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Sample records for complex immiscible liquid

  1. Evaporative mass transfer behavior of a complex immiscible liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Colleen M; Johnson, Gwynn R; Brusseau, Mark L

    2008-09-01

    A series of laboratory experiments was conducted with a multiple-component immiscible liquid, collected from the Picillo Farm Superfund Site in Rhode Island, to examine liquid-vapor mass-transfer behavior. The immiscible liquid, which comprises solvents, oils, pesticides, PCBs, paint sludges, explosives, and other compounds, was characterized using gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to determine mole fractions of selected constituents. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate equilibrium phase-partitioning behavior. Two sets of air-stripping column studies were conducted to examine the mass-transfer dynamics of five selected target compounds present in the immiscible-liquid mixture. One set of column experiments was designed to represent a system with free-phase immiscible liquid present; the other was designed to represent a system with a residual phase of immiscible liquid. Initial elution behavior of all target components generally appeared to be ideal for both systems, as the initial vapor-phase concentrations were similar to vapor-phase concentrations measured for the batch experiment and those estimated using Raoult's law (incorporating the immiscible-liquid composition data). Later-stage removal of 1,2-dichlorobenzene appeared to be rate limited for the columns containing free-phase immiscible liquid and no porous medium. Conversely, evaporative mass transfer appeared to be ideal throughout the experiment conducted with immiscible liquid distributed relatively uniformly as a residual phase within a sandy porous medium.

  2. A double Fe-Ti oxide and Fe-sulphide liquid immiscibility in the Itsindro Gabbro Complex, Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augé, Thierry; Bailly, Laurent; Roig, Jean-Yves

    2017-11-01

    main mineralized zone is located in the upper part of this unit, about 70 m above this discontinuity. The highly differentiated Fe-Ti-P facies of the Lanjanina series in the Itsindro Gabbro Complex have been interpreted as corresponding to the Fe-Ti-P rich, Si-poor member remaining after an immiscible segregation of an evolved mafic magma. The granite dykes and the overlying granite unit represent the second, Si-rich member of the immiscibility process. The presence of large amounts of sulphide is attributed to sulphur contamination of the Fe-Ti-rich liquid. Fe-Ti oxides will tend to crystallize on the sulphide droplets and the accumulation of dense Fe-sulphides (liquid) and associated Fe-Ti oxides (solid) will result in this complex and unusual association taking the form of a net texture.

  3. Many-Body Potentials For Binary Immiscible liquid Metal Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaguelle, H.

    2004-01-01

    The modified analytic embedded atom method (MAEAM) type many- body potentials have been constructed for three binary liquid immiscible alloy systems: Al-Pb, Ag-Ni, Ag- Cu. The MAEAM potential functions are fitted to both solid and liquid state properties for only liquid pure metals which consist the immiscible alloy. In order to test the reliability of the constructed MAEAM effective potentials, partial structure factors and pair distribution functions of these binary liquid metal alloys have been calculated using the thermodynamically self-consistent variational modified hypernetted chain (VMHNC) theory of liquids. A good agreement with the available experimental data for structure has

  4. Measurement of interfacial tension of immiscible liquid pairs in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Michael C.; Neilson, George F.; Baertlein, Carl; Subramanian, R. Shankar; Trinh, Eugene H.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion is given of a containerless microgravity experiment aimed at measuring the interfacial tension of immiscible liquid pairs using a compound drop rotation method. The reasons for the failure to execute such experiments in microgravity are described. Also, the results of post-flight analyses used to confirm our arguments are presented.

  5. Predicting liquid immiscibility in multicomponent nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D.K.; Hrma, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    Taylor's model for predicting amorphous phase separation in complex, multicomponent systems has been applied to high-level (simulated) radioactive waste glasses at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site. Taylor's model is primarily based on additions of modifying cations to a Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 (NBS) submixture of the multicomponent glass. The position of the submixture relative to the immiscibility dome defines the development probability of amorphous phase separation. Although prediction of amorphous phase separation in Hanford glasses (via experimental SEM/TEM analysis) is the primary thrust of this work; reported durability data is also provides limited insight into the composition/durability relationship. Using a modified model similar to Taylor's, the results indicate that immiscibility may be predicted for multicomponent waste glasses by the addition of Li 2 O to the open-quotes alkaliclose quotes corner of the NBS submixture

  6. Predicting liquid immiscibility in multicomponent nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D.K.; Hrma, P.R.

    1994-04-01

    Taylor's model for predicting amorphous phase separation in complex, multicomponent systems has been applied to high-level (simulated) radioactive waste glasses at the US Department of Energy's Hanford site. Taylor's model is primarily based on additions of modifying cations to a Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 (NBS) submixture of the multicomponent glass. The position of the submixture relative to the miscibility dome defines the development probability of amorphous phase separation. Although prediction of amorphous phase separation in Hanford glasses (via experimental SEM/TEM analysis) is the primary thrust of this work; reported durability data is also provides limited insight into the composition/durability relationship. Using a modified model similar to Taylor's, the results indicate that immiscibility may be predicted for multicomponent waste glasses by the addition of Li 2 O to the ''alkali'' corner of the NBS submixture

  7. Interfacial layering and capillary roughness in immiscible liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geysermans, P; Pontikis, V

    2010-08-21

    The capillary roughness and the atomic density profiles of extended interfaces between immiscible liquids are determined as a function of the interface area by using molecular dynamics and Lennard-Jones (12-6) potentials. We found that with increasing area, the interface roughness diverges logarithmically, thus fitting the theoretical mean-field prediction. In systems small enough for the interfacial roughness not to blur the structural details, atomic density profiles across the fluid interface are layered with correlation length in the range of molecular correlations in liquids. On increasing the system size, the amplitude of the thermally excited position fluctuations of the interface increases, thus causing layering to rapidly vanish, if density profiles are computed without special care. In this work, we present and validate a simple method, operating in the direct space, for extracting from molecular dynamics trajectories the "intrinsic" structure of a fluid interface that is the local density profile of the interface cleaned from capillary wave effects. Estimated values of interfacial properties such as the tension, the intrinsic width, and the lower wavelength limit of position fluctuations are in agreement with results collected from the literature.

  8. Heat transfer between immiscible liquids enhanced by gas bubbling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, G.A.; Schwarz, C.E.; Klages, J.; Klein, J.

    1982-08-01

    The phenomena of core-concrete interactions impact upon containment integrity of light water reactors (LWR) following postulated complete meltdown of the core by containment pressurization, production of combustible gases, and basemat penetration. Experiments have been performed with non-reactor materials to investigate one aspect of this problem, heat transfer between overlying immiscible liquids whose interface is disturbed by a transverse non-condensable gas flux emanating from below. Hydrodynamic studies have been performed to test a criterion for onset of entrainment due to bubbling through the interface and subsequent heat transfer studies were performed to assess the effect of bubbling on interfacial heat transfer rates, both with and without bubble induced entrainment. Non-entraining interfacial heat transfer data with mercury-water/oil fluid pairs were observed to be bounded from below within a factor of two to three by the Szekeley surface renewal heat transfer model. However heat transfer data for fluid pairs which are found to entrain (water-oil), believed to be characteristic of molten reactor core-concrete conditions, were measured to be up to two orders of magnitude greater than surface renewal predictions and are calculated by a simple entrainment heat transfer model

  9. Layered interfaces between immiscible liquids studied by density-functional theory and molecular-dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geysermans, P; Elyeznasni, N; Russier, V

    2005-11-22

    We present a study of the structure in the interface between two immiscible liquids by density-functional theory and molecular-dynamics calculations. The liquids are modeled by Lennard-Jones potentials, which achieve immiscibility by suppressing the attractive interaction between unlike particles. The density profiles of the liquids display oscillations only in a limited part of the simple liquid-phase diagram (rho,T). When approaching the liquid-vapor coexistence, a significant depletion appears while the layering behavior of the density profile vanishes. By analogy with the liquid-vapor interface and the analysis of the adsorption this behavior is suggested to be strongly related to the drying transition.

  10. Interfacial transport characteristics in a gas-liquid or an immiscible liquid-liquid stratified flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A.; Aoki, S.; Aritomi, M.; Kozawa, Y.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is a review for an interfacial transport characteristics of mass, momentum and energy in a gas-liquid or a immiscible liquid-liquid stratified flow with wavy interface which have been studied in our division. In the experiment, a characteristic of wave motion and its effect to the turbulence near the interface as well as overall flow characteristics like pressure drop, position of the interface were investigated in an air-water, an air-mercury and a water-liquid metal stratified flow. On the other hand, several models based on the mixing length model and a two-equation model of turbulence, with special interfacial boundary conditions in which the wavy surface was regarded as a rough surface correspond to the wavy height, a source of turbulent energy equal to the wave energy and a damped-turbulence due to the surface tension, were proposed to predict the flow characteristics and the interfacial heat transfer in a fully developed and an undeveloped stratified flow and examined by the experimental data. (author)

  11. Numerical Study of the Influence of Cavity on Immiscible Liquid Transport in Varied-Wettability Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Dou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Field evidence indicates that cavities often occur in fractured rocks, especially in a Karst region. Once the immiscible liquid flows into the cavity, the cavity has the immiscible liquid entrapped and results in a low recovery ratio. In this paper, the immiscible liquid transport in cavity-fractures was simulated by Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM. The interfacial and surface tensions were incorporated by Multicomponent Shan-Chen (MCSC model. Three various fracture positions were generated to investigate the influence on the irreducible nonwetting phase saturation and displacement time. The influences of fracture aperture and wettability on the immiscible liquid transport were discussed and analyzed. It was found that the cavity resulted in a long displacement time. Increasing the fracture aperture with the corresponding decrease in displacement pressure led to the long displacement time. This consequently decreased the irreducible nonwetting phase saturation. The fracture positions had a significant effect on the displacement time and irreducible saturation. The distribution of the irreducible nonwetting phase was strongly dependent on wettability and fracture position. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that the LBM was very effective in simulating the immiscible two-phase flow in the cavity-fracture.

  12. Vertical vibration dynamics of acoustically levitated drop containing two immiscible liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Duyang; Zhai, Zhicong; Li, Lin; Lin, Kejun; Li, Xiaoguang; Geng, Xingguo

    2016-09-01

    We have studied the levitation and oscillation dynamics of complex drops containing two immiscible liquids. Two types of drops, core-shell drop and abnormal-shaped drop, have been obtained depending on the levitation procedures. The oscillation dynamics of the drops have been studied using a high speed camera. It has been found that the oscillation of the abnormal-shaped drop has a longer oscillation period and decays much faster than that of the core-shell drop, which cannot be accounted for by the air resistance itself. The acoustic streaming induced by ultrasound may bring an additional force against the motion of the drop due to the Bernoulli effect. This is responsible for the enhanced damping during the oscillation in acoustic levitation.

  13. Boiling of the Interface between Two Immiscible Liquids below the Bulk Boiling Temperatures of Both Components

    OpenAIRE

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V.; Goldobin, Denis S.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of boiling of the direct contact of two immiscible liquids. An intense vapour formation at such a direct contact is possible below the bulk boiling points of both components, meaning an effective decrease of the boiling temperature of the system. Although the phenomenon is known in science and widely employed in technology, the direct contact boiling process was thoroughly studied (both experimentally and theoretically) only for the case where one of liquids is becomin...

  14. Plagiogranites as late-stage immiscible liquids in ophiolite and mid-ocean ridge suites - An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, S.; Rutherford, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    A study of relationships between basic and acidic rocks was made by fractionating primitive basalt at low pressure anhydrous conditions at various fugacities. Fractionally crystallized basalt became increasingly enriched in iron which became silicate liquid immiscible, producing Fe-enriched basaltic and granitic liquids. The latter is similar to plagiogranites found in mid-oceanic rift (MOR) regions, showing that silicate liquid immiscibility could be the petrogenic process which produces plagiogranites in some MOR regions and ophiolites. The major problem in considering plagiogranites as products of silicate liquid immiscibility is absence of any description of the Fe-enriched conjugate liquid in the ophiolite or MOR literature, and the identification of this magma is essential for a definite case of silicate liquid immiscibility.

  15. Heat Transfer Characteristics during Boiling of Immiscible Liquids Flowing in Narrow Rectangular Heated Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhisa Shinmoto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of immiscible liquids for cooling of surfaces with high heat generation density is proposed based on the experimental verification of its superior cooling characteristics in fundamental systems of pool boiling and flow boiling in a tube. For the purpose of practical applications, however, heat transfer characteristics due to flow boiling in narrow rectangular channels with different small gap sizes need to be investigated. The immiscible liquids employed here are FC72 and water, and the gap size is varied as 2, 1, and 0.5 mm between parallel rectangular plates of 30 mm × 175 mm, where one plate is heated. To evaluate the effect of gap size, the heat transfer characteristics are compared at the same inlet velocity. The generation of large flattened bubbles in a narrow gap results in two opposite trends of the heat transfer enhancement due to thin liquid film evaporation and of the deterioration due to the extension of dry patch in the liquid film. The situation is the same as that observed for pure liquids. The latter negative effect is emphasized for extremely small gap sizes if the flow rate ratio of more-volatile liquid to the total is not reduced. The addition of small flow rate of less-volatile liquid can increase the critical heat flux (CHF of pure more-volatile liquid, while the surface temperature increases at the same time and assume the values between those for more-volatile and less-volatile liquids. By the selection of small flow rate ratio of more-volatile liquid, the surface temperature of pure less-volatile liquid can be decreased without reducing high CHF inherent in the less-volatile liquid employed. The trend of heat transfer characteristics for flow boiling of immiscible mixtures in narrow channels is more sensitive to the composition compared to the flow boiling in a round tube.

  16. Immiscible silicate liquids at high pressure: the influence of melt structure on elemental partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicenzi, E [Princeton Materials Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Green, T H [Macquarie Univ., North Ryde, NSW (Australia); Sie, S H [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1994-12-31

    Micro-PIXE analyses have been applied to study partitioning of trace elements between immiscible silicate melts stabilised at 0.5 and 1.0 GPa over a temperature range of 1160-1240 deg C in the system SiO{sub 2}-FeO-Al{sub 2}0{sub 3}-K{sub 2}0 (+P{sub 2}0{sub 5}). The system was doped with a suite of trace elements of geochemical interest: Rb, Ba, Pb, Sr, La, Ce, Sm, Ho, Y, Lu, Th, U, Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta at approximately 200 ppm level for all elements except for the REE`s, Ba and Ta (600-1200 ppm). Trace element partitioning was found to be a complex function of cation field strength (charge/radius{sup 2}). Although field strength is important in determining the nature and degree of partitioning, the authors emphasised that it is only one component of the underlying mechanism for the way in which elements distribute themselves between two silicate liquids. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Immiscible silicate liquids at high pressure: the influence of melt structure on elemental partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicenzi, E. [Princeton Materials Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Green, T.H. [Macquarie Univ., North Ryde, NSW (Australia); Sie, S.H. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1993-12-31

    Micro-PIXE analyses have been applied to study partitioning of trace elements between immiscible silicate melts stabilised at 0.5 and 1.0 GPa over a temperature range of 1160-1240 deg C in the system SiO{sub 2}-FeO-Al{sub 2}0{sub 3}-K{sub 2}0 (+P{sub 2}0{sub 5}). The system was doped with a suite of trace elements of geochemical interest: Rb, Ba, Pb, Sr, La, Ce, Sm, Ho, Y, Lu, Th, U, Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta at approximately 200 ppm level for all elements except for the REE`s, Ba and Ta (600-1200 ppm). Trace element partitioning was found to be a complex function of cation field strength (charge/radius{sup 2}). Although field strength is important in determining the nature and degree of partitioning, the authors emphasised that it is only one component of the underlying mechanism for the way in which elements distribute themselves between two silicate liquids. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Dissolution and biodegradation of a mixture of immiscible liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, P.; Erickson, L.E.; Fan, L.T.

    1994-01-01

    Subsurface contaminants are frequently encountered as mixtures of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) at sites contaminated by gasoline or coal tar comprising organic mixtures. The leaching of these organic mixtures from the aquifer has been examined with and without biodegradation. The results obtained have been compared with the limiting case of a single component NAPL. Various physical processes involved have been quantified based on the assumptions that liquid-liquid and sorption equilibria are established at the beginning of each flushing; oxygen required for biochemical oxidation is completely consumed by the end of each flushing; and the rate of biochemical oxidation obeys the Monod kinetics for a multi-substrate system, characterized by an oxygen utilization factor. This has given rise to an equilibrium model expressing the mass fraction of any component remaining in the aquifer, its aqueous concentration, and the composition of the NAPL as functions of the number of flushings. The results of the simulation with the model demonstrate that bioremediation can significantly reduce the time necessary for removing the components of intermediate solubility such as xylene. Highly soluble components of the NAPL are mainly removed by the pump-and-treat mechanism while the components of extremely low solubility are unavailable to the microbes as substrates in a multi-component system

  19. Fully developed laminar flow of two immiscible liquids through horizontal pipes: a variational approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurban, Adib Paulo Abdalla [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Bannwart, Antonio Carlos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica

    1990-12-31

    The fully developed laminar flow of two immiscible liquids with both different viscosities and densities through a horizontal round pipe is studied. The interface between the fluids as well as their flow fields are determined by the use of a variational principle: the so called viscous dissipation principle: The results foreseen by this paper are in agreement with the physical observation (e.g. Southern and Ballman) that the more viscous fluid is total or partially encapsulated by the less viscous one. (author) 8 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Fully developed laminar flow of two immiscible liquids through horizontal pipes: a variational approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurban, Adib Paulo Abdalla [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Bannwart, Antonio Carlos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica

    1991-12-31

    The fully developed laminar flow of two immiscible liquids with both different viscosities and densities through a horizontal round pipe is studied. The interface between the fluids as well as their flow fields are determined by the use of a variational principle: the so called viscous dissipation principle: The results foreseen by this paper are in agreement with the physical observation (e.g. Southern and Ballman) that the more viscous fluid is total or partially encapsulated by the less viscous one. (author) 8 refs., 4 figs.

  1. A planar lens based on the electrowetting of two immiscible liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chaoxuan; Park, Jihwan; Choi, Jin-Woo

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the development and characterization of a planar liquid lens based on electrowetting. The working concept of electrowetting two immiscible liquids is demonstrated with measurement and characterization of contact angles with regard to externally applied electric voltages. Consequently, a planar liquid lens is designed and implemented based on this competitive electrowetting. A droplet of silicone oil confined in an aqueous solution (1% KCl) works as a liquid lens. Electrowetting then controls the shape of the confined silicone oil and the focal length of the liquid lens varies depending upon an applied dc voltage. A unique feature of this lens design is the double-ring planar electrodes beneath the hydrophobic substrate. While an outer ring electrode provides an initial boundary for the silicone oil droplet, an inner ring works as the actuation electrode for the lens. Further, the planar electrodes, instead of vertical or out-of-plane wall electrodes, facilitate the integration of liquid lenses into microfluidic systems. With the voltage applied in the range of 50–250 V, the confined silicone oil droplet changed its shape and the optical magnification of a 3 mm-diameter liquid lens was clearly demonstrated. Moreover, focal lengths of liquid lenses with diameters of 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm were characterized, respectively. The obtained results suggest that a larger lens diameter yields a longer focal length and a wider range of focal length change in response to voltage. The demonstrated liquid lens has a simple structure and is easy to fabricate

  2. Stability conditions of stationary rupture of liquid layers on an immiscible fluid surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viviani, A. [Seconda Univ. di Napoli, Aversa (Italy). Facolta di Ingegneria; Kostarev, K.; Shmyrov, A.; Zuev, A. [Inst. of Continuous Media Mechanics, Perm (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    The stationary equilibrium shape of a 3-phase liquids-gas system was investigated. The system consisted of a horizontal liquid layer with an upper free boundary placed on the immiscible fluid interface. The study investigated the stability conditions of rupture of the liquid layer surface. The dependence of rupture parameters on the experimental cuvette diameter and layer thickness was investigated, as well as the difference in the values of surface tension of the examined fluids. The 2-layer system of horizontal fluid layers was formed in a glass cylindrical cuvette. The liquid substrate was tetrachloride carbon (CCI{sub 4}), while upper layers included water, glycerine, ethyleneglycol, and aqueous solutions of 1,4-butanediol C{sub 4}H{sub 10}O{sub 2} and isopropanol C{sub 3H8L}. Initially, the surface of the substrate fluid was overlaid with a horizontal liquid layer. The rupture was formed by subjecting the layer surface to short-time actions of a narrow directional air jet. After rupture formation, the layer thickness increased gradually. The measurements demonstrated that the rupture diameter depends on the initial thickness of the upper layer as well as the diameter of the cuvette, and the difference in the values of the surface tension of the examined fluids. Analysis of the experimental relationships indicated that the critical thickness of the breaking layer is a constant value for any specific pairs of fluids. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Satellite formation during bubble transition through an interface between immiscible liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Erqiang

    2014-03-12

    When a bubble rises to an interface between two immiscible liquids, it can pass through the interface, if this is energetically favourable, i.e. The bubble preferring the side of the interface with the lower air-liquid surface tension. Once the intermediate film between the bubble and the interface has drained sufficiently, the bubble makes contact with the interface, forming a triple-line and producing strong capillary waves which travel around the bubble and can pinch off a satellite on the opposite side, akin to the dynamics in the coalescence cascade. We identify the critical Ohnesorge numbers where such satellites are produced and characterize their sizes. The total transition time scales with the bubble size and differential surface tension, while the satellite pinch-off time scales with the capillary-inertial time of the pool liquid, which originally surrounds the bubble. We also use high-speed video imaging to study the motion of the neck of the contact. For low viscosity we show that it grows in time with a power-law exponent between 0.44 and 0.50, with a prefactor modified by the net sum of the three interfacial tensions. Increasing the viscosity of the receiving liquid drop drastically slows down the motion of the triple-line, when the Ohnesorge number exceeds ${\\\\sim }$0.08. This differs qualitatively from the coalescence of two miscible drops of different viscosities, where the lower viscosity sets the coalescence speed. We thereby propose a strong resistance from the triple-line. © 2014 Cambridge University Press.

  4. Development of an Inclined Plate Extractor-Separator for Immiscible Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zahoor ul Hassan Rizvi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A new inclined plates extractor-separator is developed for operation with immiscible liquids in which extraction and separation is achieved in one unit contrary to mixer settlers. The inclined plates extractor-separator combines turbulent jets for contacting, and an inclined plate for separation of the two phases. The inclined plates extractor-separator does not have any moving part inside the vessel. This feature makes it free from the mechanical problems associated with conventional apparatus. The proposed inclined plates extractor-separator was operated in batch mode under various operating conditions to evaluate its performance on the basis of extraction efficiency. Water (light phase was used as solvent to extract ethyl acetate from a heavy phase pool of tetrachloroethylene and ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate content was analysed using chromatography. A hydrodynamic study was carried out using high speed photography to understand the mechanisms occurring during mass transfer across the two phases. Furthermore, it was found that the proposed inclined plate extractor-separator reduces the overall operating time by 67% and consumes only 13% of the power in comparison to a mixer-settler. A hydraulic power consumption comparison with a mixer settler and a gullwing extractor-separator is also presented.

  5. Sol-Gel synthesis of MgO-SiO2 glass compositions having stable liquid-liquid immiscibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1987-01-01

    MgO-SiO2 glasses containing up to 15 mol % MgO, which could not have been prepared by the conventional glass melting method due to the presence of stable liquid-liquid immiscibility, were synthesized by the sol-gel technique. Clear and transparent gels were obtained from the hydrolysis and polycondensation of silicon tetraethoxide (TEOS) and magnesium nitrate hexahydrate when the water/TEOS mole ratio was four or more. The gelling time decreased with increase in magnesium content, water/TEOS ratio, and reaction temperature. Magnesium nitrate hexahydrate crystallized out of the gels containing 15 and 20 mol % MgO on slow drying. This problem was partially alleviated by drying the gels quickly at higher temperatures. Monolithic gel samples were prepared using glycerol as the drying control additive. The gels were subjected to various thermal treatments and characterized by several methods. No organic groups could be detected in the glasses after heat treatments to approx. 800 C, but trace amounts of hydroxyl groups were still present. No crystalline phase was found from X-ray diffraction in the gel samples to approx. 890 C. At higher temperatures, alpha quartz precipitated out as the crystalline phase in gels containing up to 10 mol % MgO. The overall activation energy for gel formation in 10MgO-90SiO2 (mol %) system for water/TEOS mole ratio of 7.5 was calculated to be 58.7 kJ/mol.

  6. Specific interface area in a thin layer system of two immiscible liquids with vapour generation at the contact interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V.; Gazdaliev, Ilias M.; Goldobin, Denis S.

    2017-06-01

    For well-stirred multiphase fluid systems the mean interface area per unit volume, or “specific interface area” SV, is a significant characteristic of the system state. In particular, it is important for the dynamics of systems of immiscible liquids experiencing interfacial boiling. We estimate the value of parameter SV as a function of the heat influx {\\dot{Q}}V to the system or the average system overheat above the interfacial boiling point. The derived results can be reformulated for the case of an endothermic chemical reaction between two liquid reagents with the gaseous form of one of the reaction products. The final results are restricted to the case of thin layers, where the potential gravitational energy of bubbles leaving the contact interface is small compared to their surface tension energy.

  7. Interfaces and fluctuations in confined polymeric liquid mixtures: from immiscible to near critical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sferrazza, Michele; Carelli, Clara

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the structure of the interface between polymer films is discussed to elucidate fluctuations and confinement effects in fluid polymer mixtures. The neutron reflectivity technique has been employed to investigate the dependence of the structure of the interface on the degree of immiscibility of the polymers over a wide range, as criticality is approached, and to characterize it in terms of intrinsic width, as calculated by mean field theories, and capillary fluctuations. For more immiscible systems, as the degree of incompatibility between the polymers is decreased, the width of the interface increases slowly, and it is independent of the molecular weight of the polymers. Closer to the critical point the dependence on the degree of miscibility becomes stronger and the way in which the interfacial width diverges, as criticality is approached, is related to both chain length and Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ). The results have been compared to the predictions of mean field theories. Self-consistent field numerical calculations, with the additional contribution due to capillary waves, provide a good description of the width of the interface between two polymer bulk phases, in particular at higher and intermediate degrees of immiscibility-the product of the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter χ and the number N of monomers of the chain, χN. For more miscible systems a crossover is observed to a region where the square gradient theory in the weak segregation limit better approximates the experimental results. Moreover, the mechanisms by which confinement affects the interface have been investigated. To understand the relative importance of the long ranged van der Waals forces and short ranged 'truncation forces' in modifying thermally excited fluctuations at the polymer/polymer interface, the thickness dependence of the interfacial width has been studied for different degrees of miscibility, approaching criticality. The results show a gradual

  8. Convective boiling heat transfer of mixture of immiscible two-liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hijikata, K.; Ito, H.; Mori, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal energy conversion of low or middle temperature difference to electric power is conventionally made by the Rankine cycle using the organic compound as a working fluid. However, the energy conversion efficiency from thermal energy to electric power is limited by the pinch point temperature difference in the high temperature side heat exchanging. In order to avoid the efficiency ceiling due to the pinch point temperature difference, utilization of mixture of miscible two liquids as the working fluid of the Rankine cycle has been proposed and its cycle efficiency has been calculated. However, in the miscible mixture, mutual diffusion process is considered to greatly affect the thermo-fluid characteristics, but has not been clarified yet because of its complexity

  9. Carbon-based nanomaterial synthesis using nanosecond electrical discharges in immiscible layered liquids: n-heptane and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Ahmad; Cha, Min Suk

    2018-06-01

    Plasmas in- or in-contact with liquids have been extensively investigated due to their high potential for a wide range of applications including, but not limited to, water treatment, material synthesis and functionalization, bio-medical applications, and liquid fuel reformation. Recently, we successfully developed a discharge using two immiscible liquids, having very different electrical permittivities, which could significantly intensify the electric field intensity. Here, we establish nanosecond discharges at the interface n-heptane-water (with respective relative dielectric permittivities of 2 and 80) to enable the synthesis of carbon-based nanomaterials. A characterization of the as-synthesized material and the annealed (500 °C) material, using various techniques (Fourier-transform, infra-red, scanning and transmission electron microscopes, etc), shows that the as-synthesized material is a mixture of two carbon-based phases: a crystalline phase (graphite like) embedded into a phase of hydrogenated amorphous carbon. The existence of two-phases may be explained by the non-homogeneity of the discharge that induces various chemical reactions in the plasma channel.

  10. Carbon-based nanomaterial synthesis using nanosecond electrical discharges in immiscible layered liquids: n-heptane and water

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdan, Ahmad

    2018-05-14

    Plasmas in- or in-contact with liquids have been extensively investigated due to their high potential for a wide range of applications including but not limited to, water treatment, material synthesis and functionalization, bio-medical applications, and liquid fuel reformation. Recently, we successfully developed a discharge using two immiscible liquids, having very different electrical permittivities, which could significantly intensify the electric field intensity. Here, we establish nanosecond discharges at the interface n-heptane-water (with respective relative dielectric permittivities of 2 and 80) to enable the synthesis of carbon-based nanomaterials. A characterization of the as-synthesized material and the annealed (500 °C) material, using various techniques (Fourier-Transform, Infra-Red, Scanning and Transmission electron microscopes, etc.), shows that the as-synthesized material is a mixture of two carbon-based phases: a crystalline phase (graphite like) embedded into a phase of hydrogenated amorphous carbon. The existence of two-phases may be explained by the non-homogeneity of the discharge that induces various chemical reactions in the plasma channel.

  11. Study of void fraction and mixing of immiscible liquids in a pool configuration by an upward gas flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, J.C.; Corradini, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, investigations are performed to study the mixing between immiscible liquids in a pool configuration due to an upward gas flow. A water-R113 system is sued in the bubbly/churn-turbulent regimes to determine the effects of the unagitated pool depth on layer mixing. The superficial gas velocity at which full mixing is attained is observed to increase with the pool depth, although it is concluded that this is a weak dependency. Mixing in the churn-turbulent regime is studied with Wood's metal-water and Wood's metal-silicone fluid (100 cS) as pairs of fluids. Additional past mixing data from six other fluids are also included in the data base. A criterion is proposed to determine if two liquids will entrain in bubbly or churn-turbulent flow. Correlations are derived that, for a set of given conditions, allow prediction of the mixing state (mixed or segregated) of a system. Because of the indirect method of measuring the mixed layer thickness, pool void fraction experiments are also performed. For the case of water and R113, the effect of unagitated pool depth on the void fraction is studied

  12. The role of liquid-liquid immiscibility and crystal fractionation in the genesis of carbonatite magmas: insights from Kerimasi melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmics, Tibor; Zajacz, Zoltán; Mitchell, Roger H.; Szabó, Csaba; Wälle, Markus

    2015-02-01

    We have reconstructed the compositional evolution of the silicate and carbonate melt, and various crystalline phases in the subvolcanic reservoir of Kerimasi Volcano in the East African Rift. Trace element concentrations of silicate and carbonate melt inclusions trapped in nepheline, apatite and magnetite from plutonic afrikandite (clinopyroxene-nepheline-perovskite-magnetite-melilite rock) and calciocarbonatite (calcite-apatite-magnetite-perovskite-monticellite-phlogopite rock) show that liquid immiscibility occurred during the generation of carbonatite magmas from a CO2-rich melilite-nephelinite magma formed at relatively high temperatures (1,100 °C). This carbonatite magma is notably more calcic and less alkaline than that occurring at Oldoinyo Lengai. The CaO-rich (32-41 wt%) nature and alkali-"poor" (at least 7-10 wt% Na2O + K2O) nature of these high-temperature (>1,000 °C) carbonate melts result from strong partitioning of Ca (relative to Mg, Fe and Mn) in the immiscible carbonate and the CaO-rich nature (12-17 wt%) of its silicate parent (e.g., melilite-nephelinite). Evolution of the Kerimasi carbonate magma can result in the formation of natrocarbonatite melts with similar composition to those of Oldoinyo Lengai, but with pronounced depletion in REE and HFSE elements. We suggest that this compositional difference results from the different initial parental magmas, e.g., melilite-nephelinite at Kerimasi and a nephelinite at Oldoinyo Lengai. The difference in parental magma composition led to a significant difference in the fractionating mineral phase assemblage and the element partitioning systematics upon silicate-carbonate melt immiscibility. LA-ICP-MS analysis of coeval silicate and carbonate melt inclusions provides an opportunity to infer carbonate melt/silicate melt partition coefficients for a wide range of elements. These data show that Li, Na, Pb, Ca, Sr, Ba, B, all REE (except Sc), U, V, Nb, Ta, P, Mo, W and S are partitioned into the carbonate

  13. Approximate model for calculating overall heat transfer between overlying immiscible liquid layers with bubble-induced liquid entrainment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, G.A.; Schwarz, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    In the event a commercial power reactor is subjected to a Class 9 accident resulting in gross core melting and reactor pressure vessel penetration, it has been shown that the containment integrity may subsequently be threatened by steam overpressurization, combustible gas reactions, and basemat penetration. A major contributor to these events would be the interaction of molten core debris with the structural concrete. Modeling of core-concrete interactions involves many poorly understood and complicated heat transfer phenomena for which there exists a sparse data base. One of these phenomena, which has been shown to have significant impact upon code calculations of core-concrete interactions, is the rate of heat transfer between overlying immiscible layers of core oxides and molten metals whose interface is agitated by transverse gas flow. A mathematical model is developed to analyze this heat transfer

  14. ASSESSMENT OF THE ABILITY OF STANDARD SLURRY PUMPS TO MIX MISCIBLE AND IMMISCIBLE LIQUIDS IN TANK 50H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.

    2011-06-15

    Tank 50H is the feed tank for the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). At present, Tank 50H contains two standard slurry pumps and two Quad Volute slurry pumps. Current requirements and mixing operation is to run three pumps for one hour prior to initiating a feed transfer to SPF. Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste would like to move one or both of the Quad Volute pumps from Tank 50H to Tank 51H to replace pumps in Tank 51H that are failing. In addition, one of the standard pumps in Tank 50H exhibits high seal leakage and vibration. SRS Liquid Waste requested Savannah River National (SRNL) to conduct a study to evaluate the feasibility of mixing the contents of Tank 50H with one to three standard slurry pumps. To determine the pump requirements to blend miscible and immiscible liquids in Tank 50H, the author reviewed the pilot-scale blending work performed for the Salt Disposition Integration Project (SDIP) and the technical literature, and applied the results to Tank 50H to determine the number, size, and operating parameters needed to blend the tank contents. The conclusions from this analysis are: (1) A single rotating standard slurry pump (with a 13.6 ft{sup 2}/s U{sub 0}D) will be able to blend miscible liquids (i.e., salt solution) in Tank 50H within 4.4 hours. (2) Two rotating standard slurry pumps will be able to blend miscible liquids in Tank 50H within 3.1 hours. (3) Three rotating standard slurry pumps will be able to blend miscible liquids in Tank 50H within 2.5 hours. (4) A single rotating standard slurry pump (with a 13.6 ft{sup 2}/s U{sub 0}D) will disperse Isopar L{reg_sign} droplets that are less than or equal to 15 micron in diameter. If the droplets are less than 15 micron, they will be dispersed within 4.4 hours. Isopar L{reg_sign} provides a lower bound on the maximum size of droplets that will be dispersed by the slurry pumps in Tank 50H. (5) Two rotating standard slurry pumps will disperse Isopar L{reg_sign} droplets less than 15 micron

  15. Silicate liquid immiscibility in magmas and in the system K2O-FeO-AI2O3-SiO2: an example of serendipity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roedder, E.

    1978-01-01

    The concept of silicate liquid immiscibility was invoked early in the history of petrology to explain certain pairs of compositionally divergent rocks, but. as a result of papers by Greig (Am. J. Sci. 13, 1-44, 133-154) and Bowen (The Evolution of the Igneous Rocks), it fell into disfavor for many years. The discovery of immiscibility in geologically reasonable temperature ranges and compositions in experimental work on the system K2O-FeO-Al2O3-SiO2, and of evidence for immiscibility in a variety of lunar and terrestrial rocks, has reinstated the process. Phase equilibria in the high-silica corner of the tetrahedron representing the system K2O- FeO-Al2O3-SiO2 are presented, in the form of constant FeO sections through the tetrahedron, at 10% increments. Those sections, showing the tentative relationships of the primary phase volumes, are based on 5631 quenching runs on 519 compositions, made in metallic iron containers in pure nitrogen. Thirteen crystalline compounds are involved, of which at least six show two or more crystal modifica-tions. Two separate phase volumes, in each of which two immiscible liquids, one iron-rich and the other iron-poor, are present at the liquidus. One of these volumes is entirely within the quaternary system, astride the 1:1 K2O:Al2O3 plane. No quaternary compounds as such have been found, but evidence does point toward at least partial quaternary solid solution, with rapidly lowering liquidus temperatures, from K2O??Al2O3?? 2SiO2 ('potash nepheline', kalsilite. kaliophilite) to the isostructural compound K2O??FeO??3SiO2, and from K2O??Al2O3??4SiO2 (leucite) to the isostructural compound K2O??FeO??5SiO2, Both of these series apparently involve substitution, in tetrahedral coordination. of a ferrous iron and a silicon ion for two aluminum ions. Some of the 'impurities' found in analyses of the natural phases may reflect these substitutions. As a result of the geometry of the immiscibility volume located entirely within the quaternary

  16. Kinetic and thermodynamic study of the transfer of anionic polyamidoamine dendrimers across two immiscible liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Fuentes, Miguel A.; Manriquez, J.; Antano-Lopez, R.; Godinez, Luis A.

    2011-01-01

    The kinetics and thermodynamics for the phase transfer of carboxyl-terminated polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers across the water/dichloroethane interface were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A three phase junction was employed by inserting a cylindrical gold electrode through the liquid-liquid interface. The reversible redox species decamethylferrocene (DMFc) was used in the organic phase in order to promote dendrimer transfer. It was found that the electrochemical behaviour of DMFc at the gold/dichloroethane interface depends on the generation and concentration of the dendrimer species in the aqueous phase. In addition, it was observed that the electrochemically driven transfer of these macromolecules corresponds to a quasi-reversible process. The data obtained from thermodynamic studies indicate that dendrimers are transferred between the two phases under study by an entropy controlled process.

  17. Carbonate-silicate liquid immiscibility in the mantle propels kimberlite magma ascent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Yaxley, Gregory M.

    2015-06-01

    Kimberlite is a rare volcanic rock renowned as the major host of diamonds and originated at the base of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Although kimberlite magmas are dense in crystals and deeply-derived rock fragments, they ascend to the surface extremely rapidly, enabling diamonds to survive. The unique physical properties of kimberlite magmas depend on the specific compositions of their parental melts that, in absence of historical eruptions and due to pervasive alteration of kimberlite rocks, remain highly debatable. We explain exceptionally rapid ascent of kimberlite magma from mantle depths by combining empirical data on the essentially carbonatite composition of the kimberlite primary melts and experimental evidence on interaction of the carbonate liquids with mantle minerals. Our experimental study shows that orthopyroxene is completely dissolved in a Na2CO3 melt at 2.0-5.0 GPa and 1000-1200 °C. The dissolution of orthopyroxene results in homogeneous silicate-carbonate melt at 5.0 GPa and 1200 °C, and is followed by unmixing of carbonate and carbonated silicate melts and formation of stable magmatic emulsion at lower pressures and temperatures. The dispersed silicate melt has a significant capacity for storing a carbonate component in the deep mantle (13 wt% CO2 at 2.0 GPa). We envisage that this component reaches saturation and is gradually released as CO2 bubbles, as the silicate melt globules are transported upwards through the lithosphere by the carbonatite magma. The globules of unmixed, CO2-rich silicate melt are continuously produced upon further reaction between the natrocarbonatite melt and mantle peridotite. On decompression the dispersed silicate melt phase ensures a continuous supply of CO2 bubbles that decrease density and increase buoyancy and promote rapid ascent of the magmatic emulsion.

  18. Low temperature synthesis of CaO-SiO2 glasses having stable liquid-liquid immiscibility by sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1990-01-01

    Calcium silicate glass compositions lying within the liquid-liquid immiscibility dome of the phase diagram, which could not have been prepared by the conventional melting method, were synthesized by the sol-gel process. Hydrolysis and polycondensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) solutions containing up to 20 mol percent calcium nitrate resulted in the formation of clear and transparent gels. The gel formation time decreased with increase in water:TEOS mole ratio, calcium content, and the reaction temperature. Smaller values of gel times in the presence of calcium nitrate are probably caused by lowering of the ionic charge on the sol particles by the salt present. The gelation activation energy, E(sub gel), was evaluated from temperature dependence of the gel time. Presence of Ca(2+) ions or the water:TEOS mole ratio did not have an appreciable effect on the value of E(sub gel). Presence of glycerol in the solution helped in the formation of crack-free monolithic gel specimens. Chemical and structural changes occurring in the gels, as a function of the heat treatments, have been monitored using DTA, TGA, IR-spectroscopy, x ray diffraction, surface area and pore size distribution measurements.

  19. Low temperature synthesis of CaO-SiO2 glasses having stable liquid-liquid immiscibility by the sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, N. P.

    1992-01-01

    Calcium silicate glass compositions lying within the liquid-liquid immiscibility dome of the phase diagram, which could not have been prepared by the conventional melting method, were synthesized by the sol-gel process. Hydrolysis and polycondensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) solutions containing up to 20 mol percent calcium nitrate resulted in the formation of clear and transparent gels. The gel formation time decreased with increase in water: TEOS mole ratio, calcium content, and the reaction temperature. Smaller values of gel times in the presence of calcium nitrate are probably caused by lowering of the ionic charge on the sol particles by the salt present. The gelation activation energy, E(sub gel), was evaluated from temperature dependence of the gel time. Presence of Ca(2+) ions or the water:TEOS mole ratio did not have an appreciable effect on the value of E(sub gel). Presence of glycerol in the solution helped in the formation of crack-free monolithic gel specimens. Chemical and structural changes occurring in the gels, as a function of the heat treatments, have been monitored using DTA, TGA, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, surface area and pore size distribution measurements.

  20. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Sørensen, Karen Skotte; Wolff, Anders

    2014-01-01

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible......-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/µg and 1.72(14) nL/µg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis...

  1. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistrup, Kasper, E-mail: kkis@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Skotte Sørensen, Karen, E-mail: karen@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Center for Integrated Point of Care Technologies (CiPoC), DELTA, Venlighedsvej 4, DK-2870 Hørsholm (Denmark); Wolff, Anders, E-mail: anders.wolff@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Fougt Hansen, Mikkel, E-mail: mikkel.hansen@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-04-15

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/µg and 1.72(14) nL/µg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively. - Highlights: • We present an all-polymer mass producible passive filled microfluidic chip system. • Rapid system fabrication is obtained by injection moulding and ultrasonic welding. • The system is made for single-use nucleic acid extraction using magnetic beads. • We systematically map compatibility of the chip system with various surfactants. • We quantify the volume carry-over of magnetic beads in water and 0.1% triton-X solution.

  2. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Skotte Sørensen, Karen; Wolff, Anders; Fougt Hansen, Mikkel

    2015-04-01

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/μg and 1.72(14) nL/μg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively.

  3. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Skotte Sørensen, Karen; Wolff, Anders; Fougt Hansen, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/µg and 1.72(14) nL/µg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively. - Highlights: • We present an all-polymer mass producible passive filled microfluidic chip system. • Rapid system fabrication is obtained by injection moulding and ultrasonic welding. • The system is made for single-use nucleic acid extraction using magnetic beads. • We systematically map compatibility of the chip system with various surfactants. • We quantify the volume carry-over of magnetic beads in water and 0.1% triton-X solution

  4. Carbon-based nanomaterial synthesis using nanosecond electrical discharges in immiscible layered liquids: n-heptane and water

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdan, Ahmad; Cha, Min

    2018-01-01

    Plasmas in- or in-contact with liquids have been extensively investigated due to their high potential for a wide range of applications including but not limited to, water treatment, material synthesis and functionalization, bio-medical applications

  5. Low gravity containerless processing of immiscible gold rhodium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J. Barry

    1986-01-01

    Under normal one-g conditions immiscible alloys segregate extensively during solidification due to sedementation of the more dense of the immiscible liquid phases. However, under low-g conditions it should be possible to form a dispersion of the two immiscible liquids and maintain this dispersed structure during solidification. Immiscible (hypermonotectic) gold-rhodium alloys were processed in the Marshall Space Flight Center 105 meter drop tube in order to investigate the influence of low gravity, containerless solidification on their microstructure. Hypermonotectic alloys composed of 65 atomic % rhodium exhibited a tendency for the gold rich liquid to wet the outer surface of the containerless processed samples. This tendency led to extensive segregation in several cases. However, well dispersed microstructures consisting of 2 to 3 micron diameter rhodium-rich spheres in a gold-rich matrix were produced in 23.4 atomic % rhodium alloys. This is one of the best dispersions obtained in research on immiscible alloy-systems to data.

  6. Simultaneous PLIF and PIV measurement of a near field turbulent immiscible buoyant oil jet fragmentation in water using liquid-liquid refractive index matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xinzhi; Katz, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    Very little experimental data exits on the flow structure in the near field of a crude oil jet fragmenting in water because of inability to probe dense droplet cloud. Refractive index-matching is applied to overcome this challenge by using silicone oil and sugar water as a surrogate liquid pair. Their density ratio, viscosity ratio, and interfacial tension are closely matched with those of crude oil and seawater. Simultaneous PLIF and PIV measurements are conducted by fluorescently tagging the oil and seeding both phases with particles. With increasing jet Reynolds and Weber numbers, the oil plume breakup occurs closer to the nozzle, the spreading angle of the jet increases, and the droplet sizes decrease. The varying spread rate is attributed to differences in droplet size distributions. The location of primary oil breakup is consistent with the region of high strain rate fluctuations. What one may perceive as oil droplets in opaque fluids actually consists of multi-layers containing water droplets, which sometimes encapsulate smaller oil droplets, creating a ``Russian Doll'' like phenomenon. This system forms as ligaments of oil and water wrap around each other during entrainment. Results include profiles of mean velocity and turbulence parameters along with energy spectra. Gulf of Mexico Research Inititave.

  7. Ionic conductivity and complexation in liquid dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhakin, Anatolii I

    2003-01-01

    Electronic and ionic conductivity in nonpolar liquids is reviewed. Theoretical results on ionic complexation (formation of ion pairs and triplets, dipole-dipole chains, ion-dipole clusters) in liquid dielectrics in an intense external electric field are considered, and the relation between the complexation process and ionic conductivity is discussed. Experimental results supporting the possibility of complexation are presented and compared with theoretical calculations. Onsager's theory about the effect of an intense external electric field on ion-pair dissociation is corrected for the finite size of ions. (reviews of topical problems)

  8. Ultrathin-skinned asymmetric membranes by immiscible solvents treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Dwayne T.; Babcock, Walter C.

    1989-01-01

    Improved semipermeable asymmetric fluid separation membranes useful in gas, vapor and liquid separations are disclosed. The membranes are prepared by substantially filling the pores of asymmetric cellulosic semipermeable membranes having a finely porous layer on one side thereof with a water immiscible organic liquid, followed by contacting the finely porous layer with water.

  9. Liquid jets for experiments on complex fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinke, Ingo

    2015-02-01

    The ability of modern storage rings and free-electron lasers to produce intense X-ray beams that can be focused down to μm and nm sizes offers the possibility to study soft condensed matter systems on small length and short time scales. Gas dynamic virtual nozzles (GDVN) offer the unique possibility to investigate complex fluids spatially confined in a μm sized liquid jet with high flow rates, high pressures and shear stress distributions. In this thesis two different applications of liquid jet injection systems have been studied. The influence of the shear flow present in a liquid jet on colloidal dispersions was investigated via small angle X-ray scattering and a coherent wide angle X-ray scattering experiment on a liquid water jet was performed. For these purposes, liquid jet setups that are capable for X-ray scattering experiments have been developed and the manufacturing of gas dynamic virtual nozzles was realized. The flow properties of a liquid jet and their influences on the liquid were studied with two different colloidal dispersions at beamline P10 at the storage ring PETRA III. The results show that high shear flows present in a liquid jet lead to compressions and expansions of the particle structure and to particle alignments. The shear rate in the used liquid jet could be estimated to γ ≥ 5.4 . 10 4 Hz. The feasibility of rheology studies with a liquid jet injection system and the combined advantages is discussed. The coherent X-ray scattering experiment on a water jet was performed at the XCS instrument at the free-electron laser LCLS. First coherent single shot diffraction patterns from water were taken to investigate the feasibility of measuring speckle patterns from water.

  10. A Voltammetric Determination of the Rate Constant of a One-Way Homogeneous Chemical Reaction in a System of Two Immiscible Liquid Phases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holub, Karel; Brusová, Zuzana; Štulík, K.; Mareček, Vladimír

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 574, č. 1 (2004), s. 101-106 ISSN 0022-0728 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/03/0822 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : liquid|liquid interfaces * homogeneous reaction * voltammetry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.228, year: 2004

  11. Morphology development in immiscible polymer blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardinaels, R.M.; Moldenaers, P.; Guo, Qipeng

    This chapter discusses the morphology development of immiscible binary polymer blends. It first describes morphology development in droplet-matrix structures, the dynamics of fibrillar structures and cocontinuous structures. The chapter then considers binary immiscible polymer blends, such systems

  12. Multiphase flow of immiscible fluids on unstructured moving meshes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Erleben, Kenny; Bargteil, Adam

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for animating multiphase flow of immiscible fluids using unstructured moving meshes. Our underlying discretization is an unstructured tetrahedral mesh, the deformable simplicial complex (DSC), that moves with the flow in a Lagrangian manner. Mesh optimization op...

  13. Mixed convective flow of immiscible viscous fluids confined between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... finite difference methods to analyze the problem of natural convection boundary layer flow along a complex vertical surface ... analyzed the flow of two immiscible fluids in a parallel plate channel ... wavy and flat walls are maintained at constant temperatures w.

  14. Multiphase Flow of Immiscible Fluids on Unstructured Moving Meshes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Erleben, Kenny; Bargteil, Adam

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for animating multiphase flow of immiscible fluids using unstructured moving meshes. Our underlying discretization is an unstructured tetrahedral mesh, the deformable simplicial complex (DSC), that moves with the flow in a Lagrangian manner. Mesh optimization op...

  15. Immiscible iron- and silica-rich melt in basalt petrogenesis documented in the Skaergaard intrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kløve; Veksler, Ilya; Tegner, Christian

    2005-01-01

    colored type contains 30.9 6 4.2 wt% FeOt and 40.7 6 3.6 wt% SiO2, whereas the light colored type contains 8.6 6 5.9 wt% FeOt and 65.6 6 7.3 wt% SiO2. Similar light colored melt inclusions in olivine and fine grained dark and light colored interstitial pockets also give evidence of crystallization from......Silicate liquid immiscibility in basalt petrogenesis is a contentious issue. Immiscible iron and silica-rich liquids were reported in melt inclusions of lunar basalt and in groundmass glasses of terrestrial volcanics. In fully crystallized plutonic rocks, however, silicate liquid immiscibility has...

  16. Characteristic impedance of a microchannel with two immiscible microfluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo Raquejo, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    Consider the case of a microcapillary of radius R with two microfluidic immiscible. The micro-capillary region 0 expressed in terms of Bessel functions. Similarly, the characteristic impedance of the microcapillary is expressed by a complex formula Bessel functions. Obtain the analytical results are important for designing engineering microdevices with applications in pharmaceutical, food engineering, nanotechnology and biotechnology in general in particular. For future research it is interesting to consider the case of boundary conditions with memory effects.

  17. Simple-to-Complex Transformation in Liquid Rubidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelli, Federico A; De Panfilis, Simone; Bryk, Taras; Ulivi, Lorenzo; Garbarino, Gaston; Parisiades, Paraskevas; Santoro, Mario

    2018-05-18

    We investigated the atomic structure of liquid Rb along an isothermal path at 573 K, up to 23 GPa, by X-ray diffraction measurements. By raising the pressure, we observed a liquid-liquid transformation from a simple metallic liquid to a complex one. The transition occurs at 7.5 ± 1 GPa which is slightly above the first maximum of the T-P melting line. This transformation is traced back to the density-induced hybridization of highest electronic orbitals leading to the accumulation of valence electrons between Rb atoms and to the formation of interstitial atomic shells, a behavior that Rb shares with Cs and is likely to be common to all alkali metals.

  18. The immiscible aqueous solutions of alkyl phosphates. Study for the purpose of uranium extraction from phosphoric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauborgne, Bernard

    1979-01-01

    Systems of immiscible aqueous solutions composed by a phase rich in mineral salt and by another phase almost totally containing an organic salt, have been studied for years, with quaternary ammonium salts with an organic cation. The objective of this research is to study systems symmetric to the previous ones, i.e. with organic anions such as alkyl phosphates, and then to try to understand mechanisms of extraction of metals in these environments. Based on properties of immiscible aqueous solutions, an original three-phase process of liquid-liquid extraction has been developed, and is used to separate uranium in phosphoric acids with better performance than the existing industrial processes [fr

  19. Automated Planning Enables Complex Protocols on Liquid-Handling Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Ellis; Rudolf, Fabian; Kaltenbach, Hans-Michael; Stelling, Jörg

    2018-03-16

    Robotic automation in synthetic biology is especially relevant for liquid handling to facilitate complex experiments. However, research tasks that are not highly standardized are still rarely automated in practice. Two main reasons for this are the substantial investments required to translate molecular biological protocols into robot programs, and the fact that the resulting programs are often too specific to be easily reused and shared. Recent developments of standardized protocols and dedicated programming languages for liquid-handling operations addressed some aspects of ease-of-use and portability of protocols. However, either they focus on simplicity, at the expense of enabling complex protocols, or they entail detailed programming, with corresponding skills and efforts required from the users. To reconcile these trade-offs, we developed Roboliq, a software system that uses artificial intelligence (AI) methods to integrate (i) generic formal, yet intuitive, protocol descriptions, (ii) complete, but usually hidden, programming capabilities, and (iii) user-system interactions to automatically generate executable, optimized robot programs. Roboliq also enables high-level specifications of complex tasks with conditional execution. To demonstrate the system's benefits for experiments that are difficult to perform manually because of their complexity, duration, or time-critical nature, we present three proof-of-principle applications for the reproducible, quantitative characterization of GFP variants.

  20. A novel coarsening mechanism of droplets in immiscible fluid mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Ryotaro; Tanaka, Hajime

    2015-06-01

    In our daily lives, after shaking a salad dressing, we see the coarsening of oil droplets suspended in vinegar. Such a demixing process is observed everywhere in nature and also of technological importance. For a case of high droplet density, domain coarsening proceeds with inter-droplet collisions and the resulting coalescence. This phenomenon has been explained primarily by the so-called Brownian-coagulation mechanism: stochastic thermal forces exerted by molecules induce random motion of individual droplets, causing accidental collisions and subsequent interface-tension-driven coalescence. Contrary to this, here we demonstrate that the droplet motion is not random, but hydrodynamically driven by the composition Marangoni force due to an interfacial tension gradient produced in each droplet as a consequence of composition correlation among droplets. This alters our physical understanding of droplet coarsening in immiscible liquid mixtures on a fundamental level.

  1. Lattice Boltzmann model for simulating immiscible two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, T; Phillips, T N

    2007-01-01

    The lattice Boltzmann equation is often promoted as a numerical simulation tool that is particularly suitable for predicting the flow of complex fluids. This paper develops a two-dimensional 9-velocity (D2Q9) lattice Boltzmann model for immiscible binary fluids with variable viscosities and density ratio using a single relaxation time for each fluid. In the macroscopic limit, this model is shown to recover the Navier-Stokes equations for two-phase flows. This is achieved by constructing a two-phase component of the collision operator that induces the appropriate surface tension term in the macroscopic equations. A theoretical expression for surface tension is determined. The validity of this analysis is confirmed by comparing numerical and theoretical predictions of surface tension as a function of density. The model is also shown to predict Laplace's law for surface tension and Poiseuille flow of layered immiscible binary fluids. The spinodal decomposition of two fluids of equal density but different viscosity is then studied. At equilibrium, the system comprises one large low viscosity bubble enclosed by the more viscous fluid in agreement with theoretical arguments of Renardy and Joseph (1993 Fundamentals of Two-Fluid Dynamics (New York: Springer)). Two other simulations, namely the non-equilibrium rod rest and the coalescence of two bubbles, are performed to show that this model can be used to simulate two fluids with a large density ratio

  2. Liquid liquid extraction of Th(IV) and its complexation study by Calix(4)pyrole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathod, N.V.; Kamble, J.H.; Malkhede, D.D.

