WorldWideScience

Sample records for complex medium-sized chemicals

  1. Thermodynamic method for obtaining the solubilities of complex medium-sized chemicals in pure and mixed solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens; O'Connell, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper extends our previous simplified approach to using group contribution methods and limited data to determine differences in solubility of sparingly soluble complex chemicals as the solvent is changed. New applications include estimating temperature dependence and the effect of adding cos....... Though we present no new solution theory, the paper shows an especially efficient use of thermodynamic models for solvent and cosolvent selection for product formulations. Examples and discussion of applications are given. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......This paper extends our previous simplified approach to using group contribution methods and limited data to determine differences in solubility of sparingly soluble complex chemicals as the solvent is changed. New applications include estimating temperature dependence and the effect of adding...

  2. Complexity analysis on public transport networks of 97 large- and medium-sized cities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhanwei; Zhang, Zhuo; Wang, Hongfei; Ma, Li

    2018-04-01

    The traffic situation in Chinese urban areas is continuing to deteriorate. To make a better planning and designing of the public transport system, it is necessary to make profound research on the structure of urban public transport networks (PTNs). We investigate 97 large- and medium-sized cities’ PTNs in China, construct three types of network models — bus stop network, bus transit network and bus line network, then analyze the structural characteristics of them. It is revealed that bus stop network is small-world and scale-free, bus transit network and bus line network are both small-world. Betweenness centrality of each city’s PTN shows similar distribution pattern, although these networks’ size is various. When classifying cities according to the characteristics of PTNs or economic development level, the results are similar. It means that the development of cities’ economy and transport network has a strong correlation, PTN expands in a certain model with the development of economy.

  3. Medium-size nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogelweith, L.; Lavergne, J.C.; Martinot, G.; Weiss, A.

    1977-01-01

    CEA (TECHNICATOME) has developed a range of pressurized water reactors of the type ''CAS compact'' which are adapted to civil ship propulsion, or to electric power production, combined possibly with heat production, up to outputs equivalent to 125 MWe. Nuclear plants equipped with these reactors are suitable to medium-size electric networks. Among the possible realizations, two types of plants are mentioned as examples: 1) Floating electron-nuclear plants; and 2) Combined electric power and desalting plants. The report describes the design characteristics of the different parts of a 125 MWe unit floating electro-nuclear plant: nuclear steam system CAS 3 G, power generating plant, floating platform for the whole plant. The report gives attention to the different possibilities according to site conditions (the plant can be kept floating, in a natural or artificial basin, it can be put aground, ...) and to safety and environment factors. Such unit can be used in places where there is a growing demand in electric power and fresh water. The report describes how the reactor, the power generating plant and multiflash distillation units of an electric power-desalting plant can be combined: choice of the ratio water output/electric power output, thermal cycle combination, choice of the gain ratio, according to economic considerations, and to desired goal of water output. The report analyses also some technical options, such as: choice of the extraction point of steam used as heat supply of the desalting station (bleeding a condensation turbine, or recovering steam at the exhaust of a backpressure turbine), design making the system safe. Lastly, economic considerations are dealt with: combining the production of fresh water and electric power provides usually a much better energy balance and a lower cost for both products. Examples are given of some types of installations which combine medium-size reactors with fresh water stations yielding from 10000 to 120000 m 3 per day

  4. An Intervention Study on the Implementation of Control Banding in Controlling Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Terwoert

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Active training and coaching helped the participating companies to improve their chemical risk management, and to avoid making mistakes when using and applying Stoffenmanager. The use of validated tools embedded in a community platform appears to support companies to organize and structure their chemical risk management in a business-wise manner, but much depends upon motivated occupational health and safety (OHS professionals, management support, and willingness to invest time and means.

  5. AN INVESTIGATION INTO MEDIUM-SIZED MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Schilirò

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an investigation of medium-sized Italian industrial enterprises that have become multinational companies. It concetrates on the set of medium and medium-large enterprises who seem to grow more in foreign markets, either through exports or through foreign direct investment. The work also offers a descriptive empirical picture of the performance of medium-sized Italian multinationals, which is compared with the performance of large corporations. From this analysis, which is based on several data sources, it is possible to outline a profile regarding the medium-size italian multinational enterprises; the aim is to understand the complex strategy towards internationalization of these companies, where the dimension of production is important and, therefore, innovation has a key role. Also the commercial dimension is crucial, because it leads to point to the direct supervision of foreign markets and to look very carefully at the customers, offering them a wide range of services. Finally, the paper highlights some critical issues that the medium sized multinational enterprises have to face for competing: namely, the stagnant productivity, the high taxation, the insufficient institutional support for internationalization, the bureaucracy and its high costs, the lack of skilled human capital available in the labor market due to inadequate policy training.

  6. Challenges and Considerations for Innovative Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.

    2008-01-01

    There is an ongoing interest in Member States in the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). In the near term, most new NPPs are likely to be evolutionary water cooled reactor designs building on proven systems while incorporating technological advances and often the economics of scale, resulting from the reactor outputs of up to 1600 MW(e). For a longer term, the focus is on innovative designs aiming to provide increased benefits in the areas of safety and security, non-proliferation, waste management, resource utilization and economy, as well as to offer a variety of energy products and flexibility in design, siting and fuel cycle options. Many innovative designs are reactors within the SMR range, having an equivalent electric power less than 700 MW(e) or even less than 300 MW(e). It is important that small or medium sized reactor does not necessarily mean small or medium sized nuclear power plant. The majority of innovative SMR concepts and designs provide for power station configurations with several units at a site or for NPP configurations with 2 or more reactor modules. In most cases, the units or modules could be added incrementally. Innovative SMRs are in many cases intended for markets different from those in which large nuclear power plants operate, i.e., markets that value more distributed electrical supplies, a better match between supply increments and investment capability or demand growth, more flexible siting or greater product variety. SMRs cannot compete with larger capacity plants on an economy of scale basis. However, they could be competitive via employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size resulting in a less complex design and operation and maintenance or in an increased overall energy conversion efficiency, and by relying on alternative deployment strategies, taking advantage of multiple unit factors and learning curve, and shorter construction schedule and 'exact' unit

  7. Perspective on small and medium size reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahlkopf, K.E.; Braun, C.

    1985-01-01

    There has been renewed interests in the United States in small and medium size nuclear power plants (600 MWe or less). The reasons for this include: (1) there is a large uncertainty in load growth projections. Small to medium size nuclear power plants may be better suited to meet uncertain load growth projections. (2) It has been argued that a large economy of scale exists because of the nature of nuclear power installations. A recent examination of the French program shows that no economy of scale exists between the 900 MWe and 1300 MWe plants. Others have suggested that it is possible to reduce the economy of scale so it is not a prohibitive factor. (3) In the past in the United States, it has been customary for several smaller utilities to share the output of a large nuclear plant to take advantage of the perceived economy of scale. Difficulties have been encountered by some of these enterprises. (4) An examination of capacity factors for the United States shows that plants of smaller output appear to operate more reliably and economically than larger plants

  8. Medium-size power plants. Economic options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogelweith, L.; Baujat, J.; Goutail, J.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe a method for economic evaluation of a nuclear power plant project such as advocated by the IAEA but modified through the introduction of various parameters that may affect the evaluation, i.e. the weighted evaluation rate, the annual increase in the cost of fuel, and the discount rate. The method is applied to barge-based medium-size reactors (125 MW(e)). The authors calculate the investment cost, together with the costs of administration, operation and maintenance; use is made of current assumptions regarding the price of fuel for the case of a reference nuclear plant and an oil-fired plant of the same power and in the same programme. In this way the authors derive the discounted cost of the nuclear programme and concurrent conventional programme on the basis of the following assumptions: a weighted inflation rate varying between 0 and 6% per year; an annual increase in real fuel prices ranging from 0 to 3%; and a real discount rate, equal to the real interest rate, varying between 4 and 7% per year and corresponding to nominal discount rates of up to 13.4%. The conclusion reached is that, given the real interest rates actually prevailing on the financial market, a weighted inflation rate foreseen by the majority of experts, and a rise in real fuel prices of the order of 1% per year, the medium-size nuclear power plant is more economical than a conventional plant of the same output. (author)

  9. CAS medium-size nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogelweith, L.; Weiss, A.

    1977-01-01

    CEA has developed a range of pressurized water reactors of the type CAS Compact, which are adapted to civil ship propulsion, or to electric power production, combined possibly with heat production, up to outputs equivalent to 125MW(e). Nuclear plants equipped with these reactors are suitable for medium-size electric networks, especially in developing countries, because they are easily adaptable, owing to their flexibility; they can be installed and used in a variety of ways (on land, floating installation, combination of electric power and other production, etc.); they can be used as training reactors by countries wishing to limit their investment plans before undertaking a wider nuclear development. Examples of two possible realizations are presented: as a floating plant, and as a combined electric and desalting plant. (author)

  10. Export Marketing Involvement of African Small and Medium Size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Export Marketing Involvement of African Small and Medium Size Enterprises: Tanzania's Fish Processing Industry. ... This study examined the Export marketing involvement of SMEs from the Least ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  11. Information Security in Small and Medium-Sized Companies

    OpenAIRE

    David Kral

    2011-01-01

    Information security doesn’t involve only large organizations. Small and medium-sized companies must closely examine this issue too, because they are increasingly threatened by cyber attacks. Many of them mistakenly believe, that security of their valuable data is sufficient, or that the attackers are not interested in them. Existing standards and methodologies for implementation and management of information security are often hard to transfer to the environment of small and medium-sized bus...

  12. Workplace Health Promotion within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ann; Parahoo, Kader; Fleming, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore managers' understanding of workplace health promotion (WHP) and experiences of WHP activity within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in a Health and Social Care Trust area of Northern Ireland. The paper aims to focus on engagement with activities within the context of prevention of…

  13. Financing Of Small And Medium-Size Enterprises In Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Financing Of Small And Medium-Size Enterprises In Cameroon. ... Available data from the banking sector shows that as much as 78.7% of all ... SMEs and large companies pay back their loans better than the other ... Even the SME loan repayment rate of 62.9% is still low by World Bank ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  14. Approaches to Assess Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.; Barkatullah, N.

    2011-01-01

    There is continuing interest in Member States concerning the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), i.e., reactors with the equivalent electric power of less than 700 MW. Currently, developed SMRs are in most cases intended for markets different than those in which large nuclear power plants operate. Such markets have essentially different investment requirements, siting flexibility, grid connections and infrastructure restrictions. Therefore, economic factors affecting the competitiveness or competition of SMRs in such markets would also be different from those observed in established markets for electricity production. For example, investment capability may be limited, which would favour capacity addition in smaller increments; grids may be small or weak, which would favour capacities exactly matching the demand; infrastructure and human resource may be insufficient, which would favour less complex operation and maintenance requirements; and non-electrical energy products, such as potable water, may be in demand, which would favour reasonably close plant location to the customer. In practice it is futile to compare a single SMR needs to a single larger capacity plant on an economy of scale basis because SMRs are suitable for those locations that might not be appropriate for larger plants. However, a series of SMRs could be considered comparable to fewer larger plants to achieve the same overall power station capacity. In this case, SMRs have a potential to be competitive by employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size, offering a less complex design and operation and maintenance, relying on deployment-in-series approaches, taking an advantage of the accelerated learning, multiple unit factors and shorter construction duration. Reflecting on developments in member states, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is finalizing the preparation of a report highlighting the economics and

  15. Angiographic examinations with the medium size technique (70 mm films)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuck, F.; Reichardt, W.

    1981-01-01

    The applicability of medium-size technique was tested in angiographic examinations of thoracic and abdominal organs. By means of full-size image intensifiers it is possible to carry out organ angiography, and by means of a pace control mechanism for the patient transport, the angiography of the extremities can be realized. Examples are given illustrate the informational value in cases where the arial and venous vascular systems of organs and extremities are concerned. The particular advantages for functional analyses of organ circulatory systems in cases of angiography are described. Two factors of importance are pointed out: the reduction of the exposure to irradiation for the patient on the one hand, and the increasing film prices on the other hand. The authors demand to overcome the psychological problems arising in the medical working groups where the medium-size technique shall be introduced into routine diagnostics. (orig./APR) [de

  16. Small and medium-sized nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.

    1986-01-01

    Small and medium-sized nuclear power plants have long been under discussion as possible applications of nuclear power in countries with small transmission grid systems, in threshold countries and developing countries, and under special local supply conditions. IAEA has condensed and promoted this interest and tried to establish the demand, and possibilities of meeting it, in special events and campaigns. In recent years, considerable interest was registered even in industrialized countries, but here specially for heating and process heat generation applications and for special purposes and, in medium-sized units, also for combined supplies of electricity and heat. This corresponds to special reactor and plant concepts, some of which have already been developed to a stage at which construction work could begin. The analysis presented deals with necessary preconditions on the sides of the users and the vendors, with problems of economy, infrastructure and financing and with the market prospects of small nuclear power plants. (orig./HP) [de

  17. The status of development of small and medium sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinov, L.V; Kupitz, J.

    1987-01-01

    Several IAEA Member States have shown their interest in reactor design, having a smaller power rating (100-500 MW(e) range) than those generally available on the international market. These small and medium sized power reactors are of interest either for domestic applications or for export into countries with less developed infrastructure. There are different developments undertaken for these power reactors to be ready for offering in the nineties and beyond. The paper gives an overview about the status and different trends in IAEA Member States in the development of small and medium sized reactors for the 90's and provides an outlook for very new reactor designs as a long term option for nuclear power. (author)

  18. Unions in small and medium-sized enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten, Ann-Louise; Crouch, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Trade unions are commonly weak in small- and medium-sized enterprises, which constitute a majority of European firms and are often family-owned. We investigate the influence of family ownership on employee membership, perceptions and experience with unions in Danish and Italian firms in the textile...... and clothing sector. Family ownership reduces union membership; and within family firms, the number of family members employed is negatively associated with unionization rates and employee perceptions of unions....

  19. Utilizing Content Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Parviainen, Ville

    2014-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to find out how and to what extent online content is currently utilized for marketing purposes among small and medium-sized organizations in Finland. Additionally, positive and negative future prospects concerning this type of content marketing were explored. The study is mainly qualitative by nature. The empirical part of this thesis was carried out between July 2013 and March 2014 and it consists of five semi-structured interviews with five professio...

  20. Sales strategy in small and medium-sized food companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Renate; Stacey, Julia; Andersen, Lone Merete Schreiber

    2002-01-01

    All managing teams know that they have to deal with the company's strategy in handling the market. But how do they do it and on the basis of which beleifs and interpretations? A nearly completed PhD project has examined the way in which three small and medium-sized food companies define...... their market, their competitors and customers, and how they create the world they perceive and act in through their own actions....

  1. Efficiency optimized control of medium-size induction motor drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, F.; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim

    2000-01-01

    The efficiency of a variable speed induction motor drive can be optimized by adaption of the motor flux level to the load torque. In small drives (<10 kW) this can be done without considering the relatively small converter losses, but for medium-size drives (10-1000 kW) the losses can not be disr......The efficiency of a variable speed induction motor drive can be optimized by adaption of the motor flux level to the load torque. In small drives (... not be disregarded without further analysis. The importance of the converter losses on efficiency optimization in medium-size drives is analyzed in this paper. Based on the experiments with a 90 kW drive it is found that it is not critical if the converter losses are neglected in the control, except...... that the robustness towards load disturbances may unnecessarily be reduced. Both displacement power factor and model-based efficiency optimizing control methods perform well in medium-size drives. The last strategy is also tested on a 22 kW drive with good results....

  2. JAIF report on small- and medium-size LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The Ministry of International Trade and Industry has made a report on the results of the study on the utilization of small and medium size LWRs. The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum undertook this research work by the commission of the Ministry. It studied six cases of PWRs and BWRs with thermal output power ranging from 20 MWt to 700 MWt as the hypothetical design for their siting conditions, reactor capacity and the examples of utilization of the corresponding steam output. A large housing estate of 5,000 units, a local core city with population of 100,000, industrial utilization for petrochemical plants and paper and pulp plants and the combined utilization for a factory and a housing estate of 5,000 units were examined. The report said that a city with population of 100,000 would be the best object to supply heat from a nuclear reactor, and it is important to develop the nuclear reactors with 200 MWt capacity. This type is versatile in the siting conditions, and can be constructed near a city, accordingly, it offers the possibility of extensive utilization. The significance of small and medium size LWRs as the alternative energy for oil, the regional development accompanying the use of small and medium size LWRs, the technical development toward scale reduction, easy operation and versatile utilization, the economical evaluation of the utilization models and the tasks for the future are reported. (Kako, I.)

  3. THE SOCIAL MEDIA IMPACT ON SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED BUSINESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai Alexandru Constantin Logofatu

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to be a short introduction to social media and discusses on few ways in which small and medium sized businesses in Romania can take advantage of this hot topic. Through the use of social media every company can reach a global audience with less effort, time and money. In a world shaped more and more around social platforms the customer behaviour has completely and forever changed and those leaders and organizations that understand and embrace this new type of communication, co...

  4. Application of medium sized SMES electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handschin, E.; Damschen, C.; Stephanblome, T.

    1993-01-01

    In order to evaluate the technological and economical impact of medium sized SMES with a capacity in the range of a few 100 kWh on power system operation a lot of system engineering studies are still necessary. Although the two examples mentioned in the present paper do not claim to be complete they are still illustrating the general structure of investigations concerning the location, dimensioning and control scheme of SMES. Also there is a relationship between these investigations which has to be taken into consideration with respect to economical reasons. (orig.)

  5. Status and prospects for small and medium sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupitz, J.; Arkhipov, V.; Brey, H.L.

    2000-01-01

    Member States have evinced interest in the continued development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) as an energy source for the future. Support for this programme was recently reaffirmed at the IAEA 1997 General Conference. Although the generation of electricity is the predominant focus of existing SMRs, there is increasing interest in using these plants for desalination, district heating and high temperature industrial process heat applications. Here is a review of SMR development within selected Member States, an overview of the IAEA's SMR programme and a discussion of selected SMR designs with emphasis on safety attributes. (author)

  6. Fracture mechanics characterisation of medium-size adhesive joint specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jacobsen, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    Medium-size specimens (glass-fibre beams bonded together by an adhesive layer were tested in four point bending to determine their load carrying capacity. Specimens having different thickness were tested. Except for onespecimen, the cracking occurred as cracking...... along the adhesive layer; initially cracking occurred along the adhesive/laminate interface, but after some crack extension the cracking took place inside the laminate (for one specimen the later part of thecracking occurred unstably along the adhesive/ laminate interface). Crack bridging by fibres...

  7. Status and Prospects for Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupitz, J.; Arkhipov, V.; Brey, H. L.

    1998-01-01

    There is considerable interest by Member States in the continued development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) as a significant energy sources for the future. The support for this programme within the IAEA was recently reaffirmed at the 1997 General Conference. Although the generation of electricity has been predominant focus of existing SMRs, there is increasing interest in using these plants for other applications such as desalination, district heating and hydrogen production from the reforming of methane. Addressed herein is a review of ongoing SMR development activities within selected Member States, an overview of the Agency's SMR programme and a discussion of selected SMR designs with emphasis on their safety attributes. (author)

  8. CANDU 6 - the highly successful medium sized reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedges, K. R.; Allen, P. J.; Hopwood, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    The CANDU 6 Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor system, featuring horizontal fuel channels and heavy water moderator continues to evolve, supported by AECL's strong commitment to comprehensive R and D programs. The initial CANDU 6 design started in the 1970's. The first plants went into service in 1983, and the latest version of the plant is under construction in China. With each plant the technology has evolved giving the dual advantages of proveness and modern technology. CANDU 6 delivers important advantages of the CANDU system with benefit to small and medium-sized grids. This technology has been successfully adopted by, and localized to varying extents in, each of the CANDU 6 markets. For example, all CANDU owners obtain their fuel from domestic suppliers. Progressive CANDU development continues at AECL to enhance this medium size product CANDU 6. There are three key CANDU development strategic thrusts: improved economics, fuel cycle flexibility, and enhanced safety. The CANDU 6 product is also enhanced by incorporating improvements and advanced features that will be arising from our CANDU Technology R and D programs in areas such as heavy water and tritium, control and instrumentation, fuel and fuel cycles, systems and equipment and safety and constructability. (author)

  9. Medium-sized water reactors for undeveloped regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmachkin, V. S.

    2004-01-01

    In the new century the growth of population and an increasing of energy demands together with the difficulties of fossil fuel supply are expected. It is important to find optimal ways in solving such problems without the climate warming. The nuclear power having many advantages in comparison with fossil fuel technologies could play the great role in near future. The Medium-Sized Nuclear Reactors for production of electricity, heat and fresh water are considered as a main direction of nuclear power applications in the developing world It is important to discuss the requirements to such nuclear plants for using in the Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids. Particularly, cost-benefit analysis of construction NPP has to include assessment of all type risks and effectiveness of plant. In the paper an attention is paid on Water Reactors designed on the basis of navy technology. Such compact PWR built on special mills and placed on special floating vessel could be used in undeveloped regions. Total plant can be transported to any point of World Ocean and return back to mill for repair or decommissioning after exhaustion of lifetime. It is expected that such reactors with innovative design approach, provision of high safety and proper economic efficiency, based on leasing procedures, could be very attractive for medium-sized and developing countries.(author)

  10. Medium-size high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peinado, C.O.; Koutz, S.L.

    1980-08-01

    This report summarizes high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) experience for the 40-MW(e) Peach Bottom Nuclear Generating Station of Philadelphia Electric Company and the 330-MW(e) Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station of the Public Service Company of Colorado. Both reactors are graphite moderated and helium cooled, operating at approx. 760 0 C (1400 0 F) and using the uranium/thorium fuel cycle. The plants have demonstrated the inherent safety characteristics, the low activation of components, and the high efficiency associated with the HTGR concept. This experience has been translated into the conceptual design of a medium-sized 1170-MW(t) HTGR for generation of 450 MW of electric power. The concept incorporates inherent HTGR safety characteristics [a multiply redundant prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), a graphite core, and an inert single-phase coolant] and engineered safety features

  11. SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor G. SÎRODOEV

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the role of SME sector in Moldova’s economy and its likely implications in the RD processes. There are emphasized several key features of the relationship between knowledge economy, RD and SMEs, and their effect on regional and local communities. Then, a summary of RD particular features in Moldova is presented.The role of SME sector, examined in terms of its performance by ownership and activity types, as a whole and by main firms’ categories (micro-, small, and medium-sized is analyzed. Small enterprises have been considered as the most adequate solution forpromoting RD in general case. National-level analysis is completed by regional insight into the sector as a whole. Finally, some critical aspects of SMEs’ role in RD in Moldova are discussed.

  12. Significance assessment of small-medium sized reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Minoru [Japan Atomic Power Co., Research and Development Dept., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Preliminary assessment for deployment of small-medium sized reactor (S and M reactor) as a future option has been conducted at the JAPCO (Japan Atomic Power Company) under the cooperation with the CRIERI (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry). Significance of the S and M reactor introduction is listed as follows; lower investment cost, possible siting near demand side, enlarged freedom of siting, shorter transmission line, good compatibility with slow increase of demand and plain explanation of safety using simpler system such as integral type vessel without piping, natural convection core cooling and passive safety system. The deployment of simpler plant system, modular shop fabrication, ship-shell structured building and longer operation period can assure economics comparable with that of a large sized reactor, coping with scale-demerit. Also the S and M reactor is preferable in size for the nuclear heat utilization such as hydrogen production. (T. Tanaka)

  13. Market Potential Estimation of a Small and Medium Size Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. B.; Yang, M. H.; Lee, M. K.; Chung, W. S.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, S. S.; Lee, B. W.; Ryu, J. S.; Juhn, P. E.

    2004-12-01

    Technically, nuclear reactors which produce energy in the form of heat can supply energy products other than electricity, including district heat, process heat, potable water etc. Currently non-civil uses of nuclear energy are very limited civil applications except for a military nuclear powered ship and an energy usage in isolated areas. However, the future global environment and an energy resources scarcity could promote a significant usage of non-electrical applications on an industrial scale. Considering these situations, this report analyzed the following: (1) Worldwide non-electrical application of a small and medium sized nuclear reactor - survey the situation of the current technical applications, - survey the global market potential estimation for various applications (2) Technical cooperation potential in several countries - identify necessary conditions for nuclear cooperation, - select candidate countries: Morocco, UAE, Indonesia, Chile and Vietnam, - survey the energy and water situation, - survey the legal and international regime infrastructure

  14. The role of small and medium-sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupitz, J.; Mourogov, V.

    1999-01-01

    The second half of the twentieth century has seen nuclear power evolve from the research and development environment to an industry that supplies 17% of the world's electricity. The past decade, however, has seen stagnation in nuclear power plant construction in the Western industrialized world, slow nuclear power growth in Eastern Europe and expansion only in East Asia. But the turn of the century is potentially a turning-point for nuclear power because of: increasing world energy consumption, with nuclear power's contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, nuclear fuel resources sustainability, and improvements in operation of current nuclear power plants; advanced reactor designs that will improve economics and availability, and further enhance safety; and continued strengthening of the nuclear power safeguards system. This paper looks at the role that small and medium-sized reactors can play in an increasingly competitive global energy market, particularly with regard to maintaining a sustainable mix of energy sources. (author)

  15. Internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Paunović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Highly developed countries, which are similar to Croatia by size and population, highlight the importance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs as holders of export activities and key factors in raising the competitiveness of the entire economy. In this paper authors research the concept of internationalization of SMEs. Analyzing the influence of decision makers on the process of internationalization and showing its advantages and disadvantages for the respective company and country, this research introduces the most common models on the basis of which this process is implemented in practice. A case study of a small export company from Croatia illustrates the process of internationalization to the U.S. market and provides useful information to the companies which are planning to enter new markets.

  16. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs and transfer pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium sized enterprises have very important position in the EU economy, mainly in the area of growth and employment. However, most of SMEs are active only in their home country and only a few of them participate in cross-border activities. Furthermore, their activities in the internal market are limited by great deal of obstacles, mainly in the form of different tax systems which generate excessive compliance costs of taxation and the existence of different SMEs definitions for various purposes in Member states. In addition, from the view of the international taxation issues, the most important obstacles can be considered a transfer pricing and cross-border loss compensations. In this area, SMEs are facing specific problems and have specific needs. The aim of the paper is to analyze and evaluate the specific transfer pricing issues of SMEs and propose recommendations for them.

  17. Small and medium sized reactors: Status and prospects. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-08-01

    During the early years of nuclear power deployment, the plants entering service were dominated by what are now considered small (less than 300 MW(e)) and medium (300 to 700 MW(e)) reactors. In the late 1970s, the balance shifted to larger size plants to serve the requirements of industrialized countries. However, since the early 1990s, the increased interest of developing countries in nuclear power, mainly in Asia, has resulted in intensified efforts in development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). Also, in industrialized countries, electricity market deregulation is calling for power generation flexibility that SMRs may offer. Apart from electricity generation, SMRs are of particular interest for non-electrical applications of nuclear energy, such as desalination of seawater and district heating. In recognition of the current global interest in small and medium sized reactors this seminar was convened to provide a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental, and social aspects of SMR development and implementation in the 21st century, and to make this information available to all interested IAEA Member States. Keynote addresses also provided information on global energy demand and supply and international trends impacting the development and introduction of SMRs. Two hundred forty seven attendees from 39 countries and 5 international organizations participated in the seminar. The majority of the participants were from developing countries. The seminar not only provided valuable up to date information on SMRs, it also highlighted the importance of continued international co-operation in the development and application of nuclear power for peaceful uses throughout the world.

  18. Small and medium sized reactors: Status and prospects. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    During the early years of nuclear power deployment, the plants entering service were dominated by what are now considered small (less than 300 MW(e)) and medium (300 to 700 MW(e)) reactors. In the late 1970s, the balance shifted to larger size plants to serve the requirements of industrialized countries. However, since the early 1990s, the increased interest of developing countries in nuclear power, mainly in Asia, has resulted in intensified efforts in development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). Also, in industrialized countries, electricity market deregulation is calling for power generation flexibility that SMRs may offer. Apart from electricity generation, SMRs are of particular interest for non-electrical applications of nuclear energy, such as desalination of seawater and district heating. In recognition of the current global interest in small and medium sized reactors this seminar was convened to provide a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental, and social aspects of SMR development and implementation in the 21st century, and to make this information available to all interested IAEA Member States. Keynote addresses also provided information on global energy demand and supply and international trends impacting the development and introduction of SMRs. Two hundred forty seven attendees from 39 countries and 5 international organizations participated in the seminar. The majority of the participants were from developing countries. The seminar not only provided valuable up to date information on SMRs, it also highlighted the importance of continued international co-operation in the development and application of nuclear power for peaceful uses throughout the world

  19. A Bayesian Approach to International Distributor Selection for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Software Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying appropriate international distributors for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the software industry for overseas markets can determine a firm's future endeavors in international expansion. SMEs lack the complex skills in market research and decision analysis to identify suitable partners to engage in global market entry.…

  20. Salary Management System for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhang; Guangli, Xu; Yuhuan, Zhang; Yilong, Lei

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in the process of wage entry, calculation, the total number are needed to be done manually in the past, the data volume is quite large, processing speed is low, and it is easy to make error, which is resulting in low efficiency. The main purpose of writing this paper is to present the basis of salary management system, establish a scientific database, the computer payroll system, using the computer instead of a lot of past manual work in order to reduce duplication of staff labor, it will improve working efficiency.This system combines the actual needs of SMEs, through in-depth study and practice of the C/S mode, PowerBuilder10.0 development tools, databases and SQL language, Completed a payroll system needs analysis, database design, application design and development work. Wages, departments, units and personnel database file are included in this system, and have data management, department management, personnel management and other functions, through the control and management of the database query, add, delete, modify, and other functions can be realized. This system is reasonable design, a more complete function, stable operation has been tested to meet the basic needs of the work.

  1. Medium-sized aperture camera for Earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eugene D.; Choi, Young-Wan; Kang, Myung-Seok; Kim, Ee-Eul; Yang, Ho-Soon; Rasheed, Ad. Aziz Ad.; Arshad, Ahmad Sabirin

    2017-11-01

    Satrec Initiative and ATSB have been developing a medium-sized aperture camera (MAC) for an earth observation payload on a small satellite. Developed as a push-broom type high-resolution camera, the camera has one panchromatic and four multispectral channels. The panchromatic channel has 2.5m, and multispectral channels have 5m of ground sampling distances at a nominal altitude of 685km. The 300mm-aperture Cassegrain telescope contains two aspheric mirrors and two spherical correction lenses. With a philosophy of building a simple and cost-effective camera, the mirrors incorporate no light-weighting, and the linear CCDs are mounted on a single PCB with no beam splitters. MAC is the main payload of RazakSAT to be launched in 2005. RazakSAT is a 180kg satellite including MAC, designed to provide high-resolution imagery of 20km swath width on a near equatorial orbit (NEqO). The mission objective is to demonstrate the capability of a high-resolution remote sensing satellite system on a near equatorial orbit. This paper describes the overview of the MAC and RarakSAT programmes, and presents the current development status of MAC focusing on key optical aspects of Qualification Model.

  2. Investigating power factor compensation capacity calculation in medium sized industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudhry, M.A.; Hanif, A.

    2008-01-01

    There are a variety of techniques developed in order to improve the efficiency of electrical systems and reduce cost of providing electricity to the consumer. This paper presents a new technique for power-factor capacity calculation in medium-sized industrial/ commercial setups. Various loads of similar nominal power-factor are categorized and demand-factor of loads is so selected that it has engineering justifications. The developed system works on the principle of low-voltage power-factor correction, which substantially reduces electricity bill and increases loading-capacity of the electrical system. It allows commercial and industrial consumers to save on their power cost appreciably. This work utilizes software, which takes few inputs and produces numerous useful results. Adoption of this system can help the user in computing compensation-capacity, system KVA (size of transformer) and cost of compensation. A feature of this system is prediction of low PF penalty. Moreover, it also suggests the tentative payback period. (author)

  3. Evaluation of the technical condition of medium-sized boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lošák Pavel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent trend in the steam and electricity production has been both to increase the efficiency of the facility and to keep tightening legislation concerning emission limits. The lifetime of energy equipment is greatly influenced by the operating temperature, pressure and operating characteristics. The new conditions lead the operator to more often changes of these parameters, which has negative influence to the facility in terms of service life. Precise knowledge of the facility being operated and the ability to predict the residual life of its key parts in time is therefore necessary. A new methodology for determining the residual life and evaluating problematic situations of medium size boilers was developed at Brno University of Technology. Its approaches and advantages will be presented in this paper. The methodology provides the user with approaches for the lifetime evaluation of an equipment as a whole, based on detailed knowledge of the equipment being investigated and the ongoing damage. Additionally, if the equipment is continuously evaluated, it is possible to extend the inspection interval or to achieve a significantly higher lifetime of the entire equipment, thereby reducing the economic cost. If defined criteria are met, the methodology also allows inclusion of FEM and CFD simulations for achieving higher relevance of the results.

  4. Clinical Spectrum of Medium-Sized Vessel Vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibaz-Oner, Fatma; Koster, Matthew J; Crowson, Cynthia S; Makol, Ashima; Ytterberg, Steven R; Salvarani, Carlo; Matteson, Eric L; Warrington, Kenneth J

    2017-06-01

    Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis of medium-sized visceral vessels. However, cutaneous arteritis (CA) and gastrointestinal (GI) vasculitis are forms of single-organ vasculitis having indistinguishable histopathologic findings from PAN. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of patients with systemic PAN, CA, and GI vasculitis. Retrospective cohorts were assembled, consisting of patients with PAN, CA, and GI vasculitis between 1980 and 2014. The demographics, clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of patients were abstracted from medical records. We included 48 patients with PAN, 41 patients with CA, and 19 patients with GI vasculitis. The disease of 1 patient evolved from CA to systemic PAN during the disease course. At diagnosis, 94% of patients with PAN, 93% of patients with CA, and 67% of patients with GI vasculitis were treated with glucocorticoids. Additional immunosuppressive agents were used in 67% of PAN, 37% of GI vasculitis, and 32% of CA cases. The 5-year cumulative relapse rate was 45.2% in CA, and only 9.6% in PAN during a followup of approximately 6 years. No deaths were observed in the CA group. The survival rate at 10 years was 66% in the PAN group and 61% in the GI vasculitis group. Systemic PAN, CA, and GI vasculitis take different clinical courses and therefore may be different diseases, rather than existing on a spectrum of the same disease. Progression of CA to systemic PAN is very rare. Relapse risk is low during followup in PAN. Patients with CA have a higher relapse rate than those with systemic PAN, possibly due to less use of immunosuppressive therapy in CA. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  5. The design of a compact integral medium size PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirvan, Koroush; Hejzlar, Pavel; Kazimi, Mujid S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model the IRIS reactor in RELAP5 and VIPRE codes. ► We use Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers and internally and externally cooled fuel pins in IRIS. ► We increase the IRIS power by 50% and demonstrate adequate safety performance. ► We show significant potential gain in economics for any integral PWR reactor design. - Abstract: Integral reactors have been proposed in recent years as a means to eliminate loss of coolant events, and reduce the number of large vessels of a nuclear power plant. In this paper the focus on how to further increase the power that can be derived from a given vessel volume. The example is applied to the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS), a medium size, light water reactor rated at 1000 MWt. The IRIS is an integral design containing all pumps and steam generators along with a traditional PWR core inside the reactor vessel. IRIS was designed with 8 Once-Through Helically Coiled Steam Generators (OTHSG), located above the core, in an annular region between the riser and the pressure vessel wall. This work examines ideas to increase its power output in the same vessel size while maintaining or improving the safety margins. The combination of Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (PCHE) and Internally and EXternally cooled Annular Fuel (IXAF) is proposed to implement such improvement in otherwise the reference IRIS design. Safety implications of such steam generator and fuel design changes for the same reactor size are examined, under both steady state and transients, using the RELAP5 and VIPRE codes. It is found that the IRIS reactor power can be increased by 50% by using the PCHE and IXAF. The proposed design is found to be less expensive per unit electric power produced, these improvements and analyses can be applied to any integral reactor design.

  6. Use of sales and operations planning in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Adamczak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing competitiveness in the market, customer expectations related to the shortening of the deadlines and the reduction of prices of products and services force companies to improve the efficiency of internal processes. The integration of planning process is one of possible ways to achieve this aim. The integration of planning processes by the use of SOP model (Sales and Operations Planning is a method to implement this idea. The study allowed to identify ways to implement the process of sales and operations planning in small and medium-sized enterprises. Material and methods: The study was conducted in companies from different industries. The research method was in-depth interviews conducted with managers of companies or persons occupying management positions in the organizational process of implementing sales and operations planning. Results: During the survey, 10 companies were asked about the use of sales and operations planning, its elements and organizational aspects of its development, by the company. Conclusions: The use of sales and operations plan is closely dependent on the size of the company and its localization in the supply chain. Small enterprises are not interested in the integration of the planning process due to the small scale of operations and the centralization of decision-making process. Medium-sized enterprises, due to the increased complexity of the processes of planning, see the benefits of their integration in the SOP model.

  7. Penetration of small and medium sized food companies on foreign markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Mura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the world the interconnection of national economies and internationalization of economic processes occur. In turbulent changing business environment only those companies that understand the current trends in global economy may survive, develop and prosper. Therefore, the issue of internationalization for most companies becomes to be more important and the process of in­ter­na­tio­na­li­za­tion is the way how to stand this increasingly competitive environment. In presented contribution, the attention is paid to issues of internationalization of Slovak food industry enterprises such as their way of business internationalization, percentage share of foreign - trading activities on overall business activity, company evaluation of business internationalization or barriers of foreign markets pe­ne­tra­tion that researched companies have to deal with. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are the engine of the Slovak economy, generator of development, innovation, growth and they employ more than 60% of employees. Almost all businesses operating in agri-food complex have character of small and medium enterprises. The results of carried research have shown that small and medium-sized companies are considered to be successful in operation on foreign markets in surrounding European countries.

  8. Small and Medium Sized Reactors: Driving Forces and Technology Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowin, P.J.; Kupitz, J.

    2002-01-01

    There will be growing demands for energy in the coming decades. One aspect of particular importance is that prospects for nuclear energy will to a considerable extent be influenced by developing countries. Since population growth will occur primarily in developing countries nuclear energy cannot play a significant global role without being a viable option in these countries. Since new power plants to be built will have to be compatible with regional electricity grids, this may result in a greater focus on plants in the small and medium range, defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to produce up to 700 Megawatt of electrical power. This paper first examines the driving forces that could influence the development of nuclear energy in general and of Small and Medium Sized Reactors (SMRs) in particular in the next decades and identifies key factors in that process. Concerns over climate change may to a certain extent influence the discussion on future energy options. Other factors of equal importance for the future of nuclear are a continued emphasis on maintaining high safety standards, the implementation of acceptable solutions for spent fuel and radioactive waste disposal and a globally accepted non-proliferation regime, factors that may in turn have an impact on public acceptance. Economic competitiveness of nuclear energy is an additional important factor, and without being commercially viable, no energy source can in the long run represent a major and stable component in a competitive energy sector. The introduction of SMRs in developing countries poses additional challenges, such as investment limitations. Technology development plays an important role in keeping the nuclear option open for countries wishing to use nuclear reactors to meet their energy needs, and advances in reactor design will be important to enable a significant nuclear component in developing countries. This paper considers the contribution that nuclear science and

  9. An integrated marketing approach for a medium-sized South African airline in a deregulated market

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Comm. The overall goal of this study is to provide a medium-sized South African airline with the theoretical framework and necessary research and analyses, in developing an integrated marketing approach in a deregulated environment. The objectives of the study are : to analyse the macro and market variables that could impact on the marketing efforts of a medium-sized South African airline. to assess a medium-sized South African airline's marketing efforts (in response to external variabl...

  10. Management of small and medium size enterprises as a carrier of economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ožegović Lazar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies in the world of market economy show that the share of small and medium size enterprises is constantly increasing compared to large enterprises. This does not decrease the significance of large enterprises, but the dependence between them gets larger every day. National economies which manage to find the optimal combination between small, medium size and large enterprises are more successful than the others. Management of small and medium size enterprises (SMEs in conceptual terms is similar to the process of management of large enterprises. An organization must be managed in order to function and this rule applies to small and medium size enterprises.

  11. Theory of flotation of small and medium-size particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derjaguin, B. V.; Dukhin, S. S.

    1993-08-01

    The paper describes a theory of flotation of small and medium-size particles less than 50μ in radius) when their precipitation on a bubble surface depends more on surface forces than on inertia forces, and deformation of the bubble due to collisions with the particles may be neglected. The approach of the mineral particle to the bubble surface is regarded as taking place in three stages corresponding to movement of the particles through zones 1, 2 and 3. Zone 3 is a liquid wetting layer of such thickness that a positive or negative disjoining pressure arises in this intervening layer between the particle and the bubble. By zone 2 is meant the diffusional boundary layer of the bubble. In zone 1, which comprises the entire liquid outside zone 2, there are no surface forces. Precipitation of the particles is calculated by considering the forces acting in zones 1, 2 and 3. The particles move through zone 1 under the action of gravity and inertia. Analysis of the movement of the particles under the action of these forces gives the critical particle size, below which contact with the bubble surface is impossible, if the surface forces acting in zones 2 and 3 be neglected. The forces acting in zone 2 are ‘diffusio-phoretic’ forces due to the concentration gradient in the diffusional boundary layer. The concentration and electric field intensity distribution in zone 2 is calculated, taking into account ion diffusion to the deformed bubble surface. An examination is made of the ‘equilibrium’ surface forces acting in zone 3 independent of whether the bubble is at rest or in motion. These forces, which determine the behaviour of the thin wetting intervening layer between the bubble and the mineral particle and the height of the force barrier against its rupture, may be represented as results of the disjoining pressure forces acting on various parts of the film. The main components of the disjoining pressure are van der Waals forces, forces of an iono

  12. Copper complexes as chemical nucleases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    anticancer drug famotidine has been shown as a better catalyst than CuCl2 for sulfite ... Effect of addition of bis-chelate copper(II) complexes (dpq, •; phen, ; ..... Reproduction, Development & Genetics for their help in the DNA cleavage studies ...

  13. Managers' Understanding of Workplace Health Promotion within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ann; Parahoo, Kader; Fleming, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed at exploring managers' understanding of workplace health promotion and experiences of workplace health promotion activity within small and medium-sized enterprises. Design: A Heideggerian interpretive phenomenological methodology was adopted. Setting: This study was undertaken with small and medium-sized enterprise…

  14. Evaluation research of small and medium-sized enterprise informatization on big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na

    2017-09-01

    Under the background of big data, key construction of small and medium-sized enterprise informationization level was needed, but information construction cost was large, while information cost of inputs can bring benefit to small and medium-sized enterprises. This paper established small and medium-sized enterprise informatization evaluation system from hardware and software security level, information organization level, information technology application and the profit level, and information ability level. The rough set theory was used to brief indexes, and then carry out evaluation by support vector machine (SVM) model. At last, examples were used to verify the theory in order to prove the effectiveness of the method.

  15. Ethanol production in small- to medium-size facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiler, E. A.; Coble, C. G.; Oneal, H. P.; Sweeten, J. M.; Reidenbach, V. G.; Schelling, G. T.; Lawhon, J. T.; Kay, R. D.; Lepori, W. A.; Aldred, W. H.

    1982-04-01

    In early 1980 system design criteria were developed for a small-scale ethanol production plant. The plant was eventually installed on November 1, 1980. It has a production capacity of 30 liters per hour; this can be increased easily (if desired) to 60 liters per hour with additional fermentation tanks. Sixty-six test runs were conducted to date in the alcohol production facility. Feedstocks evaluated in these tests include: corn (28 runs); grain sorghum (33 runs); grain sorghum grits (1 run); half corn/half sorghum (1 run); and sugarcane juice (3 runs). In addition, a small bench-scale fermentation and distillation system was used to evaluate sugarcane and sweet sorghum feedstocks prior to their evaluation in the larger unit. In each of these tests, evaluation of the following items was conducted: preprocessing requirements; operational problems; conversion efficiency (for example, liters of alcohol produced per kilogram of feedstock); energy balance and efficiency; nutritional recovery from stillage; solids separation by screw press; chemical characterization of stillage including liquid and solids fractions; wastewater requirements; and air pollution potential.

  16. Involvement of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in elaborating and implementing public policies: Study case-Romanian small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu Ruxandra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Involvement and development of the private sector in boosting the economy nationwide is a main objective of the current program of the government, which means that a good cooperation between small and medium companies, private companies and multinationals and public environment including both public institutions and policies implemented and developed by them, becomes more than necessary. The paper summarizes the findings of a quantitative research based on a self-applied questionnaire which was aimed at Romanian small and medium-sized enterprises and also of a qualitative research that gives an overview of the process of elaborating and implementing a public policy. The involvement of small and medium-sized enterprises in the process of designing and implementing a public policy can become indispensable but it is well know that there is, in fact, a lack of initiative at this level, from both parties. One of the main research questions of this paper is to find out how much do representatives of small and medium-sized enterprises get involved in the process of elaborating a public policy and how much do these actions and measures impact the organizational policies of the companies themselves. A good cooperation between the business environment and the public institutions and a strong correlation of their joint efforts, should become a common practice between both parties, being crucial that this form of cooperation to be initiated from the very beginning. The contribution of this paper is a practical one, given the fact that the paper itself entails the direct responses of small and medium-sized enterprises on the current and future public policies that directly targets them, providing as well an analysis on the effects of public policies on small and medium-sized enterprises. Thus being said, the paper can also be a guide for both small and medium-sized enterprises in providing examples and measures of involvement and favorable public policies

  17. Mechanism of Interaction between Entrepreneurial Spirit and Growth of Small and Medium Sized Private Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng XIE

    2016-01-01

    In the context of government appeal of " mass entrepreneurship and innovation",all areas launched the movement of " mass entrepreneurship" and " grassroots entrepreneurship". As parts of vitality of China’s market economy,small and medium sized private enterprises become grassroots of market competition in talents,funds,and technologies. This paper combined three levels of entrepreneurial spirit and small and medium sized private enterprises,studied acting mechanism of entrepreneurial spirit,discussed competitive power of small and medium sized private enterprises,and recommended that small and medium sized private enterprises should cultivate core competitive power,adapt to external environment,and create external environment support,to realize sound development.

  18. Local governments and climate change: sustainable energy planning and implementation in small and medium sized communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Staden, Maryke; Musco, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    The focus of 'Local governments and climate change' is on how small and medium-sized communities in Europe are effectively responding to climate change, with a particular focus on different approaches...

  19. Delivery of workshops on mobility monitoring in small to medium-sized communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    This report summarizes the delivery and outcome of a series of workshops conducted in 13 cities across the : state on performing mobility monitoring in small to medium-sized communities. The workshops served as : implementation for research project 0...

  20. The development of internet based ship design support system for small and medium sized shipyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung-Chul; Lee, Soon-Sup; Kang, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Kyung-Ho

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, a prototype of ship basic planning system is implemented for the small and medium sized shipyards based on the internet technology and concurrent engineering concept. The system is designed from the user requirements. Consequently, standardized development environment and tools are selected. These tools are used for the system development to define and evaluate core application technologies. The system will contribute to increasing competitiveness of small and medium sized shipyards in the 21st century industrial en-vironment.

  1. The business environment and phases of development of small and medium-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Wach, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    The subject literature distinguishes several factors that determine the establishment, survival , operations and development of micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises in particular regions. In this article, the author presents a classification of these factors in terms of whether they are barriers or stimulators. On this basis, the author explains the influence of regional environment (meso-environment) factors on the development of small and medium-sized enterprises in various phases of ...

  2. Financial Management Challenges In Small And Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Strategic Management Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hande Karadag

    2015-01-01

    Abstract :Due to their significant role in creation of new jobs, rise in GDP, entrepreneurship and innovation, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are recognized as the the drivers of socio-economic growth, both in developed and developing economies. In Turkey, 99.9 % of all enterprises fall into SME category. Therefore, the significance of SMEs for Turkish economy and society is much higher in Turkey, compared to other emerging and developed countries. Small and medium-sized companies ...

  3. GOVERNMENT SUPPORT FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED BUSINESS AND INNOVATIVE ACTIVITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Pоlina Kolisnichenko

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to reveal the conditions of the innovative development of the small and mediumsized entrepreneurship in Ukraine; the problems that suppress the innovative activity and small and medium-sized enterprises development; peculiarities of the tax incentives for the development of the entrepreneurship in the advanced countries and in Ukraine; the main kinds and characteristics of the small and medium-sized enterprises public support. Methodology. The methods of scientific...

  4. 75 FR 9431 - Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: U.S. and EU Export Activities, and Barriers and Opportunities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... to the USTR on the first investigation, No. 332-508, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Overview of..., investigation No. 332-509, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: U.S. and EU Export Activities, and Barriers and Opportunities Experienced by U.S. Firms, and investigation No. 332- 510, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises...

  5. Human resources management within the process management in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Duspivová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sector of small and medium-sized enterprises is regarded as the backbone of the economy and a driving force of innovation, employment and social integration. Development of the sector of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic has a substantial impact on economic and social development of the country and its various regions. This article deals with the human resources management in small and medium-sized enterprises, because it is more than obvious recently that the prosperity of the organization is depended on human resources and management of them can determine not only whether the organizations succeed, but whether it will be able to survive in turbulent conditions in the present world. The main aim of this paper is to analytical describe the monitoring the process of human resources management in selected categories of enterprises by business activity and number of employees including statistical analysis of causal effects. Further to analytical describe the evaluation the process of human resources management and indicators of this process, which are monitored by small and medium-sized enterprises. To achieve this aim were used selected primary data collected in the project GAJU 068/2010/S titled “Process management and its possible implementation in small and medium-sized enterprises”.

  6. [Management practices in medium-sized private hospitals in São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Luiz Artur Ledur; Malik, Ana Maria; Brito, Eliane; Bulgacov, Sergio; Andreassi, Tales

    2017-04-03

    Traditional management practices are sometimes considered merely a necessary condition for superior performance. Other resources and competencies with higher barriers to imitation are assumed to be potential sources of competitive advantage. This study describes and analyzes the effect of traditional management practices on the performance of medium-sized hospitals. Medium-sized companies frequently display the greatest differences in management practices, and only recently did the hospital sector seek ways to develop its competitiveness in the administrative arena. The results generally indicate that basic management practices can make differences in performance, offering support for the new practice-based view (PBV). Hospitals with the highest rate of adoption of practices had the highest occupancy rate, hospital-bed admissions, and accreditation. Lack of adoption of management practices by medium-sized hospitals limits their competitive capacity and can be viewed as a component of the so-called Brazil cost, but in this case an internal component.

  7. A survey of the use of operational research in decisions made by micro, small and medium-sized enterprises in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Cvetkoska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We live in a complex world and managers of organizations are constantly facing numerous challenges. Good decisions, i.e., better outcomes for organizations, require use of the powerful discipline Operational Research (OR/Management Science (MS. Organizations applying this discipline have achieved significant benefits such as cost reduction, increased revenues, increased market share, higher quality, improved productivity, improved performance, better customer service, etc. The aim of this paper is to examine whether managers of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises in Macedonia use OR models for supporting decision-making processes, where OR models, methods and techniques are commonly used, and what benefits achieved in using quantitative OR models, methods and techniques. The survey was conducted using a questionnaire distributed electronically to 100 managers of micro, 100 managers of small and 100 managers of medium-sized enterprises. The questionnaires were answered completely by 93 managers of the micro, 73 managers of the small and 71 managers of the medium-sized enterprises, and the questionnaire responses were subsequently analyzed. The answers showed that decisions on running enterprises are made intuitively by 90% of managers of the micro, 78% of managers of the small, and 55% of managers of the medium-sized enterprises, while quantitative OR models for supporting the decision-making process are used by 10% of managers of the micro, 22% of managers of the small, and 45% of managers of the medium-sized enterprises. Applied in the micro, small and medium-sized enterprises are inventory models, time series analysis and forecasting, whereas micro and medium-sized enterprises rely on decision analysis. Small and medium-sized enterprises use break-even analysis, assignation, linear programming, and project management. The OR models and methods used in running the respective enterprises led to the following results: optimal inventory

  8. Modified genetic algorithms to model cluster structures in medium-size silicon clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazterra, Victor E.; Ona, Ofelia; Caputo, Maria C.; Ferraro, Marta B.; Fuentealba, Patricio; Facelli, Julio C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained using a genetic algorithm (GA) to search for stable structures of medium size silicon clusters. In this work the GA uses a semiempirical energy function to find the best cluster structures, which are further optimized using density-functional theory. For small clusters our results agree well with previously reported structures, but for larger ones different structures appear. This is the case of Si 36 where we report a different structure, with significant lower energy than those previously found using limited search approaches on common structural motifs. This demonstrates the need for global optimization schemes when searching for stable structures of medium-size silicon clusters

  9. Design features to achieve defence-in-depth in small and medium sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Broader incorporation of inherent and passive safety design features has become a 'trademark' of many advanced reactor concepts, including several evolutionary designs and nearly all innovative small and medium sized design concepts. Ensuring adequate defence-in-depth is important for reactors of smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow more proximity to the user, specifically, when non-electrical energy products are targeted. Based on the activities recently performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the paper provides a summary description of the design features used to achieve defence in depth in the eleven representative concepts of small and medium sized reactors. (author)

  10. International seminar on status and prospects for small and medium sized reactors. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    Small and medium sized reactors have been defined by IAEA in accordance with their net electrical power rating, or thermal equivalent power rating for reactors producing process heat. Within the global energy supply and demand the role of nuclear power, and specifically the role of small and medium sizes reactors, is reviewed. Some new design prospects of dual purpose power plants, namely for heat production and desalination, are presented. Some proposal for new concepts of small size power reactors are described. A special concern is devoted to economic and energy policy issues as well as to safety and non-proliferation matters

  11. Innovation, adaptability, and collaboration: Keys to success for small and medium sized reactors. Cairo, 27 May 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2001-01-01

    Small and medium sized reactors, within a power output of less than 700 MW(e), are receiving increased consideration in the effort to meet changing market requirements. Smaller plants allow a more incremental investment, which can be used to hedge against demand uncertainty. They are more suitable for standardization and prefabrication, which in turn encourages enhanced quality control and stimulates rapid development of expertise and shorter construction schedules. They provide a better match to grid capacity in developing countries. And they are more easily adapted to a broad range of industrial settings and applications, such as district heating, heavy oil recovery, or the production of hydrogen and other chemical fuels. Sea water desalination is an application for which smaller reactors hold a particular advantage. Nuclear powered desalination is a proven technology. Clearly, we live in an era in which our society faces many difficult economic, environmental and social issues associated with sustainable development and energy demand. Against that backdrop, nuclear power is a mature technology that deserves careful consideration as a contributor to solving some of these issues. The development of innovative small and medium sized reactors will play a key role in helping to match state-of-the-art technology to user needs. An exchange of information and ideas is a step towards further progress

  12. THE PREMISES OF STRATEGIC MARKETING PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION WITHIN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu Andrei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present paper is to identify the framework and the necessary conditions for the small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs to be able to adopt the strategic marketing planning. Also, the paper aims to underline the importance of the strategic marketing planning and the manner in which the SMEs can adopt, implement and operationalize the strategic marketing planning instruments, whose correct understanding and usage ensure the capacity to generate competitive advantage, the key element both from the perspective of the fierce competition and the perspective of the future development of the SMEs. Within SMEs the implementation of marketing becomes an evident requirment, mostly due to the relationship that these have with the market, thus, leading towards market orientation of the activities, a new approach developed by the marketing vision on managing the activities from these types of organizations. Regarded upon, from the marketing perspective, the activities from the SMEs, especially the marketing activities, cannot take place randomly. Resource allocation, a characteristic of these types of organizations, and the objectives with regards to superior customer needs satisfaction and economic efficiency maximization, claim thorough plannification and deployment of the activities in a sequence that represents the implementation of a strategy previously assumed. Within this framework, the strategic marketing planning appears as a complex process employing all scientific instruments that comprise segmentation, positioning and marketing mix. Utilizing the strategic marketing planning within SMEs depends to further extend on marketing integration; process directly related with a series of factors such as the nature of the market, development stage, product type, management quality and the influences of the marketing department of the SME. The implications onto the marketing activities from SMEs are reflected upon each strategic

  13. Distribution and compartmental organization of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons in the mouse Nucleus Accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eGangarossa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nucleus accumbens (NAc is a critical brain region involved in many reward-related behaviors. The NAc comprises major compartments the core and the shell, which encompass several subterritories. GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs constitute the output neurons of the NAc core and shell. While the functional organization of the NAc core outputs resembles the one described for the dorsal striatum, a simple classification of the NAc shell neurons has been difficult to define due to the complexity of the compartmental segregation of cells. We used a variety of BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence (EGFP or the Cre-recombinase (Cre under the control of the promoter of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors and of adenosine A2a receptor to dissect the microanatomy of the NAc. Moreover, using various immunological markers we characterized in detail the distribution of MSNs in the mouse NAc. In addition, cell-type specific ERK phosphorylation in the NAc subterritories was analyzed following acute administration of SKF81297 (a D1R-like agonist, quinpirole (a D2R-like agonist, apomorphine (a non-selective DA receptor agonist, raclopride (a D2R-like antagonist, and psychostimulant drugs, including cocaine and d-amphetamine. Each drug generated a unique topography and cell-type specific activation of ERK in the NAc. Our results show the existence of marked differences in the receptor expression pattern and functional activation of MSNs within the shell subterritories. This study emphasizes the anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the NAc, which will have to be considered in its further study.

  14. Simulation of Supply-Chain Networks: A Source of Innovation and Competitive Advantage for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Liotta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available On a daily basis, enterprises of all sizes cope with the turbulence and volatility of market demands, cost variability, and severe pressure from globally distributed competitors. Managing uncertainty about future demand requirements and volumes in supply-chain networks has become a priority. One of the ways to deal with uncertainty is the utilization of simulation techniques and tools, which provide greater predictability of decision-making outcomes. For example, simulation has been widely applied in decision-making processes related to global logistics and production networks at the strategic, tactical, and operational levels, where it is used to predict the impact of decisions before their implementation in complex and uncertain environments. Large enterprises are inclined to use simulation tools whereas small and medium-sized enterprises seem to underestimate its advantages. The objective of this article is to emphasize the relevance of simulation for the design and management of supply-chain networks from the perspective of small and medium-sized firms.

