace-specific serum IgE in workers potentially exposed to a variety of biological contaminants, including insect and insect larvae allergens, endotoxin and cereal allergens at a UK specialist insect breeding facility. We undertook a study of respiratory symptoms and exposures at the facility, with subsequent detailed clinical assessment of one worker. All 32 workers were assessed clinically using a respiratory questionnaire and lung function. Eighteen workers consented to provide serum for determination of specific IgE to workplace allergens. Thirty-four per cent (11/32) of insect workers reported WR respiratory symptoms. Sensitization, as judged by specific IgE, was found in 29% (4/14) of currently exposed workers. Total inhalable dust levels ranged from 1.2 to 17.9 mg/m(3) [mean 4.3 mg/m(3) (SD 4.4 mg/m(3)), median 2.0 mg/m(3)] and endotoxin levels of up to 29435 EU/m(3) were recorded. Exposure to organic dusts below the levels for which there are UK workplace exposure limits can result in respiratory symptoms and sensitization. The results should alert those responsible for the health of similarly exposed workers to the potential for respiratory ill-health and the need to provide a suitable health surveillance programme.

  15. Dosimetry of the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.

    1996-01-01

    A new dosimetric model of the human respiratory tract has been recently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, in ICRP Publication 66. This model was intended to update the previous lung model of the Task Group on Lung Dynamics that was adopted by ICRP in Publication 30. With this aim, extensive reviews of the available knowledge were made for anatomy and physiology of the respiratory tract and for deposition, clearance and biological effects of inhaled radionuclides. Finally, expanded dosimetry requirements resulted in a widely different approach from the former model. The main features of the new model are the followings: instead of calculating the average dose to the total mass of blood filled lung, the model takes account of differences in radiosensitivity of the venous respiratory tract tissues. It applies not only to adult workers but also to all members of the population, and provides reference values for children aged 3 months, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years, and adults. Deposition modelling of airborne gases and aerosols associates age dependent breathing rates, airway dimensions and physical activity, to particle size, density and chemical form of inhaled material. Clearance results of competition between mechanical transport clearance and absorption to blood. At each step of the calculation, adjustment guidance is provided to account for use of exact values of particle sizes and specific dissolution rates of inhaled material in order to calculate their own parameter of retention in the airways, and to assess accurately doses to the respiratory tract. Possible influence of smoking, of respiratory tract diseases and of eventual exposure to airborne toxicants is also addressed. (author)

  16. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezuka, Masaru.

    1993-01-01

    Protrusions and recesses are formed to a vacuum vessel and toroidal magnetic coils, and they are engaged. Since the vacuum vessel is generally supported firmly by a rack or the like by support legs, the toroidal magnetic field coils can be certainly supported against tumbling force. Then, there can be attained strong supports for the toroidal magnetic field coils, in addition to support by wedges on the side of inboard and support by share panels on the side of outboard, capable of withstanding great electromagnetic forces which may occur in large-scaled next-generation devices. That is, toroidal magnetic field coils excellent from a view point of deformation and stress can be obtained, to provide a thermonuclear device of higher reliability. (N.H.)

  17. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosaki, Osamu; Masuda, Kenju.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide excellent electric properties and high reliability in a thermonuclear device by improving a current collecting board connected to a coil device. Constitution: A current collecting board element perforated with an opening for enserting a connecting terminal is sized to be inserted into a plating tank, and is surface treated in the plating tank. Only the current collecting board element preferably surface treated is picked up. A plurality of such current collecting board elements are connected and welded to form a large current collecting board. In this manner, the current collecting board having several m 2 to several ten order m 2 in area can be obtained as preferably surface treated at the connecting terminal hole. The current collecting board element can be determined in shape with the existing facility without increasing the size of a surface treating tank. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Yasuomi; Takahashi, Ken; Hashimoto, Hiroshi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the plasma confining performances by bringing the irregular magnetic fields nearly to zero and decreasing the absolute value of the irregular magnetic fields at every positions. Constitution: The winding direction of a plurality of coil elements, for instance, double pan cake coils of toroidal coils in a torus type or mirror type thermonuclear device are reversed to each other in their laminating direction, whereby the irregular magnetic fields due to the coil-stepped portions in each toroidal coils are brought nearly to zero. This enables to bring the average irregular magnetic fields as a whole in the thermonuclear device nearly to zero, as well as, decrease the absolute value of the irregular magnetic fields in each positions. Thus, the plasma confining performances can be improved. (Moriyama, K.)

  19. "Distinvar" device

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1965-01-01

    The alignment of one of the accelerator magnets being checked by the AR Division survey group. A "distinvar" device, invented by the group, using calibrated invar wires stretched between the fixed survey pillar (on the left) and a fixed point on the magnet. In two days it is thus possible to measure the alignment of the 100 magnets with an accuracy better than 1/10.

  20. Latching device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, G. W. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A latching device is suited for use in establishing a substantially motionless connection between a stationary receiver and a movable latching mechanism. The latching mechanism includes a pivotally supported restraining hook continuously urged into a capturing relationship with the receiver, characterized by a spring-biased pawl having a plurality of aligned teeth. The teeth are seated in the surface of the throat of the hook and positionable into restraining engagement with a rigid restraining shoulder projected from the receiver.

  1. Prevention of Respiratory Distress After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Dolina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a comparative study of different methods for preventing respiratory distress after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. It shows the advantages of use of noninvasive assisted ventilation that ensures excessive positive pressure in the respiratory contour, its impact on external respiratory function, arterial blood gases, oxygen transport and uptake. A scheme for the prevention of respiratory diseases applying noninvasive assisted ventilation is given.

  2. CURRENT STATUS OF PROBLEM: CHILDREN WITH RECURRENT RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Bulgakova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with children suffered from recurrent respiraatory infections. The authors attempted to summarize the literature data on the research findings of inosine pranobex application (Isoa prinosine, Teva, Israel in complex therapy against virulent and inflammatory diseases. Within recent years, many experts emphaasize the persistence of viruses and other pathogenic microorganaisms in the human body, which leads to changes in reactivity and emergence of the chronic diseases. These disorders are especially urgent for sickly children, suffering from respiratory infections, what well justifies the application of bacteriogenic immunomodulaa tors, interferon synthesis inductors, expediency for incorporating immunomodulators with antiviral action into complex therapy along with special vaccination against flu, pneumococcus and etc.Key words: sickly children, acute respiratory infections, immunomodulators, inosine pranobex.

  3. Organización del trabajo y dispositivos de control en el sector automotriz: el toyotismo como sistema complejo de racionalización Labour Structure and Control Devices in the Automotive Industry: The "toyotism" as a complex rationalization system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alvarez Newman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende problematizar la concepción toyotista a partir de la descripción y el análisis del Sistema de Producción Toyota (SPT, sus principios y estrategias de aplicación. Entendemos al SPT como un sistema complejo de racionalización de la producción y de los trabajadores que opera mediante la aplicación de variados dispositivos de control técnico y social. El SPT postula ciertos principios básicos que apuntan a la mejora continua de la productividad y la calidad, poniendo en juego un andamiaje estratégico para intervenir sobre el control del tiempo y del espacio en la fábrica y sobre el control de los ritmos, movimientos y valores de los trabajadores. Estos dispositivos no operan solo como reguladores de la producción y la productividad sino que además operan como dispositivos de flexibilización de la fuerza de trabajo y dispositivos de cooptación sindical para minimizar la conflictividad laboral. Formar para contar con trabajadores involucrados con los objetivos de la empresa y con un sindicato que adhiera a la filosofía Toyota constituye un fuerte factor de productividad en el sentido en que no se verá afectado el circuito de la mejora continua.The following article intends to examine the concept of "toyotism" based on the description and analysis of the Toyota Production System (TPS and its´ principles and strategies application. We infer the TPS as a complex system which rationalizes both the production and the workers. This system works through the implementation of diverse technical and social devices. The TPS postulates certain basic principles aiming a continuous productivity and quality improvement, applying a strategic configuration to intervene in the control of the factory´s time and space as well as in the regulation of rhythms, movements and worker´s values. These devices do not only operate as production and productivity watchers, but also function as workforce flexibilization and

  4. Effects of Aging on the Respiratory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitzky, Michael G.

    1984-01-01

    Relates alterations in respiratory system functions occurring with aging to changes in respiratory system structure during the course of life. Main alterations noted include loss of alveolar elastic recoil, alteration in chest wall structure and decreased respiratory muscle strength, and loss of surface area and changes in pulmonary circulation.…

  5. 46 CFR 154.1405 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respiratory protection. 154.1405 Section 154.1405... Equipment § 154.1405 Respiratory protection. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have: (a) Respiratory protection equipment for each person on board that protects the...

  6. 46 CFR 197.550 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respiratory protection. 197.550 Section 197.550 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.550 Respiratory protection. (a) General. When the use of respirators in... section that is appropriate for the exposure. Table 197.550(b)—Respiratory Protection for Benzene Airborne...

  7. 29 CFR 1915.154 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1915.154 Section 1915.154 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... (PPE) § 1915.154 Respiratory protection. Respiratory protection for shipyard employment is covered by...

  8. 33 CFR 127.1209 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 127.1209... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Equipment § 127.1209 Respiratory protection. Each waterfront facility handling LHG must provide equipment for respiratory protection for each employee of the...

  9. An improvement of the child acute respiratory infection treatment program

    OpenAIRE

    E. N. Simovan'yan; E. E. Badalyants; L. P. Sizyakina; A. A. Lebedenko; V. B. Denisenko; M. A. Kim

    2013-01-01

    High morbidity rate, frequent development of severe complication forms, unfavorable remote effects for children’s health, insufficient efficacy of the used acute respiratory infection therapy schemes necessitate a treatment program improvement for this group of diseases. A complex clinical-laboratory examination of 72 3-6-year-old children with acute nasopharyngites and bronchites was conducted. Dependence of the disease’s clinical form and course peculiarities from the premorbid setting stat...

  10. Partnering for optimal respiratory home care: physicians working with respiratory therapists to optimally meet respiratory home care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, G; Petty, T L

    2001-05-01

    The need for respiratory care services continues to increase, reimbursement for those services has decreased, and cost-containment measures have increased the frequency of home health care. Respiratory therapists are well qualified to provide home respiratory care, reduce misallocation of respiratory services, assess patient respiratory status, identify problems and needs, evaluate the effect of the home setting, educate the patient on proper equipment use, monitor patient response to and complications of therapy, monitor equipment functioning, monitor for appropriate infection control procedures, make recommendations for changes to therapy regimen, and adjust therapy under the direction of the physician. Teamwork benefits all parties and offers cost and time savings, improved data collection and communication, higher job satisfaction, and better patient monitoring, education, and quality of life. Respiratory therapists are positioned to optimize treatment efficacy, maximize patient compliance, and minimize hospitalizations among patients receiving respiratory home care.