    2015-01-01

    Due to increased demand for carbon-free energy, accelerated growth of nuclear power is foreseen in several countries, especially in China and India. This has made the sustainable use of fuel resources such as uranium and thorium very important. Today, uranium is the main-stay of the present generation of nuclear power plants. However, the anticipated growth in nuclear energy may require introducing thorium as a fuel in future. Meso-octamethyl calix(4)pyrole is known for anion receptor however the present study evaluate the effect of cation for complexation of thorium by liquid liquid extraction technique. Calix(4)pyrole was evaluated for extraction of Th(IV), and 97% extraction efficiency was obtained. Th(IV) was determine with arsenazo(III) at 655 nm. The effect of acid molarity of 0.1 M, 1:5 metal to ligand ratio found efficient for maximum extraction. The stoichiometry ratio 1:2 between metal to ligand is established

  3. Modified analytic EAM potentials for the binary immiscible alloy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, F.; Shu, X.L.; Deng, H.Q.; Hu, W.Y.; Zhu, M.

    2003-01-01

    Modified analytic embedded atom method (MAEAM) type potentials have been constructed for seven binary immiscible alloy systems: Al-Pb, Ag-Ni, Fe-Cu, Ag-Cu, Cu-Ta, Cu-W and Cu-Co. The potentials are fitted to the lattice constant, cohesive energy, unrelaxed monovacancy formation energy and elastic constants for only pure metals which consist the immiscible alloy systems. In order to test the reliability of the constructed MAEAM potentials, formation enthalpies of disordered alloys for those seven binary immiscible alloy systems have been calculated. The calculated results are in general agreement with the experimental data available and those theoretical results calculated by other authors. As only very limited experimental information is available for alloy properties in immiscible alloy systems, the MAEAM is demonstrated to be a reasonable method to construct the interatomic potentials for immiscible alloy systems because only the properties of pure elements are needed in calculation

  4. Stability of a radial immiscible drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, J

    1968-11-01

    The stability of the displacement front between 2 immiscible fluids of radial flow between 2 parallel plates (Hele-Shaw model) is studied mathematically by superposing onto the circular displacement front a sinusoidal perturbation. The equations are reduced to dimensionless variables, and it is shown that the stable and unstable domains in a plot: dimensionless viscosity vs. dimensionless time are separated by a polygonal contour, each side of the contour being characterized by the (integer) number of perturbations along the circumference. There is a critical reduced time below which the perturbations are amortized but beyond which they are amplified. Experimental results have been in fair general agreement with theoretical results, the divergence between them being attributable to neglecting capillary phenomena, which may become very important at large radial distances. One test with miscible fluids has shown that even in this case, there is a critical time or an equivalent critical radius.

  5. Optimizing Liquid Effluent Monitoring at a Large Nuclear Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Charissa J.; Johnson, V.G.; Barnett, Brent B.; Olson, Phillip M.

    2003-01-01

    Monitoring data for a centralized effluent treatment and disposal facility at the Hanford Site, a defense nuclear complex undergoing cleanup and decommissioning in southeast Washington State, was evaluated to optimize liquid effluent monitoring efficiency. Wastewater from several facilities is collected and discharged to the ground at a common disposal site. The discharged water infiltrates through 60 m of soil column to the groundwater, which eventually flows into the Columbia River, the second largest river in the contiguous United States. Protection of this important natural resource is the major objective of both cleanup and groundwater and effluent monitoring activities at the Hanford Site. Four years of effluent data were evaluated for this study. More frequent sampling was conducted during the first year of operation to assess temporal variability in analyte concentrations, to determine operational factors contributing to waste stream variability and to assess the probability of exceeding permit limits. Subsequently, the study was updated which included evaluation of the sampling and analysis regime. It was concluded that the probability of exceeding permit limits was one in a million under normal operating conditions, sampling frequency could be reduced, and several analytes could be eliminated, while indicators could be substituted for more expensive analyses. Findings were used by the state regulatory agency to modify monitoring requirements for a new discharge permit. The primary focus of this paper is on the statistical approaches and rationale that led to the successful permit modification and to a more cost-effective effluent monitoring program

  6. Optimizing liquid effluent monitoring at a large nuclear complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Charissa J; Barnett, D Brent; Johnson, Vernon G; Olson, Phil M

    2003-12-01

    Effluent monitoring typically requires a large number of analytes and samples during the initial or startup phase of a facility. Once a baseline is established, the analyte list and sampling frequency may be reduced. Although there is a large body of literature relevant to the initial design, few, if any, published papers exist on updating established effluent monitoring programs. This paper statistically evaluates four years of baseline data to optimize the liquid effluent monitoring efficiency of a centralized waste treatment and disposal facility at a large defense nuclear complex. Specific objectives were to: (1) assess temporal variability in analyte concentrations, (2) determine operational factors contributing to waste stream variability, (3) assess the probability of exceeding permit limits, and (4) streamline the sampling and analysis regime. Results indicated that the probability of exceeding permit limits was one in a million under normal facility operating conditions, sampling frequency could be reduced, and several analytes could be eliminated. Furthermore, indicators such as gross alpha and gross beta measurements could be used in lieu of more expensive specific isotopic analyses (radium, cesium-137, and strontium-90) for routine monitoring. Study results were used by the state regulatory agency to modify monitoring requirements for a new discharge permit, resulting in an annual cost savings of US dollars 223,000. This case study demonstrates that statistical evaluation of effluent contaminant variability coupled with process knowledge can help plant managers and regulators streamline analyte lists and sampling frequencies based on detection history and environmental risk.

  7. Chiral separation of substituted phenylalanine analogues using chiral palladium phosphine complexes with enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuijl, B.J.V.; Schuur, B.; Minnaard, A.J.; Vries, de J.G.; Feringa, B.L.

    2010-01-01

    Chiral palladium phosphine complexes have been employed in the chiral separation of amino acids and phenylalanine analogues in particular. The use of (S)-xylyl-BINAP as a ligand for the palladium complex in enantioselective liquid–liquid extraction allowed the separation of the phenylalanine

  8. Particle Swarm Transport through Immiscible Fluid Layers in a Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, N. D.; Boomsma, E.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.

    2011-12-01

    Immiscible fluids occur either naturally (e.g. oil & water) or from anthropogenic processes (e.g. liquid CO2 & water) in the subsurface and complicate the transport of natural or engineered micro- or nano-scale particles. In this study, we examined the effect of immiscible fluids on the formation and evolution of particle swarms in a fracture. A particle swarm is a collection of colloidal-size particles in a dilute suspension that exhibits cohesive behavior. Swarms fall under gravity with a velocity that is greater than the settling velocity of a single particle. Thus a particle swarm of colloidal contaminants can potentially travel farther and faster in a fracture than expected for a dispersion or emulsion of colloidal particles. We investigated the formation, evolution, and break-up of colloidal swarms under gravity in a uniform aperture fracture as hydrophobic/hydrophyllic particle swarms move across an oil-water interface. A uniform aperture fracture was fabricated from two transparent acrylic rectangular prisms (100 mm x 50 mm x 100 mm) that are separated by 1, 2.5, 5, 10 or 50 mm. The fracture was placed, vertically, inside a glass tank containing a layer of pure silicone oil (polydimethylsiloxane) on distilled water. Along the length of the fracture, 30 mm was filled with oil and 70 mm with water. Experiments were conducted using silicone oils with viscosities of 5, 10, 100, or 1000 cSt. Particle swarms (5 μl) were comprised of a 1% concentration (by mass) of 25 micron glass beads (hydrophilic) suspended in a water drop, or a 1% concentration (by mass) of 3 micron polystyrene fluorescent beads (hydrophobic) suspended in a water drop. The swarm behavior was imaged using an optical fluorescent imaging system composed of a CCD camera and by green (525 nm) LED arrays for illumination. Swarms were spherical and remained coherent as they fell through the oil because of the immiscibility of oil and water. However, as a swarm approached the oil-water interface, it

  9. Investigation of metastable immiscibility in nuclear-waste-glasses. I-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egnell, J.; Larsen, J.G.; Moeller, L.; Roed, G.

    1981-12-01

    Metastable liquid-liquid separation in glasses can often cause significant changes in physical and chemical properties of the original homogeneous glass. In some technical borosilicate glasses this phenomenon is used to change the chemical durability of the glass. For potential nuclear-waste-glasses the slow cooling through the temperature range 550 0 C - 700 0 C may lead to such a liquid-liquid phase separation. In order to investigate the susceptibility of phase separation of nuclear-waste-glasses, two KBS model glasses, ABS-39 and ABS-41, were investigated. Two of the subsequent reports are concerned with this problem. The third report also takes into consideration the effects of MoO 3 on the immiscibility gap. The maximum amount of MoO 3 that can be dissolved in ABS-39 and ABS 41 is also determined. (Auth.)

  10. Continuous Solidification of Immiscible Alloys and Microstructure Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongxiang; Zhao, Jiuzhou

    2018-05-01

    Immiscible alloys have aroused considerable interest in last few decades due to their excellent physical and mechanical characteristics as well as potential industrial applications. Up to date, plenty of researches have been carried out to investigate the solidification of immiscible alloys on the ground or in space and great progress has been made. It is demonstrated that the continuous solidification technique have great future in the manufacturing of immiscible alloys, it also indicates that the addition of surface active micro-alloying or inoculants for the nucleation of the minority phase droplets and proper application of external fields, e.g., static magnetic field, electric current, microgravity field, etc. may promote the formation of immiscible alloys with an expected microstructure. The objective of this article is to review the research work in this field.

  11. A variational theory of immiscible mixtures with mechanic constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmo, E.G.D. do.

    1982-02-01

    A variational formulation for immiscible mixtures with mechanical restrictions is put forward and the arbitrary parts of the interactional force and stress tensor of the constituents are determined. (Author) [pt

  12. Immiscible multicomponent lattice Boltzmann model for fluids with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    College of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, 4800# Cao'an Road, ... was developed from a discretized fluid model known as the lattice gas automata ... of two immiscible fluids, several lattice Boltzmann (LB) models have been ...

  13. Binary Polymer Brushes of Strongly Immiscible Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Elza; Babar, Tashnia; Bruist, Michael F; Sidorenko, Alexander

    2015-06-17

    The phenomenon of microphase separation is an example of self-assembly in soft matter and has been observed in block copolymers (BCPs) and similar materials (i.e., supramolecular assemblies (SMAs) and homo/block copolymer blends (HBCs)). In this study, we use microphase separation to construct responsive polymer brushes that collapse to generate periodic surfaces. This is achieved by a chemical reaction between the minor block (10%, poly(4-vinylpyridine)) of the block copolymer and a substrate. The major block of polystyrene (PS) forms mosaic-like arrays of grafted patches that are 10-20 nm in size. Depending on the nature of the assembly (SMA, HBC, or neat BCP) and annealing method (exposure to vapors of different solvents or heating above the glass transition temperature), a range of "mosaic" brushes with different parameters can be obtained. Successive grafting of a secondary polymer (polyacrylamide, PAAm) results in the fabrication of binary polymer brushes (BPBs). Upon being exposed to specific selective solvents, BPBs may adopt different conformations. The surface tension and adhesion of the binary brush are governed by the polymer occupying the top stratum. The "mosaic" brush approach allows for a combination of strongly immiscible polymers in one brush. This facilitates substantial contrast in the surface properties upon switching, previously only possible for substrates composed of predetermined nanostructures. We also demonstrate a possible application of such PS/PAAm brushes in a tunable bioadhesion-bioadhesive (PS on top) or nonbioadhesive (PAAm on top) surface as revealed by Escherichia coli bacterial seeding.

  14. A chemical approach toward low temperature alloying of immiscible iron and molybdenum metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazir, Rabia [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Applied Chemistry Research Centre, Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Laboratories Complex, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan); Ahmed, Sohail [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Mazhar, Muhammad, E-mail: mazhar42pk@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Akhtar, Muhammad Javed; Siddique, Muhammad [Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Khan, Nawazish Ali [Material Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Shah, Muhammad Raza [HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Nadeem, Muhammad [Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Low temperature pyrolysis of [Fe(bipy){sub 3}]Cl{sub 2} and [Mo(bipy)Cl{sub 4}] homogeneous powder. • Easy low temperature alloying of immiscible metals like Fe and Mo. • Uniform sized Fe–Mo nanoalloy with particle size of 48–68 nm. • Characterization by EDXRF, AFM, XRPD, magnetometery, {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer and impedance. • Alloy behaves as almost superparamagnetic obeying simple –R(CPE)– circuit. - Abstract: The present research is based on a low temperature operated feasible method for the synthesis of immiscible iron and molybdenum metals’ nanoalloy for technological applications. The nanoalloy has been synthesized by pyrolysis of homogeneous powder precipitated, from a common solvent, of the two complexes, trisbipyridineiron(II)chloride, [Fe(bipy){sub 3}]Cl{sub 2}, and bipyridinemolybedenum(IV) chloride, [Mo(bipy)Cl{sub 4}], followed by heating at 500 °C in an inert atmosphere of flowing argon gas. The resulting nanoalloy has been characterized by using EDXRF, AFM, XRD, magnetometery, {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer and impedance spectroscopies. These results showed that under provided experimental conditions iron and molybdenum metals, with known miscibility barrier, alloy together to give (1:1) single phase material having particle size in the range of 48–66 nm. The magnetism of iron is considerably reduced after alloy formation and shows its trend toward superparamagnetism. The designed chemical synthetic procedure is equally feasible for the fabrication of other immiscible metals.

  15. A chemical approach toward low temperature alloying of immiscible iron and molybdenum metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazir, Rabia; Ahmed, Sohail; Mazhar, Muhammad; Akhtar, Muhammad Javed; Siddique, Muhammad; Khan, Nawazish Ali; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Nadeem, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Low temperature pyrolysis of [Fe(bipy) 3 ]Cl 2 and [Mo(bipy)Cl 4 ] homogeneous powder. • Easy low temperature alloying of immiscible metals like Fe and Mo. • Uniform sized Fe–Mo nanoalloy with particle size of 48–68 nm. • Characterization by EDXRF, AFM, XRPD, magnetometery, 57 Fe Mössbauer and impedance. • Alloy behaves as almost superparamagnetic obeying simple –R(CPE)– circuit. - Abstract: The present research is based on a low temperature operated feasible method for the synthesis of immiscible iron and molybdenum metals’ nanoalloy for technological applications. The nanoalloy has been synthesized by pyrolysis of homogeneous powder precipitated, from a common solvent, of the two complexes, trisbipyridineiron(II)chloride, [Fe(bipy) 3 ]Cl 2 , and bipyridinemolybedenum(IV) chloride, [Mo(bipy)Cl 4 ], followed by heating at 500 °C in an inert atmosphere of flowing argon gas. The resulting nanoalloy has been characterized by using EDXRF, AFM, XRD, magnetometery, 57 Fe Mössbauer and impedance spectroscopies. These results showed that under provided experimental conditions iron and molybdenum metals, with known miscibility barrier, alloy together to give (1:1) single phase material having particle size in the range of 48–66 nm. The magnetism of iron is considerably reduced after alloy formation and shows its trend toward superparamagnetism. The designed chemical synthetic procedure is equally feasible for the fabrication of other immiscible metals

  16. Operational test report for 2706-T complex liquid transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BENZEL, H.R.

    1999-01-01

    This document is the Operational Test Report (OTR). It enters the Record Copy of the W-259 Operational Test Procedure (HNF-3610) into the document retrieval system. Additionally, the OTR summarizes significant issues associated with testing the 2706-T waste liquid transfer and storage system

  17. Liquid-liquid extraction of ion-association complexes of cobalt(II-4-(2-pyridylazoresorcinol with ditetrazolium salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divarova Vidka V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation and liquid-liquid extraction of ion-association complexes between Co(II-4-(2-Pyridylazoresorcinol (PAR anionic chelates and cations of three ditetrazolium chlorides were studied: Blue Tetrazolium chloride (BTC, Neotetrazolium chloride (NTC and Nitro Blue Tetrazolium chloride (NBT. The optimum conditions for the formation and solvent extraction of the ion-association comlpex chelates were determined. It has been found that in the systems of Co(II-PAR-DTS, the reactants are reacted in molar ratios 1:2:1 and the general formula of complexes was suggested. The extraction equilibria were investigated and quantitatively characterized by the equilibrium constants and the recovery factors. The analytical characteristics of the complexes were calculated.

  18. Earthquake wave propagation in immiscibly compressible porous soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, S.; Kurita, S.; Izumi, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper utilizes the formalism of the theory of immiscible compressible mixtures to formulate the wave propagation equation for the soil where the soil has been assumed as a binary mixture consisting of one solid phase and one fluid phase. The method is developed to solve the one dimensional wave equation by the above theory. The relations between the wave attenuating characteristic value Q and the volume fraction, the relative motion of two phases have been shown. It is concluded that based on such theory we can solve more precisely the soil behaviors while considering the interaction of structure and soil of immiscible mixture. (author)

  19. Olefins hydro-formylation catalysed by rhodium complexes using ionic liquids; Hydroformylation des olefines par les complexes du rhodium dans les liquides ioniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favre, F.

    2000-10-26

    Biphasic long chain olefins hydro-formylation catalysed by rhodium complexes using ionic liquids allows a selective reaction and an easy separation of the products from the catalyst. This study reports the synthesis of ionic liquids that were used as the catalyst's solvent. Their physical and chemical properties (melting point, solubility of organic substrates) can be varied with the structure of the organic cation (imidazolium, pyridinium, pyrrolydinium) and with its substituents (nature, length, number). It depends also on the nature of the inorganic anion (hexa-fluoro-phosphate, tetrafluoroborate, tri-fluoro-acetate, triflate, bistriflylamidure...). The use of phosphorus ligands bearing ionic functions proved to be efficient to maintain the onerous rhodium catalyst in the ionic liquid phase. Phosphines, phosphites and phosphinites including anionic (sulfonate, carboxylate) or cationic (imidazolium, pyridinium, guanidinium, phosphonium) groups have been synthesised. Finally, the influences of the ligand and of the ionic liquid on the catalytic system performances are described. Selectivities in aldehydes and reaction rates proved to be highly dependent on the nature of the ligand and of the ionic liquid. The different possibilities of recycling the ionic phase containing the rhodium catalyst have been also studied. (author)

  20. Simulations of electrolytes at the liquid-liquid interface and of lanthanide cations complexes in gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berny, F.

    2000-01-01

    Two processes related to liquid/liquid extraction of ions by extractant molecules were studied: the ion approach at the interface and the ion complexation by ligands. In the first part, the behaviour of salts at the chloroform/water interface was simulated by molecular dynamics. The aim was to understand the way these salts ions approach the interface in order to be extracted. Some ions are repelled by the interface (K + , Cl - , UO 2 2+ , Na + , NO 3 - ) whereas others adsorb (amphiphilic molecules and also ClO 4 - , SCN - , guanidinium Gu + and picrate Pic - ). The surface-active counter-ions make the ion approach at the interface easier. In a perfectly homogeneous mixture of the two solvents (water and chloroform) de-mixing, the ions seem to influence the phases separation rate. Nitric acid which is known to favour liquid/liquid extraction reveals strong adsorption at the interface in its neutral form and a smaller one in its ionic form (H 3 O + /NO 3 - ). HNO 3 and H 3 O + display particular orientations at the interface: hydrogen atoms are pointing in the direction of the water slab. The nature of the organic phase can also influence the ion approach at the interface. For example, Gu + and Pic - adsorb much less at the supercritical CO 2 /water interface than at the chloroform/water interface. In the second part, complexes of La 3+ , Eu 3+ and Yb 3+ with ligands such as amide, urea, thio-amide, thiourea were studied by quantum mechanics. Our calculations show that cation-ligand interactions depend on the nature of substituents on ligands, on the presence of counter-ions or on the number of ligands in the complex. Sulfur compounds seem to less interact with cations than oxygen compounds. Ureas interact as much as amides and are potentially good ligands. (author)

  1. Experimental Investigation of Extensional Deformation of Immiscible Droplets in a Laminar, Converging Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangli, Aditya; Arispe-Guzman, Marcelo; Armstrong, Connor; Bigio, David

    2017-11-01

    The deformation of an immiscible droplet in an extensional flow has been widely studied by researchers using experimental four-roll mills where the bulk liquid imposes a stagnation extensional deformation on the droplet. However, it is of vital interest to study the behavior of an immiscible droplet in a non-stagnant extensional flow which can be produced using a converging channel. A hyperbolic converging channel was built, which could produce a constant extensional rate in the center of the channel, and deformation of droplets of Castor oil injected in a matrix of Silicone oil was observed. Droplets injected in the center of the channel experienced a pure extensional deformation while the droplets injected at an offset position attained the affine state. The nature of the droplet deformation and the critical Capillary numbers are compared with the four-roll mill experiments. Additional experiments were performed with the initial position of the droplet being vertically off center. Higher strain rates were exhibited compared to the pure extensional flow condition. An analysis of the flow field helps explaining the phenomenon and provides insight into the droplet behavior.

  2. Managing Complexity across Multiple Dimensions of Liquid Open Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jetzek, Thorhildur

    2016-01-01

    Current literature on open government data has uncovered a wide range of challenges related to these important initiatives. The problems encountered include: insufficient data quality and interoperability, problems regarding governance and motivation, lack of capabilities, and heterogeneous...... political and ideological agendas. A common open data infrastructure might resolve some of these problems, however, implementing such an infrastructure is a highly complex task. This longitudinal case study of the Danish Basic Data Program (BDP) is intended to improve our understanding of the challenges...... related to providing open access to government data through open data infrastructure. The BDP aims to improve the quality of selected government data, make them more coherent, and improve accessibility through the implementation of a common data distribution platform. The program is expected to increase...

  3. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of copper ions as neocuproine complex in environmental aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Shahab; Golshekan, Mostafa

    2011-06-01

    In the present study, a simple and efficient extraction method based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction prior to UV-Vis spectrophotometry was developed for the preconcentration and determination of copper ions in environmental samples. Briefly, cupric ions (Cu II) were reduced to cuprous (Cu I) with addition of hydroxyl amine hydrochloride and formed hydrophobic chelates with neocuproine. Then, a proper mixture of acetonitrile (as dispersive solvent) and choloroform (as extraction solvent) was rapidly injected into the solution and a cloudy solution was formed. After centrifuging, choloroform was sedimented at the bottom of a conical tube and diluted with 100 µL of methanol for further UV-Vis spectrophotometry measurement. An orthogonal array design (OAD) was employed to study the effects of different parameters on the extraction efficiency. Under the optimum experimental conditions, a preconcentration factor up to 63.6 was achieved for extraction from 5.0 mL of sample solution. The limit of detection (LOD) based on S/N = 3 was 0.33 µg L-1 and the calibration curve was linear in the range of 1-200 µg L-1 with reasonable linearity (r2 > 0.997). Finally, the accuracy of the proposed method was successfully evaluated by determination of trace amounts of copper ions in different water samples and satisfactory results were obtained.

  4. Method and apparatus for purifying nucleic acids and performing polymerase chain reaction assays using an immiscible fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Chung-Yan; Light, Yooli Kim; Piccini, Matthew Ernest; Singh, Anup K.

    2017-10-31

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed toward devices, systems, and methods for purifying nucleic acids to conduct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. In one example, a method includes generating complexes of silica beads and nucleic acids in a lysis buffer, transporting the complexes through an immiscible fluid to remove interfering compounds from the complexes, further transporting the complexes into a density medium containing components required for PCR where the nucleic acids disassociate from the silica beads, and thermocycling the contents of the density medium to achieve PCR. Signal may be detected from labeling agents in the components required for PCR.

  5. A Study on the Violent Interactions of an Immiscible Drop impacting on a Superheated Pool

    KAUST Repository

    Alchalabi, Mohamad

    2014-05-01

    ABSTRACT A Study on the Violent Interactions of an Immiscible Drop Impacting on a Superheated Pool Mohamad Alchalabi The interactions between two immiscible liquids of different temperatures can be violent to the extent of causing harm to individuals, or damage to equipment, especially when used in the industry. Only a few studies investigated these interactions but they could not produce the violent interactions often reported by the industry, and therefore their results did not help much to develop clear understanding of the dynamics of these interactions. In this work, a high speed imaging system operated at 100,000 frames per second was utilized to record the events and phenomena taking place upon the impact of Perfluorohexane droplet at room temperature onto a hot soybean oil pool at temperatures as high as 300 ºC. The impact velocity was varied by varying the height of the droplet before it pinches off under its own weight. The recorded events identified the occurrence of vortex ring vapor explosions, weak and strong nucleate boiling, and film boiling. An impact velocity vs. oil temperature diagram identifying the regions in which each of these phenomena takes place was generated, and the dynamics driving their occurrences were explored. The vortex ring vapor explosions were found to become less violent as the impact velocity was increased, which was attributed to the existence of a smaller amount of liquid Perfluorohexane within the rings at high speed impacts, which does evaporate but does not expand violently. Weak nucleate boiling occurred at very high impact velocities relatively. As the temperature is increased, however, they start 5 turning into strong nucleate boiling. The strong nucleate boiling usually starts right upon impact, and when the temperature of the oil at one impact velocity is increased, it starts turning into film boiling, in which the liquid Perfluorohexane is covered by a vapor layer of its own vapor.

  6. MYCOBACTERIUM COMPLEX IDENTIFICATION BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A HAWAII

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are different ways for identification of Mycobacteria. One of the most sensitive method is HPLC of phenacyl esters of mycolic acids of Mycobacteria for rapid identification of them after their primary cultures. This study uses HPLC for rapid identification and dissociation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Methods: In this study we use HPLC patterns of mycolic acids for identification three important species of mycobacteria (M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. bovis BCG from other mycobacterial species. All the strains were obtained from Tuberculosis and Pulmonary Diseases Research Center. HPLC conditions was as follows: HPLC: Model 1200 Cecil, Column: URP C-18 25X4.6 mm, Detector: U.V variable wave length at 254 nm, Elution: Gradient of methanol/chloroform. Flow rate: 2.5 ml/min. Results: HPLC leads to obtaining chromatograms which on its X-axis retention times (of different peaks which exist in the sample and on its Y-axis U.V absorbance (of these peaks were drown. These chromatograms in M. bovis and M. tuberculosis samples are similar with each other but differs from BCG ones. Discussion: On the basis of different retention times and numbers of the peaks which present in each chromatogram, we can differentiate between M. bovis, M. tuberculosis and BCG from other Mycobacteria. Also, with this method we can identify BCG from M. bovis and M. tuberculosis (because BCG has 9 and M. bovis and M. tuberculosis has 7 characteristic peaks in their chromatograms.

  7. The use of ultrasonic instrumentation in liquid/liquid extraction plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asher, R.C.; Bradshaw, L.; Tolchard, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    Ultrasonic instruments can be used to determine many of the parameters of interest in a liquid/liquid extraction plant, eg liquid levels, the position of interfaces between immiscible liquids and the concentration of solutions. The determinations can often be made non-invasively. A number of instruments developed for a liquid/liquid extraction plant used for nuclear fuel reprocessing is described. These instruments have a wider application in liquid/liquid extraction plant in general. (author)

  8. Electrode reactions of ruthenium–bipyridine complex in amide-type ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshimitsu, Yuichi; Katayama, Yasushi; Miura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The electrode kinetics of [Ru(bpy) 3 ] 3+ /[Ru(bpy) 3 ] 2+ (bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine) on a platinum electrode was investigated in room-temperature ionic liquids, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (BMPTFSA), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (EMITFSA), and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)amide (BMPBETA) over the temperature range from 25 to 45 °C. The diffusion coefficients of [Ru(bpy) 3 ] 2+ and [Ru(bpy) 3 ] 3+ were found to be affected not only by the viscosity of ionic liquids but also by the charge density of the complex. The activation energy for the diffusion coefficients of these complexes in the ionic liquids were close to that for the viscosity of the ionic liquids. The standard rate constants of [Ru(bpy) 3 ] 3+ /[Ru(bpy) 3 ] 2+ in BMPTFSA, EMITFSA and BMPBETA were estimated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The standard rate constants in the ionic liquids were estimated to be smaller than those in aqueous and organic electrolytes, probably due to the slow dynamics of the ionic liquids.

  9. Positron annihilation in liquids and in solutions containing electron acceptors and charge-transfer complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, P.

    1976-05-01

    Positron lifetime measurements and angular correlation measurements were performed in several organic liquids. The results strongly indicate that positronium is contained in a 'bubble' in the liquids. The radius of the bubble can be estimated by using broadness of the narrow component in the angular correlation distribution, and by using the surface tension of the liquids. Both methods give bubble radii from 4-7 A in the solvents investigated. The bubble influences the reaction mechanism between Ps and weak electron acceptors in such a way that the presence of the bubble decreases the reactivity of Ps. Positron lifetime measurements were also performed on a series of mixtures of organic liquids and on electron acceptors and charge-transfer complexes in solution. The results were is agreement with the spur model of Ps formation. (Auth.)

  10. Simulations of electrolytes at the liquid-liquid interface and of lanthanide cations complexes in gas phase; Simulations d'electrolytes a l'interface liquide/liquide et de complexes de cations lanthanides en phase gazeuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berny, F

    2000-07-01

    Two processes related to liquid/liquid extraction of ions by extractant molecules were studied: the ion approach at the interface and the ion complexation by ligands. In the first part, the behaviour of salts at the chloroform/water interface was simulated by molecular dynamics. The aim was to understand the way these salts ions approach the interface in order to be extracted. Some ions are repelled by the interface (K{sup +}, Cl{sup -}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}) whereas others adsorb (amphiphilic molecules and also ClO{sub 4}{sup -}, SCN{sup -}, guanidinium Gu{sup +} and picrate Pic{sup -}). The surface-active counter-ions make the ion approach at the interface easier. In a perfectly homogeneous mixture of the two solvents (water and chloroform) de-mixing, the ions seem to influence the phases separation rate. Nitric acid which is known to favour liquid/liquid extraction reveals strong adsorption at the interface in its neutral form and a smaller one in its ionic form (H{sub 3}O{sup +}/NO{sub 3}{sup -}). HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 3}O{sup +} display particular orientations at the interface: hydrogen atoms are pointing in the direction of the water slab. The nature of the organic phase can also influence the ion approach at the interface. For example, Gu{sup +} and Pic{sup -} adsorb much less at the supercritical CO{sub 2}/water interface than at the chloroform/water interface. In the second part, complexes of La{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} with ligands such as amide, urea, thio-amide, thiourea were studied by quantum mechanics. Our calculations show that cation-ligand interactions depend on the nature of substituents on ligands, on the presence of counter-ions or on the number of ligands in the complex. Sulfur compounds seem to less interact with cations than oxygen compounds. Ureas interact as much as amides and are potentially good ligands. (author)

  11. A Navier-Stokes/Cahn-Hilliard model for the simulation of three phase immiscible incompressible flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celine Lapuerta; Bruno Piar; Franck Boyer; Philippe Angot; Michel Quintard

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a Navier-Stokes/Cahn-Hilliard model designed for incompressible flows of three immiscible phases, characterized by different surface tensions and without phase change. This physical context is relevant to study the late phase of a hypothetical severe accident in a nuclear pressurized water reactor. Thanks to a suitable choice of a free energy and a particular form of the Cahn-Hilliard equation, the evolution of the three phases is described by only two order parameters. Moreover, this model allows the simulation of purely two phase flows as a limiting case: no artificial apparition of the third phase occurs if this later is physically absent which contrasts with others models of the literature. We examine the spreading of a liquid lens at the interface between two stratified phases. We present results showing that the method gives correct contact angles and pressure jumps, at equilibrium. (authors)

  12. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of immiscible displacement in the cavity with different channel configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qin; Zang, Chenqiang; Yang, Mo; Xu, Hongtao

    In this work, the immiscible displacement in a cavity with different channel configurations is studied using an improved pseudo-potential lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) model. This model overcomes the drawback of the dependence of the fluid properties on the grid size, which exists in the original pseudo-potential LBE model. The approach is first validated by the Laplace law. Then, it is employed to study the immiscible displacement process. The influences of different factors, such as the surface wettability, the distance between the gas cavity and liquid cavity and the surface roughness of the channel are investigated. Numerical results show that the displacement efficiency increases and the displacement time decreases with the increase of the surface contact angle. On the other hand, the displacement efficiency increases with increasing distance between the gas cavity and the liquid cavity at first and finally reaches a constant value. As for the surface roughness, two structures (a semicircular cavity and a semicircular bulge) are studied. The comprehensive results show that although the displacement processes for both the structures depend on the surface wettability, they present quite different behaviors. Specially, for the roughness structure constituted by the semicircular cavity, the displacement efficiency decreases and displacement time increases evidently with the size of the semicircular cavity for the small contact angle. The trend slows down as the increase of the contact angle. Once the contact angle exceeds a certain value, the size of the semicircular cavity almost has no influence on the displacement process. While for the roughness structure of a semicircular bulge, the displacement efficiency increases with the size of bulge first and then it decreases for the small contact angle. The displacement efficiency increases first and finally reaches a constant for the large contact angle. The results also show that the displacement time has an

  13. Complex Formation in a Liquid-Liquid Extraction System Containing Cobalt(II, 4-(2-Pyridylazoresorcinol, and Nitron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petya Vassileva Racheva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex formation and liquid-liquid extraction were studied in a system containing cobalt(II, 4-(2-pyridylazoresorcinol (PAR, 1,4-diphenyl-3-(phenylamino-1H-1,2,4-triazole (Nitron, Nt, water, and chloroform. The effect of some experimental parameters (pH, shaking time, concentration of PAR, and concentration of Nt was systematically investigated, and the optimum conditions for cobalt extraction as an ion-association complex, (NtH+[Co3+(PAR2], were found. The following key equilibrium constants were calculated: constant of association (Log β=4.77±0.06, constant of distribution (LogKD=1.34±0.01, and constant of extraction (LogKex=6.11±0.07. Beer’s law was obeyed for Co concentrations up to 1.7 μg mL−1 with a molar absorptivity of 6.0×104 L mol−1 cm−1 at λmax=520 nm. Some additional characteristics, such as limit of detection, limit of quantification, and Sandell’s sensitivity, were estimated as well.

  14. Evaluation of miscible and immiscible CO2 injection in one of the Iranian oil fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aref Hashemi Fath

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 flooding is one of the most important methods for enhanced oil recovery (EOR because it not only increases oil recovery efficiency but also causes a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. It is a very complex system, involving phase behavior that could increase the recovery of oil by means of swelling, evaporation and decreasing viscosity of the oil. In this study, a reservoir modeling approach was used to evaluate immiscible and miscible CO2 flooding in a fractured oil field. To reduce simulation time, we grouped fluid components into 10 pseudo-components. The 3-parameter, Peng–Robinson Equation of State (EOS was used to match PVT experimental data by using the PVTi software. A one-dimensional slim-tube model was defined using ECLIPSE 300 software to determine the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP for injection of CO2. We used FloGrid software for making a reservoir static model and the reservoir model was calibrated using manual and assisted history matching methods. Then various scenarios of natural depletion, immiscible and miscible CO2 injection have been simulated by ECLIPSE 300 software and then the simulation results of scenarios have been compared. Investigation of simulation results shows that the oil recovery factor in miscible CO2 injection scenario is more than other methods.

  15. Development of injection moulded, ultrasonically welded immiscible phase filtration devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistrup, Kasper

    for ultrasonic welding, suitable for microfluidic systems. A methodology has been established where energy directors can be quickly added to existing mould inserts, using laser micromachining. The produced device was performance tested by isolating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from bovine whole....... The device appliesmagnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction for nucleic acid extraction from biological samples, using the immiscible phase filtration (IPF) approach. Device development has employed injection moulding for part fabrication and ultrasonic welding for bonding. Rapid prototyping...

  16. Local lattice-gas model for immiscible fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; Doolen, G.D.; Eggert, K.; Grunau, D.; Loh, E.Y.

    1991-01-01

    We present a lattice-gas model for two-dimensional immiscible fluid flows with surface tension that uses strictly local collision rules. Instead of using a local total color flux as Somers and Rem [Physica D 47, 39 (1991)], we use local colored holes to be the memory of particles of the same color. Interactions between walls and fluids are included that produce arbitrary contact angles

  17. Separation of americium by liquid-liquid extraction using diglycol-amides water-soluble complexing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapron, S.; Marie, C.; Pacary, V.; Duchesne, M.T.; Miguirditchian, M. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, RadioChemistry and Processses Departement, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Arrachart, G.; Pellet-Rostaing, S. [Institut de Chimie Separative de Marcoule, LTSM, Bat 426, F-30207 Bagnols-sur- Ceze (France)

    2016-07-01

    Recycling americium (Am) alone from spent nuclear fuels is an important option studied for the future nuclear cycle (Generation IV systems) since Am belongs to the main contributors of the long-term radiotoxicity and heat power of final waste. Since 2008, a liquid-liquid extraction process called EXAm has been developed by the CEA to allow the recovery of Am alone from a PUREX raffinate (a dissolution solution already cleared from U, Np and Pu). A mixture of DMDOHEMA (N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-dioctyl-2-(2-(hexyloxy)ethyl)-malonamide) and HDEHP (di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid) in TPH is used as the solvent and the Am/Cm selectivity is improved using TEDGA (N,N,N',N'-tetraethyl-diglycolamide) as a selective complexing agent to maintain Cm and heavier lanthanides in the acidic aqueous phase (5 M HNO{sub 3}). Americium is then stripped selectively from light lanthanides at low acidity (pH=3) with a poly-aminocarboxylic acid. The feasibility of sole Am recovery was already demonstrated during hot tests in ATALANTE facility and the EXAm process was adapted to a concentrated raffinate to optimize the process compactness. The speciation of TEDGA complexes formed in the aqueous phase with Am, Cm and lanthanides was studied to better understand and model the behavior of TEDGA in the process. Some Ln-TEDGA species are extracted into the organic phase and this specific chemistry might play a role in the Am/Cm selectivity improvement. Hence the hydrophilicity-lipophilicity balance of the complexing agent is an important parameter. In this comprehensive study, new analogues of TEDGA were synthesized and tested in the EXAm process conditions to understand the relationship between their structure and selectivity. New derivatives of TEDGA with different N-alkyl chain lengths and ramifications were synthesized. The impact of lipophilicity on ligand partitioning and Am/Cm selectivity was investigated. (authors)

  18. Combined techniques for studying actinide complexes in room temperature ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, C.; Billard, I.; Mekki, S.; Ouadi, A.; Hennig, Ch.; Denecke, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are a new class of solvents. Their main interest is related to their 'green' properties (non-volatile, non-flammable, etc.), but also from the variability of their physico-chemical properties (stability, hydrophobicity, viscosity) as a function of the RTIL cationic and anionic components. In the frame of the nuclear fuel reprocessing, RTILs are particularly attractive in order to improve existing processes or to develop new ones for actinide and lanthanide partitioning, in replacement of toxic solvents used nowadays, for metal electrodeposition or for liquid/liquid extraction by the use of task specific ionic liquids. However, despite the increasing number of publications devoted to ionic liquids, the solvation effects, the solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions are still hardly known. These fundamental aspects are of tremendous importance to the understanding of the solvating properties of these new solvents. In this frame, we have undertaken studies on the solvation and complexation of lanthanides (III) and actinides in RTILs, by the use of spectroscopic techniques. Experiments were led in various ionic liquids in order to highlight the role of the anionic part of the RTILs on the reactivity of the studied cations. Results have clearly shown that solvation phenomena in RTILs are not as 'simple' as in classical solvents. The dissolution of a Ln/An salt, even if complete, does not imply dissociation and solvation of the metal cation by the RTILs anions only. The nature of first co-ordination sphere of Ln/An depends on the competition between its counter-anions and the RTIL anions, which, in turn, influence the complexation reaction with other added anions such as chlorides. (authors)

  19. Electrochemical characterization of Uranyl-TODGA complex in a room temperature ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, Arijit; Murali, M.S.; Mohapatra, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids are new materials finding extensive use in many applications such as syntheses, catalysis, electrochemistry etc. including separation science. Some of them are known as green solvents set to be environment-friendly. With a view to apply the favourable properties of these neoteric solvents to separation science in nuclear related fields such as reprocessing and waste remediation, electrochemical characterization of the metal ions encountered in above fields e.g. U(VI), Pu(IV), Np(IV), Am(III) etc. their complexes with the ligands often becomes necessary and useful. In the present piece of work, electrochemical characterization has been carried out by cyclic voltammetry of uranyl complex with one of the most promising trivalent actinide extractants, namely, tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA) dissolved/extracted into a room temperature ionic liquid, 1-methyl-3-octyl imidazolium bis(trifluoro methylsulphonyl) imide (C 8 mimNTf 2 )

  20. Topology-generating interfacial pattern formation during liquid metal dealloying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geslin, Pierre-Antoine; McCue, Ian; Gaskey, Bernard; Erlebacher, Jonah; Karma, Alain

    2015-11-19

    Liquid metal dealloying has emerged as a novel technique to produce topologically complex nanoporous and nanocomposite structures with ultra-high interfacial area and other unique properties relevant for diverse material applications. This process is empirically known to require the selective dissolution of one element of a multicomponent solid alloy into a liquid metal to obtain desirable structures. However, how structures form is not known. Here we demonstrate, using mesoscale phase-field modelling and experiments, that nano/microstructural pattern formation during dealloying results from the interplay of (i) interfacial spinodal decomposition, forming compositional domain structures enriched in the immiscible element, and (ii) diffusion-coupled growth of the enriched solid phase and the liquid phase into the alloy. We highlight how those two basic mechanisms interact to yield a rich variety of topologically disconnected and connected structures. Moreover, we deduce scaling laws governing microstructural length scales and dealloying kinetics.

  1. Mixing of immiscible fluids in chaotic flows and related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottino, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The basis goal of this work was to obtain a basic understanding of mixing of immiscible fluids leading to the determination of flow conditions which result in efficient breakup and dispersion of one mass of fluid in the bulk of another. Related issues were the prediction of the morphological structures and drop size distribution for a given set of operating conditions. The primary motivation for these investigations was to produce basic knowledge leading to increased understanding of industrial processes involving blending, agitation, emulsification, and dissolution

  2. Nonlinear finite element analysis of liquid sloshing in complex vehicle motion scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolsen, Brynne; Wang, Liang; Shabana, Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this investigation is to develop a new total Lagrangian continuum-based liquid sloshing model that can be systematically integrated with multibody system (MBS) algorithms in order to allow for studying complex motion scenarios. The new approach allows for accurately capturing the effect of the sloshing forces during curve negotiation, rapid lane change, and accelerating and braking scenarios. In these motion scenarios, the liquid experiences large displacements and significant changes in shape that can be captured effectively using the finite element (FE) absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF). ANCF elements are used in this investigation to describe complex mesh geometries, to capture the change in inertia due to the change in the fluid shape, and to accurately calculate the centrifugal forces, which for flexible bodies do not take the simple form used in rigid body dynamics. A penalty formulation is used to define the contact between the rigid tank walls and the fluid. A fully nonlinear MBS truck model that includes a suspension system and Pacejka's brush tire model is developed. Specified motion trajectories are used to examine the vehicle dynamics in three different scenarios - deceleration during straight-line motion, rapid lane change, and curve negotiation. It is demonstrated that the liquid sloshing changes the contact forces between the tires and the ground - increasing the forces on certain wheels and decreasing the forces on other wheels. In cases of extreme sloshing, this dynamic behavior can negatively impact the vehicle stability by increasing the possibility of wheel lift and vehicle rollover.

  3. An unsymmetrical porphyrin and its metal complexes: synthesis, spectroscopy, thermal analysis and liquid crystal properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHANGFU ZHUANG

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and characterization of a new unsymmetrical porphyrin liquid crystal, 5-(4-stearoyloxyphenylphenyl-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrin (SPTPPH2 and its transition metal complexes (SPTPPM, M(II = Zn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu or Mn are reported. Their structure and properties were studied by elemental analysis, and UV–Vis, IR, mass and 1H-HMR spectroscopy. Their luminescent properties were studied by excitation and emission spectroscopy. The quantum yields of the S1 ® S0 fluorescence were measured at room temperature. According to thermal studies, the complexes have a higher thermal stability (no decomposition until 200 °C. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC data and an optical textural photograph, obtained using a polarizing microscope (POM, indicate that the porphyrin ligand had liquid crystalline character and that it exhibited more than one mesophase and a low-lying phase transition temperature, with transition temperatures of 19.3 and 79.4 °C; the temperature range of the liquid crystal (LC phase of the ligand was 70.1 °C.

  4. High-performance liquid chromatography of metal complexes of pheophytins a and b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brykina, G.D.; Lazareva, E.E.; Uvarova, M.I.; Shpigun, O.A.

    1997-01-01

    Cu(2), Zn(2), Pb(2), Hg(2), and Ce(4) complexes of phenophytins a and b were synthesized. The chromatographic retention parameters of pheophytins a and b, chlorophylls a and b, and the above complexes were determined under conditions of normal-phase and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The adsorption of metal pheophytinates in the hexane-n-butanol (96:4)-Silasorb 600 and acetonitrile-ethanol-acetic acid (40:40:16)-Nucleosil C 18 systems was studied by HPLC. Factors that affect the chromatographic and adsorption characteristics of compounds (structural differences between pheophytinates of the a and b series, the nature of the central metal atom, and the nature of the mobile and stationary phases) are discussed. It is demonstrated that pheophytins a and b their metal complexes can be identified and quantiatively determined by HPLC in the concentration range (0.6-44.0)[10 -6 M

  5. Liquid electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  6. A numeric investigation of co-flowing liquid streams using the Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Andy; Tagg, Randall

    2007-11-01

    We present a numerical investigation of co-flowing immiscible liquid streams using the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) for multi component, dissimilar viscosity, immiscible fluid flow. When a liquid is injected into another immiscible liquid, the flow will eventually transition from jetting to dripping due to interfacial tension. Our implementation of LBM models the interfacial tension through a variety of techniques. Parallelization is also straightforward for both single and multi component models as only near local interaction is required. We compare the results of our numerical investigation using LBM to several recent physical experiments.

  7. Analysis and computer simulation for transient flow in complex system of liquid piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitry, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper is concerned with unsteady state analysis and development of a digital computer program, FLUTRAN, that performs a simulation of transient flow behavior in a complex system of liquid piping. The program calculates pressure and flow transients in the liquid filled piping system. The analytical model is based on the method of characteristics solution to the fluid hammer continuity and momentum equations. The equations are subject to wide variety of boundary conditions to take into account the effect of hydraulic devices. Water column separation is treated as a boundary condition with known head. Experimental tests are presented that exhibit transients induced by pump failure and valve closure in the McGuire Nuclear Station Low Level Intake Cooling Water System. Numerical simulation is conducted to compare theory with test data. Analytical and test data are shown to be in good agreement and provide validation of the model

  8. Aza-crown ether complex cation ionic liquids: preparation and applications in organic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yingying; Cheng, Chen; Jing, Huanwang

    2014-09-26

    Aza-crown ether complex cation ionic liquids (aCECILs) were devised, fabricated, and characterized by using NMR spectroscopy, MS, thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), elemental analysis and physical properties. These new and room-temperature ILs were utilized as catalysts in various organic reactions, such as the cycloaddition reaction of CO2 to epoxides, esterification of acetic acid and alcohols, the condensation reaction of aniline and propylene carbonate, and Friedel-Crafts alkylation of indole with aldehydes were investigated carefully. In these reactions, the ionic liquid exhibited cooperative catalytic activity between the anion and cation. In addition, the aza-[18-C-6HK][HSO4]2 was the best acidic catalyst in the reactions of esterification and Friedel-Crafts alkylation under mild reaction conditions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. BHR equations re-derived with immiscible particle effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzkopf, John Dennis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Horwitz, Jeremy A. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Compressible and variable density turbulent flows with dispersed phase effects are found in many applications ranging from combustion to cloud formation. These types of flows are among the most challenging to simulate. While the exact equations governing a system of particles and fluid are known, computational resources limit the scale and detail that can be simulated in this type of problem. Therefore, a common method is to simulate averaged versions of the flow equations, which still capture salient physics and is relatively less computationally expensive. Besnard developed such a model for variable density miscible turbulence, where ensemble-averaging was applied to the flow equations to yield a set of filtered equations. Besnard further derived transport equations for the Reynolds stresses, the turbulent mass flux, and the density-specific volume covariance, to help close the filtered momentum and continuity equations. We re-derive the exact BHR closure equations which include integral terms owing to immiscible effects. Physical interpretations of the additional terms are proposed along with simple models. The goal of this work is to extend the BHR model to allow for the simulation of turbulent flows where an immiscible dispersed phase is non-trivially coupled with the carrier phase.

  10. Experimental (solid + liquid) or (liquid + liquid) phase equilibria of (amine + nitrile) binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska, Urszula; Marciniak, Malgorzata

    2007-01-01

    (Solid + liquid) phase diagrams have been determined for (hexylamine, or octylamine, or 1,3-diaminopropane + acetonitrile) mixtures. Simple eutectic systems have been observed in these mixtures. (Liquid + liquid) phase diagrams have been determined for (octylamine, or decylamine + propanenitrile, or + butanenitrile) mixtures. Mixtures with propanenitrile and butanenitrile show immiscibility in the liquid phase with an upper critical solution temperature, UCST. (Solid + liquid) phase diagrams have been correlated using NRTL, NRTL 1, Wilson and UNIQUAC equations. (Liquid + liquid) phase diagrams have been correlated using NRTL equation

  11. Electric-double-layer potential distribution in multiple-layer immiscible electrolytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, S.; Hardt, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    In this Brief Report, we calculate the electric-double-layer (EDL) electrostatic potential in a system of several layers of immiscible electrolytes. Verwey-Niessen theory predicts that at the interface between two immiscible electrolytes back-to-back EDLs are formed. The present analysis extends

  12. Physico-Chemical Properties and Phase Behavior of the Ionic Liquid-β-Cyclodextrin Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Wlazło

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The solubility of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD in ionic liquids (ILs and the activity coefficients at infinite dilution ( of more than 20 solutes (alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols were measured in four chosen ionic liquids, their mixtures with β-CD, and in the β-CD at high temperatures from 338 to 398 K using the inverse gas chromatography. The intermolecular interactions, inclusion complexes and the possible increasing of the solubility of β-CD in water using the IL are presented. The solubility of β-CD in ten chosen hydrophobic ILs at the temperature T = 423 K was detected. The solid-liquid phase diagrams (SLE of {IL (1 + β-CD (2} binary systems at the high mole fraction of the IL were measured for three systems (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [EMIM][Cl], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, [EMIM][Br]; and for 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [BMIM][Cl]. The eutectic points were determined at the high IL concentration for all binary systems. The intermolecular interaction and the possibility of inclusion complexes of the IL and/or solvents with β-CD were discussed. The infrared spectroscopy, IR was used for the description of the intermolecular interactions in the (β-CD + IL systems. It was shown via the activity coefficients at infinite dilution results that the inclusion complexes are dependent on the temperature. The addition of β-CD to the IL does not improve the selectivity of the separation of the aliphatics from aromatics.

  13. Challenges and complexities of multifrequency atomic force microscopy in liquid environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solares, Santiago D

    2014-01-01

    This paper illustrates through numerical simulation the complexities encountered in high-damping AFM imaging, as in liquid enviroments, within the specific context of multifrequency atomic force microscopy (AFM). The focus is primarily on (i) the amplitude and phase relaxation of driven higher eigenmodes between successive tip-sample impacts, (ii) the momentary excitation of non-driven higher eigenmodes and (iii) base excitation artifacts. The results and discussion are mostly applicable to the cases where higher eigenmodes are driven in open loop and frequency modulation within bimodal schemes, but some concepts are also applicable to other types of multifrequency operations and to single-eigenmode amplitude and frequency modulation methods.

  14. A novel numerical approach for the solution of the problem of two-phase, immiscible flow in porous media: Application to LNAPL and DNAPL

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2012-06-17

    The flow of two immiscible fluids in porous media is ubiquitous particularly in petroleum exploration and extraction. The displacement of one fluid by another immiscible with it represents a very important aspect in what is called enhanced oil recovery. Another example is related to the long-term sequestration of carbon dioxide, CO2 , in deep geologic formations. In this technique, supercritical CO2 is introduced into deep saline aquifer where it displaces the hosting fluid. Furthermore, very important classes of contaminants that are very slightly soluble in water and represent a huge concern if they get introduced to groundwater could basically be assumed immiscible. These are called light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL) and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL). All these applications necessitate that efficient algorithms be developed for the numerical solution of these problems. In this work we introduce the use of shifting matrices to numerically solving the problem of two-phase immiscible flows in the subsurface. We implement the cell-center finite difference method which discretizes the governing set of partial differential equations in conservative manner. Unlike traditional solution methodologies, which are based on performing the discretization on a generic cell and solve for all the cells within a loop, in this technique, the cell center information for all the cells are obtained all at once without loops using matrix oriented operations. This technique is significantly faster than the traditional looping algorithms, particularly for larger systems when coding using languages that require repeating interpretation each time a loop is called like Mat Lab, Python and the like. We apply this technique to the transport of LNAPL and DNAPL into a rectangular domain.

  15. Complex Formation in a Liquid-Liquid Extraction System Containing Cobalt(II), 4-(2-Pyridylazo)resorcinol, and Nitron

    OpenAIRE

    Racheva, Petya Vassileva; Gavazov, Kiril Blazhev; Lekova, Vanya Dimitrova; Dimitrov, Atanas Nikolov

    2013-01-01

    Complex formation and liquid-liquid extraction were studied in a system containing cobalt(II), 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR), 1,4-diphenyl-3-(phenylamino)-1H-1,2,4-triazole (Nitron, Nt), water, and chloroform. The effect of some experimental parameters (pH, shaking time, concentration of PAR, and concentration of Nt) was systematically investigated, and the optimum conditions for cobalt extraction as an ion-association complex, (NtH+)[Co3+(PAR)2], were found. The following key equilibrium ...

  16. Computation of infinite dilute activity coefficients of binary liquid alloys using complex formation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awe, O.E., E-mail: draweoe2004@yahoo.com; Oshakuade, O.M.

    2016-04-15

    A new method for calculating Infinite Dilute Activity Coefficients (γ{sup ∞}s) of binary liquid alloys has been developed. This method is basically computing γ{sup ∞}s from experimental thermodynamic integral free energy of mixing data using Complex formation model. The new method was first used to theoretically compute the γ{sup ∞}s of 10 binary alloys whose γ{sup ∞}s have been determined by experiments. The significant agreement between the computed values and the available experimental values served as impetus for applying the new method to 22 selected binary liquid alloys whose γ{sup ∞}s are either nonexistent or incomplete. In order to verify the reliability of the computed γ{sup ∞}s of the 22 selected alloys, we recomputed the γ{sup ∞}s using three other existing methods of computing or estimating γ{sup ∞}s and then used the γ{sup ∞}s obtained from each of the four methods (the new method inclusive) to compute thermodynamic activities of components of each of the binary systems. The computed activities were compared with available experimental activities. It is observed that the results from the method being proposed, in most of the selected alloys, showed better agreement with experimental activity data. Thus, the new method is an alternative and in certain instances, more reliable approach of computing γ{sup ∞}s of binary liquid alloys.