  15. Sustainability and Small to Medium Sized Enterprises--How to Engage Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have a major advantage over larger organisations in regard to addressing sustainability issues--their size means they are able to react very quickly to changes in the business environment. They are disadvantaged, however, by lack of information on marketplace changes that make sustainability an opportunity…

  16. The Impact of their Adoption on Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) as well as the impact of these ... of Mathematics and Industrial Engineering at the École Polytechique, Montréal. Dr Lefebvre's research focuses on technological innovation and the strategic ...

  17. Transformational and transactional leadership: does it work in small to medium-sized enterprises?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesu, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of 755 employees who rated 121 supervisors within 50 Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), this dissertation intends to fill in some of the existing gaps in the literature. Firstly, by investigating whether the impact of transformational and transactional leadership extends

  18. The influence of ‘outsiders’ on innovative behavior by medium-sized firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, E.; Montfort, van K.; Masurel, E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper attention is paid to the influence that ‘outsiders’ exert on the innovative behavior by medium-sized firms. We see ‘outsiders’ as people who are independently involved in the firm. From our empirical research it appeared that, in comparison with firms which do not employ ‘outsiders’,

  19. Strategic use of the Internet by small- and medium-sized companies : an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadowski, B.M.; Maitland, C.; Dongen, van J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper investigates the extent to which the adoption of Internet software and services in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) has been strategic, i.e. based upon the exploitation of the network characteristics of the new technology. Within SMEs, it seems that opportunistic motivations

  20. The Relationship Between Training and Employment Growth in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Andy Cosh; Alan Hughes; Melvyn Weeks

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides a rigorous analysis of the impact of training upon the employment growth characteristics of small and medium sized firms. Using appropriate statistical techniques to cope with sample selection biases and heterogenerous employment growth patterns it reveals that training is positively related to employment growth, in particular when it is embedded in a wider range of human relations practices.

  1. Continuing Education for Managers from Small and Medium Sized German Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fub, Jorg

    1995-01-01

    An international trade school in southern Germany, which is a highly export-oriented environment, has established a vocational and professional continuing education program for personnel of small- and medium-size companies. Offerings include a graduate course in international marketing, seminars for export companies, distance education in…

  2. Understanding Informal Learning in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Shinhee; McLean, Gary N.; Park, Soyoun

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore informal learning experiences among employees working in South Korean small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) with fewer than 100 employees. This study specifically seeks to understand the characteristics of informal learning in Korean SMEs and culturally sensitive contextual factors that shape informal…

  3. An Agile Methodology for Implementing Service-Oriented Architecture in Small and Medium Sized Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of Lean/Agile principles, using action research to develop and deploy new technology for Small and Medium sized enterprises. The research case was conducted at the Lapeer County Sheriff's Department and involves the initial deployment of a Service Oriented Architecture to alleviate the data…

  4. To work in a medium-size enterprise in the nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, B.

    2017-01-01

    The French nuclear industry is made up of 2500 enterprises of any size from family businesses to large groups via medium-sized enterprises and start-ups. Most small and medium-sized enterprises have difficulties to recruit qualified people whereas their order books are full. These difficulties originate from the fact that these enterprises are less known than EDF, AREVA and CEA and as a consequence less chosen by job applicants. There is another point, the image of the industry has progressively deteriorated and the idea of working in an industrial sector is no more very exciting. The last point is that nuclear industry's future may appear less clear because of the government's policy of reducing the nuclear share in power production through the early decommissioning of reactors. 3 medium-size enterprises of the nuclear sector: Assystem, REEL and Onet Technologies consider to recruit a total of about 800 people per year and give 4 reasons to join a medium-sized company: 1) a faster professional career, more diverse activities in the job, closer managing executives and a dynamic and stimulating workplace. (A.C.)

  5. Bridging the Gap between Universities of Professional Education and Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masurel, E.; Nijkamp, P.

    2011-01-01

    Improving the relationship between knowledge institutions (especially Universities of Professional Education, UPE) and Small-and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is one of the challenges of current economic policy. Innovation is an important aspect of this policy. However, the characteristics of both

  6. Barriers to Employee Training in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises: Insights and Evidences from Mauritius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padachi, Kesseven; Bhiwajee, Soolakshna Lukea

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Training is an important component of successful business concerns. However, although there is growing acceptance amongst scholars that small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are engines that drive economies across nations, through their contribution in terms of job creation and poverty reduction; extant research portray that these…

  7. Successful E-Learning in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    So far, e-learning has primarily been used when there are many learners involved. The up-front investments related to e-learning are relatively high, and may be perceived as prohibitive for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Some e-learning is, however, getting less expensive, and some e-learning models are more suited for small-scale…

  8. Meaningfulness for creation of growth in Small- and Medium-sized enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Neville, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The research in this paper reveals how meaningfulness of growth can be created in Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). The research is conducted in a four-year period with 24 SMEs participating from different industry branches. The research is now in the late part of the 3rd. year starting...

  9. Hedging Behavior in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises: The Role of Unobserved Heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract We investigate factors that drive derivative usage in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The influence of these factors on hedging behavior cannot a priori be assumed equal for all SMEs. To address this heterogeneity, a generalized mixture regression model is used which classifies

  10. Overview of progress in European medium sized tokamaks towards an integrated plasma-edge/wall solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, H.; Eich, T.; Beurskens, M.N.A.; Coda, S.; Hakola, A.; Martin, P.; Adamek, J.; Agostini, M.; Aguiam, D.; Ahn, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Akers, R.; Albanese, R.; Aledda, R.; Alessi, E.; Allan, S.; Alves, D.; Ambrosino, R.; Amicucci, L.; Anand, H.; Anastassiou, G.; Andrèbe, Y.; Angioni, C.; Apruzzese, G.; Ariola, M.; Arnichand, H.; Arter, W.; Baciero, A.; Barnes, M.; Barrera, L.; Behn, R.; Bencze, A.; Bernardo, J.; Bernert, M.; Bettini, P.; Bilková, P.; Bin, W.; Birkenmeier, G.; Bizarro, J. P.S.; Blanchard, P.; Blanken, T.; Bluteau, M.; Bobkov, V.; Bogar, O.; Böhm, P.; Bolzonella, T.; Boncagni, L.; Botrugno, A.; Bottereau, C.; Bouquey, F.; Bourdelle, C.; Brémond, S.; Brezinsek, S.; Brida, D.; Brochard, F.; Buchanan, J.; Bufferand, H.; Buratti, P.; Cahyna, P.; Calabrò, G.; Camenen, Y.; Caniello, R.; Cannas, B.; Canton, A.; Cardinali, A.; Carnevale, D.; Carr, M.; Carralero, D.; Carvalho, P.; Casali, L.; Castaldo, C.; Castejón, F.; Castro, R.; Causa, F.; Cavazzana, R.; Cavedon, M.; Cecconello, M.; Ceccuzzi, S.; Cesario, R.; Challis, C.D.; Chapman, I.T.; Chapman, S.; Chernyshova, M.; Choi, D.; Cianfarani, C.; Ciraolo, G.; Citrin, J.; Clairet, F.; Classen, I.; Coelho, R.; Coenen, J. W.; Colas, L.; Conway, G.; Corre, Y.; Costea, S.; Crisanti, F.; Cruz, N.; Cseh, G.; Czarnecka, A.; D'Arcangelo, O.; De Angeli, M.; De Masi, G.; De Temmerman, G.; De Tommasi, G.; Decker, J.; Delogu, R. S.; Dendy, R.; Denner, P.; Di Troia, C.; Dimitrova, M.; D'Inca, R.; Dorić, V.; Douai, D.; Drenik, A.; Dudson, B.; Dunai, D.; Dunne, M.; Duval, B. P.; Easy, L.; Elmore, S.; Erdös, B.; Esposito, B.; Fable, E.; Faitsch, M.; Fanni, A.; Fedorczak, N.; Felici, F.; Ferreira, J.; Février, O.; Ficker, O.; Fietz, S.; Figini, L.; Figueiredo, A.; Fil, A.; Fishpool, G.; Fitzgerald, M.; Fontana, M.; Ford, O.; Frassinetti, L.; Fridström, R.; Frigione, D.; Fuchert, G.; Fuchs, C.; Furno Palumbo, M.; Futatani, S.; Gabellieri, L.; Gałazka, K.; Galdon-Quiroga, J.; Galeani, S.; Gallart, D.; Gallo, A.; Galperti, C.; Gao, Y.; Garavaglia, S.; Garcia, J.; Garcia-Carrasco, A.; Garcia-Lopez, J.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Gardarein, J. L.; Garzotti, L.; Gaspar, J.; Gauthier, E.; Geelen, P.; Geiger, B.; Ghendrih, P.; Ghezzi, F.; Giacomelli, L.; Giannone, L.; Giovannozzi, E.; Giroud, C.; Gleason González, C.; Gobbin, M.; Goodman, T. P.; Gorini, G.; Gospodarczyk, M.; Granucci, G.; Gruber, M.; Gude, A.; Guimarais, L.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Hacek, P.; Hacquin, S.; Hall, S.; Ham, C.; Happel, T.; Harrison, J.; Harting, D.; Hauer, V.; Havlickova, E.; Hellsten, T.; Helou, W.; Henderson, S.; Hennequin, P.; Heyn, M.; Hnat, B.; Hölzl, M.; Hogeweij, D.; Honoré, C.; Hopf, C.; Horáček, J.; Hornung, G.; Horváth, L.; Huang, Z.; Huber, A.; Igitkhanov, J.; Igochine, V.; Imrisek, M.; Innocente, P.; Ionita-Schrittwieser, C.; Isliker, H.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Jacobsen, A. S.; Jacquet, P.; Jakubowski, M.; Jardin, A.; Jaulmes, F.; Jenko, F.; Jensen, T.; Jeppe Miki Busk, O.; Jessen, M.; Joffrin, E.; Jones, O.; Jonsson, T.; Kallenbach, A.; Kallinikos, N.; Kálvin, S.; Kappatou, A.; Karhunen, J.; Karpushov, A.; Kasilov, S.; Kasprowicz, G.; Kendl, A.; Kernbichler, W.; Kim, D.; Kirk, A.; Kjer, S.; Klimek, I.; Kocsis, G.; Kogut, D.; Komm, M.; Korsholm, S. B.; Koslowski, H. R.; Koubiti, M.; Kovacic, J.; Kovarik, K.; Krawczyk, N.; Krbec, J.; Krieger, K.; Krivska, A.; Kube, R.; Kudlacek, O.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Labit, B.; Laggner, F. M.; Laguardia, L.; Lahtinen, A.; Lalousis, P.; Lang, P.; Lauber, P.; Lazányi, N.; Lazaros, A.; Le, H.B.; Lebschy, A.; Leddy, J.; Lefévre, L.; Lehnen, M.; Leipold, F.; Lessig, A.; Leyland, M.; Li, L.; Liang, Y.; Lipschultz, B.; Liu, Y.Q.; Loarer, T.; Loarte, A.; Loewenhoff, T.; Lomanowski, B.; Loschiavo, V. P.; Lunt, T.; Lupelli, I.; Lux, H.; Lyssoivan, A.; Madsen, J.; Maget, P.; Maggi, C.; Maggiora, R.; Magnussen, M. L.; Mailloux, J.; Maljaars, B.; Malygin, A.; Mantica, P.; Mantsinen, M.; Maraschek, M.; Marchand, B.; Marconato, N.; Marini, C.; Marinucci, M.; Markovic, T.; Marocco, D.; Marrelli, L.; Martin, Y.; Martin Solis, J. R.; Martitsch, A.; Mastrostefano, S.; Mattei, M.; Matthews, G.; Mavridis, M.; Mayoral, M. L.; Mazon, D.; McCarthy, P.; McAdams, R.; McArdle, G.; McCarthy, P.; McClements, K.; McDermott, R.; McMillan, B.; Meisl, G.; Merle, A.; Meyer, O.; Milanesio, D.; Militello, F.; Miron, I. G.; Mitosinkova, K.; Mlynar, J.; Mlynek, A.; Molina, D.; Molina, P.; Monakhov, I.; Morales, J.; Moreau, D.; Morel, P.; Moret, J. M.; Moro, A.; Moulton, D.; Müller, H. W.; Nabais, F.; Nardon, E.; Naulin, V.; Nemes-Czopf, A.; Nespoli, F.; Neu, R.; Nielsen, A. H.; Nielsen, S. K.; Nikolaeva, V.; Nimb, S.; Nocente, M.; Nouailletas, R.; Nowak, S.; Oberkofler, M.; Oberparleiter, M.; Ochoukov, R.; Odstrčil, T.; Olsen, J.; Omotani, J.; O'Mullane, M. G.; Orain, F.; Osterman, N.; Paccagnella, R.; Pamela, S.; Pangione, L.; Panjan, M.; Papp, G.; Papřok, R.; Parail, V.; Parra, F. I.; Pau, A.; Pautasso, G.; Pehkonen, S. P.; Pereira, A.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Peterka, M.; Petersson, P.; Petrzilka, V.; Piovesan, P.; Piron, C.; Pironti, A.; Pisano, F.; Pisokas, T.; Pitts, R.; Ploumistakis, I.; Plyusnin, V.; Pokol, G.; Poljak, D.; Pölöskei, P.; Popovic, Z.; Pór, G.; Porte, L.; Potzel, S.; Predebon, I.; Preynas, M.; Primc, G.; Pucella, G.; Puiatti, M. E.; Pütterich, T.; Rack, M.; Ramogida, G.; Rapson, C.; Rasmussen, J. Juul; Rasmussen, J.; Rattá, G. A.; Ratynskaia, S.; Ravera, G.; Réfy, D.; Reich, M.; Reimerdes, H.; Reimold, F.; Reinke, M.; Reiser, D.; Resnik, M.; Reux, C.; Ripamonti, D.; Rittich, D.; Riva, G.; Rodriguez-Ramos, M.; Rohde, V.; Rosato, J.; Ryter, F.; Saarelma, S.; Sabot, R.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Salewski, M.; Salmi, A.; Samaddar, D.; Sanchis-Sanchez, L.; Santos, J.; Sauter, O.; Scannell, R.; Scheffer, M.; Schneider, M.; Schneider, B.; Schneider, P.; Schneller, M.; Schrittwieser, R.; Schubert, M.; Schweinzer, J.; Seidl, J.; Sertoli, M.; Šesnić, S.; Shabbir, A.; Shalpegin, A.; Shanahan, B.; Sharapov, S.; Sheikh, U.; Sias, G.; Sieglin, B.; Silva, C.; Silva, A.; Silva Fuglister, M.; Simpson, J.; Snicker, A.; Sommariva, C.; Sozzi, C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spizzo, G.; Spolaore, M.; Stange, T.; Stejner Pedersen, M.; Stepanov, I.; Stober, J.; Strand, P.; Šušnjara, A.; Suttrop, W.; Szepesi, T.; Tál, B.; Tala, T.; Tamain, P.; Tardini, G.; Tardocchi, M.; Teplukhina, A.; Terranova, D.; Testa, D.; Theiler, C.; Thornton, A.; Tolias, P.; Tophj, L.; Treutterer, W.; Trevisan, G. L.; Tripsky, M.; Tsironis, C.; Tsui, C.; Tudisco, O.; Uccello, A.; Urban, J.; Valisa, M.; Vallejos, P.; Valovic, M.; Van Den Brand, H.; Vanovac, B.; Varoutis, S.; Vartanian, S.; Vega, J.; Verdoolaege, G.; Verhaegh, K.; Vermare, L.; Vianello, N.; Vicente, J.; Viezzer, E.; Vignitchouk, L.; Vijvers, W.A.J.; Villone, F.; Viola, B.; Vlahos, L.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Vondráček, P.; Vu, N. M.T.; Wagner, D.; Walkden, N.; Wang, N.; Wauters, T.; Weiland, M.; Weinzettl, V.; Westerhof, E.; Wiesenberger, M.; Willensdorfer, M.; Wischmeier, M.; Wodniak, I.; Wolfrum, E.; Yadykin, D.; Zagórski, R.; Zammuto, I.; Zanca, P.; Zaplotnik, R.; Zestanakis, P.; Zhang, W.; Zoletnik, S.; Zuin, M.

    2017-01-01

    Integrating the plasma core performance with an edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) that leads to tolerable heat and particle loads on the wall is a major challenge. The new European medium size tokamak task force (EU-MST) coordinates research on ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), MAST and TCV. This multi-machine

  11. Overview of progress in European medium sized tokamaks towards an integrated plasma-edge/wall solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, H.; Eich, T.; Beurskens, M.

    2017-01-01

    Integrating the plasma core performance with an edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) that leads to tolerable heat and particle loads on the wall is a major challenge. The new European medium size tokamak task force (EU-MST) coordinates research on ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), MAST and TCV. This multi-machine ...

  12. Favouring Small and Medium Sized Enterprises with Directive 2014/24/EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trybus, Martin; Andrecka, Marta

    2017-01-01

    This article argues that the four main measures introduced in the 2014 reform of the Procurement Directives to promote Small andMediumSized Enterprises (SMEs) cannot be classified as measures favouring SMEs. A measure favours SMEs when it compromises the main objectives of competition, non...

  13. Greening Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Evaluating Environmental Policy in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Khoa, Le

    2006-01-01

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) contribute considerably to the economic and social development of bothViet Namand Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). But at the same time this sector causes severe environmental

  14. Tailoring of new polymeric biomaterials for the repair of medium-sized corneal perforations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruining, MJ; Blaauwgeers, HGT; Kuijer, R; Jongsma, FHM; de Brabander, J; Nuijts, RMMA; Koole, LH

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether polymeric biomaterials can be designed such that they become suitable for surgical closure of medium-sized perforations in the cornea, the transparent tissue in the front of the eye. Such a biomaterial must meet stringent requirements in terms of

  15. Implementation of Lean Six Sigma in small- and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timans, W.; Antony, J.; Ahaus, K.; van Solingen, R.

    In this paper we provide an exploration and analysis of Lean Six Sigma (LSS) implementation in Dutch manufacturing/engineering small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Critical success factors (CSFs) and impeding factors are identified and analysed. Exploratory empirical evidence about LSS

  16. The role of small and medium size reactors in the future US nuclear market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twilley, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the various aspects of siting and sizing new generating facilities in the USA. Environmental and licensing issues are discussed. The economic considerations and assumptions for new plants are presented. Also, the electric transmission and distribution system characteristics and constraints are described with the potential role for several small and medium size designs summarized. (authors)

  17. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipple, C.; Vosti, E.

    1997-11-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to address needs that are characterized of small to medium sized apparel manufactures and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for this specific efforts are discussed.

  18. Innovation capabilities and challenges for energy smartdevelopment in medium sized European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhult, Erik; Campillo, J.; Dahlquist, E.; Read, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Transition towards becoming Energy smart city integrating different areas of energy production, distribution and use in a community requires a spectrum of capabilities. The paper reports on findings from the EU planning project PLEEC, involving six medium sized European cities. The purpose of the

  19. Personnel role by implementing anti-crisis programs in small and medium-size enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak Andrey Borisovitch

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To recover from crisis, small and medium-size enterprises have to develop anti-crisis plans and programs and to monitor the implementation process. The implementation efficiency is provided by the personnel which needs appraisal, motivation and development.

  20. New Balancing Equipment for Mass Production of Small and Medium-Sized Electrical Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argeseanu, Alin; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2010-01-01

    The level of vibration and noise is an important feature. It is good practice to explain the significance of the indicators of the quality of electrical machines. The mass production of small and medium-sized electrical machines demands speed (short typical measurement time), reliability...

  1. Toward a Singleton Undergraduate Computer Graphics Course in Small and Medium-Sized Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shesh, Amit

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the evolution of a single undergraduate computer graphics course over five semesters, driven by a primary question: if one could offer only one undergraduate course in graphics, what would it include? This constraint is relevant to many small and medium-sized colleges that lack resources, adequate expertise, and enrollment…

  2. GOVERNMENT SUPPORT FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED BUSINESS AND INNOVATIVE ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pоlina Kolisnichenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to reveal the conditions of the innovative development of the small and mediumsized entrepreneurship in Ukraine; the problems that suppress the innovative activity and small and medium-sized enterprises development; peculiarities of the tax incentives for the development of the entrepreneurship in the advanced countries and in Ukraine; the main kinds and characteristics of the small and medium-sized enterprises public support. Methodology. The methods of scientific research include: analysis and generalization for studying the main kinds and characteristics of the government support of the small and medium-sized enterprises; dynamic and comparative analysis for studying the problems and factors influencing the development of small and medium enterprises and innovative activity, peculiarities of tax incentives for business development; systemanalytical method for studying the conditions of the innovative development of the small and medium-sized entrepreneurship. Results. The government's financial support priorities should be: optimal application of the fiscal regulation instruments (reduction of the amount of taxes, determination of the criteria for the maximum taxation amount, tax incentives etc., maintenance of the self-investment of small and medium-sized enterprises as well as investment, financial means of the public influence over the development of the enterprises, effective combination of both direct and indirect forms of the innovative development support. Practical implications. The obtained results can be used in the process of formation and implementation of the small and medium enterprise sector development strategy and innovative activity in the long-term perspective. Value/originality. The obtained data can provide a better understanding of the direction of innovative business development in Ukraine.

  3. Regulation of Small and Medium-Sized Business Development in Russia: Problems and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Yuryevna Bogachkova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors prove that despite the active state policy carried out since the second half of the 2000s and aimed at supporting small and medium-sized business in the Russian Federation, the current level of development of this economic sector is insufficient. The present paper characterizes the modern structure of small and medium-sized business. The authors show that the main problems hindering its growth are conditioned by low market demand, large tax deductions, numerous administrative barriers, lack of funding and state support. On the basis of the official data of Russian Federal State Statistics Service on theresults of annual surveys of entrepreneurs, the authors revealed the factors that prevented innovation situation in the country have stable negative impact on MSB, while the impact of such factors as imperfect legal and regulatory framework, investment risks, low profitability and inadequate state of technological infrastructure is relatively nonsignificant. The authors describe systemwide and resource measures of state regulation of small and medium-sized business. The system-wide measures include preferential access to production facilities and equipment, special tax regimes, administrative control. The measures of resource support to entrepreneurs consist in subsidizing the lease payments and interest rates on loans for the modernization of production; grant support, the establishment of microfinance organizations and guarantee funds, the development of business support infrastructure. The authors describe the forms of these measures implementation in 2013 and the main directions of improving the state regulation of small and medium-sized business, including the reduction of tax burden and facilitation of taxation procedures, the reduction of administrative barriers and ensuring access of small and medium-sized enterprises to government orders and technological infrastructure.

  4. Raising medium-sized livestock and hepatitis risk: A national study in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Holly Herawati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Sanitasi lingkungan, termasuk kandang pemeliharaan ternak sedang, berpengaruh terhadap penyebaran penyakit hepatitis A dan E. Tujuan penelitian ini menilai lokasi kandang pemeliharaan ternak sedang berkaitan dengan risiko gejala hepatitis di beberapa propinsi dengan prevalensi hepatitis tinggi di Indonesia. Metode: Data berasal dari sebagian hasil Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas tahun 2007 di Indonesia. Untuk penilaian ini, data yang dipakai berasal dari 12 propinsi dengan prevalensi tinggi (0,6% hepatitis di Indonesia, dan dipilih hanya subjek yang tidak memelihara ternak serta hanya yang memelihara ternak sedang. Subjek hepatitis adalah responden yang pada saat wawancara mengatakan pernah mempunyai gejala hepatitis atau pernah di diagnosis menderita hepatitis oleh dokter atau paramedik dalam kurun waktu 12 bulan terakhir. Hasil: Dari 141.291 subjek, 1.257 (0,8% menderita hepatitis. Pada umumnya yang memelihara ternak sedang berisiko 86% lebih banyak terkena hepatitis dibandingkan dengan yang tidak memelihara  ternak [rasio odds suaian (ORa=1,86; 95% interval kepercayaan (CI=1,61-2,09]. Risiko tertinggi (2 kali lipat terkena hepatitis terjadi di antara subjek yang mengandangkan ternak sedang di dalam rumah (ORa=1,98; 95% CI=1,47-2,66, sedangkan risiko terkecil (38% lebih besar terkena hepatitis terjadi di antara yang mengandangkan ternak sedangnya di luar luar rumah dibandingkan dengan tidak memelihara ternak sedang (ORa=1,38; 95% CI=1,14-1,67 dibandingkan dengan tidak memelihara ternak. Kesimpulan: Kandang di luar rumah untuk meliharaan ternak sedang yang paling kecil menyebabkan risiko hepatitis. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:14-20   Abstract Background: Environmental sanitation, among others raising medium-sized livestock, affect the spread of hepatitis A and E. This paper presents an assessment of relation between place of raising medium-sized livestock and risk of hepatitis in high prevalence endemic hepatitis provinces

  5. Urban agglomerations and transformations of medium-sized towns in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runge Anna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This analysis investigates medium-sized towns in Poland, i.e. those with a population between 20–100 thousand, located up to 100 km away from the main city of the agglomeration. The aim of this article is to compare the level of socio-economic development of Polish towns depending on their location in relation to the main city in the largest agglomerations in 1998 and 2013. Three zones of distance from the main city of each agglomeration have been taken into consideration: a. the inner zone, reaching up to 25 km from the main city; b. the outer zone located at a distance of 25 to 50 km from the main city, and c. the peripheral zone, located at a distance of 50 to 100 km from the main city and including the medium-size towns located outside the agglomeration system. This analysis of the distribution of medium-sized towns and their level of socio-economic development has shown various levels of changes which depend on the distance from the main city of the agglomeration. In 1998, the highest level of development of the medium-sized towns was recorded in towns outside of these agglomeration systems, i.e. those located most remotely from the main city (peripheral zone. Most of the medium-sized towns are situated at a distance of 50–100 km from Warszawa, Kraków, Łódź, Lublin, Gdańsk and have developed their own local, or even regional labour markets and some of them have even provided administrative functions in the past as voivodeship capitals. Only in the Poznań agglomeration, the level of development of medium-sized towns was higher in the immediate surroundings of the main city (25 km. The medium-sized towns in all zones of the distance from the main city in the Wrocław agglomeration represented a similar level of development. By 2013, the level of development of the medium-sized towns in the peripheral zone in all investigated settlement systems had decreased, with a significant improvement in the level of development of the towns in

  6. Karyotypes of some medium-sized Dytiscidae (Agabinae and Colymbetinae (Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Angus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An account is given of the karyotypes of 29 species of medium sized Dytiscidae (Coleoptera. Of the 20 species of Agabus Leach, 1817, 18 have karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are either X0(♂ or XX (♀. These species are A. serricornis (Paykull, 1799, A. labiatus (Brahm, 1791, A. congener (Thunberg, 1794, A. lapponicus (Thomson, 1867, A. thomsoni (J. Sahlberg, 1871, A. confinis (Gyllenhal, 1808, A. sturmii (Gyllenhal, 1808, A. bipustulatus (Linnaeus, 1767, A. nevadensis Håkan Lindberg, 1939, A. wollastoni Sharp, 1882, A. melanarius Aubé, 1837, A. biguttatus (Olivier, 1795, A. binotatus Aubé, 1837, A. affinis (Paykull, 1798, A. unguicularis (Thomson, 1867, A. ramblae Millan & Ribera, 2001, A. conspersus (Marsham, 1802 and A. nebulosus (Forster, 1771. However two species, A. infuscatus Aubé, 1838 and A. adpressus Aubé, 1837, have developed a neo-XY system, with karyotypes comprising 21 pairs of autosomes and XY sex chromosomes (♂. No chromosomal differences have been detected between typical A. bipustulatus and A. bipustulatus var. solieri Aubé, 1837, nor have any been found between the three species of the A. bipustulatus complex (A. bipustulatus, A. nevadensis and A. wollastoni. The four species of Colymbetes Clairville, 1806, C. fuscus (Linnaeus, 1758, C. paykulli Erichson, 1837, C. piceus Klug, 1834 and C. striatus (Linnaeus, 1758 have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and sex chromosomes which are X0 (♂, XX (♀. Two of the species of Rhantus Dejean, 1833, R. exsoletus (Forster, 1771 and R. suturellus (Harris, 1828 have karyotypes comprising 20 pairs of autosomes and X0/XX sex chromosomes, but the other three species, R. grapii (Gyllenhal, 1808, R. frontalis (Marsham, 1802 and R. suturalis (Macleay, 1825 have 22 pairs of autosomes and X0/XX sex chromosomes. Agabus congener and Rhantus suturellus may have one B-chromosome. Nine of the species have previously published karyotype data but

  7. Supply Chain adoption in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mathias Thim; Bernon, Mike

    Purpose: The importance of having a competitive supply chain strategy is not to be underestimated (Underwood & Agg 2012; Aronow et al. 2014). Despite the importance of creating strong supply chain capabilities, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) find it difficult to implement supply chain...... and customer needs. Research Approach: An exploratory case study of five small and medium sized manufacturing companies was undertaken using in-depth interviews and business reports. Combined with relevant literature, the case study interviews provide basis for a discussion on the current adoption of supply...... needs and a low interaction in the supply chain, to having an “outside-in” perspective (Day & Moorman 2013) and development of capabilities that support long-term competitive advantage. The case studies revealed two significant factors to support consistency between supply chain capabilities...

  8. The role of independent intermediaries. The case of small and medium-sized exporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tage Koed; Moen, Øystein; Hammervold, Randi

    2012-01-01

    and participation rather than just discrete types of intermediary modes (agents, importers, dealers, etc.). Associations with performance as well as the role of product and distributor characteristics are analyzed. Empirical data based on a sample of product-market ventures in 227 small and medium-sized Norwegian...... export firms are analysed by a structural equation modelling approach. The article provides empirical evidence that managers keep control of decision making to an extent that may have a negative impact on export performance. The empirical study indicates that firms should participate more in task......The article examines how small and medium-sized exporters collaborate with intermediaries in foreign markets by studying the level of control, i.e. the delegation of decisions rights and task solution. It goes one step further than previous research, since it examines degrees of control...

  9. Surveillance of medium-size dams; Surveillance des barrages de taille moyenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    French hydro-power buildings belong to the government and are retroceded by the licence holder when the granting delay comes to an end. Experience has shown that less care is given by licence holders to the maintenance of medium-size dams that to big dams. For this reason, the French Ministry of Industry decided to harmonize and standardize the surveillance practices of medium-size dams. A circular was signed on May 23, 1997 which concerns the 10 to 20 m height dams with water reservoir volumes lower than the H{sup 2} x V{sup 0.5} criterion which is an evaluation of the potential risk of the dam. The surveillance modalities concern: the construction, the licence holder file, the first filling up, the operation, and the periodical safety inspections. (J.S.)

  10. THE RELATIONSHIP MARKETING APPLICATION IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABOU FELICIA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the importance of relationship marketing, the communication between customers and romanian small and medium-sized enterprises, analyzing also how are investigated and resolved the complaints received from the customers. In the paper, I made a study through I analyzed if the small and medium-sized enterprises undertake investigations about the reasons which they have lost customers. The study was conducted during january - february 2016, the main research methods used in the study were observation, documentation, analysis and market survey. Also, I chose the study questionnaire as research tool. From this study resulted that 79,31% of companies surveyed, were concerned and investigated the reasons they lost customers. Customer satisfaction is very important to business success, so it is recommended that companies must pay attention to the customers reactions and customers dissatisfaction consequences.

  11. Attractive and climate-friendly medium-sized cities; Attraktive og klimavennlige mellomstore byer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennoey, Aud

    2012-07-01

    Ministry of the Environment (MD) wanted an overview of current knowledge of climate-friendly and attractive urban development in medium-sized cities (10 - 50 000 inhabitants). This report presents and discusses knowledge between major cities' situation and challenges of land use and transport development to reduce car traffic and greenhouse gas emissions and on urban development for more attractive cities. A main conclusion is that there are major gaps in knowledge and opportunities for improvement. If those covered will be far better opportunities for planners, local authorities and others may be able to contribute to more climate-friendly and attractive medium-sized cities.The report is part of the project Comprehensive information pack for the status of knowledge from research on urban development. The project has also prepared a report entitled Planning for attractive urban environment. The reports are intended to complement each other and should be seen in context.(eb)

  12. The causal effect of board size in the performance of small and medium-sized firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    correlation between family size and board size and show this correlation to be driven by firms where the CEO's relatives serve on the board. Second, we find empirical evidence of a small adverse board size effect driven by the minority of small and medium-sized firms that are characterized by having......Empirical studies of large publicly traded firms have shown a robust negative relationship between board size and firm performance. The evidence on small and medium-sized firms is less clear; we show that existing work has been incomplete in analyzing the causal relationship due to weak...... identification strategies. Using a rich data set of almost 7000 closely held corporations we provide a causal analysis of board size effects on firm performance: We use a novel instrument given by the number of children of the chief executive officer (CEO) of the firms. First, we find a strong positive...

  13. Design of an interdisciplinary engineering elective scoped around collaboration with Small Medium Sized enterprises (SME)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Nynne Budtz; Ulrich, Mai-Mai; Pontoppidan, Maja Lund

    2014-01-01

    a real life setting elective course, involving small and medium sized enterprises (SME) in engineering education. How do you engage with companies without compromising the learning outcome? How you manage the expectation from the companies and still maintaining the student responsibility for the problem...... of a compulsory 10 ECTS element with focus on interdisciplinary and industry collaboration for all Bachelors of Engineering at The Technical University of Denmark in 2016. As collaboration partner the elective has chosen to work with small and medium sized enterprises (SME) as more than half of the value added...... to the European economy comes from the SME’s and around half of all employees work in micro or small businesses with less than 50 employees5. At the same time the barriers for university collaboration with SMEs are somewhat steeper than working with larger organizations6. The paper will focus on the SME...

  14. External Determinants of the Development of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises – Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Lisowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to identify external determinants of the development of small and medium-sized enterprises and assess their impact on the functioning of these entities in Poland. Meeting this objective required: identifying determinants of the development of SMEs, determining the current development situation of the surveyed enterprises and examining the impact of external determinants on the development of SMEs. The implementation of the above-presented goals was based on the following assumptions: (i the current situation of the surveyed enterprises is determined with the use of quantitative indicators (turnover volume, number of employees, market share, profit levels (ii the analysis of external determinants encompasses three components of the environment: the macro-environment, the meso-environment and the micro-environment, (iii in each analysed area there are separate analyses conducted for micro, small and medium-sized enterprises, enabling greater precision in the identification of external determinants of development for each category of businesses.

  15. The Role of Branding in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Vidic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show the relationship between branding and brand management in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Traditionally, branding was associated with large and global corporations. However, we often forget that small and medium-sized enterprises also deal with their own names (brands in their own way. The study identified four types of businesses, regardless of their association with brands. We named these four types, as follows: Ignorant; User; Low-Cost Producer; and Differentiation Producer. If the first two types (i.e. Ignorant and User differ primarily in the extent to which they use simple branding activities, and are used mainly in the local market where the enterprises tend to operate, we found that the last two types (i.e. low-cost producers and differentiation producers design their branding strategies in accordance with their generic strategies and mode of growth.

  16. Modeling the Chemical Complexity in Titan's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuitton, Veronique; Yelle, Roger; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Horst, Sarah; Lavvas, Panayotis

    2018-06-01

    Titan's atmospheric chemistry is extremely complicated because of the multiplicity of chemical as well as physical processes involved. Chemical processes begin with the dissociation and ionization of the most abundant species, N2 and CH4, by a variety of energy sources, i.e. solar UV and X-ray photons, suprathermal electrons (reactions involving radicals as well as positive and negative ions, all possibly in some excited electronic and vibrational state. Heterogeneous chemistry at the surface of the aerosols could also play a significant role. The efficiency and outcome of these reactions depends strongly on the physical characteristics of the atmosphere, namely pressure and temperature, ranging from 1.5×103 to 10-10 mbar and from 70 to 200 K, respectively. Moreover, the distribution of the species is affected by molecular diffusion and winds as well as escape from the top of the atmosphere and condensation in the lower stratosphere.Photochemical and microphysical models are the keystones of our understanding of Titan's atmospheric chemistry. Their main objective is to compute the distribution and nature of minor chemical species (typically containing up to 6 carbon atoms) and haze particles, respectively. Density profiles are compared to the available observations, allowing to identify important processes and to highlight those that remain to be constrained in the laboratory, experimentally and/or theoretically. We argue that positive ion chemistry is at the origin of complex organic molecules, such as benzene, ammonia and hydrogen isocyanide while neutral-neutral radiative association reactions are a significant source of alkanes. We find that negatively charged macromolecules (m/z ~100) attract the abundant positive ions, which ultimately leads to the formation of the aerosols. We also discuss the possibility that an incoming flux of oxygen from Enceladus, another Saturn's satellite, is responsible for the presence of oxygen-bearing species in Titan's reductive

  17. Determinants of Urban Poverty: The Case of Medium Sized City in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Masood Sarwar Awan; Nasir Iqbal

    2010-01-01

    Urban poverty, which is distinct from rural poverty due to demographic, economic and political aspects remain hitherto unexplored, at the city level in Pakistan. We have examined the determinants of urban poverty in Sargodha, a medium-size city of Pakistan. The analysis is based on the survey of 330 households. Results suggest that employment in public sector, investment in human capital and access to public amenities reduce poverty while employment in informal sector, greater household size ...

  18. A Social Media Marketing Plan for a Medium-sized Consumer Goods Company

    OpenAIRE

    Okolie, Emeka

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a social media marketing plan for the case com-pany to integrate it into its existing marketing communications. The case company of this study is a medium-sized consumer goods producing company that advertises its brand and products using traditional methods of advertising (radio, television, flyers and event promotion). At the moment, these methods seem to be lacking in efficiency and effective-ness caused by the saturation of marketing information w...

  19. Modelling of the costs of decision support for small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera Tomišová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The support of decision-making activities in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME has its specific features. When suggesting steps for the implementation of decision-support tools in the enterprise, we identified two main ways of decision-making support based on the data analysis: ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning without BI (Business Intelligence and ERP with BI. In our contribution, we present costs models of both mentioned decision support systems and their practical interpretation.

  20. Motives behind Strategic Alliance Formation among Medium-Sized Manufacturing Firms in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kafigi Jeje

    2014-01-01

    Research on strategic alliance motives has attracted a great attention as firms strive to become market leaders. One critical area is to assess the contribution of these motives to strategic alliance formation. Most studies on alliance motives concentrate on international strategic alliances that involve large or multinational corporations from developed economies. Little research has been done on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), particularly Medium-Sized Enterprises (MEs) from the manufa...

  1. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in international business: A survey of recent literature

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Klaus-Dieter

    1996-01-01

    It is often argued that the process of globalization has mainly favoured large-scale multinational companies which are able to organize their business efficiently within internal hierarchies. However, globalization has not only pushed cross-border intra-finn transactions but also other arrangements among firms such as licensing or subcontracting that fall short of ownership involvements. This opens up new opportunities for small and medium sized enterprises, too. The paper provides a general ...

  2. Features of digital photogrammetry methods application and image processing in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsonova N. V.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available the paper discusses the methods of survey enterprises employees effective training to use modern measurement systems and the need for further photogrammetric processing of the results obtained. Attention is also paid to integrated learning, based primarily on web content, the introduction of a social component in the development and familiarization with new photogrammetric equipment and technologies in order to increase the competitiveness of engineering and research small and medium-sized enterprises.

  3. Billboard and its role in the marketing strategy of small and medium-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Mikolajová, Kamila

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to clarify the role billboard in the marketing strategy of small and medium-sized enterprise. The theoretical part deals with marketing and commercial communications, their mixes and process of creation. This work also analyzes the billboard as one of the types of outdoor advertising. It provides a detailed look at its advantages, disadvantages, characteristics that should be considered when choosing media. It also provides guidance on how it should look li...

  4. Favouring Small and Medium Sized Enterprises with Directive 2014/24/EU

    OpenAIRE

    Trybus, Martin; Andrecka, Marta

    2017-01-01

    This article argues that the four main measures introduced in the 2014 reform of the Procurement Directives to promote Small andMediumSized Enterprises (SMEs) cannot be classified as measures favouring SMEs. A measure favours SMEs when it compromises the main objectives of competition, non-discrimination and value for money. The discussion covers the regimes on the division of larger contracts into lots, the European Single Procurement Document (ESPD), minimum turnover requirements, and direc...

  5. European Health Claims for Small and Medium-Sized Companies – Utopian Dream or Future Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Brandenburger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In December 2007, the European Regulation (EC 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims came into force. The European Union wanted to regulate the use of health claims on products. An online survey was carried out to evaluate the situation, particularly of small and medium-sized companies, dealing with the new regulation. Methods: The online survey on health claims was conducted with 16 enterprises. To underline the findings a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats analysis was made of the nutrition and health claims regulation regarding small and medium-sized companies in the European food and drink market. Results: The findings of this study indicated that the European Union did a step in the right direction. Most companies defined the decent competition, the simplified trade within the inner-European market, and the consumer protection as positive aspects. The biggest threat is seen in false investment conditioned by the limited research and development budgets, especially of small and medium-sized enterprises, and the cost intensive scientific evaluation to reach an authorized health claim. Conclusions: Overall, there are several strengths and opportunities speaking for SMEs and health claims in the near future. The most promising ones are the publishing of the new European Union Register of Nutrition and Health Claims and the learning effects that will occur. The biggest threat is, and will remain to be, false investment and the possible loss of a lot of money. Nevertheless, health claims for small and medium-sized enterprises will inevitably be the future to keep the European food and drink market competitive.

  6. A Systematic Approach to Strategy Formulation for Medium-Sized Shipyards

    OpenAIRE

    Ma'ruf, Buana

    2007-01-01

    A more comprehensive strategy formulation has an important role for sustainable competitive advantage of the shipbuilding companies in the global market. The nature of shipbuilding industry differs from general industry, therefore a strategy formulation model should be developed based on its own characteristics and business environment. This paper presents a proposed strategy formulation model for medium-sized shipyards both in business and corporate levels. A new approach was developed based...

  7. Expansion And International Expansion Of Small-To Medium Sized Firms: The Role Of Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Smolarski; Can Kut; Neil Wilner

    2011-01-01

    Small- to medium-sized firms are expected to show international growth at an early stage. Several factors may affect the outcome of initial efforts to expand and internationalize. Our research examines how equity based venture funding affects SME expansion and internationalization. We divide venture capital financing into two categories: incremental financing where firms receive their venture capital funding in portions and lump-sum venture funding where firms receive their funding in one lum...

  8. Role of Relationship Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Entreprises

    OpenAIRE

    Ružica Butigan; Ivana Mahnić

    2011-01-01

    Along with marketing, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are commonly associated in literature with relationship marketing which results in marketing networks. This paper examines the specific characteristics that differentiate large companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and the reasons that prevent SMEs from engaging in traditional marketing within the scope of marketing mix. The paper also shows that the key characteristic which distinguishes small from large companies is a pr...

  9. Exploring the Usage of CSR in Small and Medium-Sized Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Perälä, Veera; Saukkonen, Anna-Reetta

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine how small and medium sized companies understood the concept of corporate social responsibility and how they incorporated it in their business strategies. The topical nature of this subject made it interesting and worth researching. In addition to discovering ideas about CSR, the study also focused on marketing communications and the competitive advantage that CSR provides. The methodological approach used in the study was that of qualitative resea...

  10. Accounting standards for small and medium-sized entities. Evidence from Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Milanés Montero Patricia; Albarrán Lozano Irene; Texeira Quirós Joaquín; Esteban Pérez Calderón

    2011-01-01

    By approving Regulation 1606/2002, the European Commission entrusts the local European Union regulators with the difficult decision as to whether making the International Accounting Standards (IAS/IFRS) extensive for their Small and Medium sized Entities or not. International Financial Reporting Standard for Small and Medium-sizzed Entities (hereinafter IFRS for SMEs) was published in 2009, and the European Commission had also decided to seek the opinion of EU stakeholders on this Standard. W...

  11. MICRO, SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED BUSINESSES IN JALISCO: THEIR EVOLUTION, AND STRATEGIC CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Fong Reynoso; Moisés Alejandro Alarcón Osuna; Luis Ernesto Ocampo Figueroa

    2014-01-01

    The business structure in Jalisco, Mexico is primarily composed of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Thus, it is fundamentally necessary to understand the dynamics, evolution and above all, the strategic challenges of this sector in order to understand the state’s economic performance and the possibilities for future development in Jalisco. As a result, this study analyzes the evolution of the SMEs (known as PyME, in Spanish) in Mexico and Jalisco by using data from the Econom...

  12. Determinants of capital structure in small and medium sized enterprises in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mat Nawi, Hafizah

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London This study aims to investigate the determinants of capital structure in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia and their effect on firms’ performance. The study addresses the following primary question: What are the factors that influence the capital structure of SMEs in Malaysia? The sample of this research is SMEs in the east coast region of Malaysia. Adopting a posi...

  13. Energetic Communities: Planning support for sustainable energy transition in small- and medium-sized communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Valeska Sager-Klauss

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The necessity for transition in the energy sector is beyond dispute and high on the political agendas. Climate change, the depletion of fossil fuels and the vulnerability of economies to resource speculation and unreliable political systems in the producing countries lay path for a broad implementation of smart alternative solutions. This means the integration of more sustainable renewable energy sources in the existing supply structures or the displacement of existing systems by new ones. Cities and communities are central players in the energy transition process. Energy demand is determined by the built environment. Renewable energy production needs space. The conflicts between different interest groups often break out in the context of local implementation measures that affect urban planning and the appearance of landscapes. Small- and medium-sized communities might prove to be game-changers in the overall energy transition because many problems have to be solved within their ambit. Urban planning is dealing with the numerous processes of urban change. Energy is a fairly new task to be addressed and many stakeholders lack experience and criteria for strategic decision making. After a period of fierce determination to turn the wheel against climate change, it seems that there is a growing resignation among politicians, planners and the public because some things have not turned out the way we’d expected and the hope for quick solutions fades. Rebound-effects seem to eat up the savings to a good extent, and alternative ideas of how sustainable energy systems may be put into place have not yet been persuasive in many cases. Energy systems have proved to be complex. They are still perceived to be important but in practice there is a growing uneasiness about the right steps to take. The overarching research question of this thesis is: What do decision makers in smalland medium-sized communities need to become more successful in implementing

  14. Consultant-Client Relationship and Knowledge Transfer in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises Change Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Luis F; Ferreira, Aristides I; Can, Amina B

    2016-04-01

    Based on Szulanski's knowledge transfer model, this study examined how the communicational, motivational, and sharing of understanding variables influenced knowledge transfer and change processes in small- and medium-sized enterprises, particularly under projects developed by funded programs. The sample comprised 144 entrepreneurs, mostly male (65.3%) and mostly ages 35 to 45 years (40.3%), who filled an online questionnaire measuring the variables of "sharing of understanding," "motivation," "communication encoding competencies," "source credibility," "knowledge transfer," and "organizational change." Data were collected between 2011 and 2012 and measured the relationship between clients and consultants working in a Portuguese small- and medium-sized enterprise-oriented action learning program. To test the hypotheses, structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the antecedents of sharing of understanding, motivational, and communicational variables, which were positively correlated with the knowledge transfer between consultants and clients. This transfer was also positively correlated with organizational change. Overall, the study provides important considerations for practitioners and academicians and establishes new avenues for future studies concerning the issues of consultant-client relationship and the efficacy of Government-funded programs designed to improve performance of small- and medium-sized enterprises. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Czech small and medium-sized enterprises and the success in foreign markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Procházková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in national economies has been growing. For these reasons, SME’s are paid more attention. The paper deals with the success of Czech SME’s activities in the foreign markets. These enterprises exploited the opportunity of extensive European Union market without internal borders and extended its activities to foreign markets. The objective of this paper is to determine characteristics related to activities carried on by small and medium-sized Czech companies in the foreign markets and then to describe those that fundamentally affect the success of these entities in the foreign markets. The characteristics are divided into five groups (a group of characteristics relating to the company, product, management, international experience and a group of characteristics relating to the target market. The enterprises’ success in foreign markets is assessed by aggregate indicator of success. This indicator is monitored by multi-dimensional indicators of corporate success and evaluation of both objective and subjective. At the last part of the article due to analysis of relationship used, there are identified characteristics affecting the success of Czech small and medium-sized enterprises in foreign markets.

  16. Prognostic Factors Affecting Rotator Cuff Healing After Arthroscopic Repair in Small to Medium-sized Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Soon; Park, Hyung Jun; Kim, Sae Hoon; Oh, Joo Han

    2015-10-01

    Small and medium-sized rotator cuff tears usually have good clinical and anatomic outcomes. However, healing failure still occurs in some cases. To evaluate prognostic factors for rotator cuff healing in patients with only small to medium-sized rotator cuff tears. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Data were prospectively collected from 339 patients with small to medium-sized rotator cuff tears who underwent arthroscopic repair by a single surgeon between March 2004 and August 2012 and who underwent magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomographic arthrography at least 1 year after surgery. The mean age of the patients was 59.8 years (range, 39-80 years), and the mean follow-up time was 20.8 months (range, 12-66 months). The functional evaluation included the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, Constant-Murley score, and Simple Shoulder Test. Postoperative VAS for pain and functional scores improved significantly compared with preoperative values (P rotator cuff healing (P 2 cm in size (34.2%) compared with patients with a tear ≤2 cm (10.6%) (P rotator cuff tears, grade II fatty degeneration of the infraspinatus muscle according to the Goutallier classification could be a reference point for successful healing, and anatomic outcomes might be better if repair is performed before the patient is 69 years old and the tear size exceeds 2 cm. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Building Monitoring and Controls Needs: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Piette, M. A.; Granderson, J.; Brown, Rich E.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Kuruganti, T.

    2012-10-31

    Buildings consume over 40% of the total energy consumption in the U.S. A significant portion of the energy consumed in buildings is wasted because of the lack of controls or the inability to use existing building automation systems (BASs) properly. Much of the waste occurs because of our inability to manage and controls buildings efficiently. Over 90% of the buildings are either small-size (<5,000 sf) or medium-size (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf); these buildings currently do not use BASs to monitor and control their building systems from a central location. According to Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), about 10% of the buildings in the U.S. use BASs or central controls to manage their building system operations. Buildings that use BASs are typically large (>100,000 sf). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP) to identify monitoring and control needs for small- and medium-sized commercial buildings and recommend possible solutions. This study documents the needs and solutions for small- and medium-sized buildings.

  18. Regional statistical and economic analysis of small and medium-sized businesses development in Zhytomyr region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Pavlova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized businesses play an important role in the development of the regional economic system in particular and in solving a number of the following local problems: developing competition, developing the market for goods and services, providing jobs for the able-bodied population, raising living standards and improving the social environment in society. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the state and development of small and medium-sized businesses in the Zhytomyr region, to analyze its contribution to the economic development of the region, and to identify the main problems existing in the region. According to the indicators of state statistics, the author presents the general characteristics of enterprises in the Zhytomyr region from 2012 to 2016 in the context of indicators of the number of enterprises, the number of employed workers and the volume of the products sold, highlighting the activities of small enterprises and assessing their share in general levels. In addition, the paper provides the description of the activities of individual entrepreneurs. The structural comparison for the above-listed indicators of the distribution of influence on the economic system of the Zhytomyr region in terms of enterprises by size is presented. In terms of quantity 93,5 % are small enterprises that provide 31,4 % of the total number of employees with work and make up 23,1 % of the total volume of sales. Average enterprises in these indicators have 6,4 %, 62,0 % and 54,8 % respectively. The statistical and economic analysis of the structure of small enterprises by types of economic activity, by indicators of the number of registered enterprises, and by the volumes of sold products is carried out. The uniformity of the distribution is estimated using the index of the concentration coefficient. The indicators of revenues to budgets of different levels from small and medium-sized businesses are set. The paper presents and summarizes the

  19. Modeling Complex Chemical Systems: Problems and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Non-equilibrium plasmas in complex gas mixtures are at the heart of numerous contemporary technologies. They typically contain dozens to hundreds of species, involved in hundreds to thousands of reactions. Chemists and physicists have always been interested in what are now called chemical reduction techniques (CRT's). The idea of such CRT's is that they reduce the number of species that need to be considered explicitly without compromising the validity of the model. This is usually achieved on the basis of an analysis of the reaction time scales of the system under study, which identifies species that are in partial equilibrium after a given time span. The first such CRT that has been widely used in plasma physics was developed in the 1960's and resulted in the concept of effective ionization and recombination rates. It was later generalized to systems in which multiple levels are effected by transport. In recent years there has been a renewed interest in tools for chemical reduction and reaction pathway analysis. An example of the latter is the PumpKin tool. Another trend is that techniques that have previously been developed in other fields of science are adapted as to be able to handle the plasma state of matter. Examples are the Intrinsic Low Dimension Manifold (ILDM) method and its derivatives, which originate from combustion engineering, and the general-purpose Principle Component Analysis (PCA) technique. In this contribution we will provide an overview of the most common reduction techniques, then critically assess the pros and cons of the methods that have gained most popularity in recent years. Examples will be provided for plasmas in argon and carbon dioxide.

  20. Predicting skin permeability from complex chemical mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riviere, Jim E.; Brooks, James D.

    2005-01-01

    Occupational and environmental exposure to topical chemicals is usually in the form of complex chemical mixtures, yet risk assessment is based on experimentally derived data from individual chemical exposures from a single, usually aqueous vehicle, or from computed physiochemical properties. We present an approach using hybrid quantitative structure permeation relationships (QSPeR) models where absorption through porcine skin flow-through diffusion cells is well predicted using a QSPeR model describing the individual penetrants, coupled with a mixture factor (MF) that accounts for physicochemical properties of the vehicle/mixture components. The baseline equation is log k p = c + mMF + aΣα 2 H + bΣβ 2 H + sπ 2 H + rR 2 + vV x where Σα 2 H is the hydrogen-bond donor acidity, Σβ 2 H is the hydrogen-bond acceptor basicity, π 2 H is the dipolarity/polarizability, R 2 represents the excess molar refractivity, and V x is the McGowan volume of the penetrants of interest; c, m, a, b, s, r, and v are strength coefficients coupling these descriptors to skin permeability (k p ) of 12 penetrants (atrazine, chlorpyrifos, ethylparathion, fenthion, methylparathion, nonylphenol, ρ-nitrophenol, pentachlorophenol, phenol, propazine, simazine, and triazine) in 24 mixtures. Mixtures consisted of full factorial combinations of vehicles (water, ethanol, propylene glycol) and additives (sodium lauryl sulfate, methyl nicotinate). An additional set of 4 penetrants (DEET, SDS, permethrin, ricinoleic acid) in different mixtures were included to assess applicability of this approach. This resulted in a dataset of 16 compounds administered in 344 treatment combinations. Across all exposures with no MF, R 2 for absorption was 0.62. With the MF, correlations increased up to 0.78. Parameters correlated to the MF include refractive index, polarizability and log (1/Henry's Law Constant) of the mixture components. These factors should not be considered final as the focus of these studies

  1. Compatibility of the IFRS for Small and Medium-sized Entities and the new EU-Accounting Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Kaufhold

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The new EU-Accounting Directive of 26 June 2013 (DIRECTIVE 2013/34/EU has the intention to harmonize the accounting and financial reporting of enterprises in the European Union. “Think small first” is the central principle in the new EU-Accounting Directive and the new regulations have to be adopted in the laws of European member states by 20 July 2015. The International Financial Reporting Standard for Small and Medium-sized Entities (IFRS for SMEs was published in 2009 by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB. The IASB intended to create simplified international financial reporting standards for the special needs of smaller and medium-sized enterprise. The IASB completed in May 2015 a comprehensive review of the IFRS for SMEs and made amendments to the Standard. The revised version of the IFRS for SMEs will be issued in the last quarter of 2015. The aim of the paper is to analyze the compatibility of the IFRS for SMEs and the new EU- Accounting Directive and the problems in connection with the harmonization of the European accounting legislation especially in Germany. Based on the results of the research most of the former incompatibilities could be removed, but the remaining complexity of the IFRS for SMEs and the lack of an option for the member states to adopt the IFRS for SMEs as an accounting and reporting standard besides or instead their local accounting principles will prevent the wide use of the IFRS for SMEs in Germany and in other member states of the European Union.

  2. Analysis of near optimum design for small and medium size nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.A.

    1977-01-01

    Market surveys in recent years have shown that a significant market would exist among the developing nations of the world for nuclear power plants that would be classified as small to medium sized, provided that these small plants could produce electricity at a unit price comparable to that of equivalent sized fossil fired plants. Nuclear plants in the range of 100 MWe to 500 MWe would fit more effectively into the relatively smaller grids of most developing nations than would the 900 MWe to 1300 MWe units now being constructed in the large industrial nations. Worldwide re-evaluation of the worth of fossil fuels has prompted a re-examination of the competitive position of small to medium sized nuclear generating units compared to comparable fossil fired units, especially in the context of units specifically optimized for the size range of interest, rather than of designs that are simply scaled down versions of the currently available larger units. Since the absolute cost of electricity is more sensitive to external factors such as cost of money, national inflation rate and time required for licensing and construction than to details of design or perhaps even to choice of fuels, and since the cost of electricity generated in small to medium sized fossil fired units is periodically compared to that of scaled down versions of conventional large nuclear units, the point of view taken here is one of comparing the relative generating costs of smaller nuclear units of optimum design with the corresponding costs of scaled down versions of current large nuclear generating units

  3. Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation with Multiple Electrodes for Medium-Sized Hepatocellular Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Se Hyung; Lee, Jeong Eun; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2012-01-01

    Objective To prospectively evaluate the safety and short-term therapeutic efficacy of switching monopolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with multiple electrodes to treat medium-sized (3.1-5.0 cm), hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). Materials and Methods In this prospective study, 30 patients with single medium-sized HCCs (mean, 3.5 cm; range, 3.1-4.4 cm) were enrolled. The patients were treated under ultrasonographic guidance by percutaneous switching monopolar RFA with a multichannel RF generator and two or three internally cooled electrodes. Contrast-enhanced CT scans were obtained immediately after RFA, and the diameters and volume of the ablation zones were then measured. Follow-up CT scans were performed at the first month after ablation and every three months thereafter. Technical effectiveness, local progression and remote recurrence of HCCs were determined. Results There were no major immediate or periprocedural complications. However, there was one bile duct stricture during the follow-up period. Technical effectiveness was achieved in 29 of 30 patients (97%). The total ablation time of the procedures was 25.4 ± 8.9 minutes. The mean ablation volume was 73.8 ± 56.4 cm3 and the minimum diameter was 4.1 ± 7.3 cm. During the follow-up period (mean, 12.5 months), local tumor progression occurred in three of 29 patients (10%) with technical effectiveness, while new HCCs were detected in six of 29 patients (21%). Conclusion Switching monopolar RFA with multiple electrodes in order to achieve a sufficient ablation volume is safe and efficient. This method also showed relatively successful therapeutic effectiveness on short-term follow up for the treatment of medium-sized HCCs. PMID:22247634

  4. Cogeneration through small and medium sized gas turbines in Italy: Marketing survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, A.; Schieppati, P.