  11. Lightweight cryptography for constrained devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alippi, Cesare; Bogdanov, Andrey; Regazzoni, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Lightweight cryptography is a rapidly evolving research field that responds to the request for security in resource constrained devices. This need arises from crucial pervasive IT applications, such as those based on RFID tags where cost and energy constraints drastically limit the solution...... complexity, with the consequence that traditional cryptography solutions become too costly to be implemented. In this paper, we survey design strategies and techniques suitable for implementing security primitives in constrained devices....

  12. Equation Discovery for Model Identification in Respiratory Mechanics of the Mechanically Ventilated Human Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzert, Steven; Guttmann, Josef; Steinmann, Daniel; Kramer, Stefan

    Lung protective ventilation strategies reduce the risk of ventilator associated lung injury. To develop such strategies, knowledge about mechanical properties of the mechanically ventilated human lung is essential. This study was designed to develop an equation discovery system to identify mathematical models of the respiratory system in time-series data obtained from mechanically ventilated patients. Two techniques were combined: (i) the usage of declarative bias to reduce search space complexity and inherently providing the processing of background knowledge. (ii) A newly developed heuristic for traversing the hypothesis space with a greedy, randomized strategy analogical to the GSAT algorithm. In 96.8% of all runs the applied equation discovery system was capable to detect the well-established equation of motion model of the respiratory system in the provided data. We see the potential of this semi-automatic approach to detect more complex mathematical descriptions of the respiratory system from respiratory data.

  13. Dose response effect of cement dust on respiratory muscles competence in cement mill workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan A; Azeem, Muhammad A; Qureshi, Aijaz A; Ghori, G Moinudin; Al-Drees, Abdul Majeed; Feisal Subhan, Mirza Muhammad

    2006-12-01

    Electromyography (EMG) of respiratory muscles is a reliable method of assessing the ventilatory muscle function, but still its use has not been fully utilized to determine the occupational and environmental hazards on respiratory muscles. Therefore, EMG of intercostal muscles was performed to determine the dose response effect of cement dust on respiratory muscles competence. Matched cross-sectional study of EMG in 50 non-smoking cement mill workers with an age range of 20 - 60 years, who worked without the benefit of cement dust control ventilation or respiratory protective devices. EMG was performed by using surface electrodes and chart recorder. Significant reduction was observed in number of peaks (p competence and stratification of results shows a dose-effect of years of exposure in cement mill.

  14. Noncontact Detection and Analysis of Respiratory Function Using Microwave Doppler Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Siong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-time respiratory measurement with Doppler Radar has an important advantage in the monitoring of certain conditions such as sleep apnoea, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS, and many other general clinical uses requiring fast nonwearable and non-contact measurement of the respiratory function. In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility of using Doppler Radar in measuring the basic respiratory frequencies (via fast Fourier transform for four different types of breathing scenarios: normal breathing, rapid breathing, slow inhalation-fast exhalation, and fast inhalation-slow exhalation conducted in a laboratory environment. A high correlation factor was achieved between the Doppler Radar-based measurements and the conventional measurement device, a respiration strap. We also extended this work from basic signal acquisition to extracting detailed features of breathing function (I : E ratio. This facilitated additional insights into breathing activity and is likely to trigger a number of new applications in respiratory medicine.

  15. Damping device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, E.L. Jr.; Dowell, T.P.

    1976-01-01

    The description is given of a damper which includes a pair of telescopic components interconnected by relative linear movement one in relation to the other, by a screw and ball nut device, with a braking surface on one of the components, a brake engaging the braking surface, an inertia mass entrained by the other components, non-deformable and distinct brake actuating gear, independently mobile in relation to the other braking system and fixed and controlled by the inertia mass, positively to engage the braking surface. This damper is for retaining the parts of a nuclear power station so that can withstand earthquakes [fr

  16. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Toyokazu; Murata, Toru.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To shield superconducting coils for use in the generation of magnetic field against neutron irradiation thereby preventing tritium contamination. Constitution: The thermonuclear device comprises, in its inside, a vacuum container for containing plasmas, superconducting coils disposed to the outside of the vacuum container and neutron absorbers disposed between the super-conducting coils and the vacuum container. since neutrons issued from the plasma are absorbed by neutron absorbers and not irradiated to the superconducting coils, generation of tritium due to the reaction between 3 He in the liquid helium as the coolants for the super-conducting coils and the neutrons is prevented. (Aizawa, K.)

  17. Strainer device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokuya, Kenji.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a strainer device, which is adapted to facilitate flushing and is particularly suited for installation in the cooling system of a liquid metal cooled fast breeding reactor. Structure: A casing accommodating a strainer and a blind plate for the selection of a flow path is provided at a suitable portion of the duct line. The blind plate is adapted to be rotated by an opening and closing means consisting of a rod. bellows, shaft and so forth. At the time of flushing, the duct line is sealed by the blind plate. (Nakamura, S.)

  18. A Quick Reference on Respiratory Acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca A

    2017-03-01

    Respiratory acidosis, or primary hypercapnia, occurs when carbon dioxide production exceeds elimination via the lung and is mainly owing to alveolar hypoventilation. Concurrent increases in Paco 2 , decreases in pH and compensatory increases in blood HCO 3 - concentration are associated with respiratory acidosis. Respiratory acidosis can be acute or chronic, with initial metabolic compensation to increase HCO 3 - concentrations by intracellular buffering. Chronic respiratory acidosis results in longer lasting increases in renal reabsorption of HCO 3 - . Alveolar hypoventilation and resulting respiratory acidosis may also be associated with hypoxemia, especially evident when patients are inspiring room air (20.9% O 2 ). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Timely diagnosis of dairy calf respiratory disease using a standardized scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuirk, Sheila M; Peek, Simon F

    2014-12-01

    Respiratory disease of young dairy calves is a significant cause of morbidity, mortality, economic loss, and animal welfare concern but there is no gold standard diagnostic test for antemortem diagnosis. Clinical signs typically used to make a diagnosis of respiratory disease of calves are fever, cough, ocular or nasal discharge, abnormal breathing, and auscultation of abnormal lung sounds. Unfortunately, routine screening of calves for respiratory disease on the farm is rarely performed and until more comprehensive, practical and affordable respiratory disease-screening tools such as accelerometers, pedometers, appetite monitors, feed consumption detection systems, remote temperature recording devices, radiant heat detectors, electronic stethoscopes, and thoracic ultrasound are validated, timely diagnosis of respiratory disease can be facilitated using a standardized scoring system. We have developed a scoring system that attributes severity scores to each of four clinical parameters; rectal temperature, cough, nasal discharge, ocular discharge or ear position. A total respiratory score of five points or higher (provided that at least two abnormal parameters are observed) can be used to distinguish affected from unaffected calves. This can be applied as a screening tool twice-weekly to identify pre-weaned calves with respiratory disease thereby facilitating early detection. Coupled with effective treatment protocols, this scoring system will reduce post-weaning pneumonia, chronic pneumonia, and otitis media.

  20. Measurement and monitoring of electrocardiogram belt tension in premature infants for assessment of respiratory function

    OpenAIRE

    Hegyi Thomas; Hiatt Mark; Ciaccio Edward J; Drzewiecki Gary M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Monitoring of the electrocardiogram (ECG) in premature infants with conventional adhesive-backed electrodes can harm their sensitive skin. Use of an electrode belt prevents skin irritation, but the effect of belt pressure on respiratory function is unknown. A strain gauge sensor is described which measures applied belt tension. Method The device frame was comprised of an aluminum housing and slide to minimize the device weight. Velcro tabs connected housing and slide to op...

  1. Hypnosis in paediatric respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Joshua J; Vlieger, Arine M; Anbar, Ran D

    2014-03-01

    Hypnotherapy is an often misunderstood yet effective therapy. It has been reported to be useful within the field of paediatric respiratory medicine as both a primary and an adjunctive therapy. This article gives a brief overview of how hypnotherapy is performed followed by a review of its applications in paediatric patients with asthma, cystic fibrosis, dyspnea, habit cough, vocal cord dysfunction, and those requiring non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. As the available literature is comprised mostly of case series, retrospective studies, and only a single small randomized study, the field would be strengthened by additional randomized, controlled trials in order to better establish the effectiveness of hypnosis as a treatment, and to identify the processes leading to hypnosis-induced physiologic changes. As examples of the utility of hypnosis and how it can be taught to children with respiratory disease, the article includes videos that demonstrate its use for patients with cystic fibrosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Vitamin D and respiratory disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Hushmand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The active form of vitamin D is synthesized in some body organs following sun exposure and dietary intake. Vitamin D exhibits its major and critical effects not only through regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism but also by influencing on respiratory and immune system. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D below the optimum limit lead to vitamin D insufficiency or maybe deficiency. These inappropriate concentrations of vitamin D lead to different types of pulmonary diseases such as viral and bacterial respiratory infection, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer. In this review we described the association between vitamin D deficiency and severe therapy resistant asthma. We also reviewed the underlying molecular mechanism of vitamin D deficiency in children with severe- therapy resistant asthma. Based on current information, future clinical trial are needed to study the role of vitamin D supplementation on different groups of patients with severe asthma including infants, children of school age, and ethnic minorities.

  3. Extensive upper respiratory tract sarcoidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Mafalda Trindade; Sousa, Carolina; Garanito, Luísa; Freire, Filipe

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. It can affect any part of the organism, although the lung is the most frequently affected organ. Upper airway involvement is rare, particularly if isolated. Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, established by histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas and the absence of other granulomatous diseases. The authors report a case of a man with sarcoidosis manifesting as a chronic inflammatory stenotic condition of the upper respiratory tract and trachea. PMID:27090537

  4. Recurrent Respiratory Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yurochko

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers a problem of recurrent respiratory infections (RRI in children. Their description, risk factors, diagnostic algorithm have been dwelt. A special attention is paid to the treatment. An optimal antibiotic in RRI of bacterial genesis is a high-dose amoxicillin/clavulanate (registered as Augmentin™ ES in Ukraine, the efficacy of which is 94.6–96.3 % according to different data.

  5. Acute respiratory failure in asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Soubra Said; Guntupalli Kalapalatha

    2005-01-01

    Although asthma is a condition that is managed in the outpatient setting in most patients, the poorly controlled and severe cases pose a major challenge to the health-care team. Recognition of the more common insidious and the less common rapid onset "acute asphyxic" asthma are important. The intensivist needs to be familiar with the factors that denote severity of the exacerbation. The management of respiratory failure in asthma, including pharmacologic and mechanical ventilation, are discus...