  17. Structural transitions and guest/host complexing of liquid crystal helical nanofilaments induced by nanoconfinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hanim; Ryu, Seong Ho; Tuchband, Michael; Shin, Tae Joo; Korblova, Eva; Walba, David M; Clark, Noel A; Yoon, Dong Ki

    2017-02-01

    A lamellar liquid crystal (LC) phase of certain bent-core mesogenic molecules can be grown in a manner that generates a single chiral helical nanofilament in each of the cylindrical nanopores of an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane. By introducing guest molecules into the resulting composite chiral nanochannels, we explore the structures and functionality of the ordered guest/host LC complex, verifying the smectic-like positional order of the fluidic nematic LC phase, which is obtained by the combination of the LC organization and the nanoporous AAO superstructure. The guest nematic LC 4'- n -pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl is found to form a distinctive fluid layered ordered LC complex at the nanofilament/guest interface with the host 1,3-phenylene bis[4-(4-nonyloxyphenyliminomethyl)benzoate], where this interface contacts the AAO cylinder wall. Filament growth form is strongly influenced by mixture parameters and pore dimensions.

  18. Transmission X-ray scattering as a probe for complex liquid-surface structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuto, Masafumi; Yang, Lin; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Kuzmenko, Ivan

    2016-01-28

    The need for functional materials calls for increasing complexity in self-assembly systems. As a result, the ability to probe both local structure and heterogeneities, such as phase-coexistence and domain morphologies, has become increasingly important to controlling self-assembly processes, including those at liquid surfaces. The traditional X-ray scattering methods for liquid surfaces, such as specular reflectivity and grazing-incidence diffraction, are not well suited to spatially resolving lateral heterogeneities due to large illuminated footprint. A possible alternative approach is to use scanning transmission X-ray scattering to simultaneously probe local intermolecular structures and heterogeneous domain morphologies on liquid surfaces. To test the feasibility of this approach, transmission small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (TSAXS/TWAXS) studies of Langmuir films formed on water meniscus against a vertically immersed hydrophilic Si substrate were recently carried out. First-order diffraction rings were observed in TSAXS patterns from a monolayer of hexagonally packed gold nanoparticles and in TWAXS patterns from a monolayer of fluorinated fatty acids, both as a Langmuir monolayer on water meniscus and as a Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer on the substrate. The patterns taken at multiple spots have been analyzed to extract the shape of the meniscus surface and the ordered-monolayer coverage as a function of spot position. These results, together with continual improvement in the brightness and spot size of X-ray beams available at synchrotron facilities, support the possibility of using scanning-probe TSAXS/TWAXS to characterize heterogeneous structures at liquid surfaces.

  19. Evaporation of a Volatile Liquid Lens on the Surface of an Immiscible Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Yang, Fuqian

    2016-06-21

    The evaporation behavior of toluene and hexane lenses on the surface of deionized (DI) water is studied. The toluene and hexane lenses during evaporation experience an advancing stage and a receding stage. There exists a significant difference of the evaporation behavior between the toluene lenses and the hexane lenses. The lifetime and largest diameter of both the toluene and hexane lenses increase with increasing the initial volume of the lenses. For the evaporation of the toluene lenses, the lifetime and largest diameter of the lenses decrease with increasing the temperature of DI water. The effect of the residual of the oil molecules on the evaporation of toluene lenses at a temperature of 21 °C is investigated via the evaporation of a series of consecutive toluene lenses being placed on the same position of the surface of DI water. The temporal evolution of the toluene lenses placed after the first toluene lens deviates significantly from that of the first toluene lens. Significant increase of the receding speed occurs at the dimensionless time in a range 0.7-0.8.

  20. Flow of miscible and immiscible hydrocarbons in heterogeneous porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butts, M.B.

    1996-12-31

    A series of large-scale two-dimensional physical model studies has been carried out in order to better understand and predict the multiphase flow of hydrocarbon contaminants and the release of the water-soluble fraction of such contaminants into the groundwater stream. The detailed measurements of the fluid saturations within the bulk hydrocarbon plume as well as the aqueous concentrations recorded downstream should provide a useful data set for testing and improving numerical models of both multiphase flow and transport. Predictions of a numerical model of immiscible multiphase flow developed in the petroleum industry were found to compare favourably with the observed oil plume for the case of an immiscible oil spill. Nevertheless, subtle layering within the experimental flume altered the long-term development of the oil plume in a manner not predicted by the numerical model. A stochastic model for three-dimensional, two-phase incompressible flow in heterogeneous soil and rock formations is developed. Analytical solutions for the resulting stochastic differential equations are derived for asymptotic flows using a perturbation approach. These solutions were used to derive general expressions for the large-scale (effective) properties for large-scale two-phase flow in porous media. An important observation from this analysis is that general large-scale flow in heterogeneous soils cannot be predicted on the basis of simple averages of the soil hydraulic properties alone. The large-scale capillary pressure saturation relation is evaluated for imbibition into a wet soil or rock formation. (EG) 194 refs.

  1. Flow of miscible and immiscible hydrocarbons in heterogeneous porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butts, M B

    1997-12-31

    A series of large-scale two-dimensional physical model studies has been carried out in order to better understand and predict the multiphase flow of hydrocarbon contaminants and the release of the water-soluble fraction of such contaminants into the groundwater stream. The detailed measurements of the fluid saturations within the bulk hydrocarbon plume as well as the aqueous concentrations recorded downstream should provide a useful data set for testing and improving numerical models of both multiphase flow and transport. Predictions of a numerical model of immiscible multiphase flow developed in the petroleum industry were found to compare favourably with the observed oil plume for the case of an immiscible oil spill. Nevertheless, subtle layering within the experimental flume altered the long-term development of the oil plume in a manner not predicted by the numerical model. A stochastic model for three-dimensional, two-phase incompressible flow in heterogeneous soil and rock formations is developed. Analytical solutions for the resulting stochastic differential equations are derived for asymptotic flows using a perturbation approach. These solutions were used to derive general expressions for the large-scale (effective) properties for large-scale two-phase flow in porous media. An important observation from this analysis is that general large-scale flow in heterogeneous soils cannot be predicted on the basis of simple averages of the soil hydraulic properties alone. The large-scale capillary pressure saturation relation is evaluated for imbibition into a wet soil or rock formation. (EG) 194 refs.

  2. Flow-pattern identification and nonlinear dynamics of gas-liquid two-phase flow in complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhongke; Jin, Ningde

    2009-06-01

    The identification of flow pattern is a basic and important issue in multiphase systems. Because of the complexity of phase interaction in gas-liquid two-phase flow, it is difficult to discern its flow pattern objectively. In this paper, we make a systematic study on the vertical upward gas-liquid two-phase flow using complex network. Three unique network construction methods are proposed to build three types of networks, i.e., flow pattern complex network (FPCN), fluid dynamic complex network (FDCN), and fluid structure complex network (FSCN). Through detecting the community structure of FPCN by the community-detection algorithm based on K -mean clustering, useful and interesting results are found which can be used for identifying five vertical upward gas-liquid two-phase flow patterns. To investigate the dynamic characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow, we construct 50 FDCNs under different flow conditions, and find that the power-law exponent and the network information entropy, which are sensitive to the flow pattern transition, can both characterize the nonlinear dynamics of gas-liquid two-phase flow. Furthermore, we construct FSCN and demonstrate how network statistic can be used to reveal the fluid structure of gas-liquid two-phase flow. In this paper, from a different perspective, we not only introduce complex network theory to the study of gas-liquid two-phase flow but also indicate that complex network may be a powerful tool for exploring nonlinear time series in practice.

  3. Use of water in aiding olefin/paraffin (liquid + liquid) extraction via complexation with a silver bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu; Thompson, Jillian; Zhou, Jingjing; Goodrich, Peter; Atilhan, Mert; Pensado, Alfonso S.; Kirchner, Barbara; Rooney, David; Jacquemin, Johan; Khraisheh, Majeda

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Silver-based ILs used as olefin extracting agents for olefin/paraffin mixtures. • Each extraction process is based on the olefin complexation and solvation. • The presence of water influences positively each extraction process. • Each extraction process was evaluated by DFT calculations, NMR, IR and Raman. • LLE data were then correlated by using the UNIQUAC model. - Abstract: This paper describes the extraction of C 5 –C 8 linear α-olefins from olefin/paraffin mixtures of the same carbon number via a reversible complexation with a silver salt (silver bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, Ag[Tf 2 N]) to form room temperature ionic liquids [Ag(olefin) x ][Tf 2 N]. From the experimental (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for the olefin/paraffin mixtures and Ag[Tf 2 N], 1-pentene showed the best separation performance while C 7 and C 8 olefins could only be separated from the corresponding mixtures on addition of water which also improves the selectivity at lower carbon numbers like the C 5 and C 6 , for example. Using infrared and Raman spectroscopy of the complex and Ag[Tf 2 N] saturated by olefin, the mechanism of the extraction was found to be based on both chemical complexation and the physical solubility of the olefin in the ionic liquid ([Ag(olefin) x ][Tf 2 N]). These experiments further support the use of such extraction techniques for the separation of olefins from paraffins

  4. Designing molecular complexes using free-energy derivatives from liquid-state integral equation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrugalla, Florian; Kast, Stefan M

    2016-01-01

    Complex formation between molecules in solution is the key process by which molecular interactions are translated into functional systems. These processes are governed by the binding or free energy of association which depends on both direct molecular interactions and the solvation contribution. A design goal frequently addressed in pharmaceutical sciences is the optimization of chemical properties of the complex partners in the sense of minimizing their binding free energy with respect to a change in chemical structure. Here, we demonstrate that liquid-state theory in the form of the solute–solute equation of the reference interaction site model provides all necessary information for such a task with high efficiency. In particular, computing derivatives of the potential of mean force (PMF), which defines the free-energy surface of complex formation, with respect to potential parameters can be viewed as a means to define a direction in chemical space toward better binders. We illustrate the methodology in the benchmark case of alkali ion binding to the crown ether 18-crown-6 in aqueous solution. In order to examine the validity of the underlying solute–solute theory, we first compare PMFs computed by different approaches, including explicit free-energy molecular dynamics simulations as a reference. Predictions of an optimally binding ion radius based on free-energy derivatives are then shown to yield consistent results for different ion parameter sets and to compare well with earlier, orders-of-magnitude more costly explicit simulation results. This proof-of-principle study, therefore, demonstrates the potential of liquid-state theory for molecular design problems. (paper)

  5. Ionic liquid and solid HF equivalent amine-poly(hydrogen fluoride) complexes effecting efficient environmentally friendly isobutane-isobutylene alkylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George A; Mathew, Thomas; Goeppert, Alain; Török, Béla; Bucsi, Imre; Li, Xing-Ya; Wang, Qi; Marinez, Eric R; Batamack, Patrice; Aniszfeld, Robert; Prakash, G K Surya

    2005-04-27

    Isoparaffin-olefin alkylation was investigated using liquid as well as solid onium poly(hydrogen fluoride) catalysts. These new immobilized anhydrous HF catalysts contain varied amines and nitrogen-containing polymers as complexing agents. The liquid poly(hydrogen fluoride) complexes of amines are typical ionic liquids, which are convenient media and serve as HF equivalent catalysts with decreased volatility for isoparaffin-olefin alkylation. Polymeric solid amine:poly(hydrogen fluoride) complexes are excellent solid HF equivalents for similar alkylation acid catalysis. Isobutane-isobutylene or 2-butene alkylation gave excellent yields of high octane alkylates (up to RON = 94). Apart from their excellent catalytic performance, the new catalyst systems significantly reduce environmental hazards due to the low volatility of complexed HF. They represent a new, "green" class of catalyst systems for alkylation reactions, maintaining activity of HF while minimizing its environmental hazards.

  6. A charge transfer complex nematic liquid crystalline gel with high electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargavi, R.; Nair, Geetha G.; Krishna Prasad, S.; Majumdar, R.; Bag, Braja G.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the rheological, dielectric and elastic properties of a nematic liquid crystal gel created using an anthrylidene derivative of arjunolic acid, a chiral triterpenoid, obtained from the extracts of the wood of Terminalia arjuna. In this novel gel, having the electron-donor and acceptor components as minority constituents, the gelation and strengthening of charge-transfer complex (CTC) formation are seen to be occurring concomitantly. In addition to being mechanically strong with a large storage modulus, the gel with the maximized CTC exhibits Frank bend elastic constant values that approach nanonewton levels. The highlight of the study is the observation of 4–5 orders of magnitude increase in electrical conductivity for this gel, a value that is higher than even in the CT complexes of 2-d ordered columnar structures. A further important advantage of the present system over the columnar complex is that the high conductivity is seen for ac probing also, and owing to the nematic nature can be switched between its anisotropic limits. Some of these features are ascribed to a specific molecular packing architecture, which reduces the trapping of the charge carriers.

  7. A charge transfer complex nematic liquid crystalline gel with high electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargavi, R.; Nair, Geetha G.; Krishna Prasad, S.; Majumdar, R.; Bag, Braja G.

    2014-10-01

    We describe the rheological, dielectric and elastic properties of a nematic liquid crystal gel created using an anthrylidene derivative of arjunolic acid, a chiral triterpenoid, obtained from the extracts of the wood of Terminalia arjuna. In this novel gel, having the electron-donor and acceptor components as minority constituents, the gelation and strengthening of charge-transfer complex (CTC) formation are seen to be occurring concomitantly. In addition to being mechanically strong with a large storage modulus, the gel with the maximized CTC exhibits Frank bend elastic constant values that approach nanonewton levels. The highlight of the study is the observation of 4-5 orders of magnitude increase in electrical conductivity for this gel, a value that is higher than even in the CT complexes of 2-d ordered columnar structures. A further important advantage of the present system over the columnar complex is that the high conductivity is seen for ac probing also, and owing to the nematic nature can be switched between its anisotropic limits. Some of these features are ascribed to a specific molecular packing architecture, which reduces the trapping of the charge carriers.

  8. The effect of the density mismatch of liquids on scaling down steerable liquid lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farcy, G.; Deladi, S.; Suijver, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the results of the investigations on the effect of the gravity on downscaling the liquid lens. The configuration of the lens was chosen so that it enables steering of the interface between the two immiscible liquids in a flat position by electro wetting, which is important for

  9. Low-frequency dilatational wave propagation through unsaturated porous media containing two immiscible fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, W.-C.; Sposito, G.; Majer, E.

    2007-02-01

    An analytical theory is presented for the low-frequency behavior of dilatational waves propagating through a homogeneous elastic porous medium containing two immiscible fluids. The theory is based on the Berryman-Thigpen-Chin (BTC) model, in which capillary pressure effects are neglected. We show that the BTC model equations in the frequency domain can be transformed, at sufficiently low frequencies, into a dissipative wave equation (telegraph equation) and a propagating wave equation in the time domain. These partial differential equations describe two independent modes of dilatational wave motion that are analogous to the Biot fast and slow compressional waves in a single-fluid system. The equations can be solved analytically under a variety of initial and boundary conditions. The stipulation of 'low frequency' underlying the derivation of our equations in the time domain is shown to require that the excitation frequency of wave motions be much smaller than a critical frequency. This frequency is shown to be the inverse of an intrinsic time scale that depends on an effective kinematic shear viscosity of the interstitial fluids and the intrinsic permeability of the porous medium. Numerical calculations indicate that the critical frequency in both unconsolidated and consolidated materials containing water and a nonaqueous phase liquid ranges typically from kHz to MHz. Thus engineering problems involving the dynamic response of an unsaturated porous medium to low excitation frequencies (e.g. seismic wave stimulation) should be accurately modeled by our equations after suitable initial and boundary conditions are imposed.

  10. A Membrane‐Free Redox Flow Battery with Two Immiscible Redox Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navalpotro, Paula; Palma, Jesus; Anderson, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Flexible and scalable energy storage solutions are necessary for mitigating fluctuations of renewable energy sources. The main advantage of redox flow batteries is their ability to decouple power and energy. However, they present some limitations including poor performance, short‐lifetimes, and expensive ion‐selective membranes as well as high price, toxicity, and scarcity of vanadium compounds. We report a membrane‐free battery that relies on the immiscibility of redox electrolytes and where vanadium is replaced by organic molecules. We show that the biphasic system formed by one acidic solution and one ionic liquid, both containing quinoyl species, behaves as a reversible battery without any membrane. This proof‐of‐concept of a membrane‐free battery has an open circuit voltage of 1.4 V with a high theoretical energy density of 22.5 Wh L−1, and is able to deliver 90 % of its theoretical capacity while showing excellent long‐term performance (coulombic efficiency of 100 % and energy efficiency of 70 %). PMID:28658538

  11. A Membrane-Free Redox Flow Battery with Two Immiscible Redox Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navalpotro, Paula; Palma, Jesus; Anderson, Marc; Marcilla, Rebeca

    2017-10-02

    Flexible and scalable energy storage solutions are necessary for mitigating fluctuations of renewable energy sources. The main advantage of redox flow batteries is their ability to decouple power and energy. However, they present some limitations including poor performance, short-lifetimes, and expensive ion-selective membranes as well as high price, toxicity, and scarcity of vanadium compounds. We report a membrane-free battery that relies on the immiscibility of redox electrolytes and where vanadium is replaced by organic molecules. We show that the biphasic system formed by one acidic solution and one ionic liquid, both containing quinoyl species, behaves as a reversible battery without any membrane. This proof-of-concept of a membrane-free battery has an open circuit voltage of 1.4 V with a high theoretical energy density of 22.5 Wh L -1 , and is able to deliver 90 % of its theoretical capacity while showing excellent long-term performance (coulombic efficiency of 100 % and energy efficiency of 70 %). © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  12. Density and adiabatic compressibility of the immiscible molten AgBr+LiCl mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanov, Victor P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High-Temperature Electrochemistry; Ural Federal Univ., Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kulik, Nina P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High-Temperature Electrochemistry

    2017-07-01

    The adiabatic compressibility, β, of the immiscible liquid mixture 0.52 LiCl+0.48 AgBr (the top of the miscibility gap) was experimentally investigated in the temperature range from the melting point to the critical mixing temperature using the sound velocity values, u, measured by the pulse method, and the density quantities, ρ, which were determined using the hydrostatic weight procedure based on the relationship β = u{sup -2}ρ{sup -1}. It is shown that the coefficients of the temperature dependencies for the compressibility and density of the upper and lower equilibrium phases have opposite signs because of the superposition of the intensity of the thermal motion of the ions and the change in the composition of the phases. The differences, Δβ and Δρ, in the magnitudes of the compressibility and density for the equilibrium phases decrease with temperature elevation. The temperature dependencies of the compressibility and density difference are described using the empirical equations Δβ ∼ (T{sub c}-T){sup 0.438} and Δρ ∼ (T{sub c}-T){sup 0.439}.

  13. Metal extraction by solid-liquid agglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    Dissolved metal values are extracted from a liquid e.g. uranium from phosphoric acid by contacting the liquid with agglomerates for a time to load the agglomerate with the metal value, separating the loaded agglomerates from the liquid phase and stripping the metal value from the loaded agglomerate. The agglomerate may be made by combining finely divided solid particles with a binding liquid to form a paste, adding a suspending liquid to form a mixture, the suspending liquid and binding liquid being immiscible in each other and the solid particles being insoluble in the suspending liquid and shearing the mixture to form the agglomerate. (author)

  14. Challenges and complexities of multifrequency atomic force microscopy in liquid environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago D. Solares

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates through numerical simulation the complexities encountered in high-damping AFM imaging, as in liquid enviroments, within the specific context of multifrequency atomic force microscopy (AFM. The focus is primarily on (i the amplitude and phase relaxation of driven higher eigenmodes between successive tip–sample impacts, (ii the momentary excitation of non-driven higher eigenmodes and (iii base excitation artifacts. The results and discussion are mostly applicable to the cases where higher eigenmodes are driven in open loop and frequency modulation within bimodal schemes, but some concepts are also applicable to other types of multifrequency operations and to single-eigenmode amplitude and frequency modulation methods.

  15. Native Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry: Analysis of Noncovalent Protein Complexes Directly from Dried Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicholas J.; Griffiths, Rian L.; Edwards, Rebecca L.; Cooper, Helen J.

    2015-08-01

    Liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) mass spectrometry is a promising tool for the analysis of intact proteins from biological substrates. Here, we demonstrate native LESA mass spectrometry of noncovalent protein complexes of myoglobin and hemoglobin from a range of surfaces. Holomyoglobin, in which apomyoglobin is noncovalently bound to the prosthetic heme group, was observed following LESA mass spectrometry of myoglobin dried onto glass and polyvinylidene fluoride surfaces. Tetrameric hemoglobin [(αβ)2 4H] was observed following LESA mass spectrometry of hemoglobin dried onto glass and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) surfaces, and from dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper. Heme-bound dimers and monomers were also observed. The `contact' LESA approach was particularly suitable for the analysis of hemoglobin tetramers from DBS.

  16. Liquid crystal europium(III) β-diketonato complex with 5,5'-di(heptadecyl)-2,2'-bipyridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyazev, A.A.; Lobkov, V.S.; Galyametdinov, Yu.G.

    2004-01-01

    Liquid crystal europium(III) complex containing β-diketone and 5,5-di(heptadecyl)-2,2'-bipyridine as ligands was prepared in ethanol solution and was isolated as a yellow precipitate with 62% yield. The product was characterized by data of elementary analysis, thermography, IR spectroscopy and luminescence spectra. Temperatures of crystal-mesophase and mesophase-isotropic liquid phase transitions amount to 95 and 130 Deg C respectively [ru

  17. Palladium, platinum, and rhodium contents of rocks near the lower margin of the Stillwater complex, Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, M.L.; Foose, M.P.; Leung, Mei

    1986-01-01

    Statistical summaries are reported for Pd, Pt and Rh contents of rocks from the lower part of the Stillwater complex, the underlying contact-metamorphosed sediments, and post-metamorphic dykes and sills wholly within the hornfelses. Variability of the data among the rock types is attributed largely to differences in sulphide content. Non-correlation of sulphur with platinum-group assays of many rock types leads to the suggestion that the immiscible sulphide and silicate liquids did not completely equilibrate with respect to platinum-group elements. -G.J.N.

  18. Liquid waste handling facilities for a conceptual LWR spent fuel reprocessing complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, D.C.; Bradley, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    The waste evaporator systems and the methods for evaporating the liquid wastes of various radioactivity levels are discussed. After the liquid wastes are evaporated and nitric acid is recovered the high-level liquid waste is incorporated into borosilicate glass and the intermediate-level liquid waste into concrete for final disposal

  19. A Variational Model for Two-Phase Immiscible Electroosmotic Flow at Solid Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Sihong; Qian, Tiezheng

    2012-01-01

    We develop a continuum hydrodynamic model for two-phase immiscible flows that involve electroosmotic effect in an electrolyte and moving contact line at solid surfaces. The model is derived through a variational approach based on the Onsager

  20. Studies of extractant molecules in solution and at liquid-liquid interfaces: structural and mechanistic aspects of synergy effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baaden, Marc

    2000-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations reported herein provide new important insights into cation recognition and complexation in solution as well as liquid-liquid extraction, with a particular focus on the microscopic events taking place at the interface between two immiscible liquids. Preliminary studies concerned the representation of the trivalent rare earth cations La 3+ , Eu 3+ and Yb 3+ in force field simulations, probing structural and energetic features on an experimentally characterized model system based on substituted pyridine dicarboxamide ligands. Complexation of such cations by a novel calixarene derivative was investigated showing unexpected features, such as the position of the cation in the complex. Independent experimental studies published subsequently support these findings. Another part of the work is related to industrial liquid-liquid extraction systems using tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) as co-solvent, extractant, surfactant and synergist. We investigate 1) concentration effects simulating up to 60 TBP at a water/chloroform interface, 2) acidity using a neutral and ionic model of HNO 3 and 3) synergistic aspects of mixed TBP/calixarene extraction systems. These simulations provide the first microscopic insights into such issues. We finally addressed the topic of solute transfer across the water/chloroform interface. The potential of mean force for such a process has been calculated by both standard methods and novel approaches [fr

  1. Oligomerization of ethylene catalysed by nickel complexes associated with nitrogen ligands in ionic liquids; Oligomerisation de l'ethylene catalysee par des complexes du nickel associes a des ligands azotes dans les liquides ioniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecocq, V.

    2003-09-01

    We report here the use of a new class of catalytic systems based on a nickel active center associated with nitrogen ligands, such as di-imines, or imino-pyridines, for the oligomerization of ethylene in a biphasic medium using ionic liquids as the catalyst solvent. The nickel catalyst is immobilized in the ionic liquid phase in which the olefinic reaction products are poorly miscible. This biphasic system makes possible an easy separation and recycle of the catalyst. Numerous di-imine and imino-pyridine ligands with different steric and electronic properties have been synthesized and their corresponding nickel complexes isolated and characterized. Different ionic liquids, based on chloro-aluminates or non-chloro-aluminates anions, have also been prepared and characterized. The effect of the nature of the ligand, the ionic liquid, the nickel precursor and its mode of activation have been studied and correlated with the selectivity and activity of the transformation of ethylene. (author)

  2. Electronic and vibronic properties of a discotic liquid-crystal and its charge transfer complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haverkate, Lucas A.; Mulder, Fokko M. [Reactor Institute Delft, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629JB Delft (Netherlands); Zbiri, Mohamed, E-mail: zbiri@ill.fr; Johnson, Mark R. [Institut Laue Langevin, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Carter, Elizabeth [Vibrational Spectroscopy Facility, School of Chemistry, The University of Sydney, NSW 2008 (Australia); Kotlewski, Arek; Picken, S. [ChemE-NSM, Faculty of Chemistry, Delft University of Technology, 2628BL/136 Delft (Netherlands); Kearley, Gordon J. [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2014-01-07

    Discotic liquid crystalline (DLC) charge transfer (CT) complexes combine visible light absorption and rapid charge transfer characteristics, being favorable properties for photovoltaic (PV) applications. We present a detailed study of the electronic and vibrational properties of the prototypic 1:1 mixture of discotic 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakishexyloxytriphenylene (HAT6) and 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF). It is shown that intermolecular charge transfer occurs in the ground state of the complex: a charge delocalization of about 10{sup −2} electron from the HAT6 core to TNF is deduced from both Raman and our previous NMR measurements [L. A. Haverkate, M. Zbiri, M. R. Johnson, B. Deme, H. J. M. de Groot, F. Lefeber, A. Kotlewski, S. J. Picken, F. M. Mulder, and G. J. Kearley, J. Phys. Chem. B 116, 13098 (2012)], implying the presence of permanent dipoles at the donor-acceptor interface. A combined analysis of density functional theory calculations, resonant Raman and UV-VIS absorption measurements indicate that fast relaxation occurs in the UV region due to intramolecular vibronic coupling of HAT6 quinoidal modes with lower lying electronic states. Relatively slower relaxation in the visible region the excited CT-band of the complex is also indicated, which likely involves motions of the TNF nitro groups. The fast quinoidal relaxation process in the hot UV band of HAT6 relates to pseudo-Jahn-Teller interactions in a single benzene unit, suggesting that the underlying vibronic coupling mechanism can be generic for polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Both the presence of ground state CT dipoles and relatively slow relaxation processes in the excited CT band can be relevant concerning the design of DLC based organic PV systems.

  3. Interfacial properties of immiscible Co-Cu alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egry, I.; Ratke, L.; Kolbe, M.

    2010-01-01

    Using electromagnetic levitation under microgravity conditions, the interfacial properties of an Cu75Co25 alloy have been investigated in the liquid phase. This alloy exhibits a metastable liquid miscibility gap and can be prepared and levitated in a configuration consisting of a liquid cobalt-ri...

  4. RBS/NRA/channeling analysis of implanted immiscible species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naramoto, H.; Yamamoto, S.; Narumi, K.

    2000-01-01

    Ion implantation of immiscible elements was performed to prepare supersaturated substance for further heat treatment. 63 Cu ion implantation was made at low temperature into Nb(1 0 0), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) single crystal films on sapphire, and the induced lattice damage and the lattice location of implanted Cu atoms were analyzed by 2.7 MeV 4 He + RBS/channeling. The coherent segregation of 63 Cu atoms with specific crystallographic orientations was found in the near surface region (Cu(1 0 0)/Nb(1 0 0), Cu(1 1 1)/Nb(1 1 0) and Cu(1 1 0)/Nb(1 1 1)). The same kind of study was also made in Ir(1 0 0)/MgO(1 0 0) implanted with 50 keV 12 C + ions. In addition to 2 MeV 4 He + RBS/channeling, 1.22 MeV d + RBS/NRA/channeling was employed to detect implanted 12 C atoms. The results suggest that 12 C atoms are aligned along Ir direction at least by low temperature implantation followed by thermal annealing

  5. Dissociation of dilute immiscible copper alloy thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barmak, K.; Lucadamo, G. A.; Cabral, C. Jr.; Lavoie, C.; Harper, J. M. E.

    2000-01-01

    The dissociation behavior of dilute, immiscible Cu-alloy thin films is found to fall into three broad categories that correlate most closely with the form of the Cu-rich end of the binary alloy phase diagrams. Available thermodynamic and tracer diffusion data shed further light on alloy behavior. Eight alloying elements were selected for these studies, with five elements from groups 5 and 6, two from group 8, and one from group 11 of the periodic table. They are respectively V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, Fe, Ru, and Ag. The progress of precipitation in approximately 500-nm-thick alloy films, containing 2.5-3.8 at. % solute, was followed with in situ resistance and stress measurements as well as with in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction. In addition, texture analysis and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the evolution of microstructure and texture of Cu(Ta) and Cu(Ag). For all eight alloys, dissociation occurred upon heating, with the rejection of solute and evolution of microstructure often occurring in multiple steps that range over several hundred degrees between approximately 100 and 900 degree sign C. However, in most cases, substantial reductions in resistivity of the films took place below 400 degree sign C, at temperatures of interest to copper metallization schemes for silicon chip technology. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  6. Immiscible two-phase fluid flows in deformable porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Wei-Cheng; Sposito, Garrison; Majer, Ernest

    Macroscopic differential equations of mass and momentum balance for two immiscible fluids in a deformable porous medium are derived in an Eulerian framework using the continuum theory of mixtures. After inclusion of constitutive relationships, the resulting momentum balance equations feature terms characterizing the coupling among the fluid phases and the solid matrix caused by their relative accelerations. These terms, which imply a number of interesting phenomena, do not appear in current hydrologic models of subsurface multiphase flow. Our equations of momentum balance are shown to reduce to the Berryman-Thigpen-Chen model of bulk elastic wave propagation through unsaturated porous media after simplification (e.g., isothermal conditions, neglect of gravity, etc.) and under the assumption of constant volume fractions and material densities. When specialized to the case of a porous medium containing a single fluid and an elastic solid, our momentum balance equations reduce to the well-known Biot model of poroelasticity. We also show that mass balance alone is sufficient to derive the Biot model stress-strain relations, provided that a closure condition for porosity change suggested by de la Cruz and Spanos is invoked. Finally, a relation between elastic parameters and inertial coupling coefficients is derived that permits the partial differential equations of the Biot model to be decoupled into a telegraph equation and a wave equation whose respective dependent variables are two different linear combinations of the dilatations of the solid and the fluid.

  7. Surface rheological properties of liquid-liquid interfaces stabilized by protein fibrillar aggregates and protein-polysaccharide complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humblet-Hua, K.N.P.; Linden, van der E.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we have investigated the surface rheological properties of oil-water interfaces stabilized by fibrils from lysozyme (long and semi-flexible and short and rigid ones), fibrils from ovalbumin (short and semi-flexible), lysozyme-pectin complexes, or ovalbumin-pectin complexes. We have

  8. Rapid determination of some psychotropic drugs in complex matrices by tandem dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Alireza; Fahimi, Ebrahim; Bazregar, Mohammad; Rajabi, Maryam; Boutorabi, Leila

    2017-05-01

    Simple and rapid determinations of some psychotropic drugs in some pharmaceutical wastewater and human plasma samples were successfully accomplished via the tandem dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (TDLLME-HPLC-UV). TDLLME of the three psychotropic drugs clozapine, chlorpromazine, and thioridazine was easily performed through two consecutive dispersive liquid-liquid microextractions. By performing this convenient method, proper sample preconcentrations and clean-ups were achieved in just about 7min. In order to achieve the best extraction efficiency, the effective parameters involved were optimized. The optimal experimental conditions consisted of 100μL of CCl 4 (as the extraction organic solvent), and the pH values of 13 and 2 for the donor and acceptor phases, respectively. Under these optimum experimental conditions, the proposed TDLLME-HPLC-UV technique provided a good linearity in the range of 5-3000ngmL -1 for the three psychotropic drugs with the correlation of determinations (R 2 s) higher than 0.996. The limits of quantification (LOQs) and limits of detection (LODs) obtained were 5.0ngmL -1 and 1.0-1.5ngmL -1 , respectively. Also the proper enrichment factors (EFs) of 96, 99, and 88 for clozapine, chlorpromazine, and thioridazine, respectively, and good extraction repeatabilities (relative standard deviations below 9.3%, n=5) were obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Numerical simulation of the electro convective onset and complex flows of dielectric liquid in an annulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Dolfred Vijay; Lee, Heon Deok; Alapati, Suresh; Suh, Yong Kweon [Dong A Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    We conducted a numerical study on the onset of electro-convection as well as the complex flow phenomena of dielectric liquid subjected to unipolar autonomous charge injection in the annular gap between two concentric circular cylindrical electrodes. The Nernst Planck equations governing the charge density transport, the Poisson equation for the electric potential and the Navier Stokes equations for the fluid flow are solved numerically using the finite volume method. The developed code is validated by comparing the critical stability parameter values for the onset of electro convection with those obtained from the linear stability analysis. We identify in a parameter space the stable hydrostatic state and the electro convection state. The electro convection is again divided into three regimes: stationary, oscillatory and chaotic. For inner cylinder radius 1.0, i r {>=} we observed an increase in the number of charged plumes and vortex pairs with stability parameter T before the electro convection becomes chaotic. For outer injection, although the onset of electroconvection starts at T higher than the inner injection, the onset of chaotic motion occurs at lower T.

  10. Effects of complex organic mixtures of coal liquid on cardiovascular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, D.L.; Sasser, L.B.; Zangar, R.C.; Mahlum, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    The most common diseases in the US are those involving the cardiovascular system. Exposure to certain environmental chemicals and complex mixtures may be involved in some aspects of cardiovascular disease. They have previously reported that high-boiling coal liquids resulted in several affects related to the cardiovascular system of the rate when exposed via whole-body inhalation to the mixture. The most striking observation was a dose dependent elevation in arterial blood pressure for heavy distillate (HD) exposed rates compared to control animals at 2 weeks. They also noted an increase in heart rate and plasma and blood volume. Additional rats were evaluated 6 weeks after exposure, to determine whether these effects represented permanent changes in cardiovascular function, and the effects appeared to be reversible after this longer period. During the past year they have completed the assays of the studies initiated previously and have addressed some possible factors which could explain the effects that they observed. Electrolytes in plasma of rats exposed to the HD were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Plasma aldosterone and angiotensin were measured by radioimmunoassays, and plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein were evaluated with an Abbott VP bichromatic chemistry analyzer. In addition, a comparison of the blood pressure of control rats and rats fed a restricted diet were made, to determine if the anorexia which resulted from HD exposure could be responsible for the changes they observed in cardiovascular function

  11. Contacting gases and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, L.F.; Cahalan, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    A process is described for contacting substantially immiscible phases to transfer material from one phase to another, which comprises passing the phases through a contactor, while causing portions of at least one phase to be repeatedly passed through at least one other phase. One phase in the contactor is gaseous, and another liquid. A further phase can be liquid or solid The process may be used for extracting impurities from china clay, or extracting uranium values from ore with oxygen gas acting to oxidise the uranium. (author)

  12. Variable-focus liquid lens for portable applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, S.; Hendriks, B.H.W.; Huijbregts, L.J.; Hirschberg, A.; Renders, C.A.; As, van M.A.J.; Mouroulis, P.Z.; Smith, W.J.; Johnson, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    The meniscus between two immiscible liquids can be used as an optical lens. A change in curvature of this meniscus by electrowetting leads to a change in focal distance. We demonstrate that two liquids in a tube form a self-centered tunable lens of high optical quality. Several properties were

  13. Liquid-crystalline dendrimer Cu(II) complexes and Cu(0) nanoclusters based on the Cu(II) complexes: An electron paramagnetic resonance investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domracheva, N. E.; Mirea, A.; Schwoerer, M.; Torre-Lorente, L.; Lattermann, G.

    2007-07-01

    New nanostructured materials, namely, the liquid-crystalline copper(II) complexes that contain poly(propylene imine) dendrimer ligands of the first (ligand 1) and second (ligand 2) generations and which have a columnar mesophase and different copper contents (x = Cu/L), are investigated by EPR spectroscopy. The influence of water molecules and nitrate counterions on the magnetic properties of complex 2 (x = 7.3) is studied. It is demonstrated that water molecules can extract some of the copper ions from dendrimer complexes and form hexaaqua copper complexes with free ions. The dimer spectra of fully hydrated complex 2 (x = 7.3) are observed at temperatures T dendrimer copper(II) complex. The temperature-induced valence tautomerism attended by electron transport is revealed for the first time in blue dendrimer complexes 1 (x = 1.9) with a dimer structure. The activation energy for electron transport is estimated to be 0.35 meV. The coordination of the copper ion site (NO4) and the structural arrangement of green complexes 1 (x = 1.9) in the columnar mesophase are determined. Complexes of this type form linear chains in which nitrate counterions serve as bridges between copper centers. It is revealed that green complexes 1 (x = 1.9) dissolved in isotropic inert solvents can be oriented in the magnetic field (B 0 = 8000 G). The degree of orientation of these complexes is rather high (S z = 0.76) and close to that of systems with a complete ordering (S z = 1) in the magnetic field. Copper(0) nanoclusters prepared by reduction of complex 2 (x = 7.3) in two reducing agents (NaBH4, N2H4 · H2O) are examined. A model is proposed for a possible location of Cu(0) nanoclusters in a dendrimer matrix.

  14. Mathematical Modeling for the Extraction of Uranium and Molybdenum with Emulsion Liquid Membrane, Including Industrial Application and Cost Evaluation of the Uranium Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kris Tri Basuki

    2008-01-01

    Emulsion liquid membrane systems are double emulsion drops. Two immiscible phases are separated by a third phase which is immiscible with the other two phases. The liquid membrane systems were classified into two types: (1) carrier mediated mass transfer, (2) mass transfer without any reaction involved. Uranium extraction, molybdenum extraction and solvent extraction were used as purposed elements for each type of the membrane systems in the derivation of their mathematical models. Mass transfer in emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) systems has been modeled by several differential and algebraic equations. The models take into account the following : mass transfer of the solute from the bulk external phase to the external phase-membrane interface; an equilibrium reaction between the solute and the carrier to form the solute-carrier complex at the interface; mass transfer by diffusion of the solute-carrier complex in the membrane phase to the membrane-internal phase interface; another equilibrium reaction of the solute-carrier complex to release the solute at the membrane-internal phase interface into the internal phase. Models with or without the consideration of film resistances were developed and compared. The models developed in this study can predict the extraction rate through emulsion liquid membranes theoretically. All parameters required in the models can be determined before an experimental extraction run. Experimental data from literature (uranium extraction) and (molybdenum extraction and solvent extraction) were used to test the models. The agreements between the theoretical predictions and the experimental data were very good. The advantages of emulsion liquid membrane systems over traditional methods were discussed. The models developed in this research can be used directly for the design of emulsion liquid membrane systems. The results of this study represent a very significant step toward the practical applications of the emulsion liquid membrane

  15. The liquid-liquid extraction of chloro-(trichlorostannato)-rhodium(I/III) and -ruthenium (II) complexes from dilute hydrochloric acid into 4-methylpentan-2-one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyrley-Birch, J.M.

    1984-10-01

    The effect of stannous chloride on the liquid-liquid extraction of rhodium and ruthenium from hydrochloric acid solutions into 4-methyl-pentan-2-one (MIBK)/hexane mixtures was studied in detail. Stannous chloride concentrations were found to considerably increase the efficiency of the extraction of rhodium and ruthenium into the organic phase. Chloro-(trichlorostannato)-rhodium (I/III) complexes were formed at room temperature. The rate of chloro-(trichlorostannato)-ruthenium (II) complex formation was extremely slow at room temperature, but increased on heating of the aqueous solutions. The amount of rhodium and ruthenium extracted into the organic phase depend on the Sn(II):M molar ratio, the HCl, H sup(+) and Cl sup(-) concentrations, as well as the equilibration time. A 119 Sn NMR study of the MIBK extracts, showed that the stoichiometry of the chloro-(trichlorostannato)-rhodium (I/III) complexes extracted into the organic phase was dependent on the Sn(II):Rh(III) molar ratio as well as the HCl, H sup(+) and Cl sup(-) concentrations in the aqueous phase. The predominant species observed in the organic phase from HCl solutions containing Sn(II):Rh(III) ratios >= 5:1, was shown to be an hydrido complex having the form [RhH(SnCl 3 ) 4 Cl] 3 sup(-) or [RhH(SnCl 3 ) 4 ]2 sup(-). An essentially quantitative separation of rhodium and ruthenium was achieved utilising the variation in the rates of rhodium-tin and ruthenium-tin complex formation

  16. PREFACE: Functionalized Liquid Liquid Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Hubert; Kornyshev, Alexei A.; Monroe, Charles W.; Urbakh, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Most natural processes take place at interfaces. For this reason, surface science has been a focal point of modern research. At solid-liquid interfaces one can induce various species to adsorb or react, and thus may study interactions between the substrate and adsorbates, kinetic processes, optical properties, etc. Liquid-liquid interfaces, formed by immiscible liquids such as water and oil, have a number of distinctive features. Both sides of the interface are amenable to detailed physical and chemical analysis. By chemical or electrochemical means, metal or semiconductor nanoparticles can be formed or localised at the interface. Surfactants can be used to tailor surface properties, and also to place organic molecular or supermolecular constructions at the boundary between the liquids. Electric fields can be used to drive ions from one fluid to another, or even change the shape of the interface itself. In many cases, both liquids are optically transparent, making functionalized liquid-liquid interfaces promising for various optical applications based on the transmission or reflection of light. An advantage common to most of these systems is self-assembly; because a liquid-liquid interface is not mechanically constrained like a solid-liquid interface, it can easily access its most stable state, even after it has been driven far from equilibrium. This special issue focuses on four modes of liquid-liquid interfacial functionalization: the controlled adsorption of molecules or nanoparticles, the formation of adlayers or films, electrowetting, and ion transfer or interface-localized reactions. Interfacial adsorption can be driven electrically, chemically, or mechanically. The liquid-liquid interface can be used to study how anisotropic particles orient at a surface under the influence of a field, how surfactants interact with other adsorbates, and how nanoparticles aggregate; the transparency of the interface also makes the chirality of organic adsorbates amenable to

  17. Complex Formation and Liquid-Liquid Extraction in the Niobium(V) - 2,4-Dihydroxythiophenol - Hydrophobic Amines System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalov, A.Z.

    2015-01-01

    The formation and solvent extraction of new ion-association complexes between anionic chelat of niobium(V) with 2,4-dihydroxy-thio-phenol (DHTP) and hydrophobic amines (HAs). The HAs were aniline (An), N-methyl-aniline (MAn), N,N-dimethylaniline (DAn). The optimum conditions for the extraction of mixed ligand complexes (MLC) (organic solvent, extraction time, acidity of the aqueous phase, concentration of reagents), some key constants (association constant (β), extraction constant (Kex)) and analytical characteristics were determined. The molar absorptivities of MLC were calculated ε =(3.5-3.9) * 10/sup 4/ L mol /sup -1/ cm/sup -1/ . The Beer law was applicable in the range of 2.2-100 μg/mL. (author)

  18. A New Appraoch to Modeling Immiscible Two-phase Flow in Porous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    In this work we present a systematic literature review regarding the macroscopic approaches to modeling immiscible two-phase flow in porous media, the formulation process of the incorporate PDE based on Film Model(viscous coupling), the calculation of saturation profile around the transition zone...... to modeling immiscible two-phase flow in porous media. The suggested approach to immiscible two-phase flow in porous media describes the dispersed mesoscopic fluids’ interfaces which are highly influenced by the injected interfacial energy and the local interfacial energy capacity. It reveals a new...... possibility of modeling two-phase flow through energy balance. The saturation profile generated through the suggested approach is different from those through other approaches....

  19. Synthesis and Self-Assembly of Chiral Cylindrical Molecular Complexes: Functional Heterogeneous Liquid-Solid Materials Formed by Helicene Oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomi Saito

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiral cylindrical molecular complexes of homo- and hetero-double-helices derived from helicene oligomers self-assemble in solution, providing functional heterogeneous liquid-solid materials. Gels and liotropic liquid crystals are formed by fibril self-assembly in solution; molecular monolayers and fibril films are formed by self-assembly on solid surfaces; gels containing gold nanoparticles emit light; silica nanoparticles aggregate and adsorb double-helices. Notable dynamics appears during self-assembly, including multistep self-assembly, solid surface catalyzed double-helix formation, sigmoidal and stairwise kinetics, molecular recognition of nanoparticles, discontinuous self-assembly, materials clocking, chiral symmetry breaking and homogeneous-heterogeneous transitions. These phenomena are derived from strong intercomplex interactions of chiral cylindrical molecular complexes.

  20. Mechanical alloying of an immiscible α-Fe2O3-SnO2 ceramic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Lin, Rong; Mørup, Steen

    1997-01-01

    in the immiscible ceramic oxide system. X-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy investigations show that mechanical milling of alpha-Fe2O3 and SnO2 involves alloying on an atomic scale and that true solid solution formation occurs. We suggest that the high defect concentration and the chemical enthalpy of Fe3......+-O2--Sn4+ interfaces between nanostructured alpha-Fe2O3 and SnO2 regions may serve as a driving force for the formation of a solid solution in the immiscible ceramic system....

  1. Molecular dynamics study of thermodynamic stability and dynamics of [Li(glyme)]+ complex in lithium-glyme solvate ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Wataru; Hatanaka, Yuta; Hirakawa, Masashi; Okazaki, Susumu; Tsuzuki, Seiji; Ueno, Kazuhide; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2018-05-01

    Equimolar mixtures of glymes and organic lithium salts are known to produce solvate ionic liquids, in which the stability of the [Li(glyme)]+ complex plays an important role in determining the ionic dynamics. Since these mixtures have attractive physicochemical properties for application as electrolytes, it is important to understand the dependence of the stability of the [Li(glyme)]+ complex on the ion dynamics. A series of microsecond molecular dynamics simulations has been conducted to investigate the dynamic properties of these solvate ionic liquids. Successful solvate ionic liquids with high stability of the [Li(glyme)]+ complex have been shown to have enhanced ion dynamics. Li-glyme pair exchange rarely occurs: its characteristic time is longer than that of ion diffusion by one or two orders of magnitude. Li-glyme pair exchange most likely occurs through cluster formation involving multiple [Li(glyme)]+ pairs. In this process, multiple exchanges likely take place in a concerted manner without the production of energetically unfavorable free glyme or free Li+ ions.

  2. Effects of shear during the cooling on the rheology and morphology of immiscible polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammani, S; Moulai-Mostefa, N; Benyahia, L; Tassin, J F

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was the generation of a microfibrillar structure in immiscible polymer blends using a new technique. The blend polymer model is the emulsion formed by a mixture of polypropylene (PP) with polystyrene (PS) in the proportion of PP10/PS90. In the first case the pellets of polystyrene and polypropylene were blended on the twin-screw mini extruder in the classical manner with different shear rates. In the second case, the same blend was prepared in the same way followed by a dynamic cooling at different shear rates. The phase morphologies of PP in the blend were determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy on two directions (transversal and longitudinal direction to the flow). In the two cases, the dispersed phase size decreased with the increase of the shear rate in the extruder. An anomaly was registered in the classical method at 200 rpm, where the size of the dispersed phase increases with the increase of the shear rate. The dynamic cooling technique recorded smaller diameters (4 to 5 times) of the dispersed phase compared to the conventional technique. In addition, the reappearance of the microfilaments at 200rpm was observed. The rheological properties were determined by RS100 (Thermo Scientific Haake). Using this new technique, it was noticed that he elastic modulus increases with one decade compared to the classical method and the complex viscosity decreases with the increase of the shear rate. An anomaly was registered in the classical technique, where the dynamic viscosity at 200rpm increases with increasing the shear rate in the extruder

  3. Evaluating the complexation behavior and regeneration of boron selective glucaminium-based ionic liquids when used as extraction solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Manishkumar D.; Steyer, Daniel J.; Anderson, Jared L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Glucaminium-based ILs exhibit high selectivity for boron species using DLLME. ► The concentration of glucaminium-based IL affects type of boron complex formed. ► Use of 0.1 M HCl allows for regeneration of the IL solvent following extraction. ► Selectivity of the glucaminium-based ILs for boron species in seawater is similar to Milli-Q water. - Abstract: Glucaminium-based ionic liquids are a new class of solvents capable of extracting boron-species from water with high efficiency. The complexation behavior of these ILs with borate was thoroughly studied using 11 B NMR. Two different complexes, namely, monochelate complex and bischelate complex, were observed. 11 B NMR was used extensively to determine the formation constants for monochelate and bischelate complexes. The IL concentration was observed to have a significant effect on the IL–borate complexes. Using an in situ dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (in situ DLLME) method, the extraction efficiency for boron species was increased dramatically when lithium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide (LiNTf 2 ) was used as the metathesis salt in an aqueous solution containing 0.1 M sodium chloride. IL regeneration after extraction was achieved using 0.1 M hydrochloric acid. The extraction efficiency of boron species was consistent when the IL was employed after three regeneration cycles. The selectivity of the IL for boron species in synthetic seawater samples was similar to performing the same extraction from Milli-Q water samples.

  4. Sampling and analysis plan for sampling of liquid waste streams generated by 222-S Laboratory Complex operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benally, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) establishes the requirements and guidelines to be used by the Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. personnel in characterizing liquid waste generated at the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The characterization process to verify the accuracy of process knowledge used for designation and subsequent management of wastes consists of three steps: to prepare the technical rationale and the appendix in accordance with the steps outlined in this SAP; to implement the SAP by sampling and analyzing the requested waste streams; and to compile the report and evaluate the findings to the objectives of this SAP. This SAP applies to portions of the 222-S Laboratory Complex defined as Generator under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Any portion of the 222-S Laboratory Complex that is defined or permitted under RCRA as a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility is excluded from this document. This SAP applies to the liquid waste generated in the 222-S Laboratory Complex. Because the analytical data obtained will be used to manage waste properly, including waste compatibility and waste designation, this SAP will provide directions for obtaining and maintaining the information as required by WAC173-303

  5. A note on the standard electron transfer potential at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samec, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2009), s. 75-81 ISSN 0034-6691 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/07/1257 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions * interfacial electron transfer * standard electron trasfer potential * homogeneous electron transfer Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  6. The Cauchy problem for a model of immiscible gas flow with large data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sande, Hilde

    2008-12-15

    The thesis consists of an introduction and two papers; 1. The solution of the Cauchy problem with large data for a model of a mixture of gases. 2. Front tracking for a model of immiscible gas flow with large data. (AG) refs, figs

  7. Supra-molecular inclusion complexation of ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octylsulphate with α- and β-cyclodextrins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjare, Manoj Kumar; Behera, Kamalakanta; Satnami, Manmohan L.; Pandey, Siddharth; Ghosh, Kallol K.

    2017-12-01

    Host-guest complexation between ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octylsulphate [Bmim][OS] and cyclodextrins (α- and β- CDs) have been studied. Surface tension, conductivity measurements revealed the formation of 1:1 (M) stoichiometry for inclusion complexes (ICs) and further confirmed by UV-Visible and FT-IR results. The nature of the complexes has been established using interfacial and thermodynamic parameters. The aggregation number, Stern-Volmer constants, association constants were obtained from fluorescence quenching and Benesi-Hildebrand methods. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) and association constants of [Bmim][OS] are higher for β-CD as compared to α-CD. FT-IR spectra indicated that CDs and [Bmim][OS] could from ICs with stoichiometry 1:1 (M).

  8. The Enhanced Intramolecular Energy Transfer and Strengthened ff Luminescence of a Stable Helical Eu Complex in Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Hasegawa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The luminescence of a Eu complex (EuL is enhanced by stabilization of the coordination structure in highly viscous ionic liquids. The EuL was found to maintain a stable single helical structure both in organic solvents and in the ionic liquids [BMIM][PF6] and [EMIM][PF6]. A colorless solution of EuL dissolved in [BMIM][PF6] exhibits bright red luminescence with a quantum yield of 32.3%, a value that is much higher than that in acetonitrile (12%. Estimated rate constants for the energy relaxation pathway indicate that the energy transfer efficiency is enhanced in [BMIM][PF6] as a result of the suppression of molecular fluctuations in the ligands. Additionally, a highly luminescent helical structure is preserved in [EMIM][PF6] up to 120 °C.

  9. A Variational Model for Two-Phase Immiscible Electroosmotic Flow at Solid Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Sihong

    2012-01-01

    We develop a continuum hydrodynamic model for two-phase immiscible flows that involve electroosmotic effect in an electrolyte and moving contact line at solid surfaces. The model is derived through a variational approach based on the Onsager principle of minimum energy dissipation. This approach was first presented in the derivation of a continuum hydrodynamic model for moving contact line in neutral two-phase immiscible flows (Qian, Wang, and Sheng, J. Fluid Mech. 564, 333-360 (2006)). Physically, the electroosmotic effect can be formulated by the Onsager principle as well in the linear response regime. Therefore, the same variational approach is applied here to the derivation of the continuum hydrodynamic model for charged two-phase immiscible flows where one fluid component is an electrolyte exhibiting electroosmotic effect on a charged surface. A phase field is employed to model the diffuse interface between two immiscible fluid components, one being the electrolyte and the other a nonconductive fluid, both allowed to slip at solid surfaces. Our model consists of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation for momentum transport, the Nernst-Planck equation for ion transport, the Cahn-Hilliard phase-field equation for interface motion, and the Poisson equation for electric potential, along with all the necessary boundary conditions. In particular, all the dynamic boundary conditions at solid surfaces, including the generalized Navier boundary condition for slip, are derived together with the equations of motion in the bulk region. Numerical examples in two-dimensional space, which involve overlapped electric double layer fields, have been presented to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the model, and a few salient features of the two-phase immiscible electroosmotic flows at solid surface. The wall slip in the vicinity of moving contact line and the Smoluchowski slip in the electric double layer are both investigated. © 2012 Global-Science Press.

  10. Etude d'un modele de Boltzmann sur reseau pour la simulation assistee par ordinateur des fluides a plusieurs phases immiscibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclaire, Sebastien

    The computer assisted simulation of the dynamics of fluid flow has been a highly rewarding topic of research for several decades now, in terms of the number of scientific problems that have been solved as a result, both in the academic world and in industry. In the fluid dynamics field, simulating multiphase immiscible fluid flow remains a challenge, because of the complexity of the interactions at the flow phase interfaces. Various numerical methods are available to study these phenomena, and, the lattice Boltzmann method has been shown in recent years to be well adapted to solving this type of complex flow. In this thesis, a lattice Boltzmann model for the simulation of two-phase immiscible flows is studied. The main objective of the thesis is to develop this promising method further, with a view to enhancing its validity. To achieve this objective, the research is divided into five distinct themes. The first two focus on correcting some of the deficiencies of the original model. The third generalizes the model to support the simulation of N-phase immiscible fluid flows. The fourth is aimed at modifying the model itself, to enable the simulation of immiscible fluid flows in which the density of the phases varies. With the lattice Boltzmann class of models studied here, this density variation has been inadequately modeled, and, after 20 years, the issue still has not been resolved. The fifth, which complements this thesis, is connected with the lattice Boltzmann method, in that it generalizes the theory of 2D and 3D isotropic gradients for a high order of spatial precision. These themes have each been the subject of a scientific article, as listed in the appendix to this thesis, and together they constitute a synthesis that explains the links between the articles, as well as their scientific contributions, and satisfy the main objective of this research. Globally, a number of qualitative and quantitative test cases based on the theory of multiphase fluid flows

  11. Tandem Extraction/Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Protocol for the Analysis of Acrylamide and Surfactant-related Compounds in Complex Aqueous Environmental Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of a liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry (LC‐MS)‐based strategy for the detection and quantitation of acrylamide and surfactant‐related compounds in aqueous complex environmental samples.