    1992-01-01

    In Italy, the use of cogeneration systems by private industrial concerns has greatly increased in the early 90's. The successful technological development of highly efficient low and medium sized gas turbines and the successful application of cogenerated power to a number of industrial processes, favourable legislation and financial incentives on the part of the Italian Government, especially interested in promoting energy conservation and the use of natural gas as an alternative to petroleum, as well as, fast payback periods for such investments are amongst the major regions for the growing demand for this type of power system alternative in Italy

  5. Assessment of the possible potential of photovoltaics in a medium-size city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlbauer, A.; Schneider, A.

    1995-01-01

    One possibility to reduce CO 2 emissions is the application of photovoltaics (PV). This form of current generation is inexhaustible. It involves hardly any risks and can be disposed of at random. But what kind of potential do photovoltaics have? The disadvantages like low energy density, fluctuating availability and high costs are well known. What conclusions can thus be drawn for the future role of photovoltaics? The authors discuss these questions at the example of a medium-size German city and describe the main influencing factors for the future development. (orig.) [de

  6. A 10-step safety management framework for construction small and medium-sized enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Murat; Laitinen, Heikki

    2017-09-01

    It is of great importance to develop an occupational health and safety management system (OHS MS) to form a systemized approach to improve health and safety. It is a known fact that thousands of accidents and injuries occur in the construction industry. Most of these accidents occur in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This article provides a 10-step user-friendly OHS MS for the construction industry. A quantitative OHS MS indexing method is also introduced in the article. The practical application of the system to real SMEs and its promising results are also presented.

  7. Structure of Small and Medium-Sized Business: Results of Total Statistic Observations in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliia S. Pinkovetskaia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is estimation of regularities and tendencies, characteristic for modern sectoral structure of small and mediumsized business in Russia. The subject of the research is a set of processes of structural changes on the types of economic activities of such enterprises, as well as the differentiation of the number of employees in enterprises. The research methodology included consideration of aggregates of subjects of small and medium-sized business, formed according to sectoral and territorial features. As the initial data used the official statistical information, which was obtain in the course of total observation of the activities of small and medium-sized businesses in 2010 and 2015. The study was conducted on indicators characterizing the full range of legal entities and individual entrepreneurs in the country. The materiality of structural changes was carried out on the basis of the Ryabtsev index. Modeling the differentiation of the values of the number of employees per enterprise was based on the development of density normal distribution functions. According to the hypothesis it is assumed that the differentiation of the number of employees working in enterprises depend on six main types of economic activity and on the subjects of Russia. Based on the results of the study was proved that there are no significant structural changes for the period from 2010 to 2015, both in terms of the number of enterprises and the number of their employees. Based on the results of the simulation, the average values of the number of employees for the six main types of activity were established, as well as the intervals for changing these indicators for the aggregates of small and medium-sized enterprises located in the majority of the country's subjects. The results of research can be used in the performance of scientific works related to the justification of the expected number and number of employees of enterprises, the formation of

  8. Bank Size and Small- and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) Lending: Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHEN, YAN; SHEN, MINGGAO; XU, ZHONG; BAI, YING

    2014-01-01

    Summary Using panel data collected in 2005, we evaluate how bank size, discretion over credit, incentive schemes, competition, and the institutional environment affect lending to small- and medium-sized enterprises in China. We deal with the endogeneity problem using instrumental variables, and a reduced-form approach is also applied to allow for weak instruments in estimation. We find that total bank asset is an insignificant factor for banks’ decision on small- and medium-enterprise (SME) lending, but more local lending authority, more competition, carefully designed incentive schemes, and stronger law enforcement encourage commercial banks to lend to SMEs. PMID:26052179

  9. Financial Management Challenges In Small And Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Strategic Management Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Karadag

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract :Due to their significant role in creation of new jobs, rise in GDP, entrepreneurship and innovation, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are recognized as the the drivers of socio-economic growth, both in developed and developing economies. In Turkey, 99.9 % of all enterprises fall into SME category. Therefore, the significance of SMEs for Turkish economy and society is much higher in Turkey, compared to other emerging and developed countries. Small and medium-sized companies are faced with a number of challenges whereas the problems arising from “poor financial management” are reported as the major causes of business failures in SMEs. Strategic financial management (SFM which is a research area that has attracted the interest of researchers after 2010, is one of the key managerial areas of SMEs, due to its vital role on the survival, growth and performance of SMEs. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the central role of financial management and identify the financial management challenges and practices that influence the organizational performance in Turkish SMEs, from a strategic management perspective. Within the course of this paper, the importance and challenges of SMEs in Turkey are presented in the first section, while the literature on strategic and financial management in SMEs are reviewed in the second part. In the third section, the recent strategic financial management concept, the implications of strategic financial management practices for SMEs in Turkey and the relationships between strategic financial management practices and SME performance, are discussed. Small and medium sized enterprise finance in Turkey is a developing research area, therefore this paper aims to make a significant contribution to the existing literature by analyzing the major challenges at the conduct of financial management in Turkish SMEs and the influence of strategic financial management practices on the performances of small and

  10. IMPACT OF INNOVATION UPON THE DYNAMICS OF ROMANIAN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEANINA CIUREA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is central to economic growth, as the area in which it develops takes the whole sphere of economic activities: product, process, service, organization, marketing, hence the economic effects they may cause. Creating "innovative enterprises", giving tax cuts to certain periods of time, preferential loans, creating funds 'risk capital' are just some of the measures that European countries which already apply and Romania, willing to encourage innovation. The present paper presents two ways of exposing this issue, using theoretical sources but also real official data concerning the concept of innovation and also the ways of applying it within small and medium sized enterprises.

  11. Bank Size and Small- and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) Lending: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Shen, Minggao; Xu, Zhong; Bai, Ying

    2009-04-01

    Using panel data collected in 2005, we evaluate how bank size, discretion over credit, incentive schemes, competition, and the institutional environment affect lending to small- and medium-sized enterprises in China. We deal with the endogeneity problem using instrumental variables, and a reduced-form approach is also applied to allow for weak instruments in estimation. We find that total bank asset is an insignificant factor for banks' decision on small- and medium-enterprise (SME) lending, but more local lending authority, more competition, carefully designed incentive schemes, and stronger law enforcement encourage commercial banks to lend to SMEs.

  12. Overview of progress in European medium sized tokamaks towards an integrated plasma-edge/wall solution

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, H.; Eich, T.; Beurskens, M.N.A.; Coda, S.; Hakola, A.; Martin, P.; Adamek, J.; Agostini, M.; Aguiam, D.; Ahn, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Akers, R.; Albanese, R.; Aledda, R.; Alessi, E.

    2017-01-01

    Integrating the plasma core performance with an edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) that leads to tolerable heat and particle loads on the wall is a major challenge. The new European medium size tokamak task force (EU-MST) coordinates research on ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), MAST and TCV. This multi-machine approach within EU-MST, covering a wide parameter range, is instrumental to progress in the field, as ITER and DEMO core/pedestal and SOL parameters are not achievable simultaneously in present day de...

  13. eLEARNING - A CHANCE FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Ileana Hamburg; Christiane Lindecke; Judith Terstriep

    2005-01-01

    eLearning through its flexibility and facility of access is seen as a major enabler of lifelong learning (LLL), as a catalyst of change and a chance for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to improve their business and to integrate into European market. But so far the eLearning in the context of vocational educational training has been mainly adopted by large enterprises, while only little activity can be observed in SMEs. The question arises what the chances and challenges for SMEs are...

  14. Strategic management in micro, small and medium-sized businesses in relation to financial success of the enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Švárová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium sized enterprises play an essential role in the economy of the Czech Republic as a report of development of small and medium-sized enterprises and its support from 2010 announces. They are the source of development of towns, regions and the state itself. Small and medium-sized enterprises represent 99.84 % of the whole business subjects. Statistic data underline this position- they indicate that small and medium-sized enterprises employ 2/3 employees. Therefore, occupying small and medium-sized enterprises are to be taken as priority.Strategic management on the level of small and medium-sized enterprises is, as number of authors write, diverse. Small enterprises including micro have less access to capital, they have no money for employing specialists in the field, and they solve administration primarily. The aim of this follow-up GAJU project contribution concerned on process analysis of small and medium-sized enterprises is to summarize the gained results from the view of comparison of the level of strategic management in small and medium-sized enterprises.Nowadays, numbers of enterprises are thinking about whether they are able to remain in the market as an established company, they explore the possibility of improving its position. There is a question for small and medium-sized enterprises management- can strategic management be used as an instrument for increasing competitiveness? The results show that SMEs with a clearly defined strategy show better results of financial health (IN99 and ROA than companies without a defined strategy. In terms of business focus, we were able to demonstrate positive relationship between strategy and finance only for companies in the construction industry, on the significance level of 0.05. Compared to manufacturers and service-providing companies where this relation is not statistically significant.

  15. [Role of medium-sized independent laboratories in control of healthcare-associated infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Eiko; Fukui, Toru

    2009-05-01

    In 2006, the Ministry of Health and Welfare revised the regulations regarding the Medical Service Law. The amendments stipulate that all healthcare institutions are required to implement infection control programs. However, small hospitals and clinics have no clinical microbiology laboratories, whereas medium-sized hospitals have few medical technologists and the outsourcing of microbiology tests to independent laboratories is common. The decreasing number of laboratories and recent outsourcing tendency reflect the increasing commercialization, and, with it, the escalating number of commercially operating chains. Each independent laboratory is responsible for supporting activities related to the surveillance, control, and prevention of healthcare-associated infections in the associated small and medium-sized hospitals. The people responsible for infection control in these hospitals usually do not have a background in microbiology. The evaluation of communication between independent laboratory staff and hospital personnel, and rapid turnaround time of microbiology laboratory test reports are important elements ensuring the quality of independent laboratory work. With the pressures of financial constraints in the Japanese medical insurance system, the development of a cost-effective and practical protocol for quality assurance is a real dilemma.

  16. Determinants of Supply and Demand for Trade Credit by Micro, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinê Jordão de Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the determinant factors of supply and demand for trade credit by micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs, using data collected in a survey of managers from 481 firms in 32 cities in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais (Brazil between 2008 and 2010. The multivariate relationship model proposed here is grounded in trade credit, agency and transaction costs theories. This study is based on a technique known as path analysis that uses a system of simple regressions estimated by simultaneous equations. The main results show the following: (i trade credit and short-term bank loans are supplementary (and not substitute sources of funds for MSMEs, which demonstrates that trade credit can be used by financial institutions as an indicator of the creditworthiness of the company; (ii the proportion of credit sales, the days sales outstanding measure and sales growth are positively related to the amount of trade credit demanded, which suggests that trade credit is transferred along the supply chain; and (iii the supply of trade credit is positively related to the importance that management ascribes to both internal capital and bank credit, which illustrates the strategic use of the supply of trade credit to increase sales. These results have important implications for companies' managers, financial institutions and the government agencies responsible for formulating policies that support and promote the development of small and medium-sized enterprises.

  17. APLIKASI MOBILE-CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT UNTUK SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZE ENTERPRISES (SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utaminingsih Linarti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The key factor of enterprise in order to still growth and developed is customer. The customer will give the value to the enterprise in the form of profit. Therefore, enterprises must be able to establish an sustainable relationship to customer. Since 1990 began to develop what is called Customer Relationship Management (CRM. CRM implements between the development of information technology and customer-centric views. The development of technology and the human need's to move quickly, CRM evolved into a mobile CRM. The Internet make mobile-CRM easily used to all of enterprise, especially small and medium size enterprise. This article is aim to explain the role and the applicability of mobile CRM to business level conditions of small and medium size enterprises (SMEs. The presence of mobile phone operating system that is flexible (android system, the internet cost of affordable and the social media applications as analogy of user interface in making mobile CRM application. CRM mobile application can be downloaded or installed through the app store with ease. It encourages mobile-CRM benefit's rather than as a function of customer data collection but became a window for customer information. In addition, the database can be analysis and relate to customer activity. Mobile CRM applications can take advantage of cross selling methods.

  18. Factors that influence planning for physical activity among workers in small- and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawako Kawahara

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA is necessary for improving the health of workers in small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. However, behavioral changes conducive to PA are often difficult to achieve despite intentions. Because intention to perform PA does not always translate to action, proper planning may be critical for achieving PA. In this study, we aimed to identify factors related to planning for PA among workers in SMEs because this is one population that has been identified as being at higher risk for lifestyle-related diseases in Japan. Participants completed a series of validated questionnaires. Of 353 valid responses, 226 individuals (149 men; aged 47.5 ± 8.7 years stated their intention to perform PA. Multiple regression analysis indicated that a higher PA planning score was significantly associated with higher self-efficacy for PA (p < 0.001, higher risk perception regarding inactivity (p = 0.012, and greater knowledge of information about PA community services (p = 0.019. Therefore, we recommend that self-efficacy, risk perception, and information regarding PA community services are enhanced in the daily working lives of workers at their workplaces. In this manner, they can promote their planning of health behavioral changes in a supportive environment, drawing upon available services, supports, and other resources. Keywords: Workers, Planning, Intention, Physical activity, Small- and medium-sized enterprises

  19. [Application of health questionnaires for health management in small- and medium-sized enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, K; Saito, M; Hasegawa, T; Aoki, S; Suzuki, S

    1986-01-01

    Two kinds of health questionnaires, the Todai Health Index (THI) and Cumulative Fatigue Index (CFI), were applied as a screening device for health management of workers belonging to small-medium sized enterprises. A total of 495 workers composed of 452 male workers of a glass-bottle manufacturing factory and 43 male workers of a soft-drink bottling factory were the subjects of the present study. It was found that the two kinds of health questionnaires were different from each other and have their own characteristics. Twelve scales of THI were grouped into two, the first consisting of ten scales (SUSY, RESP, EYSK, MOUT, DIGE, IMPU, MENT, DEPR, NERV, and LIFE) and the second consisting of two scales (AGGR and LISC). Nine categories of CFI were grouped into one by using principal factor analysis. It was confirmed that the twelve scale scores of THI obtained at small-medium sized factories differed from those scale scores of a reference group investigated at a large-sized enterprise. It is on the basis of the scales of aggressiveness and lies and also of the scale of mental unstability which characterizes workers, locality, job (clerical or field work), and size of industry (large or small sized) that the difference could be evaluated. Urban life characterized by a life style of staying up late at night and waking up late in the morning has been reflected on the scale of life irregularity. Irregularity of life induced by transformation of working schedule, such as two or three shifts of work and overtime, was also reflected on this scale. Two scales of THI test, i.e., many subjective symptoms and digestive organ complaints, seemed to be the representative scales indicating a close relation between work load and health level. The discriminant score for diagnosis of psychosomatic diseases is considered to be one of the most useful assessments of the individual's health condition. As mentioned above, THI is recommended as a convenient assessment method for health

  20. A deployable mechanism concept for the collection of small-to-medium-size space debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, David; Sharf, Inna; Sagnières, Luc; Gosselin, Clément

    2018-03-01

    Current efforts in active debris removal strategies and mission planning focus on removing the largest, most massive debris. It can be argued, however, that small untrackable debris, specifically those smaller than 5 cm in size, also pose a serious threat. In this work, we propose and analyze a mission to sweep the most crowded Low Earth Orbit with a large cupola device to remove small-to-medium-size debris. The cupola consists of a deployable mechanism expanding more than 25 times its storage size to extend a membrane covering its surface. The membrane is sufficiently stiff to capture most small debris and to slow down the medium-size objects, thus accelerating their fall. An overview of the design of a belt-driven rigid-link mechanism proposed to support the collecting cupola surface is presented, based on our previous work. Because of its large size, the cupola will be subject to significant aerodynamic drag; thus, orbit maintenance analysis is carried out using the DTM-2013 atmospheric density model and it predicts feasible requirements. While in operation, the device will also be subject to numerous hyper-velocity impacts which may significantly perturb its orientation from the desired attitude for debris collection. Thus, another important feature of the proposed debris removal device is a distributed array of flywheels mounted on the cupola for reorienting and stabilizing its attitude during the mission. Analysis using a stochastic modeling framework for hyper-velocity impacts demonstrates that three-axes attitude stabilization is achievable with the flywheels array. MASTER-2009 software is employed to provide relevant data for all debris related estimates, including the debris fluxes for the baseline mission design and for assessment of its expected performance. Space debris removal is a high priority for ensuring sustainability of space and continual launch and operation of man-made space assets. This manuscript presents the first analysis of a small-to-medium

  1. Relationship marketing of small to medium sized textile retailers in the Northwest Province / Fred Angels Amulike Musika

    OpenAIRE

    Musika, Fred Angels Amulike

    2002-01-01

    This study concentrated on the concept of relationship marketing and its implementation by small and medium sized textile retailers in the Northwest province of South Africa. This study addressed the gap between the relationship marketing theory and its implementation by small and medium sized textile retailers in the textile industry of the Northwest province. Researchers in relationship marketing have started to realise that there is a definite need for detailed empirical ...

  2. Bivariate Probit Models for Analysing how “Knowledge” Affects Innovation and Performance in Small and Medium Sized Firms

    OpenAIRE

    FARACE, Salvatore; MAZZOTTA, Fernanda

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of innovation and its effects on small- and medium-sized firms We use the data from the OPIS databank, which provides a survey on a representative sample of firms from a province of the Southern Italy. We want to study whether small and medium sized firms can have a competitive advantage using their innovative capabilities, regardless of their sectoral and size limits. The main factor influencing the likelihood of innovation is knowledge, which is acquired...

  3. Different ways to organize the processes of financial administration : a field study of medium-sized Finnish companies

    OpenAIRE

    Nummela, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This research concentrates on exploring the ways how financial administration is currently organized in medium-sized companies in Finland. Decentralization, centralization and outsourcing are options that are available to different-sized companies. The study was executed as a field study in seven medium-sized Finnish companies that represent different branches. Furthermore, the research method was qualitative theme interview. As large companies have already established their financial service...

  4. Handling of Environmental Related Requirements : Awareness and Ability to Act at Small and Medium Sized Electric and Electronic Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Han-Hsuan

    2008-01-01

    Environmental related product requirements are increasing worldwide from government authorities, customers and other stakeholders. For small and medium sized companies manufacturing electric and electronic products it is more difficult compared to bigger companies to meet new product related requirements due to smaller budget, resources and knowledge. This research studies the awareness and ability to act upon changes when small and medium sized companies in Sweden face environmental related ...

  5. Future Perspectives for Small and Medium Sized Reactors in India. Annex V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    Innovative small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) have several features that are expected to affect their future development and deployment in India. These include the: - Potential for simpler designs and reduced demands for human intervention, resulting in fewer potentially unsafe actions; - Potential for construction close to population centres, due to enhanced safety; - Potential of using the capability and capacity of local industries to enable their participation in the design and construction of such reactors, and high adaptability to the standardization and modular construction approach; - Potential to achieve low upfront capital costs. Future SMR concepts, employing increased use of passive safety features and capable of producing both electricity and high temperature process heat, may find application in specific regions of the country to supply both electricity and process heat, through distributed deployment. The following sections describe future SMR design concepts meeting the above mentioned objectives, and highlight their projected economic competitiveness.

  6. Selecting Sustainability Indicators for Small to Medium Sized Urban Water Systems Using Fuzzy-ELECTRE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhipi-Shrestha, Gyan; Hewage, Kasun; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-03-01

      Urban water systems (UWSs) are challenged by the sustainability perspective. Certain limitations of the sustainability of centralized UWSs and decentralized household level wastewater treatments can be overcome by managing UWSs at an intermediate scale, referred to as small to medium sized UWSs (SMUWSs). SMUWSs are different from large UWSs, mainly in terms of smaller infrastructure, data limitation, smaller service area, and institutional limitations. Moreover, sustainability assessment systems to evaluate the sustainability of an entire UWS are very limited and confined only to large UWSs. This research addressed the gap and has developed a set of 38 applied sustainability performance indicators (SPIs) by using fuzzy-Elimination and Choice Translating Reality (ELECTRE) I outranking method to assess the sustainability of SMUWSs. The developed set of SPIs can be applied to existing and new SMUWSs and also provides a flexibility to include additional SPIs in the future based on the same selection criteria.

  7. Competitive intelligence tools used by small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshilidzi Eric Nenzhelele

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs contribute highly to the gross domestic product, reduction in unemployment, wealth creation and improvement in the quality of life. Due to technology and globalisation, SMEs now compete with enterprises beyond the borders of their country. To survive in this global competitive business environment, SMEs seek for tools that offer competitive advantage. Competitive Intelligence (CI provides competitive advantage to enterprises that practice it. While CI practice has been widely research for larger enterprises, there is lack of research on CI practice pertaining to SMEs. This research establishes tools used by SMEs in CI practice. The research was quantitative in nature and a self-administered questionnaire was used to collected data from owners/managers of SMEs

  8. FINANCING OF FIXED ASSET INVESTMENT IN THE SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Geruzel-Dudzińska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises play an important role in the economy, creates, because a significant part of GDP, provides employment to many millions of people. One of the main barriers to the development of these enterprises, not only in Poland but also in EU countries, is the scarcity of equity and the difficulty in obtaining external sources of financing. It is not just about lack of funds to finance current operations, but also, and perhaps above all, lack of investment in fixed assets. This paper aims to present available sources of financing of fixed assets for enterprises from the SME sector and the assessment of their use by these companies.

  9. Examples from P2 and energy assessments at small to medium size manufacturers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischman, M.; Watters, J.C.; Cobourn, W.G.; Collins, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Using engineering student-faculty teams, the U.S. Department of energy sponsored industrial assessment center (IAC) at the university of louisville does free pollution prevention and energy assessments at small to medium size manufacturers (SIC 20-39) in kentucky and indiana. Each client plant must meet three of the following four criteria: Annual energy bills less than $1, 750, 000 and more than $50, 00. Gross annual sales of less than $75 million. Less than 500 employees. Lack a dedicated energy/waste engineer. Lack of in-house staff to perform these analyses. The program criteria and assessment procedures are briefly described and summaries of assessment at a sheet fed offset (lithographic) printing plant and 2 denim jeans pre washing plants are presented. 4 figs., 8 tabs

  10. Bank Finance For Small And Medium-Sized Enterprises In Sri Lanka: Issues And Policy Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamage Pandula

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Access to bank finance is necessary to create an economic environment that enables Small and Medium-sized enterprises (SMEs to grow and prosper. The SMEs in Sri Lanka, however, face significant constraints to access bank finance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the access to bank finance and related issues in the SME sector of Sri Lanka. The paper is exploratory in nature and reviews the bank financing situation for SMEs in Sri Lanka, as well as provides an overview of constraints faced by the banks (supply-side and SMEs (demand-side. The paper also highlights some good practices in SME lending from international experience and outlines some recommendations to help overcome the constraints faced by the banks and SMEs. The recommendations discussed in this paper may be of importance to policymakers, not only in Sri Lanka, but in many other developing countries in a similar stage of economic growth.

  11. MACROECONOMIC CLIMATE AND THE SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZE COMPANIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Rădulescu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium size companies (SMEs represent the engine of the economy in the member states of the European Union. In Romania, SMEs entered the post-crisis cycle in 2013 after a severe adjustment process under the impact of the Great Recession. The economic performance of SMEs is strongly influenced by the macroeconomic climate. The important role of SMEs in the economy has determined the Romanian government to implement several measures in order to support their activity. The present paper highlights the mid-term macroeconomic outlook for Romania, as well as the recent developments related to SMEs, along with the main measures implemented by the Government over the past years in order to support the development of these companies.

  12. Accelerating Innovation in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the ICT Services Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Vicente García Manjón

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed at establishing key organizational strategies that push small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in the information and communication technologies (ICT services sector to be more innovative. Following an input and output approach, a theoretical model is built that helps determine such key factors. Then the model is validated with fieldwork carried out on a representative sample in Castile-Leon region (Spain. According to this model, the decision to innovate (and the trigger for research and development [R&D] activities in SMEs in the ICT services sector is the result of needs that are presented by customers (public or private sector in tailored projects. All the same, the factors leading to innovation are in order of importance, the technological level of the company, the effort made by the company in R&D, and finally, systems of incentives.

  13. Adoption of an information systems security policy in small and medium sized enterprises.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Maria Lopes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Information Systems Security (ISS is a relevant fact for current organizations. This paper focuses on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs. This article aims to constitute an empirical study on the applicability of the Action Research (AR method in information systems, more specifically by assessing the adoption of an ISS policy in six SMEs, and identifying the critical success factors in adopting an ISS policy. The research question we intend to answer is to what extent this research method is adequate to reach the proposed goal. The results of the study suggest that AR is a promising means for the evaluation of ISS policies adoption. It can both act as a research method that improves the understanding about the reasons why the policy has been abandoned, and as a change method, assisting practitioners to overcome barriers and suggesting measures to be implemented.

  14. In-beam evaluation of a medium-size Resistive-Plate WELL gaseous particle detector

    CERN Document Server

    Moleri, L.

    2016-09-27

    In-beam evaluation of a fully-equipped medium-size 30$\\times$30 cm$^2$ Resistive Plate WELL (RPWELL) detector is presented. It consists here of a single element gas-avalanche multiplier with Semitron ESD225 resistive plate, 1 cm$^2$ readout pads and APV25/SRS electronics. Similarly to previous results with small detector prototypes, stable operation at high detection efficiency (>98%) and low average pad multiplicity (~1.2) were recorded with 150 GeV muon and high-rate pion beams, in Ne/(5%CH$_4$), Ar/(5%CH$_4$) and Ar/(7%CO$_2$). This is an important step towards the realization of robust detectors suitable for applications requiring large-area coverage; among them Digital Hadron Calorimetry.

  15. The role of strategic information systems planning a typical Small or Medium-sized Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicky Meyer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how Strategic Information Systems Planning (SISP and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are linked in a developing country. SISP has also been a concern for many in the Information Technology (IT industry and IT based businesses as a whole. This research seeks to address this shortcoming by exploring what constitutes a typical SME, what role Information Systems (ISs play in SMEs and what role SISP plays in SMEs. Consequently, a Delphi panel comprising a questionnaire in the first phase and an interview in the second phase was employed. Some correlation was found to exist with the literature, with the exception of the role of IS in SMEs, whether SISP is an on-going activity, and the fact that SISP can be outsourced. Some new facts were discovered, especially on the topic of outsourcing. Keywords: company strategy; strategic information systems planning; small and mediumsized enterprises; SME sustainability; stakeholders and management; Viewpoint Training and Consulting

  16. Glass formability in medium-sized molecular systems/pharmaceuticals. I. Thermodynamics vs. kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Wenkang; Li, Xiangqian; Chen, Zeming; Liu, Ying Dan; Wang, Li-Min, E-mail: simone.capaccioli@unipi.it, E-mail: Limin-Wang@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, and College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004 (China); Labardi, Massimiliano [CNR-IPCF, Sede Secondaria Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Capaccioli, Simone, E-mail: simone.capaccioli@unipi.it, E-mail: Limin-Wang@ysu.edu.cn [CNR-IPCF, Sede Secondaria Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Department of Physics, Pisa University, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Paluch, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2016-05-07

    Scrutinizing critical thermodynamic and kinetic factors for glass formation and the glass stability of materials would benefit the screening of the glass formers for the industry of glassy materials. The present work aims at elucidating the factors that contribute to the glass formation by investigating medium-sized molecules of pharmaceuticals. Glass transition related thermodynamics and kinetics are performed on the pharmaceuticals using calorimetric, dielectric, and viscosity measurements. The characteristic thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of glass transition are found to reproduce the relations established for small-molecule glass formers. The systematic comparison of the thermodynamic and kinetic contributions to glass formation reveals that the melting-point viscosity is the crucial quantity for the glass formation. Of more interest is the finding of a rough correlation between the melting-point viscosity and the entropy of fusion normalized by the number of beads of the pharmaceuticals, suggesting the thermodynamics can partly manifest its contribution to glass formation via kinetics.

  17. Sustainability in Small and Medium-Sized Manufacturing Enterprises: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Garbie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to analyze and investigate sustainable practices in small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises (SMEs. A comprehensive analysis and a mathematical framework are used to assess the sustainability indexes (SDIs of each aspect/issue and pillar/dimension, and of the whole manufacturing enterprise. Sustainability in the whole manufacturing enterprise is represented by the sustainable development index (SDI. The results show that there is a significant difference in SDIs between aspects and dimensions, with economic sustainability representing the highest percentage in the SDI. Also, the results show that industrial companies are adopting sustainable practices and applying them to most of the issues/aspects of the dimensions, and they can direct manufacturing companies in the industrial sector to develop strategies for sustainability. This paper introduces a new understanding of the practices and implementation of sustainability/sustainable development by SMEs through assessing the SDIs.

  18. US market potential for small and medium-sized nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardie, R.W.; Jackson, S.V.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of on-site interviews with representatives of 23 investor-owned utilities and 3 publicly-owned utilities. The purpose of the interviews was to obtain information on utilities' attitudes towards small and medium-sized power plants and towards building new nuclear plants in general. Most of the utilities interviewed preferred power plants smaller than the ones currently being offered, as long as the smaller plants did not incur a major economic penalty. However, according to the utilities interviewed, without changes in the current environment it is unlikely that there will be a significant market for new nuclear plants of any size. A trend in the utility industry towards generating companies appears to be a positive step. (orig.)

  19. Branding and outcomes in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odoom, Raphael; Narteh, Bedman; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    The study investigates the relationships of enterprise resources and branding capabilities with branding efforts and branding benefits. It examines the differential effect of physical resources and branding capabilities on enterprises’ branding efforts and outcomes. Empirical data for the study...... were drawn from 304 small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Ghana. The hypothesized relationships were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling. The study found that resources and capabilities possessions might not be enough to produce the optimum branding benefits for enterprises. A better...... result, however, emerges when these resources and capabilities are integrated with well-coordinated branding efforts of the enterprises. The study offers several implications for managers of small businesses based on the findings of the study....

  20. Software-Defined Solutions for Managing Energy Use in Small to Medium Sized Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peffer, Therese [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Council on International Education Exchange (CIEE), Portland, ME (United States); Blumstein, Carl [Council on International Education Exchange (CIEE), Portland, ME (United States); Culler, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences (EECS); Modera, Mark [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Western Cooling Efficiency Center (WCEC); Meier, Alan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-10

    The Project uses state-of-the-art computer science to extend the benefits of Building Automation Systems (BAS) typically found in large buildings (>100,000 square foot) to medium-sized commercial buildings (<50,000 sq ft). The BAS developed in this project, termed OpenBAS, uses an open-source and open software architecture platform, user interface, and plug-and-play control devices to facilitate adoption of energy efficiency strategies in the commercial building sector throughout the United States. At the heart of this “turn key” BAS is the platform with three types of controllers—thermostat, lighting controller, and general controller—that are easily “discovered” by the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. The user interface showcases the platform and provides the control system set-up, system status display and means of automatically mapping the control points in the system.

  1. Tax-saving, Innovative Incentives for Small and Medium - Sized Enterprises in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Ambrus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The small-and medium-sized enterprises in the Hungarian economy have been playing a decisive role. Among the difficulties they face during their activities one of the most serious is to raise funds for their labour costs. They try to reduce their tax wedge burden, which is regarded one of the highest in Europe, in various ways. In order to keep the adequate workforce they can provide fringe benefits supplementing to wages and salaries. The cautious application of the referring acts enables companies to motivate workforce and reduce the tax and contribution burdens at the same time. Our research aimed to find an answer how SMEs take these advantages and what factors support or hinder the use of the system.

  2. US market potential for small and medium-sized nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardie, R.W.; Jackson, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of on-site interviews with representatives of 23 investor-owned utilities and 3 publicly-owned utilities. The purpose of the interviews was to obtain information on utilities' attitudes toward small and medium-sized power plants and towards building new nuclear plants in general. Most of the utilities interviewed preferred power plants smaller than the ones currently being offered, as long as the smaller plants did not incur a major economic penalty. However, according to the utilities interviewed, without changes in the current environment it is unlikely that there will be a significant market for new nuclear plants of any size. A trend in the utility industry towards generating companies appears to be a positive step. (author)

  3. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimple, C., LLNL

    1998-04-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX{sup TM}) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to identify opportunities for cost effective enhanced information technology use by small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for the specific DAMA Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) effort are discussed in this section. The approach used to gather information about current opportunities or needs is outlined in Section 2 Approach, and relevant findings are identified and a brief analysis of the information gathered is presented in Section 3 Findings. Recommendations based on the analysis, are offered in Section 4 Recommendations, and plans are suggested for DAMA follow-on in Section 5 Future Plans. Trip reports for each of the companies visited are contained in Appendix E - Company Trip Reports. These individual reports contain the data upon which the analysis presented in Section 3 Findings is based.

  4. Requirements and Specifications for a Simplified, Low Pressure Medium Sized PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisan, S.; Raymond, P.; Gautier, G-M.; Pignatel, J-F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises part of our on-going investigations on the possible introduction of nuclear energy in developing countries or countries with low capacity electrical grids. These investigations are principally concerned with future PWR developments and basically try to search for plausible and economic answers to the three difficult questions that each nuclear technology exporting country faces today: 1)- how to compensate the apparent loss of economic competitiveness, related to the scaling effect, of a small or medium sized reactor? 2)- how to reconcile the introduction of nuclear energy on the large scale with the two major preoccupations of nuclear safety and nuclear proliferation? 3)- how to demonstrate that the proposed concept(s) can effectively meet the safety objectives of the requirements for future reactors in Europe and in other countries?

  5. Improved Cost Management at Small and Medium Sized Road Transport Companies: Case Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Bokor

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium sized road freight transport companies located in Hungary are facing strong competition on the logistics market. An advanced cost management system supporting decisions on capacity allocations or pricing may be a competitive advantage for them and indirectly for the whole economy as well. Still, they generally apply simple, traditional cost calculation regimes, potentially sufficient in case of a homogeneous service portfolio. Nevertheless, road haulage companies with heterogeneous service structures may witness information distortions when using traditional costing methods. So it might be recommended for them to introduce better costing principles. To support an improved transport costing, a multi-level full cost allocation model has been set up and tested in this paper. The research results have pointed out that such a methodological development accompanied by the extension of the data collection mechanism can contribute to making the cost management systems of road freight transport companies more effective.

  6. The natural selection of organizational and safety culture within a small to medium sized enterprise (SME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Small to Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) form the majority of Australian businesses. This study uses ethnographic research methods to describe the organizational culture of a small furniture-manufacturing business in southern Australia. Results show a range of cultural assumptions variously 'embedded' within the enterprise. In line with memetics - Richard Dawkin's cultural application of Charles Darwin's theory of Evolution by Natural Selection, the author suggests that these assumptions compete to be replicated and retained within the organization. The author suggests that dominant assumptions are naturally selected, and that the selection can be better understood by considering the cultural assumptions in reference to Darwin's original principles and Frederik Barth's anthropological framework of knowledge. The results are discussed with reference to safety systems, negative cultural elements called Cultural Safety Viruses, and how our understanding of this particular organizational culture might be used to build resistance to these viruses.

  7. International Financial Reporting standard for Small and Medium-sized entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Koppeschaar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Financial Reporting Standard for Small and Medium-sized entities (IFRS for SMEs was published as a standard by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB during July 2009. During 2007 South Africa became one of the first countries and the first country in Africa to early accept the proposed accounting standard (exposure draft of an IFRS for SMEs. The accounting standard will probably also be accepted by numerous other countries. The aim of this article is to investigate the applicability of this accounting standard. The results indicated that the IFRS for SMEs remains too comprehensive for the majority of small companies. The IFRS for SMEs does not satisfy the needs of South African users of small company financial statements, and as a result the accounting requirements should be simplified. KEYWORDS: Financial accounting; Financial reporting requirements; IFRS for SMEs; Small companies; Users of financial statements; Small company financial statements.

  8. Decision-makers' Risk Perception in the Internationalisation of Small and Medium-Sized Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eduardsen, Jonas Strømfeldt; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova

    2016-01-01

    awareness exists, decision-makers do not perceive internationalisation as risky behaviour. Findings highlight the importance of decision-makers’ background, including cognitive and psychological characteristics, such as self-efficacy and locus of control, and their experiences in explaining risk perceptions......This study examines the risk perception of decision-makers in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and the factors underlying these perceptions in the process of internationalization of their firms. While risk perception has been identified as a potential predictor variable...... in internationalisation research, very little work has been done exploring the factors and processes that shape decision-makers’ perception of risk. A qualitative interview-based approach was adopted by collecting data from thirty-two Danish SMEs operating in four different industries. Findings suggest that while risk...

  9. eLEARNING - A CHANCE FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Hamburg

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available eLearning through its flexibility and facility of access is seen as a major enabler of lifelong learning (LLL, as a catalyst of change and a chance for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs to improve their business and to integrate into European market. But so far the eLearning in the context of vocational educational training has been mainly adopted by large enterprises, while only little activity can be observed in SMEs. The question arises what the chances and challenges for SMEs are and what is the experience with its usage. In this paper after a presentation of key issues in eLearning chances and challenges of eLearning for SMEs are discussed and experiences are exemplified by three EU-funded eLearning projects. The focus lies on the ongoing project ARIEL - Analysing and Reporting the Implementation of Electronic Learning in Europe - coordinated by the Institut Arbeit und Technik (IAT.

  10. Glass formability in medium-sized molecular systems/pharmaceuticals. I. Thermodynamics vs. kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wenkang; Li, Xiangqian; Chen, Zeming; Liu, Ying Dan; Labardi, Massimiliano; Capaccioli, Simone; Paluch, M; Wang, Li-Min

    2016-05-07

    Scrutinizing critical thermodynamic and kinetic factors for glass formation and the glass stability of materials would benefit the screening of the glass formers for the industry of glassy materials. The present work aims at elucidating the factors that contribute to the glass formation by investigating medium-sized molecules of pharmaceuticals. Glass transition related thermodynamics and kinetics are performed on the pharmaceuticals using calorimetric, dielectric, and viscosity measurements. The characteristic thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of glass transition are found to reproduce the relations established for small-molecule glass formers. The systematic comparison of the thermodynamic and kinetic contributions to glass formation reveals that the melting-point viscosity is the crucial quantity for the glass formation. Of more interest is the finding of a rough correlation between the melting-point viscosity and the entropy of fusion normalized by the number of beads of the pharmaceuticals, suggesting the thermodynamics can partly manifest its contribution to glass formation via kinetics.

  11. Dry paths effectively reduce road mortality of small and medium-sized terrestrial vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Milla; Jääskeläinen, Niina C; Nummi, Petri; Mäkelä, Tiina; Norrdahl, Kai

    2014-11-01

    Wildlife passages are widely used mitigation measures designed to reduce the adverse impacts of roads on animals. We investigated whether road kills of small and medium-sized terrestrial vertebrates can be reduced by constructing dry paths adjacent to streams that pass under road bridges. The study was carried out in southern Finland during the summer of 2008. We selected ten road bridges with dry paths and ten bridges without them, and an individual dry land reference site for each study bridge on the basis of landscape and traffic features. A total of 307 dead terrestrial vertebrates were identified during the ten-week study period. The presence of dry paths decreased the amount of road-killed terrestrial vertebrates (Poisson GLMM; p road-kills on mammals was not such clear. In the mammal model, a lack of dry paths increased the amount of carcasses (p = 0.001) whereas the number of casualties at dry path bridges was comparable with dry land reference sites. A direct comparison of the dead ratios suggests an average efficiency of 79% for the dry paths. When considering amphibians and mammals alone, the computed effectiveness was 88 and 70%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that dry paths under road bridges can effectively reduce road-kills of small and medium-sized terrestrial vertebrates, even without guiding fences. Dry paths seemed to especially benefit amphibians which are a threatened species group worldwide and known to suffer high traffic mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. EXTERNAL FORCES DRIVING CHANGE IN THE ROMANIAN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roiban Roxana Nadina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Change is a constant in everyday life confronting organizations to continuously adapt their strategy, structure, processes, and culture in order to survive and stay competitive on the market. Implementing organizational change is one of the most important skills required for managers and in the meantime the most difficult one. The forces driving change within an organization, that can be either external or internal, are those that propel a company forward towards change and in order to identify the need for change and make the proper changes, managers have to develop a tool that allows them to analyze how does the environment influence their business activities. A vision for change will clarify the directions in which the organization needs to move, starting from its current state and taking in consideration the existing opportunities and threats from the environment that allow to move to a future desired state. The purpose of this paper is to identify the concern for change in the Romanian small and medium sized enterprises by presenting and explaining the past and present influences of the main external forces that have determined the need for change in the last 3-5 years and to make recommendations about future possible changes that have to be performed by managers for a better harmonization with the environment. The research method used for this study is the interview on a sample that contains some of the most relevant SME’s from the western side of Romania, from different industries. We analyzed the main external forces that had an impact on the small and medium sized enterprises and how were they generating the need for organizational change, in order to see which present and future changes are required.

  13. Larval assemblages of large and medium-sized pelagic species in the Straits of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David E.; Llopiz, Joel K.; Guigand, Cedric M.; Cowen, Robert K.

    2010-07-01

    Critical gaps in our understanding of the distributions, interactions, life histories and preferred habitats of large and medium-size pelagic fishes severely constrain the implementation of ecosystem-based, spatially structured fisheries management approaches. In particular, spawning distributions and the environmental characteristics associated with the early life stages are poorly documented. In this study, we consider the diversity, assemblages, and associated habitat of the larvae of large and medium-sized pelagic species collected during 2 years of monthly surveys across the Straits of Florida. In total, 36 taxa and 14,295 individuals were collected, with the highest diversity occurring during the summer and in the western, frontal region of the Florida Current. Only a few species (e.g. Thunnus obesus, T. alalunga, Tetrapturus pfluegeri) considered for this study were absent. Small scombrids (e.g. T. atlanticus, Katsuwonus pelamis, Auxis spp.) and gempylids dominated the catch and were orders of magnitude more abundant than many of the rare species (e.g. Thunnus thynnus,Kajikia albida). Both constrained (CCA) and unconstrained (NMDS) multivariate analyses revealed a number of species groupings including: (1) a summer Florida edge assemblage (e.g. Auxis spp., Euthynnus alleterattus, Istiophorus platypterus); (2) a summer offshore assemblage (e.g. Makaira nigricans, T. atlanticus, Ruvettus pretiosus, Lampris guttatus); (3) an ubiquitous assemblage (e.g. K. pelamis, Coryphaena hippurus, Xiphias gladius); and (4) a spring/winter assemblage that was widely dispersed in space (e.g. trachipterids). The primary environmental factors associated with these assemblages were sea-surface temperature (highest in summer-early fall), day length (highest in early summer), thermocline depth (shallowest on the Florida side) and fluorescence (highest on the Florida side). Overall, the results of this study provide insights into how a remarkable diversity of pelagic species

  14. An Initial Implementation of Multiagent Simulation of Travel Behavior for a Medium-Sized City in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengxiang Zhuge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the traditional four-step model is so simple that it cannot solve complex modern transportation problems, microsimulation is gradually applied for transportation planning and some researches indicate that it is more compatible and realistic. In this paper, a framework of agent-based simulation of travel behavior is proposed, which is realized by MATSim, a simulation tool developed for large-scale agent-based simulation. MATSim is currently developed and some of its models are under training, so a detailed introduction of simulation structure and preparation of input data will be presented. In practice, the preparation process differs from one to another in different simulation projects because the available data for simulation is various. Thus, a simulation of travel behavior under a condition of limited available survey data will be studied based on MATSim; furthermore, a medium-sized city in China will be taken as an example to check whether agent-based simulation of travel behavior can be successfully applied in China.

  15. Complex Chemical Reaction Networks from Heuristics-Aided Quantum Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappoport, Dmitrij; Galvin, Cooper J; Zubarev, Dmitry Yu; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2014-03-11

    While structures and reactivities of many small molecules can be computed efficiently and accurately using quantum chemical methods, heuristic approaches remain essential for modeling complex structures and large-scale chemical systems. Here, we present a heuristics-aided quantum chemical methodology applicable to complex chemical reaction networks such as those arising in cell metabolism and prebiotic chemistry. Chemical heuristics offer an expedient way of traversing high-dimensional reactive potential energy surfaces and are combined here with quantum chemical structure optimizations, which yield the structures and energies of the reaction intermediates and products. Application of heuristics-aided quantum chemical methodology to the formose reaction reproduces the experimentally observed reaction products, major reaction pathways, and autocatalytic cycles.

  16. A framework for effective implementation of lean production in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Belhadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present paper aims at developing an effective framework including all the components necessary for implementing lean production properly in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises. Design/methodology/approach: The paper begins with the review of the main existing framework of lean implementation in order to highlight shortcomings in the literature through a lack of suitable framework for small companies. To overcome this literature gap, data of successful initiatives of lean implementation were collected based on a multiple case study approach. These initiatives has been juxtaposed in order to develop a new, practical and effective framework that includes all the components (process, tools, success factors that are necessary to implement lean in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises. Findings: The proposed framework presents many significant contributions: First, it provides an overcoming for the limitations of the existing frameworks by proposing for consultants, researchers and organizations an effective framework for lean implementation in SMEs that allows SMEs to benefit from competitive advantages  gained by lean. Second, it brings together a set of the more essential and critical elements of lean implementation commonly used by SMEs and derived from the practical experiences of them in lean implementation. Finally, it highlights the successful experiences of small companies in implementing lean programs and then proves that lean can give a relevant results even for SMEs. Research limitations/implications: The proposed framework presents a number of limitations and still evokes extension for further researches: Although it was derived from practical experiences of SMEs, the proposed framework is not supported by practical implementation. On the other hand and even though the elements in the proposed framework from the practical experiences of four SMEs, the identified elements need to be generalized and enriching by conducting

  17. Organisational culture as a part in the development of open innovation - the perspective of small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymańska Katarzyna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to introduce various concepts and business models is nowadays a prerequisite of creating a competitive advantage. This is to a large extent closely linked to the ability of enterprises to create, implement and disseminate a variety of innovative solutions. Today the use of open innovation is a necessity. This applies not only to large organisations, but also to small and medium-sized enterprises. In order to implement open innovation, small and medium-sized enterprises need to effectively manage their own growth through the preparation of appropriate strategies and the development of a model that encompasses all changes, taking into account a number of factors related to the growth dynamics of this sector. It is understood that an appropriate organisational culture plays an important role in the implementation of innovation in the sector of small and medium-sized enterprises. There are many indications that a cultural mismatch and misunderstanding are the main reasons for major problems related to the low level of implementation of innovation by small and medium-sized enterprises. The aim of the paper is to outline the issue of the impact of organisational culture on the development of the concept of open innovation in the sector of small and medium-sized enterprises.

  18. Modern methods of evaluation existing suppliers and suppliers selected by customer for small and medium-sized companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Jurová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On existing conditions on global market (almost identical quality, almost identical purchasing values companies have to definite the total rating of importance of evaluative criteria. In post-crisis period the problem of suppliers’ evaluation is one of the biggest, because companies had to use all resources and all possibilities to develop their own business. Many authors wrote about collaborative planning and warehousing as one of possibilities to optimization work inside supply chain. For this paper define small and medium-sized enterprises (SME as enterprises with the size of maximum 250 em­ployers. In literature was read we couldn’t find information about own system of suppliers evaluation for small and medium-sized enterprises. SME can have some different types of business and in this case need the universal system of eva­lua­tion. The research of this paper is oriented on small and medium-sized enterprises with different types of business. The new theoretical universal method of calculation for evaluation existing suppliers for small and medium-sized enterprises will present in this paper. This theoretical method is based on average values. This method includes traditional evaluative criteria (quality, delivery time and other (mobility of supplier, possibilities of new level of partnership. This method of evaluation can not be used for continual manufacture. New method can improve the total evaluation of supplier in small and medium-sized enterprises.

  19. Exploring drivers for energy efficiency within small- and medium-sized enterprises: First evidences from Italian manufacturing enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagno, Enrico; Trianni, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Allowances, public financing and external pressures as major external drivers. ► Ambitious decision-makers with great entrepreneurial mind as major internal drivers. ► Effect of firm’s size (even within SMEs) on drivers to industrial energy efficiency. ► Preliminary evidences of the effect of firm’s internal and external complexity. ► Preliminary evidences of the effect of firm’s innovation characteristics. - Abstract: Several studies have investigated the barriers to industrial energy efficiency, but few have focused on the most effective means (drivers) to promote the adoption of energy-efficient technologies and practices. In this respect, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) have been completely overlooked despite interesting consequences for their overall energy consumption and their concurrent low levels of adoption of energy-efficiency measures. Starting from insights garnered from the extant literature on the drivers of industrial energy efficiency, this paper presents an empirical investigation of 71 Italian manufacturing SMEs through a multiple case-study approach. The research highlights the importance of allowances or public financing for energy efficiency interventions, as well as the importance of external pressures such as increases in energy prices and the introduction or increasing of fees on both resources consumed and on emissions of pollutants. Moreover, enterprises look favourably upon energy-efficient technologies which are able to provide long-term benefits, evidence of their willingness to adopt seemingly radical solutions when these are able to improve their long-term competitiveness. Other drivers considered as strategic for increasing energy efficiency are the presence within the company of people with great ambition and entrepreneurial mind and the management sensitivity to the issue. This paper also provides a preliminary analysis of how factors such as firm size, sector, supply chain complexity, and

  20. Extension of association models to complex chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Ane Søgaard

    Summary of “Extension of association models to complex chemicals”. Ph.D. thesis by Ane Søgaard Avlund The subject of this thesis is application of SAFT type equations of state (EoS). Accurate and predictive thermodynamic models are important in many industries including the petroleum industry......; CPA and sPC-SAFT. Phase equilibrium and monomer fraction calculations with sPC-SAFT for methanol are used in the thesis to illustrate the importance of parameter estimation when using SAFT. Different parameter sets give similar pure component vapor pressure and liquid density results, whereas very...... association is presented in the thesis, and compared to the corresponding lattice theory. The theory for intramolecular association is then applied in connection with sPC-SAFT for mixtures containing glycol ethers. Calculations with sPC-SAFT (without intramolecular association) are presented for comparison...

  1. Open Model for the Evaluation of Economic Attractiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors. Annex VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    This annex describes the development of an open model for simulation and evaluation of the economic features of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), being undertaken by the Politecnico di Milano in Italy. The model aims at establishing a comparative assessment of SMRs versus large reactors (LRs) as its final output. The model will allow assessment of the competitiveness of SMRs under different deployment and application conditions. The distinctive attributes of SMRs such as replication, scalability, reversibility and standardization are briefly described below. The features of SMRs impacting the domains of generation costs (co-siting economies, learning economies, technical economies, mass production and factory fabrication economies), deployment conditions (market matching, market suitability, reduced entry barriers) and financial costs (lower financial distress, reduced risk premium) are addressed before explaining the model architecture. Other state of the art models in this regard are also discussed, along with their respective attributes. The special features of the SMR model being developed are discussed. At the current stage of research, selected elements of the generation costs are modelled analytically. Provisions for adapting financial and external costs from other contemporary models and integrating the same into the main framework are being established. The model has been realized as a code, and the updated version of this code is used in the case studies of SMR competitiveness in different applications, carried out within the IAEA project Common Technology and Issues for SMRs.

  2. CRITICAL FACTORS IN OUTSOURCING OF ACCOUNTING FUNCTIONS IN MALAYSIAN SMALL MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES (SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magiswary Dorasamy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges that business face in sustaining competitive advantage in the corporate world have become a major concern. Businesses are adopting cutting-edge technologies and best practices to cope with rapid, global changes. Various business functions are being reengineered for this purpose. Accounting functions play an important role in helping businesses to maintain competitive advantage. However, some small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs face problems handling fundamental accounting functions. This is predominantly because of their lack of expertise; accounting functions require not only knowledge of generally accepted accounting rules or tax regulations but also the expertise needed to apply the rules in a given business environment (Everaert, Sarens and Rommel, 2006. This paper offers some insight on the outsourcing of accounting functions as there is paucity of data in this area in the context of Malaysia. Essentially, it presents empirical evidence regarding Malaysian SMEs' accounting outsourcing practices. A survey of SMEs was conducted to identify the overall outsourcing landscape as it relates to accounting and third-party organisations. The factors that contribute to the decision to outsource accounting functions are analysed. The study reveals a significant relationship between outsourcing accounting functions and two contributing factors, risks and operation management.

  3. A radiophotoluminescent glass plate system for medium-sized field dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Keiichi; Koyanagi, Hiroki; Shiraki, Takashi; Saegusa, Shigeki; Sasaki, Katsutake; Oritate, Takashi; Mima, Kazuo; Miyazawa, Masanori; Ishidoya, Tatsuyo; Ohtomo, Kuni; Yoda, Kiyoshi

    2005-01-01

    A two-dimensional radiophotoluminescent system for medium-sized field dosimetry has been developed using a silver-activated phosphate glass plate with a dimension of 120 mmx120 mmx1 mm and a readout unit comprising a UV excitation lamp and a CCD imager. A dose ranging from 0 to 400 cGy, provided by a 6 MV x-ray beam, was delivered to the glass plate oriented perpendicularly to the beam and positioned in a water phantom at a depth of 10 cm, where the center of the glass plate coincided with the linac isocenter. After the dose delivery, the glass plate was placed in the readout system. The CCD output intensity increased linearly with the applied dose. The angular dependence of response on the direction of radiation incidence was measured by rotating the glass plate in the water phantom, indicating that the output remained constant up to 75 deg. from perpendicular incident direction, followed by a steep reduction down to 85% at an angle of 90 deg. A lateral dose distribution resulting from a 60 mmx60 mm irradiation was compared between the glass plate and an x-ray film having had the same exposure, showing that the glass plate and the x-ray film led to identical dose distributions. The dose reproducibility for a glass plate and the sensitivity variation among different glass plates were also evaluated

  4. Assessing Incorrect Household Waste Sorting in a Medium-Sized Swedish City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Rousta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Source separation is a common method for dealing with the increasing problem of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW in society. The citizens are then responsible for separating waste fractions produced in their home. If the consumers fail to sort the waste according to the source separation scheme, it will lead to an ineffective system. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the environmental, economic and social aspects of incorrect waste sorting in a medium sized Swedish city that has established a source separation system. In order to determine the extent to which citizens correctly sort their waste, food waste (black bags and combustible fraction (white bags, were collected randomly from a residential area and categorized in different waste fractions. The results show that approximately 68 wt% of the waste in the white and 29 wt% in the black bags were not sorted correctly. This incorrect sorting accrues over 13 million SEK per year cost for this community. In order to improve the inhabitants’ participation in the waste management system, it is necessary to change different factors such as convenience and easy access to the recycling stations in the local MSW management systems as well as to review current regulation and policy.

  5. Regional Determinants of Efficiency Growth of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises. Evidence from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Łuczka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available SMEs sector plays a vital role in modern economies. Therefore, the interest in its functioning among economists is in fact quite natural. This article is a part of a current research on regional factors contributing to the development of enterprises in this category. The first section examines earlier studies in this field conducted globally and in Poland. According to them, many elements enable the SME’s development. It is not surprisingly that the specified set of pro-growth factors does not exists. Next section describes the results of the author’s own studies in the fields. These studies relate to regional factors contributing to the efficiency growth of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises in Poland. Data used in the study was collected from GUS[1] and EUROSTAT and encompassed 16 provinces for the years 2003-2008. The model prepared included 11 independent variables on labor force, social mobility, living standard and R&D policy. The authors would have gladly considered more than 11 explanatory variable, but the inaccessibility of such data made it impossible. In the next step, using GRETL software, equations of regression were defined. On this basis it was concluded that the most important factors contributing to efficiency growth of SMEs are the amount of spending on R&D and the level of wages.

  6. Financing innovative small and medium-sized enterprises in times of crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan ERIC

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SME in general and particularly innovative ones are becoming an increasingly important factor on the road to achieving smart, sustainable and comprehensive development. Because of their propensity to innovative undertaking and risk, SMEs contribute significantly to economic growth but are generally less productive and pay the cost of high rates of death and lower rates of profitability. Financing SMEs is risky and uncertain and for innovative SMEs it is even more difficult to access financing. When financing innovative activities, investors perceive high risks and it is even more emphasized in times of crisis when there is an increase in the cost of capital. Institutional support and governmental programmes have an important role in closing financial gap that innovative SMEs are faced with. Because the survival and development of SMEs is to a great extant determined by their ability to access favorable financing, the main objective of this paper is to provide policy recommendations for promoting availability of financing to innovative SMEs in order to foster economic recovery and more dynamic development of Serbia. The recommendations are to emerge from analyzes and evaluation of currently available sources of finance for innovative SMEs.

  7. Modeling, simulation, and concept design for hybrid-electric medium-size military trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoni, Giorgio; Josephson, John R.; Soliman, Ahmed; Hubert, Christopher; Cantemir, Codrin-Gruie; Dembski, Nicholas; Pisu, Pierluigi; Mikesell, David; Serrao, Lorenzo; Russell, James; Carroll, Mark

    2005-05-01

    A large scale design space exploration can provide valuable insight into vehicle design tradeoffs being considered for the U.S. Army"s FMTV (Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles). Through a grant from TACOM (Tank-automotive and Armaments Command), researchers have generated detailed road, surface, and grade conditions representative of the performance criteria of this medium-sized truck and constructed a virtual powertrain simulator for both conventional and hybrid variants. The simulator incorporates the latest technology among vehicle design options, including scalable ultracapacitor and NiMH battery packs as well as a variety of generator and traction motor configurations. An energy management control strategy has also been developed to provide efficiency and performance. A design space exploration for the family of vehicles involves running a large number of simulations with systematically varied vehicle design parameters, where each variant is paced through several different mission profiles and multiple attributes of performance are measured. The resulting designs are filtered to remove dominated designs, exposing the multi-criterial surface of optimality (Pareto optimal designs), and revealing the design tradeoffs as they impact vehicle performance and economy. The results are not yet definitive because ride and drivability measures were not included, and work is not finished on fine-tuning the modeled dynamics of some powertrain components. However, the work so far completed demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach to design space exploration, and the results to date suggest the powertrain configuration best suited to the FMTV mission.