  6. Zonography in acute respiratory diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druzhinina, V.S.; Fetisova, V.M.; Kozorez, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Radiography was performed in 94 patients whose initial condition was assessed as acute respiratory disease. Radioscopy with x-ray image amplifier, roentgenography and zonography were used. Pulmonary changes were found in 61 persons. In 45 of them acute pneumonia was revealed, in 16 changes in the pulmonary pattern assessed as residual manifestations of pneumonia. Changes in 30 patients with pneumonia and 16 patients with residual manifestations were detected by zonography only

  7. Respiratory failure due to tracheobronchomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, P.; Freitag, L.; Reynaert, M. S.; Rodenstein, D. O.; Francis, C.

    1996-01-01

    A case is described of tracheobronchomegaly progressing to extensive tracheomalacia, complicated by episodic choking, recurrent pulmonary infections, and irreversible hypercapnic respiratory failure. A Y-shaped tracheobronchial stent was placed endoscopically to splint the trachea open, with excellent clinical and physiological improvement. New stent designs may provide long term palliation in selected cases of diffuse tracheal collapse or stenosis, and offer an alternative to surgical repair. PMID:8711665

  8. Respiratory failure due to tracheobronchomalacia.

    OpenAIRE

    Collard, P.; Freitag, L.; Reynaert, M. S.; Rodenstein, D. O.; Francis, C.

    1996-01-01

    A case is described of tracheobronchomegaly progressing to extensive tracheomalacia, complicated by episodic choking, recurrent pulmonary infections, and irreversible hypercapnic respiratory failure. A Y-shaped tracheobronchial stent was placed endoscopically to splint the trachea open, with excellent clinical and physiological improvement. New stent designs may provide long term palliation in selected cases of diffuse tracheal collapse or stenosis, and offer an alternative to surgical repair.

  9. PIDOTIMOD IN TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION WITH CONCOMITANT RECURRENT OBSTRUCTIVE SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    E. E. Lokshina; O. V. Kravchenko; O. V. Zaytseva

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory infections are frequent in children; consequently evaluation of prophylactic effectiveness of immunomodulators is needed. Objective: to evaluate of clinical, immunological efficacy and safety of pidotimod in complex treatment of children with acute respiratory infections (ARI) and obstructive syndrome. Methods: patients 3–10 years old hospitalized with ARI and obstructive syndrome participated the study. Children from first group (n = 30) were treated with pidotimod 400 mg 2 times...

  10. Respiratory Health Effects of Air Pollution: Update on Biomass Smoke and Traffic Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Laumbach, Robert J.; Kipen, Howard M.

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that air pollution contributes to the large global burden of respiratory and allergic diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and possibly tuberculosis. Although associations between air pollution and respiratory disease are complex, recent epidemiologic studies have led to an increased recognition of the emerging importance of traffic-related air pollution in both developed and less-developed countries, as well as the continued i...

  11. Sulfur mustard and respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Feng Ru; Loke, Weng Keong

    2012-09-01

    Victims exposed to sulfur mustard (HD) in World War I and Iran-Iraq war, and those suffered occupational or accidental exposure have endured discomfort in the respiratory system at early stages after exposure, and marked general physical deterioration at late stages due to pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans or lung cancer. At molecule levels, significant changes of cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum, and of selectins (in particular sE-selectin) and soluble Fas ligand in the serum have been reported in recent studies of patients exposed to HD in Iran-Iraq war, suggesting that these molecules may be associated with the pathophysiological development of pulmonary diseases. Experimental studies in rodents have revealed that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, their product peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), nitric oxide synthase, glutathione, poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase, activating protein-1 signaling pathway are promising drug targets for preventing HD-induced toxicity, whereas N-acetyl cysteine, tocopherols, melatonin, aprotinin and many other molecules have been proved to be effective in prevention of HD-induced damage to the respiratory system in different animal models. In this paper, we will systemically review clinical and pathophysiological changes of respiratory system in victims exposed to HD in the last century, update clinicians and researchers on the mechanism of HD-induced acute and chronic lung damages, and on the relevant drug targets for future development of antidotes for HD. Further research directions will also be proposed.

  12. Respiratory analysis system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A system is described for monitoring the respiratory process in which the gas flow rate and the frequency of respiration and expiration cycles can be determined on a real time basis. A face mask is provided with one-way inlet and outlet valves where the gas flow is through independent flowmeters and through a mass spectrometer. The opening and closing of a valve operates an electrical switch, and the combination of the two switches produces a low frequency electrical signal of the respiratory inhalation and exhalation cycles. During the time a switch is operated, the corresponsing flowmeter produces electric pulses representative of the flow rate; the electrical pulses being at a higher frequency than that of the breathing cycle and combined with the low frequency signal. The high frequency pulses are supplied to conventional analyzer computer which also receives temperature and pressure inputs and computes mass flow rate and totalized mass flow of gas. From the mass spectrometer, components of the gas are separately computed as to flow rate. The electrical switches cause operation of up-down inputs of a reversible counter. The respective up and down cycles can be individually monitored and combined for various respiratory measurements.

  13. Synchrony - Cyberknife Respiratory Compensation Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozhasoglu, Cihat; Saw, Cheng B.; Chen Hungcheng; Burton, Steven; Komanduri, Krishna; Yue, Ning J.; Huq, Saiful M.; Heron, Dwight E.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of organs in the thorax and abdomen have shown that these organs can move as much as 40 mm due to respiratory motion. Without compensation for this motion during the course of external beam radiation therapy, the dose coverage to target may be compromised. On the other hand, if compensation of this motion is by expansion of the margin around the target, a significant volume of normal tissue may be unnecessarily irradiated. In hypofractionated regimens, the issue of respiratory compensation becomes an important factor and is critical in single-fraction extracranial radiosurgery applications. CyberKnife is an image-guided radiosurgery system that consists of a 6-MV LINAC mounted to a robotic arm coupled through a control loop to a digital diagnostic x-ray imaging system. The robotic arm can point the beam anywhere in space with 6 degrees of freedom, without being constrained to a conventional isocenter. The CyberKnife has been recently upgraded with a real-time respiratory tracking and compensation system called Synchrony. Using external markers in conjunction with diagnostic x-ray images, Synchrony helps guide the robotic arm to move the radiation beam in real time such that the beam always remains aligned with the target. With the aid of Synchrony, the tumor motion can be tracked in three-dimensional space, and the motion-induced dosimetric change to target can be minimized with a limited margin. The working principles, advantages, limitations, and our clinical experience with this new technology will be discussed

  14. Scalable devices

    KAUST Repository

    Krüger, Jens J.

    2014-01-01

    In computer science in general and in particular the field of high performance computing and supercomputing the term scalable plays an important role. It indicates that a piece of hardware, a concept, an algorithm, or an entire system scales with the size of the problem, i.e., it can not only be used in a very specific setting but it\\'s applicable for a wide range of problems. From small scenarios to possibly very large settings. In this spirit, there exist a number of fixed areas of research on scalability. There are works on scalable algorithms, scalable architectures but what are scalable devices? In the context of this chapter, we are interested in a whole range of display devices, ranging from small scale hardware such as tablet computers, pads, smart-phones etc. up to large tiled display walls. What interests us mostly is not so much the hardware setup but mostly the visualization algorithms behind these display systems that scale from your average smart phone up to the largest gigapixel display walls.

  15. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Takuro; Maki, Koichi.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a thermonuclear device, in which integrity of a measuring device is kept, the reactor wall temperature and wear of armour materials are monitored accurately even under intense radiation rays, so that the flow rate of coolants and plasma power can be controlled by using the signals. Infrared rays generated from the surface of the armour materials disposed on a first wall are detected to measure the reactor wall temperature. Coolant flow rate and plasma power are controlled based on the obtained reactor wall temperature. In addition, infrared rays generated from the back of the armour materials are detected to obtain the surface temperature in order to avoid intense radiation rays from plasmas. The coolant flow rate and the plasma power are controlled based on the obtained temperature on the surface of the reactor thereby controlling the temperature of the first wall and the armour material to 300degC or lower in a case of the first wall made of stainless steel and 1000degC or lower in a case of the armour material made of graphite. (I.S.)

  16. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Furuyama, Masayuki; Saito, Ryusei.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable the efficient and rapid cooling of a vacuum vessel by cooling with gas when the temperature of the vacuum vessel is higher than the boiling point of water and cooling with water when the temperature is lower than the boiling point of water. Constitution: A cooling pipe is provided through an insulating pipe on the outer periphery of a vacuum vessel. The cooling pipe communicates through a cooling gas valve and a coolant valve with a cooling gas supply device and a coolant supply device, and a heat exchanger is disposed at the pipe. When the vessel is higher than the boiling point of the coolant the coolant valve is closed and the cooling gas valve is opened and gas is supplied to cool the vessel. The gas is recoverd through a heat exchanger. On the other hand, when the temperature of vessel is lower than the boiling point of the coolant, the gas valve is closed, the coolant valve is opened, and the vessel is cooled with coolant. The vacuum vessel can be cooled for short time employing both the gas and the coolant together. (Yoshino, Y.)

  17. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Hirohisa; Nakamoto, Kazunari; Hanai, Satoshi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To provide coils of high mechanical strength for use at the center of a torus type thermonuclear device. Constitution: A plurality of copper plates having cooling holes and bolt holes and insulation paper sheets of the same shape are prepared. The copper plate is different from the insulation paper sheet only in that the position-phase angle of the opening portion is larger by 15 - 30 0 . The copper plates and the insulation paper sheets are alternately stacked by a required number of turns while displacing the angle, and then clamped by bolts to form a mechanically strong coil with no metallurgical joining. Further, since the insulation paper sheets are not present in the radial direction and only one insulation paper sheet is inserted for each turn in the direction of the coil height, the space occupied by the coil can be decreased. According to this invention, the magnetic flux density at the center of the device can be increased as compared with the conventional case to thereby apply a higher voltage on the side of plasmas. (Moriyama, K.)

  18. Irradiation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshimitsu.

    1989-01-01

    In an irradiation device for irradiating radiation rays such as electron beams to pharmaceuticals, etc., since the distribution of scanned electron rays was not monitored, the electron beam intensity could be determined only indirectly and irradiation reliability was not satisfactory. In view of the above, a plurality of monitor wires emitting secondary electrons are disposed in the scanning direction near a beam take-out window of a scanning duct, signals from the monitor wires are inputted into a display device such as a cathode ray tube, as well as signals from the monitor wires at the central portion are inputted into counting rate meters to measure the radiation dose as well. Since secondary electrons are emitted when electron beams pass through the monitor wires and the intensity thereof is in proportion with the intensity of incident electron beams, the distribution of the radiation dose can be monitored by measuring the intensity of the emitted secondary electrons. Further, uneven irradiation, etc. can also be monitored to make the radiation of irradiation rays reliable. (N.H.)