  12. Prediction of Phase Separation of Immiscible Ga-Tl Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunkyum; Kim, Han Gyeol; Kang, Youn-Bae; Kaptay, George; Lee, Joonho

    2017-06-01

    Phase separation temperature of Ga-Tl liquid alloys was investigated using the constrained drop method. With this method, density and surface tension were investigated together. Despite strong repulsive interactions, molar volume showed ideal mixing behavior, whereas surface tension of the alloy was close to that of pure Tl due to preferential adsorption of Tl. Phase separation temperatures and surface tension values obtained with this method were close to the theoretically calculated values using three different thermodynamic models.

  13. A comparative study of ternary Al-Sn-Cu immiscible alloys prepared by conventional casting and casting under high-intensity ultrasonic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotadia, H.R., E-mail: hiren.kotadia@kcl.ac.uk [Department of Physics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Das, A. [Materials Research Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Doernberg, E.; Schmid-Fetzer, R. [Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Str. 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Systematic investigation on the solidification microstructure of ternary Al-Sn-Cu immiscible system aided by computational thermodynamics calculations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparative study of conventional casting and casting under high-intensity ultrasonic irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstrated the high effectiveness of ultrasound exposure during solidification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of cavitation on nucleation and the relative effects of cavitation and acoustic streaming on the dispersion of Sn-rich liquid phases have been explained from the experimental observation. Cavitation was found to promote fragmentation and dispersion of Sn-rich liquid leading to homogeneous dispersion of refined Sn phase. Microstructural modification was found to be contributed by cavitation and associated shockwave generation while bulk fluid flow under acoustic streaming was found to be less effective on the microstructure evolution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Globular and highly refined {alpha}-Al formed near the radiator through enhanced heterogeneous nucleation in contrast to dendritic {alpha}-Al observed in conventional solidification. - Abstract: A comparative study on the microstructure of four ternary Al-Sn-Cu immiscible alloys, guided by the recent thermodynamic assessment of the system, was carried out with specific focus on the soft Sn particulate distribution in hard Al-rich matrix in the presence and absence of ultrasonic irradiation during solidification. The results clearly demonstrate high effectiveness of ultrasonication in promoting significantly refined and homogeneously dispersed microstructure, probably aided by enhanced nucleation and droplet fragmentation under cavitation. While conventional solidification produced highly segregated Sn phase at the centre and bottom of Sn-rich alloy ingots, ultrasonic treatment produced effective dispersion irrespective of the alloy constitution in

  14. Studies on polymer electrolyte poly(vinyl) pyrrolidone (PVP) complexed with ionic liquid: Effect of complexation on thermal stability, conductivity and relaxation behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saroj, A.L. [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005 (India); Singh, R.K., E-mail: rksingh_17@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005 (India); Chandra, S. [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005 (India)

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PVP + IL based polymer electrolyte films have been prepared and studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The complexation/interaction of PVP with IL has been confirmed by FT-IR analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conductivity and relaxation frequency increases with increasing IL content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two relaxation peaks for complexed and uncomplexed PVP with IL have been observed. - Abstract: Polymer electrolyte films of PVP + x wt% ionic liquid (IL) (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [EMIM][BF{sub 4}]) for x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 wt% have been prepared using solution cast technique. These films were characterized by TGA, DSC, FT-IR and ac impedance spectroscopy techniques. From XRD studies it is found that the inclusion of IL increases the amorphocity of polymeric membranes. DSC thermograms show that the glass transition (T{sub g}) and melting temperatures (T{sub m}) of PVP shift upon complexation with IL. FT-IR analysis shows the complexation of PVP with IL. Thermogravimetric studies show that PVP decomposes in a single step while PVP/IL membranes exhibit two step decomposition; lower value of decomposition temperature corresponds to the decomposition of PVP/IL complex while the higher decomposition temperature has been attributed to the decomposition of PVP. The decomposition temperature of PVP/IL complex decreases with the increasing amount of IL in the PVP membrane. Temperature dependence of conductivity and dielectric relaxation frequencies have also been studied for PVP and PVP/IL membranes. Both show thermally activated Arrhenius behaviour.

  15. Liquid crystalline composites toward organic photovoltaic application (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yo; Sosa-Vargas, Lydia; Shin, Woong; Higuchi, Yumi; Itani, Hiromichi; Kawano, Koki; Dao, Quang Duy; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2017-02-01

    Liquid crystalline semiconductor is an interesting category of organic electronic materials and also has been extensively studied in terms of "Printed Electronics". For the wider diversity in research toward new applications, one can consider how to use a combination of miscibility and phase separation in liquid crystals. Here we report discotic liquid crystals in making a composite of which structural order is controlled in nano-scale toward photovoltaic applications. Discotic columnar LCs were studied on their resultant molecular order and carrier transport properties. Liquid crystals of phthalocyanine and its analogues which exhibit columnar mesomorphism with high carrier mobility (10-1 cm2/Vs) were examined with making binary phase diagrams and the correlation to carrier transport properties by TOF measurements was discussed. The shape-analogues in chemical structure shows a good miscibility even for the different lattice-type of columnar arrangement and the carrier mobility is mostly decrease except for a case of combination with a metal-free and the metal complex. For the mixtures with non-mesogenic C60 derivatives, one sees a phase-separated structure due to its immiscibility, though the columnar order is remained in a range of component ratio.Especially, in a range of the ratio, it was observed the phase separated C60 derivatives are fused into the matrix of columnar bundles, indicating C60 derivatives could be diffused in columnar arrays in molecular level.

  16. Flexible automated approach for quantitative liquid handling of complex biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palandra, Joe; Weller, David; Hudson, Gary; Li, Jeff; Osgood, Sarah; Hudson, Emily; Zhong, Min; Buchholz, Lisa; Cohen, Lucinda H

    2007-11-01

    A fully automated protein precipitation technique for biological sample preparation has been developed for the quantitation of drugs in various biological matrixes. All liquid handling during sample preparation was automated using a Hamilton MicroLab Star Robotic workstation, which included the preparation of standards and controls from a Watson laboratory information management system generated work list, shaking of 96-well plates, and vacuum application. Processing time is less than 30 s per sample or approximately 45 min per 96-well plate, which is then immediately ready for injection onto an LC-MS/MS system. An overview of the process workflow is discussed, including the software development. Validation data are also provided, including specific liquid class data as well as comparative data of automated vs manual preparation using both quality controls and actual sample data. The efficiencies gained from this automated approach are described.

  17. Extraction chromatographic separation of iron from complex liquid samples and the determination of 55Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahek, Z.; Rozmaric Macefat, M.

    2006-01-01

    Iron separation is described from liquid samples with a high concentration of ions that enables simple determination of 55 Fe. One of the described methods consists of iron precipitation from a large volume seawater by sodium hydroxide and/or ammonium carbonate and separation from other elements (Ca, Sr, Cu, Mg, etc.) on a TRU column with 4M HCl or 8M HNO 3 . In the other procedure iron is separated directly from a mixture of seawater samples and HCl on a TRU column. In both methods, the iron recovery is almost 100%. After separation, 55 Fe is determined by counting with a liquid scintillation counter. The binding of Fe and Zn on TEVA, U/TEVA and TRU resins from seawater solutions of HCl and HNO 3 depends on the type of the resin, concentration of acid and other ions. Iron and zinc can be separated from seawater on a U/TEVA column with 2M HCl. (author)

  18. The multidensity integral equation approach in the theory of complex liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holovko, M.F.

    2001-01-01

    Recent development of the multi-density integral equation approach and its application to the statistical mechanical modelling of a different type of association and clusterization in liquids and solutions are reviewed. The effects of dimerization, polymerization and network formation are discussed. The numerical and analytical solutions of the integral equations in the multi-density formalism for pair correlation functions are used for the description of structural and thermodynamical properties of ionic solutions, polymers and network forming fluids

  19. Satellite formation during bubble transition through an interface between immiscible liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Erqiang; Al-Otaibi, S. A.; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2014-01-01

    the intermediate film between the bubble and the interface has drained sufficiently, the bubble makes contact with the interface, forming a triple-line and producing strong capillary waves which travel around the bubble and can pinch off a satellite on the opposite

  20. Electrochemical reactions of uranyl(VI) complexes in aqueous solution, non-aqueous solvents, and ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yasuhisa

    2006-01-01

    Author's recent experimental results on the chemistry of U(V) in aqueous solution, non-aqueous solvents, and ionic solvents by cyclic voltametry are described. The U(V) was produced by electrochemical reduction of uranyl U(VI) ions or complexes such as carbonates, DMF(N, N-dimethylformamide), DMSO(dimethylsulfoxide), acetylacetonato, and other organic polydental ligands. The produced U(V) complexes were studied by spectrophotometry using optical-transmission thin-layer electrode. The U(V) complexes in non-aqueous solvents were found to be rather stable, they undergo ligand-dissociation reaction but not disproportionation reaction. The structure and electronic spectra as well as IR spectra of the complexes were studied. The present method was further developed to study the behavior of U(V) complexes in ionic liquids as molten salts, e.g., alkaline metals chlorides. Thus, the present research contributes to understanding the chemistry of 5fl system. Application to such nuclear technology as spent fuel reprocessing is discussed. (S. Ohno)

  1. Salt-induced phase separation for the determination of metals as their diethyldithiocarbamate complexes by high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, B.J.; Lovett, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection can be used to determine trace levels of Pt(II), Pd(II), Rh(III), Co(III), Ru(III), and Ir in aqueous solution following complexation with diethyldithiocarbamate. The metal complexes are extracted into acetonitrile from aqueous solution by the addition of a saturated salt solution. Quantitative metal recovery from aqueous solution is achievable for most metals for a wide solution pH range. Detection limits for the metals are <3 ng of metal/mL of original aqueous sample. Analyses of real samples are highly reproducible and sensitive. Ir an interfere in the determination of Pt(II) and Rh(III). A general protocol for chromatographic separation and determination of Pt(II), Pd(II), Rh(III), Ru(III), and Ir in aqueous solution is presented

  2. Symmetric bi-pyridyl banana-shaped molecule and its intermolecular hydrogen bonding liquid-crystalline complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Dan; Hou, Qiufei; Chai, Jia; Ye, Ling; Zhao, Liyan; Li, Min; Jiang, Shimei

    2008-11-01

    A new symmetric bi-pyridyl banana-shaped molecule 1,3-phenylene diisonicotinate (PDI) was designed and synthesized. Its molecular structure was confirmed by FTIR, Elemental analysis and 1H NMR. X-ray crystallographic study reveals that there is an angle of approximate 118° among the centroids of the three rings (pyridyl-phenyl-pyridyl) in each PDI molecule indicating a desired banana shape. In addition, a series of liquid crystal complexes nBA:PDI:nBA induced by intermolecular hydrogen bonding between PDI (proton acceptor) and 4-alkoxybenzoic acids (nBA, proton donor) were synthesized and characterized. The mesomorphism properties and optical textures of the complex of nBA:PDI:nBA were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, polarizing optical microscope and X-ray diffraction.

  3. Solvent Effects on Cesium Complexation with Crown Ethers from Liquid to Supercritical Fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wai, Chien M.; Rustenholtz, Anne; Wang, Shaofen; Lee, Su-Chen; Herman, Jamie; Porter, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques were used to study crown ether-water interactions in solvents of low dielectric constants such as chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. Water forms a 1:1 complex with a number of crown ethers including 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5, 18-crown-6, dicyclohexano-18=crown-6, dicyclohexano-24-crown 8, and dibenzl-24-crown-8 in chloroform. Among these crown ethers, the 18-crown-6-H2 complex has the largest equilibrium constant (K=545) and 97% of the crown is complexed to water in chloroform. Addition of carbon tetrachloride to chloroform lowers the equilibrium constants of the crown-water complexes. The partition coefficients of crown ethers (D=crown in water/crown in solvent) between water and organic solvent also vary with solvent composition

  4. Optimation and Determination of Fe-Oxinate Complex by Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktavia, B.; Nasra, E.; Sary, R. C.

    2018-04-01

    The need for iron will improve the industrial processes that require iron as its raw material. Control of industrial iron waste is very important to do. One method of iron analysis is to conduct indirect analysis of iron (III) ions by complexing with 8-Hydroxyquinoline or oxine. In this research, qualitative and quantitative tests of iron (III) ions in the form of complex with oxine. The analysis was performed using HPLC at a wavelength of 470 nm with an ODS C18 column. Three methods of analysis were performed: 1) Fe-oxinate complexes were prepared in an ethanol solvent so no need for separation anymore, (2) Fe-oxinate complexes were made in chloroform so that a solvent extraction was required before the complex was injected into the column while the third complex was formed in the column, wherein the eluent contains the oxide and the metal ions are then injected. The resulting chromatogram shows that the 3rd way provides a better chromatogram for iron analysis.

  5. Liquid Membranes as a Tool for Chemical Speciation of Metals in Natural Waters: Organic and Inorganic Complexes of Nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergel, Cristina; Mendiguchía, Carolina; Moreno, Carlos

    2018-04-15

    The different species of nickel present in natural waters exhibit different transport behaviour through bulk liquid membranes (BLMs). This fact has been used to design and optimise a separation/pre-concentration system applicable to separate labile and non-labile nickel fractions. A hydrazone derivative-1,2-cyclohexanedione bis-benzoyl-hydrazone (1,2-CHBBH) dissolved in toluene/dimethyl formamide (2% DMF)-was used as a chemical carrier of nickel species, from an aqueous source solution (sample) to a receiving acidic solution. Both chemical and hydrodynamic conditions controlling the transport system were studied and optimised. Under optimum conditions, variations in the transport of nickel ions as a function of organic (humic acids) and inorganic (chloride ions) ligands were studied. Relationships between the permeability coefficient ( P ) or recovery efficiency (%R) and the concentrations of ligands and nickel species were analysed using Winhumic V software. A negative correlation between P and the concentration of organic nickel complexes was found, suggesting that only labile nickel species are transported through the liquid membrane, with non-labile complexes remaining in the water sample; allowing for their separation and subsequent quantification in natural waters.

  6. Liquid Membranes as a Tool for Chemical Speciation of Metals in Natural Waters: Organic and Inorganic Complexes of Nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vergel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The different species of nickel present in natural waters exhibit different transport behaviour through bulk liquid membranes (BLMs. This fact has been used to design and optimise a separation/pre-concentration system applicable to separate labile and non-labile nickel fractions. A hydrazone derivative—1,2-cyclohexanedione bis-benzoyl-hydrazone (1,2-CHBBH dissolved in toluene/dimethyl formamide (2% DMF—was used as a chemical carrier of nickel species, from an aqueous source solution (sample to a receiving acidic solution. Both chemical and hydrodynamic conditions controlling the transport system were studied and optimised. Under optimum conditions, variations in the transport of nickel ions as a function of organic (humic acids and inorganic (chloride ions ligands were studied. Relationships between the permeability coefficient (P or recovery efficiency (%R and the concentrations of ligands and nickel species were analysed using Winhumic V software. A negative correlation between P and the concentration of organic nickel complexes was found, suggesting that only labile nickel species are transported through the liquid membrane, with non-labile complexes remaining in the water sample; allowing for their separation and subsequent quantification in natural waters.

  7. The complex structure of liquid Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin Jingyu; Gu Tingkun; Bian Xiufang [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Southern Campus, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu Hui [Shandong High Performance Computing Center, Shandong University, Southern Campus, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2009-04-15

    By applying ab initio molecular dynamics simulation to liquid Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} alloy, the hetero-coordination tendency is discovered by Bathia-Thornton partial correlation functions and a chemical short-range parameter. However the local structural environment of Sn in l-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} alloy resembles that of liquid Sn by Voronoi analysis. A new feature, i.e. a subpeak in between the first and second peaks, is discovered by the present method which implies that topologically disordered {beta}-Sn-type structural units may exist in l-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} alloy. The local density states of electrons show that both Cu-Sn and Sn-Sn bonding exist in l-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} alloy. This work suggests that chemical short-range order between unlike atoms and self-coordination between Sn atoms coexists in l-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} alloy.

  8. Metal Immiscibility Route to Synthesis of Ultrathin Carbides, Borides, and Nitrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zixing; Kochat, Vidya; Pandey, Prafull; Kashyap, Sanjay; Chattopadhyay, Soham; Samanta, Atanu; Sarkar, Suman; Manimunda, Praveena; Zhang, Xiang; Asif, Syed; Singh, Abhisek K; Chattopadhyay, Kamanio; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2017-08-01

    Ultrathin ceramic coatings are of high interest as protective coatings from aviation to biomedical applications. Here, a generic approach of making scalable ultrathin transition metal-carbide/boride/nitride using immiscibility of two metals is demonstrated. Ultrathin tantalum carbide, nitride, and boride are grown using chemical vapor deposition by heating a tantalum-copper bilayer with corresponding precursor (C 2 H 2 , B powder, and NH 3 ). The ultrathin crystals are found on the copper surface (opposite of the metal-metal junction). A detailed microscopy analysis followed by density functional theory based calculation demonstrates the migration mechanism, where Ta atoms prefer to stay in clusters in the Cu matrix. These ultrathin materials have good interface attachment with Cu, improving the scratch resistance and oxidation resistance of Cu. This metal-metal immiscibility system can be extended to other metals to synthesize metal carbide, boride, and nitride coatings. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Inhomogeneity of block copolymers at the interface of an immiscible polymer blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ji Ho; Kim, YongJoo; Lee, Won Bo

    2018-04-01

    We present the effects of structure and stiffness of block copolymers on the interfacial properties of an immiscible homopolymer blend. Diblock and two-arm grafted copolymers with variation in stiffness are modeled using coarse-grained molecular dynamics to compare the compatibilization efficiency, i.e., reduction of interfacial tension. Overall, grafted copolymers are located more compactly at the interface and show better compatibilization efficiency than diblock copolymers. In addition, an increase in the stiffness for one of the blocks of the diblock copolymers causes unusual inhomogeneous interfacial coverage due to bundle formation. However, an increase in the stiffness for one of blocks of the grafted copolymers prevents the bundle formation due to the branched chain. As a result, homogeneous interfacial coverage of homopolymer blends is realized with significant reduction of interfacial tension which makes grafted copolymer a better candidate for the compatibilizer of immiscible homopolymer blend.

  10. Subsurface migration of petroleum hydrocarbons: A case study of immiscible migration and chromatographic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, H.E.

    1991-01-01

    The subsurface distribution of a leaked crude oil illustrates the combined influence of both the chemical and physical properties of soil and free product on the migration of petroleum hydrocarbons. Immiscible phase behavior was observed, as well as chromatographic-like separation of the lighter constituents of the crude oil from the heavier constituents. After downward migration through approximately 50 ft of unsaturated, heterogeneous alluvial sediments, the crude oil formed a horizontal plume on top of a perched, saturated zone. Immiscible phase trapping is evident from the occurrence of very high concentration of hydrocarbons in both the vertical and horizontal plumes. Samples taken from the vertical zone of contamination indicate a transition from heavier hydrocarbons near the surface to lighter hydrocarbons at depth. This phenomenon is attributed to chromatographic-like separation of the heavier hydrocarbons by the soil, possibly due to preferential solubility of the lighter hydrocarbons in percolating ran water

  11. A Membrane‐Free Redox Flow Battery with Two Immiscible Redox Electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Navalpotro, Paula; Palma, Jesus; Anderson, Marc; Marcilla, Rebeca

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Flexible and scalable energy storage solutions are necessary for mitigating fluctuations of renewable energy sources. The main advantage of redox flow batteries is their ability to decouple power and energy. However, they present some limitations including poor performance, short‐lifetimes, and expensive ion‐selective membranes as well as high price, toxicity, and scarcity of vanadium compounds. We report a membrane‐free battery that relies on the immiscibility of redox electrolytes ...

  12. SENARIET, A Programme To Solve Transient Flows Of Liquids In Complex Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Munoz, M.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, M.; Perena-Tapiador, A.

    2011-05-01

    SENARIET is a programme to study fluid transients in pipeline systems in order to obtain pressure and velocity distributions along a circuit. When a transient process occurs in periods of the same order of the pressure waves’ travelling time along a circuit (the order of the circuit length divided by the effective propagation speed), the compressibility effects in liquids have to be considered. Taking this effect into account, the appropriate equations of continuity and momentum are solved by the method of characteristics, to obtain pressure and velocity along pipes as a function of time. The simulated results have been compared to theoretical and experimental ones to validate and evaluate the precision of the software. The results help to perform efficient and accurate predictions in order to define the propulsion sub-system. This type of analysis is very important in order to evaluate the water hammer effects in propulsion systems used on spacecrafts and launchers.

  13. Gas Separation Membranes Derived from High-Performance Immiscible Polymer Blends Compatibilized with Small Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panapitiya, Nimanka P; Wijenayake, Sumudu N; Nguyen, Do D; Huang, Yu; Musselman, Inga H; Balkus, Kenneth J; Ferraris, John P

    2015-08-26

    An immiscible polymer blend comprised of high-performance copolyimide 6FDA-DAM:DABA(3:2) (6FDD) and polybenzimidazole (PBI) was compatibilized using 2-methylimidazole (2-MI), a commercially available small molecule. Membranes were fabricated from blends of 6FDD:PBI (50:50) with and without 2-MI for H2/CO2 separations. The membranes demonstrated a matrix-droplet type microstructure as evident with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging where 6FDD is the dispersed phase and PBI is the continuous phase. In addition, membranes with 2-MI demonstrated a uniform microstructure as observed by smaller and more uniformly dispersed 6FDD domains in contrast to 6FDD:PBI (50:50) blend membranes without 2-MI. This compatibilization effect of 2-MI was attributed to interfacial localization of 2-MI that lowers the interfacial energy similar to a surfactant. Upon the incorporation of 2-MI, the H2/CO2 selectivity improved remarkably, compared to the pure blend, and surpassed the Robeson's upper bound. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of a small molecule to compatibilize a high-performance immiscible polymer blend. This approach could afford a novel class of membranes in which immiscible polymer blends can be compatibilized in an economical and convenient fashion.

  14. Two compressible and immiscible flow in porous media: mathematical and numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the study of Cauchy problem (existence of weak solutions) for three degenerate highly coupled parabolic systems modeling compressible immiscible flow in porous media. The motivation of this work is a benchmark of the GNR MoMaS, to study the impact of the gas flow due to the corrosion of ferrous materials in a radioactive waste storage site. This thesis is divided into three independent chapters. Firstly, we look at a problem modeling the flow of two immiscible phases and considering one phase is compressible and the other is incompressible (water/gas). Secondly, we consider the problem modeling two-compressible immiscible flow in porous media. An existence results for both problems established by a semi-discretization method. Finally, The fourth chapter is devoted to the construction and convergence of a multi-dimensional finite volume method (upwind scheme) for the gas-water model under the assumption that the gas density is a function of a global pressure. (author)

  15. Immobilization of organic liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes a portland cement immobilization process for the disposal treatment of radioactive organic liquid wastes which would be generated in a a FFTF fuels reprocessing line. An incineration system already on-hand was determined to be too costly to operate for the 100 to 400 gallons per year organic liquid. Organic test liquids were dispersed into an aqueous phosphate liquid using an emulsifier. A total of 109 gallons of potential and radioactive aqueous immiscible organic liquid wastes from Hanford 300 Area operations were solidified with portland cement and disposed of as solid waste during a 3-month test program with in-drum mixers. Waste packing efficiencies varied from 32 to 40% and included pump oils, mineral spirits, and TBP-NPH type solvents

  16. Fingerprinting of complex mixtures with the use of high performance liquid chromatography, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and chemometrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Yongnian; Peng Yunyan; Kokot, Serge

    2008-01-01

    The molecular and metal profile fingerprints were obtained from a complex substance, Atractylis chinensis DC-a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), with the use of the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) techniques. This substance was used in this work as an example of a complex biological material, which has found application as a TCM. Such TCM samples are traditionally processed by the Bran, Cut, Fried and Swill methods, and were collected from five provinces in China. The data matrices obtained from the two types of analysis produced two principal component biplots, which showed that the HPLC fingerprint data were discriminated on the basis of the methods for processing the raw TCM, while the metal analysis grouped according to the geographical origin. When the two data matrices were combined into a one two-way matrix, the resulting biplot showed a clear separation on the basis of the HPLC fingerprints. Importantly, within each different grouping the objects separated according to their geographical origin, and they ranked approximately in the same order in each group. This result suggested that by using such an approach, it is possible to derive improved characterisation of the complex TCM materials on the basis of the two kinds of analytical data. In addition, two supervised pattern recognition methods, K-nearest neighbors (KNNs) method, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), were successfully applied to the individual data matrices-thus, supporting the PCA approach

  17. Electrochemical Studies on Uranyl Chloride Complexes in 1-Butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium Based Ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuhisa Ikeda; Katsuyuki Hiroe; Nobutaka Ohta; Masanobu Nogami; Atsushi Shirai [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1-N1-34 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Noriko Asanuma [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Tokai University 1117 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Sample solutions were prepared by dissolving UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}-nH{sub 2}O or Cs{sub 2}UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4} into 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride (BMICl). Their UV-visible absorption spectra showed that uranyl species in BMICl exist as [UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}]{sup 2-}. Cyclic voltammograms were measured using a glassy carbon working electrode, a platinum wire counter electrode, and an Ag/AgCl reference electrode with a liquid junction filled with BMIBF{sub 4} at 80 {+-} 1 deg. C in glove box under an Ar atmosphere. Peaks of one redox couple were observed at around -0.73 V and -0.65 V on both systems. Potential differences between two peaks ({delta}E{sub p}) at scan rates in the range of 10 to 50 mV/s are 70 - 80 mV, which are almost consistent with theoretical {delta}E{sub p} value (67 mV) for the reversible one electron transfer reaction at 80 deg. C. From these results, it is concluded that [UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}]{sup 2-} in BMICl is reduced quasi-reversibly to [UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}]{sup 3-}. (authors)

  18. Complex risk analysis for loss of electric power in liquid metal nuclear reactor by system dynamics (SD) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2012-07-15

    The power stabilization of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) is investigated in the aspect of the liquid metal coolant. The quantification of the risk analysis is performed by the system dynamics (SD) method which is processed by the feedback and accumulation complex algorithms. The Vensim software package is used for the simulations, which is supported by the Monte-Carlo method. There are 2 kinds of considerations as the economic and safety properties. The result shows the stability of the operations when the power can be decided. This shows the higher efficiency of the reactor. The failure frequency is 16/60 = 27%. In the event of Power Stabilized, the failure event is in the quite lower frequency rate. The commercial use of the reactor is important in the operations. (orig.)

  19. New field of actinides solution chemistry; electrochemical study on actinide ion transfer at the interface of two immiscible electrolyte solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitatsuji, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Zenko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kudo, Hiroshi [Tohoku Univ., Graduate School of Science, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Kihara, Sorin [Kyoto Inst. of Technolgy, Dept. of Chemistry, Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    A novel electrochemical method on the basis of a controlled electrolysis has been developed for the study of the ion transfer at the interface of two immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES). The controlled-potential electrolysis for ITIES (CPEITIES) was applied to the transfer of actinide ions, and Gibbs energies for the transfer of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Am{sup 3+} from aqueous solution (w) to nitrobenzene solution (nb) were determined to be 71.7 and 113 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively. The ion transfer potentials for the facilitated transfer of UO{sub 2{sup +}} and Am{sup 3+} from w to nb in the presence of bis(diphenylphosphoryl)methane were determined, from which the stability constants of UO{sub 2}(BDPPM){sub 3}{sup 2+} and Am(BDPPM){sub 3}{sup 3+} complexes involved in the facilitated ion transfer reaction, were calculated to be 10{sup 23.9} and 10{sup 27.5}, respectively. On the basis of the results of CPEITIES, a feasibility of a new separation method, i.e., an electrolytic ion transfer separation, of actinide ions is evaluated. (author)

  20. Liquid-Phase Laser Induced Forward Transfer for Complex Organic Inks and Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Alexander K; Narayan, Roger J

    2017-01-01

    Laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) acts as a novel alternative to incumbent plotting techniques such as inkjet printing due to its ability to precisely deposit and position picoliter-sized droplets while being gentle enough to preserve sensitive structures within the ink. Materials as simple as screen printing ink to complex eukaryotic cells have been printed with applications spanning from microelectronics to tissue engineering. Biotechnology can benefit from this technique due to the efficient use of low volumes of reagent and the compatibility with a wide range of rheological properties. In addition, LIFT can be performed in a simple lab environment, not requiring vacuum or other extreme conditions. Although the basic apparatus is simple, many strategies exist to optimize the performance considering the ink and the desired pattern. The basic mechanism is similar between studies so the large number of variants can be summarized into a couple of categories and reported on with respect to their specific applications. In particular, precise and gentle deposition of complex molecules and eukaryotic cells represent the unique abilities of this technology. LIFT has demonstrated not only marked improvements in the quality of sensors and related medical devices over those manufactured with incumbent technologies but also great applicability in tissue engineering due to the high viability of printed cells.

  1. The Development of a Droplet Formation and Entrainment Model for Simulations of Immiscible Liquid-Liquid Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    scale lch and with some constant C2 by 89.02 gchp RilCd ⋅⋅≅ (5.3.13) This was done so that the length scale included in the model...εαα 23 22 12.0 k rrd p RiL < 1.0 Rig < 0.2 K-H Vortices ( ) ( ) 89.022 10.5 gchp Rilrrd ⋅⋅−⋅≅ αα where lch = MIN(δmx

  2. Challenges and opportunities of using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry methods to develop complex vaccine antigens as pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, John M; Sahni, Neha; Toth, Ronald T; Kumru, Ozan S; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Middaugh, C Russell; Volkin, David B

    2016-10-01

    Liquid chromatographic methods, combined with mass spectrometry, offer exciting and important opportunities to better characterize complex vaccine antigens including recombinant proteins, virus-like particles, inactivated viruses, polysaccharides, and protein-polysaccharide conjugates. The current abilities and limitations of these physicochemical methods to complement traditional in vitro and in vivo vaccine potency assays are explored in this review through the use of illustrative case studies. Various applications of these state-of-the art techniques are illustrated that include the analysis of influenza vaccines (inactivated whole virus and recombinant hemagglutinin), virus-like particle vaccines (human papillomavirus and hepatitis B), and polysaccharide linked to protein carrier vaccines (pneumococcal). Examples of utilizing these analytical methods to characterize vaccine antigens in the presence of adjuvants, which are often included to boost immune responses as part of the final vaccine dosage form, are also presented. Some of the challenges of using chromatographic and LC-MS as physicochemical assays to routinely test complex vaccine antigens are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Liquid-liquid phase separation and solidification behavior of Al55Bi36Cu9 monotectic alloy with different cooling rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Lin; Li, Shanshan; Wang, Lin; Wu, Di; Zuo, Min; Zhao, Degang

    2018-03-01

    The cooling rate has a significant effect on the solidification behavior and microstructure of monotectic alloy. In this study, different cooling rate was designed through casting in the copper mold with different bore diameters. The effects of different cooling rate on the solidification behavior of Al55Bi36Cu9 (at.%) immiscible alloy have been investigated. The liquid-liquid phase separation of Al55Bi36Cu9 immiscible alloy melt was investigated by resistivity test. The solidification microstructure and phase analysis of Al55Bi36Cu9 immiscible alloy were performed by the SEM and XRD, respectively. The results showed that the liquid-liquid phase separation occurred in the solidification of Al55Bi36Cu9 monotectic melt from 917 °C to 653 °C. The monotectic temperature, liquid phase separation temperature and immiscibility zone of Al55Bi36Cu9 monotectic alloy was lower than those of Al-Bi binary monotectic alloy. The solidification morphology of Al55Bi36Cu9 monotectic alloy was very sensitive to the cooling rate. The Al/Bi core-shell structure formed when Al55Bi36Cu9 melt was cast in the copper mold with a 8 mm bore diameter.

  4. Growth characteristics of liquid cultures increase the reliability of presumptive identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhata, Juliana Maira Watanabe; Felippe, Isis Moreira; Gallo, Juliana Failde; Chimara, Erica; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine; de Oliveira, Rosangela Siqueira

    2018-04-23

    We evaluated the microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) cultures for the presumptive identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and assessed the reliability of this strategy for correctly directing isolates to drug susceptibility testing (DST) or species identification. A total of 1526 isolates of mycobacteria received at the Instituto Adolfo Lutz were prospectively subjected to presumptive identification by the observation of growth characteristics along with cord formation detection via microscopy. The presumptive identification showed a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 98.8, 92.5 and 97.9 %, respectively. Macroscopic analysis of MTBC isolates that would have been erroneously classified as non-tuberculous mycobacteria based solely on microscopic morphology enabled us to direct them rapidly to DST, representing a substantial gain to patients. In conclusion, the growth characteristics of mycobacteria in MGIT, when considered along with cord formation, increased the reliability of the presumptive identification, which has a great impact on the laboratory budget and turnaround times.

  5. Tuning structural motifs and alloying of bulk immiscible Mo-Cu bimetallic nanoparticles by gas-phase synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Gopi; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Ten Brink, Gert H.; Palasantzas, George; Kooi, Bart J.

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as key materials for important modern applications in nanoplasmonics, catalysis, biodiagnostics, and nanomagnetics. Consequently the control of bimetallic structural motifs with specific shapes provides increasing functionality and selectivity for related applications. However, producing bimetallic NPs with well controlled structural motifs still remains a formidable challenge. Hence, we present here a general methodology for gas phase synthesis of bimetallic NPs with distinctively different structural motifs ranging at a single particle level from a fully mixed alloy to core-shell, to onion (multi-shell), and finally to a Janus/dumbbell, with the same overall particle composition. These concepts are illustrated for Mo-Cu NPs, where the precise control of the bimetallic NPs with various degrees of chemical ordering, including different shapes from spherical to cube, is achieved by tailoring the energy and thermal environment that the NPs experience during their production. The initial state of NP growth, either in the liquid or in the solid state phase, has important implications for the different structural motifs and shapes of synthesized NPs. Finally we demonstrate that we are able to tune the alloying regime, for the otherwise bulk immiscible Mo-Cu, by achieving an increase of the critical size, below which alloying occurs, closely up to an order of magnitude. It is discovered that the critical size of the NP alloy is not only affected by controlled tuning of the alloying temperature but also by the particle shape.Nowadays bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as key materials for important modern applications in nanoplasmonics, catalysis, biodiagnostics, and nanomagnetics. Consequently the control of bimetallic structural motifs with specific shapes provides increasing functionality and selectivity for related applications. However, producing bimetallic NPs with well controlled structural motifs still

  6. Comparison of micellar extraction combined with ionic liquid based vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction and modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method for the determination of difenoconazole in cowpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaochu; Bian, Yanli; Liu, Fengmao; Teng, Peipei; Sun, Pan

    2017-10-06

    Two simple sample pretreatment for the determination of difenoconazole in cowpea was developed including micellar extraction combined with ionic liquid based vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (ME-IL-VALLME) prior to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method (QuEChERS) coupled with HPLC-MS/MS. In ME-IL-VALLME method, the target analyte was extracted by surfactant Tween 20 micellar solution, then the supernatant was diluted with 3mL water to decrease the solubility of micellar solution. Subsequently, the vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VALLME) procedure was performed in the diluted extraction solution by using the ionic liquid of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([HMIM]PF 6 ) as the extraction solvent and Tween 20 as an emulsifier to enhance the dispersion of the water-immiscible ionic liquid into the aqueous phase. Parameters that affect the extraction have been investigated in both methods Under the optimum conditions, the limits of quantitation were 0.10 and 0.05mgkg -1 , respectively. And good linearity was achieved with the correlation coefficient higher than 0.9941. The relative recoveries ranged from 78.6 to 94.8% and 92.0 to 118.0% with the relative standard deviations (RSD) of 7.9-9.6% and 1.2-3.2%, respectively. Both methods were quick, simple and inexpensive. However, the ME-IL-VALLME method provides higher enrichment factor compared with conventional QuEChERS method. The ME-IL-VALLME method has a strong potential for the determination of difenoconazole in complex vegetable matrices with HPLC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of high performance liquid chromatography for the profiling of complex chemical mixtures with the aid of chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yongnian; Zhang, Liangsheng; Churchill, Jane; Kokot, Serge

    2007-06-15

    In this paper, chemometrics methods were applied to resolve the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprints of complex, many-component substances to compare samples from a batch from a given manufacturer, or from those of different producers. As an example of such complex substances, we used a common Chinese traditional medicine, Huoxiang Zhengqi Tincture (HZT) for this research. Twenty-one samples, each representing a separate HZT production batch from one of three manufacturers were analyzed by HPLC with the aid of a diode array detector (DAD). An Agilent Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column with an Agilent Zorbax high pressure reliance cartridge guard-column were used. The mobile phase consisted of water (A) and methanol (B) with a gradient program of 25-65% (v/v, B) during 0-30min, 65-55% (v/v, B) during 30-35min and 55-100% (v/v, B) during 35-60min (flow rate, 1.0mlmin(-1); injection volume, 20mul; and column temperature-ambient). The detection wavelength was adjusted for maximum sensitivity at different time periods. A peak area matrix with 21objectsx14HPLC variables was obtained by sampling each chromatogram at 14 common retention times. Similarities were then calculated to discriminate the batch-to-batch samples and also, a more informative multi-criteria decision making methodology (MCDM), PROMETHEE and GAIA, was applied to obtain more information from the chromatograms in order to rank and compare the complex HZT profiles. The results showed that with the MCDM analysis, it was possible to match and discriminate correctly the batch samples from the three different manufacturers. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra taken from samples from several batches were compared by the common similarity method with the HPLC results. It was found that the FT-IR spectra did not discriminate the samples from the different batches.

  8. Numerical analysis of natural convection in a double-layer immiscible system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubaidullin, A.A.; Sehgal, B.R.

    2001-01-01

    In the present paper numerical analysis has been applied to study the natural convection heat transfer in a system composed of two immiscible fluids with uniform internal heat generation in the lower layer or in both layers enclosed in a rectangular or in a semi-circular vessel. The objective of the work is to perform a parametric study to assess the effect of physical properties on the heat transfer characteristics as well as to complement results obtained from experiments by means of CFD simulations for a range of lower Rayleigh number and combine the experimental data and the computational results. (author)

  9. Ensemble distribution for immiscible two-phase flow in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savani, Isha; Bedeaux, Dick; Kjelstrup, Signe; Vassvik, Morten; Sinha, Santanu; Hansen, Alex

    2017-02-01

    We construct an ensemble distribution to describe steady immiscible two-phase flow of two incompressible fluids in a porous medium. The system is found to be ergodic. The distribution is used to compute macroscopic flow parameters. In particular, we find an expression for the overall mobility of the system from the ensemble distribution. The entropy production at the scale of the porous medium is shown to give the expected product of the average flow and its driving force, obtained from a black-box description. We test numerically some of the central theoretical results.

  10. Gravity Effect on Two-Phase Immiscible Flows in Communicating Layered Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xuan; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2012-01-01

    An upscaling method is developed for two-phase immiscible incompressible flows in layered reservoirs with good communication between the layers. It takes the effect of gravity into consideration. Waterflooding of petroleum reservoirs is used as a basic example for application of this method....... An asymptotic analysis is applied to a system of 2D flow equations for incompressible fluids at high-anisotropy ratios, but low to moderate gravity ratios, which corresponds to the most often found reservoir conditions. The 2D Buckley–Leverett problem is reduced to a system of 1D parabolic equations...

  11. Resolution of D- and L-glucoses by chiral N-octyl-beta-D-glycoside-Cu(II) complex adsorbed at the gas/liquid interface of small bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakai, M.; Miyazawa, K.; Jitsumatsu, H.; Kamio, K.; Mitsuiki, S.; Toh, N.; Sugihara, G.; Norde, W.

    2010-01-01

    A new technique of the jet drop method (JDM) was applied to a chiral molecular discrimination of optically active D- or L-glucose (guest) by chiral N-octyl-beta-D-glycoside (O beta DG)-Cu(II) complex (host) at the gas/liquid interface of small bubbles. The discrimination of glucoses as the guests is

  12. Proton spin-lattice relaxation in a liquid crystal-Aerosil complex above the bulk isotropization temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anoardo, E.; Grinberg, F.; Vilfan, M.; Kimmich, R

    2004-02-16

    We present a study of the molecular dynamics in an octylcyanobiphenyl (8CB)-Aerosil complex above the bulk isotropization temperature. Using proton nuclear magnetic relaxation experiments in the laboratory frame (T{sub 1}{sup -1}) and in the rotating-frame (T{sub 1{rho}}{sup -1}), we found a notable increase of the relaxation rates in the kHz frequency range as compared to the bulk 8CB liquid crystal at the same temperature. The field-cycling technique was used for the laboratory frame experiments while a conventional apparatus was used for the rotating frame method. The observed behavior is analyzed with the aid of Monte Carlo simulations on the basis of a two-phase fast-exchange model distinguishing surface-ordered and bulk phases. Two processes affecting the low frequency relaxation could be identified: reorientation mediated by translational displacements, accounting for molecular reorientations, and exchange losses of molecules from the surface to the bulk.

  13. Atomic arrangement in immiscible Ag–Cu alloys synthesized far-from-equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elofsson, V.; Almyras, G.A.; Lü, B.; Boyd, R.D.; Sarakinos, K.

    2016-01-01

    Physical attributes of multicomponent materials of a given chemical composition are determined by atomic arrangement at property-relevant length scales. A potential route to access a vast array of atomic configurations for material property tuning is by synthesis of multicomponent thin films using vapor fluxes with their deposition pattern modulated in the sub-monolayer regime. However, the applicability of this route for creating new functional materials is impeded by the fact that a fundamental understanding of the combined effect of sub-monolayer flux modulation, kinetics and thermodynamics on atomic arrangement is not available in the literature. Here we present a research strategy and verify its viability for addressing the aforementioned gap in knowledge. This strategy encompasses thin film synthesis using a route that generates multi-atomic fluxes with sub-monolayer resolution and precision over a wide range of experimental conditions, deterministic growth simulations and nanoscale microstructural probes. Investigations are focused on structure formation within the archetype immiscible Ag-Cu binary system, revealing that atomic arrangement at different length scales is governed by the arrival pattern of the film forming species, in conjunction with diffusion of near-surface Ag atoms to encapsulate 3D Cu islands growing on 2D Ag layers. The knowledge generated and the methodology presented herein provides the scientific foundation for tailoring atomic arrangement and physical properties in a wide range of miscible and immiscible multinary systems.

  14. Experimental study on immiscible jet breakup using refractive index matched oil-water pair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xinzhi; Katz, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    A subsea oil well blowout creates an immiscible crude oil jet. This jet fragments shortly after injection, resulting in generation of a droplet cloud. Detailed understanding of the processes involved is crucial for modeling the fragmentation and for predicting the droplet size distribution. High density of opaque droplets near nozzle limits our ability to visualize and quantify the breakup process. To overcome this challenge, two immiscible fluids: silicone oil and sugar water with the same index of refraction (1.4015) are used as surrogates for crude oil and seawater, respectively. Their ratios of kinematic viscosity (5.64), density (0.83) and interfacial tension are closely matched with those of crude oil and seawater. Distribution of the oil phase is visualized by fluorescent tagging. Both phases are also seeded with particles for simultaneous PIV measurements. The measurements are performed within atomization range of Ohnesorge and Reynolds numbers. Index matching facilitates undistorted view of the phase distribution in illuminated section. Ongoing tests show that the jet surface initially rolls up into Kelvin-Helmholtz rings, followed by development of dispersed phase ligaments further downstream, which then break into droplets. Some of these droplets are re-entrained into the high momentum core, resulting in secondary breakup. As the oil layer and ligaments evolve, they often entrain water, resulting in generation of multiple secondary water droplets encapsulated within the oil droplets. This research is made possible by a Grant from Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative.

  15. Fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds through solid-state foaming of immiscible polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Changchun; Li Wei; Ma Liang; Yao Donggang

    2011-01-01

    In scaffold-based tissue engineering, the fabrication process is important for producing suitable microstructures for seeded cells to grow and reformulate. In this paper, we present a new approach to scaffold fabrication by combining the solid-state foaming and the immiscible polymer-blending method. The proposed approach has the advantage of being versatile and able to create a wide range of pore size and porosity. The proposed method is studied with polylactic acid (PLA) and polystyrene (PS) blends. The interconnected porous structure was created by first foaming the PLA/PS blend and then extracting the PS phase. The solid-state foaming experiments were conducted under various conditions to achieve the desired pore sizes. It is shown that the PS phase of the PLA/PS blend can be extracted much faster in the foamed samples and the pore size of the scaffolds can be easily controlled with proper gas foaming parameters. The average pore size achieved in the foaming process ranged from 20 to 70 μm. After PS extraction, both pore size and porosity can be further improved. For example, the pore size and porosity increased from 48 μm and 49% to 59 μm and 67%, respectively, after the PS extraction process. The fabricated porous scaffolds were used to culture human osteoblast cells. Cells grew well and gradually formed a fibrous structure. The combined solid-state foaming and immiscible polymer blending method provides a new technique for fabricating tissue-engineering scaffolds.

  16. Fabrication of an ionic-liquid-based polymer monolithic column and its application in the fractionation of proteins from complex biosamples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Doudou; Zhang, Qian; Bai, Ligai; Han, Dandan; Liu, Haiyan; Yan, Hongyuan

    2018-05-01

    An ionic-liquid-based polymer monolithic column was synthesized by free radical polymerization within the confines of a stainless-steel column (50 mm × 4.6 mm id). In the processes, ionic liquid and stearyl methacrylate were used as dual monomers, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linking agent, and polyethylene glycol 200 and isopropanol as co-porogens. Effects of the prepolymerization solution components on the properties of the resulting monoliths were studied in detail. Scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements, and mercury intrusion porosimetry were used to investigate the morphology and pore size distribution of the prepared monoliths, which showed that the homemade ionic-liquid-based monolith column possessed a relatively uniform macropore structure with a total macropore specific surface area of 44.72 m 2 /g. Compared to a non-ionic-liquid-based monolith prepared under the same conditions, the ionic-liquid-based monolith exhibited excellent selectivity and high performance for separating proteins from complex biosamples, such as egg white, snailase, bovine serum albumin digest solution, human plasma, etc., indicating promising applications in the fractionation and analysis of proteins from the complex biosamples in proteomics research. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Exploring inclusion complexes of ionic liquids with α- and β- cyclodextrin by NMR, IR, mass, density, viscosity, surface tension and conductance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Biraj Kumar; Rajbanshi, Biplab; Yasmin, Ananya; Roy, Mahendra Nath

    2018-05-01

    The formation of the host-guest inclusion complexes of ionic liquids namely [BMIm]Cl and [HMIm]Cl with α-CD and β-CD were studied by means of physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. Conductivity and surface tension study were in good agreement with the 1H NMR and FT-IR studies which confirm the formation of the inclusion complexes. The Density and viscosity study also supported the formation of the ICs. Further the stoichiometry was determined 1:1 for each case and the association constants and thermodynamic parameters derived supported the most feasible formation of the [BMIm]Cl- β-CD inclusion complex.

  18. Contraction of an air disk caught between two different liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Thoraval, M.-J.

    2013-12-17

    When a drop impacts a pool of liquid it entraps a thin disk of air under its center. This disk contracts rapidly into a bubble to minimize surface energy. Herein we use ultra-high-speed imaging to measure the contraction speed of this disk when the drop and pool are of different liquids. For miscible liquids the contraction rate is governed by the weaker of the two surface tensions. Some undulations are observed on the edge of the disk for a water drop impacting a pool of water, but not on a pool of lower surface tension. Similar results are observed for a pair of immiscible liquids.

  19. Lipid extraction from microalgae using a single ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2013-05-28

    A one-step process for the lysis of microalgae cell walls and separation of the cellular lipids for use in biofuel production by utilizing a hydrophilic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium. The hydrophilic ionic liquid both lyses the microalgae cell walls and forms two immiscible layers, one of which consists of the lipid contents of the lysed cells. After mixture of the hydrophilic ionic liquid with a suspension of microalgae cells, gravity causes a hydrophobic lipid phase to move to a top phase where it is removed from the mixture and purified. The hydrophilic ionic liquid is recycled to lyse new microalgae suspensions.

  20. A system for traceable measurement of the microwave complex permittivity of liquids at high pressures and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrakis, G A; Robinson, J; Kingman, S; Lester, E; George, M; Poliakoff, M; Harrison, I; Gregory, A P; Lees, K

    2009-01-01

    A system has been developed for direct traceable dielectric measurements on liquids at high pressures and temperatures. The system consists of a coaxial reflectometric sensor terminated by a metallic cylindrical cell to contain the liquid. It has been designed for measurements on supercritical liquids, but as a first step measurements on dielectric reference liquids were performed. This paper reports on a full evaluation of the system up to 2.5 GHz using methanol, ethanol and n-propanol at pressures up to 9 MPa and temperatures up to 273 °C. A comprehensive approach to the evaluation of uncertainties using Monte Carlo modelling is used

  1. An efficient IMPES-based, shifting matrix algorithm to simulate two-phase, immiscible flow in porous media with application to CO 2 sequestration in the subsurface

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2012-01-01

    The flow of two or more immiscible fluids in porous media is ubiquitous particularly in oil industry. This includes secondary and tertiary oil recovery, CO2 sequestration, etc. Accurate predictions of the development of these processes are important in estimating the benefits, e.g., in the form of increased oil extraction, when using certain technology. However, this accurate prediction depends to a large extent on two things; the first is related to our ability to correctly characterize the reservoir with all its complexities and the second depends on our ability to develop robust techniques that solve the governing equations efficiently and accurately. In this work, we introduce a new robust and efficient numerical technique to solving the governing conservation laws which govern the movement of two immiscible fluids in the subsurface. This work will be applied to the problem of CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifer; however, it can also be extended to incorporate more cases. The traditional solution algorithms to this problem are based on discretizing the governing laws on a generic cell and then proceed to the other cells within loops. Therefore, it is expected that, calling and iterating these loops several times can take significant amount of CPU time. Furthermore, if this process is done using programming languages which require repeated interpretation each time a loop is called like Matlab, Python or the like, extremely longer time is expected particularly for larger systems. In this new algorithm, the solution is done for all the nodes at once and not within loops. The solution methodology involves manipulating all the variables as column vectors. Then using shifting matrices, these vectors are sifted in such a way that subtracting relevant vectors produces the corresponding difference algorithm. It has been found that this technique significantly reduces the amount of CPU times compared with traditional technique implemented within the framework of

  2. Baking-powder driven centripetal pumping controlled by event-triggering of functional liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinahan, David J.; Burger, Robert; Vembadi, Abhishek

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports radially inbound pumping by the event-triggered addition of water to on-board stored baking powder in combination with valving by an immiscible, high-specific weight liquid on a centrifugal microfluidic platform. This technology allows making efficient use of precious real estate...

  3. Capillary Structured Suspensions from in Situ Hydrophobized Calcium Carbonate Particles Suspended in a Polar Liquid Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunstan, Timothy S.; Das, Anupam A.K.; Starck, Pierre; Stoyanov, Simeon D.; Paunov, Vesselin N.

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate that capillary suspensions can be formed from hydrophilic calcium carbonate particles suspended in a polar continuous media and connected by capillary bridges formed of minute amounts of an immiscible secondary liquid phase. This was achieved in two different polar continuous phases,

  4. Local Nusselt number enhancement during gas-liquid Taylor bubble flow in a square mini-channel: An experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumder, Abhik; Mehta, Balkrishna; Khandekar, Sameer

    2013-01-01

    Taylor bubble flow takes place when two immiscible fluids (liquid-liquid or gas-liquid) flow inside a tube of capillary dimensions within specific range of volume flow ratios. In the slug flows where gas and liquid are two different phases, liquid slugs are separated by elongated Taylor bubbles. This singular flow pattern is observed in many engineering mini-/micro-scale devices like pulsating heat pipes, gas-liquid-solid monolithic reactors, micro-two-phase heat exchangers, digital micro-fluidics, micro-scale mass transfer process, fuel cells, etc. The unique and complex flow characteristics require understanding on local, as well as global, spatio-temporal scales. In the present work, the axial stream-wise profile of the fluid and wall temperature for air-water (i) isolated single Taylor bubble and, (ii) a train of Taylor bubbles, in a horizontal square channel of size 3.3 mm x 3.3 mm x 350 mm, heated from the bottom (heated length = 175 mm), with the other three sides kept insulated, are reported at different gas volume flow ratios. The primary aim is to study the enhancement of heat transfer due to the Taylor bubble train flow, in comparison with thermally developing single-phase flows. Intrusion of a bubble in the liquid flow drastically changes the local temperature profiles. The axial distribution of time-averaged local Nusselt number (Nu z ) shows that Taylor bubble train regime increases the transport of heat up to 1.2-1.6 times more as compared with laminar single-phase liquid flow. In addition, for a given liquid flow Reynolds number, the heat transfer enhancement is a function of the geometrical parameters of the unit cell, i.e., the length of adjacent gas bubble and water plug. (authors)

  5. Inducing conductivity in immiscible PS/PP blends by a percolated polyaniline/PA filler selectively localised by specific interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bharatia, A.; Hejmady, P.; Cardinaels, R.; Seo, Jin Won; Moldenaers, P.; Maazouz, A.

    2017-01-01

    We describe an approach to develop conducting immiscible blends of polystyrene (PS) and polypropylene (PP) with a percolated polyaniline/polyamide (PANI/PA) filler in the presence of a SEBS-g-MA compatibilizer. The underlying principle of the work is the ability of the compatibilizer to concurrently

  6. Forced chemical mixing in immiscible alloys during severe plastic deformation at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, Nhon Q.; Odunuga, Samson; Bellon, Pascal; Averback, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    The forced chemical mixing of atoms in model immiscible alloys during severe plastic deformation (SPD) has been investigated as a function of temperature and the heat of mixing using molecular dynamics computer simulations. At low temperatures, A 75 B 25 alloys form solid solutions during SPD for heats of mixing less than ∼20 kJ mol -1 , but tend to phase separate at larger values. At high temperatures these alloys show more extensive precipitation, with the precipitate morphology dependent on the heat of mixing. Analysis of the high-temperature mixing kinetics reveals that the precipitation process involves two separate mechanisms. The first derives from long-range diffusion mediated by shear-induced vacancies, while the second is due to local rearrangements of atoms induced by the forced mixing of atoms.

  7. Anomalous Behaviors of Block Copolymers at the Interface of an Immiscible Polymer Blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ji Ho; Lee, Won Bo

    We investigate the effects of structure and stiffness of block copolymers on the interface of an immiscible polymer blend using coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) simulation. The diblock and grafted copolymers, which are described by Kremer and Grest bead spring model, are used to compare the compatibilization efficiency, that is, reduction of the interfacial tension. It is found that, overall, the grafted copolymers are located more compactly at the interface and show better compatibilization efficiency than diblock copolymers. In addition, it is noted that an increase in the stiffness of one block of diblock copolymer causes inhomogeneous interfacial coverage due to bundle formation among the stiff blocks and orientational constraint on bundled structures near the interface, which makes copolymers poor compatibilizers. The dependence of anomalous orientational constraint on the chain length of homopolymers is also investigated. Theoretical and Computational Soft Matters Lab.

  8. Upscaling of Two-Phase Immiscible Flows in Communicating Stratified Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xuan; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    A semi-analytical method for upscaling two-phase immiscible flows in heterogeneous porous media is described. This method is developed for stratified reservoirs with perfect communication between layers (the case of vertical equilibrium), in a viscous dominant regime, where the effects of capillary...... forces and gravity may be neglected. The method is discussed on the example of its basic application: waterflooding in petroleum reservoirs. We apply asymptotic analysis to a system of two-dimensional (2D) mass conservation equations for incompressible fluids. For high anisotropy ratios, the pressure...... and piston-like displacement, and it presumes non-zero exchange between layers. The method generalizes also the study of Yortsos (Transp Porous Media 18:107–129, 1995), taking into account in a more consistent way the interactions between the layers....