  8. Business Benefits from Enterprise Systems Implementation in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mathrani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The market for enterprise systems (ESs continues to grow as business becomes increasingly global and competitive. Increasingly, the market focus for ES vendors is on small businesses. The purpose of this study is to provide a unique ES vendor/consultant perspective on (a the business benefits small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs expect from their ES investment and (b to examine current practices of ES implementation in SMEs through a conceptual framework that considers the organisational, process and strategic context of the implementation. This study does so with interview data collected from ES vendors, ES consultants and IT research firms, who are the key players in the New Zealand ES industry. A distinctive contribution of this research is the vendor/consultant perspective as the unit of analysis, rather than the SME perspective commonly used in similar research. The vendor/consultant perspective offers a comprehensive viewpoint that extends across numerous SMEs in a variety of industries. Findings from interviews with these professionals indicate that although many ES implementations are several years old now, SMEs have only recently started tracking benefits through analytical processes in expectation to realise business value from their ES investment. The results also identify how ES implementation practices are adapting to be more suitable to the SME sector, an important market for ES vendors given the saturation of the large enterprise market for ES implementation.

  9. Quantitative evaluation of waste prevention on the level of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Waste prevention is a principle means of achieving the goals of waste management and a key element for developing sustainable economies. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, often not even being aware of their environmental effects. Therefore, several initiatives have been launched in Austria aimed at supporting waste prevention measures on the level of SMEs. To promote the most efficient projects, they have to be evaluated with respect to their contribution to the goals of waste management. It is the aim of this paper to develop a methodology for evaluating waste prevention measures in SMEs based on their goal orientation. At first, conceptual problems of defining and delineating waste prevention activities are briefly discussed. Then an approach to evaluate waste prevention activities with respect to their environmental performance is presented and benchmarks which allow for an efficient use of the available funds are developed. Finally the evaluation method is applied to a number of former projects and the calculated results are analysed with respect to shortcomings and limitations of the model. It is found that the developed methodology can provide a tool for a more objective and comprehensible evaluation of waste prevention measures

  10. PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN UKRAINIAN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pimenova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Main directions of development of small and medium-sized enterprises in Ukrainian agriculture are examined. It is determined that entrepreneurship in agrarian sector is a driving force behind the development of agriculture, as these activities contributes to the production of quality agricultural products that satisfies the needs of society, food security, independence and improves the living standards of rural population. Potential customers of small parties of harvest in Ukrainian grain market are analyzed. The ways of mutually beneficial cooperation between Ukrainian farmers and entrepreneurs are proved. The study of foreign experience has proven that strengthening the competitiveness of Ukrainian agricultural products in the context of globalization is possible on the basis of mutually beneficial cooperation of Ukrainian farmers and entrepreneurs, where recent purchase of output at market prices for the purpose of resale or creation of agricultural cooperatives, such form of economy in agrarian relations that combines a balanced economic, social and environmental components. In particular in paper is shown that sustainable economic management provide only forms of economy that take into account the socioeconomic and geophysical specifics of agriculture, particularities of agricultural labor and methods of management. The most common among these forms are farmers.

  11. Feasibility of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility, energy management memorandum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, R. W.

    1982-09-01

    The thermal-economic feasibility was studied of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility designed to serve five varied industries. Generation options included one dual-fuel diesel and one gas turbine, both with waste heat boilers, and five fired boilers. Fuels included natural gas, and for the fired-boiler cases, also low-sulphur coal and municipal refuse. The fired-boiler cogeneration systems employed back-pressure steam turbines. For coal and refuse, the option of steam only without cogeneration was also assessed. The refuse-fired cases utilized modular incinerators. The options provided for a wide range of steam and electrical capacities. Deficient steam was assumed generated independently in existing equipment. Excess electrical power over that which could be displaced was assumed sold to Commonwealth Edison Company under PURPA (Public Utility Regulator Policies Act). The facility was assumed operated by a mutually owned corporation formed by the cogenerated power users. The economic analysis was predicted on currently applicable energy-investment tax credits and accelerated depreciation for a January 1985 startup date. Based on 100% equity financing, the results indicated that the best alternative was the modular-incinerator cogeneration system.

  12. Microfinance: Diagnosis of the micro-business, medium-sized business and its financial technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Toledo Concha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work shows how the financing for micro and small businesses in Peru has increased and has greatlyexpanded in the last few years, not only in institutions specialized in this field, focused their efforts in giving financialservices to businesspeople of micro and medium-sized business, but most of the so-called traditional banks havefocused their attention to this emerging sector using the know-how of microfinance lending technology, banking seekto work with people of low income sectors, that were not subject for credit opportunities to develop their business andas a consequence not able to improve their quality of life .Throughout this investigation, we make a diagnosis of macro and micro environment of the microfinance field, itsdevelopment and expectations for a strong presence in the Peruvian financial market. We consider the development oflending technology, where the analysis of the ability and willingness to pay are the fundamental basis for the evaluationof credits in specialized companies in this sector.

  13. Creativity, creations and innovations in the management of small and medium-sized business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usheva M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is a process of development and expression of new ideas interwoven in the company mission and vision to lead not only to financial success but also to real loyalty and involvement of the employees with the company problems and achievements. The main objective of this paper is through the research among contemporary managers and entrepreneurs, representatives of small and medium-sized business in the region of Blagoevgrad to prove that creativity skills are deployed in each person, to identify the specific characteristics of the creative thinking of the manager and the tools that stimulate them to increase competitiveness in the context of the sustainable development of the small and medium business in international and domestic tourism market. The main result to be achieved is evidence that when there is adequate (positive self-evaluation, intrinsic motivation or chiefly necessity of creativity manifestation, emotivity in the sense of creative enthusiasm, personal professional effectiveness and appropriate situational factors, the modern manager is able to model conditions for the manifestation of creativity (creative self-expression, both in themselves and in their subordinates. This in turn leads to increased competitiveness and intensive implementation of innovations in the company management and operation. The main research methods used in the study are literature review on the subject, survey, analysis of processes, intuitive and systematic approach, systematic observation, data classification and interpretation.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of waste prevention on the level of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-02-01

    Waste prevention is a principle means of achieving the goals of waste management and a key element for developing sustainable economies. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, often not even being aware of their environmental effects. Therefore, several initiatives have been launched in Austria aimed at supporting waste prevention measures on the level of SMEs. To promote the most efficient projects, they have to be evaluated with respect to their contribution to the goals of waste management. It is the aim of this paper to develop a methodology for evaluating waste prevention measures in SMEs based on their goal orientation. At first, conceptual problems of defining and delineating waste prevention activities are briefly discussed. Then an approach to evaluate waste prevention activities with respect to their environmental performance is presented and benchmarks which allow for an efficient use of the available funds are developed. Finally the evaluation method is applied to a number of former projects and the calculated results are analysed with respect to shortcomings and limitations of the model. It is found that the developed methodology can provide a tool for a more objective and comprehensible evaluation of waste prevention measures.

  15. Operational Risk Assessment and Management in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktorija Stasytytė

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern organizations have raised a need to actively and quickly react to the changes in external business environment, as well as in internal processes considering not only the present situation, but also evaluating possible changes and forecasting the future. Enterprise risk assessment and management, which is strongly related with foreseeing the uncertain future, becomes topical not only scientifically, but also practically seeking to reveal new and unique solutions. Operational risk management in small and medium enterprises, creating the largest part of value added in the whole European Union, demands a separate attention and coordinated decisions and means. The objective of the paper – to analyse the process of enterprise risk management in small and medium-sized enterprises, as well as to propose adequate risk management solutions for these companies. After performing a research, it was found out that small and medium enterprises more than big organizations require a risk management strategy and methodology, need to distinguish activity objectives and events influencing them, and they can efficiently apply a risk portfolio method to manage risk. In small and medium enterprises it is recommended to incorporate a risk management system based on COSO ERM model that can be modified depending on company needs and possibilities, turning it into less formal and structured and easily applicable.

  16. Provision and perception of occupational health in small and medium-sized enterprises in Sheffield, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, L M; Curran, A D; Eskin, F; Fishwick, D

    2001-02-01

    A random sample of managers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) was selected from a database of businesses in Sheffield, UK. They were invited to take part in a study to evaluate the provision and perception of occupational health in SMEs in Sheffield. The study used an interviewer-led questionnaire, which collected quantitative and qualitative data; each interview took approximately 40 min to complete. Several approaches to recruitment were adopted during the study. Twenty-eight managers were interviewed over the 6 month study period. All of the SMEs employed advisor; and 10.8% employed a part-time occupational health nurse. Twenty-five per cent had a nominated person responsible for occupational health and 67% thought that a doctor or nurse would be the best person to provide an occupational health service. Twenty-eight per cent of the companies carried out some form of pre-employment screening and 14.2% carried out health promotion. Fifteen (53.5%) collected some form of health related absence data. Eight companies (28.6%) organized a formal induction programme for all new employees. Further work should be undertaken in an attempt to improve access to local industry and particularly to SMEs. This study has clearly shown that access is possible, but different strategies of approach were required before a workable strategy could be found. Undoubtedly, this access can be improved by better understanding of the interaction between researchers, occupational health providers and local managers of SMEs.

  17. Role of Relationship Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Entreprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ružica Butigan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with marketing, small and medium enterprises (SMEs are commonly associated in literature with relationship marketing which results in marketing networks. This paper examines the specific characteristics that differentiate large companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and the reasons that prevent SMEs from engaging in traditional marketing within the scope of marketing mix. The paper also shows that the key characteristic which distinguishes small from large companies is a prominent role of owner/managers. The owner/manager affects marketing of SMEs by creating his or her own personal networks with stakeholders in the environment, and considers it an important strategic focus and a factor that increases the performance of marketing decision-making. After a thorough review of secondary data sources this paper examines relationship marketing as a marketing framework for SMEs and, finally, proves that relationship marketing is more appropriate for SMEs than are traditional marketing concepts, that relationship marketing and network marketing create an important framework for SMEs and that there is a link between relationship marketing, personal networks and SMEs.

  18. Computerization of radiology departmental management using the personal computer: application in medium sized hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Woo Hyun

    1992-01-01

    The author developed a computer program for use in registration, monthly statistics, printing of reports, data storage and retrieval in the Radiology department. This program has been used in the Department of Radiology, MoonHwa Hospital since November 1990. This program was written in FoxBASE language, consisted of two independent subprograms, one installed in a registration computer without a printer and another in a reporting computer with a printer. The subprograms were designed to link their data by floppy disk. Each computer's hard disk contained permanent files for retrieval and temporary files for data input. All permanent files were indexed on several keywords including the patient's identification data. 1. Registration was performed easily and rapidly. 2. A monthly statistic was obtained simply. 3. Retrieval of the results of previous radiologic studies, printing of report, storage and indexing of data were achieved automatically. This program had merits of simple operation, large storage capacity, rapid retrieval speed, relative low price, easy adjustment for other hospitals. Therefore this program is considered to be an economic substitute for computerization of radiology departmental management in medium sized hospitals

  19. Drivers for OSH interventions in small and medium-sized enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagno, Enrico; Masi, Donato; Leão, Celina Pinto

    2016-01-01

    The debate concerning occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions has recently focused on the need of improving the evaluation of interventions, and in particular on the need for providing information about why the intervention worked or not, under what circumstances and in which context. Key concepts in the analysis of the context are the drivers, i.e., those factors enabling, fostering or facilitating OSH interventions. However, the concept of driver for an OSH intervention is both confused and contested. Although the term is widely used, there is little consensus on how drivers should be understood, how important they are in different contexts and how they can facilitate interventions. This exploratory study based on interviews with the owner-managers and the safety officers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) gives an overview of the most characteristic drivers for OSH interventions. The results will be used to make an initial evaluation of SMEs' needs, and will help orient interventions and future research.

  20. Project appraisal for small and medium size wind energy installation: The Italian wind energy policy effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fera, M.; Iannone, R.; Macchiaroli, R.; Miranda, S.; Schiraldi, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the last few years, the distributed energy production from small wind turbines (i.e.<200 kWp) has developed into a relevant business opportunity for different investors in Italy. The market, especially in Italy, has rapidly grown, achieving 9 MWp only in 2011, with an increase from 1.5 MW in 2009 to 13.3 MW at the end of 2011. This paper reports the results of a case study on the installation of several small wind turbines. It aims to provide an analysis of the conditions in Italy that make it possible to install these machines and offer a reliable reference for designing, planning, and controlling small wind turbine projects while focusing on the strategic variables of time, cost, and quality used by typical enterprises in the investment projects. The results are relevant to investors as well as engineering, procurement, and construction companies involved in this new sector, which must understand Italy’s renewable energy policy and its effects in practice. Moreover, certain national energy policy conclusions are reported and discussed in this paper. To properly study the sector, the data on time, cost and quality are analysed using typical project management tools. - Highlights: • Focus on the Italian wind energy sector. • Analysis of Italian policy effects. • Focus on small/medium size wind energy machines

  1. Characterization of a medium-sized washer-gun for an axisymmetric mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hongshen; Liu, Ming; Shi, Peiyun; Yang, Zhida; Zhu, Guanghui; Lu, Quanming; Sun, Xuan

    2018-04-01

    A new medium-sized washer gun is developed for a plasma start-up in a fully axisymmetric mirror. The gun is positioned at the east end of the Keda Mirror with AXisymmetricity facility and operated in the pulsed mode with an arc discharging time of 1.2 ms and a typical arc current of 8.5 kA with 1.5 kV discharge voltage. To optimize the operation, a systematic scan of the neutral pressure, the arc voltage, the bias voltage on a mesh grid 6 cm in front of the gun and an end electrode located on the west end of mirror, and the mirror ratio was performed. The streaming plasma was measured with triple probes in the three mirror cells and a diamagnetic loop in the central cell. Floating potential measurements suggest that the plasma could be divided into streaming and mirror-confined plasmas. The floating potential for the streaming plasma is negative, with an electric field pointing inwards. The mirror-confined plasma has a typical lifetime of 0.5 ms.

  2. TELICS—A Telescope Instrument Control System for Small/Medium Sized Astronomical Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Mudit K.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Burse, Mahesh P.; Chordia, Pravin A.; Chillal, Kalpesh S.; Mestry, Vilas B.; Das, Hillol K.; Kohok, Abhay A.

    2009-10-01

    For any modern astronomical observatory, it is essential to have an efficient interface between the telescope and its back-end instruments. However, for small and medium-sized observatories, this requirement is often limited by tight financial constraints. Therefore a simple yet versatile and low-cost control system is required for such observatories to minimize cost and effort. Here we report the development of a modern, multipurpose instrument control system TELICS (Telescope Instrument Control System) to integrate the controls of various instruments and devices mounted on the telescope. TELICS consists of an embedded hardware unit known as a common control unit (CCU) in combination with Linux-based data acquisition and user interface. The hardware of the CCU is built around the ATmega 128 microcontroller (Atmel Corp.) and is designed with a backplane, master-slave architecture. A Qt-based graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed and the back-end application software is based on C/C++. TELICS provides feedback mechanisms that give the operator good visibility and a quick-look display of the status and modes of instruments as well as data. TELICS has been used for regular science observations since 2008 March on the 2 m, f/10 IUCAA Telescope located at Girawali in Pune, India.

  3. Corporate social responsibility and small-medium sized enterprises: evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Electra Pitoska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a qualitative empirical research of Greek Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs and examines their dominant perceptions and attitudes towards Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. The research was conducted in the Region of Western Macedonia, North Greece, via personal interviews based on a structured questionnaire, which was completed by 420 enterprises, with different business functions, and were randomly chosen from local Chamber registers. The results demonstrated that, as Greek SMEs in the periphery have not decided on a particular strategy for Social Responsibility practices, CSR is frequently defined as sponsorship or charity programmes. The research also revealed the restraining factors for SMEs in implementing CSR policies: financial cost, small size of enterprises, absence of specialized partners, and poor supporting role of public authorities. Whereas, the most significant non-financial goals for the enterprises attempting to implement CSR in Greece are: responsibility and respect to customers, promotion of sustainability, environmentally-friendly practices; human resources and protection of rights are less emphasized. Interestingly, more than 80% of the subjects hold that engaging in CSR practices in the current financial context is vital. With regard to the benefits resulting from CSR, the research demonstrated that: Enhancing ‘corporate image’, ‘business performance’, and ‘customer satisfaction’ are significant. Nevertheless, the research highlighted that implementing CSR strategies are rather positively than strongly correlated with the benefits deriving from CSR.

  4. IMPORTANCE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂLĂNESCU MĂDĂLINA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The market economy has reduced the number of large enterprises and has determinated the emergence ofa special class like small and medium-sized enterprises. Those companies play a special role in the nationaleconomy, especially through the fact that attract about 65% of employees in Romania, makes significantinvestments, takes approximately 30% of gross value added in the national economy, operates mainly in servicesactivity, are flexible, concerned with development and have the ability to adopt new technologies. The SMEsector has been affected by the crisis, but not in the same measure as large enterprises. This fact is demonstratedby the economic and financial indicators that I have analised, in 2011 SME beeing able to overcome the crisisand to achieve higher performance than in the years before crisis. The SME sector is considered the most activesector of the modern economy, plays a important role in the economic structure of our country, helping to ensureeconomic and social development as it is shown by the strong bond that exist between the GVA in SME sectorand total GVA added to the national economy, demonstrated in the calculations that I have made in this study.

  5. Specifics of Management in Small and Medium-Size Enterprises in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Lazarević-Moravčević

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Under modern conditions for performing business, an enterprise regardless of its size or business activity must be systematically directed and run. Small and medium-size enterprises have certain characteristics that make them considerably different compared to large systems, therefore it is not realistic to expect that the management process in such organizations would develop in the same way as in the large systems. The fact is that the small business often does not involve a small investment, and the management of small enterprises is constantly faced with the problem of "poverty of resources" that leads to the conclusion that the success of SMEs is predominantly determined by the managerial skills of managers/owners. Assuming that the owners/managers of SMEs adequately perceive the capabilities of their enterprise, make the right decisions, finding effective solutions in terms of organization and apply modern approaches to control and the success of the company definitely will follow. In this paper theoretical and empirical research has been carried out with the aim to identify the basic characteristics of successful management of SMEs in Serbia. The research results indicate that the managerial capacity of managers/owners of SMEs is the main strength of the company, and one of the key sources of growth and development. When the influence of external factors is very unfavorable for business development, the management as an internal resource of organization is increasingly gaining importance in creating business success and competitive advantage.

  6. Barriers to energy efficiency improvement. Empirical evidence from small-and-medium-sized enterprises in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostka, Genia; Moslener, Ulf; Andreas, Jan G.

    2012-07-01

    This paper analyzes barriers for energy efficiency investments for small-and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in China. Based on a survey of 480 SMEs in Zhejiang Province, this study assesses financial, informational, and organizational barriers for energy efficiency investments in the SME sector. The conventional view has been that the lack of appropriate financing mechanisms particularly hinders SMEs to adopt cost-effective energy efficiency measures. As such, closing the financing gap for SMEs is seen as a prerequisite in order to promote energy efficiency in the sector. The econometric estimates of this study, however, suggest that access to information is an important determinant of investment outcomes, while this is less clear with respect to financial and organizational factors. More than 40 percent of enterprises in the sample declared that that they are not aware of energy saving equipments or practices in their respective business area, indicating that there are high transaction costs for SMEs to gather, assess, and apply information about energy saving potentials and relevant technologies. One implication is that the Chinese government may assume an active role in fostering the dissemination of energy-efficiency related information in the SME sector. (orig.)

  7. Sustainability indices as a tool for urban managers, evidence from four medium-sized Chinese cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, Meine Pieter van; Zhang Mingshun

    2005-01-01

    This research in four medium-sized Chinese cities aims at measuring urban sustainability in China and focuses on three issues. First, the situation in these four cities with regard to urban sustainability is evaluated. Secondly, a number of relations between different aspects of urban sustainability is explored. Finally, it is indicated how urban managers can improve with sustainability indices as tools currently ineffective urban management practices. Although all four cities are moving towards sustainable development, the current situation shows still weak sustainability in three, and even non-sustainability in one city. The social and, in particular, the economic dimensions of urban sustainability make significant positive contributions to overall urban sustainability. However, the decline of natural resources and environmental degradation are influencing it negatively. It is therefore suggested that more priority should be assigned to urban environmental protection and management in China. The fundamental reason for environmental degradation is believed to be inefficient urban management. To implement effective urban management in China, there is an urgent need to redefine the role of local government, reform local organizational structure, enhance local participatory institutional capacity, properly distribute the urban welfare, and thus integrate economic, social and environmental objectives local strategic and action plans

  8. submitter A High Precision 3D Magnetic Field Scanner for Small to Medium Size Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Bergsma, F; Garnier, F; Giudici, P A

    2016-01-01

    A bench to measure the magnetic field of small to-medium-sized magnets with high precision was built. It uses a small-sized head with three orthogonal Hall probes, supported on a long pole at continuous movement during measurement. The head is calibrated in three dimensions by rotation over the full solid angle in a special device. From 0 to 2.5 T, the precision is ±0.2 mT in all components. The spatial range is 1 × 1 × 2 m with precision of ±0.02 mm. The bench and its controls are lightweight and easy to transport. The head can penetrate through small apertures and measure as close as 0.5 mm from the surface of a magnet. The bench can scan complicated grids in Cartesian or cylindrical coordinates, steered by a simple text file on an accompanying PC. The raw data is online converted to magnetic units and stored in a text file.

  9. Factors preceding CRM readiness in small- and medium-sized tourism enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Vallabh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Customer relationship management (CRM is important to organisations striving for competitive advantage through building relationships with their customers. Research purpose: This study identified the factors preceding CRM and assessed selected South African small- and medium-sized tourism enterprises’ (SMTEs readiness for CRM. Motivation: CRM is likely to enhance SMTEs’ competitiveness. However, successful adoption and implementation of CRM is unlikely unless the organisation is ready for it. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative research approach and survey questionnaire yielded primary data from 332 respondent organisations selected by systematic sampling. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify the latent factors preceding CRM readiness. Organisational CRM readiness was assessed based on CRM maturity in terms of data collection, use and sharing throughout the organisation. Main findings: Respondent-organisations performed well on the four factors preceding CRM readiness − business strategy, customer strategy, touch points and competencies, skills and technology and also on data collections and use, but not on data sharing. Practical/Managerial implications: CRM practice is believed to assist organisations in tailoring products and services to customers’ needs, providing customer satisfaction, enhancing customer retention and ultimately improving the organisation’s competitiveness and profitability. CRM might fail if SMTEs do not have CRM-enabling conditions in place and a CRM readiness audit should therefore be performed. Contribution: The study contributes to a largely under-researched area concerning CRM in SMTEs by providing an improved understanding of the factors that will enable SMTEs to engage in CRM activities.

  10. Specificities of the small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic and EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Chládková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises (SME are the engine of the European economy. They are an essential source of jobs, create entrepreneurial spirit and innovation in the EU and are thus crucial for fostering competitiveness and employment. In the enlarged European Union of 27 countries, some 20 million SMEs provide around 75 million jobs and represent 99 % of all enterprises. However, they are often confronted with market imperfections. SMEs frequently have difficulties in obtaining capital or credit, particularly in the early start–up phase. Their limited resources may also restrict access to new technology or innovation. It is therefore necessary to monitor the development of SMEs in individual EU countries and highlighting their problems and mainly to their importance.During the recent period of time there have been many researchers from the FBE Mendel University in Brno, who focused on the analysis of the small and medium-sized enterprise, e.g. Bohušová (2007; Chládková (2009; Nerudová a Bohušová (2008; Kubíčková a Peprný (2006; Zrůst a Pyšný (2008. This paper is the part of the Research proposal MSM 6215648904 being solved at the FBE Mendel University in Brno.

  11. Resource efficiency and culture--workplace training for small and medium-sized enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliesner, Anna; Liedtke, Christa; Rohn, Holger

    2014-05-15

    Although there are already some qualification offers available for enterprises to support resource efficiency innovations, the high potentials that can be identified especially for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have not been activated until now. As successful change lies in the hands of humans, the main aim of vocational education has to be the promotion of organisational and cultural changes in the enterprises. As there is already a small but increasing number of enterprises that perform very well in resource efficiency innovations one question arises: What are typical characteristics of those enterprises? Leaning on a good-practice approach, the project "ResourceCulture" is going to prove or falsify the hypothesis that enterprises being successful with resource efficiency innovations have a specific culture of trust, which substantially contributes to innovation processes, or even initially enables them. Detailed empirical field research will light up which correlations between resource efficiency, innovation and cultures of trust can be found and will offer important aspects for the improvement of management instruments and qualification concepts for workplace training. The project seizes qualification needs that were likewise mentioned by enterprises and consultants, regarding the implementation of resource efficiency. This article - based on first empirical field research results - derives preliminary indications for the design of the qualification module for the target groups resource efficiency consultants and managers. On this basis and in order to implement "ResourceCulture" conceptual and methodological starting points for workplace training are outlined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Design concepts and safety concerns of the small and medium size reactors (SMR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seul, Kwang Won; Lee, Jae Hun; Kim, Hho Jung

    1998-01-01

    The small and medium size reactors (SMR) and interface facilities such as desalination plant are expected to be located near the population area because of restrictions in transporting the plant products such as fresh water to long distance area. To protect the public around the plant facility from the possible release of radioactive materials, the design development of the SMR is focusing on an enhancement of the safety and reliability as well as the economics. In this study, the major safety concepts of the SMR designs significantly different from the current PWR designs are investigated and the safety concerns applicable to the integrated SMR design of Korea (called SMART), were identified. Those safety issues include the use of proven technology, application of strengthening defense in depth, event categorization and selection, simplification of emergency planning, determination of accident source terms and so on. The efforts to resolve the safety concerns in the design stage will provide an improvement of the safety of the SMART design

  13. Depressurization accidents in a medium-sized high-temperature gas reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, S.; Tzoref, J.; Gal, D.

    1992-01-01

    The amount of fission product release during a core heatup accident in a medium-sized high-temperature gas reactor depends on the size of the inadvertent opening in the primary circuit; this dependence is assessed. The opening triggers a depressurization event that is assumed to be coupled with the failure of the forced circulation in both decay-heat removal systems. The scenario investigated is a beyond-design-base accident. The DSNP modular simulation code is used. This paper reports that a two-dimensional model is developed to simulate the HTR-500 design. The study shows that the depressurization process does not contribute significantly to the sweeping out (from the primary circuit) of fission products released from the fuel during the core heatup. There is also no significant variation in the results when the opening size is >33 cm 2 , and only a slight sensitivity is found when the rupture size is between 3.3 and 33 cm 2 . The fission product release decreases considerably in the range from 1 to 3.3 cm 2 . The small-sized rupture is of major significance, as the failure of the relief valves to reclose increases the frequency of the event

  14. Strategies for Successful Information Technology Adoption in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Ghobakhloo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Information Technology (IT adoption is an important field of study in a number of areas, which include small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Due to the numerous advantages of IT, SMEs are trying to adopt IT applications to support their businesses. IT adoption by SMEs differs from larger organizations because of their specific characteristics, such as resources constraints. Therefore, this research aims to provide a better and clearer understanding of IT adoption within SMEs by reviewing and analyzing current IT literature. In this research, the review of literature includes theories, perspectives, empirical research and case studies related to IT adoption, in particular within SMEs from various databases such as Business Premier, Science Direct, JStor, Emerald Insight and Springer Link. The proposed model of effective IT adoption is believed to provide managers, vendors, consultants and governments with a practical synopsis of the IT adoption process in SMEs, which will in turn assist them to be successful with IT institutionalization within these businesses.

  15. Hybrid neural intelligent system to predict business failure in small-to-medium-size enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrajo, M Lourdes; Baruque, Bruno; Corchado, Emilio; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan M

    2011-08-01

    During the last years there has been a growing need of developing innovative tools that can help small to medium sized enterprises to predict business failure as well as financial crisis. In this study we present a novel hybrid intelligent system aimed at monitoring the modus operandi of the companies and predicting possible failures. This system is implemented by means of a neural-based multi-agent system that models the different actors of the companies as agents. The core of the multi-agent system is a type of agent that incorporates a case-based reasoning system and automates the business control process and failure prediction. The stages of the case-based reasoning system are implemented by means of web services: the retrieval stage uses an innovative weighted voting summarization of self-organizing maps ensembles-based method and the reuse stage is implemented by means of a radial basis function neural network. An initial prototype was developed and the results obtained related to small and medium enterprises in a real scenario are presented.

  16. Key Supplier Relationship Management: The Case of Croatian Medium-Sized and Large Manufacturing Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Miočević

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The key supplier relationship management represents a vital organizational process. Companies should pay attention not only to managing customer relationships but also to managing relationships with suppliers in order to perform well. They should identify the extent to which a certain supplier adds value through the procurement process. In this line of reasoning, both theory and practice make a distinction between strategic (key and non-strategic (transactional suppliers. By employing the segmentation of the supply market, companies balance their supplier portfolio and are capable of identifying the key suppliers. They can also develop specific programs and initiatives that are aimed at preserving these relationships. In the empirical part of the paper, a survey was conducted on a sample of 123 medium-sized and large Croatian manufacturing companies. The structural model involving the relationship between the key supplier relationship management and value-oriented purchasing was tested. The results indicate that there is a statistically direct, positive and significant relationship between these two constructs. Likewise, the results stress that a theoretical conceptualization and operationalization of the key supplier relationship management construct is both valid and justified. Finally, the theoretical and practical implications and limitations of this study are offered.

  17. Small- and medium-sized enterprises’ knowledge management systems as edifiers of new value innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boniface Okanga

    2017-07-01

    Objectives: This research evaluates how the effectiveness of the small- and medium-sized enterprises’ (SMEs knowledge management systems enhance new value innovations so as to identify the major paradoxes and a business model that coherently integrates knowledge management with new value innovations. Method: Using a qualitative research method, semi-structured interviews were used to explore the opinions of 20 purposively sampled managers from 20 SMEs on how knowledge management edifies new value innovations. Results: A strong culture of information utilisation was found to enhance relevant analysis and identification of new gaps in the markets that must be filled through new value innovations or modifications of the existing products. However, poor culture of knowledge utilisation, cost of knowledge management and the often poorly functional business information systems were still reiterated as major paradoxes hampering effective knowledge management as one of the determinants of new value innovations. Conclusion: The study concluded with a model highlighting a continuum of knowledge management–new value innovation pillars like a strong culture of information utilisation, and encouragement of creativity that the executives must consider to create an effective knowledge management foundation that subsequently leverages the overall effectiveness of new value innovations.

  18. The spatiotemporal trajectory of a dengue epidemic in a medium-sized city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela G Morato

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases is important to allow for improvements of control measures. To investigate the spatiotemporal pattern of an epidemic dengue occurred at a medium-sized city in the Northeast Region of Brazil in 2009, we conducted an ecological study of the notified dengue cases georeferenced according to epidemiological week (EW and home address. Kernel density estimation and space-time interaction were analysed using the Knox method. The evolution of the epidemic was analysed using an animated projection technique. The dengue incidence was 6.918.7/100,000 inhabitants; the peak of the epidemic occurred from 8 February-1 March, EWs 6-9 (828.7/100,000 inhabitants. There were cases throughout the city and was identified space-time interaction. Three epicenters were responsible for spreading the disease in an expansion and relocation diffusion pattern. If the health services could detect in real time the epicenters and apply nimbly control measures, may possibly reduce the magnitude of dengue epidemics.

  19. Factors that influence planning for physical activity among workers in small- and medium-sized enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Sawako; Tadaka, Etsuko; Okochi, Ayako

    2018-06-01

    Physical activity (PA) is necessary for improving the health of workers in small- to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). However, behavioral changes conducive to PA are often difficult to achieve despite intentions. Because intention to perform PA does not always translate to action, proper planning may be critical for achieving PA. In this study, we aimed to identify factors related to planning for PA among workers in SMEs because this is one population that has been identified as being at higher risk for lifestyle-related diseases in Japan. Participants completed a series of validated questionnaires. Of 353 valid responses, 226 individuals (149 men; aged 47.5 ± 8.7 years) stated their intention to perform PA. Multiple regression analysis indicated that a higher PA planning score was significantly associated with higher self-efficacy for PA ( p  < 0.001), higher risk perception regarding inactivity ( p  = 0.012), and greater knowledge of information about PA community services ( p  = 0.019). Therefore, we recommend that self-efficacy, risk perception, and information regarding PA community services are enhanced in the daily working lives of workers at their workplaces. In this manner, they can promote their planning of health behavioral changes in a supportive environment, drawing upon available services, supports, and other resources.

  20. South African small and medium-sized enterprise owners’ intention to implement an environmental management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrika (Miemie W. Struwig

    2017-06-01

    Aim: This article investigates South African small and medium-sized enterprise (SME owners’ intentions to implement an environmental management system based on the theory of planned behaviour. Setting: Although large businesses are clearly of interest with respect to their environmental management, especially given their prominence in many of the most environmentally impactful sectors, the relative neglect of the environmental management of SMEs is disconcerting, given their overall importance in most economies. In addition, very little research used the theory of planned behaviour to empirically test SME owners’ intentions, to implement an environmental management system. Method: A quantitative survey was used to collect primary data from 326 SME owners by a structured questionnaire. Results: Regression analysis results confirmed the influence of SME owners’ attitudes towards an environmental management system and pro-environmental norms on their intention to implement an environmental management system. Perceived behavioural control, however, did not significantly influence the SME owners’ intention to implement an environmental management system. Conclusion: These findings provide valuable insights into the implementation of environmental management systems among South African SMEs. The theory of planned behaviour also seems to be an appropriate means to investigate the intentions of SMEs to implement an environmental management system.

  1. Correlates of Tax Compliance of Small and Medium Size Businesses in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oludele Akinloye Akinboade

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxation provides a predictable and stable flow of revenue to finance development objectives. This is important in a country like Cameroon that has serious challenges with meeting its development objectives. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs are significant for economic growth in the country, contributing as much as about 22 percent of the gross domestic product. SMEs generate taxable incomes. They also collect employment and value added taxes on behalf of the government. Taxation, however, imposes high cost to small businesses. SMEs are less tax compliant in comparison to large businesses. SMEs are considered the ‘hard to tax group from the informal sector.’ As such, the literature suggests that only a fraction of their taxable incomes is reported to tax authorities. Against this background, factors that correlate with tax compliance of 575 small and medium size companies in Cameroon are discussed from a survey of companies in the manufacturing and wholesale sectors. High registration cost and time-consuming processes promote tax non-compliance. The perception that tax system is corrupt discourages registration and filing compliance. When there are too many compliance hurdles, the probability of filing compliance is reduced. However, a fair and static system encourages filing and registration compliance. A clear and consistent tax system promotes filing compliance. Authorities that understand their responsibilities and are willing to respond to enquiries during the registration process promote tax compliance in general.

  2. Can the business model of Handelsbanken be an archetype for small and medium sized banks? A comparative case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousgaard Larsen, Morten; Lange Nissen, Jacob; Lueg, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    strengthening of the financial and non-financial position can serve as a blueprint for small- and medium sized banks. We conduct a comparative case study by interviewing Handelsbanken and the disguised ‘Danish Local Bank’ (DLB), where the DLB is a representative example of a small- and medium sized Danish bank......The Danish Banking sector faces increasing requirements regarding regulation and profitability, which especially threatens small- and medium sized banks. This study analyzes whether the successful business model of Handelsbanken (‘The Handelsbanken Way’) to banking in regard to the needed....... This study is structured according to the frameworks from Business Model implementations and from implied organizational structures. Using the notion of Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010), this study reveals only minor differences in the Business Models of Handelsbanken and DLB. Despite the supposedly obvious...

  3. Open complex-balanced mass action chemical reaction networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Shodhan; van der Schaft, Arjan; Jayawardhana, Bayu

    We consider open chemical reaction networks, i.e. ones with inflows and outflows. We assume that all the inflows to the network are constant and all outflows obey the mass action kinetics rate law. We define a complex-balanced open reaction network as one that admits a complex-balanced steady state.

  4. Randomized clinical trial of mast cell inhibition in patients with a medium-sized abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H; Eldrup, N; Hultgren, R

    2015-01-01

    the growth of medium-sized AAAs. In preclinical and clinical trials, pemirolast has been shown to inhibit antigen-induced allergic reactions. METHODS: Inclusion criteria for the trial were patients with an AAA of 39-49 mm in diameter on ultrasound imaging. Among exclusion criteria were previous aortic....... There was no statistically significant difference in growth between patients receiving placebo and those in the three dose groups of pemirolast. Similarly, there were no differences in adverse events. CONCLUSION: Treatment with pemirolast did not retard the growth of medium-sized AAAs. REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01354184...

  5. Health and environmental effects of complex chemical mixtures: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the Department of Energy supports a broad long-term research program on human health and environmental effects from potential exposure to energy-related complex chemical mixtures. The program seeks basic mechanistic data on the effects of complex mixtures at the cellular, molecular, and whole animal levels to aid in predicting human health effects and seeks ecological data on biological and physical transformations in the mixtures, concentrations of the mixtures in various compartments of the environment, and potential routes for human exposure to these mixtures (e.g., food chain). On June 17-18, 1985, OHER held its First Annual Technical Meeting on the Complex Chemical Mixtures Program in Chicago, IL. The primary purpose of the meeting was to enable principal investigators to report the research status and accomplishments of ongoing complex chemical mixture studies supported by OHER. To help focus future research directions round table discussions were conducted.

  6. Water-chemical regime of a fast reactor ower complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musikhin, R.N.; Piskunov, E.M.; Samarkin, A.A.; Yurchenko, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    Some peculiarities of water-chemical regime of a power compleX in Shevchenko are considered. The complex comprises a desalination unit, a gas-masout heating-and-power plant and the BN-350 reactor. The compleX is used for the production of electric and thermal energy and fresh water. The power complex peculiarity is the utilization of disalinated seawater in a technological cycle along with highly mineralized seawater with a total salt content of 13.5 g/l (for cooling) in heat exchanges. A regime of ammoniacal correction of feed water was used as a basic water-chemical regime in the initial period of the BN-350 steam generator operation. Deposits composed mainly of iron oxide slime were observed on steam generator surfaces during the operation under these conditions. A conclusion is made that the regime with chelating agent providing steam generator safe operation without chemical cleaning is the most expedient one

  7. Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thollander, Patrik; Mardan, Nawzad; Karlsson, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic

  8. Heats of Formation of Medium-Size Organic Compounds from Contemporary Electronic Structure Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Minenkov, Yury; Wang, Heng; Wang, Zhandong; Sarathy, Mani; Cavallo, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Computational electronic structure calculations are routinely undertaken to predict thermodynamic properties of the various species. However, the application of highly accurate wave function theory methods, such as the “gold standard” coupled cluster approach including single, double and partly triple excitations in perturbative fashion, CCSD(T), to large molecules is limited due to high computational cost. In this work, the promising domain based local pair natural orbital coupled cluster approach, DLPNO-CCSD(T), has been tested to reproduce 113 accurate formation enthalpies of medium-size molecules (few dozens heavy atoms) important for bio- and combustion chemistry via the reaction based Feller-Peterson-Dixon approach. As for comparison, 8 density functional theory (B3LYP, B3LYP-D3, PBE0, PBE0-D3, M06, M06-2X, ωB97X-D3, and ωB97M-V) and MP2-based (B2PLYP-D3, PWPB95-D3, B2T-PLYP, B2T-PLYP-D, B2GP-PLYP, DSD-PBEP86-D3, SCS-MP2, and OO-SCS-MP2) methods have been tested. The worst performance has been obtained for the standard hybrid DFT functionals, PBE0 (Mean unsigned error (MUE)/ Mean Signed Error (MSE)=9.1/6.0 kcal/mol) and B3LYP (MUE/MSE=13.5/-13.3 kcal/mol). An influence of an empirical dispersion correction term on these functionals performance is not homogenous: B3LYP performance is improved (B3LYP-D3 (MUE/MSE=6.0/0.8 kcal/mol)) meanwhile PBE0 performance is worse (PBE0-D3 (MUE/MSE=14.1/13.6 kcal/mol)). The Minnesota functionals, M06 (MUE/MSE=3.8/-2.0 kcal/mol) and M06-2X (MUE/MSE=3.5/3.0 kcal/mol), and recently developed ωB97X-D3 (MUE/MSE=3.2/0.2 kcal/mol) and ωB97M-V (MUE/MSE=2.2/1.3 kcal/mol) methods provided significantly better formation enthalpies. Enthalpies of similar quality can also be obtained from some double hybrid methods (B2PLYP-D3 (MUE/MSE=4.7/2.0 kcal/mol), PWPB95-D3 (MUE/MSE=4.3/3.2 kcal/mol), B2T-PLYP (MUE/MSE=4.1/-3.0 kcal/mol) and B2T-PLYP-D (MUE/MSE=3.3/1.7 kcal/mol)). The two spin component scaled (SCS) MP2 methods resulted in

  9. Status of innovative small and medium sized reactor designs 2005. Reactors with conventional refuelling schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    There is a renewed interest in Member States in the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). In the near term, most new NPPs are likely to be evolutionary designs building on proven systems while incorporating technological advances and often the economics of scale, resulting from the reactor outputs of up to 1600 MW(e). For the longer term, the focus is on innovative designs aiming to provide increased benefits in the areas of safety and security, non-proliferation, waste management, resource utilization and economy, as well as to offer a variety of energy products and flexibility in design, siting and fuel cycle options. Many innovative designs are reactors within the small-to-medium size range, having an equivalent electric power less than 700 MW(e) or even less than 300 MW(e). The projected timelines of readiness for deployment are generally between 2010 and 2030. The objective of this report is to provide Member States, including those just considering the initiation of nuclear power programmes, and those already having practical experience in nuclear power, with a balanced and objective information on important development trends and objectives of innovative SMRs for a variety of uses, on the achieved state-of-the-art in design and technology development for such reactors and on their design and regulatory status. The report is intended for many categories of stakeholders, including regulators, electricity producers, designers, non-electrical producers and policy makers. The main chapters of this report, addressed to all abovementioned groups of stakeholders, provide a summary of major specifications, applications and user-related special features of innovative SMRs, outline the achieved design and regulatory status and its progress since previous IAEA publications, review targeted deployment dates, fuel cycle options, design approaches used to meet design objectives in specific subject areas, enabling technologies and current

  10. [Place and type of meals consumed by adults in medium sized cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carús, Juliana Pires; França, Giovanny V A; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2014-02-01

    To describe the meals consumed by adults living in a midsize city in the South of Brazil, according to the place and preparation. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 2012. The two-stage sampling design used the 2010 census tracts as primary sampling units. Data were collected on the place of meals (at home or out) and on the kind of preparations consumed at home (homemade, snacks, take away food) covering the two days prior to the interview, using a standardized questionnaire. The study included 2,927 adults, of which 59.0% were female, 60.0% were below 50 years of age and 58.0% were in work. Data were collected on 11,581 meals consumed on the two days preceding the interview, 25.0% were consumed outside of the home at lunchtime, and 10.0% at dinnertime. Considering home meals, most participants reported eating food prepared at home at both lunch and dinner. The majority of out-of-home meals (64.0% for lunch and 61.0% for dinner) were consumed in the work place, mostly based on food prepared at home. Individuals eating out of home were mostly male, young and highly educated. The occupational categories that ate at restaurants more often were trade workers, businessmen, teachers and graduate professionals. Despite the changes in eating patterns described in Brazil in recent years, residents of medium-sized towns still mostly eat at home, consuming homemade food. To describe the meals consumed by adults living in a midsize city in the South of Brazil, according to the place and preparation. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 2012. The two-stage sampling design used the 2010 census tracts as primary sampling units. Data were collected on the place of meals (at home or out) and on the kind of preparations consumed at home (homemade, snacks, take away food) covering the two days prior to the interview, using a standardized questionnaire. The study included 2,927 adults

  11. Heats of Formation of Medium-Size Organic Compounds from Contemporary Electronic Structure Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Minenkov, Yury

    2017-06-21

    Computational electronic structure calculations are routinely undertaken to predict thermodynamic properties of the various species. However, the application of highly accurate wave function theory methods, such as the “gold standard” coupled cluster approach including single, double and partly triple excitations in perturbative fashion, CCSD(T), to large molecules is limited due to high computational cost. In this work, the promising domain based local pair natural orbital coupled cluster approach, DLPNO-CCSD(T), has been tested to reproduce 113 accurate formation enthalpies of medium-size molecules (few dozens heavy atoms) important for bio- and combustion chemistry via the reaction based Feller-Peterson-Dixon approach. As for comparison, 8 density functional theory (B3LYP, B3LYP-D3, PBE0, PBE0-D3, M06, M06-2X, ωB97X-D3, and ωB97M-V) and MP2-based (B2PLYP-D3, PWPB95-D3, B2T-PLYP, B2T-PLYP-D, B2GP-PLYP, DSD-PBEP86-D3, SCS-MP2, and OO-SCS-MP2) methods have been tested. The worst performance has been obtained for the standard hybrid DFT functionals, PBE0 (Mean unsigned error (MUE)/ Mean Signed Error (MSE)=9.1/6.0 kcal/mol) and B3LYP (MUE/MSE=13.5/-13.3 kcal/mol). An influence of an empirical dispersion correction term on these functionals performance is not homogenous: B3LYP performance is improved (B3LYP-D3 (MUE/MSE=6.0/0.8 kcal/mol)) meanwhile PBE0 performance is worse (PBE0-D3 (MUE/MSE=14.1/13.6 kcal/mol)). The Minnesota functionals, M06 (MUE/MSE=3.8/-2.0 kcal/mol) and M06-2X (MUE/MSE=3.5/3.0 kcal/mol), and recently developed ωB97X-D3 (MUE/MSE=3.2/0.2 kcal/mol) and ωB97M-V (MUE/MSE=2.2/1.3 kcal/mol) methods provided significantly better formation enthalpies. Enthalpies of similar quality can also be obtained from some double hybrid methods (B2PLYP-D3 (MUE/MSE=4.7/2.0 kcal/mol), PWPB95-D3 (MUE/MSE=4.3/3.2 kcal/mol), B2T-PLYP (MUE/MSE=4.1/-3.0 kcal/mol) and B2T-PLYP-D (MUE/MSE=3.3/1.7 kcal/mol)). The two spin component scaled (SCS) MP2 methods resulted in

  12. Risk Factors for Motorcycle-related Severe Injuries in a Medium-sized City in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lili; Zhu, Yao; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Background Motorcycle vehicles are frequent in China, especially in the small and medium sized cities. Road traffic collisions involving motorcycles often result in severe injuries. We aimed to identify risk factors for severe injuries in inpatients sustaining motorcycle collisions. Methods Patients with road traffic injuries involving motorcycles who presented to the neurosurgery and orthopedic departments of three major comprehensive hospitals in Shantou city were reviewed from October 2012 to June 2013. Data from 349 patients was investigated. Crash and injury characteristics were documented by interviewing patients, their family members, and their doctors. Binary logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for severe injuries. Results There were 253 males (72.49%) and 96 females (27.51%), with a male to female ratio of 2.64:1. The mean age was 38.21±17.32 years. One-hundred and fifty patients were in the severe injury group with a mean injury severity score (ISS) of 15.34±9.13. The simple and multiple logistic model showed that males, lack of safeguards, morning and night hours, non-urban areas, collision of a motorcycle with a cycle, ambulance transportation to hospital, admission to a neurosurgery department, lack of traffic control, unobstructed traffic, and poor visibility were all the risk factors. Conclusions This research highlights some problems: less helmet wearing in motorcyclists and cyclists, rural injuries being more serious than urban ones, and head injuries being the main diagnosis in severe injuries. The result of this research is predictable. If the safety equipment is required to be used, such as helmets, and the traffic environment is improved, such as traffic flow, medical resources to injuries and deaths is seasonable, then traffic safety will be improved and accidents will be reduced. PMID:29546203

  13. Urbanization alters communities of flying arthropods in parks and gardens of a medium-sized city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagucki, Edward; Burdine, Justin D; McCluney, Kevin E

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization transforms undeveloped landscapes into built environments, causing changes in communities and ecological processes. Flying arthropods play important roles in these processes as pollinators, decomposers, and predators, and can be important in structuring food webs. The goal of this study was to identify associations between urbanization and the composition of communities of flying (and floating) arthropods within gardens and parks in a medium-sized mesic city. We predicted that flying arthropod abundance and diversity would respond strongly to percent impervious surface and distance to city center, measurements of urbanization. Flying arthropods were sampled from 30 gardens and parks along an urbanization gradient in Toledo, Ohio, during July and August 2016, using elevated pan traps. A variety of potential predictor variables were also recorded at each site. We collected a total of 2,369 individuals representing nine orders. We found that flying arthropod community composition was associated with percent impervious surface and canopy cover. Overall flying arthropod abundance was negatively associated with percent impervious surface and positively associated with distance to city center. Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, ants), Lepidoptera (moths, butterflies), and Araneae (spiders) were positively associated with distance to city center. Hemiptera (true bugs), Diptera (flies), and Araneae were negatively associated with percent impervious surface. Both distance to city center and percent impervious surface are metrics of urbanization, and this study shows how these factors influence flying arthropod communities in urban gardens and city parks, including significant reductions in taxa that contain pollinators and predators important to urban agriculture and forestry. A variety of environmental factors also showed significant associations with responses (e.g. canopy cover and soil moisture), suggesting these factors may underlie or modulate the urbanization

  14. Uncertainty evaluation of reliability of shutdown system of a medium size fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeliang, Chireuding; Singh, Om Pal, E-mail: singhop@iitk.ac.in; Munshi, Prabhat

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Uncertainty analysis of reliability of Shutdown System is carried out. • Monte Carlo method of sampling is used. • The effect of various reliability improvement measures of SDS are accounted. - Abstract: In this paper, results are presented on the uncertainty evaluation of the reliability of Shutdown System (SDS) of a Medium Size Fast Breeder Reactor (MSFBR). The reliability analysis results are of Kumar et al. (2005). The failure rate of the components of SDS are taken from International literature and it is assumed that these follow log-normal distribution. Fault tree method is employed to propagate the uncertainty in failure rate from components level to shutdown system level. The beta factor model is used to account different extent of diversity. The Monte Carlo sampling technique is used for the analysis. The results of uncertainty analysis are presented in terms of the probability density function, cumulative distribution function, mean, variance, percentile values, confidence intervals, etc. It is observed that the spread in the probability distribution of SDS failure rate is less than SDS components failure rate and ninety percent values of the failure rate of SDS falls below the target value. As generic values of failure rates are used, sensitivity analysis is performed with respect to failure rate of control and safety rods and beta factor. It is discovered that a large increase in failure rate of SDS rods is not carried to SDS system failure proportionately. The failure rate of SDS is very sensitive to the beta factor of common cause failure between the two systems of SDS. The results of the study provide insight in the propagation of uncertainty in the failure rate of SDS components to failure rate of shutdown system.

  15. IAEA Expands International Cooperation on Small, Medium Sized or Modular Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is launching an effort to expand international cooperation and coordination in the design, development and deployment of small, medium sized or modular reactors (SMRs), among the most promising emerging technologies in nuclear power. Significant advances have been made on SMRs, some of which will use pre-fabricated systems and components to shorten construction schedules and offer greater flexibility and affordability than traditional nuclear power plants. With some 50 SMR concepts at various stages of development around the world, the IAEA is forming a Technical Working Group (TWG) to guide its activities on SMRs and provide a forum for Member States to share information and knowledge, IAEA Deputy Director General Mikhail Chudakov said. “Innovation is crucial for nuclear power to play a key role in decarbonising the energy sector,” Chudakov, who heads the IAEA Department of Nuclear Energy, said at a conference on SMRs in Prague on 15 February. “Many Member States that are operating, expanding, introducing or considering nuclear power are quite keen on the development and deployment of SMRs.” Global interest in SMRs is growing. SMRs have the potential to meet the needs of a wide range of users and to be low carbon replacements for ageing fossil fuel fired power plants. They also display enhanced safety features and are suitable for non-electric applications, such as cooling, heating and water desalination. In addition, SMRs offer options for remote regions with less developed infrastructure and for energy systems that combine nuclear and alternative sources, including renewables.

  16. Logistics outsourcing and performance of manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises in Nairobi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joash Mageto

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Logistics outsourcing has been accepted as a strategy through which small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs can access the logistics capabilities they lack internally at a lower cost. However, the actual effect of logistics outsourcing on firm performance, especially among the SMEs in Nairobi, remains unknown.   Aim: The study aimed to investigate the relationship between logistics outsourcing and firm performance of manufacturing SMEs in Nairobi.   Setting: The study sampled manufacturing SMEs in Nairobi City County.   Method: In this study, a convergent parallel mixed methods design was applied. Survey data were collected from 163 manufacturing SMEs. The data were analysed using structural equation modelling to test the relationship between logistics outsourcing and firm performance. Additionally, in-depth interviews were conducted in five manufacturing SMEs. Thematic analysis was used to analyse interview data to provide more insight in the quantitative data.   Results: The anticipated direct link between logistics outsourcing and performance of manufacturing SMEs was not statistically significant. However, the study revealed a statistically significant indirect positive effect of logistics outsourcing on the performance of manufacturing SMEs through logistics outsourcing performance as a mediator variable. This article further highlights reasons and the process of logistics outsourcing and deduces a logistics outsourcing model for manufacturing SMEs to help improve their firm’s performance.   Conclusion: The established relationship and deduced logistics outsourcing model is likely to guide SME managers as to how to manage logistics outsourcing to improve performance. The finding that logistics outsourcing has a positive indirect effect on the performance of manufacturing SMEs through logistics outsourcing performance makes a significant contribution to theory.

  17. Place and type of meals consumed by adults in medium sized cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carús, Juliana Pires; França, Giovanny V A; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the meals consumed by adults living in a midsize city in the South of Brazil, according to the place and preparation. METHODS A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 2012. The two-stage sampling design used the 2010 census tracts as primary sampling units. Data were collected on the place of meals (at home or out) and on the kind of preparations consumed at home (homemade, snacks, take away food) covering the two days prior to the interview, using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS The study included 2,927 adults, of which 59.0% were female, 60.0% were below 50 years of age and 58.0% were in work. Data were collected on 11,581 meals consumed on the two days preceding the interview, 25.0% were consumed outside of the home at lunchtime, and 10.0% at dinnertime. Considering home meals, most participants reported eating food prepared at home at both lunch and dinner. The majority of out-of-home meals (64.0% for lunch and 61.0% for dinner) were consumed in the work place, mostly based on food prepared at home. Individuals eating out of home were mostly male, young and highly educated. The occupational categories that ate at restaurants more often were trade workers, businessmen, teachers and graduate professionals. CONCLUSIONS Despite the changes in eating patterns described in Brazil in recent years, residents of medium-sized towns still mostly eat at home, consuming homemade food. PMID:24789639

  18. The Effective Use of Facebook by Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Operating in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Pollák

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The aim of this study was to identify and then interpret the basic preconditions for effective use of the social networking site Facebook as a marketing communication platform for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs operating in a selected Central European market. Design/Methodology/Approach – In order to achieve the objective, as well as partial targets, this contribution can be seen as a summary of two autonomous and extensive analyses. The context necessary for the fulfillment of the main objective was analyzed based on secondary data on hundreds of company profiles (of local SMEs, operating predominantly in the service sector and conducting their business activities in a business-to-consumer (B2C environment managed by a specific marketing agency operating on the Slovak market. The collected data were subsequently subjected to a thorough statistical testing based on monitored parameters. Findings and implications – From the perspective of the main findings, basic recommendations for the efficient use of selected marketing communication tools on the social networking site Facebook are described in terms of improving the expected user interactions. Limitations – We consider the mainly local nature of the data sources to be the biggest limitation in the research process. Due to the local nature of this study, however, this limitation has no significant effect on the quality of the research. Originality – The findings and information presented in this contribution can help improve our understanding of issues related to the effective implementation of resources (time and finances by entities using selected marketing tools, particularly marketing communication in the context of the social networking site Facebook for the purpose of promotion and branding.