  19. Advances in Remote Respiratory Assessments for People with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroi, Sidney; McNamara, Renae J; McKenzie, David K; Gandevia, Simon; Brodie, Matthew A

    2018-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of mortality. Advances in remote technologies and telemedicine provide new ways to monitor respiratory function and improve chronic disease management. However, telemedicine does not always include remote respiratory assessments, and the current state of knowledge for people with COPD has not been evaluated. Systematically review the use of remote respiratory assessments in people with COPD, including the following questions: What devices have been used? Can acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) be predicted by using remote devices? Do remote respiratory assessments improve health-related outcomes? The review protocol was registered (PROSPERO 2016:CRD42016049333). MEDLINE, EMBASE, and COMPENDEX databases were searched for studies that included remote respiratory assessments in people with COPD. A narrative synthesis was then conducted by two reviewers according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Forced expiratory volume assessed daily by using a spirometer was the most common modality. Other measurements included resting respiratory rate, respiratory sounds, and end-tidal carbon dioxide level. Remote assessments had high user satisfaction. Benefits included early detection of AECOPD, improved health-related outcomes, and the ability to replace hospital care with a virtual ward. Remote respiratory assessments are feasible and when combined with sufficient organizational backup can improve health-related outcomes in some but not all cohorts. Future research should focus on the early detection, intervention, and rehabilitation for AECOPD in high-risk people who have limited access to best care and investigate continuous as well as intermittent monitoring.

  20. Programmable segmented volumetric modulated arc therapy for respiratory coordination in pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jian-Kuen; Wu, Chien-Jang; Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien

    2012-01-01

    We programmably divided long-arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) into split short arcs, each taking less than 30 s for respiratory coordination. The VMAT plans of five pancreatic cancer patients were modified; the short-arc plans had negligible dose differences and satisfied the 3%/3-mm gamma index on a MapCHECK-2 device.

  1. A Systematic Review of Tools to Measure Respiratory Rate in Order to Identify Childhood Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Amy Sarah; Lenahan, Jennifer L; Izadnegahdar, Rasa; Ansermino, J Mark

    2018-05-01

    Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of death in children worldwide, with most deaths occurring in developing countries. Measuring respiratory rate is critical to the World Health Organization's guidelines for diagnosing childhood pneumonia in low-resource settings, yet it is difficult to accurately measure. We conducted a systematic review to landscape existing respiratory rate measurement technologies. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Compendex for studies published through September 2017 assessing the accuracy of respiratory rate measurement technologies in children. We identified 16 studies: 2 describing manual devices and 14 describing automated devices. Although both studies describing manual devices took place in low-resource settings, all studies describing automated devices were conducted in well-resourced settings. Direct comparison between studies was complicated by small sample size, absence of a consistent reference standard, and variations in comparison methodology. There is an urgent need for affordable and appropriate innovations that can reliably measure a child's respiratory rate in low-resource settings. Accelerating development or scale-up of these technologies could have the potential to advance childhood pneumonia diagnosis worldwide.

  2. The obligate respiratory supercomplex from Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Wei-Chun; Kleinschroth, Thomas; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Baymann, Frauke; Neehaul, Yashvin; Hellwig, Petra; Richers, Sebastian; Vonck, Janet; Bott, Michael; Hunte, Carola

    2016-10-01

    Actinobacteria are closely linked to human life as industrial producers of bioactive molecules and as human pathogens. Respiratory cytochrome bcc complex and cytochrome aa3 oxidase are key components of their aerobic energy metabolism. They form a supercomplex in the actinobacterial species Corynebacterium glutamicum. With comprehensive bioinformatics and phylogenetic analysis we show that genes for cyt bcc-aa3 supercomplex are characteristic for Actinobacteria (Actinobacteria and Acidimicrobiia, except the anaerobic orders Actinomycetales and Bifidobacteriales). An obligatory supercomplex is likely, due to the lack of genes encoding alternative electron transfer partners such as mono-heme cyt c. Instead, subunit QcrC of bcc complex, here classified as short di-heme cyt c, will provide the exclusive electron transfer link between the complexes as in C. glutamicum. Purified to high homogeneity, the C. glutamicum bcc-aa3 supercomplex contained all subunits and cofactors as analyzed by SDS-PAGE, BN-PAGE, absorption and EPR spectroscopy. Highly uniform supercomplex particles in electron microscopy analysis support a distinct structural composition. The supercomplex possesses a dimeric stoichiometry with a ratio of a-type, b-type and c-type hemes close to 1:1:1. Redox titrations revealed a low potential bcc complex (Em(ISP)=+160mV, Em(bL)=-291mV, Em(bH)=-163mV, Em(cc)=+100mV) fined-tuned for oxidation of menaquinol and a mixed potential aa3 oxidase (Em(CuA)=+150mV, Em(a/a3)=+143/+317mV) mediating between low and high redox potential to accomplish dioxygen reduction. The generated molecular model supports a stable assembled supercomplex with defined architecture which permits energetically efficient coupling of menaquinol oxidation and dioxygen reduction in one supramolecular entity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of the respiratory chain of Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, M; Andersen, L P; Zhai, L

    1999-01-01

    reductase was inhibited by antimycin, implying the presence of a classical pathway from complex II to complex III in this bacterium. The presence of NADH-fumarate reductase (FRD) was demonstrated in H. pylori and fumarate could reduce H2O2 production from NADH, indicating fumarate to be an endogenous......-dependent respiration was significantly stronger than NADH-dependent respiration, indicating that this is a major respiratory electron donor in H. pylori. Fumarate and malonate exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the activity of succinate dehydrogenase. The activity of succinate-cytochrome c...

  4. Ontology-Based Device Descriptions and Device Repository for Building Automation Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibowski Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Device descriptions play an important role in the design and commissioning of modern building automation systems and help reducing the design time and costs. However, all established device descriptions are specialized for certain purposes and suffer from several weaknesses. This hinders a further design automation, which is strongly needed for the more and more complex building automation systems. To overcome these problems, this paper presents novel Ontology-based Device Descriptions (ODDs along with a layered ontology architecture, a specific ontology view approach with virtual properties, a generic access interface, a triple store-based database backend, and a generic search mask GUI with underlying query generation algorithm. It enables a formal, unified, and extensible specification of building automation devices, ensures their comparability, and facilitates a computer-enabled retrieval, selection, and interoperability evaluation, which is essential for an automated design. The scalability of the approach to several ten thousand devices is demonstrated.

  5. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  6. Neonatal respiratory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) referrals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    El-Khuffash, A

    2011-03-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a complex technique for providing life support in neonatal respiratory failure. T UK Collaborative ECMO trial demonstrated cost-effectiveness and substantial improvements in neurological morbidity and mortality. Currently, infants requiring ECMO in Ireland are referred to one of various centres in the UK and Scandinavia. We aimed to review the number of infants referred from Ireland for respiratory ECMO. All infants with a non-cardiac condition referred from Ireland for ECMO were reviewed for diagnosis and outcomes. Eleven infants required ECMO between June 2006 and January 2009 and were referred to the Scandinavian team for ECMO transport although one infant improved and did not require ECMO following the arrival of the team. Four infants died: one infant died prior to arrival of the ECMO team, 3 infants had fatal diagnoses and one infant with congenital diaphragmatic hernia received pre-op ECMO. The median (inter-quartile range) gestational age was 39.7 (38.3-40.7) weeks and birth weight of 3.7 (3.2-4.0) kg. The median age at the decision to transfer for ECMO was 13h (4-123) and the team arrived at 23 h (12-132). All infants had a normal cranial ultrasound and echo prior to ECMO and 2 infants had an abnormal MRI post-ECMO. The time on ECMO was 9 days (3-17) and total length of hospital stay was 32 d (23-36). There were no pre-ECMO clinical or biochemical

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of the coronary arteries : clinical results from three dimensional evaluation of a respiratory gated technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geuns, R J; de Bruin, H G; Rensing, B J; Wielopolski, P A; Hulshoff, M D; van Ooijen, P M; Oudkerk, M; de Feyter, P J

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance coronary angiography is challenging because of the motion of the vessels during cardiac contraction and respiration. Additional challenges are the small calibre of the arteries and their complex three dimensional course. Respiratory gating, turboflash acquisition, and

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of the coronary arteries: clinical results from three dimensional evaluation of a respiratory gated technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.M. van Geuns (Robert Jan); H.G. de Bruin (Hein); B.J.W.M. Rensing (Benno); P.A. Wielopolski (Piotr); M.D. Hulshoff; P.M.A. van Ooijen (Peter); M. Oudkerk (Matthijs); P.J. de Feyter (Pim)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance coronary angiography is challenging because of the motion of the vessels during cardiac contraction and respiration. Additional challenges are the small calibre of the arteries and their complex three dimensional course. Respiratory

  9. A new paradigm in respiratory hygiene: modulating respiratory secretions to contain cough bioaerosol without affecting mucus clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonilla Gloria

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several strategies and devices have been designed to protect health care providers from acquiring transmissible respiratory diseases while providing care. In modulating the physical characteristics of the respiratory secretions to minimize the aerosolization that facilitates transmission of airborne diseases, a fundamental premise is that the prototype drugs have no adverse effect on the first line of respiratory defense, clearance of mucus by ciliary action. Methods To assess and demonstrate the primary mechanism of our mucomodulators (XLs, we have built our evidence moving from basic laboratory studies to an ex-vivo model and then to an in-vivo large animal model. We exposed anesthetized dogs without hypersecretion to different dose concentrations of aerosolized XL "B", XL "D" and XL "S". We assessed: cardio-respiratory pattern, tracheal mucus clearance, airway patency, and mucus viscoelastic changes. Results Exposure of frog palate mucus to XLs did not affect the clearance of mucus by ciliary action. Dogs maintained normal cardio-respiratory pattern with XL administration. Tracheal mucociliary clearance in anesthetized dogs indicated a sustained 40% mean increase. Tracheal mucus showed increased filance, and there was no mucus retention in the airways. Conclusion The ex-vivo frog palate and the in-vivo mammalian models used in this study, appear to be appropriate and complement each other to better assess the effects that our mucomodulators exert on the mucociliary clearance defence mechanism. The physiological function of the mucociliary apparatus was not negatively affected in any of the two epithelial models. Airway mucus crosslinked by mucomodulators is better cleared from an intact airway and normally functioning respiratory system, either due to enhanced interaction with cilia or airflow-dependent mechanisms. Data obtained in this study allow us to assure that we have complied with the fundamental requirement

  10. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuyama, Masayuki.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To provide the subject device wherein a conductive short-circuiting ring is installed in the vicinity of the bonded part of bellows and thick portion of vacuum vessel in the small circumferential direction of torus, thereby to reduce the electromagnetic force generated at the bellows. Constitution: A conductive short-circuiting ring is provided in the vicinity of the connected part of a thick portion and bellows portion. By this organization, a saddle type current generated at the thick portion by a vertical magnetic field flows through the short-circuiting ring because the resistance at a part where the short-circuiting ring is provided is reduced, and the current flowing through the bellows is remarkably reduced. For this reason, the electromagnetic force generated at the bellows is reduced thereby to prevent the bellows from being destroyed by the electromagnetic force. (Yoshihara, H.)