  9. Small and large amplitude movement of the unstable interface between two immiscible fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aribert, J M; Thirriot, C

    1970-01-01

    The flow of immiscible fluids in a confined flow channel is accompanied by a deformation of the surface of separation when the stability conditions are not fulfilled. A simplified schematic for the problem is given, and the characteristic surface perturbation is calculated analytically and numerically. The perturbation is characterized by a wavelength, an amplitude, and the shape of the perturbation at a sufficient distance from the front. Two asymptotic cases are fully discussed: the creation of a wave in the surface, and the shape of a fully developed perturbation. Experimental results from 2 Hele-Shaw models are in satisfactory agreement with the theoretical predictions. Further studies will be concerned with variable rate flow, geometrically divergent flow, layered flow with variable viscosity between layers, and non-Newtonian flow.

  10. Structure-Preserving Methods for the Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard System to Model Immiscible Fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Sarmiento, Adel F.

    2017-12-03

    This work presents a novel method to model immiscible incompressible fluids in a stable manner. Here, the immiscible behavior of the flow is described by the incompressible Navier-Stokes-Cahn-Hilliard model, which is based on a diffuse interface method. We introduce buoyancy effects in the model through the Boussinesq approximation in a consistent manner. A structure-preserving discretization is used to guarantee the linear stability of the discrete problem and to satisfy the incompressibility of the discrete solution at every point in space by construction. For the solution of the model, we developed the Portable Extensible Toolkit for Isogeometric Analysis with Multi-Field discretizations (PetIGA-MF), a high-performance framework that supports structure-preserving spaces. PetIGA-MF is built on top of PetIGA and the Portable Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc), sharing all their user-friendly, performance, and flexibility features. Herein, we describe the implementation of our model in PetIGA-MF and the details of the numerical solution. With several numerical tests, we verify the convergence, scalability, and validity of our approach. We use highly-resolved numerical simulations to analyze the merging and rising of droplets. From these simulations, we detailed the energy exchanges in the system to evaluate quantitatively the quality of our simulations. The good agreement of our results when compared against theoretical descriptions of the merging, and the small errors found in the energy analysis, allow us to validate our approach. Additionally, we present the development of an unconditionally energy-stable generalized-alpha method for the Swift-Hohenberg model that offers control over the numerical dissipation. A pattern formation example demonstrates the energy-stability and convergence of our method.

  11. Seismoelectric couplings in a poroelastic material containing two immiscible fluid phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardani, A.; Revil, A.

    2015-08-01

    A new approach of seismoelectric imaging has been recently proposed to detect saturation fronts in which seismic waves are focused in the subsurface to scan its heterogeneous nature and determine saturation fronts. Such type of imaging requires however a complete modelling of the seismoelectric properties of porous media saturated by two immiscible fluid phases, one being usually electrically insulating (for instance water and oil). We combine an extension of Biot dynamic theory, valid for porous media containing two immiscible Newtonian fluids, with an extension of the electrokinetic theory based on the notion of effective volumetric charge densities dragged by the flow of each fluid phase. These effective charge densities can be related directly to the permeability and saturation of each fluid phase. The coupled partial differential equations are solved with the finite element method. We also derive analytically the transfer function connecting the macroscopic electrical field to the acceleration of the fast P wave (coseismic electrical field) and we study the influence of the water content on this coupling. We observe that the amplitude of the co-seismic electrical disturbance is very sensitive to the water content with an increase in amplitude with water saturation. We also investigate the seismoelectric conversions (interface effect) occurring at the water table. We show that the conversion response at the water table can be identifiable only when the saturation contrasts between the vadose and saturated zones are sharp enough. A relatively dry vadose zone represents the best condition to identify the water table through seismoelectric measurements. Indeed, in this case, the coseismic electrical disturbances are vanishingly small compared to the seismoelectric interface response.

  12. The immobilization of organic liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes a portland cement immobilization process for the disposal treatment of radioactive organic liquid wastes which would be generated in a FFTF fuels reprocessing line. An incineration system already on-hand was determined to be too costly to operate for the 100 to 400 gallons per year organic liquid. Organic test liquids were dispersed into an aqueous phosphate liquid using an emulsifier. A total of 109 gallons of potential and radioactive aqueous immiscible organic liquid wastes from Hanford 300 Area operations were solidified with portland cement and disposed of as solid waste during a 3 month test program with in-drum mixers. Waste packing efficiencies varied from 32 to 40% and included pump oils, mineral spirits, and TBP-NPH type solvents

  13. EPR of some low-spin dsup(5) tris-chelate complexes of Fe(3), Ru(3), Os(3) in liquid-crystal matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domracheva, N.E.; Konstantinov, V.N.; Luchkona, S.A.; Ovchinnikov, I.V.

    1985-01-01

    Using the EPR method low-spin trischelate complexes of Fe, Ru, Os with 8-mercaptoquinoline and 8-oxyquinoline in oriented vitrified liquid-crystal matrix have been studied. Analtysis of angular dependences of EPR spectra of the complexes permitted to correlate the main axes of g-tensor with molecular axes and, consequently, to determine unambiguously the main electron states of the systems, as well as the value of crystal splittings. It is shown that in the complexes studied the splitting of energy levels is mainly determined by spin-orbital interaction, and not by axial or rhombic components of crystal field. However, rhombic distortion is responsible for anisotropy of g-tensor in xy plane and anisotropy of x- and y-axes orientation. The way to orient complexes in liquid-crystal matrix is substantiated; symmetry axis of the third order C 3 (Z) is mainly oriented along the director. Parameters of the function of orientational distribution of the complex axes are obtained

  14. Continuous Reduced Graphene Oxide Film Prepared by Stitching of Nanosheets at the Interface of Two Immiscible Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Young Ku; Kim, Seog K.; Min, Bong Ki

    2011-01-01

    RGO sheets dispersed in water are prepared by chemical reduction of GO using ascorbic acid. By mixing and sonication of submicron-size RGO sheets in two immiscible liquids (e. g., chloroform and water) for the first time we have prepared a continuous large-area RGO film at the interface. In other words, we have shown that aggregated RGO sheets could be fully stretched at the interface to form a continuous film. The RGO film has been characterized by SEM, TEM, UV-vis absorption, XPS and Raman. The film exhibits high flexibility, transparency, and very long-term stability without forming aggregations. Without requiring vapor deposition, a special instrument, or a filtration followed by a removing the filter paper one could easily achieve a continuous RGO-film in any laboratories. Our solution-based method is much simpler and cost-effective, and very good for large scale mass production. This finding could boost real applications of graphene in laboratory and industry, and provide a new methodology for the fabrication of large-area continuous graphene films. Graphene, an atom-thick two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb lattice sheet of sp 2 -bonded carbon atoms, has recently been emerged as a new promising material in various fields. Because of its gigantic charge carrier mobility it could be applied to field-effect transistors as a substitute of silicon. Due to its transparency and high electrical conductivity, it could be used as a substitute of ITO electrode in solar cells and light-emitting diodes. Other superior properties include large surface area, flexibility, strength, stiffness, and thermal conductivity. These provides wide applications of graphene including supercapa-citor, battery, sensor, storage and drug delivery. For real applications, large-scale of graphene sheets or films needs to be prepared. Large-area (orders of centimeters) graphene films have recently been fabricated using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method on various metal substrates. This

  15. A polymeric liquid membrane electrode responsive to 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine oxidation for sensitive peroxidase/peroxidase mimetic-based potentiometric biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuewei; Yang, Yangang; Li, Long; Sun, Mingshuang; Yin, Haogen; Qin, Wei

    2014-05-06

    The oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) has great utility in bioanalysis such as peroxidase/peroxidase mimetic-based biosensing. In this paper, the behaviors of TMB oxidation intermediates/products in liquid/liquid biphasic systems have been investigated for the first time. The free radical, charge transfer complex, and diimine species generated by TMB oxidation are all positively charged under acidic and near-neutral conditions. Electron paramagnetic resonance and visible absorbance spectroscopy data demonstrate that these cationic species can be effectively transferred from an aqueous phase into a water-immiscible liquid phase functionalized by an appropriate cation exchanger. Accordingly, sensitive potential responses of TMB oxidation have been obtained on a cation exchanger-doped polymeric liquid membrane electrode under mildly acidic and near-neutral conditions. By using the membrane electrode responsive to TMB oxidations, two sensitive potentiometric biosensing schemes including the peroxidase-labeled sandwich immunoassay and G-quadruplex DNAzyme-based DNA hybridization assay have been developed. The obtained detection limits for the target antigen and DNA are 0.02 ng/mL and 0.1 nM, respectively. Coupled with other advantages such as low cost, high reliability, and ease of miniaturization and integration, the proposed polymeric liquid membrane electrode holds great promise as a facile and efficient transducer for TMB oxidation and related biosensing applications.

  16. Conductivity of Langmuir-Blodgett films of a disk-shaped liquid-crystalline molecule-DNA complex studied by current-sensing atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Alpana; Suresh, K. A.

    2008-08-01

    We have studied the electrical conductivity in monolayer films of an ionic disk-shaped liquid-crystal molecule, pyridinium tethered with hexaalkoxytriphenylene (PyTp), and its complex with DNA by current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CS-AFM). The pure PyTp and PyTp-DNA complex monolayer films were first formed at the air-water interface and then transferred onto conducting substrates by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique to study the nanoscale electron transport through these films. The conductive tip of CS-AFM, the LB film, and the metal substrate form a nanoscopic metal-LB film-metal (M-LB-M) junction. We have measured the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics for the M-LB-M junction using CS-AFM and have analyzed the data quantitatively. We find that the I-V curves fit well to the Fowler-Nordheim (FN) model, suggesting electron tunneling to be a possible mechanism for electron transport in our system. Further, analysis of the I-V curves based on the FN model yields the barrier heights of PyTp-DNA complex and pure PyTp films. Electron transport studies of films of ionic disk-shaped liquid-crystal molecules and their complex with DNA are important from the point of view of their applications in organic electronics.

  17. Origin of Fe-Ti Oxide Mineralization in the Middle Paleoproterozoic Elet'ozero Syenite-Gabbro Intrusive Complex (Northern Karelia, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkov, E. V.; Chistyakov, A. V.; Shchiptsov, V. V.; Bogina, M. M.; Frolov, P. V.

    2018-03-01

    Magmatic oxide mineralization widely developed in syenite-gabbro intrusive complexes is an important Fe and Ti resource. However, its origin is hotly debatable. Some researchers believe that the oxide ores were formed through precipitation of dense Ti-magnetite in an initial ferrogabbroic magma (Bai et al., 2012), whereas others consider them as a product of immiscible splitting of Fe-rich liquid during crystallization of Fe-Ti basaltic magma (Zhou et al., 2013). We consider this problem with a study of the Middle Paleoproterozoic (2086 ± 30 Ma) Elet'ozero Ti-bearing layered intrusive complex in northern Karelia (Baltic Shield). The first ore-bearing phase of the complex is mainly made up of diverse ferrogabbros, with subordinate clinopyroxenites and peridotites. Fe-Ti oxides (magnetite, Ti-magnetite, and ilmenite) usually account for 10-15 vol %, reaching 30-70% in ore varieties. The second intrusive phase is formed by alkaline and nepheline syenites. Petrographical, mineralogical, and geochemical data indicate that the first phase of the intrusion was derived from a moderately alkaline Fe-Ti basaltic melt, while the parental melt of the second phase was close in composition to alkaline trachyte. The orebodies comprise disseminated and massive ores. The disseminated Fe-Ti oxide ores make up lenses and layers conformable to general layering. Massive ores occur in subordinate amounts as layers and lenses, as well as cross-cutting veins. Elevated Nb and Ta contents in Fe-Ti oxides makes it possible to consider them complex ores. It is shown that the Fe-Ti oxide mineralization is related to the formation of a residual (Fe,Ti)-rich liquid, which lasted for the entire solidification history of the first intrusive phase. The liquid originated through multiple enrichment of Fe and Ti in the crystallization zone of the intrusion owing to the following processes: (1) precipitation of silicate minerals in the crystallization zone with a corresponding increase in the Fe and

  18. Comparison of Aqueous and 1-Octanol Solubility as well as Liquid?Liquid Distribution of Acyclovir Derivatives and Their Complexes with Hydroxypropyl-?-Cyclodextrin

    OpenAIRE

    Ko?bia?, Ma?gorzata; Gierycz, Pawe?

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the presented work is the comparison of aqueous and 1-octanol solubilities of different acyclovir derivatives and their hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes. The solubility measurements were carried out at different temperatures over the range 25?45??C using water, 1-octanol, water saturated with 1-octanol, 1-octanol saturated with water, buffered aqueous solutions (pH?=?5.5 and 7.0) and buffered aqueous solutions containing cyclodextrin as solvents. The aqueous solubil...

  19. Temperature and compositional dependence of solid-liquid interfacial energy: application of the Cahn-Hilliard theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, I.; Takei, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A simple thermodynamic method to estimate the solid-liquid interfacial energy (or interfacial tension) is proposed, based on the Cahn-Hilliard theory. In the model, the liquid is treated as a regular solution, and the interfacial layers are assumed to have liquid-like thermodynamic properties. In eutectic systems, interfacial adsorption occurs within a few atomic layers, and interfacial energy monotonously increases with decreasing concentration of the solid species in the liquid phase. If non-ideal atomic interaction is strong and the liquid immiscibility region appears in the phase diagrams (this is the case of monotectic systems), the interfacial thickness drastically increases and the interfacial energy is reduced around the immiscibility gap

  20. Evaluation of a contact device type ejector system for liquid-liquid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwamback, Niomedes

    2002-04-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate an ejector system, operated simultaneously with two immiscible liquid phases and a gas phase, as a contact device for liquid-liquid extraction processes. The ejector, made of perspex, has a variable geometry, although this feature was not explored in the thesis. Motivated by recent uses of liquid-liquid extraction processes for the removal of traces of heavy metal from waste waters, it was decided to carry out tests with synthetic effluents. This strategy, typical of experimental work under evaluation of technical feasibility, greatly simplifies experiments, since the nature of the chemical species involved and their feed concentrations are known exactly and do not fluctuate. The extractant used was DEHPA (diethyl hexyl phosphoric acid). The metal chosen for tests was iron with oxidation number +3, because of its high extraction coefficient towards DEHPA and also for its chemical behavior similar to americium and other heavy metals. In addition to that, iron forms soluble coloured complexes adequate to spectrophotometric determination analysis, a simple, quick and very reliable analytical technique. The effects of electrolytes of interest, namely NaCl, FeSO 4 and Al(NO 3 ) 3 , upon the extraction process were investigated. The effects resulting from the introduction of a gas phase, actually air (bubbles), in the ejector upon the extraction efficiency were studied. By coupling advanced digital photographic technique and image analysis with microcomputer, the bubble mean size was measured. It was then correlated with equipment's geometrical (characteristic diameters) and operational variables (phases' flow rates and gas hold-ups). To enable scale-up procedures, data were preferably correlated by means of dimensionless groups. For the systems and conditions investigated in this thesis and under the same operational conditions, the introduction of air bubbles by means of an ejector has greatly improved the process

  1. Stochastic porous media modeling and high-resolution schemes for numerical simulation of subsurface immiscible fluid flow transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantson, Eric Thompson; Ju, Binshan; Wu, Dan; Gyan, Patricia Semwaah

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes stochastic petroleum porous media modeling for immiscible fluid flow simulation using Dykstra-Parson coefficient (V DP) and autocorrelation lengths to generate 2D stochastic permeability values which were also used to generate porosity fields through a linear interpolation technique based on Carman-Kozeny equation. The proposed method of permeability field generation in this study was compared to turning bands method (TBM) and uniform sampling randomization method (USRM). On the other hand, many studies have also reported that, upstream mobility weighting schemes, commonly used in conventional numerical reservoir simulators do not accurately capture immiscible displacement shocks and discontinuities through stochastically generated porous media. This can be attributed to high level of numerical smearing in first-order schemes, oftentimes misinterpreted as subsurface geological features. Therefore, this work employs high-resolution schemes of SUPERBEE flux limiter, weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme (WENO), and monotone upstream-centered schemes for conservation laws (MUSCL) to accurately capture immiscible fluid flow transport in stochastic porous media. The high-order schemes results match well with Buckley Leverett (BL) analytical solution without any non-oscillatory solutions. The governing fluid flow equations were solved numerically using simultaneous solution (SS) technique, sequential solution (SEQ) technique and iterative implicit pressure and explicit saturation (IMPES) technique which produce acceptable numerical stability and convergence rate. A comparative and numerical examples study of flow transport through the proposed method, TBM and USRM permeability fields revealed detailed subsurface instabilities with their corresponding ultimate recovery factors. Also, the impact of autocorrelation lengths on immiscible fluid flow transport were analyzed and quantified. A finite number of lines used in the TBM resulted into visual

  2. Flow transition criteria of a liquid jet into a liquid pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Shimpei, E-mail: s1630195@u.tsukuba.ac.jp [Graduate School of Systems and Information Engineering, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Abe, Yutaka [Faculty of Engineering, Information and Systems, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Koyama, Kazuya [Reactor Core and Safety Design Department, Mitsubishi FBR Systems, Inc., 2-34-17 Jingumae, Shibuya, Tokyo 150-0001 (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Jet breakup and droplet formation in immiscible liquid-liquid systems was studied experimentally. • The observed jet breakup behavior was classified into characteristic regimes. • The droplet size distribution was analyzed using image processing. • The variation of droplet size was compared with available melt-jet experiments. • Extrapolation to the expected SFR conditions implied that most of the hydrodynamic conditions would be the atomization regime. - Abstract: To better understand the fundamental interactions between melt jet and coolant during a core-disruptive accident at a sodium-cooled fast reactor, the jet breakup and droplet formation in immiscible liquid-liquid systems were studied experimentally. Experiments using two different pairs of test fluids were carried out at isothermal conditions. The observed jet breakup behavior was classified into characteristic regimes based on the classical Ohnesorge classification in liquid-gas systems. The variation in breakup length obtained in the present liquid-liquid system was similar to that in a liquid-gas system. The droplet size distribution in each breakup regime was analyzed using image processing and droplet formation via pinch-off, satellite formation, and entrainment was observed. The measured droplet size was compared with those available from melt jet experiments. Based on the observation and analysis results, the breakup regimes were organized on a dimensionless operating diagram, with the derived correlations representing the criteria for regime boundaries of a liquid-liquid system. Finally, the experimental data were extrapolated to the expected conditions of a sodium-cooled fast reactor. From this, it was implied that most of the hydrodynamic conditions during an accident would be close to the atomization regime, in which entrainment is the dominant process for droplet formation.

  3. Facile and rapid DNA extraction and purification from food matrices using IFAST (immiscible filtration assisted by surface tension).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotman, Lindsay N; Lin, Guangyun; Berry, Scott M; Johnson, Eric A; Beebe, David J

    2012-09-07

    Extraction and purification of DNA is a prerequisite to detection and analytical techniques. While DNA sample preparation methods have improved over the last few decades, current methods are still time consuming and labor intensive. Here we demonstrate a technology termed IFAST (Immiscible Filtration Assisted by Surface Tension), that relies on immiscible phase filtration to reduce the time and effort required to purify DNA. IFAST replaces the multiple wash and centrifugation steps required by traditional DNA sample preparation methods with a single step. To operate, DNA from lysed cells is bound to paramagnetic particles (PMPs) and drawn through an immiscible fluid phase barrier (i.e. oil) by an external handheld magnet. Purified DNA is then eluted from the PMPs. Here, detection of Clostridium botulinum type A (BoNT/A) in food matrices (milk, orange juice), a bioterrorism concern, was used as a model system to establish IFAST's utility in detection assays. Data validated that the DNA purified by IFAST was functional as a qPCR template to amplify the bont/A gene. The sensitivity limit of IFAST was comparable to the commercially available Invitrogen ChargeSwitch® method. Notably, pathogen detection via IFAST required only 8.5 μL of sample and was accomplished in five-fold less time. The simplicity, rapidity and portability of IFAST offer significant advantages when compared to existing DNA sample preparation methods.

  4. Applicability of a Supported Liquid Membrane in the Enrichment and Determination of Cadmium from Complex Aqueous Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Pont

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A supported liquid membrane is developed for the separation of Cd from either high in salinity or acidity aqueous media. The membrane consisted of a durapore (polyvinylidene difluoride polymeric support impregnated with a 0.5 M Aliquat 336 solution in decaline. The effect of carrier concentration, organic solvent and feed and receiving solutions on the metal permeability is studied. This system allows the effective transport of trace levels of Cd through the formation of CdCl42−, which is the predominant species responsible for the extraction process, in both NaCl and HCl solutions. The supported liquid membrane system in a hollow fibre configuration allows the enrichment and separation of trace levels of Cd from spiked seawater samples, facilitating the analytical determination of this toxic metal.

  5. Formation of disorder aluminium zones in an immiscible lead-aluminium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, R Z; Zhang, L H; Sui, M L; Wang, Y M

    2004-01-01

    High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations show evidence for the formation of disorder Al zones around some faceted Pb inclusions embedded in an Al matrix in immiscible lead-aluminium samples, which were prepared by a melt-spun method and then aged for about two months at room temperature. Furthermore, it is found that, both before and after ageing, all such Pb inclusions have a cube-cube orientation relationship with the Al matrix. The results of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations give an extensive analysis of the formation of the disorder Al zones and provide a reasonable explanation for the HRTEM finding: the existence of oxygen soluted in the Pb inclusions at higher temperatures may lead to the formation of the disorder Al zone in the aged sample. The dependence of the thickness of the disorder Al zone on the amount of oxygen soluted in the Pb inclusion at higher temperatures, and the average stress in the equilibrium configuration of a MD cell, is discussed

  6. Electrochemical alloying of immiscible Ag and Co for their structural and magnetic analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhi, Kalavathy [Material Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India); Department of Physics, Women’s Christian College, Chennai 600006 (India); Kumarsan, Dhanapal [Material Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India); Vengidusamy, Naryanan [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India); Arumainathan, Stephen, E-mail: stephen_arum@hotmail.com [Material Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Ag-Co alloy has been prepared using pulsed electrodeposition method. • Wide range of Ag composition in the alloy was obtained. • XPS measurement evident the Ag and Co in metallic nature. • The electrodeposition method develop dendrite like morphology. • Detailed analysis of magnetic behaviour is carried out. - Abstract: Electrochemical alloying of immiscible Ag and Co was carried out at different current densities from electrolytes of two different concentrations, after optimizing the electrolytic bath and operating conditions. The samples obtained were characterized using X-ray diffraction to confirm the simultaneous deposition of Ag and Co and to determine their crystallographic structure. The atomic percentage of Ag and Co contents in the granular alloy was determined by ICP-OES analysis. The XPS spectra were observed to confirm the presence of Ag and Co in the metallic form in the granular alloy samples. The micrographs observed using scanning and transmission electron microscopes threw light on the surface morphology and the size of the particles. The magnetic nature of the samples was analyzed at room temperature by a vibration sample magnetometer. Their magnetic phase transition while heating was also studied to provide further evidence for the magnetic behaviour and the structure of the deposits.

  7. Atomistic study of self-diffusion in Cu-Ag immiscible alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianmin; Chen Gouxiang; Xu Kewei

    2006-01-01

    Combining molecular dynamic (MD) simulation with modified analytic embedded-atom method (MAEAM) potential, the formation, migration and activation energies have been calculated for four-kind migrations of Cu vacancy and three-kind migrations of Ag vacancy in Cu-Ag immiscible alloy system. The equilibrium concentration of Cu vacancies is greater than that of Ag vacancies owing to the formation energy of Cu vacancy (1.012 eV) is lower than that of Ag vacancy (1.169 eV). Comparing the migration or activation energy needed for four-kind migrations of Cu vacancy and three-kind migrations of Ag vacancy show that the favorable migration mechanism is the nearest-neighbor (NN) jump for Cu vacancy, while the straight [0 1 0] six-jump cycle (6JC) for Ag vacancy. Furthermore, the activation energy of the NN jump of Cu vacancy (2.164 eV) is lower than that of straight [0 1 0] 6JC of Ag vacancy (2.404 eV) also show that the former is more favorable. We conclude accordingly that the primary migration mechanism is the NN jump of an abundance of Cu vacancies

  8. The effect of additives interaction on the miscibility and crystal structure of two immiscible biodegradable polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed El-Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly lactic acid (PLLA is a promising biopolymer, obtained from polymerization of lactic acid that is derived from renewable resources through fermentation. The characteristic brittleness of PLLA is attributed to slow crystallization rates, which results in the formation of the large spherulites. Its glass temperature is relative high, above room temperature and close to 60 ºC, and therefore its applications are limited. The additives poly((R-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB, poly(vinyl acetate (PVAc and tributyl citrate (TBC were used as compatibilizers in the biodegradable polymer blend of (PLLA/PPC. Results from DSC and POM analysis indicated that the blends of PLLA and PPC are immiscible. However, the blends with additives are miscible. TBC as plasticizer was added to PLLA to reduce its Tg. PVAc was used as compatibilizer to improve the miscibility between PLLA and PPC. FT-IR showed about 7 cm-1 shift in the C=O peak in miscible blends due to physical interactions. POM experiments together with the results of DSC and WAXD showed that PHB enhances the crystallization behavior of PLLA by acting as bio nuclei and the crystallization process can occur more quickly. Consequently an increase was observed in the peak intensity in WAXD.

  9. Solid State Self-Healing System: Effects of Using Immiscible Healing Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Nabilah Muhamad; Mohd Suzeren Mohd Jamil

    2015-01-01

    The solid state self-healing system was obtained by employs a thermosetting epoxy resin, into which a thermoplastic is dissolved. The aim of this study is to identify the effect of using immiscible healing agents, which are polyvinyl chloride and polyvinyl alcohol, on solid state self-healing system. Healing was achieved by heating the fractured resins to a specific temperature; above their glass transition temperature (Tg) which obtained from dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) in order for thermal expansion to occur. The thermal properties and bonding formed in the epoxy resins were characterized by means of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Izod impact test was performed in preliminary work. Further work then has been done using compact tension test to demonstrate details self-healing capability of the different specimens. Under compact tension test, it was found that healable resin with PVC has highest healing efficiency followed PVA with 7.4 % and 3 % of average percentage healing efficiencies respectively. These results are due to the different solubility parameters of the thermoset/ network and thermoplastic polymer which led to the phase separation. Morphological studies using microscope optic prove the fracture-healing process and morphological properties of the resins. (author)

  10. Experiments and MPS analysis of stratification behavior of two immiscible fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Gen, E-mail: ligen@fuji.waseda.jp [Cooperative Major in Nuclear Energy, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Oka, Yoshiaki [Cooperative Major in Nuclear Energy, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Furuya, Masahiro; Kondo, Masahiro [Nuclear Technology Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), 2-11-1 Iwado-kita, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Improving numerical stability of MPS method. • Implicitly calculating viscous term in momentum equation for highly viscous fluids. • Validation of the enhanced MPS method by analyzing dam break problem. • Various stratification behavior analysis by experiments and simulations. • Sensitivity analysis of the effects of the fluid viscosity and density difference. - Abstract: Stratification behavior is of great significance in the late in-vessel stage of core melt severe accident of a nuclear reactor. Conventional numerical methods have difficulties in analyzing stratification process accompanying with free surface without depending on empirical correlations. The Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method, which calculates free surface and multiphase flow without empirical equations, is applicable for analyzing the stratification behavior of fluids. In the present study, the original MPS method was improved to simulate the stratification behavior of two immiscible fluids. The improved MPS method was validated through simulating classical dam break problem. Then, the stratification processes of two fluid columns and injected fluid were investigated through experiments and simulations, using silicone oil and salt water as the simulant materials. The effects of fluid viscosity and density difference on stratification behavior were also sensitively investigated by simulations. Typical fluid configurations at various parametric and geometrical conditions were observed and well predicted by improved MPS method.

  11. Solution of the equations for one-dimensional, two-phase, immiscible flow by geometric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronin, Ivan; Shevlyakov, Andrey

    2018-03-01

    Buckley-Leverett equations describe non viscous, immiscible, two-phase filtration, which is often of interest in modelling of oil production. For many parameters and initial conditions, the solutions of these equations exhibit non-smooth behaviour, namely discontinuities in form of shock waves. In this paper we obtain a novel method for the solution of Buckley-Leverett equations, which is based on geometry of differential equations. This method is fast, accurate, stable, and describes non-smooth phenomena. The main idea of the method is that classic discontinuous solutions correspond to the continuous surfaces in the space of jets - the so-called multi-valued solutions (Bocharov et al., Symmetries and conservation laws for differential equations of mathematical physics. American Mathematical Society, Providence, 1998). A mapping of multi-valued solutions from the jet space onto the plane of the independent variables is constructed. This mapping is not one-to-one, and its singular points form a curve on the plane of the independent variables, which is called the caustic. The real shock occurs at the points close to the caustic and is determined by the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions.

  12. Regularized lattice Boltzmann model for immiscible two-phase flows with power-law rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Yan; Wang, Ningning; Liu, Haihu; Li, Qiang; He, Guoqiang

    2018-03-01

    In this work, a regularized lattice Boltzmann color-gradient model is developed for the simulation of immiscible two-phase flows with power-law rheology. This model is as simple as the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) color-gradient model except that an additional regularization step is introduced prior to the collision step. In the regularization step, the pseudo-inverse method is adopted as an alternative solution for the nonequilibrium part of the total distribution function, and it can be easily extended to other discrete velocity models no matter whether a forcing term is considered or not. The obtained expressions for the nonequilibrium part are merely related to macroscopic variables and velocity gradients that can be evaluated locally. Several numerical examples, including the single-phase and two-phase layered power-law fluid flows between two parallel plates, and the droplet deformation and breakup in a simple shear flow, are conducted to test the capability and accuracy of the proposed color-gradient model. Results show that the present model is more stable and accurate than the BGK color-gradient model for power-law fluids with a wide range of power-law indices. Compared to its multiple-relaxation-time counterpart, the present model can increase the computing efficiency by around 15%, while keeping the same accuracy and stability. Also, the present model is found to be capable of reasonably predicting the critical capillary number of droplet breakup.

  13. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of immiscible fluid displacement in porous media: Homogeneous versus heterogeneous pore network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Haihu; Zhang, Yonghao; Valocchi, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Injection of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into geological formations is a promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Predicting the amount of CO 2 that can be captured and its long-term storage stability in subsurface requires a fundamental understanding of multiphase displacement phenomena at the pore scale. In this paper, the lattice Boltzmann method is employed to simulate the immiscible displacement of a wetting fluid by a non-wetting one in two microfluidic flow cells, one with a homogeneous pore network and the other with a randomly heterogeneous pore network. We have identified three different displacement patterns, namely, stable displacement, capillary fingering, and viscous fingering, all of which are strongly dependent upon the capillary number (Ca), viscosity ratio (M), and the media heterogeneity. The non-wetting fluid saturation (S nw ) is found to increase nearly linearly with logCa for each constant M. Increasing M (viscosity ratio of non-wetting fluid to wetting fluid) or decreasing the media heterogeneity can enhance the stability of the displacement process, resulting in an increase in S nw . In either pore networks, the specific interfacial length is linearly proportional to S nw during drainage with equal proportionality constant for all cases excluding those revealing considerable viscous fingering. Our numerical results confirm the previous experimental finding that the steady state specific interfacial length exhibits a linear dependence on S nw for either favorable (M ≥ 1) or unfavorable (M < 1) displacement, and the slope is slightly higher for the unfavorable displacement

  14. Immiscible three-dimensional fingering in porous media: A weakly nonlinear analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Rodolfo; Dias, Eduardo O.; Miranda, José A.

    2018-03-01

    We present a weakly nonlinear theory for the development of fingering instabilities that arise at the interface between two immiscible viscous fluids flowing radially outward in a uniform three-dimensional (3D) porous medium. By employing a perturbative second-order mode-coupling scheme, we investigate the linear stability of the system as well as the emergence of intrinsically nonlinear finger branching events in this 3D environment. At the linear stage, we find several differences between the 3D radial fingering and its 2D counterpart (usual Saffman-Taylor flow in radial Hele-Shaw cells). These include the algebraic growth of disturbances and the existence of regions of absolute stability for finite values of viscosity contrast and capillary number in the 3D system. On the nonlinear level, our main focus is to get analytical insight into the physical mechanism resulting in the occurrence of finger tip-splitting phenomena. In this context, we show that the underlying mechanism leading to 3D tip splitting relies on the coupling between the fundamental interface modes and their first harmonics. However, we find that in three dimensions, in contrast to the usual 2D fingering structures normally encountered in radial Hele-Shaw flows, tip splitting into three branches can also be observed.

  15. Non-traditional stable isotope behaviors in immiscible silica-melts in a mafic magma chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Bao, Huiming; Liu, Yun

    2015-12-01

    Non-traditional stable isotopes have increasingly been applied to studies of igneous processes including planetary differentiation. Equilibrium isotope fractionation of these elements in silicates is expected to be negligible at magmatic temperatures (δ(57)Fe difference often less than 0.2 per mil). However, an increasing number of data has revealed a puzzling observation, e.g., the δ(57)Fe for silicic magmas ranges from 0‰ up to 0.6‰, with the most positive δ(57)Fe almost exclusively found in A-type granitoids. Several interpretations have been proposed by different research groups, but these have so far failed to explain some aspects of the observations. Here we propose a dynamic, diffusion-induced isotope fractionation model that assumes Si-melts are growing and ascending immiscibly in a Fe-rich bulk magma chamber. Our model offers predictions on the behavior of non-traditional stable isotope such as Fe, Mg, Si, and Li that are consistent with observations from many A-type granitoids, especially those associated with layered intrusions. Diffusion-induced isotope fractionation may be more commonly preserved in magmatic rocks than was originally predicted.

  16. Solidification of Al-Sn-Cu Based Immiscible Alloys under Intense Shearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotadia, H. R.; Doernberg, E.; Patel, J. B.; Fan, Z.; Schmid-Fetzer, R.

    2009-09-01

    The growing importance of Al-Sn based alloys as materials for engineering applications necessitates the development of uniform microstructures with improved performance. Guided by the recently thermodynamically assessed Al-Sn-Cu system, two model immiscible alloys, Al-45Sn-10Cu and Al-20Sn-10Cu, were selected to investigate the effects of intensive melt shearing provided by the novel melt conditioning by advanced shear technology (MCAST) unit on the uniform dispersion of the soft Sn phase in a hard Al matrix. Our experimental results have confirmed that intensive melt shearing is an effective way to achieve fine and uniform dispersion of the soft phase without macro-demixing, and that such dispersed microstructure can be further refined in alloys with precipitation of the primary Al phase prior to the demixing reaction. In addition, it was found that melt shearing at 200 rpm and 60 seconds will be adequate to produce fine and uniform dispersion of the Sn phase, and that higher shearing speed and prolonged shearing time can only achieve minor further refinement.

  17. Electrochemical alloying of immiscible Ag and Co for their structural and magnetic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhi, Kalavathy; Kumarsan, Dhanapal; Vengidusamy, Naryanan; Arumainathan, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag-Co alloy has been prepared using pulsed electrodeposition method. • Wide range of Ag composition in the alloy was obtained. • XPS measurement evident the Ag and Co in metallic nature. • The electrodeposition method develop dendrite like morphology. • Detailed analysis of magnetic behaviour is carried out. - Abstract: Electrochemical alloying of immiscible Ag and Co was carried out at different current densities from electrolytes of two different concentrations, after optimizing the electrolytic bath and operating conditions. The samples obtained were characterized using X-ray diffraction to confirm the simultaneous deposition of Ag and Co and to determine their crystallographic structure. The atomic percentage of Ag and Co contents in the granular alloy was determined by ICP-OES analysis. The XPS spectra were observed to confirm the presence of Ag and Co in the metallic form in the granular alloy samples. The micrographs observed using scanning and transmission electron microscopes threw light on the surface morphology and the size of the particles. The magnetic nature of the samples was analyzed at room temperature by a vibration sample magnetometer. Their magnetic phase transition while heating was also studied to provide further evidence for the magnetic behaviour and the structure of the deposits.

  18. Buckling of liquid columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibi, M.; Rahmani, Y.; Bonn, D.; Ribe, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Under appropriate conditions, a column of viscous liquid falling onto a rigid surface undergoes a buckling instability. Here we show experimentally and theoretically that liquid buckling exhibits a hitherto unsuspected complexity involving three different modes—viscous, gravitational, and

  19. High-performance beam steering using electrowetting-driven liquid prism fabricated by a simple dip-coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enrico Clement, Carlos; Park, Sung-Yong, E-mail: mpeps@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Block EA, #07-08, 9 Engineering Drive 1, 117576 (Singapore)

    2016-05-09

    A high degree of beam steering is demonstrated using an electrowetting-driven liquid prism. While prism devices have typically relied on complex and expensive laboratory setups, such as high-vacuum facilities for fabrication of dielectric layers, this work utilizes a simple dip-coating method to provide an ion gel layer as a dielectric, offering 2 or 3 orders higher specific capacitance (c ≈ 10 μF/cm{sup 2}) than that of conventional dielectrics. Analytical studies present the effects of liquid selection and arrangement on overall prism performance. For experimental demonstrations of high-performance beam steering, we not only selected two immiscible liquids of water and 1-bromonaphthalene (1-BN) oil which provide the large refractive index difference (n{sub water} = 1.33 and n{sub 1-BN} = 1.65 at λ = 532 nm) between them, but also utilized a double-stacked prism configuration which increases the number of interfaces for incoming light to be steered. At a prism apex angle of φ = 27°, we were able to achieve significantly large beam steering of up to β = 19.06°, which is the highest beam steering performance ever demonstrated using electrowetting technology.

  20. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with post-column dual-bioactivity assay for simultaneous screening of xanthine oxidase inhibitors and free radical scavengers from complex mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D Q; Zhao, J; Li, S P

    2014-06-06

    Xanthine oxidase (XO) can catalyze hypoxanthine and xanthine to generate uric acid and reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide anion radical (O₂(•-)) and hydrogen peroxide. XO inhibitors and free radical scavengers are beneficial to the treatment of gout and many related diseases. In the present study, an on-line high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with post-column dual-bioactivity assay was established and successfully applied to simultaneously screening of XO inhibitors and free radical scavengers from a complex mixture, Oroxylum indicum extract. The integrated system of HPLC separation, bioactivity screening and mass spectrometry identification was proved to be simple and effective for rapid and sensitive screening of individual bioactive compounds in complex mixtures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Simultaneous determination of trace amounts of metals by high-performance liquid chromatography after preconcentration with adsorption on chlorotrifluoroethylene polymer as their hexamethylenedithiocarbamate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shijo, Yoshio; Yoshida, Hideaki; Uehara, Nobuo; Kitamura, Teruo; Yoshimoto, Eiji.

    1996-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of Bi, Cd, Cu, In, Ni and Pb by high-performance liquid chromatography is presented. These metals are preconcentrated on poly(chlorotrifluoroethylene) resin particles as their hexamethylenedithiocarbamate (HMDC) complexes, and eluted with dimethyl sulfoxide, followed by HPLC separation and determination using an ODS column. The conditions for the adsorption of metal-HMDC complexes, such as the pH, HMDC concentration, amount of the resin particles and elution times with dimethyl sulfoxide, are discussed. The resulting solution is suitable for injection into reversed-phase HPLC. The detection limits for the metals were found to be at sub μgl -1 levels. The application of this principle to the trace analysis of Bi, Cd, Cu, In, Ni and Pb in high-purity aluminum is demonstrated. (author)

  2. Analysis of natural convection heat transfer and flows in internally heated stratified liquid pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubaidullin, A.A. Jr.; Dinh, T.N.; Sehgal, B.R.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, natural convection flows and heat transfer in a liquid pool, with two superposed immiscible fluid layers, are analyzed. The objective of the study is to examine the effect of interfacial hydrodynamics and to develop a method which enables energy splitting to be evaluated in a stratified liquid pool. The thermal convection, with and without an internal heat source, in a rectangular cavity with different pairs of fluids was numerically simulated by a CFD code FLOW-3D. It was found that the code performs very well for prediction of heat transfer coefficients for different conditions. The hydrodynamic coupling between immiscible layers was found to have minor, if any, impact on the natural convection heat transfer for the conditions examined. Calculated results were used to develop, and validate, a new correlation for energy splitting and for heat transfer in stratified liquid pools

  3. Liquid lens with double tunable surfaces for large power tunability and improved optical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lei; Wang, Qiong-Hua; Jiang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a liquid lens with two tunable interfaces formed by two kinds of immiscible liquids. The proposed liquid lens uses liquid pressure to change the shape of the interfaces. It can provide a large tunable range of optical power and improved optical performance. By applying suitable liquids the gravity effect can also be negligible. To prove the principles, a liquid lens with 7 mm aperture was fabricated. The optical performance indicates that the proposed liquid lens can provide a large tunable range of both positive and negative powers even using liquids with small differences in refractive indices. The resolution is better than 50 lp mm −1 under white light environment. The spherical aberration and coma are also largely reduced. The proposed liquid lens can also provide the optical designer with the freedom to choose the combination of liquids to reduce or even correct aberrations

  4. Geometric and energetic considerations of surface fluctuations during ion transfer across the water-immiscible organic liquid interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnes, John J.; Benjamin, Ilan, E-mail: benjamin@chemistry.ucsc.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States)

    2016-07-07

    Molecular dynamics simulations and umbrella sampling free energy calculations are used to examine the thermodynamics, energetics, and structural fluctuations that accompany the transfer of a small hydrophilic ion (Cl{sup −}) across the water/nitrobenzene interface. By examining several constrained interface structures, we isolate the energetic costs of interfacial deformation and co-transfer of hydration waters during the ion transfer. The process is monitored using both energy-based solvation coordinates and a geometric coordinate recently introduced by Morita and co-workers to describe surface fluctuations. Our simulations show that these coordinates provide a complimentary description of the water surface fluctuations during the transfer and are necessary for elucidating the mechanism of the ion transfer.

  5. Separation of transition-metal and 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid complexes using ion-pair liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basova, E.M.; Demurov, L.M.; Shpigun, O.A.; Van Iyuchun'

    1994-01-01

    The retention of chelates of Fe(3), Cu(2), Co(2), Ni(2), Zn(2), Cd(2), Hg(2), and Pb)(2) with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid depending on the concentration of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, acetonitrile, and pH of the mobile phase was investigated using the ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on separon C 18 . Under the optimum conditions, the separation of mixtures of Fe(3), Co(2) and Ni(2) is performed within 8 to 12 min

  6. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder: detecting multidimensional liquid chromatography, ion mobility and mass spectrometry features in complex datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Kevin L; Slysz, Gordon W; Baker, Erin S; LaMarche, Brian L; Monroe, Matthew E; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Payne, Samuel H; Anderson, Gordon A; Smith, Richard D

    2013-11-01

    The addition of ion mobility spectrometry to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry experiments requires new, or updated, software tools to facilitate data processing. We introduce a command line software application LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder that searches for molecular ion signatures in multidimensional liquid chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (LC-IMS-MS) data by clustering deisotoped peaks with similar monoisotopic mass, charge state, LC elution time and ion mobility drift time values. The software application includes an algorithm for detecting and quantifying co-eluting chemical species, including species that exist in multiple conformations that may have been separated in the IMS dimension. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder is available as a command-line tool for download at http://omics.pnl.gov/software/LC-IMS-MS_Feature_Finder.php. The Microsoft.NET Framework 4.0 is required to run the software. All other dependencies are included with the software package. Usage of this software is limited to non-profit research to use (see README). rds@pnnl.gov. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  7. Generation of micro- and nano-droplets containing immiscible solutions in view of optical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasa, V.; Karapantsios, T.; Samaras, K.; Dafnopatidou, E.; Pradines, V.; Miller, R.; Pascu, M. L.

    2010-08-01

    The multiple resistances to treatment, developed by bacteria and malignant tumors require finding alternatives to the existing medicines and treatment procedures. One of them is strengthening the effects of cytostatics by improving the delivery method. Such a method is represented by the use of medicines as micro/nano-droplets. This method can reduce the substance consumption by generating drug micro-droplets incorporated in substances that can favour a faster localization, than the classical mode of medicine administration, to the tumor tissues. This paper contains the results concerning the generation and study of micro/nano-droplets and the generation of micro-droplets with an inner core (medicine) and a thin layer covering it. We have measured the surface tension at water/air interface and water/oil interface for a medicine (Vancomycin) and we have generated and measured droplets of medicine containing a layer of Vitamin A by using a double capillary system. The micro/nano-droplets may be produced by mixing of two immiscible solutions in particular conditions (high rotating speed and/or high pressure difference). For this we have studied the generation of emulsions of vitamin A diluted in sunflower oil and a solution of a surfactant Tween 80 in distilled water. The concentration of surfactant in water was typically 4*10-5M. We have studied in a batch stirred tank system the dependence of the droplet dimensions in emulsion, function of the mixing rotation speed, agitation time and components ratio. The droplet diameters were measured using a Malvern light scattering instrument type Mastersizer Hydro 2000M. We have obtained droplets with diameters smaller than 100 nm; the diameters distribution exhibited a peak at 65 nm.

  8. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of immiscible fluid displacement in porous media: Homogeneous versus heterogeneous pore network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Haihu, E-mail: haihu.liu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, 28 West Xianning Road, Xi’an 710049 (China); James Weir Fluids Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Zhang, Yonghao [James Weir Fluids Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); Valocchi, Albert J. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Injection of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into geological formations is a promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Predicting the amount of CO{sub 2} that can be captured and its long-term storage stability in subsurface requires a fundamental understanding of multiphase displacement phenomena at the pore scale. In this paper, the lattice Boltzmann method is employed to simulate the immiscible displacement of a wetting fluid by a non-wetting one in two microfluidic flow cells, one with a homogeneous pore network and the other with a randomly heterogeneous pore network. We have identified three different displacement patterns, namely, stable displacement, capillary fingering, and viscous fingering, all of which are strongly dependent upon the capillary number (Ca), viscosity ratio (M), and the media heterogeneity. The non-wetting fluid saturation (S{sub nw}) is found to increase nearly linearly with logCa for each constant M. Increasing M (viscosity ratio of non-wetting fluid to wetting fluid) or decreasing the media heterogeneity can enhance the stability of the displacement process, resulting in an increase in S{sub nw}. In either pore networks, the specific interfacial length is linearly proportional to S{sub nw} during drainage with equal proportionality constant for all cases excluding those revealing considerable viscous fingering. Our numerical results confirm the previous experimental finding that the steady state specific interfacial length exhibits a linear dependence on S{sub nw} for either favorable (M ≥ 1) or unfavorable (M < 1) displacement, and the slope is slightly higher for the unfavorable displacement.

  9. Numerical simulations of negatively buoyant jets in an immiscible fluid using the Particle Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier-Torrecilla, Monica; Geyer, Adelina; Phillips, Jeremy C.; Idelsohn, Sergio R.; Oñate, Eugenio

    2010-05-01

    In this work we investigate numerically the injection of a negatively buoyant jet into a homogenous immiscible ambient fluid using the Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM), a newly developed tool that combines the flexibility of particle-based methods with the accuracy of the finite element discretization. In order to test the applicability of PFEM to the study of negatively buoyant jets, we have compared the two-dimensional numerical results with experiments investigating the injection of a jet of dyed water through a nozzle in the base of a cylindrical tank containing rapeseed oil. In both simulations and experiments, the fountain inlet flow velocity and nozzle diameter were varied to cover a wide range of Reynolds Re and Froude numbers Fr, such that 0.1 < Fr < 30, reproducing both weak and strong fountains in a laminar regime (8 < Re < 1350). Numerical results, together with the experimental observations, allow us to describe three different fountain behaviors that have not been previously reported. Based on the Re and Fr values for the numerical and experimental simulations, we have built a regime map to define how these values may control the occurrence of each of the observed flow types. Whereas the Fr number itself provides a prediction of the maximum penetration height of the jet, its combination with the Re number provides a prediction of the flow behavior for a specific nozzle diameter and injection velocity. Conclusive remarks concerning the dynamics of negatively buoyant jets may be applied later on to several geological situations, e.g. the flow structure of a fully submerged subaqueous eruptive vent discharging magma or the replenishment of magma chambers in the Earth's crust.

  10. Advances in ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for sensitive detection of several food allergens in complex and processed foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planque, M; Arnould, T; Dieu, M; Delahaut, P; Renard, P; Gillard, N

    2016-09-16

    Sensitive detection of food allergens is affected by food processing and foodstuff complexity. It is therefore a challenge to detect cross-contamination in food production that could endanger an allergic customer's life. Here we used ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous detection of traces of milk (casein, whey protein), egg (yolk, white), soybean, and peanut allergens in different complex and/or heat-processed foodstuffs. The method is based on a single protocol (extraction, trypsin digestion, and purification) applicable to the different tested foodstuffs: chocolate, ice cream, tomato sauce, and processed cookies. The determined limits of quantitation, expressed in total milk, egg, peanut, or soy proteins (and not soluble proteins) per kilogram of food, are: 0.5mg/kg for milk (detection of caseins), 5mg/kg for milk (detection of whey), 2.5mg/kg for peanut, 5mg/kg for soy, 3.4mg/kg for egg (detection of egg white), and 30.8mg/kg for egg (detection of egg yolk). The main advantage is the ability of the method to detect four major food allergens simultaneously in processed and complex matrices with very high sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Silica-based ionic liquid coating for 96-blade system for extraction of aminoacids from complex matrixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousavi, Fatemeh; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Silica-based 1-vinyl-3-octadecylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid was synthesized and characterized. •The synthesized polymer was immobilized on the stainless steel blade using polyacrylonitrile glue. •SiImC 18 -PAN 96-blade SPME was applied as an extraction phase for extraction of highly polar compounds in grape matrix. •This system provides high extraction efficiency and reproducibility for up to 50 extractions from tartaric buffer and 20 extractions from grape pulp. -- Abstract: 1-Vinyl-3-octadecylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid [C 18 VIm]Br was prepared and used for the modification of mercaptopropyl-functionalized silica (Si-MPS) through surface radical chain-transfer addition. The synthesized octadecylimidazolium-modified silica (SiImC 18 ) was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), infrared spectroscopy (IR), 13 C NMR and 29 Si NMR spectroscopy and used as an extraction phase for the automated 96-blade solid phase microextraction (SPME) system with thin-film geometry using polyacrylonitrile (PAN) glue. The new proposed extraction phase was applied for extraction of aminoacids from grape pulp, and LC–MS–MS method was developed for separation of model compounds. Extraction efficiency, reusability, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and matrix effect were evaluated. The whole process of sample preparation for the proposed method requires 270 min for 96 samples simultaneously (60 min preconditioning, 90 min extraction, 60 min desorption and 60 min for carryover step) using 96-blade SPME system. Inter-blade and intra-blade reproducibility were in the respective ranges of 5–13 and 3–10% relative standard deviation (RSD) for all model compounds. Limits of detection and quantitation of the proposed SPME-LC–MS/MS system for analysis of analytes were found to range from 0.1 to 1.0 and 0.5 to 3.0 μg L −1 , respectively. Standard addition calibration was applied for quantitative

  12. Silica-based ionic liquid coating for 96-blade system for extraction of aminoacids from complex matrixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousavi, Fatemeh; Pawliszyn, Janusz, E-mail: janusz@uwaterloo.ca

    2013-11-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Silica-based 1-vinyl-3-octadecylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid was synthesized and characterized. •The synthesized polymer was immobilized on the stainless steel blade using polyacrylonitrile glue. •SiImC{sub 18}-PAN 96-blade SPME was applied as an extraction phase for extraction of highly polar compounds in grape matrix. •This system provides high extraction efficiency and reproducibility for up to 50 extractions from tartaric buffer and 20 extractions from grape pulp. -- Abstract: 1-Vinyl-3-octadecylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid [C{sub 18}VIm]Br was prepared and used for the modification of mercaptopropyl-functionalized silica (Si-MPS) through surface radical chain-transfer addition. The synthesized octadecylimidazolium-modified silica (SiImC{sub 18}) was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), infrared spectroscopy (IR), {sup 13}C NMR and {sup 29}Si NMR spectroscopy and used as an extraction phase for the automated 96-blade solid phase microextraction (SPME) system with thin-film geometry using polyacrylonitrile (PAN) glue. The new proposed extraction phase was applied for extraction of aminoacids from grape pulp, and LC–MS–MS method was developed for separation of model compounds. Extraction efficiency, reusability, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and matrix effect were evaluated. The whole process of sample preparation for the proposed method requires 270 min for 96 samples simultaneously (60 min preconditioning, 90 min extraction, 60 min desorption and 60 min for carryover step) using 96-blade SPME system. Inter-blade and intra-blade reproducibility were in the respective ranges of 5–13 and 3–10% relative standard deviation (RSD) for all model compounds. Limits of detection and quantitation of the proposed SPME-LC–MS/MS system for analysis of analytes were found to range from 0.1 to 1.0 and 0.5 to 3.0 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. Standard addition calibration was

  13. Identification of immiscible NAPL contaminant sources in aquifers by a modified two-level saturation based imperialist competitive algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafouri, H. R.; Mosharaf-Dehkordi, M.; Afzalan, B.

    2017-07-01

    A simulation-optimization model is proposed for identifying the characteristics of local immiscible NAPL contaminant sources inside aquifers. This model employs the UTCHEM 9.0 software as its simulator for solving the governing equations associated with the multi-phase flow in porous media. As the optimization model, a novel two-level saturation based Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA) is proposed to estimate the parameters of contaminant sources. The first level consists of three parallel independent ICAs and plays as a pre-conditioner for the second level which is a single modified ICA. The ICA in the second level is modified by dividing each country into a number of provinces (smaller parts). Similar to countries in the classical ICA, these provinces are optimized by the assimilation, competition, and revolution steps in the ICA. To increase the diversity of populations, a new approach named knock the base method is proposed. The performance and accuracy of the simulation-optimization model is assessed by solving a set of two and three-dimensional problems considering the effects of different parameters such as the grid size, rock heterogeneity and designated monitoring networks. The obtained numerical results indicate that using this simulation-optimization model provides accurate results at a less number of iterations when compared with the model employing the classical one-level ICA. A model is proposed to identify characteristics of immiscible NAPL contaminant sources. The contaminant is immiscible in water and multi-phase flow is simulated. The model is a multi-level saturation-based optimization algorithm based on ICA. Each answer string in second level is divided into a set of provinces. Each ICA is modified by incorporating a new knock the base model.

  14. Algorithms for GPU-based molecular dynamics simulations of complex fluids: Applications to water, mixtures, and liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazachenko, Sergey; Giovinazzo, Mark; Hall, Kyle Wm; Cann, Natalie M

    2015-09-15

    A custom code for molecular dynamics simulations has been designed to run on CUDA-enabled NVIDIA graphics processing units (GPUs). The double-precision code simulates multicomponent fluids, with intramolecular and intermolecular forces, coarse-grained and atomistic models, holonomic constraints, Nosé-Hoover thermostats, and the generation of distribution functions. Algorithms to compute Lennard-Jones and Gay-Berne interactions, and the electrostatic force using Ewald summations, are discussed. A neighbor list is introduced to improve scaling with respect to system size. Three test systems are examined: SPC/E water; an n-hexane/2-propanol mixture; and a liquid crystal mesogen, 2-(4-butyloxyphenyl)-5-octyloxypyrimidine. Code performance is analyzed for each system. With one GPU, a 33-119 fold increase in performance is achieved compared with the serial code while the use of two GPUs leads to a 69-287 fold improvement and three GPUs yield a 101-377 fold speedup. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Determination of uranium and thorium in complex matrices by two solvent extraction separation techniques and photon electron rejecting alpha liquid spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayranov, M.; Wacker, L.; Kraehenbuehl, U.

    2001-01-01

    The separation of uranium and thorium from complex matrixes such as marine sediments using solvent extraction and determination by means of photon-electron rejecting liquid alpha spectrometry (PERALS trademark) has successfully been performed. Two extraction schemes, using TOPO and HDEHP, respectively, were compared for the separation of uranium and thorium from the matrix components. The results show recoveries between 73 and 92% for 234 U, 238 U, 232 Th, 230 Th and 238 Th with an accuracy of the methods ±12%. Minimum detectable activities for counting time up to 500 000 seconds for 0.5 g sample material were between 0.34-1.15 Bq/kg for uranium and 0.31-1.66 Bq/kg for thorium. (orig.)