  19. Overview of progress in European medium sized tokamaks towards an integrated plasma-edge/wall solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, H.; Eich, T.; Beurskens, M.; Coda, S.; Hakola, A.; Martin, P.; Adamek, J.; Agostini, M.; Aguiam, D.; Ahn, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Akers, R.; Albanese, R.; Aledda, R.; Alessi, E.; Allan, S.; Alves, D.; Ambrosino, R.; Amicucci, L.; Anand, H.; Anastassiou, G.; Andrèbe, Y.; Angioni, C.; Apruzzese, G.; Ariola, M.; Arnichand, H.; Arter, W.; Baciero, A.; Barnes, M.; Barrera, L.; Behn, R.; Bencze, A.; Bernardo, J.; Bernert, M.; Bettini, P.; Bilková, P.; Bin, W.; Birkenmeier, G.; Bizarro, J. P. S.; Blanchard, P.; Blanken, T.; Bluteau, M.; Bobkov, V.; Bogar, O.; Böhm, P.; Bolzonella, T.; Boncagni, L.; Botrugno, A.; Bottereau, C.; Bouquey, F.; Bourdelle, C.; Brémond, S.; Brezinsek, S.; Brida, D.; Brochard, F.; Buchanan, J.; Bufferand, H.; Buratti, P.; Cahyna, P.; Calabrò, G.; Camenen, Y.; Caniello, R.; Cannas, B.; Canton, A.; Cardinali, A.; Carnevale, D.; Carr, M.; Carralero, D.; Carvalho, P.; Casali, L.; Castaldo, C.; Castejón, F.; Castro, R.; Causa, F.; Cavazzana, R.; Cavedon, M.; Cecconello, M.; Ceccuzzi, S.; Cesario, R.; Challis, C. D.; Chapman, I. T.; Chapman, S.; Chernyshova, M.; Choi, D.; Cianfarani, C.; Ciraolo, G.; Citrin, J.; Clairet, F.; Classen, I.; Coelho, R.; Coenen, J. W.; Colas, L.; Conway, G.; Corre, Y.; Costea, S.; Crisanti, F.; Cruz, N.; Cseh, G.; Czarnecka, A.; D'Arcangelo, O.; De Angeli, M.; De Masi, G.; De Temmerman, G.; De Tommasi, G.; Decker, J.; Delogu, R. S.; Dendy, R.; Denner, P.; Di Troia, C.; Dimitrova, M.; D'Inca, R.; Dorić, V.; Douai, D.; Drenik, A.; Dudson, B.; Dunai, D.; Dunne, M.; Duval, B. P.; Easy, L.; Elmore, S.; Erdös, B.; Esposito, B.; Fable, E.; Faitsch, M.; Fanni, A.; Fedorczak, N.; Felici, F.; Ferreira, J.; Février, O.; Ficker, O.; Fietz, S.; Figini, L.; Figueiredo, A.; Fil, A.; Fishpool, G.; Fitzgerald, M.; Fontana, M.; Ford, O.; Frassinetti, L.; Fridström, R.; Frigione, D.; Fuchert, G.; Fuchs, C.; Furno Palumbo, M.; Futatani, S.; Gabellieri, L.; Gałązka, K.; Galdon-Quiroga, J.; Galeani, S.; Gallart, D.; Gallo, A.; Galperti, C.; Gao, Y.; Garavaglia, S.; Garcia, J.; Garcia-Carrasco, A.; Garcia-Lopez, J.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Gardarein, J.-L.; Garzotti, L.; Gaspar, J.; Gauthier, E.; Geelen, P.; Geiger, B.; Ghendrih, P.; Ghezzi, F.; Giacomelli, L.; Giannone, L.; Giovannozzi, E.; Giroud, C.; Gleason González, C.; Gobbin, M.; Goodman, T. P.; Gorini, G.; Gospodarczyk, M.; Granucci, G.; Gruber, M.; Gude, A.; Guimarais, L.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Hacek, P.; Hacquin, S.; Hall, S.; Ham, C.; Happel, T.; Harrison, J.; Harting, D.; Hauer, V.; Havlickova, E.; Hellsten, T.; Helou, W.; Henderson, S.; Hennequin, P.; Heyn, M.; Hnat, B.; Hölzl, M.; Hogeweij, D.; Honoré, C.; Hopf, C.; Horáček, J.; Hornung, G.; Horváth, L.; Huang, Z.; Huber, A.; Igitkhanov, J.; Igochine, V.; Imrisek, M.; Innocente, P.; Ionita-Schrittwieser, C.; Isliker, H.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Jacobsen, A. S.; Jacquet, P.; Jakubowski, M.; Jardin, A.; Jaulmes, F.; Jenko, F.; Jensen, T.; Jeppe Miki Busk, O.; Jessen, M.; Joffrin, E.; Jones, O.; Jonsson, T.; Kallenbach, A.; Kallinikos, N.; Kálvin, S.; Kappatou, A.; Karhunen, J.; Karpushov, A.; Kasilov, S.; Kasprowicz, G.; Kendl, A.; Kernbichler, W.; Kim, D.; Kirk, A.; Kjer, S.; Klimek, I.; Kocsis, G.; Kogut, D.; Komm, M.; Korsholm, S. B.; Koslowski, H. R.; Koubiti, M.; Kovacic, J.; Kovarik, K.; Krawczyk, N.; Krbec, J.; Krieger, K.; Krivska, A.; Kube, R.; Kudlacek, O.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Labit, B.; Laggner, F. M.; Laguardia, L.; Lahtinen, A.; Lalousis, P.; Lang, P.; Lauber, P.; Lazányi, N.; Lazaros, A.; Le, H. B.; Lebschy, A.; Leddy, J.; Lefévre, L.; Lehnen, M.; Leipold, F.; Lessig, A.; Leyland, M.; Li, L.; Liang, Y.; Lipschultz, B.; Liu, Y. Q.; Loarer, T.; Loarte, A.; Loewenhoff, T.; Lomanowski, B.; Loschiavo, V. P.; Lunt, T.; Lupelli, I.; Lux, H.; Lyssoivan, A.; Madsen, J.; Maget, P.; Maggi, C.; Maggiora, R.; Magnussen, M. L.; Mailloux, J.; Maljaars, B.; Malygin, A.; Mantica, P.; Mantsinen, M.; Maraschek, M.; Marchand, B.; Marconato, N.; Marini, C.; Marinucci, M.; Markovic, T.; Marocco, D.; Marrelli, L.; Martin, Y.; Solis, J. R. Martin; Martitsch, A.; Mastrostefano, S.; Mattei, M.; Matthews, G.; Mavridis, M.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Mazon, D.; McCarthy, P.; McAdams, R.; McArdle, G.; McCarthy, P.; McClements, K.; McDermott, R.; McMillan, B.; Meisl, G.; Merle, A.; Meyer, O.; Milanesio, D.; Militello, F.; Miron, I. G.; Mitosinkova, K.; Mlynar, J.; Mlynek, A.; Molina, D.; Molina, P.; Monakhov, I.; Morales, J.; Moreau, D.; Morel, P.; Moret, J.-M.; Moro, A.; Moulton, D.; Müller, H. W.; Nabais, F.; Nardon, E.; Naulin, V.; Nemes-Czopf, A.; Nespoli, F.; Neu, R.; Nielsen, A. H.; Nielsen, S. K.; Nikolaeva, V.; Nimb, S.; Nocente, M.; Nouailletas, R.; Nowak, S.; Oberkofler, M.; Oberparleiter, M.; Ochoukov, R.; Odstrčil, T.; Olsen, J.; Omotani, J.; O'Mullane, M. G.; Orain, F.; Osterman, N.; Paccagnella, R.; Pamela, S.; Pangione, L.; Panjan, M.; Papp, G.; Papřok, R.; Parail, V.; Parra, F. I.; Pau, A.; Pautasso, G.; Pehkonen, S.-P.; Pereira, A.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Peterka, M.; Petersson, P.; Petrzilka, V.; Piovesan, P.; Piron, C.; Pironti, A.; Pisano, F.; Pisokas, T.; Pitts, R.; Ploumistakis, I.; Plyusnin, V.; Pokol, G.; Poljak, D.; Pölöskei, P.; Popovic, Z.; Pór, G.; Porte, L.; Potzel, S.; Predebon, I.; Preynas, M.; Primc, G.; Pucella, G.; Puiatti, M. E.; Pütterich, T.; Rack, M.; Ramogida, G.; Rapson, C.; Rasmussen, J. Juul; Rasmussen, J.; Rattá, G. A.; Ratynskaia, S.; Ravera, G.; Réfy, D.; Reich, M.; Reimerdes, H.; Reimold, F.; Reinke, M.; Reiser, D.; Resnik, M.; Reux, C.; Ripamonti, D.; Rittich, D.; Riva, G.; Rodriguez-Ramos, M.; Rohde, V.; Rosato, J.; Ryter, F.; Saarelma, S.; Sabot, R.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Salewski, M.; Salmi, A.; Samaddar, D.; Sanchis-Sanchez, L.; Santos, J.; Sauter, O.; Scannell, R.; Scheffer, M.; Schneider, M.; Schneider, B.; Schneider, P.; Schneller, M.; Schrittwieser, R.; Schubert, M.; Schweinzer, J.; Seidl, J.; Sertoli, M.; Šesnić, S.; Shabbir, A.; Shalpegin, A.; Shanahan, B.; Sharapov, S.; Sheikh, U.; Sias, G.; Sieglin, B.; Silva, C.; Silva, A.; Silva Fuglister, M.; Simpson, J.; Snicker, A.; Sommariva, C.; Sozzi, C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spizzo, G.; Spolaore, M.; Stange, T.; Stejner Pedersen, M.; Stepanov, I.; Stober, J.; Strand, P.; Šušnjara, A.; Suttrop, W.; Szepesi, T.; Tál, B.; Tala, T.; Tamain, P.; Tardini, G.; Tardocchi, M.; Teplukhina, A.; Terranova, D.; Testa, D.; Theiler, C.; Thornton, A.; Tolias, P.; Tophøj, L.; Treutterer, W.; Trevisan, G. L.; Tripsky, M.; Tsironis, C.; Tsui, C.; Tudisco, O.; Uccello, A.; Urban, J.; Valisa, M.; Vallejos, P.; Valovic, M.; Van den Brand, H.; Vanovac, B.; Varoutis, S.; Vartanian, S.; Vega, J.; Verdoolaege, G.; Verhaegh, K.; Vermare, L.; Vianello, N.; Vicente, J.; Viezzer, E.; Vignitchouk, L.; Vijvers, W. A. J.; Villone, F.; Viola, B.; Vlahos, L.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Vondráček, P.; Vu, N. M. T.; Wagner, D.; Walkden, N.; Wang, N.; Wauters, T.; Weiland, M.; Weinzettl, V.; Westerhof, E.; Wiesenberger, M.; Willensdorfer, M.; Wischmeier, M.; Wodniak, I.; Wolfrum, E.; Yadykin, D.; Zagórski, R.; Zammuto, I.; Zanca, P.; Zaplotnik, R.; Zestanakis, P.; Zhang, W.; Zoletnik, S.; Zuin, M.; ASDEX Upgrade, the; MAST; TCV Teams

    2017-10-01

    Integrating the plasma core performance with an edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) that leads to tolerable heat and particle loads on the wall is a major challenge. The new European medium size tokamak task force (EU-MST) coordinates research on ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), MAST and TCV. This multi-machine approach within EU-MST, covering a wide parameter range, is instrumental to progress in the field, as ITER and DEMO core/pedestal and SOL parameters are not achievable simultaneously in present day devices. A two prong approach is adopted. On the one hand, scenarios with tolerable transient heat and particle loads, including active edge localised mode (ELM) control are developed. On the other hand, divertor solutions including advanced magnetic configurations are studied. Considerable progress has been made on both approaches, in particular in the fields of: ELM control with resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP), small ELM regimes, detachment onset and control, as well as filamentary scrape-off-layer transport. For example full ELM suppression has now been achieved on AUG at low collisionality with n  =  2 RMP maintaining good confinement {{H}\\text{H≤ft(98,\\text{y}2\\right)}}≈ 0.95 . Advances have been made with respect to detachment onset and control. Studies in advanced divertor configurations (Snowflake, Super-X and X-point target divertor) shed new light on SOL physics. Cross field filamentary transport has been characterised in a wide parameter regime on AUG, MAST and TCV progressing the theoretical and experimental understanding crucial for predicting first wall loads in ITER and DEMO. Conditions in the SOL also play a crucial role for ELM stability and access to small ELM regimes. In the future we will refer to the author list of the paper as the EUROfusion MST1 Team.

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES, TOURISM AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Dimoska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is the world’s largest industry and makes a major contribution to the economies of most developed and developing countries. Tourism as an important socio-economical phenomenon is characterized with distinctly largeness and dynamic development that results with many positive direct as well as indirect economical effects. That is a measure for increasing of possibilities of encouragement of the total economical development through tourism development. Tourism generates income from consumption of goods and services by tourists as well as taxes on businesses in the tourism industry, provides employment in services related to tourism, but also creates jobs in the tertiary sector, generates growth of primary and secondary sectors of the industry as result of multiplicative effect. In this context especially are important small and medium tourism enterprises which dominate in the tourism destinations according to their number, originating a variety of benefits for the tourism destinations by providing direct contact with tourists and by encouraging tourist for spending in a local community. The aim of this paper is to point out the importance of small and medium –sized enterprises in general and especially in the field of tourism for increasing economic development in the national economy with particular reference on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. In this paper, first will be analyzed the term small and medium - sized enterprises in general and then will be explained their application in the field of tourism with highlighting of their strategic advantages for the tourism destinations and overall economic development of the entire national economy. Finally, will be analyzed the role played by SMEs for the economic development of the Republic of Macedonia with a special emphasis on the measures and actions which have to be taken in the future by the competent authorities for further stimulation of their development.

  1. Life cycle assessment of a medium sized PV facility in Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muneer, T; Younes, S.; Kubie, J.

    2006-01-01

    Napier University's School of Engineering has been involved in education and research in renewable energy for the past 35 years. With the aim demonstration of the viability of production of solar electricity at a high latitude location such as Edinburgh (56 degree north)the school undertook to commission a medium-sized PV electricity generation project. The installation of 32 rows of BP solar silicon panels covering a total area of 160 square metres ensures generation of 17.6kW peak (AC) power. Figure 1 presents a photograph of the facility under discussion. The project has been part (60%) financed by UK Government's PV electricity demonstration programme through the office of Energy Saving Trust. The University has plans to generate hydrogen from solar electricity that will be stored for noctumal production of electricity using fuel-cell technology, thus completing the complete cycle of generation, storage and reproduction of sustainable energy. The project that is part of Napier University's Merchiton Campus was completed on 6 April 2005 and since that date AC power has been fed into the University grid with the peak power being enough to operate up to 80 of the 500 computers at the University's Jack Kilby Computing Centre. DC power is produced from the BP solar high efficincy (17%) monocrystalline panels, each of which produces 90W of power at 22 Volts. This DC electricity is then fed into a total of four inverters hence converting to a stable AC supply. Two of the larger inverters receive current from 12 rows (4 strings x 3 rows) each, while the smaller inverters take power in from 4 rows (2 strings x 2 rows) each. The PV facility is fully instrumented with both input (incident solar energy) and PV electrical energy output recorded at a frequency of 15 minutes. This article will present the energetic, environmental and monetary life cycle assessment (LCA) of the above facility.(Author)

  2. Bioluminescence imaging in a medium-sized animal by local injection of d-luciferin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Min; Min, Jung Joon; Kim, Sung Mi; Bom, Hee Seung [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Suk Jung; Kang, Han Saem; Kim, Kwang Yoon [ECOBIO INC., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ho [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Luciferase is one of the most commonly used reporter enzymes in the field of molecular imaging. D-luciferin is known as the substrate for luciferase enzyme and its cost is very expensive. Therefore, the bioluminescence molecular imaging study has been allowed in small animals such as mice and rats. In this current study, we validated local injection of D-luciferin in articular capsule for bioluminescence imaging in rabbits. Chondrocytes were cultured and infected by replication-defective adenoviral vector encoding firefly luciferase. And then was performed different method of chondrocyte cell injection and transplantation into the knee of rabbits. The rabbits underwent imaging by cooled CCD camera after local injection of D-luciferin (3mg) into experimental knee joint as well as contralateral normal knee joint on days 1, 5, 7, 9. We sought whether optimal imaging signal was acquired by using cooled CCD camera after local injection of D-luciferin. We successfully visualized injected or transplanted cells in knee joint by local injection of D-luciferin. Total photon flux (7.86E+08 p/s/cm{sup 2}/sr) from the knee joint transplanted with cells approximately increased 10-fold more than (9.43E+07p/s/cm{sup 2}/sr) that from injected knee joints until 7 day. Imaging signal was observed in transplanted joints until day 9 after surgery while signal from injected knee was observed by day 7 after injection. We successfully carried out bioluminescence imaging study with medium sized animal by local injection of small amount of D-luciferin. Survival of chondrocytes were prolonged when surgically transplanted in joints than when directly injected in joint space.

  3. Design and deployment strategies for small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) to overcome loss of economies of scale and incorporate increased proliferation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.

    2007-01-01

    The designers of innovative small and medium sized reactors pursue new design and deployment strategies making use of certain advantages provided by smaller reactor size and capacity to achieve reduced design complexity and simplified operation and maintenance requirements, and to provide for incremental capacity increase through multi-module plant clustering. Competitiveness of SMRs (Small and Medium size Reactor) depends on the incorporated strategies to overcome loss of economies of scale but equally it depends on finding appropriate market niches for such reactors. For many less developed countries, these are the features of enhanced proliferation resistance and increased robustness of barriers for sabotage protection that may ensure the progress of nuclear power. For such countries, small reactors without on-site refuelling, designed for infrequent replacement of well-contained fuel cassette(s) in a manner that impedes clandestine diversion of nuclear fuel material, may provide a solution. Based on the outputs of recent IAEA activities for innovative SMRs, the paper provides a summary of the state-of-the-art in approaches to improve SMR competitiveness and incorporate enhanced proliferation resistance and energy security. (author)

  4. Presenting a Framework to Analyze Local Climate Policy and Action in Small and Medium-Sized Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Thomas; van der Vegt, Arjen; Stegmaier, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Academic attention to local climate policy usually focuses on large-sized cities. Given the climate challenges ahead this seems unjustified. Small and medium-sized cities (SMCs) deserve scholarly attention as well. The main question is: What factors influence climate change policy and local climate

  5. Presenting a framework to analyze local climate policy and action in small and medium-sized cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, T.; van der Vegt, Arjen; Stegmaier, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Academic attention to local climate policy usually focuses on large-sized cities. Given the climate challenges ahead this seems unjustified. Small and medium-sized cities (SMCs) deserve scholarly attention as well. The main question is: What factors influence climate change policy and local

  6. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.81 Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps...). (ii) A report explaining the test methods used by the water system to evaluate the corrosion control...

  7. Graduate Transition into Work: The Bridging Role of Graduate Placement Programmes in the Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprise Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Pádraig

    2015-01-01

    This research looks at the role of graduate placement programmes in bridging the gap between higher education and the small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) sector. The research design and methodology used in this study was exploratory, in-depth and qualitative in nature. The research took the form of a multiple case study and focused on seven…

  8. Cash flow vs. collateral-based credit: performance of micro, small and medium-sized firms in transition economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cassano, F.; Joeveer, K.; Švejnar, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2013), s. 269-300 ISSN 0967-0750 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : micro, small and medium-sized enterprises * bank credit * firm performance Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2013

  9. Cash flow vs. collateral-based credit: performance of micro, small and medium-sized firms in transition economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cassano, F.; Joeveer, K.; Švejnar, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2013), s. 269-300 ISSN 0967-0750 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/2130 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : micro, small and medium-sized enterprises * bank credit * firm performance Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2013

  10. The influence of CEO gender on market orientation and performance in service small and medium-sized service businesses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, Peter S.; Babakus, Emin; Englis-Danskin, Paula; Pett, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects of CEO gender on market orientation and performance (growth and profitability) among a sample of small and medium-sized service businesses. Gender was found to have significant indirect effects (via market orientation) on both market performance (growth) and financial

  11. Using the Critical Incident Technique to Research Decision Making regarding Access to Training and Development in Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzer, Alan; Redmond, Janice; Sharafizad, Jalleh

    2012-01-01

    Employees in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) form part of a "disadvantaged" group within the workforce that receives less access to training and development (T&D) than employees in large firms. Prior research into reasons for the relatively low levels of employee participation in training and development has typically…

  12. Access to Finance for Female-led Micro, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Qasim, Qursum

    2018-01-01

    Female-led Micro, Small, and Medium-Sized Enterprises (MSMEs), play a vital role as job creators, driving female participation in the economy, and boosting inclusive GDP growth. In addition to the direct economic impact of MSMEs, research shows that female-led enterprises employ more women, and that increased control over resources by women leads to improved health and education outcomes f...

  13. 40 CFR 428.60 - Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.60 Section 428.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  14. Using Computer-Based Continuing Professional Education of Training Staff to Develop Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooraksa, Nanta

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a career development program for staff involved in providing training for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand. Most of these staff were professional vocational teachers in schools. The program uses information communication technology (ICT), and its main objective is to teach Moodle software as a tool for…

  15. In Good Company : When Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Acquire Multiplex Knowledge from Key Commercial Partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bojica, Ana Maria; Estrada Vaquero, Isabel; del Mar Fuentes-Fuentes, Maria

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the specific conditions under which key strategic alliances of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) with commercial partners can become multiplex in knowledge exchange. Using survey data from a sample of 150 Spanish SMEs in the information and communication technology (ICT)

  16. Chemometrics as a tool to analyse complex chemical mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J. H.

    Chemical characterisation of contaminant mixtures is important for environmental forensics and risk assessment. The great challenge in future research lies in develop- ing suitable, rapid, reliable and objective methods for analysis of the composition of complex chemical mixtures. This thesis...... describes the development of such methods for assessing the identity (chemical fingerprinting) and fate (e.g. biodegradation) of petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures. The methods comply with the general concept that suitable methods must be rapid and inexpensive, objective with limited human in- tervention...... and at the same time must consider a substantial fraction of compounds in the complex mixture. A combination of a) limited sample preparation, b) rapid chemical screening analysis, c) fast and semi-automatic pre-processing, d) compre- hensive multivariate statistical data analysis and e) objective data evaluation...

  17. Empirical development taxanomy of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises in South Moravian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Bumberová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a pilot study examining entrepreneurial behavior patterns within the area of development of micro, small and medium-sized market active enterprises in South Moravian Region from the perspective of strategic management. The main aim of this article is to classify the enterprises by the character of development activities into relatively homogeneous groups and identify those activities that contribute to considerable differences between the individual groups. Empirical evidence is based on a quantitative survey in terms of a random choice of respondents obtained by means of an e-mail questionnaire. The major analytic procedure applied within this research comprises methods of Cluster Analysis and validation technique based on chi-square and G-square nonparametric tests for testing differences (independence of variables between the clusters. By means of Cluster Analysis three relatively homogenous SME groups were identified. The first cluster, called “global”, (approximately 6% of the respondents prevails in most of the strategic development aspects of the researched enterprises. Global SMEs rely on development activities in the area of product innovations and risk diversification into other activities. In terms of changes in functional strategies this involves primarily the area of new technology and human resources development, and the ability to benefit from participation in networks of cooperating organizations. The second cluster, called “transition”, (approximately 59% of the respondents is developed mainly by means of investments in business specific knowledge, and/or in technical skills of their employees. They are more conservative in the area of product innovations and risk diversification into other activities, which is then reflected in a lower level of investments in technologies and marketing. In comparison with global enterprises the major difference lies in a much lower number of activities in the area

  18. Development and Evaluation of Algorithms to Improve Small- and Medium-Size Commercial Building Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woohyun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lutes, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Underhill, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    Small- and medium-sized (<100,000 sf) commercial buildings (SMBs) represent over 95% of the U.S. commercial building stock and consume over 60% of total site energy consumption. Many of these buildings use rudimentary controls that are mostly manual, with limited scheduling capability, no monitoring or failure management. Therefore, many of these buildings are operated inefficiently and consume excess energy. SMBs typically utilize packaged rooftop units (RTUs) that are controlled by an individual thermostat. There is increased urgency to improve the operating efficiency of existing commercial building stock in the U.S. for many reasons, chief among them is to mitigate the climate change impacts. Studies have shown that managing set points and schedules of the RTUs will result in up to 20% energy and cost savings. Another problem associated with RTUs is short-cycling, where an RTU goes through ON and OFF cycles too frequently. Excessive cycling can lead to excessive wear and lead to premature failure of the compressor or its components. The short cycling can result in a significantly decreased average efficiency (up to 10%), even if there are no physical failures in the equipment. Also, SMBs use a time-of-day scheduling is to start the RTUs before the building will be occupied and shut it off when unoccupied. Ensuring correct use of the zone set points and eliminating frequent cycling of RTUs thereby leading to persistent building operations can significantly increase the operational efficiency of the SMBs. A growing trend is to use low-cost control infrastructure that can enable scalable and cost-effective intelligent building operations. The work reported in this report describes three algorithms for detecting the zone set point temperature, RTU cycling rate and occupancy schedule detection that can be deployed on the low-cost infrastructure. These algorithms only require the zone temperature data for detection. The algorithms have been tested and validated using

  19. The Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises Office (SME Office) at the European Medicines Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December 2005, the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) launched an "SME Office" to provide financial and administrative assistance to micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), with the aim of promoting innovation and the development of new human and veterinary medicinal products by SMEs. According to current EU definition of an SME, companies with fewer than 250 employees, and an annual turnover of not more than 50 million euro or an annual balance sheet total of not more than 43 million euro, are eligible for assistance from the SME Office. Incentives available from the EMEA for SMEs, include: Administrative and procedural assistance from SME Office within the Agency; Fee reductions (90%) for scientific advice and inspections; Fee exemptions for certain administrative services (excluding parallel distribution); Deferral of the fee payable for an application for marketing authorisation or related inspection until after the grant of the marketing authorisation; Conditional fee exemption where scientific advice followed and marketing application is unsuccessful; Assistance with translations of the product information documents. At the end of May 2009, more than 380 companies from 21 countries across the European Economic Area (EEA) had SME status assigned by the EMEA. The large majority of companies are developing medicinal products for human use, 16 are veterinary companies, 15 companies are developing products for both human and veterinary use and 38 are regulatory consultants. Since the SME initiative started the Agency has processed more than 130 requests for scientific advice with fee reductions totalling of 6.9 million euro. Regulatory assistance has been provided to more than 170 companies and 12 companies have benefited from the SME translation service. Stakeholders have acknowledged the significant role the SME Office now plays as a service provider. In the period between January 2006 and June 2009, 34 applications for marketing authorization

  20. Perceived impediments to export involvement among small and medium sized firms : non-exporters perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy Mpinganjira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this paper is to examine perceived impediments to export involvement among non-exporting small and medium sized firms (SME's in Malawi. The study also examines levels of interest in exporting among the firms. Problem investigated: Many countries have programs aimed at promoting export involvement among SME's. Despite this, most SME's continue to ignore exporting as a viable business strategy. Information on perceived impediments to export involvement especially from the non-exporters' perspective is often lacking hence the need for this study. Methodology: Data was collected from 80 owner managers of non-exporting SME's. A structured questionnaire was the main instrument used to collect data. Personal interviews were also held with managers for the purposes of probing their answers to the questions in the questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 18 was used to analyse the quantitative data obtained from use of the structured questionnaire. Qualitative data obtained through personal interviews was analysed used thematic analysis. Findings: The findings of the study showed significant levels of interest in exporting among the firms. The majority of the owner managers indicated willingness to exploit export opportunities that may be readily available to them. The findings however showed that just over half of the respondents had discussed or investigated the possibility of exporting before. On impediments to exporting, the findings showed that managers perceive many factors as important impediments to their firm's involvement in exporting. The top two most important impediments were internal to the firm and related to human resource issues. They included insufficient knowledge about export opportunities and lack of personnel knowledgeable in exporting. Originality and value of the research: A review of literature shows that most export promotion studies tend to focus more on issues relating to

  1. Method of evaluating the success of the small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Peprný

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At the time of increasing globalization and homogenization of the global markets, the development of information infrastructure technology and world market becomes accessible not only to large multinational companies but also for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. This has resulted in increasing competition in the domestic market which domestic firms have to face. Therefore the pro­cess of internationalization of business is a step that allows businesses performing their activities in the domestic market to enter foreign markets and to exploit the opportunities and potential which these markets offer. The paper is focused on the draft of the method for quantification of the factors, which determine the success of the SMEs in foreign markets. In the proposed method the multidimensional assessment of indicators of success of SMEs in foreign markets are used, ie. not only the proportion of sales from exports is observed, but also the profitability of international activities in an absolute and in a relative rate. Other indicators of success are the satisfaction of the company management with international activities and the success of achieving defined targets for business activities in foreign markets. Evaluation is made up of both the objective and the subjective indicators of success. Among the objective indicators of success is included the intensity of international activities of SMEs, which is detected as the sum of revenues generated from international activities in relation to total sales company, the profitability of international activities, (ie. whether the foreign activities are profitable or not, and the relative profitability of international activities, where it is ascertained whether the foreign activities generate higher profit than the activities at the domestic market. The next subjective indicator of success is the success of objectives - it was found how many objectives related to operations in foreign markets has been

  2. THE POSSIBILITY OF USING INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE IN MICRO-CREDIT FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Klyukin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study. Increasing the availability of funding for small and medium-sized enterprises of the industrial sector put among the most important tasks of economic development as the leading developed countries, and developing countries. In connection with the above, the purpose of this article is to study the micro-credit as an efficient mechanism to stimulate the development of small and medium-sized industrial enterprises and analyzing the possibility of using foreign experience in improving the process of micro-credit to stimulate their development.Research Methodology. The study was conducted on the material of publications on various aspects of the microcredit industry small and medium businesses, including international experience in micro-credit for small and medium-sized industrial enterprises.The article analyzes the functioning of the various models and micro-technologies, disclosed interoperability of commercial banks and microfinance institutions (MFIs in the framework of country-specific microcredit models, and formulated the immediate tasks and activities of the government and regulatory authorities of the Russian Federation aimed at improving the financing of small and medium-sized industrial enterprises.Sounding the findings suggest that the funds to support small and medium-sized industrial enterprises should be more actively attract private investment in the implementation of industrial and innovative development of their projects. In this case, the intensification of financial-credit and investment support to small and medium-sized industrial enterprises, integration and optimization of the different sources of financial resources create favorable conditions for their access to financial and credit resources, and improvement of financial and credit support mechanisms will enhance their responsibility for use granted resources and contribute to their development. At the same time, the main focus of the use of public

  3. SWR 1000: An Advanced, Medium-Sized Boiling Water Reactor, Ready for Deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brettschuh, Werner

    2006-01-01

    The latest developments in nuclear power generation technology mainly concern large-capacity plants in the 1550 -1600 MW range, or very small plants (100 - 350 MW). The SWR 1000 boiling water reactor (BWR), by contrast, offers all of the advantages of an advanced plant design, with excellent safety performance and competitive power generation costs, in the medium-capacity range (1000 - 1250 MW). The SWR 1000 is particularly suitable for countries whose power systems are not designed for large-capacity generating facilities. The economic efficiency of this medium-sized plant in comparison with large-capacity designs is achieved by deploying very simple passive safety equipment, simplified systems for plant operation, and a very simple plant configuration in which systems engineering is optimized and dependence on electrical and instrumentation and control (I and C) systems is reduced. In addition, systems and components that require protection against natural and external man-made hazards are accommodated in such a way that as few buildings as possible have to be designed to withstand the loads from such events. The fuel assemblies to be deployed in the SWR 1000 core, meanwhile, have been enlarged from a 10 x 10 rod array to a 12 x 12 array. This reduces the total number of fuel assemblies in the core and thus also the number of control rods and control rod drives, as well as in-core neutron flux monitors. The design owes its competitiveness to the fact that investment costs, maintenance costs and fuel cycle costs are all lower. In addition, refueling outages are shorter, thanks to the reduced scope of outage activities. The larger fuel assemblies have been extensively and successfully tested, as have all of the other new components and systems incorporated into the plant design. As in existing plants, the forced coolant circulation method is deployed, ensuring problem-free startup, and enabling plant operators to adjust power rapidly in the high power range (70

  4. NEW APPROACHES TO CUSTOMER BASE SEGMENTATION FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meleancă Raluca-Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this paper is to explore current praxis and theory related to customer segmentation and to offer an approach which is best suited for small and medium sized enterprises. The proposed solution is the result of an exploratory research aiming to recognize the main variables which influence the practice of segmenting the customer base and to study the most applied alternatives available for all types of enterprises. The research has been performed by studying a large set of secondary data, scientific literature and case studies regarding smaller companies from the European Union. The result of the research consists in an original approach to customer base segmentation, which combines aspects belonging to different well spread practices and applies them to the specific needs of a small or medium company, which typically has limited marketing resources in general and targeted marketing resources in particular. The significance of the proposed customer base segmentation approach lies in the fact that, even though smaller enterprises are in most economies the greatest in number compared to large companies, most of the literature on targeting practices has focused primarily on big companies dealing with a very large clientele, while the case of the smaller companies has been to some extent unfairly neglected. Targeted marketing is becoming more and more important for all types of companies nowadays, as a result of technology advances which make targeted communication easier and less expensive than in the past and also due to the fact that broad-based media have decreased their impact over the years. For a very large proportion of smaller companies, directing their marketing budgets towards targeted campaigns is a clever initiative, as broad based approaches are in many cases less effective and much more expensive. Targeted marketing stratagems are generally related to high tech domains such as artificial intelligence, data mining

  5. Quantum chemical prediction of antennae structures in lanthanide complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottonelli, M.; Musso, G.F.; Rizzo, F.; Dellepiane, G.; Porzio, W.; Destri, S.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the quantum chemical semiempirical procedure recently proposed by us to predict ground- and excited-state geometries of lanthanide complexes, the pseudo coordination centre method (PCC), is preliminarily compared with the semiempirical sparkle model for the calculation of lanthanide complexes (SMLC). Contrary to the SMLC method, where the rare-earth ion is replaced by a reparameterized sparkle atom, in our approach we replace it with a metal ion which is already present in the chosen semiempirical parameterization. This implies that in the optimization of the geometry of the complexes a different weight is implicitly given to the complex region including the rare-earth ion and its neighbour atoms with respect to the region of the ligands aggregate. As a consequence our approach is expected to reproduce better than the SMLC one the geometry of the ligands aggregate embedded in the complex, while the contrary happens for the coordination distances

  6. Job Stress in the United Kingdom: Are Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and Large Enterprises Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yanqing; Saridakis, George; Blackburn, Robert

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the relationships between firm size and employees' experience of work stress. We used a matched employer-employee dataset (Workplace Employment Relations Survey 2011) that comprises of 7182 employees from 1210 private organizations in the United Kingdom. Initially, we find that employees in small and medium-sized enterprises experience lower level of overall job stress than those in large enterprises, although the effect disappears when we control for individual and organizational characteristics in the model. We also find that quantitative work overload, job insecurity and poor promotion opportunities, good work relationships and poor communication are strongly associated with job stress in the small and medium-sized enterprises, whereas qualitative work overload, poor job autonomy and employee engagements are more related with larger enterprises. Hence, our estimates show that the association and magnitude of estimated effects differ significantly by enterprise size. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Unstructured socialization and territorialization. A street-ethnographic take on urban youth in a medium-sized town in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, David Thore; Frostholm, Peter Hornbæk

    Abstract / Journal of youth studies Conference 2015 Peter Frostholm Olesen & David Thore Gravesen Unstructured socialization and territorialization. A street-ethnographic take on urban youth in a medium-sized town in Denmark. In 2013, the municipality in Horsens, a medium-sized provincial town...... in Denmark, bestowed the city's children and young people a skater / parkour / ball-cage facility right on the city's central squares. The facility serves as a territorial meeting place for a number of conflicting groups of adolescents with different codes of behavior based on their cultural orientation...... and sense of belonging to certain districts of the city. Through positioning battles of various kinds the groups fight for space and place for their unstructured socialization processes with their peers. Officially, the municipality donated the facility to give local children and young people an opportunity...

  8. Communicating Hydrocephalus Associated with Small- to Medium-Sized Vestibular Schwannomas: Clinical Significance of the Tumor Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Masaaki; Nakai, Tomoaki; Kohta, Masaaki; Kimura, Hidehito; Kohmura, Eiji

    2016-10-01

    The etiology of hydrocephalus associated with the small- to medium-sized vestibular schwannomas is still controversial. We investigated tumor-specific factors related to the association of hydrocephalus with small- to medium-sized vestibular schwannomas. Among the 77 patients with vestibular schwannoma smaller than 30 mm, 9 patients demonstrated associated communicating hydrocephalus. Patient medical records, radiologic data, and histopathologic specimens were reviewed retrospectively. The age of the patients, and size, mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value, and histologic features of the tumors were compared with those of patients without hydrocephalus. The symptoms related to hydrocephalus improved in all patients after tumor removal. Both the mean size and ADC values exhibited a statistically significant difference between the tumors with and without hydrocephalus (P hydrocephalus. The increased tumor ADC value was considered to be the result of degenerative change and suggested the involvement of protein sloughing in the etiology of the associated hydrocephalus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CSR CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kaźmierczak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to assess the importance of the environmental dimension of the concept of corporate social responsibility (Social Corporate Responsibility - CSR in small and medium-sized enterprises. The first part describes the essence of corporate social responsibility. The second part is the basic pillar of CSR, which is an ecological area. The third part presents the environmental efforts undertaken by small and medium-sized enterprises in the field of CSR. The analysis was based on the literature available and data obtained from empirical research conducted by the writer. The results show that companies, however in different extent undertake ecological activities willingly. Furthermore, those activities benefit not only in terms of the environmental dimension of CSR, but also in other areas of the organization.

  10. Commitment to Sustainability in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises : The Influence of Strategic Orientations and Management Values

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Johan; Nilsson, Jonas; Modig, Frida; Hed Vall, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem degradation and social sustainability have become important issues in the corporate sphere during the last few decades. However, research discussing corporate social responsibility and related concepts has often focused on larger companies, sometimes neglecting the specifics of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The main purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between two common strategic orientations, market orientation (MO) and entrepreneurial orientation (EO...

  11. The Use of Market Feasibility Studies in the Restaurant Industry for Small and Medium-sized Restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Kolster, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The goals of this thesis are to provide the reader with new information about market feasibility studies in the restaurant industry and to design a market feasibility template for the international restaurant industry which can be used for small and medium-sized restaurants before entering the market. The objectives are to define the ideal factors of a market feasibility study for the international restaurant industry, to learn and become an expert in feasibility studies for the restaurant i...

  12. Credit Surety Fund: A credit innovation for micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Maningo, Gary V.

    2016-01-01

    Micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises are a backbone of the Philippine economy. One factor that hinders the growth of these enterprises is their difficulty in accessing finance from banks and other financial institutions. The Credit Surety Fund (CSF) was established to help these enterprises and other organizations become creditworthy and bankable. The CSF is a credit guarantee program initiated by the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas that enables enterprises and cooperatives to gain easier a...

  13. Who receives bank loans? A study of lending officers' assessments of loans to growing small and medium-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Bruns, Volker

    2004-01-01

    This thesis explores factors that influence lending officers' assessments of credit requests from growing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Building on asymmetric information theory, factors identified in previous research are grouped into the theoretical categories of risk-assessment, risk-alignment, and risk-shifting. Hypotheses are developed as to what influences lending officers' credit assessments. In addition, it is hypothesized that risk-taking proclivity interacts with other ...

  14. An investigation into the pricing methods used by small and medium-sized enterprises / Hamilton Tshegofatso Gape

    OpenAIRE

    Gape, Hamilton Tshegofatso

    2007-01-01

    This thesis investigates the pricing methods used by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Prices are a key determinant of demand which influences revenue and in turn the business' profits. A business may fail if products and services are priced incorrectly. Pricing decision is, therefore, one of the critical success factors of a business, including SMEs. There is consensus widely disseminated in the textbook literature, that successful pricing can only be achieved when...

  15. THE STRATEGIC RESPONSE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISE SECTOR FIRMS TO THE SINGLE EUROPEAN MARKET - A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    BRICKAU, RALF ALEXANDER

    1994-01-01

    The creation of the post-1992 European Single Market represents a significant change in the business environment confronting firms throughout Europe. Although there is an extensive source of literature available on appropriate strategic responses to the Single Market, very few of these writings contain guidance specifically related to the situation facing small and medium- sized enterprises (SMEs). The objectives of this study are i) to determine important veu-iables which m...

  16. Literature review on skills development frameworks for small and medium-sized contractors in the green building sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlungwana, Sihle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available on skills development frameworks for small and medium-sized contractors in the green building sector Sihle Dlungwana Senior Researcher, CSIR Built Environment Unit Introduction In 2011 the Department of Public Works adopted a Green Building... of their characteristics. Thematic analysis was used to analyse a number of articles in order to develop an appropriate framework for supporting future skills development programmes and tools for the green building sector. Defining a green contractor Generally...

  17. Contemporary Management of Medium-Sized (10-20 mm) Renal Stones: A Retrospective Multicenter Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiremit, Murat Can; Guven, Selcuk; Sarica, Kemal; Ozturk, Ahmet; Buldu, Ibrahim; Kafkasli, Alper; Balasar, Mehmet; Istanbulluoglu, Okan; Horuz, Rahim; Cetinel, Cihangir Ali; Kandemir, Abdulkadir; Albayrak, Selami

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate contemporary management approaches to medium-sized (10-20 mm) renal stones. A total of 935 patients treated for medium-sized renal stones (10-20 mm) between July 2012 and March 2014 were included in the study program. Contemporary minimally invasive approaches applied in the management of such stones were evaluated and compared. The cohort consisted of 561 male (60%) and 374 female (40%) patients. Of the 935 patients with medium-sized renal calculi, 535 (57.2%) were treated with shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), 201 (21.4%) with retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS), 110 (11.7%) with minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (miniperc), and the remaining 89 (11.7%) patients with micropercutaneous nephrolithotomy (microperc). In the SWL group, stones were located mostly in the pelvis (51%), while in the miniperc and microperc groups, they were located mainly in the lower pole (46%, 53%, respectively). Stone-free rates after a single session were 77.2%, 86.1%, 88.8%, and 83.6% in the SWL, RIRS, microperc, and miniperc groups, respectively. Although no serious complications (above Clavien level III) were noted in any of the groups evaluated, Clavien I to II complications were common in the miniperc group. Although SWL is the preferred treatment option for patients with medium-sized (10-20 mm) renal stones, endourologic methods also have been found to have a significant role. Relatively lower complication rates along with higher stone-free status observed with the RIRS technique compared with percutaneous approaches have made this method a valuable option in the management of such stones in recent years.

  18. VOLTTRON™: Tech-to-Market Best-Practices Guide for Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haack, Jereme N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nicholls, Andrew K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-11

    VOLTTRON™ is an open-source distributed control and sensing platform developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy. It was developed to be used by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to support transactive controls research and deployment activities. VOLTTRON is designed to be an overarching integration platform that could be used to bring together vendors, users, and developers and enable rapid application development and testing. The platform is designed to support modern control strategies, including the use of agent- and transaction-based controls. It also is designed to support the management of a wide range of applications, including heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems; electric vehicles; and distributed-energy and whole-building loads. This report was completed as part of the Building Technologies Office’s Technology-to-Market Initiative for VOLTTRON’s Market Validation and Business Case Development efforts. The report provides technology-to-market guidance and best practices related to VOLTTRON platform deployments and commercialization activities for use by entities serving small- and medium-sized commercial buildings. The report characterizes the platform ecosystem within the small- and medium-sized commercial building market and articulates the value proposition of VOLTTRON for three core participants in this ecosystem: 1) platform owners/adopters, 2) app developers, and 3) end-users. The report also identifies key market drivers and opportunities for open platform deployments in the small- and medium-sized commercial building market. Possible pathways to the market are described—laboratory testing to market adoption to commercialization. We also identify and address various technical and market barriers that could hinder deployment of VOLTTRON. Finally, we provide “best practice” tech-to-market guidance for building energy-related deployment efforts serving small- and

  19. Added value of online satellite data transmission for flood forecasting: warning systems in medium-size catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, C; Stadler, H

    2009-01-01

    The present paper deals with the implementation of online data transferred via LEO satellite communication in a flood forecasting system. Although the project is ongoing, it is already recognised that the information chain: "measurement-transmission-forecast-alert" can be shortened, i.e., the flood danger can be more rapidly communicated to the population at risk. This gain is particularly valuable for medium size catchments where the concentration time (basin time of response to rainfall) is short.

  20. Approaches for Assessing the Economic Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. To be competitive in anticipated markets, small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) rely on design and deployment approaches that are able to offset the adverse impacts of economy of scale. Such approaches include design simplification resulting from the application of safety design features that are the most appropriate for reactors of smaller capacity; the economy of mass production of multiple prefabricated modules; the option of incremental capacity increase, with possible benefits resulting from accelerated learning; sharing of common equipment and facilities; shorter construction

  1. Radiological and chemical source terms for Solid Waste Operations Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothe, G.F.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the radiological and chemical source terms for the major projects of the Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC), including Project W-112, Project W-133 and Project W-100 (WRAP 2A). For purposes of this document, the term ''source term'' means the design basis inventory. All of the SWOC source terms involve the estimation of the radiological and chemical contents of various waste packages from different waste streams, and the inventories of these packages within facilities or within a scope of operations. The composition of some of the waste is not known precisely; consequently, conservative assumptions were made to ensure that the source term represents a bounding case (i.e., it is expected that the source term would not be exceeded). As better information is obtained on the radiological and chemical contents of waste packages and more accurate facility specific models are developed, this document should be revised as appropriate. Radiological source terms are needed to perform shielding and external dose calculations, to estimate routine airborne releases, to perform release calculations and dose estimates for safety documentation, to calculate the maximum possible fire loss and specific source terms for individual fire areas, etc. Chemical source terms (i.e., inventories of combustible, flammable, explosive or hazardous chemicals) are used to determine combustible loading, fire protection requirements, personnel exposures to hazardous chemicals from routine and accident conditions, and a wide variety of other safety and environmental requirements

  2. 78 FR 66950 - Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... report that catalogs trade barriers that U.S. small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) perceive as... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-541] Trade Barriers That U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Perceive as Affecting Exports to the European Union; Rescheduling of Washington...

  3. Mass transfer with complex reversible chemical reactions—I. Single reversible chemical reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, G.F.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Beckum, F.P.H. van; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1989-01-01

    An improved numerical technique was used in order to develop an absorption model with which it is possible to calculate rapidly absorption rates for the phenomenon of mass transfer accompanied by a complex reversible chemical reaction. This model can be applied for the calculation of the mass

  4. Mass transfer with complex reversible chemical reactions—II. parallel reversible chemical reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, G.F.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Beckum, F.P.H. van; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1990-01-01

    An absorption model has been developed which can be used to calculate rapidly absorption rates for the phenomenon mass transfer accompanied by multiple complex parallel reversible chemical reactions. This model can be applied for the calculation of the mass transfer rates, enhancement factors and

  5. Mass transfer with complex reversible chemical reactions. II: Parallel reversible chemical reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, Geert; van Beckum, F.P.H.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1990-01-01

    An absorption model has been developed which can be used to calculate rapidly absorption rates for the phenomenon mass transfer accompanied by multiple complex parallel reversible chemical reactions. This model can be applied for the calculation of the mass transfer rates, enhancement factors and

  6. Mass transfer with complex reversible chemical reactions. II: parallel reversible chemical reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, G.F.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Beckum, van F.P.H.; van Swaaij, W.P.M.

    1990-01-01

    An absorption model has been developed which can be used to calculate rapidly absorption rates for the phenomenon mass transfer accompanied by multiple complex parallel reversible chemical reactions. This model can be applied for the calculation of the mass transfer rates, enhancement factors and

  7. Uranium complexes with macrosyclic polyethers. Synthesis and structural chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbasyouny, A.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation reports about studies on the chemical coordination behaviour of uranium of oxidation stages IV and VI with regard to twelve different macrocyclic ligands. For the preparation of the complexes, for every system a different method has been developed. The elementary analysis of the various complexes including the uranium had been done by X-ray fluorescence analysis, and the structural characterization proceeded via vibrational, uv-vis and emission spectroscopy as well as 1 H-NMR and 13 C-spin-lattice relaxation time studies. Conformational analysis of the polyethers used allowed the structural changes in the complexes to be observed. The structural analysis of the hydrous uranium VI crown ether complexes yielded information of characteristic features of these types of complexes. The first coordination sphere of the uranyl ion with covalently bonded anion remains unchanged. As to the water content, there is a certain range. Depending upon the solvent used, the complexes have two or four H 2 O molecules per formula unit. (orig./EF) [de

  8. Rapid preparation of ceramic moulds for medium-sized superalloy castings with magnesia-phosphate-bonded bauxite-mullite investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tingzhong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate-bonded investments have already been widely utilized in dental restoration and micro-casting of artistic products for its outstanding rapid setting and high strength. However, the rapid setting rate of investment slurry has up to now been a barrier to extend the use of such slurry in preparation of medium-sized ceramic moulds. This paper proposes a new process of rapid fabrication of magnesia-phosphate-bonded investment ceramic moulds for medium-sized superalloy castings utilizing bauxite and mullite as refractory aggregates. In order to determine the properties of magnesia-phosphate-bonded bauxite-mullite investments (MPBBMI, a series of experiments were conducted, including modification of the workable time of slurry by liquid(mL/powder(g(L/P ratio and addition of boric acid as retard agent and sodium tri-polyphosphate (STP as strengthening agent, and adjustment of bauxite (g/mullite(g(B/M ratio for mechanical strength. Mechanical vibration was applied to improve initial setting time and fluidity when pouring investment slurry; then an intermediate size ceramic mould for superalloy castings was manufactured by means of this rapid preparing process with MPBBMI material. The results showed that the MPBBMI slurry exhibits proper initial setting time and excellent fluidity when the L/P ratio is 0.64 and the boric acid content is 0.88wt.%. The fired specimens made from the MPBBMI material demonstrated adequate compression strength to withstand impact force of molten metal when the B/M ratio is 0.89 and the STP content is 0.92wt.%. The experimental results confirmed the feasibility of the proposed rapid fabricating process for medium-sized ceramic moulds with MPBBMI material by appropriate measures.

  9. An integrated approach for developing a technology strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to improve competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourens, A.S.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Low-technology firms, such as those found within the furniture manufacturing industry, have no framework or methodology to guide them successfully to acquire and integrate technology that enables them to operate more competitively. The aim of this article is to illustrate the development of a technology strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to assist them to improve their competitiveness. More specifically, this article presents an integrated technology strategy framework that enables management to integrate their business strategy with their technology requirements successfully, thus improving competitiveness.

  10. Performance Measurement in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises - Literature Review and Results from a German Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Kreusel, N.; Neusser, N.

    2008-01-01

    factors – Corporate Strategy, software-based Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and Activity Based Costing (ABC) – strongly supports the successful implementation of a PMS and its later use. Hence, further research shall include these prerequisites as new variables determining the PMS process. Based......A literature review of Performance Measurement Systems (PMS) in Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) shows that the main contributions focus on the development of theoretical models, but not on guidelines for practical implementation. In this context, an important neglected aspect...

  11. Lowest-energy cage structures of medium-sized (ZnO){sub n} clusters with n = 15 − 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Lingli; Sai, Linwei [School of Mathematical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China and College of Advanced Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao, Jijun, E-mail: zhaojj@dlut.edu.cn [College of Advanced Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China and Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Dalian University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China); Qiu, Ruifeng [School of Mathematical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-01-22

    Fullerene-like cage structures of medium-sized (ZnO){sub n} clusters with n = 15 − 24 were generated by spiral algorithm and optimized using density functional theory calculations. Most of these lowest-energy cage structures contain only four-membered and six-membered rings, whereas eight-membered rings were found in the lowest-energy cages of (ZnO){sub n} (n = 19, 20, 23, 24). Our best cage configurations either reproduce or prevail the previously reported ones. The size-dependent electronic properties were also discussed.

  12. Efficiency of Electrical Stunning by Electronarcosis: Current Situation and Perspective of Improvement in a Medium-Size Processing Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RL Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of electrical stunning by electronarcosis in a medium-size poultry processing plant located in southern Brazil. The current measurement of this type of stunning is presented, and then improvements to this method are proposed. Data were collected for 90 days. A quality indicator was proposed: the Stunning Severity Index (SSI, which includes elements of Statistical Process Control (SPC using a p-chart (proportion chart and measures. This index comprises the variables "wing-flapping," "arched head," and "rhythmic breathing." Using the proposed index, 5% of the birds, on average, presented inefficient stunning symptoms.

  13. Analyzing the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises of a national technology innovation research and development program

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sungmin

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of a national technology innovation research and development (R&D) program. In particular, an empirical analysis is presented that aims to answer the following question: “Is there a difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes?” Methodologically, the efficiency of a government-sponsored R&D project (i.e., GSP) is measured by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), ...

  14. Analysis of work ability and work-related physical activity of employees in a medium-sized business

    OpenAIRE

    Wilke, Christiane; Ashton, Philip; Elis, Tobias; Biallas, Bianca; Frob?se, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Background Work-related physical activity (PA) and work ability are of growing importance in modern working society. There is evidence for age- and job-related differences regarding PA and work ability. This study analyses work ability and work-related PA of employees in a medium-sized business regarding age and occupation. Methods The total sample consists of 148 employees (116 men?78.38?% of the sample?and 32 women, accounting for 21.62?%; mean age: 40.85???10.07?years). 100 subjects (67.57...

  15. A Case Analysis on the Adequacy of Work-Life Balance Practices in UK Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Babatunde Akanji

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine whether work-life balance (WLB) practices are satisfactorily provided in UK small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and the impact of the availability of these work-life policies on turnover intentions. A review of extant literature reveals scarce knowledge in this area of research and this study presents a rudimentary effort to fill this gap. Research Design & Methods: Using qualitative design, the data set comprised of in-depth interv...

  16. Flood vulnerability analysis for inland medium-sized cities: Guang’an as an example

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Ting

    2017-01-01

    Vulnerability studies look into the impact of hazard events on socio-ecological systems. Socio-ecological vulnerability is a very complex subject because it is not only a technical matter but also a social problem. Precise assessment of socio-ecological vulnerability can help people successfully reduce potential losses caused by disasters as well as provide decision support for decision makers to take different urban planning strategies in areas of different vulnerability levels when making d...

  17. Implementing a Business Intelligence System for small and medium-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Sang, G.; Xu, Lai; de Vrieze, Paul Ton

    2016-01-01

    Over the years, Business Intelligence (BI) systems have become critically important to organizations due to the increasing fast-paced competition, the vast amount of daily generated data and the complexity of how to manage collected data. Business intelligence systems empower organizations to gain insights and to understand a clearer view of their vast data, business and customers, which help to make better decisions and hence produce better results and increase profit. BI refers to a collect...

  18. Echinacea complex--chemical view and anti-asthmatic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šutovská, Martina; Capek, Peter; Kazimierová, Ivana; Pappová, Lenka; Jošková, Marta; Matulová, Mária; Fraňová, Soňa; Pawlaczyk, Izabela; Gancarz, Roman

    2015-12-04

    Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench is one of the mostly used herbs in the traditional medicine for the treatment of respiratory diseases. Modern interest in Echinacea is directed to its immunomodulatory activity. Recent studies have shown that secretion of asthma-related cytokines in the bronchial epithelial cells can be reversed by Echinacea preparations. To examine the pharmacodynamics profile of Echinacea active principles, a complex has been isolated from its flowers by alkaline extraction and has been tested using an animal model of allergic asthma. The structural features of Echinacea purpurea complex was determined using chemical and spectroscopic methods. Allergic inflammation of the airways was induced by repetitive exposure of guinea pigs to ovalbumin. Echinacea complex was then administered 14 days in 50mg/kg b.w. daily dose perorally. Bronchodilatory effect was verified as decrease in the specific airway resistance (sRaw) in vivo and by reduced contraction amplitude (mN) of tracheal and pulmonary smooth muscle to cumulative concentrations of acetylcholine and histamine in vitro. The impact on mucociliary clearance evaluated measurement of ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in vitro using LabVIEW™ Software. Anti-inflammatory effect of Echinacea complex was verified by changes in exhaled NO levels and by Bio-Plex® assay of Th2 cytokine concentrations (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and TNF-alpha) in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Chemical and spectroscopic studies confirmed the presence of carbohydrates, phenolic compounds and proteins, as well as the dominance of rhamnogalacturonan and arabinogalactan moieties in Echinacea complex. The significant decrease in sRaw values and suppressed histamine and acetylcholine-induced contractile amplitude of isolated airways smooth muscle that were similar to effects of control drug salbutamol confirmed Echinacea complex bronchodilatory activity. The anti-inflammatory effect was comparable with that of control agent

  19. PyRETIS: A well-done, medium-sized python library for rare events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lervik, Anders; Riccardi, Enrico; van Erp, Titus S

    2017-10-30

    Transition path sampling techniques are becoming common approaches in the study of rare events at the molecular scale. More efficient methods, such as transition interface sampling (TIS) and replica exchange transition interface sampling (RETIS), allow the investigation of rare events, for example, chemical reactions and structural/morphological transitions, in a reasonable computational time. Here, we present PyRETIS, a Python library for performing TIS and RETIS simulations. PyRETIS directs molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in order to sample rare events with unbiased dynamics. PyRETIS is designed to be easily interfaced with any molecular simulation package and in the present release, it has been interfaced with GROMACS and CP2K, for classical and ab initio MD simulations, respectively. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. MAP SUPPORT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING OF A MEDIUM-SIZE INDUSTRIAL CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Matyushkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a set of thematic maps reflecting the current geo-ecological urban area conditions of Birobidzhan, an administrative and industrial center of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast. The maps shows landscape-functional complexes of the city; main types of natural and anthropogenic soils; urban area zoning by the degree of disturbance of soil ecological functions; levels of contamination of soils, dendroflora and snow with heavy metals. Component-based maps help improving environmental urban planning including ecological and functional city zoning and designing the ecological carcass with all its structural elements.

  1. Industrial hygiene survey. IMC, Phosphate Chemical Complex, New Wales, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, F.; Cassady, M.

    1977-10-01

    An industrial hygiene survey was conducted by NIOSH at IMC Phosphate Chemical Complex, New Wales, Florida, on June 7-11, 1976, as part of a study of the phosphate industry. Phosphate fertilizer manufacturing, the plant, and the medical, safety, and industrial hygiene programs are described. During the study 8-hour time weighted averages were determined for exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, vanadium, phosphoric acid, and sulfuric acid for workers involved in cleaning out phosphoric acid reactor vessels. General area samples were collected for fluorides, radon, and uranium. Several samples were above the NIOSH recommended levels for arsenic and chromium

  2. How to Improve Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Profitability by Practicing an Efficient Human Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio GARCÍA SÁNCHEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In The European Union’s country members, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs play an essential role in economic life, having special features that make adaptation process to the contemporary economy easier. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs are the most dynamic and vital factor of progress in the contemporary society, main generator of economic performance and substance in any country, employment opportunity provider for most of population, major contributor to the national budget, and engine to improve the living standard of the population. SMEs represent 99% from all enterprises, drawing up the main human resources aglomeration. In the contemporary economic context, SMEs should act as learning entities, by developing the most important resources they own: the human resources. Human resource development (HRD has gained a permanent role within SMEs, agencies and nations, increasingly not only as an academic discipline, but as a central theme in development area. Being a combination of training and education, in a broad context of adequate human resource policies, HRD ensures the continual improvement and growth of both individual and organization.

  3. Cooperation in Creating Innovation in Polish Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Light of Empirical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zastempowski Maciej

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, sources of competitive advantage and economic development are sought in the sphere of innovation. They are at the centre of interest of representatives of the world of politics, science, and business. Moreover, they have been incorporated into governmental and international strategic development programmes. This article attempts to characterize and evaluate cooperation in creating innovation in small and medium-sized enterprises in Poland. Empirical research, a fragment of which is presented in this article, was conducted at the turn of March and April 2015 on a representative sample of Polish small and medium-sized enterprises. The subject of the analysis was business innovation expressed through the indicators of innovation and frequency of cooperation with different entities from the business environment to create new solutions, as well as forms of business innovation. The evaluation of the existing dependence was performed on the basis of the estimation results of the logit model. The objective of this study was to identify key factors related to cooperation and their impact on the innovativeness of Polish companies, using the tools of econometric analysis. The article presents a contemporary approach to managing innovative activity – open innovation, which is both widely reported and reflected in the results of research conducted. The logit model that was developed also indicates that companies that are open to cooperation with customers and academic institutions of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN and are members of clusters are more likely to implement innovations of a radical nature.