  11. Electrophoresis device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, P. H.; Snyder, R. S. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A device for separating cellular particles of a sample substance into fractionated streams of different cellular species includes a casing having a distribution chamber, a separation chamber, and a collection chamber. The electrode chambers are separated from the separation chamber interior by means of passages such that flow variations and membrane variations around the slotted portion of the electrode chamber do not enduce flow perturbations into the laminar buffer curtain flowing in the separation chamber. The cellular particles of the sample are separated under the influence of the electrical field and the separation chamber into streams of different cellular species. The streams of separated cells enter a partition array in the collection chamber where they are fractionated and collected.

  12. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shohei

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain high voltage withstanding current introduction terminals not suffering from the effects of the reduction in the creeping voltage withstanding property by the application of magnetic fields. Constitution: This invention concerns a current introduction terminal for supplying electric current to coils for use in a thermonuclear device, etc. The conductor of the current introduction terminal on the side of vacuum is completely covered with solid insulator. This can eliminate the portion of securing the creeping withstanding voltage. The voltage withstanding characteristics of the solid insulator covering the portion of the conductor on the side of vacuum has a constant value irrespective of the atmosphere or the absence or presence of magnetic fields. Accordingly, the voltage withstanding characteristics of the current introduction terminal on the side of vacuum are determined by the property of the solid insulator, which is not reduced by the application of magnetic fields. (Ikeda, J.)

  13. Surfactant Protein D in Respiratory and Non-Respiratory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Grith L.

    2018-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a multimeric collectin that is involved in innate immune defense and expressed in pulmonary, as well as non-pulmonary, epithelia. SP-D exerts antimicrobial effects and dampens inflammation through direct microbial interactions and modulation of host cell responses via a series of cellular receptors. However, low protein concentrations, genetic variation, biochemical modification, and proteolytic breakdown can induce decomposition of multimeric SP-D into low-molecular weight forms, which may induce pro-inflammatory SP-D signaling. Multimeric SP-D can decompose into trimeric SP-D, and this process, and total SP-D levels, are partly determined by variation within the SP-D gene, SFTPD. SP-D has been implicated in the development of respiratory diseases including respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, allergic asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Disease-induced breakdown or modifications of SP-D facilitate its systemic leakage from the lung, and circulatory SP-D is a promising biomarker for lung injury. Moreover, studies in preclinical animal models have demonstrated that local pulmonary treatment with recombinant SP-D is beneficial in these diseases. In recent years, SP-D has been shown to exert antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects in various non-pulmonary organs and to have effects on lipid metabolism and pro-inflammatory effects in vessel walls, which enhance the risk of atherosclerosis. A common SFTPD polymorphism is associated with atherosclerosis and diabetes, and SP-D has been associated with metabolic disorders because of its effects in the endothelium and adipocytes and its obesity-dampening properties. This review summarizes and discusses the reported genetic associations of SP-D with disease and the clinical utility of circulating SP-D for respiratory disease prognosis. Moreover, basic research on the mechanistic links between SP-D and respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases

  14. Safety device of thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Isao; Ueda, Shuzo; Seki, Yasushi; Sakurai, Akiko; Kasahara, Fumio; Obara, Atsushi; Yamauchi, Michinori.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a safety device against an event of intrusion of coolants in a vacuum vessel. Namely, a coolant supply system comprises cooling tubes for supplying coolants to main reactor structure components including a vacuum vessel. A detection means detects leakage of coolants in the vacuum vessel. A coolant supply control means controls the supply of coolants to the main reactor structural components based on the leakage detection signals of the detection means. A stagnated material discharging means discharges stagnated materials in the main reactor structural components caused by the leakage of coolants. The leakage of coolants (for example, water) in the vacuum vessel can thus be detected by the water detection device in the vacuum vessel. A control value of a coolant supply means is closed by the leakage detection signals. The supply of coolants to the main reactor structural components is restricted to suppress the leakage. The stagnated materials are discharged to a tank by way of a water draining valve. (I.S.)

  15. Air pollution and multiple acute respiratory outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustini, Annunziata; Stafoggia, Massimo; Colais, Paola; Berti, Giovanna; Bisanti, Luigi; Cadum, Ennio; Cernigliaro, Achille; Mallone, Sandra; Scarnato, Corrado; Forastiere, Francesco

    2013-08-01

    Short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory mortality and morbidity have been consistently reported but usually studied separately. To more completely assess air pollution effects, we studied hospitalisations for respiratory diseases together with out-of-hospital respiratory deaths. A time-stratified case-crossover study was carried out in six Italian cities from 2001 to 2005. Daily particulate matter (particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm (PM10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) associations with hospitalisations for respiratory diseases (n = 100 690), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 38 577), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) among COPD patients (n = 9886) and out-of-hospital respiratory deaths (n = 5490) were estimated for residents aged ≥35 years. For an increase of 10 μg·m(-3) in PM10, we found an immediate 0.59% (lag 0-1 days) increase in hospitalisations for respiratory diseases and a 0.67% increase for COPD; the 1.91% increase in LRTI hospitalisations lasted longer (lag 0-3 days) and the 3.95% increase in respiratory mortality lasted 6 days. Effects of NO2 were stronger and lasted longer (lag 0-5 days). Age, sex and previous ischaemic heart disease acted as effect modifiers for different outcomes. Analysing multiple rather than single respiratory events shows stronger air pollution effects. The temporal relationship between the pollutant increases and hospitalisations or mortality for respiratory diseases differs.

  16. Respiratory gated radiotherapy: current techniques and potential benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.; Campana, F.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Cosset, J.M.; Reboul, F.; Garcia, R.; Clippe, S.; Carrie, C.; Dubray, B.

    2003-01-01

    Respiration-gated radiotherapy offers a significant potential for improvement in the irradiation of tumor sites affected by respiratory motion such as lung, breast and liver tumors. An increased conformality of irradiation fields leading to decreased complications rates of organs at risk (lung, heart...) is expected. Respiratory gating is in line with the need for improved precision required by radiotherapy techniques such as 3D conformal radiotherapy or intensity modulated radiotherapy. Reduction of respiratory motion can be achieved by using either breath hold techniques or respiration synchronized gating techniques. Breath-hold techniques can be achieved with active, in which airflow of the patient is temporarily blocked by a valve, or passive techniques, in which the patient voluntarily breath-hold. Synchronized gating techniques use external devices to predict the phase of the respiration cycle while the patient breaths freely. These techniques presently investigated in several medical centers worldwide. Although promising, the first results obtained in lung and liver cancer patients require confirmation. Physical, technical and physiological questions still remain to be answered. This paper describes the most frequently used gated techniques and the main published clinical reports on the use of respiration-gated radiotherapy in order to evaluate the impact of these techniques. (author)

  17. Respiratory Support for Pharmacologically Induced Hypoxia in Neonatal Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Donnelly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Practical methods to provide respiratory support to bovine neonates in a field setting are poorly characterised. This study evaluated the response of healthy neonatal calves with pharmacologically induced respiratory suppression to nasal oxygen insufflation and to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP delivered via an off-the-shelf device. Ten calves were randomised to receive either nasal oxygen insufflation (Group 1, n=5 or CPAP (Group 2, n=5 as a first treatment after induction of respiratory depression by intravenous administration of xylazine, fentanyl, and diazepam. Calves received the alternate treatment after 10 minutes of breathing ambient air. Arterial blood gas samples were obtained prior to sedation, following sedation, following the first and second treatment, and after breathing ambient air before and after the second treatment. Oxygen insufflation significantly increased arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2 but was also associated with significant hypercapnia. When used as the first treatment, CPAP was associated with significantly decreased arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide but did not increase PaO2. These results suggest that the use of CPAP may represent a practical method for correction of hypercapnia associated with inadequate ventilation in a field setting, and further research is required to characterise the use of CPAP with increased inspired oxygen concentrations.

  18. Increased vocal intensity due to the Lombard effect in speakers with Parkinson's disease: simultaneous laryngeal and respiratory strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, Elaine T; Huber, Jessica E; Richardson, Kelly; Kamphaus, Jennifer; DeCicco, Devan; Darling, Meghan; Fulcher, Katrina; Sussman, Joan E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether speakers with hypophonia, secondary to Parkinson's disease (PD), would increases their vocal intensity when speaking in a noisy environment (Lombard effect). The other objective was to examine the underlying laryngeal and respiratory strategies used to increase vocal intensity. Thirty-three participants with PD were included for study. Each participant was fitted with the SpeechVive™ device that played multi-talker babble noise into one ear during speech. Using acoustic, aerodynamic and respiratory kinematic techniques, the simultaneous laryngeal and respiratory mechanisms used to regulate vocal intensity were examined. Significant group results showed that most speakers with PD (26/33) were successful at increasing their vocal intensity when speaking in the condition of multi-talker babble noise. They were able to support their increased vocal intensity and subglottal pressure with combined strategies from both the laryngeal and respiratory mechanisms. Individual speaker analysis indicated that the particular laryngeal and respiratory interactions differed among speakers. The SpeechVive™ device elicited higher vocal intensities from patients with PD. Speakers used different combinations of laryngeal and respiratory physiologic mechanisms to increase vocal intensity, thus suggesting that disease process does not uniformly affect the speech subsystems. Readers will be able to: (1) identify speech characteristics of people with Parkinson's disease (PD), (2) identify typical respiratory strategies for increasing sound pressure level (SPL), (3) identify typical laryngeal strategies for increasing SPL, (4) define the Lombard effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Visual aided pacing in respiratory maneuvers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambaudi, L R [Laboratorio de Biofisica y Fisiologia ' Antonio Sadi Frumento' (Argentina); Rossi, E [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina); Mantaras, M C [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina); Perrone, M S [Laboratorio de Biofisica y Fisiologia ' Antonio Sadi Frumento' (Argentina); Siri, L Nicola [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    A visual aid to pace self-controlled respiratory cycles in humans is presented. Respiratory manoeuvres need to be accomplished in several clinic and research procedures, among others, the studies on Heart Rate Variability. Free running respiration turns to be difficult to correlate with other physiologic variables. Because of this fact, voluntary self-control is asked from the individuals under study. Currently, an acoustic metronome is used to pace respiratory frequency, its main limitation being the impossibility to induce predetermined timing in the stages within the respiratory cycle. In the present work, visual driven self-control was provided, with separate timing for the four stages of a normal respiratory cycle. This visual metronome (ViMet) was based on a microcontroller which power-ON and -OFF an eight-LED bar, in a four-stage respiratory cycle time series handset by the operator. The precise timing is also exhibited on an alphanumeric display.