  16. Computational study of the signature of hydrogen-bond strength on the infrared spectra of a hydrogen-bonded complex dissolved in a polar liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, Gabriel; Geva, Eitan

    2010-01-01

    The signature of hydrogen-bond strength on the one- and two-dimensional infrared spectra of the hydrogen-stretch in a hydrogen-bonded complex dissolved in a polar liquid was investigated via mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics simulations. Non-Condon effects were found to intensify with increasing hydrogen-bond strength and to shift oscillator strength from the stable configurations that correspond to the ionic and covalent tautomers into unstable configurations that correspond to the transition-state between them. The transition-state peak is observed to blue shift and increase in intensity with increasing hydrogen-bond strength, and to dominate the spectra in the case of a strong hydrogen-bond. It is argued that the application of multidimensional infrared spectroscopy in the region of the transition-state peak can provide a uniquely direct probe of the molecular events underlying breaking and forming of hydrogen-bonds in the condensed phase.

  17. Synthesis of backbone P-functionalized imidazol-2-ylidene complexes: en route to novel functional ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majhi, Paresh Kumar; Sauerbrey, Susanne; Schnakenburg, Gregor; Arduengo, Anthony J; Streubel, Rainer

    2012-10-01

    1-Alkyl-3-methyl-4-diphenylphosphoryl-imidazolium hydrogensulfate (4a,b) (a: R(1) = R(2) = Me; b: R(1) = (i)Pr, R(2) = Me) and 1-alkyl-3-methyl-4,5-bis(diphenylphosphoryl)imidazolium hydrogensulfate (6a,c) (c: R(1) = (n)Bu, R(2) = Me) were obtained selectively and in good yields by oxidative desulfurization of 1-alkyl-3-methyl-4-diphenylphosphino-imidazole-2-thiones (2a,b) and 1-n-butyl-3-methyl-4,5-bis(diphenylphosphoryl)imidazole-2-thione (3c) or 1,3-dimethyl-4-diphenylthiophosphoryl-5-diphenylphosphino-imidazole-2-thione (5a), respectively, with hydrogen peroxide. Synthesis of phosphoryl functionalized imidazol-2-ylidene complexes of group VI metal pentacarbonyls (7a-9a) and (10b-12b) and bis(phosphoryl) functionalized imidazol-2-ylidene complexes of group VI metal pentacarbonyls (13c-15c) and (16a) with low steric demand (methyl, isopropyl, n-butyl) at both N-centers was achieved through deprotonation of imidazolium salts (4a,b) and (6a,c), respectively,-having HSO(4)(-) as a counterion-with potassium tert-butoxide followed by rapid addition of metal pentacarbonyl acetonitrile complexes [M(CO)(5)(CH(3)CN)] (M = Cr, Mo, W). The products were unambiguously characterized by elemental analyses, spectroscopic and spectrometric methods, and in addition, by single-crystal X-ray structure studies in the cases of 4b, 8a, 15c, and 16a; the latter two reveal imidazole ring bond distance alternation in contrast to 8a.

  18. Analysis of phytochelatin complexes in the lead tolerant vetiver grass [Vetiveria zizanioides (L.)] using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andra, Syam S.; Datta, Rupali; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Saminathan, Sumathi K.M.; Mullens, Conor P.; Bach, Stephan B.H.

    2009-01-01

    Ethylenediamene tetraacetic acid (EDTA) has been used to mobilize soil lead (Pb) and enhance plant uptake for phytoremediation. Chelant bound Pb is considered less toxic compared to free Pb ions and hence might induce less stress on plants. Characterization of possible Pb complexes with phytochelatins (PC n , metal-binding peptides) and EDTA in plant tissues will enhance our understanding of Pb tolerance mechanisms. In a previous study, we showed that vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) can accumulate up to 19,800 and 3350 mg Pb kg -1 dry weight in root and shoot tissues, respectively; in a hydroponics set-up. Following the basic incubation study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to elucidate the efficiency of vetiver grass (with or without EDTA) in remediating Pb-contaminated soils from actual residential sites where Pb-based paints were used. The levels of total thiols, PC n , and catalase (an antioxidant enzyme) were measured in vetiver root and shoot following chelant-assisted phytostabilization. In the presence of 15 mM kg -1 EDTA, vetiver accumulated 4460 and 480 mg Pb kg -1 dry root and shoot tissue, respectively; that are 15- and 24-fold higher compared to those in untreated controls. Despite higher Pb concentrations in the plant tissues, the amount of total thiols and catalase activity in EDTA treated vetiver tissues was comparable to chelant unamended controls, indicating lowered Pb toxicity by chelation with EDTA. The identification of glutathione (referred as PC 1 ) (m/z 308.2), along with chelated complexes like Pb-EDTA (m/z 498.8) and PC 1 -Pb-EDTA (m/z 805.3) in vetiver root tissue using electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ES-MS) highlights the possible role of such species towards Pb tolerance in vetiver grass. - Chelated lead in conjunction with phytochelatins synthesis and complexation reduces stress in the lead tolerant vetiver grass.

  19. Analysis of phytochelatin complexes in the lead tolerant vetiver grass [Vetiveria zizanioides (L.)] using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andra, Syam S., E-mail: syam.andra@gmail.co [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX (United States); Datta, Rupali [Biological Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI (United States); Sarkar, Dibyendu [Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ (United States); Saminathan, Sumathi K.M. [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX (United States); Mullens, Conor P.; Bach, Stephan B.H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Ethylenediamene tetraacetic acid (EDTA) has been used to mobilize soil lead (Pb) and enhance plant uptake for phytoremediation. Chelant bound Pb is considered less toxic compared to free Pb ions and hence might induce less stress on plants. Characterization of possible Pb complexes with phytochelatins (PC{sub n}, metal-binding peptides) and EDTA in plant tissues will enhance our understanding of Pb tolerance mechanisms. In a previous study, we showed that vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) can accumulate up to 19,800 and 3350 mg Pb kg{sup -1} dry weight in root and shoot tissues, respectively; in a hydroponics set-up. Following the basic incubation study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to elucidate the efficiency of vetiver grass (with or without EDTA) in remediating Pb-contaminated soils from actual residential sites where Pb-based paints were used. The levels of total thiols, PC{sub n}, and catalase (an antioxidant enzyme) were measured in vetiver root and shoot following chelant-assisted phytostabilization. In the presence of 15 mM kg {sup -1} EDTA, vetiver accumulated 4460 and 480 mg Pb kg{sup -1} dry root and shoot tissue, respectively; that are 15- and 24-fold higher compared to those in untreated controls. Despite higher Pb concentrations in the plant tissues, the amount of total thiols and catalase activity in EDTA treated vetiver tissues was comparable to chelant unamended controls, indicating lowered Pb toxicity by chelation with EDTA. The identification of glutathione (referred as PC{sub 1}) (m/z 308.2), along with chelated complexes like Pb-EDTA (m/z 498.8) and PC{sub 1}-Pb-EDTA (m/z 805.3) in vetiver root tissue using electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ES-MS) highlights the possible role of such species towards Pb tolerance in vetiver grass. - Chelated lead in conjunction with phytochelatins synthesis and complexation reduces stress in the lead tolerant vetiver grass.

  20. Liquids and liquid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, J S; Baldwin, J E; Buckingham, A D; Danishefsky, S

    2013-01-01

    Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynami

  1. Solubility of uranium in liquid gallium, indium and their alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Maltsev, Dmitry S.; Yamschikov, Leonid F.; Osipenko, Alexander G.; Kormilitsyn, Mikhail V.

    2014-01-01

    Pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels (SNF) employing molten salts and liquid metals as working media is considered as a possible alternative to the existing liquid extraction (PUREX) processes. Liquid salts and metals allow reprocessing highly irradiated high burn-up fuels with short cooling times, including the fuels of fast neutron reactors. Pyrochemical technology opens a way to practical realization of short closed fuel cycle. Liquid low-melting metals are immiscible with molten salts and can be effectively used for separation (or selective extraction) of SNF components dissolved in fused salts. Binary or ternary alloys of eutectic compositions can be employed to lower the melting point of the metallic phase. However, the information on SNF components behaviour and properties in ternary liquid metal alloys is very scarce

  2. XNBR-grafted halloysite nanotube core-shell as a potential compatibilizer for immiscible polymer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paran, S.M.R.; Naderi, G.; Ghoreishy, M.H.R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Attached an utilitarian silane coupling agent to the HNT via a sol-gel method. • Developed and analyzed the HNT/XNBR core-shell particles via sol-gel technique. • Enhanced the reactivity of the surface of HNT through XNBR grafting. • The act of HNT/XNBR as a compatibilizer in PA6/NBR TPEs. • Immiscible Polymer System with a good balanced physical and mechanical properties. - Abstract: Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) grafted with carboxylated nitrile byutadiene rubber (XNBR) were synthesized via a sol-gel method. The HNTs as an inorganic cores were pre-treated with 3-Glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane, then successfully coated with the XNBR as an organic shell. The properties of XNBR-grafted HNTs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results suggested that the XNBR grafted to the surfaces of HNTs successfully. Then the TPE nanocomposites based on polyamide-6 (PA6) and nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) containing various XNBR-grafted and pristine HNTs were prepared via a direct melt mixing method. The morphology, mechanical, dynamic mechanical and rheological properties of the prepared TPE nanocomposites were investigated. The results show that the XNBR-grafted HNTs can effectively improve the morphology and mechanical properties of the PA6/NBR TPEs. The morphology study of the prepared nanocomposites show that the effect of XNBR-grafted HNTs on the size reduction of NBR phase is markedly more effective than the pristine HNTs and rose by 50% in the same concentrations. Mechanical measurements show that the Young’s modulus of the TPE nanocomposites rose by 60% in just 7 wt% of XNBR-grafted HNT loading. The results indicate that the introduction of HNT/XNBR core-shells into the PA6/NBR TPEs can enhances the interfacial interactions

  3. Evolution of Immiscibly Blended Functionalized Polymers with Respect to Cure Parameters and Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Nicholas Walter Medicus

    Powder coatings are becoming ubiquitous in the coating marketplace due to the absence of solvents in their formulation, but they have yet to see implementation in low-reflectance outdoor applications. This demand could be met by utilizing polymer blends formulated with low loadings of matting agents and pigments. The goal of this research is a thorough characterization of prototype low-reflectance coatings through several analytical techniques. Prototypical thermoset blends consist of functionalized polyurethanes rendered immiscible by differences in polar and hydrogen bonding characteristics, resulting in a surface roughened by droplet domains. Analysis of both pigmented and control clear films was performed. This research project had three primary aims: (1) determine the composition of the resin components of the polymer blend; (2) to monitor the evolution of domains before and during curing of clear polymer blends; (3) to monitor the evolution of these domains when pigments are added to these blends. The clear films enabled unhindered analysis by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy on the binder. However, these domains provided no spectroscopic signatures despite their observation by optical microscopy. This necessitated the development of a new procedure for cross-section preparation that leaves no contamination from polishing media, which enabled Raman mapping of the morphology via an introduced marker peak from styrene monomer. The clears were analyzed as a powder and as films that were quenched at various cure-times using FTIR, Raman, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and thermomechanical methods to construct a model of coating evolution based on cure parameters and polymer dynamics. Domains were observed in the powder, and underwent varying rates of coarsening as the cure progressed. TEM, scanning electron microscopy and thermomechanical methods were also used on pigmented systems at different states of the cure, including in

  4. XNBR-grafted halloysite nanotube core-shell as a potential compatibilizer for immiscible polymer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paran, S.M.R.; Naderi, G., E-mail: g.naderi@ippi.ac.ir; Ghoreishy, M.H.R.

    2016-09-30

    Highlights: • Attached an utilitarian silane coupling agent to the HNT via a sol-gel method. • Developed and analyzed the HNT/XNBR core-shell particles via sol-gel technique. • Enhanced the reactivity of the surface of HNT through XNBR grafting. • The act of HNT/XNBR as a compatibilizer in PA6/NBR TPEs. • Immiscible Polymer System with a good balanced physical and mechanical properties. - Abstract: Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) grafted with carboxylated nitrile byutadiene rubber (XNBR) were synthesized via a sol-gel method. The HNTs as an inorganic cores were pre-treated with 3-Glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane, then successfully coated with the XNBR as an organic shell. The properties of XNBR-grafted HNTs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results suggested that the XNBR grafted to the surfaces of HNTs successfully. Then the TPE nanocomposites based on polyamide-6 (PA6) and nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) containing various XNBR-grafted and pristine HNTs were prepared via a direct melt mixing method. The morphology, mechanical, dynamic mechanical and rheological properties of the prepared TPE nanocomposites were investigated. The results show that the XNBR-grafted HNTs can effectively improve the morphology and mechanical properties of the PA6/NBR TPEs. The morphology study of the prepared nanocomposites show that the effect of XNBR-grafted HNTs on the size reduction of NBR phase is markedly more effective than the pristine HNTs and rose by 50% in the same concentrations. Mechanical measurements show that the Young’s modulus of the TPE nanocomposites rose by 60% in just 7 wt% of XNBR-grafted HNT loading. The results indicate that the introduction of HNT/XNBR core-shells into the PA6/NBR TPEs can enhances the interfacial interactions

  5. Study of solid/liquid and solid/gas interfaces in Cu–isoleucine complex by surface X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, Pilar; Rubio-Zuazo, Juan; Castro, German R.

    2013-01-01

    The enzymes could be understood like structures formed by amino acids bonded with metals, which act as active sites. The research on the coordination of metal–amino acid complexes will bring light on the behavior of metal enzymes, due to the close relation existing between the atomic structure and the functionality. The Cu–isoleucine bond is considered as a good model system to attain a better insight into the characteristics of naturally occurring copper metalloproteins. The surface structure of metal–amino acid complex could be considered as a more realistic model for real systems under biologic working conditions, since the molecular packing is decreased. In the surface, the structural constrains are reduced, keeping the structural capability of surface complex to change as a function of the surrounding environment. In this work, we present a surface X-ray diffraction study on Cu–isoleucine complex under different ambient conditions. Cu(Ile) 2 crystals of about 5 mm × 5 mm × 1 mm have been growth, by seeding method in a supersaturated solution, presenting a surface of high quality. The sample for the surface diffraction study was mounted on a cell specially designed for solid/liquid or solid/gas interface analysis. The Cu–isoleucine crystal was measured under a protective dry N 2 gas flow and in contact with a saturated metal amino acid solution. The bulk and the surface signals were compared, showing different atomic structures. In both cases, from surface diffraction data, it is observed that the atomic structure of the top layer undergoes a clear structural deformation. A non-uniform surface relaxation is observed producing an inhomogeneous displacement of the surface atoms towards the surface normal.

  6. On-line hyphenation of centrifugal partition chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography for the fractionation of flavonoids from Hippophaë rhamnoides L. berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Thomas; Destandau, Emilie; Elfakir, Claire

    2011-09-09

    Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC), a liquid-liquid preparative chromatography using two immiscible solvent systems, benefits from numerous advantages for the separation or purification of synthetic or natural products. This study presents the on-line hyphenation of CPC-Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (CPC-ELSD) with High Performance Liquid Chromatography-UV (HPLC-UV) for the fractionation of flavonols from a solvent-free microwave extract of sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L., Elaeagnaceae) berries. An Arizona G system was used for the fractionation of flavonoids by CPC and a fused core Halo C18 column allowed the on-line analyses of collected fractions by HPLC. The on-line CPC/HPLC procedure allowed the simultaneous fractionation step at preparative scale combined with the HPLC analyses which provide direct fingerprint of collected fractions. Thus the crude extract was simplified and immediate information on the composition of fractions could be obtained. Furthermore, this methodology reduced the time of post-fractionation steps and facilitated identification of main molecules by Mass Spectrometry (MS). Rutin, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin-rhamnoside, quercetin and isorhamnetin were identified. CPC-ELSD/HPLC-UV could be considered as a high-throughput technique for the guided fractionation of bioactive natural products from complex crude extracts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Final summarizing report on Grant DE-SC0001014 "Separation of Highly Complex Mixtures by Two-dimension Liquid Chromatography"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiochon, Georges [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2013-09-16

    The goal of our research was a fundamental investigation of methods available for the coupling of two separate chromatographic separations that would considerably enhance the individual separation power of each of these two separations. This gain arises from the combination of two independent retention mechanisms, one of them separating the components that coelute on the other column, making possible the separation of many more compounds in a given time. The two separation mechanisms used must be very different. This is possible because many retention mechanisms are available, using different kinds of molecular interactions, hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions, polar interactions, hydrogen bonding, complex formation, ionic interactions, steric exclusion. Two methods can be used, allowing separations to be performed in space (spreading the bands of sample components on a plate covered with stationary phase layer) or in time (eluting the sample components through a column and detecting the bands leaving the column). Both offer a wide variety of possible combinations and were studied.

  8. Electrochemical analyses of diffusion behaviors and nucleation mechanisms for neodymium complexes in [DEME][TFSA] ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MATSUMIYA, Masahiko; ISHII, Mai; KAZAMA, Ryo; KAWAKAMI, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The cathodic reaction; Nd(III) + 3e − → Nd(0) was observed at −3.30 V in [DEME][TFSA]. • The diffusion coefficient of Nd(III) in [DEME][TFSA] was evaluated from semi-integral analysis. • The nucleation mechanism of Nd nuclei was altered from instantaneous to progressive nucleation. • The number density of Nd nuclei was increased as the overpotential was increased. • The electrodeposits from [DEME][TFSA] were identified Nd metal and oxide mixtures by XPS. - ABSTRACT: The electrochemical and nucleation behavior of Nd(III) in the ammonium-based ionic liquid (IL), N,N-diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl) ammonium bis(trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl) amide, [DEME] [TFSA], were investigated in this study. The cathodic reaction of Nd(III) [Nd(III) + 3e − → Nd(0)] was observed at −3.30 V vs. Ag/Ag(I) using cyclic voltammetry at 353 K. The diffusion coefficient of Nd(III) was estimated to be 1.35 ± 0.10 × 10 −13 m 2 s −1 at 353 K using semi-integral and semi-differential analyses. The initial process of Nd electrodeposition was also evaluated by chronoamperometry, indicating that the initial nucleation and growth of Nd on the Pt electrode occurred via instantaneous nucleation at −3.40 V. As the applied potential became more negative, the mechanism changed from instantaneous to progressive nucleation. The number density of Nd nuclei in the initial stage of nucleation decreased as the overpotential increased. Furthermore, the electrodeposition of Nd was carried out under the conditions of −3.40 V and −3.60 V at 353 K. SEM observations of the electrodeposits were consistent with the series of results obtained by chronoamperometry. The electrodeposits consisted mainly of Nd metal and oxide mixtures, whereas bonding with the light elements (C, F, and S) of the IL was suppressed, as demonstrated by EDX and XPS. The results suggested that sufficient dehydration and control of the water content of the electrolyte are important factors

  9. Electrodeposition of Polymer Nanostructures using Three Diffuse Double Layers: Polymerization beyond the Liquid/Liquid Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya, Velpula; Sangaranarayanan, M. V.

    2018-04-01

    Nanostructured conducting polymers have received immense attention during the past few decades on account of their phenomenal usefulness in diverse contexts, while the interface between two immiscible liquids is of great interest in chemical and biological applications. Here we propose a novel Electrode(solid)/Electrolyte(aqueous)/Electrolyte(organic) Interfacial assembly for the synthesis of polymeric nanostructures using a novel concept of three diffuse double layers. There exist remarkable differences between the morphologies of the polymers synthesized using the conventional electrode/electrolyte method and that of the new approach. In contrast to the commonly employed electrodeposition at liquid/liquid interfaces, these polymer modified electrodes can be directly employed in diverse applications such as sensors, supercapacitors etc.

  10. Interface-driven alloying and metallic glass formation in nano-multilayers in an immiscible Y-Nb system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.G.; Liu, B.X.; Nanjing Univ.

    1999-01-01

    Several new amorphous alloys were obtained in an immiscible Y-Nb system by room temperature 190 keV xenon ion mixing of Y-Nb multilayered films, which were designed to include a sufficient fraction of interfacial atoms and thus possessed a high free energy comparable to that of the amorphous state. In addition, two metastable f.c.c. phases were formed in Y-rich and Nb-rich multilayered films, respectively. The growth kinetics of the f.c.c. phases and their effect on the composition range of amorphization are also discussed. To understand the observed unusual alloying behaviors, a Gibbs free-energy diagram was constructed based on Miedema's model. The diagram included the free-energy curves of all the involved phases as well as that of the Y-Nb multilayered films including the extra interfacial free energy and thus gave a qualitative and reasonable interpretation to the formation of metastable alloys upon ion mixing. Furthermore, some multilayered films with a sufficient fraction of interfacial atoms were subjected to steady-state thermal annealing, which also resulted in the formation of the Y-Nb amorphous phases, suggesting that alloying in this immiscible system was actually driven by the interfacial free energy

  11. Smart candle soot coated membranes for on-demand immiscible oil/water mixture and emulsion switchable separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zhao, Zhihong; Li, Dianming; Tian, Haifeng; Zha, Fei; Feng, Hua; Guo, Lin

    2017-09-21

    Oil/water separation is of great importance for the treatment of oily wastewater, including immiscible light/heavy oil-water mixtures, oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsions. Smart surfaces with responsive wettability have received extensive attention especially for controllable oil/water separation. However, traditional smart membranes with a switchable wettability between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity are limited to certain responsive materials and continuous external stimuli, such as pH, electrical field or light irradiation. Herein, a candle soot coated mesh (CSM) with a larger pore size and a candle soot coated PVDF membrane (CSP) with a smaller pore size with underwater superoleophobicity and underoil superhydrophobicity were successfully fabricated, which can be used for on-demand immiscible oil/water mixtures and surfactants-stabilized oil/water emulsion separation, respectively. Without any continuous external stimulus, the wettability of our membranes could be reversibly switched between underwater superoleophobicity and underoil superhydrophobicity simply by drying and washing alternately, thus achieving effective and switchable oil/water separation with excellent separation efficiency. We believe that such smart materials will be promising candidates for use in the removal of oil pollutants in the future.

  12. Fundamental problems on immiscibility, crystallization, and chemical interaction between stainless steel 304 and glasses for radioactivewaste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Tadashi; Yokoyama, Hayaichi

    1982-01-01

    Immiscibility and crystallization, and chemical interaction with stainless steel, SUS 304, which is designed as a canister material, were investigated on non-radioactive glasses with simulated waste of 26.4 wt%. Although glasses whose initial color was black changed to yellow or yellow-brown by heat-treatment at 600 0 C, the change of color was hardly observed by the treatment at 850 0 C. Molybdenum oxide and molybdate were detected in all heat-treated glasses. It was deduced that the compounds were existing as meta-stable particle corresponding to immiscibility particle at 600 0 C and as stable crystallized particle at 850 0 C. The chemical interaction occurred at the interface between glasses and SUS 304, whose surface was attacked by boundary corrosion proceeding to uniform corrosion with increasing temperature and time. Chromium oxide layer was mainly formed in the region suffered chemical interaction. It was deduced that the chemical interaction was moderated due to the formation of protective layer, which mainly consisted of nickel oxide, at the same time as the formation of Cr 2 O 3 layer. (author)

  13. Study of variation in thermal width of nematic and induced smectic ordering phase of citric acid (CA) and 4-heptyloxybenzoic acid (7OBA) hydrogen bonded liquid crystal complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, S.; Jayaprakasam, R.; Praveena, R.; Rajasekaran, T. R.; Senthil, T. S.; Vijayakumar, V. N.

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen-bonded liquid crystals (HBLCs) have been derived from nonmesogenic citric acid (CA) and mesogenic 4-heptyloxybenzoic acid (7OBA) yielding a highly ordered smectic C (Sm C) phase along with the new smectic X (Sm X) phase which has been identified as fingerprint-type texture. Optical (polarizing optical microscopy), thermal (differential scanning calorimetry) and structural (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) properties are studied. A noteworthy observation is that the intermolecular H-bond (between CA and 7OBA) influences on its melting point and clearing temperature of the HBLCs which exhibits lower value than those of the individual compounds. A typical extended mesophase region has been observed in the present complex while varying the mixture ratio (1:1 to 1:3) than those of individual compounds. The change in the ratio of the mesogenic compound in the mixture alters thermal properties such as enthalpy value and thermal span width in nematic (N) region of HBLC complex. Optical tilt angle measurement of CA+7OBA in Sm C phase has been discussed to identify the molecular position in the mesophase.

  14. Analysis of metallic nanoparticles and their ionic counterparts in complex matrix by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan; Luo, Li; Li, Hai-Pu; Wang, Qiang; Yang, Zhao-Guang; Qu, Zhi-Peng; Ding, Ru

    2018-05-15

    Developing quantification and characterization methodology for metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) and their ionic component in complex matrix are crucial for the evaluation of their environmental behavior and health risks to humans. In this study, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography combined ICP-MS was established for the characterization of MNPs in complex matrix. The ionic component could be separated from NPs with the optimized parameters of aqueous mobile phase. Good linear relationship between average diameter and retention time of NPs was obtained using HPLC-ICP-MS and the size smaller than 40 nm could be determined with this method, the detected results were in accordance with TEM results. The low detection limit of AuNPs and Au(Ⅲ) (both in sub-μg/L level) showed that this method was promising for the characterization of AuNPs and Au(Ⅲ) in environmental water. The mass concentration of ionic Au(Ⅲ) in environmental water could be detected using the proposed HPLC-ICP-MS and the concentration of AuNPs was obtained by subtracting the Au(Ⅲ) concentration from the total Au (The concentration of total Au was detected by ICP-MS after microwave digestion). Furthermore this proposed HPLC-ICP-MS method and single particle-ICPMS (SP-ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of the Ag speciation in commercial antibacterial products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The phase transport and reactions of γ-irradiated aqueous-ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howett, S.; Joseph, J.; Noel, J.J.; Wren, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    A novel technology based on the transfer of chemical species across water/ionic liquid interfaces via specific complexation reactions is currently being considered for the separation and sequestration of metal ion contaminants from radioactive waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle. An ideal solvent for these applications should have a high intrinsic selectivity for a targeted metal or group of metals (e.g., trans-Pu actinides, lanthanides, or other fission products), an efficient switching mechanism (between complexation and decomplexation), and a high immiscibility with aqueous solutions. These characteristics must be maintained in the chemical, radiation, and mass transport environments present during the separation process. Ionic liquids (ILs) have an almost negligible vapour pressure and high thermal stability. Their ability to dissolve a wide range of substrate molecules and potential to be highly resilient in radiation fields make ILs particularly promising media. The separation efficiency of the biphasic system will depend on many parameters, including the aqueous oxidation state of the targeted metal ion, and the thermodynamics and kinetics of interfacial transport and metal-ligand complex formation at the water/IL interface or in the IL phase. The most uncertain and unstudied area for these applications is the effect of ionizing radiation on the stability and separation efficiency of the biphasic system. The present study investigates the effect of γ-radiation on gas/IL and water/IL interfacial stability and mass transfer with trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl)imide, a phosphonium-based IL. The IL, in contact with either gas or water, was irradiated at a dose rate of 6.4 kGy·h -1 . Gas-phase samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the changes in the IL and aqueous phases were monitored by conductivity measurements and Raman spectroscopy. In this paper we discuss these observations and their

  16. Stabilizing liquid drops of arbitrary shape by the interfacial jamming of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Thomas P.; Cui, Mengmeng; Emrick, Todd

    2018-01-30

    A stabilized assembly including a first liquid phase of non-spherical droplets in a second liquid phase, wherein the second liquid phase is immiscible with the first phase, and nanoparticle surfactants assembled at an interface of the non-spherical droplets and the second phase is disclosed. The nanoparticle surfactants include nanoparticles and end-functionalized polymers that can interact through ligand type interactions, and the first phase is stabilized by a disordered, jammed layer of nanoparticle surfactants. A method of preparing a stabilized assembly is also disclosed.

  17. Dynamics of multiphase systems with complex microstructure. I. Development of the governing equations through nonequilibrium thermodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.; Öttinger, H.C.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a general model for the dynamic behavior of multiphase systems in which the bulk phases and interfaces have a complex microstructure (for example, immiscible polymer blends with added compatibilizers, or polymer stabilized emulsions with thickening agents dispersed in the

  18. Validation of numerical solvers for liquid metal flow in a complex geometry in the presence of a strong magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anita; Pulugundla, Gautam; Smolentsev, Sergey; Abdou, Mohamed; Bhattacharyay, Rajendraprasad

    2018-04-01

    Following the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code validation and verification proposal by Smolentsev et al. (Fusion Eng Des 100:65-72, 2015), we perform code to code and code to experiment comparisons between two computational solvers, FLUIDYN and HIMAG, which are presently considered as two of the prospective CFD tools for fusion blanket applications. In such applications, an electrically conducting breeder/coolant circulates in the blanket ducts in the presence of a strong plasma-confining magnetic field at high Hartmann numbers, it{Ha} (it{Ha}^2 is the ratio between electromagnetic and viscous forces) and high interaction parameters, it{N} (it{N} is the ratio of electromagnetic to inertial forces). The main objective of this paper is to provide the scientific and engineering community with common references to assist fusion researchers in the selection of adequate computational means to be used for blanket design and analysis. As an initial validation case, the two codes are applied to the classic problem of a laminar fully developed MHD flows in a rectangular duct. Both codes demonstrate a very good agreement with the analytical solution for it{Ha} up to 15, 000. To address the capabilities of the two codes to properly resolve complex geometry flows, we consider a case of three-dimensional developing MHD flow in a geometry comprising of a series of interconnected electrically conducting rectangular ducts. The computed electric potential distributions for two flows (Case A) it{Ha}=515, it{N}=3.2 and (Case B) it{Ha}=2059, it{N}=63.8 are in very good agreement with the experimental data, while the comparisons for the MHD pressure drop are still unsatisfactory. To better interpret the observed differences, the obtained numerical data are analyzed against earlier theoretical and experimental studies for flows that involve changes in the relative orientation between the flow and the magnetic field.

  19. An efficient implicit-pressure/explicit- saturation-method-based shifting-matrix algorithm to simulate two-phase, immiscible flow in porous media with application to CO2 sequestration in the subsurface

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2013-07-04

    The flow of two or more immiscible fluids in porous media is widespread, particularly in the oil industry. This includes secondary and tertiary oil recovery and carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration. Accurate predictions of the development of these processes are important in estimating the benefits and consequences of the use of certain technologies. However, this accurate prediction depends--to a large extent--on two things. The first is related to our ability to correctly characterize the reservoir with all its complexities; the second depends on our ability to develop robust techniques that solve the governing equations efficiently and accurately. In this work, we introduce a new robust and efficient numerical technique for solving the conservation laws that govern the movement of two immiscible fluids in the subsurface. As an example, this work is applied to the problem of CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers; however, it can also be extended to incorporate more scenarios. The traditional solution algorithms to this problem are modeled after discretizing the governing laws on a generic cell and then proceed to the other cells within loops. Therefore, it is expected that calling and iterating these loops multiple times can take a significant amount of computer time. Furthermore, if this process is performed with programming languages that require repeated interpretation each time a loop is called, such as Matlab, Python, and others, much longer time is expected, particularly for larger systems. In this new algorithm, the solution is performed for all the nodes at once and not within loops. The solution methodology involves manipulating all the variables as column vectors. By use of shifting matrices, these vectors are shifted in such a way that subtracting relevant vectors produces the corresponding difference algorithm. It has been found that this technique significantly reduces the amount of central-processing-unit (CPU) time compared with a traditional

  20. Flow split characterization of two immiscible phases with different wettability scenarios: a numerical investigation using a coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes system

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Kai

    2017-12-23

    Numerical investigation of flow branching of two-phase immiscible fluids in a Y-shaped, planner channel is conducted by solving the coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Naiver-Stokes system with finite element method. In this system a horizontal channel is branched into two identical and symmetric branches with the walls of the channels assigned several different wettability values. The studied scenarios consider a blob of one phase initially encompassed by the other phase. When an applied pressure difference induces flow, it is found that the motion of the blob in the two branches is significantly influenced by the wettability conditions at the channel walls. For the scenarios in which symmetric wettability configurations are applied, the blob divides equally among the two branches. For all the other scenarios in which the wettability configurations are asymmetric, the blob splits unequally. Comparisons between the different scenarios are performed in terms of the volume of the blob in each branch to investigate the percentage of the blob volume moving in each branch. In addition, we also considered the effect of the flow rate on the branching scenarios. In this work it is demonstrated that even though the pressure gradient is the same among the two symmetric branches, the phases partition differently when asymmetric wettability conditions are applied. The significance of this work may be that it provides evidences that relative permeability (a concept that has been introduced in the study of multiphase flow in porous media) may be more complex than just a mere scalar quantity function of saturation. It also highlights the importance of including the effects of wettability conditions in capillary pressure relationships

  1. Effect of Exfoliated Graphene Nanoplatelets on Rheological, Morphological, Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Immiscible Polypropylene/Polystyrene (PP/PS Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Abbasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyolefin/polystyrene blends, prepared by mechanical mixing, were immiscible blends having two-phase structure with weak interface. An improvement in compatibility of PP and PS led to their enhanced blend properties and applications. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exfoliated graphene nanoplatelets (xGnP on the compatibility of PP/PS (80:20 blend by their rheological and mechanical behaviors. Samples of the blends were prepared using an internal mixer through simultaneous feeding of the components into the mixing chamber. The properties of blends were evaluated by rheometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and mechanical tests. Rheological results showed that addition of xGnP, led to an increase in storage modulus and complex viscosity, especially at low frequencies, probably due to the confinement of polymer chain motions. SEM observations on the morphology of blends revealed that increasing the xGnP content obviously reduced the domain diameter of the dispersed PS phase, indicating a good compatibilizing effect for xGnP. The addition of xGnP into the PP/PS blend increased the tensile modulus and decreased the elongation-at-break, resulting from the rigidity and intrinsic mechanical characteristics of the grapheme nanoplatelets. Crystallinity of the samples also increased with higher xGnP content, which could be assigned to the nucleating effect of graphene platelets. Moreover, thermal stability of the blends were improved by increasing the xGnP level because xGnP as an efficient compatibilizing agent with high thermal conductivity provided a more uniform heat distribution profile.

  2. Spectroscopic investigations of Eu{sup 3+}-complexes with ligands containing multiple diglycolamide pendant arms in a room temperature ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, Arijit [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mohapatra, Prasanta K., E-mail: mpatra@barc.gov.in [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Iqbal, Mudassir; Huskens, Jurriaan; Verboom, Willem [Laboratory of Molecular Nanofabrication, MESA" + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P. O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2014-10-15

    Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to study the complexation of different ligands containing multiple diglycolamide (DGA) pendent arms such as T-DGA (tripodal diglycolamide), C4DGA (upper rim functionalized calix [4] arene with four DGA moieties), and C8DGA (both side functionalized calix [4] arene with eight DGA moieties) with Eu{sup 3+} in ionic liquids such as C{sub 4}mimNTf{sub 2} and C{sub 8}mimNTf{sub 2} (1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulphonyl)imide). Mainly five sets of emission profiles were observed in all the spectra (1st set at∼580 nm assigned as the {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 0} transition, 2nd set at∼593 nm assigned as the {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 1} transition, 3rd set at∼613 nm assigned as the {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition, 4th set at∼650 nm assigned as the {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 3} transition, and 5th set at∼700 nm assigned as the {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 4} transition). The difference in the spectral features revealed that the nature of the complexes differs significantly from one another. Judd–Offelt constant Ω{sub 2}, which is a measure of the covalency of the metal–ligand bond, follows the order Eu{sup 3+}–C4DGA (C{sub 8}mimNTf{sub 2})>Eu{sup 3+}–C8DGA (C{sub 8}mimNTf{sub 2})>Eu{sup 3+}–TODGA (C{sub 4}mimNTf{sub 2})>Eu{sup 3+}–T-DGA (C{sub 4}mimNTf{sub 2})>Eu{sup 3+}{sub aq}. The high intensity of the {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 2} transitions in all complexes suggests that Eu{sup 3+} resides in a highly asymmetric environment. From the splitting patterns of the transitions, the local site symmetry around Eu{sup 3+} was found to be C{sub 2V} for the Eu{sup 3+}–T-DGA complex in both C{sub 4}mimNTf{sub 2} and a 1:5 acetonitrile–water mixture, C{sub 4V} for Eu{sup 3+}–C8DGA and Eu{sup 3+}–TODGA complexes, and either C{sub 1}, C{sub 2}, or C{sub S} for the Eu{sup 3+}–C4DGA complex. A linear relationship between the {sup 5}D{sub 0}–{sup 7}F{sub 1} splitting

  3. A Study on the Violent Interactions of an Immiscible Drop impacting on a Superheated Pool

    KAUST Repository

    Alchalabi, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    turning into strong nucleate boiling. The strong nucleate boiling usually starts right upon impact, and when the temperature of the oil at one impact velocity is increased, it starts turning into film boiling, in which the liquid Perfluorohexane is covered by a vapor layer of its own vapor.

  4. Flow split characterization of two immiscible phases with different wettability scenarios: a numerical investigation using a coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes system

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Kai; Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu

    2017-01-01

    Numerical investigation of flow branching of two-phase immiscible fluids in a Y-shaped, planner channel is conducted by solving the coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Naiver-Stokes system with finite element method. In this system a horizontal channel

  5. A study on the unsteady flow of two immiscible micropolar and Newtonian fluids through a horizontal channel: A numerical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devakar, M.; Raje, Ankush

    2018-05-01

    The unsteady flow of two immiscible micropolar and Newtonian fluids through a horizontal channel is considered. In addition to the classical no-slip and hyper-stick conditions at the boundary, it is assumed that the fluid velocities and shear stresses are continuous across the fluid-fluid interface. Three cases for the applied pressure gradient are considered to study the problem: one with constant pressure gradient and the other two cases with time-dependent pressure gradients, viz. periodic and decaying pressure gradient. The Crank-Nicolson approach has been used to obtain numerical solutions for fluid velocity and microrotation for diverse sets of fluid parameters. The nature of fluid velocities and microrotation with various values of pressure gradient, Reynolds number, ratio of viscosities, micropolarity parameter and time is illustrated through graphs. It has been observed that micropolarity parameter and ratio of viscosities reduce the fluid velocities.

  6. Modeling and simulations for molecular scale hydrodynamics of the moving contact line in immiscible two-phase flows

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Tiezheng

    2009-10-29

    This paper starts with an introduction to the Onsager principle of minimum energy dissipation which governs the optimal paths of deviation and restoration to equilibrium. Then there is a review of the variational approach to moving contact line hydrodynamics. To demonstrate the validity of our continuum hydrodynamic model, numerical results from model calculations and molecular dynamics simulations are presented for immiscible Couette and Poiseuille flows past homogeneous solid surfaces, with remarkable overall agreement. Our continuum model is also used to study the contact line motion on surfaces patterned with stripes of different contact angles (i.e. surfaces of varying wettability). Continuum calculations predict the stick-slip motion for contact lines moving along these patterned surfaces, in quantitative agreement with molecular dynamics simulation results. This periodic motion is tunable through pattern period (geometry) and contrast in wetting property (chemistry). The consequence of stick-slip contact line motion on energy dissipation is discussed. © 2009 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. Investigation of the impact of immiscible oils on direct evaporation of ammonia; Ermittlung der Rolle von nicht-mischbaren Oelen bei der Direktverdampfung von Ammoniak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aecherli, P.; Boyman, T.

    2004-07-01

    The direct evaporation of the refrigerant inside the tubes allows an important minimisation of the plant refrigerant charge. The present research project summarises the experimental data on the flow boiling of ammonia inside smooth horizontal tubes and the decrease of the heat transfer coefficient due to the presence of an immiscible oil. The use of ammonia in direct expansion systems is limited due to its immiscibility with the conventional lubricating oils. The immiscible oil forms a layer with a poor conductivity, thus causing a strong reduction of the heat transfer coefficient. The present work is an experimental contribution to the direct evaporation of ammonia with the frequently used synthetic oil Mobil Gargoyle Arctic SHC 326 (viscosity grade ISO-VG 68) which is immiscible with ammonia. The results of the mean heat transfer coefficient measurements during the flow boiling are summarised with a short description of the visual observations at critical stages of the in-tube boiling. The tests have been carried out with plain tubes (with 14 mm inner diameter) at evaporation saturation temperatures from -10 {sup o}C to +10 {sup o}C for mass fluxes from G=40 to 170 kg/(m{sup 2}s) with heat fluxes from q{sub dot}=10 to 50 kW/m{sup 2}. Experiments run with a frequently used immiscible synthetic oil without any oil injection and then with oil contents from 0.1 to 3.5% (by weight) showed a significant decrease of the flow boiling heat transfer coefficient mainly at high mass fluxes. The decrease of the heat transfer coefficient is more significant in the sector of the evaporator where boiling with annular flow pattern occurs. (author)

  8. Measurement and modeling of high-pressure (vapor + liquid) equilibria of (CO2 + alkanol) binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejarano, Arturo; Gutierrez, Jorge E.; Araus, Karina A.; Fuente, Juan C. de la

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → (Vapor + liquid) equilibria of three (CO 2 + C 5 alcohol) binary systems were measured. → Complementary data are reported at (313, 323 and 333) K and from (2 to 11) MPa. → No liquid immiscibility was observed at the temperatures and pressures studied. → Experimental data were correlated with the PR-EoS and the van de Waals mixing rules. → Correlation results showed relative deviations ≤8 % (liquid) and ≤2 % (vapor). - Abstract: Complementary isothermal (vapor + liquid) equilibria data are reported for the (CO 2 + 3-methyl-2-butanol), (CO 2 + 2-pentanol), and (CO 2 + 3-pentanol) binary systems at temperatures of (313, 323, and 333) K, and at pressure range of (2 to 11) MPa. For all (CO 2 + alcohol) systems, it was visually monitored that there was no liquid immiscibility at the temperatures and pressures studied. The experimental data were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state using the quadratic mixing rules of van der Waals with two adjustable parameters. The calculated (vapor + liquid) equilibria compositions were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data with deviations for the mole fractions <8% and <2% for the liquid and vapor phase, respectively.

  9. Modeling technique for optimal recovery of immiscible light hydrocarbons as free product from contaminated aquifer

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Grant S., Jr.; Peralta, R. C.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Contamination sites associated with light non-aqueous phase liquids {LNAPL) are numerous and represent difficult cleanup problems. Remediation methods for cleanup of LNAPL fluids in subsurface systems are continuously evolving with the development of various technologies for pump.-and~treat, soil venting, and in-situ bioremediation. Evaluating the effectiveness of remediation techniques as well as attempting to improve their efficiency has been a focus of many researchers, These efforts have ...

  10. Ionic Liquids as Benign Solvents for the Extraction of Aromatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Md. Anwar; Lee, Jeesun; Kim, Dai Hyun; Nguyen, Dinh Quan; Cheong, Minserk; Kim, Hoon Sik

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been extensively investigated as promising alternatives to conventional organic solvents such as sulfolane and N,N-dimethylformamide for the selective extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons from the C 6 -C 10 hydrocarbon mixtures produced from the cracking processes of naphtha and light oils. The most important advantage of ILs over conventional organic solvents is that they are immiscible with aliphatic hydrocarbons, and thus the back extraction of ILs from the raffinate phases and top hydrocarbon-rich layers is not necessary. In this paper, a brief review on the state of the art in the utilization of ILs for aromatics separation is presented

  11. Exploration of the potential of complex fluids and liquid mineral crystals as templates for obtaining meso-porous monoliths for actinides immobilization; Exploration du potentiel de fluides complexes et cristaux liquides mineraux comme templates pour l'obtention de monolithes mesoporeux pour l'immobilisation d'actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiot, C. [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France)]|[CEA Valrho, Lab. de Chimie des Actinides (LCA), 30 - Marcoule (France)

    2006-07-01

    In the framework of generation IV reactors, the implementation of a closed cycle involves a grouped management of actinides, as well as their united insertion in a new fuel material. The researches carried out for the main variant of fuel cycle are then centred on the synthesis of a material allowing to immobilize these radioelements in an ordered way inside a solid phase of known composition and structure, and in which they have to be dispersed in an homogeneous way. In this work, is considered the study of the synthesis of innovating materials by a molecular engineering approach. The aim is to explore the properties of matrices based on complex mineral fluids for actinides immobilization, to study the confinement potential of these new mineral liquid crystal phases and to understand their interaction with the actinides. (O.M.)

  12. Pysico-chemical properties of hydrophobic ionic liquids containing1-octylpyridinium, 1-octyl-2-methylpyridinium or1-octyl-4-methylpyridinium cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Salminen, Justin; Lee, Jong-Min; Prausnitz, John M.

    2006-09-15

    This paper reports synthesis of some ionic liquids based on cations 1-octylpyridinium, 1-octyl-2-methylpyridinium or 1-octyl-4-methylpyridinium and anions dicyanamide [N(CN)2]-, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [Tf2N]-, bis(pentafluoroethylsulfonyl)imide [BETI]-, trifluoromethyl sulfonate [TfO]-, nonafluorobutyl sulfonate [NfO]-, tetrafluoroborate [BF4]-, trifluorophenylborate [BF3Ph]- or hexafluoroarsenate [AsF6]-. Melting points, decomposition temperatures, densities, mutual solubilities with water, and viscosities have been measured. Unlike similar ionic liquids containing imidazolium cations, pyridinium ionic liquids studied here are nearly immiscible in water. Viscosities are similar and water content is slightly lower than those for ionic liquids containing imidazolium cations.

  13. Mass transfer with complex chemical reactions in gas–liquid systems : two-step reversible reactions with unit stoichiometric and kinetic orders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vas Bhat, R.D.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Versteeg, G.F.

    2000-01-01

    An absorption model to study gas–liquid mass transfer accompanied by reversible two-step reactions in the liquid phase has been presented. This model has been used to determine mass transfer rates, enhancement factors and concentration profiles over a wide range of process conditions. Although

  14. Mass transfer with complex chemical reactions in gas-liquid systems: two-step reversible reactions with unit stoichiometric and kinetic orders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vas bhat, R.D.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Versteeg, Geert

    2000-01-01

    An absorption model to study gas¿liquid mass transfer accompanied by reversible two-step reactions in the liquid phase has been presented. This model has been used to determine mass transfer rates, enhancement factors and concentration profiles over a wide range of process conditions. Although

  15. Voltammetry for the charge transfer at two immiscible electrolyte solutions interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihara, S.; Suzuki, M.; Maeda, K.; Ogura, K.; Matsui, M.; Yoshida, Z.

    1989-01-01

    The voltammetry for the charge transfer (VCT) at the interface of immicible solutions is a very powerful method for understanding the dynamic features of the charge transfer because of its unmatched advantage that the transfer energy and the number of charges transferred can be measured simultaneously and in situ. In the present paper, several novel systems for electron transfer are outlined, and the following topics are discussed based on results obtained by the current scan polarography at the solution dropping electrode developed as a technique for VCT: the relation between the half-wave potential in VCT for ion transfer and the characteristics of the ion transferred; the relation between the half-wave potential in VCT for electron transfer and the electrochemical nature of a redox couple added in water and that added in organic solution; and the ion transfer through a liquid membrane promoted by electron transfer. Observations are presented and discussion is made on the characteristics of ion transfer polarograms, those of electron transfer polarograms, and ion transfer promoted by electron transfer at a liquid/membrane interface. (N.K.)

  16. When immiscible becomes miscible-Methane in water at high pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruteanu, Ciprian G; Ackland, Graeme J; Poon, Wilson C K; Loveday, John S

    2017-08-01

    At low pressures, the solubility of gases in liquids is governed by Henry's law, which states that the saturated solubility of a gas in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas. As the pressure increases, most gases depart from this ideal behavior in a sublinear fashion, leveling off at pressures in the 1- to 5-kbar (0.1 to 0.5 GPa) range with solubilities of less than 1 mole percent (mol %). This contrasts strikingly with the well-known marked increase in solubility of simple gases in water at high temperature associated with the critical point (647 K and 212 bar). The solubility of the smallest hydrocarbon, the simple gas methane, in water under a range of pressure and temperature is of widespread importance, because it is a paradigmatic hydrophobe and occurs widely in terrestrial and extraterrestrial geology. We report measurements up to 3.5 GPa of the pressure dependence of the solubility of methane in water at 100°C-well below the latter's critical temperature. Our results reveal a marked increase in solubility between 1 and 2 GPa, leading to a state above 2 GPa where the maximum solubility of methane in water exceeds 35 mol %.

  17. Silver(I)-directed growth of metal-organic complex nanocrystals with bidentate ligands of hydroquinine anthraquinone-1,4-diyl diethers as linkers at the water-chloroform interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ying; Wang, Hui-Ting; Chen, Meng; Qian, Dong-Jin; Zhang, Li; Liu, Minghua

    2014-09-01

    Immiscible liquid-liquid interfaces provide unique double phase regions for the design and construction of nanoscale materials. Here, we reported Ag(I)-directed growth of metal-organic complex nanocrystals by using AgNO3 as a connector in the aqueous solution and bidentate ligand of 1,4-bis(9-O-dihydroquininyl)anthraquinone [(DHQ)2AQN] and its enantiomer of (DHQD)2AQN in the chloroform solutions as linkers. The Ag-(DHQ)2AQN and Ag-(DHQD)2AQN complex nanocrystals were formed at the liquid-liquid interfaces and characterized by using UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as by using scanning electron microscopy. Screw-like nanocrystals were formed at the initial 30 min after the interfacial coordination reaction started, then they grew into nanorods after several days, and finally became cubic microcrystals after 2 weeks. The pure ligand showed two emission bands centered at about 363 and 522 nm in the methanol solution, the second one of which was quenched and shifted to about 470 nm in the Ag-complex nanocrystals. Two couples of reversible redox waves were recorded for the Ag-complex nanocrystals; one centered at about -0.25 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) was designated to one electron transfer process of Ag - (DHQ)2AQN and Ag - (DHQ)2AQN+, and the other one centered at about 0.2 V was designated to one electron transfer process of Ag - (DHQ)2AQN and Ag+ - (DHQ)2AQN.

  18. Visualization of residual organic liquid trapped in aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, S.H.; Wilson, J.L.; Mason, W.R.; Peplinski, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Organic liquids that are essentially immiscible with water migrate through the subsurface under the influence of capillary, viscous, and buoyancy forces. These liquids originate from the improper disposal of hazardous wastes, and the spills and leaks of petroleum hydrocarbons and solvents. The flow visualization experiments described in this study examined the migration of organic liquids through the saturated zone of aquifers, with a primary focus on the behavior of the residual organic liquid saturation, referring to that portion of the organic liquid that is trapped by capillary forces. Etched glass micromodels were used to visually observe dynamic multiphase displacement processes in pore networks. The resulting fluid distributions were photographed. Pore and blob casts were produced by a technique in which an organic liquid was solidified in place within a sand column at the conclusion of a displacement. The columns were sectioned and examined under optical and scanning electron microscopes. Photomicrographs of these sections show the morphology of the organic phase and its location within the sand matrix. The photographs from both experimental techniques reveal that in the saturated zone large amounts of residual organic liquid are trapped as isolated blobs of microscopic size. The size, shape, and spatial distribution of these blobs of residual organic liquid affect the dissolution of organic liquid into the water phase and the biotransformation of organic components. These processes are of concern for the prediction of pollution migration and the design of aquifer remediation schemes

  19. Magmatism and fenitization in the Cretaceous potassium-alkaline-carbonatitic complex of Ipanema São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Vincenza; Azzone, Rogério Guitarrari; Brotzu, Pietro; de Barros Gomes, Celso; Melluso, Leone; Morbidelli, Lucio; Ruberti, Excelso; Tassinari, Colombo Celso Gaeta; Brilli, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    The Ipanema alkaline-carbonatitic complex is part of the Meso-Cenozoic alkaline magmatism located within the southeastern part of the Brazilian Platform. Drill-core and field sampling have indicated the occurrence of glimmerites, with subordinate shonkinites (mela-syenites), clinopyroxene-bearing glimmerites, diorites and syenites. The glimmerites are cross-cut by lamprophyric dykes and calciocarbonatites. Fenitization has deeply affected the country rocks, originating dioritic and syenitic rocks. The Ipanema rocks show a distinct potassic affinity. The initial Sr-Nd- isotopic composition of the Ipanema rocks (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70661-0.70754 and 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51169-0.51181) is similar to that of tholeiitic and potassium-rich-alkaline rocks of the Eastern Paraguay. Stable isotope data for the Ipanema calciocarbonatite suggest interaction with fluids at temperatures typical of hydrothermal stages, as hypothesized for other carbonatite complexes from southeastern Brazil. The chemical differences between the lamprophyre, glimmerites, carbonatites, apatitites and magnetitites, and the absence of marked REE enrichment in the evolved lithologies, all indicate that fractional crystallization and accumulus of liquidus phases in a magma reservoir, likely coupled with liquid immiscibility processes, may have played an important role in the genesis of the Ipanema rocks.

  20. XI International conference Problems of solvation and complex formation in solutions, and VI Conference of young scientists Theoretical and experimental chemistry of liquid-phase systems (Krestovsky readings). Summary of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The collection contains materials of plenary, sectional and poster sessions, presented at the XI International conference Problems of solvation and complex formation in solutions, and VI Conference of young scientists Theoretical and experimental chemistry of liquid-phase systems (Krestovsky readings). Theoretical questions and new experimental methods of chemistry of solutions, structure and dynamics of molecular and ion-molecular systems in solution and at the phase boundary; modern aspects of applied chemistry of solutions are discussed [ru

  1. Simulation results for a multirate mass transfer modell for immiscible displacement of two fluids in highly heterogeneous porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecklenburg, Jan; Neuweiler, Insa; Dentz, Marco; Carrera, Jesus; Geiger, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    Flow processes in geotechnical applications do often take place in highly heterogeneous porous media, such as fractured rock. Since, in this type of media, classical modelling approaches are problematic, flow and transport is often modelled using multi-continua approaches. From such approaches, multirate mass transfer models (mrmt) can be derived to describe the flow and transport in the "fast" or mobile zone of the medium. The porous media is then modeled with one mobile zone and multiple immobile zones, where the immobile zones are connected to the mobile zone by single rate mass transfer. We proceed from a mrmt model for immiscible displacement of two fluids, where the Buckley-Leverett equation is expanded by a sink-source-term which is nonlocal in time. This sink-source-term models exchange with an immobile zone with mass transfer driven by capillary diffusion. This nonlinear diffusive mass transfer can be approximated for particular imbibition or drainage cases by a linear process. We present a numerical scheme for this model together with simulation results for a single fracture test case. We solve the mrmt model with the finite volume method and explicit time integration. The sink-source-term is transformed to multiple single rate mass transfer processes, as shown by Carrera et. al. (1998), to make it local in time. With numerical simulations we studied immiscible displacement in a single fracture test case. To do this we calculated the flow parameters using information about the geometry and the integral solution for two phase flow by McWorther and Sunnada (1990). Comparision to the results of the full two dimensional two phase flow model by Flemisch et. al. (2011) show good similarities of the saturation breakthrough curves. Carrera, J., Sanchez-Vila, X., Benet, I., Medina, A., Galarza, G., and Guimera, J.: On matrix diffusion: formulations, solution methods and qualitative effects, Hydrogeology Journal, 6, 178-190, 1998. Flemisch, B., Darcis, M

  2. Cu(II complexes of an ionic liquid-based Schiff base [1-{2-(2-hydroxy benzylidene amino ethyl}-3-methyl­imidazolium]Pf6: Synthesis, characterization and biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Sanjoy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two Cu(II complexes of an ionic liquid based Schiff base 1-{2-(2-hydroxybenzylideneamino ethyl}-3-methylimidazolium hexaflurophosphate, were prepared and characterized by different analytical and spectroscopic methods such as elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, UV-Vis, IR, NMR and mass spectroscopy. The Schiff base ligand was found to act as a potential bidentate chelating ligand with N, O donor sites and formed 1:2 metal chelates with Cu(II salts. The synthesized Cu(II complexes were tested for biological activity.