  4. Comparison of the selected conditions of the small and medium-sized enterprise in the Czech Republic and EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Chládková

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Companies classified as small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs account for a large proportion of Europe’s economic and professional activity. In practice, 99 % of business in the European Union are SMEs, and they provide two–thirds of all private sector jobs. So small firms are, in fact, the real ­giants of the European economy. Micro–business dominate employment in countries such as Italy 47 % and Poland 41 %, whilst the share of large enterprises in total employment in the United Kingdom is just 46 %.During the recent period of time there have been many researchers from the FBE MUAF in Brno, who focused on the analysis of the small and medium-sized enterprise, e.g. Nerudová (2006; Nerudová and Bohušová (2006; Kubíčková and Presová (2006; Zrůst and Pyšný (2008; Živělová and Zichová (2002.This paper is the part of the Research proposal MSM 6215648904 being solved at the FBE MUAF in Brno.

  5. Proximal Occlusion of Medium-Sized Vessels with the Penumbra Occlusion Device: A Study of Safety and Efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jambon, E.; Petitpierre, F. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Radiology (France); Brizzi, V.; Dubuisson, V. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Surgery (France); Bras, Y. Le; Grenier, N.; Cornelis, F., E-mail: cornelisfrancois@gmail.com [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Radiology (France)

    2017-02-15

    PurposeTo retrospectively investigate the safety and efficacy of hybrid proximal coiling of various medium-sized vessels (4 to 8 mm) using the Penumbra Occlusion Device (POD).Materials and MethodsFrom October 2014 to February 2016, 37 proximal embolizations were performed with PODs in 36 patients (mean age: 50.8, range: 10–86; 29 male, 7 female). Vessel occlusions were achieved under fluoroscopic guidance using a 2.7 French microcatheter. Among the 36 vessels targeted, 16 were splenic arteries, 11 renal arteries, 4 mesenteric arteries, 3 arteriovenous fistulae, 1 iliac artery, and 1 gonadal vein. Intermittent follow-up angiography was performed to assess the flow for final occlusion. Outcomes and complications were assessed by clinical and/or imaging follow-up.ResultsTo produce proximal occlusion of the intended vessels, the POD was used alone in 19 embolizations (51.4 %). In 12 procedures (32.4 %), POD was used as a coil constrainer to secure the coil construct. In 6 procedures (16.2 %), additional embolic devices were used to achieve vessel occlusion after initial POD deployment. After a mean follow-up of 3.2 months, no POD migration was observed but two complications occurred (5.4 %): one post embolic syndrome and one extensive infarction with splenic abscess.ConclusionThe POD system allows safe and effective proximal embolization of medium-sized vessels in a variety of clinical settings.

  6. An empirical study on the critical success factors of small to medium sized projects in a South African mining company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Randt, Francois Jean

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Projects that fail, for whatever reason, can impact negatively on society, organisations, and other stakeholders. A number of researchers have identified various critical success factors (CSFs that can influence the outcome and success of a project. This research therefore aims to determine the CSFs that influence various success measures of small- to medium-sized projects at a South African mining company, Exxaro Resources’ Grootegeluk Coal Mine. Other objectives of this research include determining the extent of the impacts of these CSFs on the different success measures of a project. The investigation suggests that there are correlations among CSFs, and that certain factors impact the outcome of projects far more than others. This research finds that the single most important CSF for small- to medium-sized projects is the selection of a competent project manager. The competent project manager is characterised by a group of interrelated CSF factors: good leadership, commitment, and learning from past experiences. Based on the research results, other CSFs are discussed and explored in order for recommendations to be made on how this mining company, and possibly other organisations, can achieve greater project success.

  7. Ecological risk assessment of cheese whey effluents along a medium-sized river in southwest Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadima, Constantina; Theodoropoulos, Chris; Rouvalis, Angela; Iliopoulou-Georgudaki, Joan

    2010-01-01

    An ecological risk assessment of cheese whey effluents was applied in three critical sampling sites located in Vouraikos river (southwest Greece), while ecological classification using Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EU criteria allowed a direct comparison of toxicological and ecological data. Two invertebrates (Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus) and the zebra fish Danio rerio were used for toxicological analyses, while the aquatic risk was calculated on the basis of the risk quotient (RQ = PEC/PNEC). Chemical classification of sites was carried out using the Nutrient Classification System, while benthic invertebrates were collected and analyzed for biological classification. Toxicological results revealed the heavy pollution load of the two sites, nearest to the point pollution source, as the PEC/PNEC ratio exceeded 1.0, while unexpectedly, no risk was detected for the most downstream site, due to the consequent interference of the riparian flora. These toxicological results were in agreement with the ecological analysis: the ecological quality of the two heavily impacted sites ranged from moderate to bad, whereas it was found good for the most downstream site. The results of the study indicate major ecological risk for almost 15 km downstream of the point pollution source and the potentiality of the water quality remediation by the riparian vegetation, proving the significance of its maintenance.

  8. Mass transfer with complex reversible chemical reactions—II. parallel reversible chemical reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Versteeg, G.F.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Beckum, F.P.H. van; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1990-01-01

    An absorption model has been developed which can be used to calculate rapidly absorption rates for the phenomenon mass transfer accompanied by multiple complex parallel reversible chemical reactions. This model can be applied for the calculation of the mass transfer rates, enhancement factors and concentration profiles for a wide range of processes and conditions, for both film and penetration model. With the aid of this mass transfer model it is demonstrated that the absorption rates in syst...

  9. Analysis of hybrid waste-to-energy for medium-sized cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, Juan Galvarino Cerda; Dias, Rubens Alves; Balestieri, José Antonio Perrella

    2013-01-01

    Urban centers have a huge demand for electricity and the growing problem of the solid waste management generated by their population, a relevant social and administrative problem. The correct disposal of the municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in cities is one of the most complex engineering problems that involves logistics, safety, environmental and energetic aspects for its adequate management. Due to a national policy of solid wastes recently promulgated, Brazilian cities are evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of incinerating the non-recyclable waste. São José dos Campos, a São Paulo State industrialized city, is considering the composting of organic waste for biogas production and mass incineration of non-recyclable waste. This paper presents a waste-to-energy system based on the integration of gas turbines to a MSW incinerator for producing thermal and electric energy as an alternative solution for the solid waste disposal in São José dos Campos, SP. A technical and economic feasibility study for the hybrid combined cycle plant is presented and revealed to be attractive when carbon credit and waste tax are included in the project income. - Highlights: ► We model a hybrid waste-to-energy cogeneration system for the disposal of MSW. ► Reference model for MSW treatment consists of biogas burning and composting. ► Hybrid cogeneration solution is superior to the biogas burning reference model. ► Carbon credit and waste tax increase the attractiveness of the proposed solution

  10. Non-farm businesses local economic integration level: the case of six Portuguese small and medium-sized Markettowns - a sector approach

    OpenAIRE

    Diniz, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Small and medium-sized towns in rural areas are of particular interest at this stage in the evolution of the European CAP. Serious consideration is being given to mechanisms that could transfer resources from the agricultural sector into a more diversified rural economy in order to safeguard the well-being of both the farming community and the wider rural population while still preserving the environmental assets which are such a valued feature of Europe's rural areas. Small and medium-sized ...

  11. Preparing the Production of a New Product in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises by Using the Method of Projects Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijańska, Jolanta; Wodarski, Krzysztof; Wójcik, Janusz

    2016-06-01

    Efficient and effective preparation the production of new products is important requirement for a functioning and development of small and medium-sized enterprises. One of the methods, which support the fulfilment of this condition is project management. This publication presents the results of considerations, which are aimed at developing a project management model of preparation the production of a new product, adopted to specificity of small and medium-sized enterprises.

  12. The influence of family-related factors on the succession process in small and medium-sized family businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Venter

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study family-related factors that can influence the succession process in small and medium-sized family businesses are empirically investigated.  The dependent variable in this study is measured by two underlying dimensions, namely satisfaction with the process and continued profitability of the business.  The empirical results indicate that the family-related factors that influence both the aforementioned dimensions are the mutual acceptance of roles, the relationship between the owner-manager and successor, and family harmony.  The continued profitability of the business is also influenced by the agreement to continue the business. The existence of family harmony in itself influences the relationship between the owner-manager and successor, the agreement to continue the business, as well as the mutual acceptance of roles.  The managerial implications of these empirical findings are discussed and recommendations offered.

  13. Entrepreneurial management in small and medium-sized enterprises in Bulgaria (on the example of the plastics processing enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamelia Narleva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The report examines the relevance of a modern management concept - entrepreneurial management. Guidelines for the application of this management technology to small and medium-sized enterprises are presented, as well as claims on the role of entrepreneurial and managerial functions in implementing entrepreneurial management processes in plastics processing plants. The data and information were verified through a survey conducted in 2016 through a structured questionnaire, comprising twenty heads of enterprises across the North East Region of Planning in Bulgaria. The practical significance of the researched problem is taken into account by indicating an approach in the implementation of innovative solutions in management practice and the modernization of the used management technologies. The results of the conducted empirical study indirectly testify to the outstanding focus of the managers on the results of entrepreneurial management: innovation, growth and development. The human factor, in general, directly related to the results of entrepreneurial management, has complementary, service-oriented results and significance.

  14. Analysis of the quality of service of small and medium size hotel companies in Bucaramanga and its metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Monsalve Castro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the hotel industry has been facing an increment of travelers willing to enjoy better conditions in tourist destinations. The demanding changes in tourist preferences, and the increasing range of offers that they find to meet their needs, has made the hotel industry to focus its attention to service. Therefore, in this document, the principles that impact the evaluation of a quality service are analyzed. This research takes a sample of 384 small and medium size hotel companies’ guests. A Likert type questionnaire is applied. Its evaluation is conducted through SPSS software through bivariate analysis. In the results, influential aspects were identified such as: encouraging customer loyalty, special offers, innovation, premises and equipment, human talent training, among others.

  15. Environmental management in small and medium-sized companies: an analysis from the perspective of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Medina, Agustín J; Romero-Quintero, Leonardo; Sosa-Cabrera, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    In the business context, concern for the environment began to develop when pressure from the public administration and environmental awareness groups raised the specific requirements for companies. The Theory of Planned Behavior considers that people's conduct is determined by the intention of carrying out a certain behavior. Thus, the individual's intent is determined by three factors related to the desired outcome of the behavior: the Personal Attitude toward the Results, the Perceived Social Norms, and the Perceived Behavioral Control over the action. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to clarify the attitudes of the managers of Canarian small and medium-sized companies about taking environmental measures, and try to demonstrate whether there is a relationship between the proposed factors and the intention to take these measures.

  16. Environmental Management in Small and Medium-Sized Companies: An Analysis from the Perspective of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Medina, Agustín J.; Romero-Quintero, Leonardo; Sosa-Cabrera, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    In the business context, concern for the environment began to develop when pressure from the public administration and environmental awareness groups raised the specific requirements for companies. The Theory of Planned Behavior considers that people's conduct is determined by the intention of carrying out a certain behavior. Thus, the individual's intent is determined by three factors related to the desired outcome of the behavior: the Personal Attitude toward the Results, the Perceived Social Norms, and the Perceived Behavioral Control over the action. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to clarify the attitudes of the managers of Canarian small and medium-sized companies about taking environmental measures, and try to demonstrate whether there is a relationship between the proposed factors and the intention to take these measures. PMID:24533094

  17. Fuzzy model of relationship among economic performance, competitiveness and business ethics of small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Bočková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to study the relations among financial indicators, competitiveness and business ethics of comparable small and medium-sized enterprises. A sample of 59 SMEs from the South Moravia region was chosen. All selected companies either produce or service electronics. This research is based on the application of scientific analysis, synthesis, induction, fuzzy logic and modeling. Information for this research was obtained from secondary information sources – Amadeus database, accounting statements and information from the register of companies. Each company is described by a set of 10 variables. Fuzzy sets and reasoning are ideal tools to cope with vague, ill-structured and uncertain scenarios which can be found frequently in business and economics. This is the main reason why fuzzy logic was used in this research. The paper is self-explanatory and no a prior knowledge of fuzzy reasoning is required.

  18. Small And Medium-Sized Business Development In Regions: Establishment Of Priority Directions By The Example Of Sverdlovsk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Yevgenyevich Tolmachev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research of current small and medium-sized business development in Sverdlovsk region. It includes analysis of enterprise development statistics, Russian and international experience, sociological survey of entrepreneurs’ satisfaction of doing business conditions in Sverdlovsk region. The aim of the research was to develop proposals for business support system development in the long run for inclusion in the SME Development Strategy in Sverdlovsk region up to 2030. As a result, a set of strategic SME development directions was formulated. It includes measures aimed at business problems solving through the development of SME support tools and at addressing institutional problems of business support. The paper includes proposals for improvement of regional support system and implementation the priority SME development direction

  19. Managerial competencies among first-line newsroom managers at small to medium-sized mainstream media enterprises in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elanie Steyn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the South African media and management environment have had distinct influences on especially small to medium-sized mainstream media enterprises (media SMEs which often have to compete with bigger media organisations for the same news stories. Moreover, these media organisations are commonly faced with unique challenges related to human and other resources. This situation adds to the importance of effective and efficient management practices at these media sites. The management practices of first-line news managers in media SMEs are qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated in this paper by considering six managerial competencies found in general management theory. These competencies relate to communication, planning and administration, teamwork; strategic action, global awareness and self-management.

  20. Aggregate Production Planning, Casestudy in a Medium-sized Industry of the Rubber Production Line in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero-Mantilla, César; Sánchez-Sailema, Mayra; Sánchez-Rosero, Carlos; Galleguillos-Pozo, Rosa

    2017-06-01

    This research aims to improve the productivity in the rubber line of a medium-sized industry by increasing the production capacities through the use of the Aggregate Production Planning model. For this purpose an analysis of the production processes of the line was made and the aggregate plan was defined evaluating two strategies: Exact Production Plan (Zero Inventory) and Constant Workforce Plan (Vary Inventory) by studying the costs of both inventory maintenance and workforce. It was also determined how the installed capacity was used with the standards of the rubber line and measures for decreasing production costs were proposed. It was proven that only 70% of the plant capacity was being used so it could be possible to produce more units and to obtain a bigger market for the products of this line.+

  1. Innovation incubators – entities of support of small and medium-sized enterprises’ competitiveness in the Modern economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maier Lidia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Innovation incubators are entities of the infrastructure network of support of small and medium-sized enterprises. At the stage of SMEs’ maximum vulnerability, they improve the survival of innovative businesses through the range of services and facilities provided. They are designed to mitigate the problems faced by SMEs, which develop and implement innovations, ensuring sustainability and competitiveness. Along with promoting the entrepreneurial spirit, innovation incubators play an essential role in promoting knowledge and innovation transfer, introduction of the research results into economic circuit, creating links between businesses, universities, research institutions, etc., links between people, talents and resources.In this article, we will focus on innovation incubators, their role in the development of SMEs in the world and in the Republic of Moldova, making an accent in the creation and development of the country's first Innovation Incubator „Inovatorul”.

  2. Occupational Safety and Health Conditions Aboard Small- and Medium-Size Fishing Vessels: Differences among Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytoon, Mohamed A; Basahel, Abdulrahman M

    2017-02-24

    Although marine fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations, research on the occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions aboard marine fishing vessels is scarce. For instance, little is known about the working conditions of vulnerable groups such as young and aging fishermen. The objective of the current paper is to study the OSH conditions of young and aging fishermen compared to middle-aged fishermen in the small- and medium-size (SM) marine fishing sector. A cross-sectional study was designed, and 686 fishermen working aboard SM fishing vessels were interviewed to collect information about their safety and health. The associations of physical and psychosocial work conditions with safety and health outcomes, e.g., injuries, illnesses and job satisfaction, are presented. The results of the current study can be utilized in the design of effective accident prevention and OSH training programs for the three age groups and in the regulation of working conditions aboard fishing vessels.

  3. THE STRATEGIC RELEVANCE OF TECHNOLOGY-RELATED VARIABLES TO THE COMPETITIVENESS OF SMALL - TO MEDIUM-SIZED FURNITURE MANUFACTURERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourens, A. S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available SMMEs can make a critical and positive economic contribution to South Africa, and small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers (SM/FMs have the potential to contribute to economic growth, job creation, and GDP. However, the furniture industry has not stayed abreast of technological advances. To survive in an environment of increasing competition and imports, competitive strategies must be devised. One such strategy is for technology adoption and implementation that can provide solutions for the furniture industry to improve speed, quality, variety, flexibility, and productivity, resulting in improved competitiveness. However, the adoption of technology means that its acquisition and application must be managed strategically, as the use of technology involves far more than simply taking it into account during the business-plan

  4. [Cultivation strategy and path analysis on big brand Chinese medicine for small and medium-sized enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Yan; Yang, Hong-Jun

    2014-03-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are important components in Chinese medicine industry. However, the lack of big brand is becoming an urgent problem which is critical to the survival of SMEs. This article discusses the concept and traits of Chinese medicine of big brand, from clinical, scientific and market value three aspects. Guided by market value, highlighting clinical value, aiming at the scientific value improvement of big brand cultivation, we put forward the key points in cultivation, aiming at obtaining branded Chinese medicine with widely recognized efficacy, good quality control system and mechanism well explained and meanwhile which can bring innovation improvement to theory of Chinese medicine. According to the characters of SMEs, we hold a view that to build multidisciplinary research union could be considered as basic path, and then, from top-level design, skill upgrading and application three stages to probe the implementation strategy.

  5. Proposal for the CEA/DRN activity on small and medium size reactors research on threshold effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    The discussion on Small and Medium Size Reactors - SMR is difficult considering the presumptions, justified or not, that affect the debate. Nevertheless, within this context, the CEA/DRN/DER generic objective is the achievement of an exhaustive identification and assessment of the problems that are specific for the SMR. The paper shows the proposals for the activities that are actually under discussion at the CEA/DRN. Among these activities, the research on threshold effects is an essential stage in the assessment of the choices in innovative concepts. This research, as well as the assessment itself, must cover, in an exploratory way, the aspects of operation, safety, economy, fuel cycle, etc. Before starting or, in some cases, continuing this research work, it seems interesting to define a general outline which, by systematising the approach, provides a helpful tool to the designer. The document is a potential starting point (among others) for the discussions. (author)

  6. Business competitiveness in the small and medium-sized enterprises of the manufacturing sector in Baja California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alejandro Ibarra Cisneros

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to determine the competitiveness level of the manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs of Baja California and to identify which areas within them affect this competitiveness. The methodology used is descriptive, correlational, and cross-sectional; the systemic competitiveness model is developed at the micro level, and a measurement instrument with 64 questions is used on 195 companies in the state; in addition, traditional multiple linear regressions are performed to test the hypotheses. One of the findings is that the SMEs in the state have a medium-low competitiveness level and do not show any relationship between the size of the companies and their competitiveness; however, the production-operations area prove to be more important for their competitiveness level. Although the measurement instrument that is used has no proportionality at the municipality and subsector level, it does allow us to approach the internal operation of the SMEs.

  7. Small and medium-sized enterprises’ exporting: Home and host country motivators effect on first and successive export venture decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios Stouraitis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to investigate the internationalization (particularly exporting of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs taking a sample of United Kingdom (UK SMEs for the use in economic policy, academia and management. It focuses on the critical first and less risky step towards internationalization and separates the motivators into home country and host country. The paper investigates 44 specific, high impact, pre-selected exporting motivators from the literature and tests their effect on the firm’s initial export decision and latest (or sequential export decision. Results show that the first exporting choice affects later exporting choices and both are mostly affected by home country-specific, internal, motivators as opposed to host country-specific reactive motivators. In addition regionalization shows an association as European Union membership of the UK showed a relationship to subsequent entry mode choice. The paper’s results are of use to policy-makers and management.

  8. Which benefits and limits derive from ESA membership for European Countries owning ;medium-sized; space agencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Giorgio; Bigliardi, Barbara; Galati, Francesco; Petroni, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the benefits and limits deriving from membership with ESA of six medium-sized space agencies in terms of strengthening and development (or not) of space technologies, as well as their contribution to the growth of productive activities and to the increase of services for citizens. This research contributes to the more general issue of the usefulness of space activities, not only for scientific or military-political purposes but also for economic and social development. Results show that, on the one hand, the membership with ESA has allowed smaller Countries to access space programs, to develop advanced technologies and to support the growth of their firms in some significant markets, but, on the other hand, the membership has also limited the access to space to few companies, without encouraging the broad dissemination of technological knowledge.

  9. Methodologies and Decision Criteria for Demonstrating Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors - Present Value Capital Cost Model. Annex VIII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    Smaller size reactors are required to fulfil the growing energy needs of developing countries and emerging markets, as well as niche markets in developed countries. Grid appropriate reactors have been identified within the United States Department of Energy Global Nuclear Energy Partnership initiative as one of the key elements required to enable worldwide expansion of the peaceful use of nuclear power. In a speech at a conference in Algiers on 9 January 2007, the former IAEA Director General, Mohamed El Baradei, discussed the interest in new small and medium-size reactor designs which allow a more incremental investment than is required for a big reactor, and provide a better match to grid capacity in many developing countries'. Smaller size reactors (IAEA defines as 'small' those reactors with a power <300 MW(e) and 'medium' with a power <700 MW(e)) are the logical choice for smaller countries or those with a limited electrical grid. In fact, smaller reactors are now in different stages of development throughout the world, and interest in their deployment has also been expressed. With regards to decisions on the addition of power plant capacity, small reactors have many attractive characteristics, namely size, simplicity, enhanced safety, cost savings and lower financial resource requirements. On the downside, the specific costs of some components and systems of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) may be higher as a result of economy of scale effects. This annex explores some of the factors affecting decisions on power plant capacity addition in world markets, focusing particularly on many of the characteristics of SMRs.

  10. Impact of land use on urban mobility patterns, emissions and air quality in a Portuguese medium-sized city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Jorge M; Coelho, Margarida C; Sá, Maria Elisa; Tavares, Richard; Borrego, Carlos

    2011-02-15

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of urban development trends in mobility patterns of a medium sized Portuguese city and air quality consequences, using a sequential modeling process, comprising i) land use and transportation, TRANUS model; ii) road traffic air pollutants emissions, TREM model and; iii) air quality, TAPM model. This integrated methodology was applied to a medium sized Portuguese city. In order to evaluate the implementation of the methodology, a preliminary study was performed, which consisted on the comparison of modeled mobility patterns and CO and PM(10) concentrations with measured data used in the definition of the current scenario. The comparison between modeled and monitored mobility patterns at the morning peak hour for a weekday showed an RMSE of 31%. Regarding CO concentrations, an underestimation of the modeled results was observed. Nevertheless, the modeled PM(10) concentrations were consistent with the monitored data. Overall, the results showed a reasonable consistency of the modeled data, which allowed the use of the integrated modeling system for the study scenarios. The future scenarios consisted on the definition of different mobility patterns and vehicle technology characteristics, according to two main developing trends: (1) "car pooling" scenario, which imposes a mean occupancy rate of 3 passengers by vehicle and (2) the "Euro 6" scenario, which establishes that all vehicles accomplish at least the Euro 6 standard technology. Reductions of 54% and 83% for CO, 44% and 95% for PM(10), 44% and 87% for VOC and 44% and 79% for NO(x) emissions were observed in scenarios 1 and 2, respectively. Concerning air quality, a reduction of about 100 μg m(-3) of CO annual average concentration was observed in both scenarios. The results of PM(10) annual concentrations showed a reduction of 1.35 μg m(-3) and 2.7 μg m(-3) for scenarios 1 and 2 respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Does low to moderate environmental exposure to noise and air pollution influence preterm delivery in medium-sized cities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba-Vasseur, Marie; Bernard, Nadine; Pujol, Sophie; Sagot, Paul; Riethmuller, Didier; Thiriez, Gérard; Houot, Hélène; Defrance, Jérôme; Mariet, Anne-Sophie; Luu, Vinh-Phuc; Barbier, Alice; Benzenine, Eric; Quantin, Catherine; Mauny, Frédéric

    2017-12-01

    Preterm birth (PB) is an important predictor of childhood morbidity and educational performance. Beyond the known risk factors, environmental factors, such as air pollution and noise, have been implicated in PB. In urban areas, these pollutants coexist. Very few studies have examined the effects of multi-exposure on the pregnancy duration. The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between PB and environmental chronic multi-exposure to noise and air pollution in medium-sized cities. A case-control study was conducted among women living in the city of Besançon (121 671 inhabitants) or in the urban unit of Dijon (243 936 inhabitants) and who delivered in a university hospital between 2005 and 2009. Only singleton pregnancies without associated pathologies were considered. Four controls were matched to each case in terms of the mother's age and delivery location. Residential noise and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposures were calculated at the mother's address. Conditional logistic regression models were applied, and sensitivity analyses were performed. This study included 302 cases and 1204 controls. The correlation between noise and NO2 indices ranged from 0.41 to 0.59. No significant differences were found in pollutant exposure levels between cases and controls. The adjusted odds ratios ranged between 0.96 and 1.08. Sensitivity analysis conducted using different temporal and spatial exposure windows demonstrated the same results. The results are in favour of a lack of connection between preterm delivery and multi-exposure to noise and air pollution in medium-sized cities for pregnant women without underlying disease. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  12. A Case Analysis on the Adequacy of Work-Life Balance Practices in UK Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde Akanji

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine whether work-life balance (WLB practices are satisfactorily provided in UK small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs and the impact of the availability of these work-life policies on turnover intentions. A review of extant literature reveals scarce knowledge in this area of research and this study presents a rudimentary effort to fill this gap. Research Design & Methods: Using qualitative design, the data set comprised of in-depth interviews with thirty-six employees working in small and medium-sized UK convenience stores and supermarkets with less than ninety employees. Findings: Informal nature of human resource management policies emerged from the findings as one of the constraining forces impeding work-life agendas in SMEs and causing low staff retention in UK. Although other themes were found to contribute to retention challenges, however, these additional reasons were not independent, but all considered integrated. Implications & Recommendations: Consequently, the practical implication of devising ways to overcome WLB and retention deficiencies in this context were also explored. Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in studying the importance of WLB practices to some of these grass root businesses that make up a large proportion of the economy in the UK. As the limitation of this study is that it is wholly qualitative in nature, it is suggested that future research should rely on quantitative designs that provides more internally valid tests via computational techniques.

  13. Enhancing work motivation for Japanese female nurses in small to medium-sized private hospitals by analyzing job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Yasushi; Kido, Shigeri; Shahzad, Machiko Taruzuka; Shida, Kyoko; Satoh, Toshihiko; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2010-03-01

    Proper work environments are important for nurses to feel motivated. We examined the associations between work motivation and job satisfaction among Japanese nurses to improve their motivation. In Japan, relatively small and medium-sized private hospitals play a central role in the healthcare industry. In the present study, the subjects were nurses working in 23 small and medium-sized private hospitals that had 65 to 326 beds. We analyzed 1,116 registered and licensed practical female nurses (average age, 38.3 years; standard deviation, 11.3 years). Many nurses with their specialized nursing skills dedicate themselves to patient care. However, many of these nurses may not be interested in contributing to their hospitals. Nurses may have different opinions regarding dedication to patient care and contribution to their hospitals. Therefore, concerning work motivation, we produced these two different items, "Nurses' dedication to patients" and "Nurses' contribution to their hospitals." We also produced our own original new job satisfaction questionnaire. We found 7 facets of job satisfaction: "Work as specialists," "Workplace safety," "Relationships with superiors," "Work-life balance," "Relationships among nurses," "Communications with physicians," and "Salary." Multiple linear regression analyses show that both "Nurses' dedication to patients" and "Nurses' contribution to their hospitals" were significantly associated with "Work as specialists." Nurses feel their jobs of protecting people's lives and health are valuable. They do not feel motivated only by money. They value the intrinsic nature of their jobs. Creating proper work environments is important for nurses to be able to work as specialists.

  14. Options for small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) to overcome loss of economies of scale and incorporate increased proliferation resistance and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    The designers of innovative small and medium sized reactors pursue new design and deployment strategies making use of certain advantages provided by smaller reactor size and capacity to achieve reduced design complexity and simplified operation and maintenance requirements, and to provide for incremental capacity increase through multi-module plant clustering. Competitiveness of SMRs depends on the incorporated strategies to overcome loss of economies of scale but equally it depends on finding appropriate market niches for such reactors. For many less developed countries, these are the features of enhanced proliferation resistance and increased robustness of barriers for sabotage protection that may ensure the progress of nuclear power. For such countries, small reactors without on-site refuelling, designed for infrequent replacement of well-contained fuel cassette(s) in a manner that impedes clandestine diversion of nuclear fuel material, may provide a solution. Based on the outputs of recent IAEA activities for innovative SMRs, the paper provides a summary of the state-of-the-art in approaches to improve SMR competitiveness and incorporate enhanced proliferation resistance and energy security. (author)

  15. The role of skeletal scintigraphy in nuclear oncology at a medium-sized hospital in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, W.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Skeletal scintigraphy (SS) has been a workhorse in nuclear medicine departments, whether the department is in a developed country or in a developing country. It also plays an essential role in nuclear oncology in staging or diagnosing cancers or monitoring management of cancer patients. With the availability of improved imaging modalities like positron emission tomography, the role of skeletal scintigraphy is changing accordingly. This study was performed to evaluate the role of SS in nuclear oncology at a medium-sized (900-bed) university hospital in South Korea, by reviewing hospital cases along with the statistics of recently published papers in the journal of Clinical Nuclear Medicine. The hospital does not have a PET. The study period was three years (from 2000 to 2002). The SS is requested from many specialties for various reasons. Only cancer-related cases were selected. Using PubMed database, relevant articles in the Clinical Nuclear Medicine were assessed. To retrieve the articles, the keywords 'skeletal scintigraphy' and 'bone scan' were combined by using Boolean operation. There were a total of 9707 SS out of 16429 nuclear medicine imaging cases at the hospital during the study period. The hospital had 49% of SS contributed to cancer patients, while 52% percent of the SS in the CNM dealt with cancers. During the same period, articles regarding PET were 273 of which 171 were cancer-related PET studies (62%, more often than SS). 59% of the total nuclear medicine studies performed at the hospital were SS, whereas only 9% of the total articles were SS and 5% dealt with cancer-related cases. The cases of SS and cancer-related SS at the hospital increased during the period, whereas the articles in the CNM decreased. Analytic statistics were not considered necessary. In conclusion, there is an increasing demand of SS in nuclear oncology at a medium-sized hospital with non-availability of PET and the proportions of SS and cancer-related SS to the

  16. Chemical speciation of L-glutamine complexes with Co(II), Ni(II) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trend in the variation of stability constants of the complexes with mole fraction of the surfactant is attributed to the compartmentalization of complexation equilibria. Distribution of species and effect of influential parameters on chemical speciation have also been presented. KEY WORDS: Chemical speciation, complex ...

  17. Analysis of work ability and work-related physical activity of employees in a medium-sized business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Christiane; Ashton, Philip; Elis, Tobias; Biallas, Bianca; Froböse, Ingo

    2015-12-18

    Work-related physical activity (PA) and work ability are of growing importance in modern working society. There is evidence for age- and job-related differences regarding PA and work ability. This study analyses work ability and work-related PA of employees in a medium-sized business regarding age and occupation. The total sample consists of 148 employees (116 men-78.38% of the sample-and 32 women, accounting for 21.62%; mean age: 40.85 ± 10.07 years). 100 subjects (67.57%) are white-collar workers (WC), and 48 (32.43%) are blue-collar workers (BC). Work ability is measured using the work ability index, and physical activity is obtained via the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. Work ability shows significant differences regarding occupation (p = 0.001) but not regarding age. Further, significant differences are found for work-related PA concerning occupation (p Work ability is rated as good, yet, a special focus should lie on the promotion during early and late working life. Also, there is still a lack of evidence on the level of work-related PA. Considering work-related PA could add to meeting current activity recommendations.

  18. MuSAE: A European Project for the Diffusion of Energy and Environmental Planning in Small-Medium Sized Municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Baldinelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic idea of the EU LIFE+ 2011 project MuSAE (“Municipalities Subsidiarity for Actions on Energy”, code LIFE11 ENV/IT/000016 consists of transferring the skills and experience related to energy planning, acquired by the leading beneficiary, the Municipality of Perugia, to three small- or medium-sized Umbrian Municipalities (Marsciano, Umbertide and Lisciano Niccone. This transfer is aimed, among other objectives, at the drafting of the Municipal Energy and Environmental Plan (MEEP and the opening of an energy information office in each partner Municipality, in cooperation with CIRIAF and Umbria Region. The present paper provides a summary of MuSAE activities, analyzing the procedures and modalities of implementation of the various phases of the MEEPs, on the basis of the experience gained over the years through the collaboration with the Municipality of Perugia and adapted to smaller territories such as those represented by the other partner Municipalities. A summary of the dissemination activities and pilot projects is also presented, testifying the first concrete results of the planning activity developed by each administration within the project.

  19. Analyzing the management process in small and medium-sized enterprises in the Region of South Bohemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Váchal Jan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The entry is aimed at analyzing the process of managing small and medium-sized enterprise, specifically in the Region of South Bohemia. The testing sample included 180 enterprises. The fundamental statistical information about SMEs is included, focusing of the numbers, the size category, and their specialization in the Region of South Bohemia. The research activities were aimed at the steepness of management structures and at their extent on all management levels. The analysis indicates that micro-enterprises prefer one management level, while small and middle-sized enterprises prefer two management levels with the statistic dependence on the size category. In regard to the number of employees on individual management levels, the top positions have from 6 employees up to 30 on the operative level. The general business trend involves a transfer to the functional management structure. With respect to the strategic management and decision- making, enterprises boost an attractive prospect of mainly their own sources. A statistical correlation was proved between the elaborated strategy, the size of the enterprise and number of management levels. A strong correlation between the number of management levels and the aim of the enterprise i.e. the type of organization structure was not proved.

  20. [The certification of advanced therapy medicinal products. A quality label for product development in small and medium-sized enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, A; Schüle, S; Flory, E

    2011-07-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) are gene therapy, cell therapy, and tissue engineered products. To gain access to the market within the European Union, ATMPs must be authorized by the European Commission (EC). Especially for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), the European centralized procedure of marketing authorization that is conducted by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) constitutes a major challenge, because SMEs often have little experience with regulatory procedures and many have limited financial possibilities. To tackle these challenges, a certification procedure exclusively for SMEs and their ATMP development was introduced by the EC. Independently from a marketing authorization application, development and/or production processes can be certified. An issued certificate demonstrates that the respective process meets the current regulatory and scientific requirements of the EMA, representing a valuable milestone for putative investors and licensees. This article highlights the background, the detailed procedure, the minimum requirements, as well as the costs of certification, while giving further noteworthy guidance for interested parties.

  1. Factors Influencing Sustainable Entrepreneurship in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Iran: A Case Study of Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Hosseininia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to establish the social and environmental factors that influence sustainable entrepreneurship (SE in Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. It also attempted to identify whether the demographic background of the entrepreneur influences the SE in SMEs of the Iranian food industry. A mixed method approach, employing the use of questionnaires and interviews from a sample size of approximately 130 participants and 12 owner-managers of SMEs in food industry, was used to collect data. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and several inferential analyses. Findings showed that certain characteristics of the entrepreneur, including work experience and education, have a significant impact on SE. Furthermore, out of the eight identified factors, according to the participants’ perception, the most important factors towards sustainable performance of SMEs in food industry are social factors, including customer orientation, as well as human resources and environmental factors, including recycling and the future of Earth. This research paper concludes that considering the social and environmental aspects of sustainability and employing experienced staff would majorly contribute to the pursuit of SE in SMEs of food industry.

  2. An Influence of Strategic Awareness on Management Control: Evidence from Polish Micro, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Dyczkowska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper investigates whether employees’ strategic awareness influences the shape of management control systems (MCSs in Polish micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (mSMEs. Methodology: The study is based on data obtained from 223 companies between November 2010 and January 2012. The quantitative analysis used a set of variables which depicted MCSs: ‘goalsetting process’, ‘control framework’ and ‘organisation of control’. Strategic awareness was considered an independent variable. Findings: The results showed positive correlations between strategic awareness and considered variables. Regression models developed by the authors proved statistically valid. The study evidences, that increasing employees’ strategic awareness stimulates their participation in goal-setting, contributes to the development of more comprehensive MCSs, or may even imply formalisation of management control. Research limitations: The study does not include an analysis of the extent to which employees find MCSs useful in their work. This will be considered in future research. Another possible extension of the project is to identify factors which enable the capturing of the dynamic character of MCSs and their changes over time. Practical implications: The knowledge of MCSs does not explain whether or not the strategic orientation of a company stimulates a need for MCS. Such knowledge may be important to managers who have to face Polish employees’ general aversion to control. Originality: The study contributes to the limited body of knowledge in a scope of relations between employees’ strategic awareness and control mechanisms in Polish mSMEs.

  3. The Impact of EU Funds on the Development of a Business Model for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olinski Marian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of grants received by companies on the formation of a business model. The study covered micro, small and medium-sized enterprises based in rural areas, which received support in the form of investment grants within the Regional Operational Programmes 2007-2013 for northern Poland. The research was done using a direct survey method, and covered a total of 155 companies. The results of the study indicate that the grant obtained affected implicitly the modification of the business model elements that are placed on the left side of the template of the Business Model Canvas. However, the tendency of enterprises to undertake an innovative activity usually means changes in their business model both on the left and right side. The greatest strength of the dependence was observed in the case of relationship between the size of the company and changes in the model elements. Mediumsized enterprises were the most active in this respect, when compared to comparison to micro and small businesses, and changed the largest number of elements of the business model due to the obtained grant.

  4. Innovativeness of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Republic of Serbia and countries of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Miroljub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a comparative analysis of the results of innovation activities in enterprises of different size from EU member and candidate states during the period 2008-2010. Particularly, the paper considers position of Serbia compared to the EU average and average of some neighboring countries (Hungary, Slovenia, Croatia, Romania and Bulgaria. The results confirmed the existence of a high correlation between size of enterprise and its innovation activities. The percentage of innovation activities in large enterprises is higher than in small enterprises. Serbia is lagging behind the EU average, regarding innovativeness level in all types of enterprises (classified by size. However, when Serbia is compared to neighboring countries, the situation is much different. Small enterprises from Serbia are more innovative than small enterprises from neighboring countries. The situation is similar in medium-sized enterprises. Large enterprises from Serbia are more innovative than enterprises from Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania, and less innovative than large enterprises from Slovenia and Croatia.

  5. Effectiveness of a Comprehensive Stress Management Program to Reduce Work-Related Stress in a Medium-Sized Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive workplace stress management program consisting of participatory action-oriented training (PAOT) and individual management. Methods A comprehensive workplace stress management program was conducted in a medium-sized enterprise. The baseline survey was conducted in September 2011, using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS) and Worker’s Stress Response Inventory (WSRI). After implementing both organizational and individual level interventions, the follow up evaluation was conducted in November 2011. Results Most of the workers participated in the organizational level PAOT and made Team-based improvement plans. Based on the stress survey, 24 workers were interviewed by a researcher. After the organizational and individual level interventions, there was a reduction of several adverse psychosocial factors and stress responses. In the case of blue-collar workers, psychosocial factors such as the physical environment, job demands, organizational system, lack of rewards, and occupational climate were significantly improved; in the case of white-collar workers, the occupational climate was improved. Conclusions In light of these results, we concluded that the comprehensive stress management program was effective in reducing work-related stress in a short-term period. A persistent long-term follow up is necessary to determine whether the observed effects are maintained over time. Both team-based improvement activities and individual interviews have to be sustainable and complementary to each other under the long-term plan. PMID:24524591

  6. Possible Future Role of Small and Medium Sized Reactors (SMRs) in Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alujevic, L.

    2016-01-01

    Small and Medium Sized Reactors (SMRs) could have enormous potential as options for enhancing the energy supply security, as well as providing a lower capital investment compared to conventional Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). The trend in SMR development has been towards design certification of small modular reactors, defined as advanced reactors that produce electric power up to 300 MW(e), designed to be built in factories and shipped to utilities for installation as demand arises. The factory-built small modular reactors aim to reduce lengthy construction times while simultaneously increasing quality, thereby minimizing the costs associated with the current time for construction that spans 5 to 8 years. SMR designs include water-cooled reactors, high temperature gas cooled reactors, as well as liquid metal cooled reactors with fast neutron spectrum. Also, many are designed to be emplaced below ground level, giving a high resistance to terrorist threats. The projected timelines of readiness for deployment of SMRs generally range from the present to 2025 - 2030. Currently there are more than 45 SMR designs under development for different application issues. This paper will try to elaborate the benefits and drawbacks of SMRs, as well as describe a couple of designs. Furthermore, some timelines and cost estimates will be provided, depending on the data currently available. Taking all that into account, the conclusion will try to ascertain the suitability of SMRs for Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids, namely Croatia. (author).

  7. Surface Aging Effect on Tire/Pavement Noise Medium-Term Evolution in a Medium-Size City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor F. Vázquez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the geo-referenced acoustical results obtained throughout the close proximity noise (CPX technique carried out on different urban sections included within the 2017 strategic noise mapping (Directive 2002/49/CE in Ciudad Real, a Spanish medium-sized city. The employed methodology quantifies the tire/pavement noise generated in the contact between the tire and the surface of the studied sections. Measurements were carried out in different research campaigns between 2008 and 2015 (medium-term evolution. They give valuable information about the pavement-aging effect on its surface characteristics. Throughout these years, the acoustic situation of these sections has worsened mainly due to surface damage and higher mean profile depth (MPD values, although the performance does not follow the same pattern in every section. The relationships between measured tire/pavement noise and theoretical environmental noise, just due to the geometric spreading of sound energy, is also studied in order to elaborate a simple rolling noise mapping and to assess the environmental noise evolution. Traffic noise plays the main role in the noise registered within the assessed sections, therefore, CPX assessment could be used by local authorities to take decisions regarding urban planning and traffic management, with the aim of reducing noise exposure from traffic.

  8. Presenting a Framework to Analyze Local Climate Policy and Action in Small and Medium-Sized Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hoppe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Academic attention to local climate policy usually focuses on large-sized cities. Given the climate challenges ahead this seems unjustified. Small and medium-sized cities (SMCs deserve scholarly attention as well. The main question is: What factors influence climate change policy and local climate actions in SMCs? In this article we present an analytical framework to analyze climate change policy and local climate actions of SMCs. The framework addresses different aspects: policy-input, -throughput, -output, -outcome, characteristics of the local environment, local action arenas, influence by higher government levels, and interaction with climate change issue networks. The framework is used to analyze and compare four case studies of SMCs in the Dutch region of Twente (two urban and two rural municipalities, and addresses both adaptation and mitigation. Results show that both ‘localist’, ‘multi-level’ and issue network membership factors influence local climate policy action. Governance modes discerned concern mostly ‘governing by authority’ and ‘self-governing’. When reflecting on the role of SMCs in climate action the study revealed the importance of local capacity building schemes issued by provincial government, inter-municipal network collaboration, and the potential for local governments to mobilize and organize citizen action.

  9. Market potential of small and medium-size nuclear reactors as combined heat and power plants in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoen, R.; Hansen, U.; Candeli, R.; Leuchs, D.; Garribba, S.F.; Lefevre, J.C.; Vivante, C.

    1987-01-01

    A Study has been launched and supported by the Commission of the European Communities to assess the potential market of small and medium size nuclear reactors through EC Countries and to identify those factors which may play a dominant role in this respect. In its first phase, the Study addresses to modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors that would be installed to produce low-temperature heat and power. Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and France are the countries for which the investigation has been either completed or is under way. The time span of interest is up to the year 2020. Referring to this horizon an appraisal has been made of the number of nuclear units which could come on line to cope with energy demand and their timing. Through the Study a distinction is made between technical potential, economic potential, and effective market potential. It is understood indeed that both economic competitiveness towards other energy sources and institutional or organizational factors may restrict the market which could be covered by this class of nuclear reactors. (author)

  10. Market potential of small and medium-size nuclear reactors as combined heat and power plants in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candeli, R.; Leuchs, D.; Garribba, S.F.; Hansen, U.; Lefevre, J.C.; Schoen, R.; Vivante, C.

    1988-01-01

    The preliminary results are presented concerning a study launched by the Commission of the European Communities to assess the potential market of small and medium-size nuclear reactors through EC member countries. The study was aimed at identifying those factors that may have a role in shaping the eventual deployment and diffusion of this class of nuclear reactors. In a first phase, attention focused on modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors that would be installed to produce low-temperature heat and power. Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and France are the countries for which the investigation has been completed. The time span of interest is up to the year 2020. Referring to this horizon, an appraisal has been made of the number of nuclear units which could come on line to cope with energy demand and their timing. Through the study a distinction is made between technical potential, economic potential, and effective market potential. It is understood indeed that both economic competitiveness towards other energy sources and also institutional or organizational factors may restrict the market which could become accessible and would be covered by the new nuclear plants. (orig.)

  11. Analyzing the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises of a national technology innovation research and development program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungmin

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of a national technology innovation research and development (R&D) program. In particular, an empirical analysis is presented that aims to answer the following question: "Is there a difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes?" Methodologically, the efficiency of a government-sponsored R&D project (i.e., GSP) is measured by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), and a nonparametric analysis of variance method, the Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test is adopted to see if the efficiency differences between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes are statistically significant. This study's major findings are as follows. First, contrary to our hypothesis, when we controlled the influence of government R&D subsidy size, there was no statistically significant difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types. However, the R&D collaboration type, "SME-University-Laboratory" Joint-Venture was superior to the others, achieving the largest median and the smallest interquartile range of DEA efficiency scores. Second, the differences in the efficiency were statistically significant between government R&D subsidy sizes, and the phenomenon of diseconomies of scale was identified on the whole. As the government R&D subsidy size increases, the central measures of DEA efficiency scores were reduced, but the dispersion measures rather tended to get larger.

  12. Estimation of the Treatment Effects of Ownership on the Indirect Financing of Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhen Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are the important driving forces for the growth of China’s economy. However, financing difficulty has always been the important problem besetting the development of SMEs for a long time. In particular, in recent years, US subprime crisis in 2008 caused a heavy blow to the development of some externally oriented SMEs. Thus, how to effectively overcome financing predicament for the SMEs is crucial for Chinese government. In this paper, based on microdata from China Industrial Enterprise Database, propensity score matching (PSM method is adopted to conduct empirical analysis about the treatment effects of indirect financing level of SMEs under different systems. Empirical results reveal that state-owned enterprises enjoy indirect financing advantages compared with other enterprises and there is certain ownership discrimination against foreign-funded enterprises and private enterprises. In particular, the indirect financing rate of state-owned enterprises is 1.4% higher than that of other enterprises, and the indirect financing rate of foreign-funded enterprises is 6% lower than that of other enterprises; private enterprises are advantageous in indirect financing compared with other enterprises; however, indirect financing rate of private enterprises is 1.8% lower than that of state-owned enterprises, which also reveals ownership discrimination to certain extent.

  13. Boys who pee the farthest have a large hollow head, a thin skin, and medium-size manhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attinger, Daniel; Lee, Vincent

    2016-11-01

    Following a recent trend of scientific studies on artwork, we study here the thermodynamics of a jetting thermometer made of ceramic, related to the Chinese tea culture. The thermometer represents a boy who "urinates" shortly after hot water is poured onto his head. Long jetting distance indicates if the water temperature is hot enough to brew tea. Here, a thermofluid model describes the jetting phenomenon of that pee-pee boy. The study demonstrates how thermal expansion of an interior air pocket causes jetting. The validity of assumptions underlying the Hagen-Poiseuille flow is discussed for urethra of finite length. A thermodynamic potential is shown to define maximum jetting velocity. Seven optimization criteria to maximize jetting distance are provided, including two dimensionless numbers. The dimensionless numbers are obtained by comparing the time scales of the internal pressure buildup due to heating, with that of pressure relief due to jetting. Optimization results show that longer jets are produced by large individuals, with low body mass index, with a boyhood of medium size inclined at an angle π/4. Analogies are drawn with pissing contests among humans and lobsters. The study ends by noting similitudes of working principle between that politically incorrect thermometer and Galileo Galilei's thermoscope.

  14. Change Management – Condition of Organizational Sustainability in IT&C Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Popescu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims to establish and outline strategies for promoting change in the context of organizational learning, in order to maintain deeply active and creative human resources, while capable of achieving economic sustainability. This is becoming more obvious now as the changes take place in a dynamic world where human resources are the only key factors able to provide the design and implementation of routine changes and procedures, in the present and not in the future. Furthermore, to highlight strengths and weaknesses of approaches regarding the sustainability and organizational change, our topic of research was conducted as an empirical study on the IT&C Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs, especially in the context of sustainability tending to become even more a value of modern, dynamic and powerful organizations. The main objective of the article is to outline some potential ways to implement the change management in the IT&C Romanian SMEs environment and their perception manner concerning the rationality and operationality of change, to ensure the viability and the organizational sustainability.

  15. Effectiveness of a comprehensive stress management program to reduce work-related stress in a medium-sized enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Ae; Suh, Chunhui; Park, Mi-Hee; Kim, Kunhyung; Lee, Chae-Kwan; Son, Byung-Chul; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Jong-Tae; Woo, Kuck-Hyun; Kang, Kabsoon; Jung, Hyunjin

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive workplace stress management program consisting of participatory action-oriented training (PAOT) and individual management. A comprehensive workplace stress management program was conducted in a medium-sized enterprise. The baseline survey was conducted in September 2011, using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS) and Worker's Stress Response Inventory (WSRI). After implementing both organizational and individual level interventions, the follow up evaluation was conducted in November 2011. Most of the workers participated in the organizational level PAOT and made Team-based improvement plans. Based on the stress survey, 24 workers were interviewed by a researcher. After the organizational and individual level interventions, there was a reduction of several adverse psychosocial factors and stress responses. In the case of blue-collar workers, psychosocial factors such as the physical environment, job demands, organizational system, lack of rewards, and occupational climate were significantly improved; in the case of white-collar workers, the occupational climate was improved. In light of these results, we concluded that the comprehensive stress management program was effective in reducing work-related stress in a short-term period. A persistent long-term follow up is necessary to determine whether the observed effects are maintained over time. Both team-based improvement activities and individual interviews have to be sustainable and complementary to each other under the long-term plan.

  16. Software-as-a-Service and Cloud Computing, a solution for small and medium-sized companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajenaru, A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized companies are an important part of today’s world economy, for their ability to offer new jobs but also for their capacity of innovation. At the same time, they are in a constant struggle with larger companies that take advantage of their negotiating power to impose their way of doing business to the SMEs. In an ICT enabled world, most large companies being intense ICT users, the lag of ICT adoption in SMEs may create a strong barrier between SMEs and large companies, promoting an over growing digital divide, the SMEs being in danger of being left out in some economic sectors. This paper aims at finding a possible solution in the Software-as-a-Service and Cloud Computing model, a rather new solution, yet more and more sought off by SMEs but also larger companies, especially considering the global financial and economic crisis, as well as evaluating the European Union’s main views and policies regarding the SAAS – Cloud model.

  17. Influence of product innovations on financial performance of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Tabas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this article is to determine possible effect of product innovations on the financial performance of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic. The pilot research has been realized on the statistical sample of 100 companies which were categorized into three basic groups; service companies, trade companies, and production companies. As the measure of innovation effect, the authors applied the deviation of production power, i.e. the ration of EBIT to assets, of a business entity from the industry average while the industry average of production power was selected especially in order to reduce the influence of the economy cycles. In the three categories of companies, different effects of product innovations have been observed. In the service companies and trade companies, the positive effect is limited because of potential simplicity of imitation by competitors. More positive effect of product innovations has been observed in production companies which can protect the products or production processes better then service companies or trade companies where the product innovations are mostly connected with extension of extension of services portfolio offered. For the conclusion, the authors provide suppositions and designs for their future research in this problem of innovations’ effectiveness measurement.

  18. The importance of building downwash in assessing the need to heighten stacks of existing small and medium sized industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, J.F.P. [Centro de Tecnologias Ambientais, ISQ - Inst. de Soldadura e Qualidade, Oeiras (Portugal); Duarte, R. [Escola Superior de Tecnologia - Inst. Politecnico de Setubal (Portugal)

    2004-07-01

    This extended abstract intends to share the authors experience on the modelling of atmospheric pollutant dispersal and on the importance of building downwash considerations when assessing the need to heighten stacks of small and medium sized industrial enterprises (SME's). In order to understand the reasons that make industrial companies, especially SME's, consider stack heightening, in section 2 the existing Portuguese legislation on air quality and the stack heightening rules are briefly commented. New legislation that ought to appear soon (new Portuguese Air Act) is also commented and compared critically with the existing one. Then, section 3 characterizes Portuguese industry in terms of the ambient quality problems related to stack height. The adequacy of the stack heightening legislation to the particularities of the Portuguese case is discussed. In section 4 the authors experience in the specific study of stack heightening is presented. The methodology considered in these studies is discussed and compared with the application of existing and soon to appear legislation on stack height calculation. Finally, section 5 presents the conclusions and the need for an increased awareness on the pollutant dispersal problem is discussed. (orig.)

  19. Conducting Creativity Brainstorming Sessions in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Using Computer-Mediated Communication Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Uday S.

    A variety of Web-based low cost computer-mediated communication (CMC) tools are now available for use by small and medium-sized enterprises (SME). These tools invariably incorporate chat systems that facilitate simultaneous input in synchronous electronic meeting environments, allowing what is referred to as “electronic brainstorming.” Although prior research in information systems (IS) has established that electronic brainstorming can be superior to face-to-face brainstorming, there is a lack of detailed guidance regarding how CMC tools should be optimally configured to foster creativity in SMEs. This paper discusses factors to be considered in using CMC tools for creativity brainstorming and proposes recommendations for optimally configuring CMC tools to enhance creativity in SMEs. The recommendations are based on lessons learned from several recent experimental studies on the use of CMC tools for rich brainstorming tasks that require participants to invoke domain-specific knowledge. Based on a consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of the various configuration options, the recommendations provided can form the basis for selecting a CMC tool for creativity brainstorming or for creating an in-house CMC tool for the purpose.

  20. A study on the Chinese beliefs and their effects on small and medium sized business after 1990

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenneth Wall; Zhang Runtong; Yang Yancheng; Lin Hua

    2008-01-01

    As a result of economic reform commencing in 1978 in China, cultural beliefs of the Chinese business owners are changing. While much has been published concerning large and multinational businesses, there is a gap in knowledge Of cultural beliefs of small and medium sized enterprises. To provide new knowledge, a survey on these smaller sized enterprises located throughout China was conducted in the summer of 2006. Respondents were selected from urban and rural areas, coastal and inland provinces and various industries to provide information on their opinions on how some of their cultural beliefs have changed from 1990 to present. Specific beliefs questioned include: Use of fengshui, Traditional Forbidden Activities, Company Naming Responsibility, Company Name Basis, Use of Numbers, Use of Physiognomy, and Prediction of a Company's Future. The importance of fengshui has risen over in the last sixteen years and certain traditional forbidden activities such as not turning over the fish while eating has remained important as a cultural belief Naming a company is important and the desirability of a good name is based on various factors. Use of numbers, physiognomy, and non-scientific methods for predicting the future success of companies are of lesser use. These aspects of cuhure are reviewed in consideration of the change from a planned economy to a market-based economy.

  1. Mass Housing Neighbourhoods in Medium-Sized Andalusian Cities. Between Historic City Centres and New Peripheral Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Carrillo, Daniel; Pérez-Cano, María Teresa; Rosa-Jiménez, Carlos

    2017-10-01

    This paper aims to analyse the evolution experienced by the neighbourhoods that comprise the so-called first periphery. Most of them have been thoroughly studied, has led to recognize theirs values and to be included in the catalogues of heritage protection of their respective cities. However, this research shows that is pending an in-depth analysis in cities of intermediate scale. Its significance lies not only in the fact that they are the most significant operations of architecture of the modern movement in their respective cities, but are especially noteworthy the values derived from its strategic location within the urban structure of these intermediate scale cities. Being near to city centre, they have been constituted as transition pieces between historic sites, new peripheral developments, and even, their nearest territory. As method, this research proposes a comparative analysis of traceability among different study cases, from medium-sized cities of the Andalusian Coast (Spain). In this context, it means recording the evolution that these promotions have been experienced since their first designs until their current situation. It attempts to find the characteristics that have resulted in the urban configuration of this periphery and to recognize the sum of all the cultural, economic, social and technological aspects that conditions the ways of life that today are detected in them. Definitely, the knowledge generated by this research allows extracting architectural and urban values of these examples, which justify its necessary dissemination as part of our legacy.

  2. Designing and Validating a Model for Measuring Sustainability of Overall Innovation Capability of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nizam Ab Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The business environment is currently characterized by intensified competition at both the national and firm levels. Many studies have shown that innovation positively affect firms in enhancing their competitiveness. Innovation is a dynamic process that requires a continuous, evolving, and mastered management. Evaluating the sustainability of overall innovation capability of a business is a major means of determining how well this firm effectively and efficiently manages its innovation process. A psychometrically valid scale of evaluating the sustainability of overall innovation capability of a firm is still insufficient in the current innovation literature. Thus, this study developed a reliable and valid scale of measuring the sustainability of overall innovation capability construct. The unidimensionality, reliability, and several validity components of the developed scale were tested using the data collected from 175 small and medium-sized enterprises in Iran. A series of systematic statistical analyses were performed. Results of the reliability measures, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and several components of validity tests strongly supported an eight-dimensional (8D scale of measuring the sustainability of overall innovation capability construct. The dimensions of the scale were strategic management, supportive culture and structure, resource allocation, communication and networking, knowledge and technology management, idea management, project development, and commercialization capabilities.