  20. Visual aided pacing in respiratory maneuvers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambaudi, L R; Rossi, E; Mantaras, M C; Perrone, M S; Siri, L Nicola

    2007-01-01

    A visual aid to pace self-controlled respiratory cycles in humans is presented. Respiratory manoeuvres need to be accomplished in several clinic and research procedures, among others, the studies on Heart Rate Variability. Free running respiration turns to be difficult to correlate with other physiologic variables. Because of this fact, voluntary self-control is asked from the individuals under study. Currently, an acoustic metronome is used to pace respiratory frequency, its main limitation being the impossibility to induce predetermined timing in the stages within the respiratory cycle. In the present work, visual driven self-control was provided, with separate timing for the four stages of a normal respiratory cycle. This visual metronome (ViMet) was based on a microcontroller which power-ON and -OFF an eight-LED bar, in a four-stage respiratory cycle time series handset by the operator. The precise timing is also exhibited on an alphanumeric display

  1. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shohei.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the plasma confining efficiency in a thermonuclear device having magnet coils using super-conducting wires by decreasing the uneven magnetic field resulted from current supply terminals and wirings. Constitution: Current introduction terminals of magnet coils using superconducting wires are short circuitted with a superconducting short circuit wire. Upon supplying current to the coils, the resistance of the coils is rendered superconductive and the resistance of the short circuit wire is rendered normally conductive heated by a heater and the switch is closed. In this case, most parts of the current are flown through the resistance of the coils and the switch is opened when the current arrives at a predetermined value to render the resistance of the short circuit wire superconductive. Then, the current transfers from the thyristor power source to the resistance of the short circuit wire, whereby the resistance of the coils and that of the short circuit wire from a permanent current loop. In this conditions, since current flows through the short circuit wire and the coils and not to the current introduction terminals, no uniform magnetic field is generated. (Kawakami, Y.)

  2. Reluctance device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claridge, A.N.; Smith, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    A reluctance device comprises two or more phases, each of which has a rotor mounted for rotation within a tubular member and an annular stator positioned externally of the tubular member. The rotor and the internal surface of the tubular member are each provided with aligned, axially spaced apart annular arrays of teeth, the teeth on the rotor confronting those on the tubular member in radially spaced apart relationship. The stator encloses a coil which, when electrically energised, creates a plurality of magnetic flux paths each of which extends radially between the rotor and stator via the confronting teeth and the tubular member, and axially along both the rotor and the portion of the stator located radially outwardly of the coil. The portion of the tubular member intermediate the teeth thereon is provided with a non-magnetic insert in order to resist the axial passage of magnetic flux therethrough. In one of the claims, the tubular member comprises a portion of a nuclear reactor which is adapted to contain a reactor control rod, the rotor constituting a portion of the drive mechanism for the control rod contained in operation within the tubular member. (author)

  3. Protection device for a thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Shuichi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To exactly detect the void coefficients of coolants even under high magnetic fields thereby detect the overheat of a thermonuclear device at an early stage. Constitution: The protecting device of this invention comprises a laser beam generation device, a laser beam detection device and an accident detection device. The laser generation device always generates laser beams, which are permeated through coolants and detected by the laser beam detection device, the optical amount of which is transmitted to the accident detection device. The accident detection device judges the excess or insufficiency of the detected optical amount with respect to the optical amount of the laser beams under the stationary state as a reference and issues an accident signal. Since only the optical cables that do not undergo the effect of the magnetic fields are exposed to high magnetic fields in the protection device of this invention, a high reliability can be maintained. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. Air-Flow-Driven Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Self-Powered Real-Time Respiratory Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Jiahao; Tang, Yingjie; Li, Jun; Zhang, Baosen; Liang, Erjun; Mao, Yanchao; Wang, Xudong

    2018-06-04

    Respiration is one of the most important vital signs of humans, and respiratory monitoring plays an important role in physical health management. A low-cost and convenient real-time respiratory monitoring system is extremely desirable. In this work, we demonstrated an air-flow-driven triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) for self-powered real-time respiratory monitoring by converting mechanical energy of human respiration into electric output signals. The operation of the TENG was based on the air-flow-driven vibration of a flexible nanostructured polytetrafluoroethylene (n-PTFE) thin film in an acrylic tube. This TENG can generate distinct real-time electric signals when exposed to the air flow from different breath behaviors. It was also found that the accumulative charge transferred in breath sensing corresponds well to the total volume of air exchanged during the respiration process. Based on this TENG device, an intelligent wireless respiratory monitoring and alert system was further developed, which used the TENG signal to directly trigger a wireless alarm or dial a cell phone to provide timely alerts in response to breath behavior changes. This research offers a promising solution for developing self-powered real-time respiratory monitoring devices.

  5. Cognitive streaming on android devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres Vega, M.; Mocanu, D.C.; Barresi, R.; Fortino, G.; Liotta, A.

    2015-01-01

    As the number of mobile devices increases, so do the complexity of wireless networks and the user's requirements. This tendency makes necessary for Multimedia Services to take the needed actions to adapt to the upcoming technology. A prominent example of this type of services is HTTP Adaptive Video

  6. Year in Review 2015: Neonatal Respiratory Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Sherry E

    2016-04-01

    Neonatal respiratory care practices have changed with breathtaking speed in the past few years. It is critical for the respiratory therapist and others caring for neonates to be up to date with current recommendations and evolving care practices. The purpose of this article is to review papers of particular note that were published in 2015 and address important aspects of newborn respiratory care. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  7. Measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters.

    OpenAIRE

    White, M C; Baker, E L

    1988-01-01

    The prevalence of different measurements of respiratory illness among construction painters was examined and the relation between respiratory illness and employment as a painter assessed in a cross sectional study of current male members of two local affiliates of a large international union of painters. Respiratory illness was measured by questionnaire and spirometry. Longer employment as a painter was associated with increased prevalence of chronic obstructive disease and an interactive eff...

  8. Respiratory Frequency during Exercise: The Neglected Physiological Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Nicolò

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of wearable sensor technology for athlete training monitoring is growing exponentially, but some important measures and related wearable devices have received little attention so far. Respiratory frequency (fR, for example, is emerging as a valuable measurement for training monitoring. Despite the availability of unobtrusive wearable devices measuring fR with relatively good accuracy, fR is not commonly monitored during training. Yet fR is currently measured as a vital sign by multiparameter wearable devices in the military field, clinical settings, and occupational activities. When these devices have been used during exercise, fR was used for limited applications like the estimation of the ventilatory threshold. However, more information can be gained from fR. Unlike heart rate, V˙O2, and blood lactate, fR is strongly associated with perceived exertion during a variety of exercise paradigms, and under several experimental interventions affecting performance like muscle fatigue, glycogen depletion, heat exposure and hypoxia. This suggests that fR is a strong marker of physical effort. Furthermore, unlike other physiological variables, fR responds rapidly to variations in workload during high-intensity interval training (HIIT, with potential important implications for many sporting activities. This Perspective article aims to (i present scientific evidence supporting the relevance of fR for training monitoring; (ii critically revise possible methodologies to measure fR and the accuracy of currently available respiratory wearables; (iii provide preliminary indication on how to analyze fR data. This viewpoint is expected to advance the field of training monitoring and stimulate directions for future development of sports wearables.

  9. A Wearable Respiratory Biofeedback System Based on Generalized Body Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guan-Zheng; Huang, Bang-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Wearable medical devices have enabled unobtrusive monitoring of vital signs and emerging biofeedback services in a pervasive manner. This article describes a wearable respiratory biofeedback system based on a generalized body sensor network (BSN) platform. The compact BSN platform was tailored for the strong requirements of overall system optimizations. A waist-worn biofeedback device was designed using the BSN. Extensive bench tests have shown that the generalized BSN worked as intended. In-situ experiments with 22 subjects indicated that the biofeedback device was discreet, easy to wear, and capable of offering wearable respiratory trainings. Pilot studies on wearable training patterns and resultant heart rate variability suggested that paced respirations at abdominal level and with identical inhaling/exhaling ratio were more appropriate for decreasing sympathetic arousal and increasing parasympathetic activities. PMID:21545293

  10. Standardization of splash device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Raga, María; Peters, Piet

    2017-04-01

    The erosion is a complex process that has been studied extensively by numerous researchers, requiring a prolongued time effort and a large economic investment. To be effective, the measurements of erosion should be precise, controlled and replicable, and to assure efectiveness, measurement devices of erosion should be properly designed, constructed, well calibrated and also they should be operated by a trained person (Stroosnijder, 2005). Because researchers try to improve old devices, the equipment is constantly being redesigned, making the measurements not comparable and furthermore, producing a lack of available standarized device. The lack of standardization of erosion equipment is more obvious in the case of the local splash erosion, where the nature of the process makes very difficult to isolate its effects. In this article we compare the results obtained from five of the most common splash erosion devices (selected from more than 16 different currently types), under the same rain conditions, with the objective of facilitate the standardization of the method that will be more easy to build, minimizing the error. A set of six splash devices were setted in well known positions under simulated rain, to measured the differences, among devices and the accuracy of the data recovered after 10 minutes of rainfall simulation under different intensities (from 60 to 130 mm/h). The rainfall simulator of Wageningen was used, using sand as splash erosion source. Differences in the infiltration were also measured, and a calibration of sizes and speeds of the raindrops was done using the photography method (Hamidreza-Sadeghi et al., 2013). The splash devices selected for this study were unbounded splash devices (like the funnel, the cup (Fernandez-Raga et al., 2010) and the splash flume (Jomaa et al., 2010)), and bounded devices that allow the calculation of splash rate, (like the new cup (Scholten et al., 2011) and the Morgan tray). The behaviour of different splash devices

  11. Respiratory disease mortality among uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, V.E.; Gillam, J.D.; Wagoner, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    A mortality analysis of a group of white and Indian uranium miners was done by a life-table method. A significant excess of respiratory cancer among both whites and Indians was found. Nonmalignant respiratory disease deaths among the whites are approaching cancer in importance as a cause of death, probably as a result of diffuse parenchymal radiation damage. Exposure-response curves for nonsmokers are linear for both respiratory cancer and ''other respiratory disease''. Cigaret smoking elevates and distorts that curve. Light cigaret smokers appear to be most vulnerable to lung parenchymal damage. The predominant histologic cancer among nonsmokers is small-cell undifferentiated, just as it is among cigaret smokers

  12. Respiratory monitoring with an acceleration sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Tomohiro; Takegawa, Hideki; Ageishi, Tatsuya; Takashina, Masaaki; Numasaki, Hodaka; Matsumoto, Masao; Teshima, Teruki

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory gating radiotherapy is used to irradiate a local area and to reduce normal tissue toxicity. There are certain methods for the detection of tumor motions, for example, using internal markers or an external respiration signal. However, because some of these respiratory monitoring systems require special or expensive equipment, respiratory monitoring can usually be performed only in limited facilities. In this study, the feasibility of using an acceleration sensor for respiratory monitoring was evaluated. The respiratory motion was represented by means of a platform and measured five times with the iPod touch (registered) at 3, 4 and 5 s periods of five breathing cycles. For these three periods of the reference waveform, the absolute means ± standard deviation (SD) of displacement were 0.45 ± 0.34 mm, 0.33 ± 0.24 mm and 0.31 ± 0.23 mm, respectively. On the other hand, the corresponding absolute means ± SD for the periods were 0.04 ± 0.09 s, 0.04 ± 0.02 s and 0.06 ± 0.04 s. The accuracy of respiratory monitoring using the acceleration sensor was satisfactory in terms of the absolute means ± SD. Using the iPod touch (registered) for respiratory monitoring does not need special equipment and makes respiratory monitoring easier. For these reasons, this system is a viable alternative to other respiratory monitoring systems.