  3. High exhaust chrome complex using chrome tanned tannery, solid wastes and common hydrocarbons as reductants and masking agents to minimize the liquid and solid wastes: tanning and environmental impact studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, H.R.

    2005-01-01

    Still no alternate of chrome tanning has been found to achieve the best quality and quantity of leather. But the chrome tanning process is associated with the generation of very toxic liquid and solid wastes. Therefore we emphasized to develop an efficient process for the synthesis of high exhaust chrome complex that could minimize the both liquid and solid wastes up to very low limit. In this research, chrome shavings and raw organic compounds have beneficially utilized as a reductant as well as potential masking agents providing a comprehensive close loop. Two chrome tanning materials have been developed using leather shavings with molasses in product A and replacement of molasses by other organic compounds for chrome complex B. These materials have also been employed for the tanning of goatskins parallel to the commercial BCS from the market. The comparative studies revealed that, the quality of leather made from product B is either better or comparable with the conventional tanning material. The chrome contents in leather have been increased with the simultaneous decreased in spent chrome liquor. Hence the exhaustion rate of chrome complex B has been noted up to 95%. While the physical characteristics of resulted leather from product A and B have been found comparable to that of conventional tanned leather. Therefore this methodology would not only reduce liquid and solid wastes but also provide quality leather and economically multi benefits. (author)

  4. On the solid–liquid phase diagrams of binary mixtures of even saturated fatty alcohols: Systems exhibiting peritectic reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carareto, Natália D.D. [EXTRAE, Department of Food Engineering, Food Engineering Faculty, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, CEP 13083-862 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Santos, Adenílson O. dos [Social Sciences, Health and Technology Center, University of Maranhão, UFMA, CEP 65900-410 Imperatriz, MA (Brazil); Rolemberg, Marlus P. [Institute of Science and Technology, University of Alfenas, UNIFAL, Rodovia José AurélioVilela, CEP 37715400 Poços de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Cardoso, Lisandro P. [Institute of Physics GlebWataghin, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, C.P. 6165, CEP 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Costa, Mariana C. [School of Applied Science, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, CEP 13484-350 Limeira, SP (Brazil); Meirelles, Antonio J.A., E-mail: tomze@fea.unicamp.br [EXTRAE, Department of Food Engineering, Food Engineering Faculty, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, CEP 13083-862 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-10

    Highlights: • SLE of binary mixtures of saturated fatty alcohols was studied. • Experimental data were obtained using DSC and stepscan DSC. • Microscopy and X-ray diffraction used as complementary techniques. • Systems presented eutectic, peritectic and metatectic points. - Abstract: The solid–liquid phase diagrams of the following binary mixtures of even saturated fatty alcohols are reported in the literature for the first time: 1-octanol (C8OH) + 1-decanol (C10OH), 1-decanol + 1-dodecanol (C12OH), 1-dodecanol + 1-hexadecanol (C16OH) and 1-tetradecanol (C14OH) + 1-octadecanol (C18OH). The phase diagrams were obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) using a linear heating rate of 1 K min{sup −1} and further investigated by using a stepscan DSC method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and polarized light microscopy were also used to complement the characterization of the phase diagrams which have shown a complex global behavior, presenting not only peritectic and eutectic reactions, but also the metatectic reaction and partial immiscibility on solid state.

  5. On the solid–liquid phase diagrams of binary mixtures of even saturated fatty alcohols: Systems exhibiting peritectic reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carareto, Natália D.D.; Santos, Adenílson O. dos; Rolemberg, Marlus P.; Cardoso, Lisandro P.; Costa, Mariana C.; Meirelles, Antonio J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SLE of binary mixtures of saturated fatty alcohols was studied. • Experimental data were obtained using DSC and stepscan DSC. • Microscopy and X-ray diffraction used as complementary techniques. • Systems presented eutectic, peritectic and metatectic points. - Abstract: The solid–liquid phase diagrams of the following binary mixtures of even saturated fatty alcohols are reported in the literature for the first time: 1-octanol (C8OH) + 1-decanol (C10OH), 1-decanol + 1-dodecanol (C12OH), 1-dodecanol + 1-hexadecanol (C16OH) and 1-tetradecanol (C14OH) + 1-octadecanol (C18OH). The phase diagrams were obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) using a linear heating rate of 1 K min −1 and further investigated by using a stepscan DSC method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and polarized light microscopy were also used to complement the characterization of the phase diagrams which have shown a complex global behavior, presenting not only peritectic and eutectic reactions, but also the metatectic reaction and partial immiscibility on solid state

  6. Enhancement of sensitivity in the determination of organic trace compounds in complex matrices with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascher, D.G.

    2002-05-01

    The PhD-thesis deals with 'enhancement of sensitivity in the determination of organic trace compounds in complex matrices with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)'. Almost the most important factor is the enhancement of the ionization yield with Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization (APCI) or Electrospray Ionization (ESI) in LC-MS. Ionization yields of different compounds can vary by a factor of 10000. Three ways to solve this problem of little ionization yield were tried: 1) Modification of the mobile phase in HPLC 2) Chemical modification of the analytes 3) A new type of ionization called Atmospheric Pressure Photo Ionization (APPI). ad 1) By using specific additives to mobile phases ion suppression that might derive from an ion pair reagent that was necessary for chromatography could be omitted. General remarks cannot be done. ad 2) Chemical modification or so called derivatization is well known for UV- and fluorescence-detection for a long period of time. As substances containing nitrogene (e.g. primary, secondary or tertiary amines) often have good ionization yields, poor or relatively poor ionizable substances like carboxylic acids, sugars and partially phenolic steroids were used as analytes for derivatization reactions. By using Dansyl as Dansylchlorid or Dansylhydrazine a basic derivatization agent could be found that ionizes very well. A 200 times more sensitive determination of estrogenes is possible after derivatization with Dansylchlorid. Using a tandem-mass-spectrometer a lower limit of quantification of 2 pg/mL plasma could be reached by using 1 mL of plasma. For ketones like carvon and campher an enhancement by a factor of 500 and 4000 could be reached by using Dansylhydrazine as the derivatization agent. For fatty acids DMEQ as derivatization agent enhanced the sensitivity by a factor of 20 to 100. ad 3) APPI as a new ionization mode showed really good results for specific molecules. Relatively unpolar substances as diphenylsulfide

  7. Measurement and modeling of high-pressure (vapor + liquid) equilibria of (CO{sub 2} + alkanol) binary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, Arturo; Gutierrez, Jorge E. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Araus, Karina A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Bioprocesos, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Avda. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Fuente, Juan C. de la, E-mail: juan.delafuente@usm.c [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Centro Regional de Estudios en Alimentos Saludables, Blanco 1623, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: (Vapor + liquid) equilibria of three (CO{sub 2} + C{sub 5} alcohol) binary systems were measured. Complementary data are reported at (313, 323 and 333) K and from (2 to 11) MPa. No liquid immiscibility was observed at the temperatures and pressures studied. Experimental data were correlated with the PR-EoS and the van de Waals mixing rules. Correlation results showed relative deviations {<=}8 % (liquid) and {<=}2 % (vapor). - Abstract: Complementary isothermal (vapor + liquid) equilibria data are reported for the (CO{sub 2} + 3-methyl-2-butanol), (CO{sub 2} + 2-pentanol), and (CO{sub 2} + 3-pentanol) binary systems at temperatures of (313, 323, and 333) K, and at pressure range of (2 to 11) MPa. For all (CO{sub 2} + alcohol) systems, it was visually monitored that there was no liquid immiscibility at the temperatures and pressures studied. The experimental data were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state using the quadratic mixing rules of van der Waals with two adjustable parameters. The calculated (vapor + liquid) equilibria compositions were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data with deviations for the mole fractions <8% and <2% for the liquid and vapor phase, respectively.

  8. Flow of two immiscible fluids in a periodically constricted tube: Transitions to stratified, segmented, churn, spray or segregated flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamopoulos, John; Fraggedakis, Dimitris; Dimakopoulos, Yiannis

    2015-11-01

    We study the flow of two immiscible, Newtonian fluids in a periodically constricted tube driven by a constant pressure gradient. Our Volume-of-Fluid algorithm is used to solve the governing equations. First the code is validated by comparing its predictions to previously reported results for stratified and pulsing flow. Then it is used to capture accurately all the significant topological changes that take place. Initially, the fluids have a core-annular arrangement, which is found to either remain the same or change to a different arrangement depending on the fluid properties, the pressure driving the flow or the flow geometry. The flow-patterns that appear are the core-annular, segmented, churn, spray and segregated flow. The predicted scalings near pinching of the core fluid concur with similarity predictions and earlier numerical results (Cohen et al. (1999)). Flow-pattern maps are constructed in terms of the Reynolds and Weber numbers. Our results provide deeper insights in the mechanism of the pattern transitions and are in agreement with previous studies on core-annular flow (Kouris & Tsamopoulos (2001 & 2002)), segmented flow (Lac & Sherwood (2009)) and churn flow (Bai et al. (1992)). GSRT of Greece through the program ``Excellence'' (Grant No. 1918, entitled ``FilCoMicrA'').

  9. Multiphase flows of N immiscible incompressible fluids: A reduction-consistent and thermodynamically-consistent formulation and associated algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, S.

    2018-05-01

    We present a reduction-consistent and thermodynamically consistent formulation and an associated numerical algorithm for simulating the dynamics of an isothermal mixture consisting of N (N ⩾ 2) immiscible incompressible fluids with different physical properties (densities, viscosities, and pair-wise surface tensions). By reduction consistency we refer to the property that if only a set of M (1 ⩽ M ⩽ N - 1) fluids are present in the system then the N-phase governing equations and boundary conditions will exactly reduce to those for the corresponding M-phase system. By thermodynamic consistency we refer to the property that the formulation honors the thermodynamic principles. Our N-phase formulation is developed based on a more general method that allows for the systematic construction of reduction-consistent formulations, and the method suggests the existence of many possible forms of reduction-consistent and thermodynamically consistent N-phase formulations. Extensive numerical experiments have been presented for flow problems involving multiple fluid components and large density ratios and large viscosity ratios, and the simulation results are compared with the physical theories or the available physical solutions. The comparisons demonstrate that our method produces physically accurate results for this class of problems.

  10. Pore-scale observation and 3D simulation of wettability effects on supercritical CO2 - brine immiscible displacement in drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, R.; Wan, J.; Chen, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Wettability is a factor controlling the fluid-fluid displacement pattern in porous media and significantly affects the flow and transport of supercritical (sc) CO2 in geologic carbon sequestration. Using a high-pressure micromodel-microscopy system, we performed drainage experiments of scCO2 invasion into brine-saturated water-wet and intermediate-wet micromodels; we visualized the scCO2 invasion morphology at pore-scale under reservoir conditions. We also performed pore-scale numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations to obtain 3D details of fluid-fluid displacement processes. Simulation results are qualitatively consistent with the experiments, showing wider scCO2 fingering, higher percentage of scCO2 and more compact displacement pattern in intermediate-wet micromodel. Through quantitative analysis based on pore-scale simulation, we found that the reduced wettability reduces the displacement front velocity, promotes the pore-filling events in the longitudinal direction, delays the breakthrough time of invading fluid, and then increases the displacement efficiency. Simulated results also show that the fluid-fluid interface area follows a unified power-law relation with scCO2 saturation, and show smaller interface area in intermediate-wet case which suppresses the mass transfer between the phases. These pore-scale results provide insights for the wettability effects on CO2 - brine immiscible displacement in geologic carbon sequestration.

  11. Drop-on-demand sample introduction system coupled with the flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow for direct molecular analysis of complex liquid microvolume samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, J Niklas; Pfeuffer, Kevin P; Shelley, Jacob T; Bings, Nicolas H; Hieftje, Gary M

    2012-11-06

    One of the fastest developing fields in analytical spectrochemistry in recent years is ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (ADI-MS). This burgeoning interest has been due to the demonstrated advantages of the method: simple mass spectra, little or no sample preparation, and applicability to samples in the solid, liquid, or gaseous state. One such ADI-MS source, the flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (FAPA), is capable of direct analysis of solids just by aiming the source at the solid surface and sampling the produced ions into a mass spectrometer. However, direct introduction of significant volumes of liquid samples into this source has not been possible, as solvent loads can quench the afterglow and, thus, the formation of reagent ions. As a result, the analysis of liquid samples is preferably carried out by analyzing dried residues or by desorbing small amounts of liquid samples directly from the liquid surface. In the former case, reproducibility of sample introduction is crucial if quantitative results are desired. In the present study, introduction of liquid samples as very small droplets helps overcome the issues of sample positioning and reduced levels of solvent intake. A recently developed "drop-on-demand" (DOD) aerosol generator is capable of reproducibly producing very small volumes of liquid (∼17 pL). In this paper, the coupling of FAPA-MS and DOD is reported and applications are suggested. Analytes representing different classes of substances were tested and limits of detections were determined. Matrix tolerance was investigated for drugs of abuse and their metabolites by analyzing raw urine samples and quantification without the use of internal standards. Limits of detection below 2 μg/mL, without sample pretreatment, were obtained.

  12. Measurement of interactions between solid particles, liquid droplets, and/or gas bubbles in a liquid using an integrated thin film drainage apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Louxiang; Sharp, David; Masliyah, Jacob; Xu, Zhenghe

    2013-03-19

    A novel device was designed to measure drainage dynamics of thin liquid films confined between a solid particle, an immiscible liquid droplet, and/or gas bubble. Equipped with a bimorph force sensor, a computer-interfaced video capture, and a data acquisition system, the newly designed integrated thin film drainage apparatus (ITFDA) allows for the direct and simultaneous measurements of force barrier, true film drainage time, and bubble/droplet deformation under a well-controlled external force, receding and advancing contact angles, capillary force, and adhesion (detachment) force between an air bubble or oil droplet and a solid, a liquid, or an air bubble in an immiscible liquid. Using the diaphragm of a high-frequency speaker as the drive mechanism for the air bubble or oil droplet attached to a capillary tube, this newly designed device is capable of measuring forces over a wide range of hydrodynamic conditions, including bubble approach and retract velocities up to 50 mm/s and displacement range up to 1 mm. The results showed that the ITFDA was capable of measuring hydrodynamic resistance, film drainage time, and other important physical parameters between air bubbles and solid particles in aqueous solutions. As an example of illustrating the versatility, the ITFDA was also applied to other important systems such as interactions between air bubble and oil droplet, two air bubbles, and two oil droplets in an aqueous solution.

  13. Chemical studies on the distribution of some heavy metals between two immiscible solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizk, S.E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Separation and recovery of divalent zinc and cobalt ions from mixed sulphate and thiocyanate solutions have been carried out using CYANEX 921 (trioctylphosphine oxide), CYANEX 923 (a mixture of straight chain alkylated phosphine oxides) and CYANEX 925 (a mixture of branched chain alkylated phosphine oxides) in kerosene. Different parameters affecting the extraction equilibrium of Zn(II) and Co(II) in addition to temperature, were studied and the stoichiometry of the extracted Zn(II) and Co(II) species were postulated based on slope analysis method. The respective loaded organic phases were stripped with different mineral acids. The extraction percent of metal ions was found to increase with increasing ph and zinc was preferentially extracted over cobalt in the different investigated systems. The highest separation factor was obtained when using 0.015 M CYANEX 925 as extractant. Based on the obtained results, application of the method was tested to separate Zn(II) and Co(II) from Nickel Metal Hydride batteries (Ni-MH batteries) leached by 2.0 M H 2 SO 4 and good results were obtained. The extraction of Zn(II) and Co(II) from aqueous mixed sulphate and thiocyanate medium through supported liquid membrane (SLM) using CYANEX 925 in kerosene as carrier supported on cellulose nitrate membrane was studied. The influence of different parameters on the permeation of the investigated metals such as ph, extractant concentration, sulphuric acid concentration, thiocyanate concentration and strip solution concentration were also studied. The selectivity of the used system for Zn / Co separation is evaluated.

  14. Application of High-Resolution Ultrasonic Spectroscopy for analysis of complex formulations. Compressibility of solutes and solute particles in liquid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckin, V

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes key aspects of interpretation of compressibility of solutes in liquid mixtures obtained through high-resolution measurements of ultrasonic parameters. It examines the fundamental relationships between the characteristics of solutes and the contributions of solutes to compressibility of liquid mixtures expressed through apparent adiabatic compressibility of solutes, and adiabatic compressibility of solute particles. In addition, it analyses relationships between the adiabatic compressibility of solutes and the measured ultrasonic characteristics of mixtures. Especial attention is given to the effects of solvents on the measured adiabatic compressibility of solutes and on concentration increment of ultrasonic velocity of solutes in mixtures.

  15. Liquid-liquid interfacial properties of a symmetrical Lennard-Jones binary mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Ruiz, F. J.; Blas, F. J., E-mail: felipe@uhu.es [Laboratorio de Simulación Molecular y Química Computacional, CIQSO-Centro de Investigación en Química Sostenible and Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, 21007 Huelva (Spain); Moreno-Ventas Bravo, A. I. [Laboratorio de Simulación Molecular y Química Computacional, CIQSO-Centro de Investigación en Química Sostenible and Departamento de Geología, Universidad de Huelva, 21007 Huelva (Spain)

    2015-09-14

    We determine the interfacial properties of a symmetrical binary mixture of equal-sized spherical Lennard-Jones molecules, σ{sub 11} = σ{sub 22}, with the same dispersive energy between like species, ϵ{sub 11} = ϵ{sub 22}, but different dispersive energies between unlike species low enough to induce phase separation. We use the extensions of the improved version of the inhomogeneous long-range corrections of Janecek [J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 6264 (2006)], presented recently by MacDowell and Blas [J. Chem. Phys. 131, 074705 (2009)] and Martínez-Ruiz et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 184701 (2014)], to deal with the interaction energy and microscopic components of the pressure tensor. We perform Monte Carlo simulations in the canonical ensemble to obtain the interfacial properties of the symmetrical mixture with different cut-off distances r{sub c} and in combination with the inhomogeneous long-range corrections. The pressure tensor is obtained using the mechanical (virial) and thermodynamic route. The liquid-liquid interfacial tension is also evaluated using three different procedures, the Irving-Kirkwood method, the difference between the macroscopic components of the pressure tensor, and the test-area methodology. This allows to check the validity of the recent extensions presented to deal with the contributions due to long-range corrections for intermolecular energy and pressure tensor in the case of binary mixtures that exhibit liquid-liquid immiscibility. In addition to the pressure tensor and the surface tension, we also obtain density profiles and coexistence densities and compositions as functions of pressure, at a given temperature. According to our results, the main effect of increasing the cut-off distance r{sub c} is to sharpen the liquid-liquid interface and to increase the width of the biphasic coexistence region. Particularly interesting is the presence of a relative minimum in the total density profiles of the symmetrical mixture. This minimum is related

  16. Liquid-liquid interfacial properties of a symmetrical Lennard-Jones binary mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Ruiz, F. J.; Blas, F. J.; Moreno-Ventas Bravo, A. I.

    2015-01-01

    We determine the interfacial properties of a symmetrical binary mixture of equal-sized spherical Lennard-Jones molecules, σ 11 = σ 22 , with the same dispersive energy between like species, ϵ 11 = ϵ 22 , but different dispersive energies between unlike species low enough to induce phase separation. We use the extensions of the improved version of the inhomogeneous long-range corrections of Janecek [J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 6264 (2006)], presented recently by MacDowell and Blas [J. Chem. Phys. 131, 074705 (2009)] and Martínez-Ruiz et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 184701 (2014)], to deal with the interaction energy and microscopic components of the pressure tensor. We perform Monte Carlo simulations in the canonical ensemble to obtain the interfacial properties of the symmetrical mixture with different cut-off distances r c and in combination with the inhomogeneous long-range corrections. The pressure tensor is obtained using the mechanical (virial) and thermodynamic route. The liquid-liquid interfacial tension is also evaluated using three different procedures, the Irving-Kirkwood method, the difference between the macroscopic components of the pressure tensor, and the test-area methodology. This allows to check the validity of the recent extensions presented to deal with the contributions due to long-range corrections for intermolecular energy and pressure tensor in the case of binary mixtures that exhibit liquid-liquid immiscibility. In addition to the pressure tensor and the surface tension, we also obtain density profiles and coexistence densities and compositions as functions of pressure, at a given temperature. According to our results, the main effect of increasing the cut-off distance r c is to sharpen the liquid-liquid interface and to increase the width of the biphasic coexistence region. Particularly interesting is the presence of a relative minimum in the total density profiles of the symmetrical mixture. This minimum is related with a desorption of the

  17. Combination of deep eutectic solvent and ionic liquid to improve biocatalytic reduction of 2-octanone with Acetobacter pasteurianus GIM1.158 cell

    OpenAIRE

    Pei Xu; Peng-Xuan Du; Min-Hua Zong; Ning Li; Wen-Yong Lou

    2016-01-01

    The efficient anti-Prelog asymmetric reduction of 2-octanone with Acetobacter pasteurianus GIM1.158 cells was successfully performed in a biphasic system consisting of deep eutectic solvent (DES) and water-immiscible ionic liquid (IL). Various DESs exerted different effects on the synthesis of (R)-2-octanol. Choline chloride/ethylene glycol (ChCl/EG) exhibited good biocompatibility and could moderately increase the cell membrane permeability thus leading to the better results. Adding ChCl/EG ...

  18. Time domain reflectometry-measuring dielectric permittivity to detect soil non-acqeous phase liquids contamination-decontamination processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Comegna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of soils with non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL constitutes a serious geo-environmental problem, given the toxicity level and high mobility of these organic compounds. To develop effective decontamination methods, characterisation and identification of contaminated soils are needed. The objective of this work is to explore the potential of dielectric permittivity measurements to detect the presence of NAPLs in soils. The dielectric permittivity was measured by Time Domain Reflectometry method (TDR in soil samples with either different volumetric content of water (w and NAPL (NAPL or at different stages during immiscible displacement test carried out with two different flushing solutions. A mixing model proposed by Francisca and Montoro, was calibrated to estimate the volume fraction of contaminant present in soil. Obtained results, showed that soil contamination with NAPL and the monitoring of immiscible fluid displacement, during soil remediation processes, can be clearly identified from dielectric measurements.

  19. Correction of effects due to reactions on complex nuclei in a sample of hydrogen-like antiproton annihilations from a heavy liquid bubble chamber experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fett, E.; Haatuft, A.; Olsen, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    A method is presented, which has been used to determine the pion multiplicity distributions for antiproton annihilations on free protons from a sample of events obtained in a heavy liquid bubble chamber experiment. The method uses data obtained in the experiment in question together with the usual invariance principles satisfied by strong interactions. Furthermore no particular nuclear model is assumed

  20. Capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection: A universal tool for the determination of supported liquid membrane selectivity in electromembrane extraction of complex samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 1267, SI (2012), s. 96-101 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/10/1219 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : supported liquid membranes * selectivity measurements * capillary electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.612, year: 2012

  1. Liquid and gas chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry for the determination of 13C-valine isotopic ratios in complex biological samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godin, Jean-Philippe; Breuillé, Denis; Obled, Christiane; Papet, Isabelle; Schierbeek, Henk; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Fay, Laurent-Bernard

    2008-01-01

    On-line gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) is commonly used to measure isotopic ratios at natural abundance as well as for tracer studies in nutritional and medical research. However, high-precision (13)C isotopic enrichment can also be measured by liquid

  2. Quantitative proteome analysis of Streptomyces coelicolor Nonsporulating liquid cultures demonstrates a complex differentiation process comparable to that occurring in sporulating solid cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manteca, Angel; Jung, Hye R; Schwämmle, Veit

    2010-01-01

    involved in primary metabolism (ribosome, Krebs cycle, and energy production) were detected in greater abundance in MI. The most remarkable protein abundance differences between MII from solid and liquid cultures were associated with the final stages of hyphae compartmentalization and spore formation....

  3. A Partial Equilibrium Theory for Drops and Capillary Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searcy, Alan W.; Beruto, Dario T.; Barberis, Fabrizio

    2006-01-01

    The two-century old theory of Young and Laplace retains a powerful influence on surface and interface studies because it quantitatively predicts the height of rise of capillary liquids from the contact angles of drops. But the classical theory does not acknowledge that equilibrium requires separate minimization of partial free energies of one-component liquids bonded to immiscible solids. We generalize a theorem of Gibbs and Curie to obtain a partial equilibrium (PE) theory that does so and that also predicts the height of capillary rise from contact angles of drops. Published observations and our own measurements of contact angles of water bonded to glass and Teflon surfaces support the conclusion of PE theory that contact angles of meniscuses and of drops are different dependent variables. PE theory provides thermodynamic and kinetic guidance to nanoscale processes that the classical theory obscures, as illustrated by examples in our concluding section

  4. Investigation of Chemical-Foam Design as a Novel Approach toward Immiscible Foam Flooding for Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Nasab, S M; Zitha, P L J

    2017-10-19

    Strong foam can be generated in porous media containing oil, resulting in incremental oil recovery; however, oil recovery factor is restricted. A large fraction of oil recovered by foam flooding forms an oil-in-water emulsion, so that costly methods may need to be used to separate the oil. Moreover, strong foam could create a large pressure gradient, which may cause fractures in the reservoir. This study presents a novel chemical-foam flooding process for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) from water-flooded reservoirs. The presented method involved the use of chemically designed foam to mobilize the remaining oil after water flooding and then to displace the mobilized oil to the production well. A blend of two anionic surfactant formulations was formulated for this method: (a) IOS, for achieving ultralow interfacial tension (IFT), and (b) AOS, for generating a strong foam. Experiments were performed using Bentheimer sandstone cores, where X-ray CT images were taken during foam generation to find the stability of the advancing front of foam propagation and to map the gas saturation for both the transient and the steady-state flow regimes. Then the proposed chemical-foam strategy for incremental oil recovery was tested through the coinjection of immiscible nitrogen gas and surfactant solutions with three different formulation properties in terms of IFT reduction and foaming strength capability. The discovered optimal formulation contains a foaming agent surfactant, a low IFT surfactant, and a cosolvent, which has a high foam stability and a considerably low IFT (1.6 × 10 -2 mN/m). Coinjection resulted in higher oil recovery and much less MRF than the same process with only using a foaming agent. The oil displacement experiment revealed that coinjection of gas with a blend of surfactants, containing a cosolvent, can recover a significant amount of oil (33% OIIP) over water flooding with a larger amount of clean oil and less emulsion.

  5. Laboratory and numerical investigations of kinetic interface sensitive tracers transport for immiscible two-phase flow porous media systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatomir, Alexandru Bogdan A. C.; Sauter, Martin

    2017-04-01

    A number of theoretical approaches estimating the interfacial area between two fluid phases are available (Schaffer et al.,2013). Kinetic interface sensitive (KIS) tracers are used to describe the evolution of fluid-fluid interfaces advancing in two phase porous media systems (Tatomir et al., 2015). Initially developed to offer answers about the supercritical (sc)CO2 plume movement and the efficiency of trapping in geological carbon storage reservoirs, KIS tracers are tested in dynamic controlled laboratory conditions. N-octane and water, analogue to a scCO2 - brine system, are used. The KIS tracer is dissolved in n-octane, which is injected as the non-wetting phase in a fully water saturated porous media column. The porous system is made up of spherical glass beads with sizes of 100-250 μm. Subsequently, the KIS tracer follows a hydrolysis reaction over the n-octane - water interface resulting in an acid and phenol which are both water soluble. The fluid-fluid interfacial area is described numerically with the help of constitutive-relationships derived from the Brooks-Corey model. The specific interfacial area is determined numerically from pore scale calculations, or from different literature sources making use of pore network model calculations (Joekar-Niasar et al., 2008). This research describes the design of the laboratory setup and compares the break-through curves obtained with the forward model and in the laboratory experiment. Furthermore, first results are shown in the attempt to validate the immiscible two phase flow reactive transport numerical model with dynamic laboratory column experiments. Keywords: Fluid-fluid interfacial area, KIS tracers, model validation, CCS, geological storage of CO2

  6. Conductivity and phase morphology of carbon black-filled immiscible polymer blends under creep: an experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yamin; Liu, Xianhu; Hao, Xiaoqiong; Schubert, Dirk W

    2016-11-30

    Blends of carbon black (CB)-filled co-continuous immiscible polystyrene/poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PS/PMMA) with a PS/PMMA ratio of 50/50 and CB selectively located in the PS phase have been prepared by melt blending. The simultaneous evolution of conductivity and phase morphology of blend composites was investigated under shear and in the quiescent state at 200 °C. It was found that shear deformation had a significant influence on the conductivity of the unfilled PS/PMMA blend and its composites, which was attributed to the change of phase morphology during shear. After the shear stress of 10 kPa, the conductivity of PS/PMMA blends filled with 2 vol% of CB decreased by about two orders of magnitude and the phase morphology transformed from a fine co-continuous structure into a highly elongated lamellar structure. The deformation of phase morphology and the decrease of conductivity were weakened upon decreasing the shear stress or increasing the CB concentration. During subsequent recovery, pronounced phase structure coarsening was observed in the mixture and the conductivity increased as well. A simple model describing the behavior of conductivity under shear deformation was derived and utilized for the description of the experimental data. For the first time, the Burgers model was used to describe the conductivity, and the viscoelastic and viscoplastic parameters were deduced by fitting the conductivity under shear. The results obtained in this study provide a deeper insight into the evolution of phase structure in the conductive polymer blend composite induced by shear deformation.

  7. Structural and thermodynamic aspects of aqueous solution of trivalent lanthanides complexation by hydrophobic compounds of tartaric acid, by gluconic acid and related molecules. Outlook for liquid-liquid extraction of these cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroux, Sebastien

    1999-01-01

    This work deals with the complexation of lanthanide(III) ions by different molecules and with the synthesis of hydrophobic molecules able to extract them of an aqueous solution. Its aim is to describe the systems obtained by the determination of the formation constants of the species and by the description of their structure. The aim of this work is also to obtain a selective complexation of lanthanides(III) towards actinides(III), because this aim presents a great interest in the reprocessing of radioactive wastes. The complexation studies have been followed by potentiometry, NMR, UV-visible spectroscopy and circular dichroism. The first mixtures studied are the couples: lanthanide(III)-gluconic acid (LH). The complexes system they formed has been described and the structures have been specified; a strong complexation has been revealed. The MLH -2 specie induces a selectivity between the lanthanides(III) equivalent to those obtained with EDTA and its uncharged character allows to consider the use of gluconic acid as extractant. The use of ligands as glucosaminic acid or glucamine slows the beginning of the complexation until pH= 6-7. The neutral specie MLH -2 is formed too. In order to use the complexing properties of gluconic acid and its selective character towards lanthanides(III), the synthesis of molecules derived containing a long alkyl chain with a hydrophobic character has been carried out for using them as extracting agents. An original method of the preparation of tartramides is presented. This preparation consists of an amidation of one of the carboxylic functions of the tartaric acid by a fatty amine. These molecules, surface-active, complex the lanthanides(III) and extract them in an organic phase using the tri-n-butyl phosphate as co-extractant. (O.M.)

  8. Separation of thiophene from heptane with ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domańska, Urszula; Lukoshko, Elena Vadimovna; Królikowski, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium-based ILs was measured. ► High selectivity and distribution ratio for the extraction of thiophene was found. ► [BMPYR][TCM] was proposed as entrainer for the separation process. ► Extraction of sulphur-compounds from alkanes was proposed. -- Abstract: Ionic liquids (ILs) are well known novel green solvents, which can be used for removing sulfur compounds from gasoline and diesel oils. Ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data are presented for mixtures of {ionic liquid (1) + thiophene (2) + heptane (3)} at T = 298.15 K and ambient pressure to analyze the performance of the ionic liquid (IL) in the extraction of thiophene from the alkanes. Three pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids have been studied: 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate, ([BMPYR][FAP]), 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tetracyanoborate, [BMPYR][TCB] and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tricyanomethanide, [BMPYR][TCM]. The results are discussed in terms of the selectivity and distribution ratio of separation of related systems. The immiscibility in the binary liquid systems of (thiophene + heptane) with all used ILs was observed. The [TCM] − anion in comparison with [TCB] − and [FAP] − anions shows much higher selectivity and slightly lower distribution ratio for extraction of thiophene. The non-random two liquid NRTL model was used successfully to correlate the experimental tie-lines and to calculate the phase composition error in mole fraction in the ternary systems. The average root mean square deviation (RMSD) of the phase composition was 0.047. The densities of [BMPYR][TCM] in temperature range from (298.15 to 348.15) K were measured. The data presented here show that the [BMPYR][TCM] ionic liquid can be used as an alternative solvent for the separation of thiophene from the hydrocarbon stream using solvent liquid–liquid extraction at ambient conditions

  9. The role of industrial-sanitary laboratory of medical aid station of Federal administration in prophylaxis of emergency situations at the plants of nuclear-energy complex and liquidation of their after-effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipin, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    On the example of several radiation accidents the author summarized the personal practical experience in organization of work in industrial-sanitary laboratories based at the nuclear energy plants of nuclear-energy complex, in respect of prophylaxis of emergency radiation situations and liquidation of their after-effects. It is pointed out that successful activity in rendering emergency medical aid in emergency situations, caused by radiation accidents, is possible only subject to close contact of science, practical medical care and sanitary service which should become a part of the uniform public health system. 4 refs

  10. Lewis Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lucy C; Hogg, James M; Swadźba-Kwaśny, Małgorzata

    2017-08-21

    Until very recently, the term Lewis acidic ionic liquids (ILs) was nearly synonymous with halometallate ILs, with a strong focus on chloroaluminate(III) systems. The first part of this review covers the historical context in which these were developed, speciation of a range of halometallate ionic liquids, attempts to quantify their Lewis acidity, and selected recent applications: in industrial alkylation processes, in supported systems (SILPs/SCILLs) and in inorganic synthesis. In the last decade, interesting alternatives to halometallate ILs have emerged, which can be divided into two sub-sections: (1) liquid coordination complexes (LCCs), still based on halometallate species, but less expensive and more diverse than halometallate ionic liquids, and (2) ILs with main-group Lewis acidic cations. The two following sections cover these new liquid Lewis acids, also highlighting speciation studies, Lewis acidity measurements, and applications.

  11. Elution behavior of N-heterocyclic derivatives of mixed ruthenium(II)-sulfoxide complexes in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, H.E.; Silva, D.O.

    1991-01-01

    The elution behaviour of a series of dichlorobis-(dimethylsulfoxide)bis(N-heterocyclic) ruthenium(II) complexes has been investigated using reversed-phase HPLC. Similar trends as those displayed by the free N-heterocyclic bases have been observed for the complexes, essentially reflecting the hydrophobic properties of the aromatic ligands. (orig.)

  12. Homogeneous nucleation ahead of the solid-liquid interface during rapid solidification of binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.M.; Elmer, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    In recent rapid solidification experiments on Al-5%Be alloys, a Liquid Phase Nucleation (LPN) model was developed to explain the formation of periodic arrays of randomly-oriented Be-rich particles in an Al-rich matrix. In the LPN model, Be droplets were assumed to nucleate in the liquid ahead of the solid-liquid interface, but no justification for this was given. Here the authors present a model which considers the geometric constraints (imposed by proximity to the interface) on the number of solute atoms available to form a nucleus. Calculations based on this model predict that nucleation of second-phase particles can be most likely a short distance ahead of the interface in immiscible binary systems such as Al-Be. As part of the nucleation calculations, a semi-empirical method of calculating solid-liquid surface tensions in binary systems was developed, and is presented in the Appendix

  13. Measurement and modeling of high-pressure (vapour + liquid) equilibria of (CO2 + alcohol) binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, Jorge E.; Bejarano, Arturo; Fuente, Juan C. de la

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus based on a static-analytic method assembled in this work was utilized to perform high pressure (vapour + liquid) equilibria measurements with uncertainties estimated at 2 + 1-propanol), (CO 2 + 2-methyl-1-propanol), (CO 2 + 3-methyl-1-butanol), and (CO 2 + 1-pentanol) binary systems at temperatures of (313, 323, and 333) K, and at pressure range of (2 to 12) MPa. For all the (CO 2 + alcohol) systems, it was visually monitored to insure that there was no liquid immiscibility at the temperatures and pressures studied. The experimental results were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state using the quadratic mixing rules of van der Waals with two adjustable parameters. The calculated (vapour + liquid) equilibria compositions were found to be in good agreement with the experimental values with deviations for the mol fractions <0.12 and <0.05 for the liquid and vapour phase, respectively.

  14. Liquid-liquid mixing by gas injection in a pool configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradini, M.L.

    1994-02-01

    An experimental apparatus was designed and constructed to study the mixing process of two immiscible liquids, in a pool configuration, by bottom gas injection. The apparatus consisted of a vertical pyrex conduit of 15.2 centimeters of internal diameter. To the lower part of the conduit was attached a porous plate through which the gas was injected. The experiments were photographically recorded. The pictures were digitized and a method was developed to quantify the mixing region thickness. This method requires knowledge of the void fraction, for each liquid, as a function of the superficial gas velocity. Because of this, void fraction was measured for the bubbly and churn flow regimes, in a pool configuration for every liquid. A new correlation, based on the drift flux model, is proposed for void fraction as a function of superficial gas velocity. It has been observed that mixing can start either in bubbly or churn flow regimes, depending on the liquid pair properties. Three mechanistic models were derived to aid in correlating the data, two for bubbly flow and one for churn flow. A transition region between these two flow regimes, was deduced, but not directly measured. A set of correlations was developed from the models and it is proposed to be implemented in current codes that model Molten Core Concrete Interactions (MCCI). The implications that the present work has on MCCI have been described. It can be deduced that mixing between the oxidic and the metallic phases will occur during the interaction

  15. Immiscibility of Fluid Phases at Magmatic-hydrothermal Transition: Formation of Various PGE-sulfide Mineralization for Layered Basic Intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitova, L.; Borisenko, A.; Morgunov, K.; Zhukova, I.

    2007-12-01

    Fluid inclusions in quartz of the Merensky Reef (Bushveld Complex, South Africa) and the Chineisky Pluton (Transbaikal Region, Russia) were studied using cryometry, microthermometry, Raman-spectroscopy, LA ICP- MS, scanning electronic microscopy, gas-chromatography and isotopic methods. This allowed us to document some examples of fluid phase separation resulting in formation of different types of PGE-sulfide mineralization for layered basic intrusions. The results obtained show at least three generations of fluid separated from boiling residual alumosilicate intercumulus liquid of the Merensky Reef. The earliest fluid phase composed of homogenous high-dense methane and nitrogen gas mixture was identified in primary gas and co-existing anomalous fluid inclusions from symplectitic quartz. The next generation, heterophase fluid, composed of brines containing a free low-dense (mostly of carbon dioxide) gas phase, was observed in primary multiphase and coexisting gas-rich inclusions of miarolitic quartz crystals. The latest generation was also a heterophase fluid (low salinity water-salt solution and free low-dense methane gas phase) found in primary water-salt and syngenetic gas inclusions from peripheral zones of miarolitic quartz crystals. For the Chineisky Pluton reduced endocontact magmatogene fluids changed to oxidized low salinity hydrothermal fluids in exocontact zone. This resulted in formation of sulfide-PGE enrichment marginal zones of intrusion. The results obtained give us a possibility to suggest that: 1) Fluid phase separation is a typical feature of magmatogene fluids for layered basic intrusions. 2) Reduced fluids can extract and transport substantial PGE and sulfide concentrations. 3) Oxidation of reduced fluids is one of the most important geochemical barriers causing abundant PGE minerals and sulfides precipitation. This in turn results in both formation of PGE reefs or enriched contact zones of layered basic intrusions. This work was supported by

  16. Adsorption and ion-pairing interactions of phospholipids in the system of two immiscible electrolyte solutions. Part II: ...

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jänchenová, Hana; Štulík, K.; Mareček, Vladimír

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 604, č. 2 (2007), s. 109-114 ISSN 0022-0728 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : liquid/liquid interfaces * adsorption of phosphodolipids * DPPC * surface-active amines * ion pairing Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.580, year: 2007

  17. Structural Characteristics of Homogeneous Hydrophobic Ionic Liquid-HNO3-H2O Ternary System: Experimental Studies and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Yang, Y Isaac; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Qingde; Shen, Xinghai; Gao, Yi Qin

    2016-06-16

    The solubility of water in the hydrophobic ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C2mim][NTf2]) increases significantly in the presence of HNO3. [C2mim][NTf2] is completely miscible with HNO3 but immiscible with water. The triangular phase diagram of the ternary system [C2mim][NTf2]-HNO3-H2O was determined at 300.1 K. The homogeneous [C2mim][NTf2]-HNO3-H2O phase is thermodynamically stable, while it can be separated into two phases with an increase of water content. Experiments (electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry) and molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate the interaction between [C2mim][NTf2], HNO3, and water in the homogeneous phase. It was found that NO3(-) ions interact with both C2mim(+) and water via H-bonding and act as a "bridge" to induce a large amount of water to be dissolved in the hydrophobic IL phase. This confirms that the complexes [C2mim-NTf2-C2mim](+) and [NTf2-C2mim-NTf2](-) exist in the homogeneous [C2mim][NTf2]-HNO3-H2O system at the concentration of HNO3 up to 27.01 wt % and of water as high as 20.74 wt %.

  18. Isothermal (vapour + liquid) equilibrium data for binary systems of (n-hexane + CO2 or CHF3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams-Wynn, Mark D.; Naidoo, Paramespri; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • (Static-analytic + static-synthetic) phase equilibrium measurements. • Binary VLE data for (CO 2 + n-hexane) and (trifluoromethane + n-hexane). • Thermodynamic models were fitted to the experimental data. • Liquid–liquid immiscibility occurred with (trifluoromethane + n-hexane) system. - Abstract: The (vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) was measured for the (carbon dioxide + n-hexane) binary system at temperatures between T = (303.1 and 323.1) K. In addition, VLE and (vapour + liquid + liquid) equilibria (VLLE) were determined for the (trifluoromethane + n-hexane) binary system at temperatures between T = (272.9 and 313.3) K and pressures in the range of P = (1.0 to 5.7) MPa. Measurements were undertaken in a static-analytic apparatus, with verification of experimental values undertaken using a static-synthetic equilibrium cell to measure bubble point pressures at several compositions. The phase equilibrium results were modelled with the Peng–Robinson equation of state with the Mathias–Copeman alpha function, coupled with the Wong–Sandler mixing rules. Regression of the data was performed with the NRTL and the UNIQUAC activity coefficient models with the Wong–Sandler mixing rules, and the performance of the models was compared. Critical loci for both systems were estimated, using the calculation procedures of Ungerer et al. and Heidemann and Khalil. For the (trifluoromethane + n-hexane) system, liquid–liquid immiscibility was experienced at the lowest temperature measured (T = 272.9 K). At higher temperatures, no immiscibility was visible during the measurements; however, the models continued to predict a miscibility gap.

  19. Ionic liquids in chemical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Sebastian; Haumann, Marco; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The development of engineering applications with ionic liquids stretches back to the mid-1990s when the first examples of continuous catalytic processes using ionic liquids and the first studies of ionic liquid-based extractions were published. Ever since, the use of ionic liquids has seen tremendous progress in many fields of chemistry and engineering, and the first commercial applications have been reported. The main driver for ionic liquid engineering applications is to make practical use of their unique property profiles, which are the result of a complex interplay of coulombic, hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions. Remarkably, many ionic liquid properties can be tuned in a wide range by structural modifications at their cation and anion. This review highlights specific examples of ionic liquid applications in catalysis and in separation technologies. Additionally, the application of ionic liquids as working fluids in process machines is introduced.

  20. Separation of V(V)-4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinolato complex from a large excess reagent using an ODS cartridge for high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toru; Kaneko, Emiko; Yotsuyanagi, Takao

    2006-12-01

    A selective off-line preconcentration technique for the V(V) complex with 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol has been developed and successfully applied to the determination of V(V) in an air-borne sample. The target complex was separated from excess reagent using an ODS cartridge and water as the eluent. The complex was then concentrated on another ODS cartridge using tetrabutylammonium bromide and eluted with methanol; the eluate was applied to a one-drop concentration/HPLC. A detection limit as low as (6.05 +/- 0.82)x 10(-11) M (5 ppt) was achieved.

  1. Behavior of new complexes of tetrakis(4-methoxylphenyl)porphyrin with heavy rare earth elements in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Feng; Wang, Hong; Hou, An-Xin; Wang, Chang-Fa; Zhang, Hua-Shan

    2004-08-01

    An HPLC method has been developed for the separation of new complexes of tetrakis(4-methoxylphenyl)porphyrin (TMOPP) with four heavy rare earth elements (RE = Y, Er, Tm, and Yb). The function of amine and acid in the mobile phase has been investigated and a reasonable explanation is presented. Successful separation of the RE-TMOPP-Cl complexes is accomplished in 10 min with a mobile phase consisting of methanol-water-acetic acid-triethanolamine. The detection limits (S/N= 3) for the four complexes are 0.01 microg/mL. This method is rapid, sensitive, and simple.

  2. Quantification of biopharmaceuticals and biomarkers in complex biological matrices: a comparison of liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and ligand binding assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bults, Peter; van de Merbel, Nico C; Bischoff, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The quantification of proteins (biopharmaceuticals or biomarkers) in complex biological samples such as blood plasma requires exquisite sensitivity and selectivity, as all biological matrices contain myriads of proteins that are all made of the same 20 proteinogenic amino acids, notwithstanding

  3. High temperature aqueous potassium and sodium phosphate solutions: two-liquid-phase boundaries and critical phenomena, 275-4000C; potential applications for steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.L.

    1981-12-01

    Two-liquid-phase boundaries at temperatures between 275 and 400 0 C were determined for potassium phosphate and sodium phosphate aqueous solutions for compositions from 0 to 60 wt % dissolved salt. The stoichiometric mole ratios, K/PO 4 or Na/PO 4 , were varied from 1.00 to 2.12 and from 1.00 to 2.16 for the potassium and sodium systems, respectively. Liquid-vapor critical temperatures were also determined for most of the dilute liquid phases that formed. The minimum temperatures (below which a single solution existed) of two-liquid-phase formation were 360 0 C for the potassium system and 279 0 C for the sodium system at mole ratios of 2.00 and 2.16, respectively. For the sodium system at mole ratios greater than 2.16, solids crystallized at lower temperatures as expected from earlier studies. In contrast, potassium solutions that were explored at mole ratios from 2.12 to 3.16 and at temperatures below 360 0 C did not produce solid phases nor liquid-liquid immiscibilities. Aside from the generally unusual observations of two immiscible liquids in an aqueous inorganic salt system, the results could possibly be applied to the use of phosphate additives in steam power generators. 16 refs

  4. X-ray imaging for studying behavior of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures using Paris-Edinburgh press

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Yoshio; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Park, Changyong; Shen, Guoyin; Shibazaki, Yuki; Wang, Yanbin

    2015-01-01

    Several X-ray techniques for studying structure, elastic properties, viscosity, and immiscibility of liquids at high pressures have been integrated using a Paris-Edinburgh press at the 16-BM-B beamline of the Advanced Photon Source. Here, we report the development of X-ray imaging techniques suitable for studying behavior of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures. White X-ray radiography allows for imaging phase separation and immiscibility of melts at high pressures, identified not only by density contrast but also by phase contrast imaging in particular for low density contrast liquids such as silicate and carbonate melts. In addition, ultrafast X-ray imaging, at frame rates up to ∼10 5 frames/second (fps) in air and up to ∼10 4 fps in Paris-Edinburgh press, enables us to investigate dynamics of liquids at high pressures. Very low viscosities of melts similar to that of water can be reliably measured. These high-pressure X-ray imaging techniques provide useful tools for understanding behavior of liquids or melts at high pressures and high temperatures

  5. X-ray imaging for studying behavior of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures using Paris-Edinburgh press

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, Yoshio; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Park, Changyong; Shen, Guoyin [HPCAT, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Shibazaki, Yuki [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramaki aza Aoba 6-3, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Wang, Yanbin [GeoSoilEnviroCARS, Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, The University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Several X-ray techniques for studying structure, elastic properties, viscosity, and immiscibility of liquids at high pressures have been integrated using a Paris-Edinburgh press at the 16-BM-B beamline of the Advanced Photon Source. Here, we report the development of X-ray imaging techniques suitable for studying behavior of liquids at high pressures and high temperatures. White X-ray radiography allows for imaging phase separation and immiscibility of melts at high pressures, identified not only by density contrast but also by phase contrast imaging in particular for low density contrast liquids such as silicate and carbonate melts. In addition, ultrafast X-ray imaging, at frame rates up to ∼10{sup 5} frames/second (fps) in air and up to ∼10{sup 4} fps in Paris-Edinburgh press, enables us to investigate dynamics of liquids at high pressures. Very low viscosities of melts similar to that of water can be reliably measured. These high-pressure X-ray imaging techniques provide useful tools for understanding behavior of liquids or melts at high pressures and high temperatures.

  6. Interfacial tension-induced transport of nonaqueous phase liquids in model aquifer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) such as organic solvents and fuel are common contaminants in soils and groundwater. Spills, leaking underground storage tanks, and improper disposal practices all result in the release and movement of NAPLs through soils. Movement of NAPLs through soil is considered to result from gravity- and /or capillarity-driven immiscible phase flow. Dispersive and convective transport of dissolved components, volatilization, sorption, and degradation are also considered important processes in NAPL contamination. An additional transport mechanism in which NAPLs spread on water surfaces due to differential adhesive and cohesive attractive forces is demonstrated in this study. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  7. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of four alcohol–water systems containing 1,8-cineole at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hengde; Feng, Zhangni; Wan, Li; Huang, Cheng; Zhang, Tianfei; Fang, Yanxiong

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of C_1–C_4 alcohol–water systems containing 1,8-cineole are presented. Distribution ratios of alcohol in the mixtures are examined. The immiscible region of the LLE systems is evaluated and discussed. - Highlights: • Ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria containing 1,8-cineole are presented. • Distribution ratios of C_1–C_4 alcohol in the mixtures are examined. • The LLE values were correlated using the NRTL and UNIQUAC models. - Abstract: As an eco-friendly compound from essential oils, 1,8-cineole (cineole, eucalyptol) has the potential to replace the ozone depleting industrial solvents. This paper presents experimental (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for four alcohol–water systems containing 1,8-cineole. To evaluate the phase equilibrium properties of 1,8-cineole in aqueous alcohol mixtures, LLE values for the ternary systems (water + methanol or ethanol or 1-propanol or 1-butanol + 1,8-cineole) were determined with a tie-line method at T = 298.15 K under atmospheric pressure. The well-known Hand, Bachman and Othmer–Tobias equations were used to test the reliability of the experimental results. The binodal curves and distribution ratios of alcohol in the mixtures are shown and discussed. The experimental LLE values were satisfactorily correlated by the NRTL and UNIQUAC models.

  8. Time-resolved potentiometry on dual interface of two immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES): Step towards qualitative potentiometric analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mansfeldová, Věra; Janda, Pavel; Tarábková, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 182, NOV 2015 (2015), s. 1053-1059 ISSN 0013-4686 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : biomimetic liquid membrane * ion resolution potentiometry * ITIES Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.803, year: 2015

  9. Complexation reactions in pyridine and 2,6-dimethylpyridine-water system: The quantum-chemical description and the path to liquid phase separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernia, Zelig; Tsori, Yoav

    2018-03-01

    Phase separation in substituted pyridines in water is usually described as an interplay between temperature-driven breakage of hydrogen bonds and the associating interaction of the van der Waals force. In previous quantum-chemical studies, the strength of hydrogen bonding between one water and one pyridine molecules (the 1:1 complex) was assigned a pivotal role. It was accepted that the disassembly of the 1:1 complex at a critical temperature leads to phase separation and formation of the miscibility gap. Yet, for over two decades, notable empirical data and theoretical arguments were presented against that view, thus revealing the need in a revised quantum-mechanical description. In the present study, pyridine-water and 2,6-dimethylpyridine-water systems at different complexation stages are calculated using high level Kohn-Sham theory. The hydrophobic-hydrophilic properties are accounted for by the polarizable continuum solvation model. Inclusion of solvation in free energy of formation calculations reveals that 1:1 complexes are abundant in the organically rich solvents but higher level oligomers (i.e., 2:1 dimers with two pyridines and one water molecule) are the only feasible stable products in the more polar media. At the critical temperature, the dissolution of the external hydrogen bonds between the 2:1 dimer and the surrounding water molecules induces the demixing process. The 1:1 complex acts as a precursor in the formation of the dimers but is not directly involved in the demixing mechanism. The existence of the miscibility gap in one pyridine-water system and the lack of it in another is explained by the ability of the former to maintain stable dimerization. Free energy of formation of several reaction paths producing the 2:1 dimers is calculated and critically analyzed.

  10. Corporate governance and liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Derrabi, Mohamed; Naciri, Monir

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on liquidity in the MENA region, i.e. Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain. Using turnover as a proxy for liquidity, we document significant difference in liquidity between the pre......- and the post-crisis periods in the MENA region. In addition, our results show that bulk of this reduction in turnover can be explained due to weaknesses of corporate governance mechanisms. For example, that dividend payout ratio and choice of auditors – proxies for agency problems – can explain the entire...... difference in liquidity between the two periods. Furthermore, our results indicate that more than 50% of this difference between the two periods can be explained by operational and informational complexity of a firm – proxy for transparency. We argue that poor corporate governance mechanisms increase...

  11. Enhanced fluorescence sensitivity by coupling yttrium-analyte complexes and three-way fast high-performance liquid chromatography data modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, Mirta R.; Culzoni, María J., E-mail: mculzoni@fbcb.unl.edu.ar; Goicoechea, Héctor C., E-mail: hgoico@fbcb.unl.edu.ar

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports a sensitive chromatographic method for the analysis of seven fluoroquinolones (FQs) in environmental water samples, by coupling yttrium-analyte complex and three-way chromatographic data modeling. This method based on the use of HPLC-FSFD does not require complex or tedious sample treatments or enrichment processes before the analysis, due to the significant fluorescence increments of the analytes reached by the presence of Y{sup 3+}. Enhancement achieved for the FQs signals obtained after Y{sup 3+} addition reaches 103- to 1743-fold. Prediction results corresponding to the application of MCR-ALS to the validation set showed relative error of prediction (REP%) values below 10% in all cases. A recovery study that includes the simultaneous determination of the seven FQs in three different environmental aqueous matrices was conducted. The recovery studies assert the efficiency and the accuracy of the proposed method. The LOD values calculated are in the order of part per trillion (below 0.5 ng mL{sup −1} for all the FQs, except for enoxacin). It is noteworthy to mention that the method herein proposed, which does not include pre-concentration steps, allows reaching LOD values in the same order of magnitude than those achieved by more sophisticated methods based on SPE and UHPLC-MS/MS. - Highlights: • Highly sensitive method for the analysis of seven fluoroquinolones. • Coupling of yttrium-analyte complex and three-way modeling. • Complex or tedious sample treatments or enrichment processes are nor required. • Accuracy on the quantitation of fluoroquinolones in real water river samples.

  12. Model for conductometric detection of carbohydrates and alcohols as complexes with boric acid and borate ion in high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, G.L.; Armstrong, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    In recent articles, Okada has demonstrated the utility of indirect conductometric detection of electrically neutral sugars and alcohols through their complexes in boric acid solution. The use of a boric acid eluent provides a highly sensitive means of detection for monosaccharides, lactose, and sugar alcohols but not for polysaccharides (other than lactose) and simple alcohols. Addition of sorbitol, mannitol, or fructose to the boric acid eluent allows detection of the polysaccharides and simple alcohols, as well as lactose, glucose, fructose, and presumably other monosaccharides and sugar alcohols. These results were interpreted in terms of the ability of an analyte to form either dissociated or undissociated complexes with boric acid. This interpretation was quantified with a mathematical description of the complexation equilibria and the conductivity due to ionic species. Unfortunately, the mathematical model contains some incorrect assumptions that severely limit the utility of the derived equations and may prevent optimization of this potentially important technique. We present here a more general mathematical model that does not suffer from these limitations

  13. Electrokinetic migration across artificial liquid membranes Tuning the membrane chemistry to different types of drug substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2006-08-18

    Twenty different basic drugs were electrokinetically extracted across a thin artificial organic liquid membrane with a 300 V d.c. electrical potential difference as the driving force. From a 300 microl aqueous sample (acidified corresponding to 10mM HCl), the drugs were extracted for 5 min through a 200 microm artificial liquid membrane of a water immiscible organic solvent immobilized in the pores of a polypropylene hollow fiber, and into a 30 microl aqueous acceptor solution of 10mM HCl inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. Hydrophobic basic drugs (logP>1.7) were effectively isolated utilizing 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) as the artificial liquid membrane, with recoveries up to 83%. For more hydrophilic basic drugs (logPpermeation of the interface.