  3. MCDA-C Methodology Based Performance Evaluation of Small and Medium-Sized Businesses at the City of Lages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Nascimento

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available When employed in a focused manner, corporate performance evaluation has proven to be instrumental for entrepreneurs as an important tool that contributes with performance improvements at their organizations. The descriptive study herein, prepared as of a questionnaire comprising 46 queries, poses to analyse the performance of micro and small companies (MSEs by employing the multicriteria methodology for constructive decision aiding (MCDA-C. As of respondent replies, MCDA-C descriptors were formed, shaping six prime groups so as to identify relevant factors that drive or hinder MSE success. The questionnaire was applied to managers in charge administering 25 small and medium-sized companies of Lages, a city within the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina. Study findings provide evidence as to the fact that (i 24% of surveyed companies, tend to go bankrupt; (ii managerial functions at the MSEs are the prime source of influence on negative outcomes; (iii from a financial control standpoint, surveyed companies fall far shorter than the minimum level deemed necessary to qualify as satisfactory; (iv those that present the best results, operate both within the domestic and international markets; (v the study placed under the spotlight the group “Evolution Stage”, evidencing the trend of ever increasing MSE expansion. This study revealed that corporate failure contributing factors are intensely interconnected and largely depend on the entrepreneur´s own performance, the prime contribution of findings residing in demonstrating that MCDA-C can be employed to analyse the performance of micro and small businesses.

  4. Abundance of Conepatus chinga (Carnivora, Mephitidae and other medium-sized mammals in grasslands of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos B. Kasper

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Between January 2007 and December 2010, the abundance of medium-sized mammals was studied, with special focus on the Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782, at four locations in southern Brazil. In this study, transect line methodology was used to obtain data for Distance Analyses. Transects were traveled by car at night, searching with spotlights along the edges of secondary roads in agricultural landscapes. Along 1,811 km, we obtained 620 observations of 20 mammal species. The most common species was the exotic European hare, Lepus europaeus (Pallas, 1778; the highest abundance estimated for South America was observed in one of the study areas, where its density was estimated as 32 individuals/km². Carnivores were the most commonly recorded mammals, represented by 10 species and comprising 51% of all observations. Molina's hog-nosed skunk occurred in all study areas, but occurred in sufficient numbers to obtain density estimates in only two of the areas. We estimated 1.4 to 3.8 individuals/km², in the first density estimate made by the transect method for a member of Conepatus in the Neotropics. These values are similar to those estimated for North American species of Mephitidae. In Brazil, C. chinga is apparently more abundant in the Pampa biome than in the grasslands of the Atlantic Forest. For two other carnivores, Lycalopex gymnocercus (Fisher, 1814 and Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, we estimated preliminary densities that were similar to those previously cited for different regions.

  5. The possible ways to IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards for SME (Small and Medium sized Entities development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Bohušová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The most business entities in Europe are small or medium-sized enterprises (SME, which have a legal obligation to prepare financial statements in accordance with a set of accounting principles accepted in their country. Those statements are available to creditors, suppliers, and national governments but they could be badly understandable to creditors, suppliers and subjects in other countries. This is a great obstacle of their activities in the EU internal market. The existence of 27 different national accounting systems in the EU can be held for the most important obstacle.There are many ways how to develop compatible accounting standards for SMEs but the most significant activity in this field is the research project of IASB (International Accounting Standards Board. IASB has developed IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards. Even though IFRS are suitable for all enterprises, their application in case of SMEs would be very expensive and could significantly increase compliance costs of taxation. This development has not been finished yet and there are still some problems which need to be solved before the introduction of accounting standards to the public. The research has shown that IFRS for SMEs should be used mainly by the entities which do not have public accountability – i.e. that its equities are not publicly traded and do not hold assets in a fiduciary capacity for a broad group of outsiders. This paper discusses those IFRS modifications, which should be done in case of SMEs.

  6. Energy efficiency and sustainability assessment of about 500 small and medium-sized enterprises in Central Europe region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viesi, Diego; Pozzar, Francesca; Federici, Alessandro; Crema, Luigi; Mahbub, Md Shahriar

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays more than 20 million small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are located in the European Union (EU): they are a key driver for economic growth, innovation, employment and social integration. The first step towards better industrial energy and environmental performance is the acknowledgement of the savings potential that can be realized by the company ownership and management board. Following this goal, the CEEM (Central Environmental and Energy Management) project provided to about 500 Central Europe SMEs of 5 countries (Austria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy and Slovenia) a user friendly and free of charge web tool called 3EMT (Eco Energy Efficiency Management Tool). Through a questionnaire the 3EMT analyzes and sums up eco-energy patterns, helps to self-assess the company environmental performance, benchmarks a company with other Central Europe’s enterprises, delivers a customized Assessment Report, suggests further services and facilities. In this paper, the large 3EMT database is analyzed, and statistics focused on SMEs eco-energy performance and future & innovation perspectives are presented and discussed. Furthermore, key challenges and key intervention points were defined by local stakeholders (policy makers, Energy Service Companies, SMEs representatives, researchers), this paper summarizes the main policy outcomes. - Highlights: • Evaluation of Central Europe SME performance in energy efficiency and sustainability. • Extension of SME statistics at European and national level. • Identification of key challenges and key interventions for new industrial policies.

  7. The Franchising in the Context of Development of Small and Medium-Sized Business: Organizational-Economic and Accounting Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makhota Alla V.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the organizational-economic and accounting aspects of franchising in the context of volatility of the macro-economic situation and the scarcity of entrepreneurs’ own funds, the current status of the franchising market in Ukraine, its economic essence and its role have been determined; the kinds of franchising that are known in world business practices have been provided; the types of distribution contracts that are close to the meaning of franchising have been defined; the legislative basis for franchising in Ukraine has been presented; the binding terms of a commercial concession contract as a legislated analogy of franchising in Ukraine have been determined; the features of reflection of the legality of franchising in accounting of both franchiser and franchisee have been provided. The objective advantages of franchising for both the large enterprises and the start-up entrepreneurs have been determined. On the basis of the legal nature of franchising relations in the accounting accounting, its reflection is close in the meaning to intangible assets. Implementation of franchising potential as a strategic tool for the development of small and medium-sized businesses requires the improvement of its legislative framework in the part of enhancing the responsibility of the parties.

  8. Mexico and emerging carbon markets : investment opportunities for small and medium-size companies and the global climate agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, S.; Carpentier, C.L.; Patterson, Z.; Kelly, K.; De Alba, E.; Hoyt, E.A.; Breceda, M.; Ouimet, B.

    2001-11-01

    This report provides information to the financial services sector on major environmental issues in North America in an effort to identify potential financial opportunities in Mexico regarding the climate change agenda and those coming from possible carbon offset projects. As a non-Annex 1 country, Mexico is not obliged to meet domestic GHG emission reduction targets, but given the strong economic links between Mexico, Canada and the United States it is suggested that investment transfer links to climate change should follow existing international investment and trade patterns. This report examined three sectors in Mexico, including electric power generation, steel production and land-use change and forestry, in an effort to evaluate their potential for carbon reduction. The report identifies carbon-related opportunities involving small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) in particular because large companies are already better positioned to examine opportunities associated with the international climate agenda. SMEs, however, face many challenges in taking advantage of climate-related projects and associated investment opportunities, including higher entry and transaction costs, difficulty in accessing capital markets, and difficulty in estimating individual baselines and inventories. The report showed that the main carbon-related opportunity in Mexico's electricity sector are closely related to the planned expansion of natural gas use. This study also suggests that the climate agenda can contribute to changing Mexican forests from their current state of being a net source of greenhouse gas emissions, to becoming a significant carbon sink. tabs., figs

  9. The Dilemma and Way-Out of Urban and Rural Planning Management in China’s Small and Medium-Sized Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dawei; WANG; Yandong; WANG

    2014-01-01

    In China, for small and medium-sized cities, urban and rural planning management should play an important role during the process of urbanization. However, it failed to do that in reality due to a series of limits, such as local fiscal deficiency, scarce human resources, incomplete management systems, historic planning defects, inadequate supervisions, and imperfect regulations, etc. This paper made a comprehensive analysis on the dilemma of urban and rural planning management in China’s small and medium-sized cities and the interests and status of the government, enterprises and public in space resource allocation and put forward the methods to improve the quality of planning management in China’s small and medium-sized cities from the view of systems and mechanisms.

  10. Total chemical synthesis of histones and their analogs, assisted by native chemical ligation and palladium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Suman Kumar; Jbara, Muhammad; Mann, Guy; Kamnesky, Guy; Brik, Ashraf

    2017-11-01

    Chemical synthesis of histones allows precise control of the installation of post-translational modifications via the coupling of derivatized amino acids. Shortcomings of other approaches for obtaining modified histones for epigenetic studies include heterogeneity of the obtained product and difficulties in incorporating multiple modifications on the same histone. In this protocol, unprotected peptide fragments are prepared by Fmoc solid-phase synthesis and coupled in aqueous buffers via native chemical ligation (NCL; in NCL, a peptide bond is formed between a peptide with an N-terminal Cys and another peptide having a C-terminal thioester). This task is challenging, with obstacles relating to the preparation and ligation of hydrophobic peptides, as well as the requirement for multiple purification steps due to protecting-group manipulations during the polypeptide assembly process. To address this, our approach uses an easily removable solubilizing tag for the synthesis and ligation of hydrophobic peptides, as well as a more efficient and better-yielding method to remove Cys-protecting groups that uses palladium chemistry (specifically [Pd(allyl)Cl] 2 and PdCl 2 complexes). The utility of this approach is demonstrated in the syntheses of ubiquitinated H2B at Lys34, phosphorylated H2A at Tyr57 and unmodified H4. Each of these analogs can be prepared in milligram quantities within ∼20-30 d.

  11. Analysis of mechanism of complex chemical reaction taking radiation chemical purification of gases from impurities as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, G.Ya.; Makarov, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    Algorithm of selecting optimal mechanism of complex chemical reaction, enabling to reduce the number of its stages, is suggested. Main steps of constructing the kinetic model of the medium are considered, taking the radiation chemical purification (using fast electron radiation) of gases (N 2 , CO 2 , O 2 and others) from impurities as an example. 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  12. eVerdEE: a web-based screening life-cycle assessment tool for European small and medium-sized enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naldesi, Luciano; Buttol, Patrizia; Masoni, Paolo; Misceo, Monica; Sára, Balázs

    2004-12-01

    "eLCA" is a European Commission financed project aimed at realising "On line green tools and services for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs)". Knowledge and use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) by SMEs are strategic to introduce the Integrated Product Policy (IPP) in Europe, but methodology simplification is needed. LCA requires a large amount of validated general and sector specific data. Since their availability and cost can be insuperable barriers for SMEs, pre-elaborated data/meta-data, use of standards and low cost solutions are required. Within the framework of the eLCA project an LCA software - eVerdEE - based on a simplified methodology and specialised for SMEs has been developed. eVerdEE is a web-based tool with some innovative features. Its main feature is the adaptation of ISO 14040 requirements to offer easy-to-handle functions with solid scientific bases. Complex methodological problems, such as the system boundaries definition, the data quality estimation and documentation, the choice of impact categories, are simplified according to the SMEs" needs. Predefined "Goal and Scope definition" and "Inventory" forms, a user-friendly and well structured procedure are time and cost-effective. The tool is supported by a database containing pre-elaborated environmental indicators of substances and processes for different impact categories. The impact assessment is calculated automatically by using the user"s input and the database values. The results have different levels of interpretation in order to identify the life cycle critical points and the improvement options. The use of a target plot allows the direct comparison of different design alternatives.

  13. The influence of health-promoting lifestyles on the quality of life of retired workers in a medium-sized city of Northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-chen; Tao, Fang-biao; Ueda, Atsushi; Wei, Chang-nian; Fang, Jun

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the actual state of retired workers' lifestyles and quality of life (QOL) in a medium-sized city of Northeastern China and to assess the relationship between these according to differences between gender groups. The Chinese version of the Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP-II), the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF), and demographic variables were used to measure 343 (aged 50-79 years) retired workers' lifestyles and QOL. The results were analyzed using the t test, one-way analysis of variance, correlation analysis, and multiple linear regression analysis. Among the six lifestyle subscales of HPLP-II, the highest mean score was for Interpersonal Relations (IR) and the lowest was for Health Responsibility (HR), which has not been reported previously. The youngest group (50-60 years) had higher scores for lifestyles and QOL than the other age groups. When the results were analyzed based on financial situation, the lowest income group (below ¥2000) had the poorest scores. Analysis according to gender group revealed different tendencies for the scores of lifestyle and QOL, as well as in the multiple regression analysis between variables. Our results suggest that an effective approach to maintain a desirable lifestyle and QOL for retired workers at the regional level would be to introduce daily activities to improve HR and to maintain and enhance social support for the low-income populations. Further research is needed to understand the complex causal pathways between regional health and welfare factors, health behavior, and QOL.

  14. MDCT abnormalities of small- and medium-sized bronchus in active tuberculosis: a new angle on an old disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jin Kyoung; Ahn, Myeong Im; Jung, Jung Im; Han, Dae Hee; Kim, Young Kyoon; Oh, Eun-Jee; Park, Yeon-Joon

    2011-01-01

    Background: The incidence and findings of tuberculous invasion of the peripheral bronchus have not been fully investigated with MDCT. Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and findings of MDCT abnormalities of small- and medium-sized bronchus (SMB) in active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Material and Methods: Using multiplanar reformation, 35 consecutive MDCT scans (follow-up exams available in 14 patients with a mean interval of 8.1 months) were assessed for following abnormalities of SMB: bronchial impaction (BI), wall thickening, dilatation, peribronchial cuff of soft tissue, and bronchocavitary fistula. It was also assessed whether tree-in-buds (TIB) have a tendency to distribute in the territories of diseased SMB, and whether SMB abnormalities are present in patients with relatively mild disease. Results: SMB abnormalities were observed in 23 (65.7%) patients with active TB. The most frequent finding was wall thickening (n=18, 51.4%), followed by BI (n=13, 37.1%; zigzag-shaped in four), dilatation (n =11, 31.4%), amputated appearance of air column (n=11, 31.4%), peribronchial cuff of soft tissue (n=10, 28.6%), and bronchocavitary fistula (n=8, 22.9%). TIB (n=29; absent in two patients with SMB) was mainly within (n=14) or close to (n=4) the territory of diseased SMB. Follow-up CT frequently showed improvement of wall thickening (11/12) and persistence of bronchial dilatation (11/13). SMB abnormality was present in all of six patients with mild disease. Conclusion: MDCT shows that tuberculous invasion of the peripheral bronchus may be more frequent than previously thought, of which findings include wall thickening, BI, dilatation, amputated appearance of air column, peribronchial cuff of soft tissue and bronchocavitary fistula

  15. Impact of psychosocial job stress on non-fatal occupational injuries in small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Akinori; Ikeda, Tomoko; Takahashi, Masaya; Haratani, Takashi; Hojou, Minoru; Fujioka, Yosei; Swanson, Naomi G; Araki, Shunichi

    2006-08-01

    Workers involved in manufacturing are known to comprise a high-risk population for occupational injury, and this risk is greater in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The purpose of this study was to examine the association between psychosocial job stress and occupational injuries among workers in SMEs. One thousand forty-nine men and 721 women from 244 SMEs participated in this study. Perceived job stress was evaluated with the Japanese version of the generic job stress questionnaire, which covered 14 job stress variables. Occupational injury was assessed by self-report during the last 1-year period. Workers with high quantitative workload (odds ratio [OR] = 1.55 for men, 1.62 for women), high cognitive demands (OR = 1.70 for men, 1.53 for women), and low job satisfaction (OR = 1.33 for men, 1.93 for women) had a significantly increased risk of occupational injury in the multivariate model. High variance in workload (OR = 1.70) and high job future ambiguity (OR = 1.35) in men, and low job control (OR = 2.04) and high intragroup conflict (OR = 1.66) in women were significantly associated with occupational injury. In manufacturing/production workers, high quantitative workload (OR = 1.91), high variance in workload (OR = 2.02), and high depressive symptoms (OR = 1.55) were significantly associated with injury in men, while low social support from colleagues (OR = 2.36) or family (OR = 2.51) was related to injury in women. These data point to an independent relationship between psychosocial job stress and self-reported occupational injury in SMEs. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  16. Challenges of small and medium sized companies at early stage of development: Insights from Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Petković

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discover and understand factors that lead to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs shutdown in transitional economies, such as the economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H. The paper provides some findings about main influencing factors that lead to SMEs shut down in the first years of operation from entrepreneurs’ and managers’ perspective and suggests certain measures that should be taken to secure their survival, development and growth. For the purpose of this paper, empirical research was conducted, using stratified sampling of 110 SMEs from Republic of Srpska (49% of B&H territory. The section on methodology explains the entry criteria for the study population and methods of data analysis. Respondents from the research sample identified the following factors as the main obstacles to successful development of their businesses: difficulties in the collection of receivables from debtors, complicated legal procedures that regulate the work and business operations of enterprises, high rates of taxes and contributions on wages, the negative impact of the global economic crisis and expensive and complicated procedures for obtaining loans from commercial banks. Respondents didn’t evaluate their personal traits, level of formal and informal knowledge from business management field or lack of entrepreneurial spirit and readiness for being proactive, innovative or risk acceptance as potential causes of business failure. With its limitation, the paper contains novel information and insights about SMEs business obstacles and challenges in economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina as a solid base for more comprehensive future research.

  17. [The distribution of cardiovascular risk factors in employees from small- and medium-sized enterprises in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaifie, Andrea; Kraus, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    The German Prevention Act, the main parts of which came into force on 25 July 2015, encourages health promotion and prevention programs for people in their living environment. Through this act, preventive measures could reach employees at work that hardly seek medical services. This is of importance since employees with a low occupational position often show risk factors that increase morbidity and mortality. In this study, clinical data from n = 2280 employees from small and medium sized enterprises (SME) were analyzed for economic sector, sex, socioeconomic position (SEP), economic sector cardiovascular risk factors, musculoskeletal and psychological diseases. The socioeconomic position was categorized using the European Socioeconomic Classification into an intermediate/high and a low SEP category. Male employees showed a significantly higher occurrence of risk factors, such as smoking, diabetes or hypertension in comparison to female employees. In the manufacturing industry, male employees with a low SEP showed a higher prevalence of diabetes (2.3 vs. 5.9%), smoking (27.4 vs. 46.5%), and physical inactivity (sports: 55.0 vs. 37.1%) in comparison to employees with an intermediate/high SEP. Male employees with a low SEP from health and social services reported psychiatric disorders more frequently in comparison to those with an intermediate/high SEP (0.7 vs. 5.9%). Male employees with a low SEP should be given special consideration in the implementation of preventive measures at work within the framework of the Prevention Act.

  18. Impacts of forest farm practice on small to medium-sized mammals at Kemasul forest reserve, Pahang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Nor Bazilah; Abdul-Rahim, Ahmad Rizal; Md-Nor, Shukor; Mohd-Taib, Farah Shafawati

    2018-04-01

    Exploitation of forest for commercial agriculture has taken toll on wildlife species worldwide. A forest farm project with the aim of compensating the forest loss has been implemented in Kemasul Forest Reserve, of Pahang State, Malaysia through plantation of fast growing and adaptable plant species. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of this practice on diversity. The study was conducted in a long strip of forest fragment, where two study sites with different landscape matrix types were chosen; oil palm plantation (JR) and Acacia mangium plantations (CM). A total of 75 individuals from 13 species and six families were collected at both sites. The result shows forest with A. mangium plantations matrix types yield higher species diversity. There are 10 shared species that can be found at both study sites including Callosciurus notatus, Hystrix brachyura, Macaca nemestrina, and Tupaia glis. However, some species only existed at selected sites such as Leopoldamys sabanus which can only be found at JR. On the other hand, Callosciurus nigrovittatus, Viverra tangalunga and Paradoxurus hermaphroditus were only recorded at CM. Out of all individuals collected, four of them are protected species as reported by IUCN. Callosciurus nigrovittatus is listed as Near Threatened while the other three species (Maxomys rajah, Maxomys whiteheadi, and Macaca nemestrina) are Vulnerable. If conservation efforts in Kemasul Forest Reserved are neglected, these four species would be exposed to critical threats that might cause them facing extinction in the future. Mann Whitney U test shows no significant difference of distribution and species richness of small to medium-sized mammals in both study sites (U=51.5, p=0.59). This study therefore reveals that although the compensatory forest plantation initiatives yield positive effect on diversity of mammal's species, it does not necessarily provide ample food resources to the wildlife, instead it serves as important buffer

  19. Feasibility of satisfying electrical energy needs with hybrid systems for a medium-size hotel on Kish Island, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazelpour, Farivar; Soltani, Nima; Rosen, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    The utilization of renewable resources is growing, in part due to the environmental impacts caused by fossil fuels. The largest sources of renewable energy are wind and solar and many predict that these energy sources will be increasingly used for distributed generation. In this paper, the feasibility is examined of a grid-independent system applied for a medium-size hotel in Kish Island, Iran. Furthermore, economic optimization is included in the assessment by using the Homer software as the optimization tool. Renewable and non-renewable energy sources (fossil fuels) are considered, and the final adoption of both cases is primarily based on their associated cost and efficiency. Sensitivity analyses are performed to determine the impact on performance of several key parameters: wind speed, solar radiation and fuel costs. The target location in this study is a hotel that has 125 rooms with the total annual electrical energy consumption of 2,628,000 kWh, and a peak demand of about 620 kW. The results of a comprehensive feasibility data analysis along with its economic evaluation indicate that the wind-diesel hybrid system with battery storage is most efficient energy system for supplying the hotel's electrical energy demands. - Highlights: • The required energy for a hotel in Kish Island, Iran is determined. • HOMER software is used in the analyses for both technical and economic criteria. • Four feasible systems are classified and the most economic system is identified. • Annual greenhouse gas emissions are considered for all systems

  20. Integration of a solar thermal system in a medium-sized brewery using pinch analysis: Methodology and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiholzer, Tobias; Olsen, Donald; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Sturm, Barbara; Wellig, Beat

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Methodologies to reduce energy consumption in batch processes are presented. • Pinch analysis is used to improve energy efficiency. • Integration potential for solar heat is presented on a Scottish brewery case study. • Governmental support is important in a company’s investment in renewables. - Abstract: In the food industry a major portion of thermal energy is required for low temperature applications (below 100 °C). As a consequence, there is a significant potential to substitute fossil fuels by the use of solar heat. This paper presents a methodology that first uses pinch analysis to optimize a medium-sized Scottish brewery from a direct heat recovery perspective followed by the integration of a solar thermal system. Both the time average model and time slice model were used to determine direct and indirect heat recovery potentials. In a second stage, an optimization of a chosen integration point was conducted to assess the viability of the resulting design concept. The economic analysis includes an assessment of the impact of restrictions in the UK government’s Renewable Heat Incentive program. It was determined that since solar thermal systems are financially supported up to an installed capacity of 200 kW, solar heat can only account for a maximum of 7.7% of the heat demand based on the investigated brewery. However, if there was no limitation in capacity, from an economic point of view, the solar fraction could almost be doubled drawing into question the need for the restriction. Nevertheless, a CO_2 saving potential of approximately 38 tons per year in conjunction with a payback period of 6.4 years was determined.

  1. MDCT abnormalities of small- and medium-sized bronchus in active tuberculosis: a new angle on an old disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jin Kyoung; Ahn, Myeong Im; Jung, Jung Im; Han, Dae Hee (Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)), email: lepolder@gmail.com; Kim, Young Kyoon (Dept. of Internal Medicine, Seoul St Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Oh, Eun-Jee; Park, Yeon-Joon (Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Seoul St Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

    2011-02-15

    Background: The incidence and findings of tuberculous invasion of the peripheral bronchus have not been fully investigated with MDCT. Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and findings of MDCT abnormalities of small- and medium-sized bronchus (SMB) in active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Material and Methods: Using multiplanar reformation, 35 consecutive MDCT scans (follow-up exams available in 14 patients with a mean interval of 8.1 months) were assessed for following abnormalities of SMB: bronchial impaction (BI), wall thickening, dilatation, peribronchial cuff of soft tissue, and bronchocavitary fistula. It was also assessed whether tree-in-buds (TIB) have a tendency to distribute in the territories of diseased SMB, and whether SMB abnormalities are present in patients with relatively mild disease. Results: SMB abnormalities were observed in 23 (65.7%) patients with active TB. The most frequent finding was wall thickening (n=18, 51.4%), followed by BI (n=13, 37.1%; zigzag-shaped in four), dilatation (n =11, 31.4%), amputated appearance of air column (n=11, 31.4%), peribronchial cuff of soft tissue (n=10, 28.6%), and bronchocavitary fistula (n=8, 22.9%). TIB (n=29; absent in two patients with SMB) was mainly within (n=14) or close to (n=4) the territory of diseased SMB. Follow-up CT frequently showed improvement of wall thickening (11/12) and persistence of bronchial dilatation (11/13). SMB abnormality was present in all of six patients with mild disease. Conclusion: MDCT shows that tuberculous invasion of the peripheral bronchus may be more frequent than previously thought, of which findings include wall thickening, BI, dilatation, amputated appearance of air column, peribronchial cuff of soft tissue and bronchocavitary fistula

  2. Chemical solution deposition techniques for epitaxial growth of complex oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Elshof, Johan E.; Koster, G.; Huijben, Mark; Rijnders, G.

    2015-01-01

    The chemical solution deposition (CSD) process is a wet-chemical process that is employed to fabricate a wide variety of amorphous and crystalline oxide thin films. This chapter describes the typical steps in a CSD process and their influence on the final microstructure and properties of films, and

  3. Algorithmic Complexity and Reprogrammability of Chemical Structure Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Zenil, Hector; Kiani, Narsis A.; Shang, Ming-mei; Tegner, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    Here we address the challenge of profiling causal properties and tracking the transformation of chemical compounds from an algorithmic perspective. We explore the potential of applying a computational interventional calculus based on the principles of algorithmic probability to chemical structure networks. We profile the sensitivity of the elements and covalent bonds in a chemical structure network algorithmically, asking whether reprogrammability affords information about thermodynamic and chemical processes involved in the transformation of different compound classes. We arrive at numerical results suggesting a correspondence between some physical, structural and functional properties. Our methods are capable of separating chemical classes that reflect functional and natural differences without considering any information about atomic and molecular properties. We conclude that these methods, with their links to chemoinformatics via algorithmic, probability hold promise for future research.

  4. Algorithmic Complexity and Reprogrammability of Chemical Structure Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Zenil, Hector

    2018-04-02

    Here we address the challenge of profiling causal properties and tracking the transformation of chemical compounds from an algorithmic perspective. We explore the potential of applying a computational interventional calculus based on the principles of algorithmic probability to chemical structure networks. We profile the sensitivity of the elements and covalent bonds in a chemical structure network algorithmically, asking whether reprogrammability affords information about thermodynamic and chemical processes involved in the transformation of different compound classes. We arrive at numerical results suggesting a correspondence between some physical, structural and functional properties. Our methods are capable of separating chemical classes that reflect functional and natural differences without considering any information about atomic and molecular properties. We conclude that these methods, with their links to chemoinformatics via algorithmic, probability hold promise for future research.

  5. Algorithmic Complexity and Reprogrammability of Chemical Structure Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Zenil, Hector

    2018-02-16

    Here we address the challenge of profiling causal properties and tracking the transformation of chemical compounds from an algorithmic perspective. We explore the potential of applying a computational interventional calculus based on the principles of algorithmic probability to chemical structure networks. We profile the sensitivity of the elements and covalent bonds in a chemical structure network algorithmically, asking whether reprogrammability affords information about thermodynamic and chemical processes involved in the transformation of different compound classes. We arrive at numerical results suggesting a correspondence between some physical, structural and functional properties. Our methods are capable of separating chemical classes that reflect functional and natural differences without considering any information about atomic and molecular properties. We conclude that these methods, with their links to chemoinformatics via algorithmic, probability hold promise for future research.

  6. Quantum chemical investigation of levofloxacin-boron complexes: A computational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayin, Koray; Karakaş, Duran

    2018-04-01

    Quantum chemical calculations are performed over some boron complexes with levofloxacin. Boron complex with fluorine atoms are optimized at three different methods (HF, B3LYP and M062X) with 6-31 + G(d) basis set. The best level is determined as M062X/6-31 + G(d) by comparison of experimental and calculated results of complex (1). The other complexes are optimized by using the best level. Structural properties, IR and NMR spectrum are examined in detail. Biological activities of mentioned complexes are investigated by some quantum chemical descriptors and molecular docking analyses. As a result, biological activities of complex (2) and (4) are close to each other and higher than those of other complexes. Additionally, NLO properties of mentioned complexes are investigated by some quantum chemical parameters. It is found that complex (3) is the best candidate for NLO applications.

  7. Do interventions targeted at micro-entrepreneurs and small and medium-sized firms create jobs? A systematic review of the evidence for low and middle income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Grimm (Michael); A.L. Paffhausen

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Worldwide, 600 million jobs are needed over the next 15 years to keep employment rates at their current level. Because most employment in low and middle income countries is in micro-, small and medium-sized enterprises, governments, non-governmental organizations and

  8. Towards a Service-Oriented Enterprise: The Design of a Cloud Business Integration Platform in a Medium-Sized Manufacturing Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamas, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    This case study research followed the two-year transition of a medium-sized manufacturing firm towards a service-oriented enterprise. A service-oriented enterprise is an emerging architecture of the firm that leverages the paradigm of services computing to integrate the capabilities of the firm with the complementary competencies of business…

  9. Non-governmental organizations and the sustainability of small and medium-sized enterprises in Peru : an analysis of networks and discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Aponte, W.V.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in terms of employment and income generation has been recognized worldwide. In Peru, SMEs are responsible for 85% of the employment at the national level and they represent 98% of the total companies registered. Around 12% of

  10. Focus of B-to-B e-commerce initiatives and related benefits in manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elie, E.; Lefebvre, L.A.; Lefebvre, E.

    2007-01-01

    Empirical research into business-to-business e-commerce issues involving manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is still embryonic. In an attempt to partially fill this gap, this paper presents empirical data from an electronic survey conducted among 96 manufacturing SMEs to

  11. The business case for safety and health at work : cost-benefit analyses of interventions in small and medium-sized enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Targoutzidis, A.; Koukoulaki, T.; Schmitz-Felten, E.; Kuhl, K.; Oude Hengel, K.M.; Rijken, E.; Broek K. van den; Kluser, R.

    2014-01-01

    This report examines the economic aspects of occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions in small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs). First, case studies in the existing literature were identified and examined. Second, 13 new case studies on OSH initiatives in European SMEs were developed,

  12. Focus of B-to-B e-commerce initiatives and related benefits in manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elie, E.; Lefebvre, L.A.; Lefebvre, E.

    2007-01-01

    Empirical research into business-to-business e-commerce issues involving manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is still embryonic. In an attempt to partially fill this gap, this paper presents empirical data from an electronic survey conducted among 96 manufacturing SMEs to

  13. Impact of Top Management Team on Firm Performance in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Adopting Commercial Open-Source Enterprise Resource Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereola, Sandra J.; Wier, Benson; Norman, Carolyn Strand

    2012-01-01

    Based on the large number of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the United States, their increasing interest in enterprise-wide software systems and their impact on the US economy, it is important to understand the determinants that can facilitate the successful implementation and assimilation of such technology into these firms' daily…

  14. Developing a Methodology Based on Action Learning to Facilitate the Adoption of ICT in Small and Medium-sized Companies in Costa Rica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez, Heilyn Camacho

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to understand and explore better strategies to support the Small and Medium-sized companies sector in Costa Rica in the ICT adoption process. A strategy has been proposed which focuses on learning process and the interaction of university, industry and government (Triple...

  15. Information processing and strategic decision-making in small and medium-sized enterprises : The role of human and social capital in attaining decision effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.J.G.; Curseu, P.L.; Vermeulen, P.A.M.; Geurts, J.L.A.; Gibcus, P.

    2013-01-01

    The decision-making literature emphasizes that in high-stake decisions the characteristics of individual decision-makers, their interpretation of decision situations, and their social ties play an important role in decision outcomes. Despite these results, research on small- and medium-sized

  16. 78 FR 9938 - U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Effects on U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises; Institution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... Trade Agreement on U.S. small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) since entry into force of the... effects of the agreement on the production, distribution, and export strategy of U.S. SMEs, as identified by those SMEs, and describing how U.S. SMEs have benefited from specific provisions of the agreement...

  17. International orientation and export commitment in fast small and medium size firms internationalization: scales validation and implications for the Brazilian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo André Machado

    Full Text Available Abstract A set of changes in the competitive environment has recently provoked the emergence of a new kind of organization that has since its creation a meaningful share of its revenue being originated from international activities developed in more than one continent. Within this new reality, the internationalization of the firm in phases or according to its growth has resulted in it losing its capacity to explain this process with regard to small- and medium-sized enterprises (SME. Thus, in this paper, the international orientation (IO and export commitment (EC constructs have been revised under a theoretical context of the fast internationalization of medium-sized companies, so as to identify scales that more accurately measure these dimensions in the Brazilian setting. After a literature review and an exploratory research, the IO and EC scales proposed by Knight and Cavusgil (2004 and Shamsuddoha and Ali (2006 were respectively applied to a sample of 398 small- and medium-sized exporting Brazilian companies. In spite of conjunction and situation differences inherent to the Brazilian companies, the selected scales presented high measuring reliability. Furthermore, the field research outcomes provide evidence for the existence of a phenomenon of fast internationalization in medium-sized companies in Brazil, as well as support some theoretical assumptions of other empirical investigations carried out with samples from developed countries.

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of different devices used for the closure of small-to-medium-sized patent ductus arteriosus in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia A El-Saiedi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The cook detachable coil is the most cost.effective device for closure of small.to medium.sized PDAs. Calculations of the incremental cost.effectiveness. (ICE revealed that the Cook detachable coil had less ICE than the ADO II and NOC. The NOC was more effective with fewer complications.

  19. Corporate social responsibility and aging workforces : an explorative study of corporate social responsibility implementation in small- and medium-sized enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Frank Jan; Gellert, Franz Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Although critical differences exist between large companies and small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), limited empirical research has been done on human resource (HR)-related corporate social responsibility (CSR). In this paper we study aging workforce management (AWM) as a component of CSR.

  20. Towards a Guideline for Design of a Corporate Entrepreneurship Function for Business Development in Medium-Sized Technology-Based Companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittenbogaard, Boaz; Broens, Lute; Groen, Arend J.

    2005-01-01

    The speed with which global high-technology markets evolve makes companies recognize that an effective innovation process is the best way to guarantee competitiveness. However, when (medium-sized) companies then wish to set up a corporate entrepreneurship function to enhance business development

  1. Funding Continuing Training in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Discussion and Case Studies from across the EU. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkinen, Tommi; Romijn, Clemens; Elson-Rogers, Sarah

    There are three main parts to this report of a study that used case studies to showcase the different approaches used to encourage more continuing training within small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) across the European Union (EU). Section 1 discusses the importance of funding training in SMEs and highlights the various types of funding…

  2. The role of small and medium-sized high-tech enterprise in the formation of innovative potential of the Voronezh region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Shubina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions the region's sustainable development and economic growth is largely determined by its ability to implement innovations. One of the determining factors of long-term economic development of the territories, to date, is innovation. A mechanism to give impetus to the innovative development of the regions is to create effective small and medium-sized innovative enterprises. Voronezh region, like many Russian regions, has considerable potential for innovation, but usually it is not used efficiently or not used at all. The article deals with the concept and the need to develop innovative entrepreneurship and the role of small and medium innovative enterprises in the formation of scientific and technical potential of the Voronezh region. The basic conditions and factors promoting and impeding the development of small and medium innovative businesses in the region, determined the willingness of subjects of innovation activity in the development, implementation and promotion of innovation in the region. The problems of development of small and medium-sized businesses at the regional level. The evaluation of actions to improve SMEs management programs in the region. Particular attention is given to the classification of small and medium-sized innovative business structures. In order to stimulate the development of small and medium-sized innovative business in the Voronezh region in the article suggests the implementation of a package of measures. The active use of innovation by small and medium-sized enterprises of the Voronezh area enhances their efficiency and competitiveness, creates new jobs, which ultimately has a positive effect on the region's economic development, the growth of the tax base, improving the quality of life of the population.

  3. Activation of Mechanosensitive Transient Receptor Potential/Piezo Channels in Odontoblasts Generates Action Potentials in Cocultured Isolectin B4-negative Medium-sized Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masaki; Ogura, Kazuhiro; Kimura, Maki; Nishi, Koichi; Ando, Masayuki; Tazaki, Masakazu; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki

    2018-04-27

    Various stimuli to the dentin surface elicit dentinal pain by inducing dentinal fluid movement causing cellular deformation in odontoblasts. Although odontoblasts detect deformation by the activation of mechanosensitive ionic channels, it is still unclear whether odontoblasts are capable of establishing neurotransmission with myelinated A delta (Aδ) neurons. Additionally, it is still unclear whether these neurons evoke action potentials by neurotransmitters from odontoblasts to mediate sensory transduction in dentin. Thus, we investigated evoked inward currents and evoked action potentials form trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons after odontoblast mechanical stimulation. We used patch clamp recordings to identify electrophysiological properties and record evoked responses in TG neurons. We classified TG cells into small-sized and medium-sized neurons. In both types of neurons, we observed voltage-dependent inward currents. The currents from medium-sized neurons showed fast inactivation kinetics. When mechanical stimuli were applied to odontoblasts, evoked inward currents were recorded from medium-sized neurons. Antagonists for the ionotropic adenosine triphosphate receptor (P2X 3 ), transient receptor potential channel subfamilies, and Piezo1 channel significantly inhibited these inward currents. Mechanical stimulation to odontoblasts also generated action potentials in the isolectin B 4 -negative medium-sized neurons. Action potentials in these isolectin B 4 -negative medium-sized neurons showed a short duration. Overall, electrophysiological properties of neurons indicate that the TG neurons with recorded evoked responses after odontoblast mechanical stimulation were myelinated Aδ neurons. Odontoblasts established neurotransmission with myelinated Aδ neurons via P2X 3 receptor activation. The results also indicated that mechanosensitive TRP/Piezo1 channels were functionally expressed in odontoblasts. The activation of P2X 3 receptors induced an action potential

  4. Chemical effects of nuclear transformations in molybdenum complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millan S, S.A.

    1977-01-01

    The Szilard-Chalmers effect was studied in the complexes: tetraacetatedimolybdenum(II), tetrabenzoatedimolybdenum(II), benzenetricarbonylmolybdenym(0). The results we obtained in the measurement of the Szilard-Chalmers effect on the studied complexes imply some influence of the structure in the molecular fragmentation, or the conservation of the links molybdenum-ligands. (author)

  5. Health risk assessment of chemical pollutants in a petrochemical complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Golbabaie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: workers in petrochemical industries are exposed to various contaminants and are facing to serious hazards, therefore a comprehensive risk assessment program for identification of hazardous chemicals that affect human health and also determination of hazardous tasks and processes is necessary.     Methods : This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in three stages. First stage consisted of identifying hazardous chemicals and determination of chemicals risk ratio, the second stage included the evaluation of worker's exposure to hazardous chemicals, and the third stage was estimating the relative risk of blood cancer caused by exposure to benzene through epidemiological studies.     Results: With regard to risk assessment method, 40 chemicals were identified in this Petrochemical Company. Among them, Benzene introduced as the most hazardous chemical. The results of the second stage showed that site man workers in noon shift work and in aromatic site with mean exposure 4.29 ppm had the highest exposure to benzene. The results of estimated leukemia relative risk stage in benzene exposure, the highest relative risk in workers related to site man workers in aromatic units with cumulative benzene exposure of 4.149 ppm. Years that obtained the relative risk of 2.3. The statistical test results showed that the relationship between worker's exposure to benzene and their job was significant(p<0/001     Conclusion : This study showed that benzene with a risk ratio of 4.5 -5 have 5th rank in risk levels and this indicates that preventative actions regarding to this hazardous and carcinogenic chemical must be started as soon as possible.

  6. Physico-chemical studies of some aminobenzoic acid hydrazide complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ABD EL HALEEM

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The stability constants and related thermodynamic functions characterizing the formation of divalent Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Hg complexes with o- and p-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide were determined potentiometrically at different temperatures. The formations of the complexes are endothermic processes. The formed bonds are mainly electrostatic. Conductometric titration was carried out to determine the stoichiometry and stability of the formed complexes. The structures of complexes were characterized by their IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectra, as well as X-ray diffractograms. The coordination process takes place through the carbonyl group and the terminal hydrazinic amino group. The thermal stability of the complexes was followed in the temperature range 20–600ºC.

  7. The power of Alberta business : the impact of electricity deregulation on Alberta small and medium-sized business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlmann, C.; Kelly, D.

    2001-07-01

    Deregulation of the electricity market came into effect on January 1, 2001 in Alberta. This deregulation affects the retail and generation fields of electricity. The intention was to introduce competition and apply downward pressure on electricity prices, but the reverse effect was witnessed: power prices increased. It resulted in a period of anxiety on the part of businesses, caused by the volatility of electricity prices. A survey of Canadian Federation of Independent Business (CFIB) members was conducted in May and June 2001 to better understand the impacts of electricity deregulation on small and medium-sized businesses. A broad range of businesses provided responses (951 responses) covering all sectors of industry and regions in Alberta. A large proportion of respondents were dissatisfied with deregulation, caused in part by the confusion created by the flurry of rebate and credit announcements designed to ease the transition. Small firms were faced with significant increases in electricity prices, and several could not estimate the size of the increase as it was too difficult to measure. Responses varied from a low of 5 per cent increase to a high of 400 per cent in power rates. Most respondents also indicated that the increases had an impact on their business. The impact of power rate increases by sector was examined. Another consequence of deregulation was the fact that billing moved from a single invoice received to the requirement to actively manage energy usage. It was discovered that a lack of information on electricity cost and consumption management impeded the the ability to make business decisions. The CFIB asked respondents to indicate the measures being considered to address management of electricity costs. Incorporating energy-saving devices and/or methods had been considered by slightly more than 40 per cent of respondents. Negotiating with power retailers represented another option under consideration by some. It was felt that government must

  8. Potential advantages of coupling supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle to water cooled small and medium size reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ho Joon; Ahn, Yoonhan; Lee, Jeong Ik; Addad, Yacine

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► S-CO 2 cycle as candidate for SMS. ► MATLAB code used for S-CO 2 cycle analysis. ► Pressure ratio and split ratio comparison analyzed. - Abstract: The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO 2 ) Brayton cycle is being considered as a favorable candidate for the next generation nuclear reactors power conversion systems. Major benefits of the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle compared to other Brayton cycles are: (1) high thermal efficiency in relatively low turbine inlet temperature, (2) compactness of the turbomachineries and heat exchangers and (3) simpler cycle layout at an equivalent or superior thermal efficiency. However, these benefits can be still utilized even in the water-cooled reactor technologies under special circumstances. A small and medium size water-cooled nuclear reactor (SMR) has been gaining interest due to its wide range of application such as electricity generation, seawater desalination, district heating and propulsion. Another key advantage of a SMR is that it can be transported from one place to another mostly by maritime transport due to its small size, and sometimes even through a railway system. Therefore, the combination of a S-CO 2 Brayton cycle with a SMR can reinforce any advantages coming from its small size if the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle has much smaller size components, and simpler cycle layout compared to the currently considered steam Rankine cycle. In this paper, SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor), a 330 MW th integral reactor developed by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Institute) for multipurpose utilization, is considered as a potential candidate for applying the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle and advantages and disadvantages of the proposed system will be discussed in detail. In consideration of SMART condition, the turbine inlet pressure and size of heat exchangers are analyzed by using in-house code developed by KAIST–Khalifa University joint research team. According to the cycle evaluation, the maximum cycle efficiency

  9. Development of a Low NOx Medium sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, Ram

    2013-07-31

    This report presents the accomplishments at the completion of the DOE sponsored project (Contract # DE-FC26-09NT05873) undertaken by Solar Turbines Incorporated. The objective of this 54-month project was to develop a low NOx combustion system for a medium sized industrial gas turbine engine operating on Hydrogen-rich renewable and opportunity Fuels. The work in this project was focused on development of a combustion system sized for 15MW Titan 130 gas turbine engine based on design analysis and rig test results. Although detailed engine evaluation of the complete system is required prior to commercial application, those tasks were beyond the scope of this DOE sponsored project. The project tasks were organized in three stages, Stages 2 through 4. In Stage 2 of this project, Solar Turbines Incorporated characterized the low emission capability of current Titan 130 SoLoNOx fuel injector while operating on a matrix of fuel blends with varying Hydrogen concentration. The mapping in this phase was performed on a fuel injector designed for natural gas operation. Favorable test results were obtained in this phase on emissions and operability. However, the resulting fuel supply pressure needed to operate the engine with the lower Wobbe Index opportunity fuels would require additional gas compression, resulting in parasitic load and reduced thermal efficiency. In Stage 3, Solar characterized the pressure loss in the fuel injector and developed modifications to the fuel injection system through detailed network analysis. In this modification, only the fuel delivery flowpath was modified and the air-side of the injector and the premixing passages were not altered. The modified injector was fabricated and tested and verified to produce similar operability and emissions as the Stage 2 results. In parallel, Solar also fabricated a dual fuel capable injector with the same air-side flowpath to improve commercialization potential. This injector was also test verified to produce 15

  10. Public Procurement as an Instrument for the Development of Small and Medium-Sized Business in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnara Talgatovna Gafurova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the development of small and medium-sized business is relevant for many years. In the article, the questions of the support of small business through the system of public procurement are considered. Within this research, the authors have tried to systematize the data on the dynamics and structure of the public procurements from the point of view of the participation of small business in the purchasing process from the moment of the adoption of the Federal Public Contracts Act that allowed to reveal certain tendencies. The main methods of the research are the vertical and horizontal analysis of time series, the correlation and regression models of the panel data. The data on the participation of small business in the public procurements are grouped by various characteristics depending on the analysis purpose. The groups of the data have been analyzed on 83 entities of the Russian Federation. It has allowed making a full-scale estimation of the efficiency of procurements from the economics point of view. To estimate the influence of procurements on the development of small business entities, three hypotheses have been put forward: an increase in a number of customers placing orders for the small business enterprises, and a decrease in a share of the customers who are not meeting the requirements of the law about the threshold of 15 % lead to the growth of the budget savings; an increase in a number of demands for small business enterprises leads to the increase in the number of these enterprises in the regions; the number of the applications placed for small business entities influences the turnover of small enterprises. On the basis of the panel data of the unified information system of the central and local government procurement for the period of 2011–2015, econometric models confirming the hypotheses have been built. The authors’ calculations may be used by the authorities for the further development of measures for the

  11. Consultancy to dairy farmers relating to animal health and herd health management on small- and medium-sized farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothmann, H; Nechanitzky, K; Sturmlechner, F; Drillich, M

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain information about animal health challenges for dairy farmers of small- and medium-sized herds and about the fields in which consultancy services should be improved. The hyperlink to an internet-based survey was sent to 9,021 farmers in Austria. The survey included questions about the participants and their farms, about who is consulting with the farmers with regard to animal health, feeding, sire selection, construction of barns and animal husbandry, about animal health issues farmers find most challenging, and about their demands for improved consultancy services. The questionnaire was completed anonymously. Analyses were stratified by milk yield (categorized) and whether farmers worked full-time or part-time. The overall response rate was 11.3% (n=1,018). The majority of farms kept less than 20 cows (54.0%) or 20 to 50 cows (40.1%). With regard to animal health, the veterinarian was the most important consultant for the majority of farmers (84.6%). On issues related to feeding, sire selection, and stable construction, the veterinarian was seen as a less important consultant than specialists in these fields (20.4, 11.6, and 7.9% suggested the veterinarian as an important consultant in these areas). The survey indicated that reproductive disorders, udder disease, poor conception rate, lameness, and calf diarrhea represent the most important challenges to farmers. Of these, concerns about calf diarrhea were affected by milk yield of the herds and management. More high- than low-yielding farms (11.7 vs. 6.4%) and more full-time than part-time managed herds (9.6 vs.4.3%) regarded calf diarrhea as an important problem. Farmers would welcome improved consultancy with regard to fertility, feeding, and sire selection. The results indicated which animal health issues farmers find particularly challenging and displayed which areas farmers require improved consultancy services. Veterinarians and organizations offering consultancy

  12. Internationalisation Barriers of Small and Medium-sized Manufacturing Enterprises in Ethiopia: Leather and Leather Products Industry in Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehualashet Demeke Lakew

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine internationalisation barriers of manufacturing SMEs operating in Leather and Leather Products Industry located in the capital city of Ethiopia. The small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs sector in Ethiopia is a significant group within the economy in terms of firm numbers and total employment. However, the SMEs sector’s share of exports is disproportionately small, which raised considerable research concerns. Firm export propensity was the dependent variable and internal and external export barrier factors were used as explanatory variables. The study was conducted through mixed research design of quantitative survey and case study. From the population of manufacturing SMEs operating in the Leather and Leather products Industry, a sample was selected through the use of stratified random sampling to ensure the effective representation of the population of exporting and non-exporting SMEs in the capital of Ethiopia. In order to complement survey results nine (4 exporting and 5 non-exporting SMEs were selected through critical case purposive sampling and an in-depth interviews were conducted. Statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS 20 was used to analyse the quantitative data whereas, qualitative data were analysed manually. Exploratory factor analysis with Varimax rotation and Binary logistic regression analysis are the analytical methods used. The statistical result showed that, logistics problem, insufficient finance, functional barriers, lack of export knowledge and information, procedural barriers and international trade barriers are the most significant obstacles of export trade in Ethiopia. The overall results revealed that explanatory variables used in the analysis significantly predict the dependent variable at 95% confidence level. Taken together, these results prompted the presentation of numerous implications for theory, practice, and future research. Finally, the paper recommended

  13. Inclusion of potential vorticity uncertainties into a hydrometeorological forecasting chain: application to a medium size basin of Mediterranean Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amengual, A.; Romero, R.; Vich, M.; Alonso, S.

    2009-06-01

    The improvement of the short- and mid-range numerical runoff forecasts over the flood-prone Spanish Mediterranean area is a challenging issue. This work analyses four intense precipitation events which produced floods of different magnitude over the Llobregat river basin, a medium size catchment located in Catalonia, north-eastern Spain. One of them was a devasting flash flood - known as the "Montserrat" event - which produced 5 fatalities and material losses estimated at about 65 million euros. The characterization of the Llobregat basin's hydrological response to these floods is first assessed by using rain-gauge data and the Hydrologic Engineering Center's Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS) runoff model. In second place, the non-hydrostatic fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5) is nested within the ECMWF large-scale forecast fields in a set of 54 h period simulations to provide quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) for each hydrometeorological episode. The hydrological model is forced with these QPFs to evaluate the reliability of the resulting discharge forecasts, while an ensemble prediction system (EPS) based on perturbed atmospheric initial and boundary conditions has been designed to test the value of a probabilistic strategy versus the previous deterministic approach. Specifically, a Potential Vorticity (PV) Inversion technique has been used to perturb the MM5 model initial and boundary states (i.e. ECMWF forecast fields). For that purpose, a PV error climatology has been previously derived in order to introduce realistic PV perturbations in the EPS. Results show the benefits of using a probabilistic approach in those cases where the deterministic QPF presents significant deficiencies over the Llobregat river basin in terms of the rainfall amounts, timing and localization. These deficiences in precipitation fields have a major impact on flood forecasts. Our ensemble strategy has been found useful to reduce the

  14. Information and knowledge sharing trends of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeda Mohsam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, especially in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, are currently facing various financial and other obstacles, which may threaten their survival. Globalisation, the lowering of trade barriers and the reduction of import tariffs have resulted in increased international competition. Businesses are thus forced to undertake continuous improvements and innovation in order to survive, to keep abreast of change and to excel.Objectives: Effective knowledge sharing and consequent knowledge management (KM have been identified as definite approaches to enhancing competitive advantage. The research therefore aimed to establish to what extent small enterprises embrace their knowledge sharing activities and whether their knowledge sharing activities are managed at all. Furthermore, it examined how their knowledge sharing can contribute to their competitive advantage.Method: A case study approach was followed for this research. Selected SMEs from the engineering sector were the subject of the case study and SME owners, directors and managers of consulting civil engineering firms were interviewed to determine whether there are mechanisms in place to ensure better knowledge sharing within SMEs.Results: In general, respondents had stated that they possessed special factors that set them above their competitors:• The company strategy and good reputation of completing projects within the required timeframe. In other words, they were well known for their track record in terms of service delivery. • Their specialty in terms of different focus areas, namely structural and civil engineering, water supply and storm water design, transportation, sewer design and storm water traffic. • The fact that they operated in silos. This means that the specialists in their specific fields operated independently in groups, separately from everyone else in the company. • Their good relationship with local authorities

  15. On the Complexity of Reconstructing Chemical Reaction Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerberg, Rolf; Flamm, Christoph; Merkle, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of the structure of chemical reaction networks is crucial for a better understanding of chemical processes. Such networks are well described as hypergraphs. However, due to the available methods, analyses regarding network properties are typically made on standard graphs derived from...... the full hypergraph description, e.g. on the so-called species and reaction graphs. However, a reconstruction of the underlying hypergraph from these graphs is not necessarily unique. In this paper, we address the problem of reconstructing a hypergraph from its species and reaction graph and show NP...

  16. Methylene Diphosphonate Chemical and Biological control of MDP complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aungurarat, Angkanan; Ngamprayad, Tippanan

    2000-01-01

    Technetium-9 9m MDP easy prepared from MDP kits which different sources such as OAP (In house), SIGMA. The resulting Tc 9 9m -MDP preparations were controlled in chemical and biological tests to compare the different results in these cases: radiochemical purity, the quantity of starting material and biodistribution result

  17. Evaluation of the Decree on Emission Regulations for Medium-sized Combustion Installations; Evaluatie Besluit emissie-eisen middelgrote stookinstallaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroon, P.; Plomp, A.J. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Van Berkel, L.; Burgers, W.; Hermans, L.; Groot, M.; Simonse, W. [Kenniscentrum InfoMil, Rijkswaterstaat Water, Verkeer en Leefomgeving, Den Haag (Netherlands); Kruithof, P.; Taal, M.; Van Bergen, J.; Walthaus, H. [Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu IenM, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    In April 2010 the Dutch decree on emission limit values (ELVs) on medium-sized combustion installations entered into force. Bems sets ELVs for NOx, SO2, PM and CxHy. In 2013 the Bems legislation was transferred to the Activities Decree (In Dutch: Ab - Activiteitenbesluit). At the same time the Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) was implemented in the Ab. At the time Bems entered into force, it was decided to evaluate this legislation in 2014. Due to incorporation of Bems and the implementation of the IED in the Ab, it was decided to perform this evaluation a year earlier, thereby enabling the consideration of several stakeholders' comments on these implementations. This report presents the main conclusions of this evaluation. In Bems, combustion installations smaller than 50 MWth have to comply with ELVs based on Best Available Technology (BAT). Five possible ELVs have been discussed but not implemented in Bems, due to a lack of knowledge. These ELVs have been included in this evaluation. For gas engines < 2.5 MWth the NOx ELV could be more stringent, namely 140 mg/Nm{sup 3} instead of 340 mg/Nm{sup 3}; all ELVs are set at dry conditions in the flue gas and 3% O2. For biogas engines, introduction of the same ELV might be postponed until a comparable ELV enters into force in 2016 in a Californian region. Both the Californian ELV and this ELV need a gas cleaning technology. For (bio)diesel engines the dust ELV could be more stringent, namely 15 mg PM/Nm{sup 3} instead of 50 mg PM/Nm{sup 3}, while for NOx the ELV can be tightened from 450 mg/Nm{sup 3} to 250 mg/Nm{sup 3}. Both ELVs may be postponed until Tier 4 limits in the USA enter into force in the period 2014-2017. The Netherlands is one of the very few countries with CxHy ELVs for gas engines. The current CxHy ELV of 1500 mg C/Nm{sup 3} may be tightened to 1200 mg C/Nm{sup 3}. Other issues and changes, directly related to the Dutch legislation, have been discussed as well. These include exemption rules

  18. An Empirical Study of IT Innovation Adoption Among Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Zhao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—The purpose of this research is to use and validate the Entrepreneurial Event model as a base model to investigate SME owners’ perception toward IT innovation adoption and use. This paper also attempts to investigate the key determinants of the adoption of IT innovation among small and medium sized enterprises in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study revised and validated the Entrepreneurial Event Model in a new context and tried to examine the effect of perceived desirability, propensity to act and performance expectancy on behavior intention to adopt and use IT innovation in SMEs companies.Design/ methodology/ approach—Based on the research model the questionnaire was developed using previous work in the areas of entrepreneurship (Entrepreneurial Event Model and technology acceptance (UTAUT. The data used to test the hypothesis is collectedfrom various spectrums of Malaysian industries in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 1,000 businesses were identified and 412 completed questionnaires were available in this study. The research model was applied using the structural equation modelling technique.Finding—The results of this study indicated that perceived desirability, propensity to act and performance expectancy have a significant positive influence on behavioral intention, and explained a significant amount of the variance in predicting a SMEs owners intention to adopt IT innovation. Propensity to act is the strongest determinant of intention to use IT innovations among Malaysian SME owners follow by perceived desirability and performance expectancy. The results suggest that attractiveness of IT innovation is an important determinant towards the intention to adopt IT innovation. The result revealed that SME owners are more willing to use IT innovation, which is more attractive. Perceived usefulness (performance expectancy of IT innovation is the third most important factor that SME owners consider when they want to adopt and use new

  19. An Empirical Study of IT Innovation Adoption Among Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Moghavvemi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—The purpose of this research is to use and validate the Entrepreneurial Event model as a base model to investigate SME owners’ perception toward IT innovation adoption and use. This paper also attempts to investigate the key determinants of the adoption of IT innovation among small and medium sized enterprises in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study revised and validated the Entrepreneurial Event Model in a new context and tried to examine the effect of perceived desirability, propensity to act and performance expectancy on behavior intention to adopt and use IT innovation in SMEs companies. Design/ methodology/ approach—Based on the research model the questionnaire was developed using previous work in the areas of entrepreneurship (Entrepreneurial Event Model and technology acceptance (UTAUT. The data used to test the hypothesis is collected from various spectrums of Malaysian industries in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 1,000 businesses were identified and 412 completed questionnaires were available in this study. The research model was applied using the structural equation modelling technique. Finding—The results of this study indicated that perceived desirability, propensity to act and performance expectancy have a significant positive influence on behavioral intention, and explained a significant amount of the variance in predicting a SMEs owners intention to adopt IT innovation. Propensity to act is the strongest determinant of intention to use IT innovations among Malaysian SME owners follow by perceived desirability and performance expectancy. The results suggest that attractiveness of IT innovation is an important determinant towards the intention to adopt IT innovation. The result revealed that SME owners are more willing to use IT innovation, which is more attractive. Perceived usefulness (performance expectancy of IT innovation is the third most important factor that SME owners consider when they want to adopt and use new

  20. {alpha},{beta}-Unsaturated Fischer carbene complexes as chemical multitalents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijere, A. de [Institut fuer Organische Chemie der George-August-Universitaet Goettingen (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The well established reaction of {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated Fischer carbenechromium complexes 6(R{sup 1} = H) with alkynes normally proceeds with carbonyl insertion to yield 4-alkoxyphenols 9. Led by the incidental formation of a cyclopentadiene 3 from certain {beta}-aminosubstituted complexes 6(X = NR{sub 2}{sup 3}, R{sup 1} = cPr) the authors have studied the influences of the nature of substituents (R{sup 1}, X on 6; R{sub L}, R{sub S} in the alkyne; R{sup 3} in the amino group), solvents, and temperature on the outcome of the reaction. Imino substitution on complexes 6 leads to 2H-pyrroles 1, a free primary amino group (X = NH{sub 2}) to pyridines 5, and bulky substituents R{sup 1} to cyclopenta[b]pyrans 8 with double insertion of an alkyne. Eventually, appropriate conditions have been developed which permit to selectively prepare either 3-alkoxy-5-(dialkylamino)cyclopentadienes 3 (as synthetic equivalents of cyclopentenones 4), 5-(dialkylaminomethylene)cyclopent-2-enones 7, 3-alkoxy-2-(1{prime}-morpholino-1{prime}-alkenyl)cyclopent-2-enones 10, and 2-acyl-3-(dialkylamino)cyclopent-2-enones 11 from easily accessible carbene complexes 6 (X = NR{sub 2}{sup 3}) in high yields. Mechanistic aspects and implications of these novel transformations will be discussed.