  13. A Quick Reference on Respiratory Alkalosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca A

    2017-03-01

    Respiratory alkalosis, or primary hypocapnia, occurs when alveolar ventilation exceeds that required to eliminate the carbon dioxide produced by tissues. Concurrent decreases in Paco 2 , increases in pH, and compensatory decreases in blood HCO 3 - levels are associated with respiratory alkalosis. Respiratory alkalosis can be acute or chronic, with metabolic compensation initially consisting of cellular uptake of HCO 3 - and buffering by intracellular phosphates and proteins. Chronic respiratory alkalosis results in longer-lasting decreases in renal reabsorption of HCO 3 - ; the arterial pH can approach near-normal values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Helena Antoniassi da Silva; Fernando Rosado Spilki; Adriana Gut Lopes Riccetto; Emilio Elias Baracat; Clarice Weis Arns

    2009-01-01

    The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and the human metapneumovírus (hMPV) are main etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARI). The ARI is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide.  hRSV and hMPV are members of the Paramyxoviridae. They are enveloped, non-segmented viruses, with negative-sense single stranded genomes. Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the best characterized agent viral of this group, associated with respiratory diseases in...

  15. The Tennessee Children's Respiratory Initiative: Objectives, design and recruitment results of a prospective cohort study investigating infant viral respiratory illness and the development of asthma and allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartert, Tina V; Carroll, Kecia; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Woodward, Kimberly; Minton, Patricia

    2010-05-01

    The 'attack rate' of asthma following viral lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) is about 3-4 fold higher than that of the general population; however, the majority of children who develop viral LRTI during infancy do not develop asthma, and asthma incidence has been observed to continuously decrease with age. Thus, we do not understand how viral LRTI either predispose or serve as a marker of children to develop asthma. The Tennessee Children's Respiratory Initiative has been established as a longitudinal prospective investigation of infants and their biological mothers. The primary goals are to investigate both the acute and the long-term health consequences of varying severity and aetiology of clinically significant viral respiratory tract infections on early childhood outcomes. Over four respiratory viral seasons, 2004–2008, term, predominantly non-low weight previously healthy infants and their biological mothers were enrolled during an infant's acute viral respiratory illness.Longitudinal follow up to age 6 years is ongoing [corrected]. This report describes the study objectives, design and recruitment results of the over 650 families enrolled in this longitudinal investigation. The Tennessee Children's Respiratory Initiative is additionally unique because it is designed in parallel with a large retrospective birth cohort of over 95,000 mother-infant dyads with similar objectives to investigate the role of respiratory viral infection severity and aetiology in the development of asthma. Future reports from this cohort will help to clarify the complex relationship between infant respiratory viral infection severity, aetiology, atopic predisposition and the subsequent development of early childhood asthma and atopic diseases.

  16. Postperfusion lung syndrome: Respiratory mechanics, respiratory indices and biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Postperfusion lung syndrome is rare but lethal. Secondary inflammatory response was the popularly accepted theory for the underlying etiology. Respiratory index (RI and arterial oxygen tension/fractional inspired oxygen can be reliable indices for the diagnosis of this syndrome as X-ray appearance is always insignificant at the early stage of the onset. Evaluations of extravascular lung water content and pulmonary compliance are also helpful in the definite diagnosis. Multiorgan failure and triple acid-base disturbances that might develop secondary to postperfusion lung syndrome are responsible for the poor prognosis and increased mortality rather than postperfusion lung syndrome itself. Mechanical ventilation with low tidal volume (TV and proper positive end-expiratory pressure can be an effective treatment strategy. Use of ulinastatin and propofol may benefit the patients through different mechanisms.

  17. Respiratory innate immune proteins differentially modulate the neutrophil respiratory burst response to influenza A virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Mitchell R; Crouch, Erika; Vesona, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    of IAV with SP-D in vitro strongly increases neutrophil respiratory burst responses to the virus. Several factors are shown to modify this apparent proinflammatory effect of SP-D. Although multimeric forms of SP-D show dose-dependent augmentation of respiratory burst responses, trimeric, single-arm forms...... of IAV while reducing the respiratory burst response to virus....

  18. Quantitation of respiratory viruses in relation to clinical course in children with acute respiratory tract infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Rogier R.; Schinkel, Janke; dek, Irene; Koekkoek, Sylvie M.; Visser, Caroline E.; de Jong, Menno D.; Molenkamp, Richard; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2010-01-01

    Quantitation of respiratory viruses by PCR could potentially aid in clinical interpretation of PCR results. We conducted a study in children admitted with acute respiratory tract infections to study correlations between the clinical course of illness and semiquantitative detection of 14 respiratory

  19. Microoxygraph Device for Biosensoristic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aloisi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen consumption rate (OCR is a significant parameter helpful to determine in vitro respiratory efficiency of living cells. Oxygen is an excellent oxidant and its electrocatalytic reduction on a noble metal allows accurately detecting it. By means of microfabrication technologies, handy, low-cost, and disposable chip can be attained, minimizing working volumes and improving sensitivity and response time. In this respect, here is presented a microoxygraph device (MOD, based on Clark’s electrode principle, displaying many advantageous features in comparison to other systems. This lab-on-chip platform is composed of a three-microelectrode detector equipped with a microgrooved electrochemical cell, sealed with a polymeric reaction chamber. Au working/counter electrodes and Ag/AgCl reference electrode were fabricated on a glass slide. A microchannel was realized by photoresist lift-off technique and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS nanoporous film was integrated as oxygen permeable membrane (OPM between the probe and the microreaction chamber. Electrochemical measurements showed good reproducibility and average response time, assessed by periodic injection and suction of a reducing agent. OCR measurements on 3T3 cells, subjected, in real time, to chemical stress on the respiratory chain, were able to show that this chip allows performing consistent metabolic analysis.

  20. Electrically Insulated Sensing of Respiratory Rate and Heartbeat Using Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Suaste-Gómez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory and heart rates are among the most important physiological parameters used to monitor patients’ health. It is important to design devices that can measure these parameters without risking or altering the subject’s health. In this context, a novel sensing method to monitor simultaneously the heartbeat and respiratory rate signals of patients within an electrically safety environment was developed and tested. An optical fiber-based sensor was used in order to detect two optical phenomena. Photo-plethysmography and the relation between bending radius and attenuation of optical fiber were coupled through a single beam light traveling along this fiber.

  1. Initial evaluation of a practical PET respiratory motion correction method in clinical simultaneous PET/MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manber, Richard; Thielemans, Kris; Hutton, Brian; Barnes, Anna; Ourselin, Sebastien; Arridge, Simon; O’Meara, Celia; Atkinson, David

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory motion during PET acquisitions can cause image artefacts, with sharpness and tracer quantification adversely affected due to count ‘smearing’. Motion correction by registration of PET gates becomes increasingly difficult with shorter scan times and less counts. The advent of simultaneous PET/MRI scanners allows the use of high spatial resolution MRI to capture motion states during respiration [1, 2]. In this work, we use a respiratory signal derived from the PET list-mode data [3, ], with no requirement for an external device or MR sequence modifications.

  2. 1800 mechanical movements, devices and appliances

    CERN Document Server

    Hiscox, Gardner D

    2007-01-01

    A fascinating compendium of early-20th-century mechanical devices, this expansive work ranges from basic levers to complex machinery. More than 1,800 engravings include simple illustrations and detailed cross-sections.

  3. SPECT acquisition using dynamic projections: a novel approach for data-driven respiratory gating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, B.F.; Hatton, R.L.; Yip, N.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Movement of the heart due to respiration has been previously demonstrated to produce potentially serious artefacts. On-line respiratory gating is difficult, as it requires a high level of patient cooperation. We demonstrate that use of dynamic acquisition of projections permits identification of the respiratory dynamics, allowing retrospective selection of data corresponding to a fixed point in the respiratory cycle. To demonstrate the feasibility of the technique a dynamic study was acquired just prior to myocardial per-fusion SPECT acquisition, using 5 frames/sec for 20 seconds (64*64 matrix) in anterior and lateral projections (using a dual-head right-angled configuration). The dynamic was processed a) by compressing frames in the transverse direction so as to illustrate time dependence, b) by plotting the centre of mass in the axial direction as a function of time. Respiratory motion was enhanced by use of temporal smoothing and intensity thresholding. In ten patients studied the cyclic pattern of motion due to respiratory dynamics was clearly visible in nine. Respiration typically resulted in around 1cm axial translation but in some individuals, movements as large as 3 cm were identified. The respiration rate ranged from 12-18 /min in agreement with independent observation of the patient's breathing pattern. These results suggest that retrospective respiratory gating is feasible without the need for any external respiratory monitoring device, provide that dynamic acquisition of SPECT projections is implemented. Correction for respiratory motion may also be feasible using this technique. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  4. Resource management for device-to-device underlay communication

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Lingyang; Xu, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Device-to-Device (D2D) communication will become a key feature supported by next generation cellular networks, a topic of enormous importance to modern communication. Currently, D2D serves as an underlay to the cellular network as a means to increase spectral efficiency. Although D2D communication brings large benefits in terms of system capacity, it also causes interference as well as increased computation complexity to cellular networks as a result of spectrum sharing. Thus, efficient resource management must be performed to guarantee a target performance level of cellular communication.This

  5. Respiratory muscle training in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodillo, E; Noble-Jamieson, C M; Aber, V; Heckmatt, J Z; Muntoni, F; Dubowitz, V

    1989-01-01

    Twenty two boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy were entered into a randomised double blind crossover trial to compare respiratory muscle training with a Triflow II inspirometer and 'placebo' training with a mini peak flow meter. Supine posture was associated with significantly impaired lung function, but respiratory muscle training showed no benefit.