  1. CALCULATION OF CHEMICAL ATMOSPHERE ESTIMATION GIVEN THE COMPLEX TERRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The 3D numerical model was used to simulate the toxic gas dispersion over a complex terrain after an accident spillage. The model is based on the K-gradient transport model and the model of potential flow. The results of numerical experiment are presented.

  2. The impact of work experience of small and medium-sized enterprises owners or managers on their competitive intelligence awareness and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Pellissier

    2013-06-01

    Objectives: The objective of this research was to establish the influence of owners’ and managers' working experience of CI practice and awareness in the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs environment. Method: This research was quantitative in nature and a questionnaire was used to collect data from SMEs owners and managers in The City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality. Results: This research indicates that SMEs in the study are aware of CI through education and training. Moreover, the study reveals that the working experience of owners and managers has a great influence on awareness and practice of CI and one should implement training programmes in this domain to assist with building competitive advantage. Conclusion: Small and medium-sized enterprises owners or managers’ years of working experience has a greater influence on awareness and practice of CI. Put differently, years of working experience is a great predictor of CI awareness and practice.

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of different devices used for the closure of small-to-medium-sized patent ductus arteriosus in pediatric patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Saiedi, Sonia A; El Sisi, Amal M; Mandour, Rodina Sobhy; Abdel-Aziz, Doaa M; Attia, Wael A

    2017-01-01

    Aims: In this study, we examined the differences in cost and effectiveness of various devices used for the closure of small to medium sized patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Setting and Design: We retrospectively studied 116 patients who underwent closure of small PDAs between January 2010 and January 2015. Subjects and Methods: Three types of devices were used: the Amplatzer duct occluder (ADO) II, the cook detachable coil and the Nit Occlud coil (NOC). Immediate and late complications were recorded and patients were followed up for 3 months after the procedure. Statistical Methods: All statistical calculations were performed using Statistical Package for the Social Science software. P closure of small-to medium-sized PDAs. Calculations of the incremental cost-effectiveness. (ICE) revealed that the Cook detachable coil had less ICE than the ADO II and NOC. The NOC was more effective with fewer complications. PMID:28566822

  4. Levels of Business to Business E-Commerce Adoption and Competitive Advantage in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Comparison Study Between Egypt and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Elbeltagi, I; Hamad, H; Moizer, J; Abou-Shouk, M

    2016-01-01

    Business-to-business e-commerce adoption has become increasingly important for small and medium-sized enterprises, allowing them to gain and sustain competitive advantage. Business-to-business adopted at different levels based on different resource endowments leads to competitive advantage being gained and sustained in proportion to that level of adoption. This study uses structural equation modeling to investigate how levels of business-to-business e-commerce adoption affects and contributes...

  5. Benefits and challenges of using social media in marketing strategy:investigating small- and medium-sized companies in the Oulu region

    OpenAIRE

    Orajärvi, P. (Paavo)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This thesis explains what social media marketing is as a phenomenon and what kind of roles it can fill in a company’s overall marketing strategies. The thesis also provides very practical information on how small/medium-sized companies can use social media channels in their daily marketing activities. This has been achieved through a literature review on the topic supported by an empirical multi-case study. The mot...

  6. Non-governmental organizations and the sustainability of small and medium-sized enterprises in Peru : an analysis of networks and discourses

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Aponte, W.V.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in terms of employment and income generation has been recognized worldwide. In Peru, SMEs are responsible for 85% of the employment at the national level and they represent 98% of the total companies registered. Around 12% of SMEs, organized in associations, clusters, and cooperatives or as single companies, are dedicated to productive actives; the others are engaged in commercial and services activities. However, next to their po...

  7. For the Good of All : Integrating corporate social responsibility into the business strategy of small and medium sized enterprises in Finland: CASE: Oy Vallila Interior Ab

    OpenAIRE

    Anttila, Hannele

    2010-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) can be defined as a concept that includes simultaneous fulfilment of a company’s economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic responsibilities, as well as companies integrating social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis. The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate CSR from the perspective of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), more specifically from t...

  8. The adoption of e-commerce in small and medium-sized enterprises in Vietnam : recommendations for building an e-commerce strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Huong

    2013-01-01

    It is highly recommended for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to integrate e-commerce into their business operations because it is an opportunity to increase profitability, enhance effectiveness, and increase corporate values. However, the number of Vietnamese SMEs adopting e-commerce is insignificant due to lack of understanding of the process of integrating it into business operations. This research is conducted for the purpose of providing SMEs attempting to move towards the e-com...

  9. Environmental management and educational needs of the small and medium-sized businesses of the metallurgical sector in the south region of Madrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urena, A.; Rams, J.; Mendez, F. J.; Rodriguez, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the environmental management and needs of the small and medium-sized businesses of the metallurgical industry in the south region of Madrid were analysed. Information was obtained through a telephone questionnaire distributed to more than 170 companies. Although most of the respondent employees do not consider environmental training one of their priorities, they expressed their interest in implementing Environmental Management Systems, waste minimization and higher knowledge of the specific legal aspects. (Author) 7 refs

  10. The role intuitive decision making plays in project selection in the residential property market: a case study of a medium sized

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Diarmuid

    2013-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed This thesis addresses the role of intuition in project selection in residential property development. The paper provides a comprehensive review of existing literature in relation to project selection and decision making. In addition, the examination of the project files of M.A. Ryan & Sons Ltd., a medium sized property development company, has enabled a case study to be carried out on three projects carried out by the organisation. Through the case study, t...

  11. Non-financial constraints to scaling-up small and medium-sized energy enterprises: Findings from field research in Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselip, James Arthur; Desgain, Denis DR; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2015-01-01

    constraint to establishing and expanding local small and medium-sized energy businesses, a range of significant non-financial constraints were also identified. This article provides a critical evaluation of these non-financial constraints as they were encountered in Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia, based...... on the findings of a wider study into the key outcomes of the AREED project. These barriers include the institutional frameworks, human capacities and social and cultural factors....

  12. Chemical bonding of hydrogen molecules to transition metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubas, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    The complex W(CO) 3 (PR 3 ) 2 (H 2 ) (CO = carbonyl; PR 3 = organophosphine) was prepared and was found to be a stable crystalline solid under ambient conditions from which the hydrogen can be reversibly removed in vacuum or under an inert atmosphere. The weakly bonded H 2 exchanges easily with D 2 . This complex represents the first stable compound containing intermolecular interaction of a sigma-bond (H-H) with a metal. The primary interaction is reported to be donation of electron density from the H 2 bonding electron pair to a vacant metal d-orbital. A series of complexes of molybdenum of the type Mo(CO)(H 2 )(R 2 PCH 2 CH 2 PR 2 ) 2 were prepared by varying the organophosphine substitutent to demonstrate that it is possible to bond either dihydrogen or dihydride by adjusting the electron-donating properties of the co-ligands. Results of infrared and NMR spectroscopic studies are reported. 20 refs., 5 fig

  13. From Molecules to Life: Quantifying the Complexity of Chemical and Biological Systems in the Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Life is a complex phenomenon and much research has been devoted to both understanding its origins from prebiotic chemistry and discovering life beyond Earth. Yet, it has remained elusive how to quantify this complexity and how to compare chemical and biological units on one common scale. Here, a mathematical description of molecular complexity was applied allowing to quantitatively assess complexity of chemical structures. This in combination with the orthogonal measure of information complexity resulted in a two-dimensional complexity space ranging over the entire spectrum from molecules to organisms. Entities with a certain level of information complexity directly require a functionally complex mechanism for their production or replication and are hence indicative for life-like systems. In order to describe entities combining molecular and information complexity, the term biogenic unit was introduced. Exemplified biogenic unit complexities were calculated for ribozymes, protein enzymes, multimeric protein complexes, and even an entire virus particle. Complexities of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, as well as multicellular organisms, were estimated. Thereby distinct evolutionary stages in complexity space were identified. The here developed approach to compare the complexity of biogenic units allows for the first time to address the gradual characteristics of prebiotic and life-like systems without the need for a definition of life. This operational concept may guide our search for life in the Universe, and it may direct the investigations of prebiotic trajectories that lead towards the evolution of complexity at the origins of life.

  14. Use of care management practices in small- and medium-sized physician groups: do public reporting of physician quality and financial incentives matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jeffrey A; Maeng, Daniel; Casalino, Lawrence P; Rittenhouse, Diane

    2013-04-01

    To examine the effect of public reporting (PR) and financial incentives tied to quality performance on the use of care management practices (CMPs) among small- and medium-sized physician groups. Survey data from The National Study of Small and Medium-sized Physician Practices were used. Primary data collection was also conducted to assess community-level PR activities. The final sample included 643 practices engaged in quality reporting; about half of these practices were subject to PR. We used a treatment effects model. The instrumental variables were the community-level variables that capture the level of PR activity in each community in which the practices operate. (1) PR is associated with increased use of CMPs, but the estimate is not statistically significant; (2) financial incentives are associated with greater use of CMPs; (3) practices' awareness/sensitivity to quality reports is positively related to their use of CMPs; and (4) combined PR and financial incentives jointly affect CMP use to a greater degree than either of these factors alone. Small- to medium-sized practices appear to respond to PR and financial incentives by greater use of CMPs. Future research needs to investigate the appropriate mix and type of incentive arrangements and quality reporting. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  15. Ultrasonographic fetometry formulas of inner chorionic cavity diameter and biparietal diameter for medium-sized dogs can be used in giant breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, Piotr; Janowski, Tomasz; Bancerz-Kisiel, Agata

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the ultrasonographic fetometry method, involving inner chorionic cavity diameter (ICC) and biparietal diameter (BP) measurements, to predict the parturition date in giant breed dogs. Overall, 30 ICC and 24 BP measurements were taken on 24 giant breed bitches. The measured values were substituted into Luvoni and Grioni (2000) formulas for medium-sized bitches because formulas with ICC and BP to dogs with a body mass greater than 40 kg have not been defined. The accuracy of the parturition date predictions proved the method to be highly useful in the observed group of dogs. Prediction accuracy in the giants ranged between 54.16% (± 1 day, using BP) and 90% (± 2 days, using ICC), depending on the parameter measured and precision levels used. Numerically, the results obtained using ICC were better; however, no statistically significant differences between ICC and BP accuracy were found when comparing the effectiveness of the parturition date predictions. Regression lines based on the own fetometric measurements were highly convergent with the lines defined by Luvoni and Grioni (2000) formulas for medium-sized bitches. This outcome suggests a similar gestational development of fetuses in giant dogs and the possible use of Luvoni and Grioni (2000) formulas for medium-sized dogs with breeds weighing greater than 40 kg. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Computational Analyses of Complex Flows with Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Kang-Sik

    The heat and mass transfer phenomena in micro-scale for the mass transfer phenomena on drug in cylindrical matrix system, the simulation of oxygen/drug diffusion in a three dimensional capillary network, and a reduced chemical kinetic modeling of gas turbine combustion for Jet propellant-10 have been studied numerically. For the numerical analysis of the mass transfer phenomena on drug in cylindrical matrix system, the governing equations are derived from the cylindrical matrix systems, Krogh cylinder model, which modeling system is comprised of a capillary to a surrounding cylinder tissue along with the arterial distance to veins. ADI (Alternative Direction Implicit) scheme and Thomas algorithm are applied to solve the nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). This study shows that the important factors which have an effect on the drug penetration depth to the tissue are the mass diffusivity and the consumption of relevant species during the time allowed for diffusion to the brain tissue. Also, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed to simulate the blood flow and oxygen/drug diffusion in a three dimensional capillary network, which are satisfied in the physiological range of a typical capillary. A three dimensional geometry has been constructed to replicate the one studied by Secomb et al. (2000), and the computational framework features a non-Newtonian viscosity model for blood, the oxygen transport model including in oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation and wall flux due to tissue absorption, as well as an ability to study the diffusion of drugs and other materials in the capillary streams. Finally, a chemical kinetic mechanism of JP-10 has been compiled and validated for a wide range of combustion regimes, covering pressures of 1atm to 40atm with temperature ranges of 1,200 K--1,700 K, which is being studied as a possible Jet propellant for the Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE) and other high-speed flight applications such as hypersonic

  17. Building Structural Complexity in Semiconductor Nanocrystals through Chemical Transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadtler, Bryce F [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Methods are presented for synthesizing nanocrystal heterostructures comprised of two semiconductor materials epitaxially attached within individual nanostructures. The chemical transformation of cation exchange, where the cations within the lattice of an ionic nanocrystal are replaced with a different metal ion species, is used to alter the chemical composition at specific regions ofa nanocrystal. Partial cation exchange was performed in cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods of well-defined size and shape to examine the spatial organization of materials within the resulting nanocrystal heterostructures. The selectivity for cation exchange to take place at different facets of the nanocrystal plays an important role in determining the resulting morphology of the binary heterostructure. The exchange of copper (I) (Cu+) cations in CdS nanorods occurs preferentially at the ends of the nanorods. Theoretical modeling of epitaxial attachments between different facets of CdS and Cu2S indicate that the selectivity for cation exchange at the ends of the nanorods is a result of the low formation energy of the interfaces produced. During silver (I) (Ag+) cation exchange in CdS nanorods, non-selective nucleation of silver sulfide (Ag2S), followed by partial phase segregation leads to significant changes in the spatial arrangement of CdS and Ag2S regions at the exchange reaction proceeds through the nanocrystal. A well-ordered striped pattern of alternating CdS and Ag2S segments is found at intermediate fractions of exchange. The forces mediating this spontaneous process are a combination of Ostwald ripening to reduce the interfacial area along with a strain-induced repulsive interaction between Ag2S segments. To elucidate why Cu+ and Ag+ cation exchange with CdS nanorods produce different morphologies, models for epitaxial attachments between various facets of CdS with Cu2S or

  18. Identifying Slow Molecular Motions in Complex Chemical Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccini, GiovanniMaria; Polino, Daniela; Parrinello, Michele

    2017-09-07

    We have studied the cyclization reaction of deprotonated 4-chloro-1-butanethiol to tetrahydrothiophene by means of well-tempered metadynamics. To properly select the collective variables, we used the recently proposed variational approach to conformational dynamics within the framework of metadyanmics. This allowed us to select the appropriate linear combinations from a set of collective variables representing the slow degrees of freedom that best describe the slow modes of the reaction. We performed our calculations at three different temperatures, namely, 300, 350, and 400 K. We show that the choice of such collective variables allows one to easily interpret the complex free-energy surface of such a reaction by univocal identification of the conformers belonging to reactants and product states playing a fundamental role in the reaction mechanism.

  19. [Physico-chemical features of dinitrosyl iron complexes with natural thiol-containing ligands underlying biological activities of these complexes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanin, A F; Borodulin, R R; Kubrina, L N; Mikoian, V D; Burbaev, D Sh

    2013-01-01

    Current notions and new experimental data of the authors on physico-chemical features of dinitrosyl iron complexes with natural thiol-containing ligands (glutathione or cysteine), underlying the ability of the complexes to act as NO molecule and nitrosonium ion donors, are considered. This ability determines various biological activities of dinitrosyl iron complexes--inducing long-lasting vasodilation and thereby long-lasting hypotension in human and animals, inhibiting pellet aggregation, increasing red blood cell elasticity, thereby stimulating microcirculation, and reducing necrotic zone in animals with myocardial infarction. Moreover, dinitrosyl iron complexes are capable of accelerating skin wound healing, improving the function of penile cavernous tissue, blocking apoptosis development in cell cultures. When decomposed dinitrosyl iron complexes can exert cytotoxic effect that can be used for curing infectious and carcinogenic pathologies.

  20. Leaching behavior and chemical stability of copper butyl xanthate complex under acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi Kuo; Chang, Juu En; Chiang, Li Choung

    2003-08-01

    Although xanthate addition can be used for treating copper-containing wastewater, a better understanding of the leaching toxicity and the stability characteristics of the copper xanthate complexes formed is essential. This work was undertaken to evaluate the leaching behavior of copper xanthate complex precipitates by means of toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) and semi-dynamic leaching test (SDLT) using 1 N acetic acid solution as the leachant. Also, the chemical stability of the copper xanthate complex during extraction has been examined with the studying of variation of chemical structure using UV-vis, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS). Both TCLP and SDLT results showed that a negligible amount of copper ion was leached out from the copper xanthate complex precipitate, indicating that the complex exhibited a high degree of copper leaching stability under acidic conditions. Nevertheless, chemical structure of the copper xanthate complex precipitate varied during the leaching tests. XPS data suggested that the copper xanthate complex initially contained both cupric and cuprous xanthate, but the unstable cupric xanthate change to the cuprous form after acid extraction, indicating the cuprous xanthate to be the final stabilizing structure. Despite that, the changes of chemical structure did not induce the rapid leaching of copper from the copper xanthate complex.

  1. Two Iron Complexes as Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysts for the Chemical Fixation of Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, Chandan Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Manish

    2018-04-16

    Two new bimetallic iron-alkali metal complexes of amino acid (serine)-based reduced Schiff base ligand were synthesized and structurally characterized. Their efficacy as catalysts for the chemical fixation of carbon dioxide was explored. The heterogeneous version of the catalytic reaction was developed by the immobilization of these homogeneous bimetallic iron-alkali metal complexes in an anion-exchange resin. The resin-bound complexes can be used as recyclable catalysts up to six cycles.

  2. An Investigation of Electronic Structure and Aromaticity in Medium-Sized Nanoclusters of Gold-Doped Germanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jun Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electronic property and aromaticity of endohedrally doped and clusters are investigated using the density-functional theory (DFT within the hybrid B3LYP method. The calculated results reveal that the two clusters have high thermodynamic stability reflected by reaction energy. At the same time, it could be hoped that their high stability may arise from the closed-shell spherical aromaticity with eight -electrons satisfying the counting rule with . A popular nucleus-independent chemical shifts (NICSs calculation on basis of magnetic shieldings is also performed to confirm the aromaticity of the three-dimensional nanoclusters with largely negative NICS values. In addition, the electronic features and chemical bonding of the two clusters are analyzed with the help of the density of states (DOS and electron localization function (ELF, and the majority of Ge–Ge bonds on the cage show more covalent characters.

  3. Relative impact of on-road vehicular and point-source industrial emissions of air pollutants in a medium-sized Andean city

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C. M.; Gómez, C. D.; Rojas, N. Y.; Acevedo, H.; Aristizábal, B. H.

    2017-03-01

    Cities in emerging countries are facing a fast growth and urbanization; however, the study of air pollutant emissions and its dynamics is scarce, making their populations vulnerable to potential effects of air pollution. This situation is critical in medium-sized urban areas built along the tropical Andean mountains. This work assesses the contribution of on-road vehicular and point-source industrial activities in the medium-sized Andean city of Manizales, Colombia. Annual fluxes of criteria pollutants, NMVOC, and greenhouse gases were estimated. Emissions were dominated by vehicular activity, with more than 90% of total estimated releases for the majority of air pollutants. On-road vehicular emissions for CO (43.4 Gg/yr) and NMVOC (9.6 Gg/yr) were mainly associated with the use of motorcycles (50% and 81% of total CO and NMVOC emissions respectively). Public transit buses were the main source of PM10 (47%) and NOx (48%). The per-capita emission index was significantly higher in Manizales than in other medium-sized cities, especially for NMVOC, CO, NOx and CO2. The unique mountainous terrain of Andean cities suggest that a methodology based on VSP model could give more realistic emission estimates, with additional model components that include slope and acceleration. Food and beverage facilities were the main contributors of point-source industrial emissions for PM10 (63%), SOx (55%) and NOx (45%), whereas scrap metal recycling had high emissions of CO (73%) and NMVOC (47%). Results provide the baseline for ongoing research in atmospheric modeling and urban air quality, in order to improve the understanding of air pollutant fluxes, transport and transformation in the atmosphere. In addition, this emission inventory could be used as a tool to identify areas of public health exposure and provide information for future decision makers.

  4. Genetic and chemical diversity of high mucilaginous plants of Sida complex by ISSR markers and chemical fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thul, Sanjog T; Srivastava, Ankit K; Singh, Subhash C; Shanker, Karuna

    2011-09-01

    A method was developed based on multiple approaches wherein DNA and chemical analysis was carried out toward differentiation of important species of Sida complex that is being used for commercial preparation. Isolated DNA samples were successfully performed through PCR amplification using ISSR markers and degree of genetic diversity among the different species of Sida is compared with that of chemical diversity. For genetic fingerprint investigation, selected 10 ISSR primers generating reproducible banding patterns were used. Among the total of 63 amplicons, 62 were recorded as polymorphic, genetic similarity index deduced from ISSR profiles ranged from 12 to 51%. Based on similarity index, S. acuta and S. rhombifolia found to be most similar (51%). High number of species-specific bands played pivotal role to delineate species at genetic level. Investigation based on HPTLC fingerprints analysis revealed 23 bands representing to characteristic chemicals and similarity index ranged from 73 to 91%. Prominent distinguishable bands were observed only in S. acuta, while S. cordifolia and S. rhombifolia shared most bands making them difficult to identify on chemical fingerprint basis. This report summarizes the genotypic and chemotypic diversity and the use of profiles for authentication of species of Sida complex.

  5. Concept of the core for a small-to-medium-sized BWR that does not use control rods during normal operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakadozono, N.; Ikegawa, T., E-mail: naoyuki.nakadozono.st@hitachi.com [Hitachi Ltd., Hitachi Research Lab., Ibaraki (Japan); Nishida, K. [Hitachi Works, Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy Ltd., Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    A small-to-medium-sized boiling water reactor (BWR) with a natural circulation system is being developed for countries where initial investment funds for construction are limited and electricity transmission networks have not been fully constructed. To lighten operators' work load, a core that does not use control rods during normal operation (control rod-free core) was developed by using a neutronics calculation system coupled with core flow evaluation. The control rod-free core had large core power fluctuation with conventional burnable poison design. The target of core power fluctuation was set to less than 10% and was achieved by optimization of burnable poison arrangement. (author)

  6. PV systems: Things are improving again. Medium-sized enterprises are getting into the solar module business; Photovoltaik: Nach Talfahrt wieder aufwaerts. Mittelstaendische Firmen steigen ins Solarmodulgeschaeft ein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemme, H.

    1996-06-25

    At the 11th `Symposium for Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion`, which was held at Banz Monastery, the drastic decline of the German solar celll production was discussed. Especially the closing down of ASE Wedel gave rise to dark speculations. However, some experts think the problem will be solved now that several medium-sized enterprises have entered the solar market. (HW) [Deutsch] Auf dem elften `Symposium photovoltaische Solarenergie` im Kloster Benz wurde der drastische Rueckgang der deutschen Solarzellenproduktion diskutiert. Insbesondere bereitete die Schliessung des Wedeler ASE-Werkes einige Sorgen. Nach Meinung verschiedener Fachleute scheint sich das Problem jedoch zu loesen, nachdem mehrere mittelstaendische Betriebe auf dem Solarsektor eingestiegen sind. (HW)

  7. What affects the innovation performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the biotechnology industry? An empirical study on Korean biotech SMEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Nam; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2008-10-01

    Research-intensive small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a crucial role in the advancement of the biotechnology industry. This paper explored the impacts of internal and contextual variables on innovative activity in Korea and compared the results of this analysis with previous studies of other countries. Our analysis of 149 Korean biotech SMEs showed that the ratio of R&D expenditure to sales, the ratio of R&D employees to total employees, CEO characteristics, governmental support and international networking are positively correlated with a firm's innovation performance. The results may help decision makers to better foster SMEs in the Korean biotechnology industry.

  8. Concept of the core for a small-to-medium-sized BWR that does not use control rods during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakadozono, N.; Ikegawa, T.; Nishida, K.

    2013-01-01

    A small-to-medium-sized boiling water reactor (BWR) with a natural circulation system is being developed for countries where initial investment funds for construction are limited and electricity transmission networks have not been fully constructed. To lighten operators' work load, a core that does not use control rods during normal operation (control rod-free core) was developed by using a neutronics calculation system coupled with core flow evaluation. The control rod-free core had large core power fluctuation with conventional burnable poison design. The target of core power fluctuation was set to less than 10% and was achieved by optimization of burnable poison arrangement. (author)

  9. How can fossil fuel based public bus transport systems become a sustainable solution for Swedish medium-sized cities?

    OpenAIRE

    Borén, Sven; Nurhadi, Lisiana; Ny, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Vehicles, infrastructure, fuel systems and other energy-driven systems that serve public transport are complex with many resource inputs and outputs, and involve many processes. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) helps analyzing those by quantifying environmental and economic effects, but will not in themselves provide a full systems perspective. Swedish authorities have set ambitious national goals, and many regions targets a 100% increase in public transport by 2020. T...

  10. Absenteeism at a Medium Size Philanthropic Hospital Absenteísmo em Hospital Filantrópico de Médio Porte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilidia Terezinha Martelli Takahashi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The absenteeism is a complex administrative problem for organizations. In hospitals, it becomes even more complicated as the patient care can not be interrupted. The term absenteeism - disease, refers to the time off work due to health problems. It is intended to analyze the absence of workers due to health problems is related to age, sex, length of employment at the institution, part work shift and functional category. This is a retrospective, descriptive and documentary study. Data was collected from medical certificates submitted in the period from 01 July 2007 to 30 June 2008 to the sector of human resources of a medium-sized philanthropic hospital. The analysis results show that the number of certificates is greater in females (90.80% and staff that work less time in the institution (61.19%. It was found that the number of certificates is higher in workers who make the rotation between morning and afternoon shifts. It was also noted that workers aged over 48 years, had lower number of certificates than the younger ones. The nursing technicians assistant were the professional categories that had presented more certificates (46.05%. The results identify several factors related to absenteeism and provide subsidies to strengthen actions to monitor the health of workers and also the implementation of actions aimed at improving the quality of life at work. O absenteísmo é um complexo problema administrativo para as organizações. Nos hospitais, torna-se ainda mais complicado, pois o cuidado ao cliente não pode ser interrompido. Entende-se por absenteísmo-doença, as faltas ao trabalho por problemas de saúde. Tem-se como objetivo analisar as faltas dos trabalhadores por causas de saúde relacionando-as com idade, sexo, tempo de trabalho na instituição, turno de trabalho e categoria funcional. Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo, descritivo edocumental. Os dados foram coletados dos atestados de saúde apresentados no período de 01 julho de

  11. A systems engineering approach to manage the complexity in sustainable chemical product-process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    This paper provides a perspective on model-data based solution approaches for chemical product-process design, which consists of finding the identity of the candidate chemical product, designing the process that can sustainably manufacture it and verifying the performance of the product during...... framework can manage the complexity associated with product-process problems very efficiently. Three specific computer-aided tools (ICAS, Sustain-Pro and VPPDLab) have been presented and their applications to product-process design, highlighted....

  12. Customer-oriented innovations in the energy market - involving small and medium-sized commercial customers in product development; Kundenorientierte Innovationen im Energiemarkt - die Einbeziehung von Gewerbekunden in die Produktentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papesch, G. [Stadtwerke Augsburg (Germany); Holzhauer, B.; Lueers, T. [Prof. Homburg und Partner, Mannheim (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    Boon or burden? Next to large industrial customers and private customers, small and medium-sized commercial customers are an important customer group for power supply companies. Being too small for a separate contract they are usually grouped together with private customers in a single customer group. However, this manner of business fails to do justice to the special needs and the potential of small and medium-sized commercial customers. Qualitative market research methods can give valuable impulses in attempts to develop innovative approaches that are more appropriate to the specific needs and requirements of small and medium-sized commercial customers, as the example set by Augsburg utilities demonstrates.

  13. Funding programs in the energy sector for medium-sized enterprises. Federal and national support programs; Foerderprogramme im Energiebereich fuer mittelstaendische Unternehmen. Bundes- und Landesprogramme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    This brochure under consideration is a summary table of the national support programs of the Federal State Baden-Wuerttemberg and the Federal support programs. In particular, there are the following national support programs: (1) Climate protection - Plus support programme; (2) Energy efficiency financing for small and medium-sized enterprises; (3) Energy efficiency financing for large enterprises; (4) ERDF 'Heating and heating networks with renewable energy sources'; (5) Demonstration projects energy; (6) Bioenergy competition Baden-Wuerttemberg; (7) Promotion of bioenergy villages; (8) New energies - Energy from the countryside; (9) Support program Coaching; (10) Environmental protection consultancy and energy conservation consultancy. The following Federal support programs are described: (1) Measures for the utilization of renewable energy sources; (2) KfW program 'Renewable energy sources'; (3) Promotion of cogeneration systems up to 20 kW4{sub el.}; (4) Promotion of measures at commercial refrigeration systems; (5) Energy consultancy for small and medium-sized enterprises; (6) KfW - energy efficiency program; (7) BMU - environmental innovation programme; (8) Renewable Energy Law; (9) Act for the Retention, Modernisation and Expansion of Combined Heat and Power Act; (10) Funding lines of the Federal Foundation for the Environment.

  14. An Assessment of the Influence of Selected on the Performance of Small to Medium Sized Family Owned Businesses in the Zimbabwe Retail Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Sandada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study attempted to assess the factors that are affecting business performance of small to medium sized family owned businesses in the Zimbabwean retail sector. The objective was to establish the effect of innovation, management skills, succession planning and corporate governance on family owned SMEs in Zimbabwe. The study sought to complement other previous studies that were carried out in other different contexts by producing evidence on the same phenomenon from a developing country context. The study adopted a quantitative approach. A self-administered survey was conducted to collect data that was analysed using descriptive, correlation and regression analyses. The results showed that the most significant factors affecting business performance in order of predictive power were innovation, proper management skills, succession planning and corporate governance. The findings have implications to family business managers and owners in Zimbabwe who are encouraged to be innovative, properly manage, practise succession planning and be guided by business morals in managing their enterprises. Whilst the factors ensuring the success of Small and Medium sized enterprises have extensively been examined, there is dearth of research on family business success factors especially in a developing country like Zimbabwe.

  15. Impact of the Local Public Hospital Reform on the Efficiency of Medium-Sized Hospitals in Japan: An Improved Slacks-Based Measure Data Envelopment Analysis Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Tone, Kaoru; Lu, Yingzhe

    2018-04-01

    To assess the change in efficiency and total factor productivity (TFP) of the local public hospitals in Japan after the local public hospital reform launched in late 2007, which was aimed at improving the financial capability and operational efficiency of hospitals. Secondary data were collected from the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications on 213 eligible medium-sized hospitals, each operating 100-400 beds from FY2006 to FY2011. The improved slacks-based measure nonoriented data envelopment analysis models (Quasi-Max SBM nonoriented DEA models) were used to estimate dynamic efficiency score and Malmquist Index. The dynamic efficiency measure indicated an efficiency gain in the first several years of the reform and then was followed by a decrease. Malmquist Index analysis showed a significant decline in the TFP between 2006 and 2011. The financial improvement of medium-sized hospitals was not associated with enhancement of efficiency. Hospital efficiency was not significantly different among ownership structure and law-application system groups, but it was significantly affected by hospital location. The results indicate a need for region-tailored health care policies and for a more comprehensive reform to overcome the systemic constraints that might contribute to the decline of the TFP. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  16. Linking human capital and enterprise sustainability in Indonesian medium-sized food manufacturing enterprises: the role of informal knowledge sharing practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunardi, O.

    2017-12-01

    Medium-sized food manufacturing enterprises in Indonesia are significant in a number of contexts, in terms of their part to the national production (GDP) and their establishment to the employment. In term of their role to national production, manufacturing sector contributes the highest GDP by 85%. In this sector, food manufacturing subsector contributes the highest GDP. Nevertheless, they faced the same common problems: quality of human capital and sustainability issues. Previous government supplementary programs have been established to expand the human capital capability amongst medium enterprises. Adequate amount of fund has been apportioned to develop human capital, though, the medium enterprises sustainability is still in question. This study proposes and examines the human capital role from informal knowledge sharing perspective. By conducting qualitative approach through interviews to four informants in Indonesian medium-sized food manufacturing enterprises, a set of hypotheses is derived from this study for future quantitative study. This study indicates that human capital traits (diverse education background, employee skills, and employee experience) could leverage the practice of informal knowledge sharing. Constructs such as mutual trust and reciprocal intention could play as mediating variables, and cultural interpretation perspective could act as moderating factor to informal knowledge sharing effectiveness. In final, informal knowledge sharing is indicated to play as moderating variable for human capital policy and practice to support enterprise sustainability.

  17. The use of paper honeycomb for prototype blade construction for small to medium-sized wind driven generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, H.

    1973-01-01

    Paper honeycomb is used for the construction of conventional, propeller-type, windmill blades. Using fairly simple techniques and conventional power tools, it is possible to shape both simple foils and more complex foils with or without tapered plan forms and with or without varying profiles. A block of honeycomb, in its compressed form, is mounted on a wedge and run through a bandsaw with the table at an appropriate tilt angle. It is the combination of the wedge angle and the table angle that gives the tapered planform and profile shape. Next the honeycomb is expanded on the shaft and jigged to give the desired angles of attack. With the honeycomb fixed in position, the blade is covered with a fine weave fiberglass cloth. Any surface quality can then be achieved with filling and sanding.

  18. Mapping of Drug-like Chemical Universe with Reduced Complexity Molecular Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontijevskis, Aleksejs

    2017-04-24

    The emergence of the DNA-encoded chemical libraries (DEL) field in the past decade has attracted the attention of the pharmaceutical industry as a powerful mechanism for the discovery of novel drug-like hits for various biological targets. Nuevolution Chemetics technology enables DNA-encoded synthesis of billions of chemically diverse drug-like small molecule compounds, and the efficient screening and optimization of these, facilitating effective identification of drug candidates at an unprecedented speed and scale. Although many approaches have been developed by the cheminformatics community for the analysis and visualization of drug-like chemical space, most of them are restricted to the analysis of a maximum of a few millions of compounds and cannot handle collections of 10 8 -10 12 compounds typical for DELs. To address this big chemical data challenge, we developed the Reduced Complexity Molecular Frameworks (RCMF) methodology as an abstract and very general way of representing chemical structures. By further introducing RCMF descriptors, we constructed a global framework map of drug-like chemical space and demonstrated how chemical space occupied by multi-million-member drug-like Chemetics DNA-encoded libraries and virtual combinatorial libraries with >10 12 members could be analyzed and mapped without a need for library enumeration. We further validate the approach by performing RCMF-based searches in a drug-like chemical universe and mapping Chemetics library selection outputs for LSD1 targets on a global framework chemical space map.

  19. Characterization of the pharmacokinetics of gasoline using PBPK modeling with a complex mixtures chemical lumping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, James E; Andersen, Melvin E; Yang, Raymond S H

    2003-09-01

    Gasoline consists of a few toxicologically significant components and a large number of other hydrocarbons in a complex mixture. By using an integrated, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling and lumping approach, we have developed a method for characterizing the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of gasoline in rats. The PBPK model tracks selected target components (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene [BTEX], and n-hexane) and a lumped chemical group representing all nontarget components, with competitive metabolic inhibition between all target compounds and the lumped chemical. PK data was acquired by performing gas uptake PK studies with male F344 rats in a closed chamber. Chamber air samples were analyzed every 10-20 min by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection and all nontarget chemicals were co-integrated. A four-compartment PBPK model with metabolic interactions was constructed using the BTEX, n-hexane, and lumped chemical data. Target chemical kinetic parameters were refined by studies with either the single chemical alone or with all five chemicals together. o-Xylene, at high concentrations, decreased alveolar ventilation, consistent with respiratory irritation. A six-chemical interaction model with the lumped chemical group was used to estimate lumped chemical partitioning and metabolic parameters for a winter blend of gasoline with methyl t-butyl ether and a summer blend without any oxygenate. Computer simulation results from this model matched well with experimental data from single chemical, five-chemical mixture, and the two blends of gasoline. The PBPK model analysis indicated that metabolism of individual components was inhibited up to 27% during the 6-h gas uptake experiments of gasoline exposures.

  20. The social effectiveness of small and medium-sized entities standard from the view point of Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gonzales

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Accounting has been undergoing significant changes, and among these changes is the creation of a standard for the accounting of small and medium enterprises, in line with international accounting standards for companies of this size. This rule arose from the development of a pronouncement by the Accounting Pronouncements Committee – CPC, which subsequently was approved by the Federal Accounting Council - CFC through specific resolutions. The present study aimed to analyze trends of accounting professionals and business managers concerning the adoption of Technical Pronouncement emitted by Accounting Pronouncements Committee for Small and Medium Enterprises. Considering the level of complexity of the operations performed by companies of this size, the lack of oversight by specific entities and the question of enforcement of these pronouncements, it was used the game theory to determine possible strategies adopted by the accountants and business managers regarding to the effective adoption of pronouncement for SMEs. The study was characterized as a descriptive research, using bibliographical and field research. With the use of surveys sought to identify the perceptions of accounting professionals regarding the adoption of the pronouncement. It was found that this statement constitutes a valid legal standard, endowed with legal effectiveness and technical efficiency, but lacking social effectiveness, due to the low level of efforts for its adoption, both by accounting professionals and by firms.

  1. Spatial and temporal disaggregation of the on-road vehicle emission inventory in a medium-sized Andean city. Comparison of GIS-based top-down methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, C. D.; González, C. M.; Osses, M.; Aristizábal, B. H.

    2018-04-01

    Emission data is an essential tool for understanding environmental problems associated with sources and dynamics of air pollutants in urban environments, especially those emitted from vehicular sources. There is a lack of knowledge about the estimation of air pollutant emissions and particularly its spatial and temporal distribution in South America, mainly in medium-sized cities with population less than one million inhabitants. This work performed the spatial and temporal disaggregation of the on-road vehicle emission inventory (EI) in the medium-sized Andean city of Manizales, Colombia, with a spatial resolution of 1 km × 1 km and a temporal resolution of 1 h. A reported top-down methodology, based on the analysis of traffic flow levels and road network distribution, was applied. Results obtained allowed the identification of several hotspots of emission at the downtown zone and the residential and commercial area of Manizales. Downtown exhibited the highest percentage contribution of emissions normalized by its total area, with values equal to 6% and 5% of total CO and PM10 emissions per km2 respectively. These indexes were higher than those obtained in residential-commercial area with values of 2%/km2 for both pollutants. Temporal distribution showed strong relationship with driving patterns at rush hours, as well as an important influence of passenger cars and motorcycles in emissions of CO both at downtown and residential-commercial areas, and the impact of public transport in PM10 emissions in the residential-commercial zone. Considering that detailed information about traffic counts and road network distribution is not always available in medium-sized cities, this work compares other simplified top-down methods for spatially assessing the on-road vehicle EI. Results suggested that simplified methods could underestimate the spatial allocation of downtown emissions, a zone dominated by high traffic of vehicles. The comparison between simplified methods

  2. Organizational-level interventions in small and medium-sized enterprises: Enabling and inhibiting factors in the PoWRS program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Gish, Liv; Poulsen, Signe

    2015-01-01

    Work-related stress in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is an increasing problem. However, knowledge regarding organizational-level interventions in SMEs is limited, and SMEs often lack professional facilitator resources to assist in change processes. An intervention program developed...... for large corporations, the PoWRS (Prevention of Work-Related Stress) program, has been modified to fit the conditions in SMEs, i.e., appointing employees as in-house facilitators. The aim of this paper is to examine the enablers and inhibiting factors of the PoWRS program when applied in four Danish SMEs....... Three out of four of the case companies succeeded in implementing the program. The enablers and inhibiting factors related to three themes: persons and roles, program components, and organizational context. Findings show that the primary enabling factors were the in-house employee facilitators...

  3. Aspects Regarding the Development and the Integration of the Corporate Social Responsibility Concept in Firms’ Behaviour. Particularities for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Vintila

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR, the purpose of this article is to highlight some of the particularities, at Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs level, regarding: socially responsible behaviour and participation in actions related to CSR; type of CSR strategies adopted by SMEs as compared to larger firms; the motivations, benefits and constraints of the social involvement. The ultimate question refers to the existence, nature and implications of a link between the firm size and the aspects mentioned above. These aspects will be presented according to the conclusions of the previous studies conducted in this area of research, the present paper representing therefore a theoretical synthesis of the existant literature.

  4. The analysis of the business registration reform and the situation of small and medium sized enterprises in the Republic of Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušanić-Gačić Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The largest number of companies in the Republic of Srpska falls into the category of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs and most of them are organized in the form of limited liability companies, usually with the prescribed minimum share capital. The economic sector and its actors still face many difficulties and obstacles in their functioning. Unfavourable business environment is characterized by high operating costs caused by high taxes and contributions, a number of fiscal and parafiscal charges, various fees, bureaucracy, unfavorable loans, debt collection dispute, smuggling, illegal work, corruption... The aim of this paper is to analyze the effects of the reforms made in the field of business registration, such as the introduction of one-stop business registration system and the exemption from judicial and administrative fees during the first registration, as well as their impact on improving the overall business environment in the Republic of Srpska.

  5. SOCIO-ECONOMIC ACTIVITY DETERMINANTS OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED BUSINESSES ON BORDER AREAS IN WARMIŃSKO-MAZURSKIE VOIVODESHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Brodziński

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was getting to know the factors, determining socio-economic activity of small and mediumsized businesses on border areas in Warmińsko-Mazurskie voivodeship. The study was conducted by telephone interviewing in 2015 amongst randomly selected group of 76 entrepreneurs. The gathered empirical data allowed to determine the areas which need taking action from local authorities to work for socio-economic development of border areas and improve the functionality conditions of the already existing companies. In entrepreneurs’ opinion, an important element in small and medium-sized businesses development is advertisement of the area and introduction of investment incentives. The study shows that endogenous possibilities of entrepreneurship development are limited. The most frequently raised issues were connected with the functioning of companies in their remote location, and also progressing depopulation of the area and low purchasing power of the local community.

  6. Evaluation of Microstructural and Mechanical Property of Medium-sized HT9 Cladding Forged Material for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Hwan; Lee, Kang Soo; Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Chan Bock

    2012-01-01

    Microstructural and mechanical property were evaluated at the medium-sized HT9 (12Cr-1MoWV) forged steel which was considered as primary candidate for the fuel cladding in sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). Material was forged at 1170 degrees C after the induction melting to make round bar as 160 mm diameter, 7000 mm length then the radial distribution of microstructure as well as microhardness was evaluated. The results showed that overall microstructure exhibited as ferrite-martensite structure, where small amount (2-3%) of delta ferrite was formed throughout the specimen and maximum 15% of transformed ferrite was formed at the center, where it gradually decreased toward the radial direction. Sensitivity analysis of the cooling curve and Time-Temperature-Transformation (TTT) diagram revealed that formation of transformed ferrite could be avoided when the diameter was decreased down to 120 mm.

  7. SURVEY ON THE EMPLOYEES’ FITNESS CONDITION AND THE EMPLOYERS’ HEALTH PRESERVATION POSSIBILITIES IN CASE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás MADARÁSZ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Consideration of the employees’ health preservation results in direct cost savings at corporate level by decreasing the measure of sick leave and ensuring the continuous and smooth production. Nowadays, ensuring the health of labour force has already become an employer interest, of course, in addition to that it is also the interest of everyone. In our research, we have asked employees of Hungarian small and medium-sized enterprises in the framework of questionnaire survey. It was clearly apparent that the physical activity of workers has to be enhanced and their sporting activities have to be supported. According to the results of our research, these types of organizations support the health protection of their employees, moreover in financing form of allowances primarily.

  8. The impact of business type and sector, location and annual turnover on competitive intelligence practice of small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshilidzi Eric Nenzhelele

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs contribute much to job creation, poverty eradication, economic development and growth. Countries rely on SMEs for wealth creation and social wellbeing of their citizens. Moreover, SMEs contribute to the global competitiveness of a country. For SMEs to continue offering all these benefits to the country, they must be competitive in the midst of global competitive pressure. To gain competitive advantage, enterprises of different sizes practice Competitive Intelligence (CI. While CI practise has been widely researched in large enterprise, there is lack of CI practice research in SMEs. This research establishes the impact of business type and sector, location and annual turnover on the competitive intelligence practise of SMEs. The research was quantitative in nature and a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from owners/managers of SMEs.

  9. A perspective on open innovation in small- and medium-sized enterprises in South Africa, and design requirements for an open innovation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause, Willie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides key results from an exploratory research study aimed at understanding the current landscape in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in South Africa with regard to their appetite for, and use of, open innovation. The survey, which was conducted within a contained group of SMEs that belong to business network groups on LinkedIn, explored the current use and perception of open innovation. It was found that collaboration is the approach most preferred by the SMEs surveyed, with customers and suppliers as their preferred innovation partners. Based on the findings of the survey, this paper proposes 25 design requirements, grouped into five functional categories, for an open innovation approach. The design requirements have been developed as a primer to a more complete open innovation approach for SMEs.

  10. Monitoring the aeration efficiency and carbon footprint of a medium-sized WWTP: experimental results on oxidation tank and aerobic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caivano, Marianna; Bellandi, Giacomo; Mancini, Ignazio M; Masi, Salvatore; Brienza, Rosanna; Panariello, Simona; Gori, Riccardo; Caniani, Donatella

    2017-03-01

    The efficiency of aeration systems should be monitored to guarantee suitable biological processes. Among the available tools for evaluating the aeration efficiency, the off-gas method is one of the most useful. Increasing interest towards reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from biological processes has resulted in researchers using this method to quantify N 2 O and CO 2 concentrations in the off-gas. Experimental measurements of direct GHG emissions from aerobic digesters (AeDs) are not available in literature yet. In this study, the floating hood technique was used for the first time to monitor AeDs. The floating hood technique was used to evaluate oxygen transfer rates in an activated sludge (AS) tank of a medium-sized municipal wastewater treatment plant located in Italy. Very low values of oxygen transfer efficiency were found, confirming that small-to-medium-sized plants are often scarcely monitored and wrongly managed. Average CO 2 and N 2 O emissions from the AS tank were 0.14 kg CO2 /kg bCOD and 0.007 kg CO2,eq /kg bCOD , respectively. For an AeD, 3 × 10 -10  kg CO2 /kg bCOD direct CO 2 emissions were measured, while CO 2,eq emissions from N 2 O were 4 × 10 -9  kg CO2,eq /kg bCOD . The results for the AS tank and the AeD were used to estimate the net carbon and energy footprint of the entire plant.

  11. Moessbauer spectroscopy-nuclear hyperfine technique for studying dynamic chemical states of iron complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A brief introduction of Moessbauer spectroscopy will be presented, followed by a discussion of the Moessbauer parameters, isomer shifts, quadrupole splittings, and spectral shapes of complexes in the presence of relaxation of the electronic states of the iron atoms. The usefulness of Moessbauer spectroscopy to demonstrate the dynamic phenomena of electronic states will be discussed in this lecture. (1) The Moessbauer spectra of mixed valence dinuclear and trinuclear iron complexes will be discussed in connection with the chemical structure of the complexes: The values of the quadrupole splittings and isomer shifts of [Fe II Fe III (bpmp) (ppa) 2 ](BF 4 ) 2 increase on raising the temperature, where Hbpmp represents 2,6-bis[bis(2- pyridylmethyl)aminoethyl]-4-methylphenol and ppa is 3-n-phenylpropionic acid. The spectra can be accounted for by postulating intramolecular electron exchange between two energetically inequivalent vibronic states Fe A 2+ Fe B 3+ and Fe A 3+ Fe B 2+ : The apparent time averaged valence states of the iron atoms are 2.2 and 2.8 on the Moessbauer time scale at 293 K. (2) The Moessbauer spectra of iron(III) spin-crossover complexes will be discussed in connection with the spin-transition rate and chemical structure of the complexes. The Moessbauer spectra of spin-crossover iron(III) complexes with LIESST (Light Induced Electronic Spin-State Transition) and of metallomesogens will be discussed to illustrate the extension of this research area by the use of Moessbauer spectroscopy.

  12. On improved understanding of plasma-chemical processes in complex low-temperature plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röpcke, Jürgen; Loffhagen, Detlef; von Wahl, Eric; Nave, Andy S. C.; Hamann, Stephan; van Helden, Jean-Piere H.; Lang, Norbert; Kersten, Holger

    2018-05-01

    Over the last years, chemical sensing using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) in the visible spectral range has been combined with methods of mid infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (MIR-LAS) in the molecular fingerprint region from 3 to 20 μm, which contains strong rotational-vibrational absorption bands of a large variety of gaseous species. This optical approach established powerful in situ diagnostic tools to study plasma-chemical processes of complex low-temperature plasmas. The methods of MIR-LAS enable to detect stable and transient molecular species in ground and excited states and to measure the concentrations and temperatures of reactive species in plasmas. Since kinetic processes are inherent to discharges ignited in molecular gases, high time resolution on sub-second timescales is frequently desired for fundamental studies as well as for process monitoring in applied research and industry. In addition to high sensitivity and good temporal resolution, the capacity for broad spectral coverage enabling multicomponent detection is further expanding the use of OES and MIR-LAS techniques. Based on selected examples, this paper reports on recent achievements in the understanding of complex low-temperature plasmas. Recently, a link with chemical modeling of the plasma has been provided, which is the ultimate objective for a better understanding of the chemical and reaction kinetic processes occurring in the plasma. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Fundamentals of Complex Plasmas", edited by Jürgen Meichsner, Michael Bonitz, Holger Fehske, Alexander Piel.

  13. Physico-Chemical and In-vitro Microbial Studies of Newly Synthesis Organometallic Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam Hussain Al-Karkhi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Drugs normally synthesized to use as medication to treat diseases like cancer and microbial infections, these synthesized drugs were interested more than naturally-derived drugs which have been shows low activity or not as efficient against diseases. A new ligand 3-methylbenzyl (2Z-2-[1-(pyridin-4-ylethylidene]hydrazine carbodithioate (PE3MBC and its Cd(II, Cu(II, Co(II and Zn(II metal complexes. The new ligand and metal complexes were characterized via various physico-chemical and spectroscopic techniques. Cd(II complex show more activity against microbes and against cancer cell line MCF-7, while other complexes does not shows activity like cadmium complex, all the complexes does not shows any activity against MDAMB-231 cell line. The fatal of the cancer and the microbes cell was due to inhibition of DNA synthesis which was probably due to chelating with metals complexes, or could be referred to lipophilicity, presence of hydrophobic moiety in the complex molecule, also could be due to steric effects and electronic effects.

  14. Chemical reactivity of analogous technetium(V) and rhenium(V) dioxo complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, C.; Kremer, E.; Leon, A.

    1993-01-01

    All complexes of the series [MO 2 L 2 ] + (M = Tc, Re, L = ethylenediamine (en), 1,3-diaminopropane (1,3-dap)) have been synthesized and their chemical reactivities investigated. The following properties were studied: stability of the aqueous solutions at different pH values, substitution kinetics, lipophilicity and protein binding. The complexes show very similar reactivity in aqueous solution. From a radiopharmaceutical point of view, no significant difference in their in vivo behavior is expected. (author) 12 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  15. Directed assembly of functional light harvesting antenna complexes onto chemically patterned surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escalante, Maryana [Biophysical Engineering Group, MESA and Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Maury, Pascale [Molecular Nanofabrication Group, MESA and Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Bruinink, Christiaan M [Molecular Nanofabrication Group, MESA and Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Werf, Kees van der [Biophysical Engineering Group, MESA and Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Olsen, John D [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Timney, John A [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Huskens, Jurriaan [Molecular Nanofabrication Group, MESA and Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Hunter, C Neil [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Subramaniam, Vinod [Biophysical Engineering Group, MESA and Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Otto, Cees [Biophysical Engineering Group, MESA and Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2008-01-16

    We report the directed assembly of the photosynthetic membrane proteins LH1 and LH2 isolated from the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides onto chemically patterned substrates. Nanoimprint lithography was used to pattern discrete regions of amino- and fluoro-terminated or poly(ethylene glycol) self-assembled monolayers onto a glass substrate. Densely packed layers of assembled protein complexes were observed with atomic force microscopy. The protein complexes attached selectively to the amino-terminated regions by electrostatic interactions. Spectral images generated with a hybrid scanning probe and fluorescence microscope confirmed that the patterned proteins retained their native optical signatures.

  16. Study of chemical shifts of the chloroform complexes with cyclic donors of electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaszkiewicz, B.; Pajak, Z.

    1973-01-01

    Chemical shifts of chloroform complexes with the heterocyclic electron donors: pyridine, piperidine, alpha-picoline and gamma-picoline have been studied using the high resolution (5.10 -9 ) spectrometer operating at 80 MHz. An attempt has also been made to study the three - component solutions of : chloroform, a heterocyclic donor of electrons and carbon tetrachloride. The results, which have been obtained, indicate that the complex-forming power of pyridine and other electron donors is greater in carbon tetrachloride than in other solvents. (S.B.)

  17. Directed assembly of functional light harvesting antenna complexes onto chemically patterned surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalante, Maryana; Maury, Pascale; Bruinink, Christiaan M; Werf, Kees van der; Olsen, John D; Timney, John A; Huskens, Jurriaan; Hunter, C Neil; Subramaniam, Vinod; Otto, Cees

    2008-01-01

    We report the directed assembly of the photosynthetic membrane proteins LH1 and LH2 isolated from the purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides onto chemically patterned substrates. Nanoimprint lithography was used to pattern discrete regions of amino- and fluoro-terminated or poly(ethylene glycol) self-assembled monolayers onto a glass substrate. Densely packed layers of assembled protein complexes were observed with atomic force microscopy. The protein complexes attached selectively to the amino-terminated regions by electrostatic interactions. Spectral images generated with a hybrid scanning probe and fluorescence microscope confirmed that the patterned proteins retained their native optical signatures

  18. Using Tc-Re chemical analogy to synthesize and identify new 99mTc complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambino, D.; Kremer, C.; Cartesio, S.; Leon, A.; Kremer, E.

    1989-01-01

    The strong chemical resemblance between Tc and Re is applied to design and evaluate experiments with 99m Tc complexes. A combination of spectrophotometric and electrophoretic techniques allows to propose the formula [TcO 2 (amine) 2 ] + for compounds prepared by reduction of 99m TcO 4 - with Zn (solid phase) in presence of several (bidentate) amines. (author) 10 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tabs

  19. A large scale analysis of information-theoretic network complexity measures using chemical structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Dehmer

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate information-theoretic network complexity measures which have already been intensely used in mathematical- and medicinal chemistry including drug design. Numerous such measures have been developed so far but many of them lack a meaningful interpretation, e.g., we want to examine which kind of structural information they detect. Therefore, our main contribution is to shed light on the relatedness between some selected information measures for graphs by performing a large scale analysis using chemical networks. Starting from several sets containing real and synthetic chemical structures represented by graphs, we study the relatedness between a classical (partition-based complexity measure called the topological information content of a graph and some others inferred by a different paradigm leading to partition-independent measures. Moreover, we evaluate the uniqueness of network complexity measures numerically. Generally, a high uniqueness is an important and desirable property when designing novel topological descriptors having the potential to be applied to large chemical databases.

  20. Half-sandwich cobalt complexes in the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgi, Colin [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Faculty of Natural Science, Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Chemnitz 09107 (Germany); Hapke, Marko; Thiel, Indre [Leibniz-Institut für Katalyse e.V. an der Universität Rostock (LIKAT), Albert-Einstein-Straße 29a, Rostock 18059 (Germany); Hildebrandt, Alexander [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Faculty of Natural Science, Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Chemnitz 09107 (Germany); Waechtler, Thomas; Schulz, Stefan E. [Fraunhofer Institute of Electronic Nano Systems (ENAS), Technologie-Campus 3, Chemnitz 09126 (Germany); Technische Universität Chemnitz, Center for Microtechnologies (ZfM), Chemnitz 09107 (Germany); Lang, Heinrich, E-mail: heinrich.lang@chemie.tu-chemnitz.de [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Faculty of Natural Science, Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Chemnitz 09107 (Germany)

    2015-03-02

    A series of cobalt half-sandwich complexes of type [Co(η{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5})(L)(L′)] (1: L, L′ = 1,5-hexadiene; 2: L = P(OEt){sub 3}, L′ = H{sub 2}C=CHSiMe{sub 3}; 3: L = L′ = P(OEt){sub 3}) has been studied regarding their physical properties such as the vapor pressure, decomposition temperature and applicability within the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process, with a focus of the influence of the phosphite ligands. It could be shown that an increasing number of P(OEt){sub 3} ligands increases the vapor pressure and thermal stability of the respective organometallic compound. Complex 3 appeared to be a promising MOCVD precursor with a high vapor pressure and hence was deposited onto Si/SiO{sub 2} (100 nm) substrates. The resulting reflective layer is closed, dense and homogeneous, with a slightly granulated surface morphology. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies demonstrated the formation of metallic cobalt, cobalt phosphate, cobalt oxide and cobalt carbide. - Highlights: • Thermal studies and vapor pressure measurements of cobalt half-sandwich complexes was carried out. • Chemical vapor deposition with cobalt half-sandwich complexes is reported. • The use of Co-phosphites results in significant phosphorous-doped metallic layers.