  6. Housing and respiratory health at older ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, E; Blane, D; de Vries, Robert

    2013-03-01

    A large proportion of the population of England live in substandard housing. Previous research has suggested that poor-quality housing, particularly in terms of cold temperatures, mould, and damp, poses a health risk, particularly for older people. The present study aimed to examine the association between housing conditions and objectively measured respiratory health in a large general population sample of older people in England. Data on housing conditions, respiratory health and relevant covariates were obtained from the second wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Multivariate regression methods were used to test the association between contemporary housing conditions and respiratory health while accounting for the potential effect of other factors; including social class, previous life-course housing conditions and childhood respiratory health. Older people who were in fuel poverty or who did not live in a home they owned had significantly worse respiratory health as measured by peak expiratory flow rates. After accounting for covariates, these factors had no effect on any other measures of respiratory health. Self-reported housing problems were not consistently associated with respiratory health. The housing conditions of older people in England, particularly those associated with fuel poverty and living in rented accommodation, may be harmful to some aspects of respiratory health. This has implications for upcoming UK government housing and energy policy decisions.

  7. Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharpaiman, S; Saburi, A; Waters, Karen A

    2013-12-01

    Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia are thought to underlie the increased risk for sudden infant death and neuropsychological deficits seen in this condition. This review evaluates literature regarding respiratory dysfunctions and their sequelae in patients with achondroplasia. The limited number of prospective studies of respiratory disease in achondroplasia means that observational studies and case series provide a large proportion of the data regarding the spectrum of respiratory diseases in achondroplasia and their treatments. Amongst clinical respiratory problems described, snoring is the commonest observed abnormality, but the reported incidence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) shows wide variance (10% to 75%). Reported treatments of OSA include adenotonsillectomy, the use of CPAP, and surgical improvement of the airway, including mid-face advancement. Otolaryngologic manifestations are also common. Respiratory failure due to small thoracic volumes is reported, but uncommon. Mortality rate at all ages was 2.27 (CI: 1.7-3.0) with age-specific mortality increased at all ages. Sudden death was most common in infants and children. Cardiovascular events are the main cause of mortality in adults. Despite earlier recognition and treatment of respiratory complications of achondroplasia, increased mortality rates and other complications remain high. Future and ongoing evaluation of the prevalence and impact of respiratory disorders, particularly OSA, in achondroplasia is recommended. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nanotechnology: Advancing the translational respiratory research

    OpenAIRE

    Dua, Kamal; Shukla, Shakti Dhar; de Jesus Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha; Hansbro, Philip Michael

    2017-01-01

    Considering the various limitations associated with the conventional dosage forms, nanotechnology is gaining increased attention in drug delivery particularly in respiratory medicine and research because of its advantages like targeting effects, improved pharmacotherapy, and patient compliance. This paper provides a quick snapshot about the recent trends and applications of nanotechnology to various translational and formulation scientists working on various respiratory diseases, which can he...

  9. Fabry disease, respiratory symptoms, and airway limitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Camilla Kara; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Backer, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    . The remaining 27 articles were relevant for this review. RESULTS: The current literature concerning lung manifestations describes various respiratory symptoms such as dyspnoea or shortness of breath, wheezing, and dry cough. These symptoms are often related to cardiac involvement in Fabry disease as respiratory...

  10. Respiratory bacterial infections in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Hansen, Christine R; Høiby, Niels

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bacterial respiratory infections are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains the main pathogen in adults, but other Gram-negative bacteria such as Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia...... respiratory tract (nasal sampling) should be investigated and both infection sites should be treated....

  11. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine

    This PhD thesis presents the diversity of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome viruses (PRRSV) circulating in the Danish pig population. PRRS is a disease in pigs caused by the PRRS virus resulting in reproductive failures in sows and gilts and respiratory diseases in pigs . Due to genetic...

  12. 29 CFR 1917.92 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1917.92 Section 1917.92 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.92 Respiratory protection. (See § 1917.1(a)(2)(x...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.103 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1926.103 Section 1926.103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1926.103 Respiratory protection. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this...

  14. 29 CFR 1918.102 - Respiratory protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1918.102 Section 1918.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Respiratory protection. (See § 1918.1(b)(8)). [65 FR 40946, June 30, 2000] ...

  15. Perceived Competence and Comfort in Respiratory Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgel, Barbara J.; Novak, Debra; Burns, Candace M.; Byrd, Annette; Carpenter, Holly; Gruden, MaryAnn; Lachat, Ann; Taormina, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In response to the Institute of Medicine (2011) report Occupational Health Nurses and Respiratory Protection: Improving Education and Training, a nationwide survey was conducted in May 2012 to assess occupational health nurses’ educational preparation, roles, responsibilities, and training needs in respiratory protection. More than 2,000 occupational health nurses responded; 83% perceived themselves as competent, proficient, or expert in respiratory protection, reporting moderate comfort with 12 respiratory program elements. If occupational health nurses had primary responsibility for the respiratory protection program, they were more likely to perceive higher competence and more comfort in respiratory protection, after controlling for occupational health nursing experience, highest education, occupational health nursing certification, industry sector, Association of Occupational Health Professionals in Healthcare membership, taking a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health spirometry course in the prior 5 years, and perceiving a positive safety culture at work. These survey results document high perceived competence and comfort in respiratory protection. These findings support the development of targeted educational programs and interprofessional competencies for respiratory protection. PMID:23429638

  16. Respiratory health effects of air pollution: update on biomass smoke and traffic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumbach, Robert J; Kipen, Howard M

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that air pollution contributes to the large global burden of respiratory and allergic diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, and possibly tuberculosis. Although associations between air pollution and respiratory disease are complex, recent epidemiologic studies have led to an increased recognition of the emerging importance of traffic-related air pollution in both developed and less-developed countries, as well as the continued importance of emissions from domestic fires burning biomass fuels, primarily in the less-developed world. Emissions from these sources lead to personal exposures to complex mixtures of air pollutants that change rapidly in space and time because of varying emission rates, distances from source, ventilation rates, and other factors. Although the high degree of variability in personal exposure to pollutants from these sources remains a challenge, newer methods for measuring and modeling these exposures are beginning to unravel complex associations with asthma and other respiratory tract diseases. These studies indicate that air pollution from these sources is a major preventable cause of increased incidence and exacerbation of respiratory disease. Physicians can help to reduce the risk of adverse respiratory effects of exposure to biomass and traffic air pollutants by promoting awareness and supporting individual and community-level interventions. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Air pollution and respiratory illness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indra, G. [DIET, Uttamasolapuram, Salem (India)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation provides an overview of air pollution and impacts on public health. It provides a definition of pollution according to the Oxford English dictionary and categorizes the different types of pollution according to air, water, land and noise. It discusses air pollution and its pollutants (gaseous and particulate pollutants) as well as the diameter of the pollutant (dust, smoke, and gas). The paper also illustrates the formation of acid rain and discusses the amount of pollutants in the atmosphere per year. It presents occupational diseases, discusses radio active pollutants, respiratory illnesses as well as pollution prevention and control. The paper concluded that more research is needed to obtain information on ways to reduce the quantity of pollutants being discharged from special processes. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Perioperative modifications of respiratory function.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duggan, Michelle

    2012-01-31

    Postoperative pulmonary complications contribute considerably to morbidity and mortality, especially after major thoracic or abdominal surgery. Clinically relevant pulmonary complications include the exacerbation of underlying chronic lung disease, bronchospasm, atelectasis, pneumonia and respiratory failure with prolonged mechanical ventilation. Risk factors for postoperative pulmonary complications include patient-related risk factors (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tobacco smoking and increasing age) as well as procedure-related risk factors (e.g., site of surgery, duration of surgery and general vs. regional anaesthesia). Careful history taking and a thorough physical examination may be the most sensitive ways to identify at-risk patients. Pulmonary function tests are not suitable as a general screen to assess risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. Strategies to reduce the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications include smoking cessation, inspiratory muscle training, optimising nutritional status and intra-operative strategies. Postoperative care should include lung expansion manoeuvres and adequate pain control.

  19. The respiratory system in equations

    CERN Document Server

    Maury, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    The book proposes an introduction to the mathematical modeling of the respiratory system. A detailed introduction on the physiological aspects makes it accessible to a large audience without any prior knowledge on the lung. Different levels of description are proposed, from the lumped models with a small number of parameters (Ordinary Differential Equations), up to infinite dimensional models based on Partial Differential Equations. Besides these two types of differential equations, two chapters are dedicated to resistive networks, and to the way they can be used to investigate the dependence of the resistance of the lung upon geometrical characteristics. The theoretical analysis of the various models is provided, together with state-of-the-art techniques to compute approximate solutions, allowing comparisons with experimental measurements. The book contains several exercises, most of which are accessible to advanced undergraduate students.

  20. Prevention of Nosocomial Respiratory Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Karpun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of an extended package of preventive measures on the incidence of nosocomial respiratory infections in surgical patients at an intensive care unit (ICU. Subjects and methods. The study included 809 patients aged 35 to 80 years. A study group comprised 494 patients in whom an extended package of preventive measures was implemented during 7 months (March-September. A control group consisted of 315 patients treated in 2004 in the same period of time (March-September. The groups were stratified by age, gender, underlying diseases, and APACHE-2 and SOFA scores. The extended package of anti-infectious measures involved a high air purification in ICUs («Flow-M» technology, routine use of ventilatory filters, closed aspiration systems with a built-in antibacterial filter under artificial ventilation for over 2 days. Results. The proposed technologies could reduce the frequency of tracheobronchitis and ventilator-associated pneumonias in the groups of patients at high risk for nosocomial infections substantially (by more than twice. Conclusion. The findings have led to the conclusion that the extended package of preventive measures is effective in preventing respiratory infections in ICU patients. Of special note is the proper prevention of upper airway contamination with pathogenic microorganisms, by employing the closed aspiration systems with a built-in antibacterial filter. The routine use of high-tech consumables in the intensive care of surgical patients causes a considerable decrease in the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and purulent tracheobronchitis and a reduction in the number of microbiological studies. Key words: ventilator-associated pneumonia, prevention of nosocomial infections, closed aspiration system.