  14. Combining blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry as an effective strategy for analyzing potential membrane protein complexes of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Weijun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis is an infectious bacterial disease in humans caused primarily by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and infects one-third of the world's total population. Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine has been widely used to prevent tuberculosis worldwide since 1921. Membrane proteins play important roles in various cellular processes, and the protein-protein interactions involved in these processes may provide further information about molecular organization and cellular pathways. However, membrane proteins are notoriously under-represented by traditional two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE and little is known about mycobacterial membrane and membrane-associated protein complexes. Here we investigated M. bovis BCG by an alternative proteomic strategy coupling blue native PAGE to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS to characterize potential protein-protein interactions in membrane fractions. Results Using this approach, we analyzed native molecular composition of protein complexes in BCG membrane fractions. As a result, 40 proteins (including 12 integral membrane proteins, which were organized in 9 different gel bands, were unambiguous identified. The proteins identified have been experimentally confirmed using 2-D SDS PAGE. We identified MmpL8 and four neighboring proteins that were involved in lipid transport complexes, and all subunits of ATP synthase complex in their monomeric states. Two phenolpthiocerol synthases and three arabinosyltransferases belonging to individual operons were obtained in different gel bands. Furthermore, two giant multifunctional enzymes, Pks7 and Pks8, and four mycobacterial Hsp family members were determined. Additionally, seven ribosomal proteins involved in polyribosome complex and two subunits of the succinate dehydrogenase complex were also found. Notablely, some proteins with high hydrophobicity or multiple transmembrane

  15. Combining blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry as an effective strategy for analyzing potential membrane protein complexes of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianhua; Wei, Candong; Zhao, Lina; Liu, Liguo; Leng, Wenchuan; Li, Weijun; Jin, Qi

    2011-01-18

    Tuberculosis is an infectious bacterial disease in humans caused primarily by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and infects one-third of the world's total population. Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has been widely used to prevent tuberculosis worldwide since 1921. Membrane proteins play important roles in various cellular processes, and the protein-protein interactions involved in these processes may provide further information about molecular organization and cellular pathways. However, membrane proteins are notoriously under-represented by traditional two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) and little is known about mycobacterial membrane and membrane-associated protein complexes. Here we investigated M. bovis BCG by an alternative proteomic strategy coupling blue native PAGE to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to characterize potential protein-protein interactions in membrane fractions. Using this approach, we analyzed native molecular composition of protein complexes in BCG membrane fractions. As a result, 40 proteins (including 12 integral membrane proteins), which were organized in 9 different gel bands, were unambiguous identified. The proteins identified have been experimentally confirmed using 2-D SDS PAGE. We identified MmpL8 and four neighboring proteins that were involved in lipid transport complexes, and all subunits of ATP synthase complex in their monomeric states. Two phenolpthiocerol synthases and three arabinosyltransferases belonging to individual operons were obtained in different gel bands. Furthermore, two giant multifunctional enzymes, Pks7 and Pks8, and four mycobacterial Hsp family members were determined. Additionally, seven ribosomal proteins involved in polyribosome complex and two subunits of the succinate dehydrogenase complex were also found. Notablely, some proteins with high hydrophobicity or multiple transmembrane helixes were identified well in our work. In this

  16. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J.D.

    1957-12-31

    This patent relates to liquid-liquid extraction columns having a means for pulsing the liquid in the column to give it an oscillatory up and down movement, and consists of a packed column, an inlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase located in the direct communication with the liquid in the lower part of said column, an inlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase located in direct communication with the liquid in the upper part of said column, a tube having one end communicating with liquid in the lower part of said column and having its upper end located above the level of said outlet pipe for the dispersed phase, and a piston and cylinder connected to the upper end of said tube for applying a pulsating pneumatic pressure to the surface of the liquid in said tube so that said surface rises and falls in said tube.

  17. Electrochemical detection of dopamine using arrays of liquid-liquid micro-interfaces created within micromachined silicon membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berduque, Alfonso; Zazpe, Raul; Arrigan, Damien W.M.

    2008-01-01

    The detection of protonated dopamine by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) at arrays of micro-interfaces between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (μITIES) is presented. Microfabricated porous silicon membranes (consisting of eight pores, 26.6 μm in radius and 500 μm pore-pore separation, in a hexagonal layout) were prepared by photolithographic and etching procedures. The membrane pores were fabricated with hydrophobic internal walls so that the organic phase filled the pores and created the liquid interface at the aqueous side of the membrane. These were used for harnessing the benefits of three-dimensional diffusion to the interface and for interface stabilisation. The liquid-liquid interface provides a simple method to overcome the major problem in the voltammetric detection of dopamine at solid electrodes due to the co-existence of ascorbate at higher concentrations. Selectivity for dopamine over ascorbate was achieved by the use of dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6) for the facilitated ion transfer of dopamine across the μITIES array. Under these conditions, the presence of ascorbate in excess did not interfere in the detection of dopamine and the lowest concentration detectable was ca. 0.5 μM. In addition, the drawback of current signal saturation (non-linear increase of the peak current with the concentration of dopamine) observed at conventional (millimetre-sized) liquid-liquid interfaces was overcome using the microfabricated porous membranes

  18. Rapid determination of 226Ra in drinking water samples using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadi, B.K.; Chunsheng Li; Kramer, G.H.; Johnson, C.L.; Queenie Ko; Lai, E.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    A new radioanalytical method was developed for rapid determination of 226 Ra in drinking water samples. The method is based on extraction and preconcentration of 226 Ra from a water sample to an organic solvent using a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) technique followed by radiometric measurement using liquid scintillation counting. In DLLME for 226 Ra, a mixture of an organic extractant (toluene doped with dibenzo-21-crown-7 and 2-theonyltrifluoroacetone) and a disperser solvent (acetonitrile) is rapidly injected into the water sample resulting in the formation of an emulsion. Within the emulsion, 226 Ra reacts with dibenzo-21-crown-7 and 2-theonyltrifluoroacetone and partitions into the fine droplets of toluene. The water/toluene phases were separated by addition of acetonitrile as a de-emulsifier solvent. The toluene phase containing 226 Ra was then measured by liquid scintillation counting. Several parameters were studied to optimize the extraction efficiency of 226 Ra, including water immiscible organic solvent, disperser and de-emulsifier solvent type and their volume, chelating ligands for 226 Ra and their concentrations, inorganic salt additive and its concentration, and equilibrium pH. With the optimized DLLME conditions, the accuracy (expressed as relative bias, B r ) and method repeatability (expressed as relative precision, S B ) were determined by spiking 226 Ra at the maximum acceptable concentration level (0.5 Bq L -1 ) according to the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality. Accuracy and repeatability were found to be less than -5% (B r ) and less than 6% (S B ), respectively, for both tap water and bottled natural spring water samples. The minimum detectable activity and sample turnaround time for determination of 226 Ra was 33 mBq L -1 and less than 3 h, respectively. The DLLME technique is selective for extraction of 226 Ra from its decay progenies. (author)

  19. Chiral ligand-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography with copper (II)-L-phenylalanine complexes for separation of 3,4-dimethoxy-α-methylphenylalanine racemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dong-Xu; Ai, Zheng-Gui; Xue, Ya-Ping; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2014-11-01

    L-3, 4-dimethoxy-α-methylphenylalanine (L-DMMD) is an important intermediate for the synthesis of 3-hydroxy-α-methyl-L-tyrosine (L-methyldopa). This paper describes an efficient, accurate, and low-priced method of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using chiral mobile phase and conventional C18 column to separate L-DMMD from its enantiomers. The effects of ligands, copper salts, organic modifiers, pHs of mobile phase, and temperatures on the retention factors (k') and selectivity (α) were evaluated to achieve optimal separation performance. Then, thermal analysis of the optimal separation conditions was investigated as well. It was confirmed that the optimal mobile phase was composed of 20 % (v/v) methanol, 8 mM L-phenylalanine (L-Phe), and 4 mM cupric sulfate in water of pH 3.2, and the column temperature was set at 20 °C. Baseline separation of two enantiomers could be obtained through the conventional C18 column with a resolution (R) of 3.18 in less than 18 min. Thermodynamic data (∆∆H and ∆∆S) obtained by Van't Hoff plots revealed the chiral separation was an enthalpy-controlled process. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the enantioseparation of DMMD by chiral ligand-exchange HPLC.

  20. Liquid Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qutaiba A. Tawfic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammals have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases, as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen, as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of theoretical advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. The potential for multiple clinical applications for liquid-assisted ventilation will be clarified and optimized in future. Keywords: Liquid ventilation; perfluorochemicals; perfluorocarbon; respiratory distress; surfactant.

  1. Evaluation of the polysubstituted pyridinium ionic liquid [hmmpy][Ntf2] as a suitable solvent for desulfurization: Phase equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arce, Alberto; Francisco, Maria; Soto, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Suitability of a pyridinium ionic liquid as a solvent in desulfurization has been analyzed. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria for ternary systems composed by 1-hexyl-3,5-dimethyl pyridinium {bis[trifluoromethylsulfonyl]imide, thiophene, and three hydrocarbons representative of fuel (n-heptane, 2,2,4 trimethylpentane, and toluene) have been determined at T = 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. High solubility of thiophene in the ionic liquid and also of toluene have been found, being this solvent practically immiscible with 2,2,4 trimethylpentane and heptane. Equilibrium data of these systems have been well correlated with UNIQUAC equations finding the highest deviations for the ternary system involving toluene. NRTL model drove to worse results being considered as not suitable model to correlate the experimental results.

  2. Subsidizing Liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinova, Katya; Park, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    the breakdown of trading fees between liquidity demanders and suppliers matters. Posted quotes adjust after the change in fee composition, but the transaction costs for liquidity demanders remain unaffected once fees are taken into account. However, as posted bid-ask spreads decline, traders (particularly......Facing increased competition over the last decade, many stock exchanges changed their trading fees to maker-taker pricing, an incentive scheme that rewards liquidity suppliers and charges liquidity demanders. Using a change in trading fees on the Toronto Stock Exchange, we study whether and why...... retail) use aggressive orders more frequently, and adverse selection costs decrease....

  3. Liquid membranes and process for uranium recovery therewith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankenfeld, J.W.; Li, N.N.T.; Bruncati, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    A liquid membrane system consisting of water-in-oil type emulsions dispersed in water, which is capable of extracting uranium-containing ions from an aqueous feed solution containing uranium ions at a temperature in the range of 25 0 C to 80 0 C, is described. The emulsion comprises an aqueous interior phase surrounded by a surfactant-containing exterior phase. The exterior phase is immiscible with the interior phase and comprises a transfer agent capable of transporting selectively the desired uranium-containing ions and a solvent for the transfer agent. The interior phase comprises a reactant capable of removing uranium-containing ions from the transfer agent and capable of changing the valency of the uranium in uranium-containing ions to a second valency state and converting the uranium-containing ions into a nonpermeable form. (U.K.)

  4. Liquid and gas chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry for the determination of 13C-valine isotopic ratios in complex biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Jean-Philippe; Breuillé, Denis; Obled, Christiane; Papet, Isabelle; Schierbeek, Henk; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Fay, Laurent-Bernard

    2008-10-01

    On-line gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) is commonly used to measure isotopic ratios at natural abundance as well as for tracer studies in nutritional and medical research. However, high-precision (13)C isotopic enrichment can also be measured by liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC-IRMS). Indeed, LC-IRMS can be used, as shown by the new method reported here, to obtain a baseline separation and to measure (13)C isotopic enrichment of underivatised amino acids (Asp, Thr-Ser, Glu, Pro, Gly, Ala, Cys and Val). In case of Val, at natural abundance, the SD(delta(13)C) reported with this method was found to be below 1 per thousand . Another key feature of the new LC-IRMS method reported in this paper is the comparison of the LC-IRMS approach with the conventional GC-C-IRMS determination. To perform this comparative study, isotopic enrichments were measured from underivatised Val and its N(O, S)-ethoxycarbonyl ethyl ester derivative. Between 0.0 and 1.0 molar percent excess (MPE) (delta(13)C= -12.3 to 150.8 per thousand), the calculated root-mean-square (rms) of SD was 0.38 and 0.46 per thousand and the calculated rms of accuracy was 0.023 and 0.005 MPE, respectively, for GC-C-IRMS and LC-IRMS. Both systems measured accurately low isotopic enrichments (0.002 atom percent excess (APE)) with an SD (APE) of 0.0004. To correlate the relative (delta(13)C) and absolute (atom%, APE and MPE) isotopic enrichment of Val measured by the GC-C-IRMS and LC-IRMS devices, mathematical equations showing the slope and intercept of the curves were established and validated with experimental data between 0.0 to 2.3 MPE. Finally, both GC-C-IRMS and LC-IRMS instruments were also used to assess isotopic enrichment of protein-bound (13)C-Val in tibial epiphysis in a tracer study performed in rats. Isotopic enrichments measured by LC-IRMS and GC-C-IRMS were not statistically different (p>0.05). The results of this work indicate that

  5. Liquidity Runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matta, R.; Perotti, E.

    2016-01-01

    Can the risk of losses upon premature liquidation produce bank runs? We show how a unique run equilibrium driven by asset liquidity risk arises even under minimal fundamental risk. To study the role of illiquidity we introduce realistic norms on bank default, such that mandatory stay is triggered

  6. In situ emulsification microextraction using a dicationic ionic liquid followed by magnetic assisted physisorption for determination of lead prior to micro-sampling flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokri, Masood; Beiraghi, Asadollah; Seidi, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, a simple and efficient in situ emulsification microextraction method using a dicationic ionic liquid followed by magnetic assisted physisorption was presented to determine trace amounts of lead. In this method, 400 μL of 1.0 mol L −1 lithium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide aqueous solution, Li[NTf 2 ], was added into the sample solution containing 100 μL of 1.0 mol L −1 1,3-(propyl-1,3-diyl) bis (3-methylimidazolium) chloride, [pbmim]Cl 2 , to form a water immiscible ionic liquid, [pbmim][NTf 2 ] 2 . This new in situ formed dicationic ionic liquid was applied as the acceptor phase to extract the lead-ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (Pb-APDC) complexes from the sample solution. Subsequently, 30 mg of Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were added into the sample solution to collect the fine droplets of [pbmim][NTf 2 ] 2 , physisorptively. Finally, MNPs were eluted by acetonitrile, separated by an external magnetic field and the obtained eluent was subjected to micro-sampling flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for further analysis. Comparing with other microextraction methods, no special devices and centrifugation step are required. Parameters influencing the extraction efficiency such as extraction time, pH, concentration of chelating agent, amount of MNPs and coexisting interferences were studied. Under the optimized conditions, this method showed high extraction recovery of 93% with low LOD of 0.7 μg L −1 . Good linearity was obtained in the range of 2.5–150 μg L −1 with determination coefficient (r 2 ) of 0.9921. Relative standard deviation (RSD%) for seven repeated measurements at the concentration of 10 μg L −1 was 4.1%. Finally, this method was successfully applied for determination of lead in some water and plant samples. - Highlights: • A dicationic ionic liquid was used as the extraction solvent, for the first time. • A simple and efficient in situ emulsification microextraction

  7. (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for the ternary systems (cycloalkane + ethylbenzene + 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolim ethylsulfate) at T = 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Emilio J.; Calvar, Noelia; Dominguez, Irene; Dominguez, Angeles

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → [EMim][ESO 4 ] was studied as solvent to extract ethylbenzene from cycloalkanes. → (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data were measured at 298.15K and atmospheric pressure. → Selectivity and solute distribution ratio were obtained and compared with literature. → Experimental data were satisfactorily correlated using NRTL and UNIQUAC models. → [EMim][ESO 4 ] can be used as solvent for the studied (liquid + liquid) extraction. - Abstract: In this paper, (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary systems (cyclohexane, or cyclooctane, or methylcyclohexane + ethylbenzene + 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate) have been determined experimentally at T = 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure. The solubility curves and the tie-line compositions of the conjugate phases were obtained by means of density. The degree of consistency of the tie-lines was tested using the Othmer-Tobias equation, and the Non-Random Two-Liquid (NRTL) and the Universal Quasi-Chemical (UNIQUAC) models were used to correlate the phase equilibrium in the systems. Selectivity and solute distribution ratio were evaluated for the immiscible region.

  8. Managing liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokutta, Sebastian; Schmaltz, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Large banking groups face the question of how to optimally allocate and generate liquidity: in a central liquidity hub or in many decentralized branches. We translate this question into a facility location problem under uncertainty. We show that volatility is the key driver behind (de......-)centralization. We provide an analytical solution for the 2-branch model and show that a liquidity center can be interpreted as an option on immediate liquidity. Therefore, its value can be interpreted as the price of information, i.e., the price of knowing the exact demand. Furthermore, we derive the threshold...... above which it is advantageous to open a liquidity center and show that it is a function of the volatility and the characteristic of the bank network. Finally, we discuss the n-branch model for real-world banking groups (10-60 branches) and show that it can be solved with high granularity (100 scenarios...

  9. In situ liquid-liquid extraction as a sample preparation method for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization MS analysis of polypeptide mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellström, Sven; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2003-01-01

    A novel liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) procedure was investigated for preparation of peptide and protein samples for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS). LLE using ethyl acetate as the water-immiscible organic solvent enabled segregation of hydrophobic...... matrix to the organic solvent enhanced the efficiency of the LLE-MALDI MS method for analysis of hydrophobic peptides and proteins. LLE-MALDI MS enabled the detection of the hydrophobic membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin as a component in a simple protein mixture. Peptide mixtures containing...... phosphorylated, glycosylated, or acylated peptides were successfully separated and analyzed by the in situ LLE-MALDI MS technique and demonstrate the potential of this method for enhanced separation and structural analysis of posttranslationally modified peptides in proteomics research....

  10. Extraction of 2-Phenylethanol (PEA) from Aqueous Solution Using Ionic Liquids: Synthesis, Phase Equilibrium Investigation, Selectivity in Separation, and Thermodynamic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domańska, Urszula; Okuniewska, Patrycja; Paduszyński, Kamil; Królikowska, Marta; Zawadzki, Maciej; Więckowski, Mikołaj

    2017-08-17

    This study assessed the effect of ionic liquids (ILs) on extraction of 2-phenylethanol (PEA) from aqueous phase. It consists the synthesis of four new ILs, their physicochemical properties, and experimental solubility measurements in water as well as liquid-liquid phase equilibrium in ternary systems. ILs are an important new media for imaging and sensing applications because of their solvation property, thermal stability, and negligible vapor pressure. However, complex procedures and nonmiscibility with water are often required in PEA extraction. Herein, a facile and general strategy using four ILs as extraction media including the synthesis of new bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide-based ILs, 1-hexyl-methylmorpholinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide, [HMMOR][FSI], N-octylisoquinolinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide, [OiQuin][FSI], 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide, [BMPYR][FSI], and N-triethyl-N-octylammonium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide, [N 2228 ][FSI], were investigated. The thermal properties, density, viscosity, and surface tension of new ILs were measured. Calorimetric measurements (DSC) were used to determine the melting point and the enthalpy of melting as well as the glass transition temperature and heat capacity at glass transition of the ILs. The phase equilibrium in binary systems (IL + PEA, or water) and in ternary systems {IL (1) + PEA (2) + water (3)} at temperature T = 308.15 K and ambient pressure are reported. All systems present liquid-liquid equilibrium with the upper critical solution temperature (UCST). All ILs revealed complete miscibility with PEA. In all ternary systems immiscibility gap was observed, which classified measured systems as Treybal's type II. The two partially miscible binaries (IL + water) and (PEA + water) exist in these systems. The discussion contains the specific selectivity and the solute distribution ratio of separation for the used ILs. The commonly used NRTL model was used for the correlation of the experimental binary

  11. Complex effect of lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid on various aspects of ethanol and fumaric acid production by immobilized cells within SSF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsenko, Anna S; Dotsenko, Gleb S; Senko, Olga V; Stepanov, Nikolay A; Lyagin, Ilya V; Efremenko, Elena N; Gusakov, Alexander V; Zorov, Ivan N; Rubtsova, Ekaterina A

    2018-02-01

    The pretreatment of softwood and hardwood samples (spruce and hornbeam wood) with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) was undertaken for further simultaneous enzymatic saccharification of renewable non-food lignocellulosic biomass and microbial fermentation of obtained sugars to ethanol and fumaric acid. A multienzyme cocktail based on cellulases and yeast or fungus cells producing ethanol and fumaric acid were the main objects of [Bmim]Cl influence studies. A complex effect of lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment with [Bmim]Cl on various aspects of the process (both action of cellulases and microbial conversion of hydrolysates to target products) was revealed. Positive effects of the pretreatment with [Bmim]Cl included decreasing the lignin content in the biomass, and increasing the effectiveness of enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial transformation of pretreated biomass. Immobilized cells of both yeasts and fungi possessed improved productive characteristics in the biotransformation of biomass pretreated with [Bmim]Cl to ethanol and fumaric acid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Uranium complex recycling method of purifying uranium liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elikan, L.; Lyon, W.L.; Sundar, P.S.

    1976-01-01

    Uranium is separated from contaminating cations in an aqueous liquor containing uranyl ions. The liquor is mixed with sufficient recycled uranium complex to raise the weight ratio of uranium to said cations preferably to at least about three. The liquor is then extracted with at least enough non-interfering, water-immiscible, organic solvent to theoretically extract about all of the uranium in the liquor. The organic solvent contains a reagent which reacts with the uranyl ions to form a complex soluble in the solvent. If the aqueous liquor is acidic, the organic solvent is then scrubbed with water. The organic solvent is stripped with a solution containing at least enough ammonium carbonate to precipitate the uranium complex. A portion of the uranium complex is recycled and the remainder can be collected and calcined to produce U 3 O 8 or UO 2

  13. Impacts of Spatio-Variability of Source Morphology on Field-Scale Predictions of Subsurface Contaminant Transport

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hatfield, Kirk

    1998-01-01

    ... (organic immiscible liquids distribution and composition) and aquifer properties on predicting solute transport in saturated groundwater systems contaminated with residual Organic Immiscible Liquids (OIL's...

  14. Determination of desipramine in biological samples using liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction combined with in-syringe derivatization, gas chromatography, and nitrogen/phosphorus detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraji, Mohammad; Mehrafza, Narges; Bidgoli, Ali Akbar Hajialiakbari; Jafari, Mohammad Taghi

    2012-10-01

    A method was established for the determination of desipramine in biological samples using liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction followed by in-syringe derivatization and gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorus detection. The extraction method was based on the use of two immiscible organic solvents. n-Dodecane was impregnated in the pores of the hollow fiber and methanol was placed inside the lumen of the fiber as the acceptor phase. Acetic anhydride was used as the reagent for the derivatization of the analyte inside the syringe barrel. Parameters that affect the extraction efficiency (composition of donor and acceptor phase, ionic strength, sample temperature, and extraction time) as well as derivatization efficiency (amount of acetic anhydride and reaction time and temperature) were investigated. The limit of detection was 0.02 μg/L with intra and interday RSDs of 2.6 and 7.7%, respectively. The linearity of the method was in the range of 0.2-20 μg/L (r(2) = 0.9986). The method was successfully applied to determine desipramine in human plasma and urine. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Liquid explosives

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiping

    2015-01-01

    The book drawing on the author's nearly half a century of energetic materials research experience intends to systematically review the global researches on liquid explosives. The book focuses on the study of the conception, explosion mechanism, properties and preparation of liquid explosives. It provides a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical examples in a reader-friendly style. The book is likely to be interest of university researchers and graduate students in the fields of energetic materials, blasting engineering and mining.

  16. Bicontinuous structured liquids with sub-micrometre domains using nanoparticle surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Caili; Forth, Joe; Wang, Weiyu; Hong, Kunlun; Smith, Gregory S.; Helms, Brett A.; Russell, Thomas P.

    2017-11-01

    Bicontinuous jammed emulsions (or bijels) are tortuous, interconnected structures of two immiscible liquids, kinetically trapped by colloidal particles that are irreversibly bound to the oil-water interface. A wealth of applications has been proposed for bijels in catalysis, energy storage and molecular encapsulation, but large domain sizes (on the order of 5 µm or larger) and difficulty in fabrication pose major barriers to their use. Here, we show that bijels with sub-micrometre domains can be formed via homogenization, rather than spinodal decomposition. We achieve this by using nanoparticle surfactants: polymers and nanoparticles of complementary functionality (for example, ion-pairing) that bind to one another at the oil-water interface. This allows the stabilization of the bijel far from the demixing point of the liquids, with interfacial tensions on the order of 20 mN m-1. Furthermore, our strategy is extremely versatile, as solvent, nanoparticle and ligand can all be varied.

  17. Metastable Phase Separation and Concomitant Solute Redistribution of Liquid Fe-Cu-Sn Ternary Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Mei, Zhang; Wei-Li, Wang; Ying, Ruan; Bing-Bo, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Liquid Fe-Cu-Sn ternary alloys with lower Sn contents are usually assumed to display a peritectic-type solidification process under equilibrium condition. Here we show that liquid Fe 47.5 Cu 47.5 Sn 5 ternary alloy exhibits a metastable immiscibility gap in the undercooling range of 51–329 K (0.19T L ). Macroscopic phase separation occurs once undercooling exceeds 196 K and causes the formation of a floating Fe-rich zone and a descending Cu-rich zone. Solute redistribution induces the depletion of Sn concentration in the Fe-rich zone and its enrichment in the Cu-rich zone. The primary Fe phase grows dendritically and its growth velocity increases with undercooling until the appearance of notable macrosegregation, but will decrease if undercooling further increases beyond 236 K. The microsegregation degrees of both solutes in Fe and Cu phases vary only slightly with undercooling. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  18. 3D imaging of vapour and liquid inclusions from the Mole Granite, Australia, using helical fluorescence tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauzid, J. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)], E-mail: jean.cauzid@esrf.fr; Philippot, P. [Geobiosphere Actuelle et Primitive, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, CNRS and Universite Denis Diderot, Case 89, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Bleuet, P. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Simionovici, A. [Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Tectonophysique, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Somogyi, A. [Synchrotron Soleil, DiffAbs beamline, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Golosio, B. [Instituto di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Sassari, 2 via Vienna, 07100 Sassari (Italy)

    2007-08-15

    World class Cu resources are concentrated in porphyry and epithermal ore deposits. Their formation remains partially understood, however, due to a lack of constraints on the partitioning properties of trace elements in general, and Cu in particular, between vapour and liquid phases evolved from boiling fluids at depth in the Earth's crust. Immiscible liquid and vapour fluid inclusions coexisting in a single quartz grain have been imaged in three dimensions by X-ray Fluorescence Computed Tomography (XFCT). Elemental spatial distributions confirm that Cu, and to a lesser extent As, partition into the vapour phase, whereas Mn, Fe, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb concentrate in the liquid inclusion. High resolution mapping of the vapour inclusions revealed that Cu is heterogeneously distributed at the scale of a single inclusion and is mostly concentrated as tiny daughter crystals.

  19. 3D imaging of vapour and liquid inclusions from the Mole Granite, Australia, using helical fluorescence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauzid, J.; Philippot, P.; Bleuet, P.; Simionovici, A.; Somogyi, A.; Golosio, B.

    2007-08-01

    World class Cu resources are concentrated in porphyry and epithermal ore deposits. Their formation remains partially understood, however, due to a lack of constraints on the partitioning properties of trace elements in general, and Cu in particular, between vapour and liquid phases evolved from boiling fluids at depth in the Earth's crust. Immiscible liquid and vapour fluid inclusions coexisting in a single quartz grain have been imaged in three dimensions by X-ray Fluorescence Computed Tomography (XFCT). Elemental spatial distributions confirm that Cu, and to a lesser extent As, partition into the vapour phase, whereas Mn, Fe, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb concentrate in the liquid inclusion. High resolution mapping of the vapour inclusions revealed that Cu is heterogeneously distributed at the scale of a single inclusion and is mostly concentrated as tiny daughter crystals.

  20. Optimal Liquidation under Stochastic Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Becherer, Dirk; Bilarev, Todor; Frentrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We solve explicitly a two-dimensional singular control problem of finite fuel type for infinite time horizon. The problem stems from the optimal liquidation of an asset position in a financial market with multiplicative and transient price impact. Liquidity is stochastic in that the volume effect process, which determines the inter-temporal resilience of the market in spirit of Predoiu, Shaikhet and Shreve (2011), is taken to be stochastic, being driven by own random noise. The optimal contro...

  1. Rapid Discrimination for Traditional Complex Herbal Medicines from Different Parts, Collection Time, and Origins Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Near-Infrared Spectral Fingerprints with Aid of Pattern Recognition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As an effective method, the fingerprint technique, which emphasized the whole compositions of samples, has already been used in various fields, especially in identifying and assessing the quality of herbal medicines. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and near-infrared (NIR, with their unique characteristics of reliability, versatility, precision, and simple measurement, played an important role among all the fingerprint techniques. In this paper, a supervised pattern recognition method based on PLSDA algorithm by HPLC and NIR has been established to identify the information of Hibiscus mutabilis L. and Berberidis radix, two common kinds of herbal medicines. By comparing component analysis (PCA, linear discriminant analysis (LDA, and particularly partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA with different fingerprint preprocessing of NIR spectra variables, PLSDA model showed perfect functions on the analysis of samples as well as chromatograms. Most important, this pattern recognition method by HPLC and NIR can be used to identify different collection parts, collection time, and different origins or various species belonging to the same genera of herbal medicines which proved to be a promising approach for the identification of complex information of herbal medicines.

  2. Liquid crystalline biopolymers: A new arena for liquid crystal research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvi, Tasneem Zahra

    2001-07-01

    This paper gives a brief introduction to liquid crystals on the basis of biopolymers and reviews literature on liquid crystalline behaviour of biopolymers both in vitro and in vivo in relation to their implications in the fields of biology, medicine and material science. Knowledge in the field of biological liquid crystals is crucial for understanding complex phenomena at supramolecular level which will give information about processes involved in biological organization and function. The understanding of the interaction of theses crystals with electric, magnetic, optical and thermal fields will uncover mechanisms of near quantum-energy detection capabilities of biosystems

  3. Modeling liquid crystal polymeric devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez Pinto, Vianney Karina

    The main focus of this work is the theoretical and numerical study of materials that combine liquid crystal and polymer. Liquid crystal elastomers are polymeric materials that exhibit both the ordered properties of the liquid crystals and the elastic properties of rubbers. Changing the order of the liquid crystal molecules within the polymer network can induce shape change. These materials are very valuable for applications such as actuators, sensors, artificial muscles, haptic displays, etc. In this work we apply finite element elastodynamics simulations to study the temperature induced shape deformation in nematic elastomers with complex director microstructure. In another topic, we propose a novel numerical method to model the director dynamics and microstructural evolution of three dimensional nematic and cholesteric liquid crystals. Numerical studies presented in this work are in agreement with experimental observations and provide insight into the design of application devices.

  4. Adjustable liquid aperture to eliminate undesirable light in holographic projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Liu, Chao; Li, Lei; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2016-02-08

    In this paper, we propose an adjustable liquid aperture to eliminate the undesirable light in a holographic projection. The aperture is based on hydrodynamic actuation. A chamber is formed with a cylindrical tube. A black droplet is filled in the sidewall of the cylinder tube and the outside space is the transparent oil which is immiscible with the black droplet. An ultrathin glass sheet is attached on the bottom substrate of the device and a black shading film is secured to the central area of the glass sheet. By changing the volume of the black droplet, the black droplet will move to the middle or sidewall due to hydrodynamic actuation, so the device can be used as an adjustable aperture. A divergent spherical wave and a solid lens are used to separate the focus planes of the reconstructed image and diffraction beams induced by the liquid crystal on silicon in the holographic projection. Then the aperture is used to eliminate the diffraction beams by adjusting the size of the liquid aperture and the holographic projection does not have undesirable light.

  5. Liquidity risk and contagion for liquid funds

    OpenAIRE

    Darolles , Serge; Dudek , Jeremy; Le Fol , Gaëlle

    2014-01-01

    Fund managers face liquidity problems but they have to distinguish the market liquidity risk implied by their assets and the funding liquidity risk. This latter is due to both the liquidity mismatch between assets and liabilities and the redemption risk due to the possible outflows from clients. The main contribution of this paper is the analysis of contagion looking at common market liquidity problems to detect funding liquidity problems. Using the CDS Bond Spread basis as a liquidity indica...

  6. Hidden Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Cebiroglu, Gökhan; Horst, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    We cross-sectionally analyze the presence of aggregated hidden depth and trade volume in the S&P 500 and identify its key determinants. We find that the spread is the main predictor for a stock’s hidden dimension, both in terms of traded and posted liquidity. Our findings moreover suggest that large hidden orders are associated with larger transaction costs, higher price impact and increased volatility. In particular, as large hidden orders fail to attract (latent) liquidity to the market, hi...

  7. Functional ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baecker, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    In the thesis at hand, new functional ionic liquids were investigated. Main focus was attended to their structure property relations and the structural features leading to a decrease of the melting point. New compounds of the type 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(N,Ndialkyldithiocarbamato) uranylate with variously substituated dithiocarbamato ligands were synthesized and characterized. Ligands with asymmetrical substitution pattern proved to be most suitable for ionic liquid formation. The single-crystal X-ray structures revealed the interactions in the solid state. Here, the first spectroscopic investigation of the U-S bond in sulfur donated uranyl complexes, up to now only observed in single-crystal X-ray structures, is presented, and the participation of the uranium f-orbitals is shown by theoretical calculations. Electrochemical investigations showed the accessibility of the respective U V O 2 + compounds. As well, ionic liquids with [FeCl 4 ] - and [Cl 3 FeOFeCl 3 ] 2- as anion were synthesized. Both of these anions contain high-spin Fe(III) centres in distorted tetrahedral environment, but exhibit different magnetic behaviour. The tetrachloroferrates show the usual paramagnetism, the m-oxobis(trichloroferrate) exhibits unexpectedly strong antiferromagnetic coupling, as was observed by NMR experiments and susceptibility measurements. To investigate structure-property relations in functionalized ionic liquids, a set of protic, primary alkylammonium and aprotic, quarternary trimethylalkylammonium based ionic liquids was synthesized, and characterized. The length of the alkyl chain was systematically varied, and all compounds were synthesized with and without hydroxyl group, as well as formate and bis(triflyl)amide salts, aiming at getting insight into the influence of the different structure parts on the respective ionic liquid's properties.

  8. Liquidity Constraints and Fiscal Stabilization Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Mark Strøm

    It is often claimed that the presence of liquidity constrained households enhances the need for and the effects of fi…scal stabilization policies. This paper studies this in a model of a small open economy with liquidity constrained households. The results show that the consequences of liquidity...... constraints are more complex than previously thought: The optimal stabilization policy in case of productivity shocks is independent of the liquidity constraints, and the presence of liquidity constraints tends to reduce the need for an active policy stabilizing productivity shocks....

  9. Liquid ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman; Paswan, Anil; Prakas, S

    2014-01-01

    Human have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids like fish. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV) is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. It is well-known that respiratory diseases are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in intensive care unit. During the past few years several new modalities of treatment have been introduced. One of them and probably the most fascinating, is of LV. Partial LV, on which much of the existing research has concentrated, requires partial filling of lungs with perfluorocarbons (PFC's) and ventilation with gas tidal volumes using conventional mechanical ventilators. Various physico-chemical properties of PFC's make them the ideal media. It results in a dramatic improvement in lung compliance and oxygenation and decline in mean airway pressure and oxygen requirements. No long-term side-effect reported.

  10. Liquid metal engineering aspects of a commercial-sized power plant based on the hylife converter concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, N.J.; McDowell, M.W.

    1979-12-01

    A study of a commercial fusion plant based on the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) converter has been performed. A net efficiency of 33.3% was derived for a plant using 2-1/4 Cr - 1 Mo ferritic steel as structural alloy. Use of a thick lithium fall to protect structural materials from the deleterious effects of pellet thermonuclear burn allows the structure to last the life of the plant without replacement. Both mechanical pumps and EM pumps are analyzed for this application. The power requirement for the lithium fall mechanical pumps is approx. 20 MWe. This is a relatively insignificant 1.6% of the gross electrical power output of the plant of approx. 1250 MWe. An EM pump has a greater electrical requirement but the lesser head (NPSH) requirement of an EM pump appears to be a marked advantage since this affects the size of the lithium inventory. The preferred tritium separation method appears to be that developed by Argonne National Laboratory which involves mixing lithium into an immiscible liquid having a greater affinity for hydrogen isotopes, with subsequent electrolytic separation. The immiscible liquid under consideration is a lithium bromide-lithium fluoride-lithium chloride mixture

  11. Potentiostatic electro-deposition of 241Am using room temperature ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankhe, R.H.; Mirashi, N.N.; Arijit Sengupta; Murali, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    An attempt was made for the potentiostatic electrodeposition of 241 Am using six different room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). Effect of electrodeposition time on the % of electrodeposition of 241 Am, pH change of the solution and the temperature change of the systems were investigated. It was observed that for water immiscible RTILs, the least viscous RTIL gave the best yield (when mixed with iso-propanol), while for water miscible RTILs, reverse trend was observed (when mixed with water). Out of all water immiscible RTILs under consideration for the present case, the octyl-methyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (C 8 mpyNTf 2 ) in isopropanol was found to yield almost quantitative (99.6 %) electrodeposition of 241 Am within 45 min whereas the most effective system was found to be C 8 mimBr with ∼90 % of 241 Am deposited on the electrode for water miscible RTILs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first approach ever been reported in the literature. (author)

  12. Liquid Marbles

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Kareem

    2012-12-01

    Granulation, the process of formation of granules from a combination of base powders and binder liquids, has been a subject of research for almost 50 years, studied extensively for its vast applications, primarily to the pharmaceutical industry sector. The principal aim of granulation is to form granules comprised of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (API’s), which have more desirable handling and flowability properties than raw powders. It is also essential to ensure an even distribution of active ingredients within a tablet with the goal of achieving time‐controlled release of drugs. Due to the product‐specific nature of the industry, however, data is largely empirical [1]. For example, the raw powders used can vary in size by two orders of magnitude with narrow or broad size distributions. The physical properties of the binder liquids can also vary significantly depending on the powder properties and required granule size. Some significant progress has been made to better our understanding of the overall granulation process [1] and it is widely accepted that the initial nucleation / wetting stage, when the binder liquid first wets the powders, is key to the whole process. As such, many experimental studies have been conducted in attempt to elucidate the physics of this first stage [1], with two main mechanisms being observed – classified by Ivenson [1] as the “Traditional description” and the “Modern Approach”. See Figure 1 for a graphical definition of these two mechanisms. Recent studies have focused on the latter approach [1] and a new, exciting development in this field is the Liquid Marble. This interesting formation occurs when a liquid droplet interacts with a hydrophobic (or superhydrophobic) powder. The droplet can become encased in the powder, which essentially provides a protective “shell” or “jacket” for the liquid inside [2]. The liquid inside is then isolated from contact with other solids or liquids and has some

  13. Eutectic, monotectic and immiscibility systems of nimesulide with water-soluble carriers: phase equilibria, solid-state characterisation and in-vivo/pharmacodynamic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkader, Hamdy; Abdallah, Ossama Y; Salem, Hesham; Alani, Adam W G; Alany, Raid G

    2014-10-01

    The solid-state interactions of fused mixtures nimesulide (ND) with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000, urea or mannitol were studied through constructing thaw-melt phase equilibrium diagrams. The solid-state characteristics were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Various types of interactions were identified such as the formation of a eutectic system of ND-PEG 4000, monotectic system of ND-urea and complete solid immiscibility of ND with mannitol. The effects of carrier concentrations on the equilibrium solubility and in-vitro dissolution characteristics were studied. Linear increases (R(2)  > 0.99) in the aqueous solubility of ND in various concentrations of PEG 4000 and urea were obtained, whereas mannitol did not exhibit any effect on the solubility of ND. Similar trends were obtained with the dissolution efficiency of the fused mixtures of ND with PEG 4000 and urea compared with the corresponding physical mixtures and untreated drug. The analgesic effects of untreated ND and the selected formulations were investigated by evaluating the drug's ability to inhibit the acetic acid-induced writhing response. The analgesic effect of ND in a eutectic mixture with PEG 4000 and a monotectic mixture with urea was potentiated by 3.2 and 2.7-fold respectively compared with the untreated drug. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Radiation effects on the immiscible polymer blend of nylon1010 and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) I: Gel/dose curves, mathematical expectation theorem and thermal behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, W.; Zhang, W.; Chen, G.; Liu, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies the radiation properties of the immiscible blend of nylon1010 and HIPS. The gel fraction increased with increasing radiation dose. The network was found mostly in nylon1010, the networks were also found in both nylon1010 and HIPS when the dose reaches 0.85 MGy or more. We used the equation and the modified Zhang-Sun-Qian equation to simulate the relationship with the dose and the sol fraction. The latter equation fits well with these polymer blends and the relationship used by it showed better linearity than the one by the equation. We also studied the conditions of formation of the network by the mathematical expectation theorem for the binary system. Thermal properties of polymer blend were observed by DSC curves. The crystallization temperature decreases with increasing dose because the cross-linking reaction inhibited the crystallization procession and destroyed the crystals. The melting temperature also reduced with increasing radiation dose. The dual melting peak gradually shifted to single peak and the high melting peak disappeared at high radiation dose. However, the radiation-induced crystallization was observed by the heat of fusion increasing at low radiation dose. On the other hand, the crystal will be damaged by radiation. A similar conclusion may be drawn by the DSC traces when the polymer blends were crystallized. When the radiation dose increases, the heat of fusion reduces dramatically and so does the heat of crystallization. (author)

  15. On Numerical Methods for Including the Effect of Capillary Pressure Forces on Two-phase, Immiscible Flow in a Layered Porous Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersland, B.G.

    1996-05-01

    This mathematical doctoral thesis contains the theory, algorithms and numerical simulations for a heterogeneous oil reservoir. It presents the equations, which apply to immiscible and incompressible two-phase fluid flow in the reservoir, including the effect of capillary pressure forces, and emphasises in particular the interior boundary conditions at the interface between two sediments. Two different approaches are discussed. The first approach is to decompose the computational domain along the interior boundary and iterate between the subdomains until mass balance is achieved. The second approach accounts for the interior boundary conditions in the basis in which the solution is expanded, the basis being discontinuous over the interior boundaries. An overview of the construction of iterative solvers for partial differential equations by means of Schwartz methods is given, and the algorithm for local refinement with Schwartz iterations as iterative solver is described. The theory is then applied to a core plug problem in one and two space dimensions and the results of different methods compared. A general description is given of the computer simulation model, which is implemented in C++. 64 refs., 49 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Parallel simulation of two-phase incompressible and immiscible flows in porous media using a finite volume formulation and a modified IMPES approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, R S; De Carvalho, D K E; Antunes, A R E; Lyra, P R M; Willmersdorf, R B

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a finite volume method with a 'Modified Implicit Pressure, Explicit Saturation' (MIMPES) approach is used to model the 3-D incompressible and immiscible two-phase flow of water and oil in heterogeneous and anisotropic porous media. A vertex centered finite volume method with an edge-based data structure is adopted to discretize both the elliptic pressure and the hyperbolic saturation equations using parallel computers with distributed memory. Due to the explicit solution of the saturation equation in the IMPES method, severe time step restrictions are imposed on the simulation. In order to circumvent this problem, an edge-based implementation of the MIMPES method was used. In this method, the pressure equation is solved and the velocity field is computed much less frequently than the saturation field. Following the work of Hurtado, a mean relative variation of the velocity field throughout the simulation is used to automatically control the updating process, allowing for much larger time-steps in a very simple way. In order to run large scale problems, we have developed a parallel implementation using clusters of PC's. The simulator uses open source parallel libraries like FMDB, ParMetis and PETSc. Results of speed-up and efficiency are presented to validate the performance of the parallel simulator.

  17. Numerical simulations of natural or mixed convection in vertical channels: comparisons of level-set numerical schemes for the modeling of immiscible incompressible fluid flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, R.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research dissertation is at studying natural and mixed convections of fluid flows, and to develop and validate numerical schemes for interface tracking in order to treat incompressible and immiscible fluid flows, later. In a first step, an original numerical method, based on Finite Volume discretizations, is developed for modeling low Mach number flows with large temperature gaps. Three physical applications on air flowing through vertical heated parallel plates were investigated. We showed that the optimum spacing corresponding to the peak heat flux transferred from an array of isothermal parallel plates cooled by mixed convection is smaller than those for natural or forced convections when the pressure drop at the outlet keeps constant. We also proved that mixed convection flows resulting from an imposed flow rate may exhibit unexpected physical solutions; alternative model based on prescribed total pressure at inlet and fixed pressure at outlet sections gives more realistic results. For channels heated by heat flux on one wall only, surface radiation tends to suppress the onset of re-circulations at the outlet and to unify the walls temperature. In a second step, the mathematical model coupling the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and the Level-Set method for interface tracking is derived. Improvements in fluid volume conservation by using high order discretization (ENO-WENO) schemes for the transport equation and variants of the signed distance equation are discussed. (author)

  18. Study of immiscibilities in the trilaurylamine - dodecane - nitric acid - plutonium system; Etude des immiscibilites dans le systeme trilaurylamine - dodecane - acide nitrique - plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saey, J C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    Phase equilibrium in systems made up of trilaurylamine, dodecane, nitric acid tetravalent plutonium is shown by drawing the triangular diagrams. the study of these diagrams provides informations concerning the causes of immiscibility. Heterogeneity of the organic mixtures can be related to some characteristics of the components- dipole moment, molecular polarizability and hydrogen bond exchanging ability-Depending on these, some rules may be established which can be used to make a proper choice of an additive in order to improve the miscibility. As an application a study on the partial substitution of dodecane with decalin, in plutonium extraction experiments, has been done showing a possible improvement of the extraction process. (author) [French] L equilibre des phases dans les systemes formes a partir de trilaurylamine, de dodecane, d'acide nitrique et de plutonium tetravalent est represente en tracant les diagrammes triangulaires. L'examen de ces diagrammes permet d'apporter certaines precisions en ce qui concerne l'origine des immiscibilites. Celles ci sont ensuite reliees a certaines caracteristiques des constituants: le moment dipolaire, la polarisabilite moleculaire et la tendance a former des liaisons hydrogene. Sur les memes bases, il est possible d'etablir un certain nombre de regles pouvant servir a guider le choix d'un additif ameliorant la miscibilite. En application, une etude sur le remplacement partiel du dodecane par la decaline montre l'interet de l'emploi de ce compose dans le procede de purification du plutonium. (auteur)

  19. Identification of complex, naturally occurring flavonoid glycosides in kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica) by high-performance liquid chromatography diode-array detection/electrospray ionization multi-stage mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susanne; Zietz, Michaela; Schreiner, Monika; Rohn, Sascha; Kroh, Lothar W; Krumbein, Angelika

    2010-07-30

    Kale is a member of the Brassicaceae family and has a complex profile of flavonoid glycosides. Therefore, kale is a suitable matrix to discuss in a comprehensive study the different fragmentation patterns of flavonoid glycosides. The wide variety of glycosylation and acylation patterns determines the health-promoting effects of these glycosides. The aim of this study is to investigate the naturally occurring flavonoids in kale. A total of 71 flavonoid glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin were identified using a high-performance liquid chromatography diode-array detection/electrospray ionization multi-stage mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(n)) method. Of these 71 flavonol glycosides, 27 were non-acylated, 30 were monoacylated and 14 were diacylated. Non-acylated flavonol glycosides were present as mono-, di-, tri- and tetraglycosides. This is the first time that the occurrence of four different fragmentation patterns of non-acylated flavonol triglycosides has been reported in one matrix simultaneously. In addition, 44 flavonol glycosides were acylated with p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, hydroxyferulic or sinapic acid. While monoacylated glycosides existed as di-, tri- and tetraglycosides, diacylated glycosides occurred as tetra- and pentaglycosides. To the best of our knowledge, 28 compounds in kale are reported here for the first time. These include three acylated isorhamnetin glycosides (isorhamnetin-3-O-sinapoyl-sophoroside-7-O-D-glucoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-feruloyl-sophoroside-7-O-diglucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-disinapoyl-triglucoside-7-O-diglucoside) and seven non-acylated isorhamnetin glycosides. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Experimental investigation of liquid-liquid plug formation in a T-junction microchannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Panagiota; Chinaud, Maxime; Roumpea, Eynagelia-Panagiota; Weheliye, Weheliye; Omar. K. Matar Collaboration; Lyes Kahouadji Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Plug formation mechanism of two immiscible liquids was studied experimentally in a 200 μm microchannel using two innovative micro Particle Image Velocimetry (μ PIV) techniques i.e. two-colour μ PIV and high speed bright field μ PIV. The aqueous phase was a water/glycerol solution whereas the organic phase was silicon oil with a range of viscosities from 5 to 155 cSt. Experiments were conducted for different fluid flow rate combinations in the T-junction inlet and it was observed that velocity profiles within the forming plugs depend on the flow rate ratios. The velocity field studies provided insight into the plug mechanism revealing that the interface curvature at the rear of the forming plug changes sign at the later stages of plug formation and accelerates the thinning of the meniscus leading to plug breakage. Results from the two-colour PIV show that the continuous phase resists the flow of the dispersed phase into the main channel at the rear of the plug meniscus and causes the change in the interface curvature. Department of Chemical Engineering South Kensington Campus Imperial College London SW7 2AZ.

  1. Liquid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, K R

    1959-01-01

    Originally published in 1959 as part of the Cambridge Monographs on Physics series, this book addresses liquid helium from the dual perspectives of statistical mechanics and hydrodynamics. Atkins looks at both Helium Three and Helium Four, as well as the properties of a combination of the two isotopes. This book will be of value to anyone with an interest in the history of science and the study of one of the universe's most fundamental elements.

  2. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of aqueous solutions of butyric acid with n-heptane and toluene at T = (298.2, 308.2, and 318.2) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanadzadeh Gilani, H.; Ghanadzadeh Gilani, A.; Janbaz, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Liquid equilibrium data of (water + butyric acid + n-heptane) were obtained. ► LLE data were correlated with NRTL and UNIQUAC models. ► Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated. - Abstract: Solubility and tie line data for the (water + butyric acid + n-heptane) and (water + butyric acid + toluene) ternary systems were determined at T = (298.2, 308.2, and 318.2) K and atmospheric pressure. Solubility data were obtained by the cloud-point titration method. The concentration of each phase was determined by acidimetric titration, the Karl-Fischer technique, and refractive index measurements. The experimental tie-line data were correlated using the UNIQUAC and NRTL thermodynamic models. The reliability of the experimental data was determined through the Othmer–Tobias and Hand plots. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated for each system over the immiscibility regions.

  3. Highly pressurized partially miscible liquid-liquid flow in a micro-T-junction. I. Experimental observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ning; Wen, John Z.; Ren, Carolyn L.

    2017-04-01

    This is the first part of a two-part study on a partially miscible liquid-liquid flow (liquid carbon dioxide and deionized water) which is highly pressurized and confined in a microfluidic T-junction. Our main focuses are to understand the flow regimes as a result of varying flow conditions and investigate the characteristics of drop flow distinct from coflow, with a capillary number, C ac , that is calculated based on the continuous liquid, ranging from 10-3 to 10-2 (10-4 for coflow). Here in part I, we present our experimental observation of drop formation cycle by tracking drop length, spacing, frequency, and after-generation speed using high-speed video and image analysis. The drop flow is chronologically composed of a stagnating and filling stage, an elongating and squeezing stage, and a truncating stage. The common "necking" time during the elongating and squeezing stage (with C ac˜10-3 ) for the truncation of the dispersed liquid stream is extended, and the truncation point is subsequently shifted downstream from the T-junction corner. This temporal postponement effect modifies the scaling function reported in the literature for droplet formation with two immiscible fluids. Our experimental measurements also demonstrate the drop speed immediately following their generations can be approximated by the mean velocity from averaging the total flow rate over the channel cross section. Further justifications of the quantitative analysis by considering the mass transfer at the interface of the two partially miscible fluids are provided in part II.

  4. Iron species determination by task-specific ionic liquid-based in situ solvent formation dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Susan; Ashoori, Vahid

    2017-10-01

    The task-specific ionic liquid (TSIL) of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide functionalized with 8-hydroxyquinoline was used as a chelating agent and extracting solvent for dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and subsequent determination of Fe(III) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The in situ solvent formation of TSIL using KPF 6 provided the desired water-immiscible ionic liquid. The total Fe concentration could be determined after pre-oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III). Various factors affecting the proposed extraction procedure were optimized. The proposed analytical conditions were: sample pH 5, TSIL amount 0.3% (w/v), KPF 6 amount 0.15% (w/v), anti-sticking 0.1% (w/v) and salt concentration 5% (w/v). Under optimal conditions, the linear dynamic ranges for Fe(III) and total Fe were 20-80 and 20-110 ng mL -1 , respectively, with a detection limit of 6.9 ng mL -1 for Fe(III) and relative standard deviation of 2.2%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of trace Fe(III) in water (underground, tap, refined water and artificial sea water) and beverage (apple, tomato, and tea) samples. The developed method offers advantages such as simplicity, ease of operation, and extraction of Fe(III) from aqueous solutions without the use of organic solvent. It was successfully applied for iron speciation in different real samples. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Water quality for liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuniwa, Fumio; Maekoya, Chiaki; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Yano, Hiroaki; Watahiki, Kazuo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the automation of the operation for a liquid wastes processing system by enabling continuous analysis for the main ingredients in the liquid wastes accurately and rapidly. Constitution: The water quality monitor comprises a sampling pipeway system for taking out sample water for the analysis of liquid wastes from a pipeway introducing liquid wastes to the liquid wastes concentrator, a filter for removing suspended matters in the sample water and absorption photometer as a water quality analyzer. A portion of the liquid wastes is passed through the suspended matter filter by a feedpump. In this case, sulfate ions and chloride ions in the sample are retained in the upper portion of a separation color and, subsequently, the respective ingredients are separated and leached out by eluting solution. Since the leached out ingredients form ferric ions and yellow complexes respectively, their concentrations can be detected by the spectrum photometer. Accordingly, concentration for the sodium sulfate and sodium chloride in the liquid wastes can be analyzed rapidly, accurately and repeatedly by which the water quality can be determined rapidly and accurately. (Yoshino, Y.)

  6. Phase equilibrium study of the binary systems (N-hexyl-3-methylpyridinium tosylate ionic liquid + water, or organic solvent)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska, Urszula; Krolikowski, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Synthesis, DSC, and measurements of phase equilibrium of N-hexyl-3-methylpyridinium tosylate. → Solvents used: water, alcohols, benzene, alkylbenzenes, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. → Correlation with UNIQUAC, Wilson and NRTL models. → Comparison with different tosylate-based ILs. - Abstract: The (solid + liquid) phase equilibrium (SLE) and (liquid + liquid) phase equilibrium (LLE) for the binary systems ionic liquid (IL) N-hexyl-3-methylpyridinium tosylate (p-toluenesulfonate), {([HM 3 Py][TOS] + water, or an alcohol (1-butanol, or 1-hexanol, or 1-octanol, or 1-decanol), or an aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene, toluene, or ethylbenzene, or propylbenzene), or an alkane (n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane)} have been determined at ambient pressure using a dynamic method. Simple eutectic systems with complete miscibility in the liquid phase were observed for the systems involving water and alcohols. The phase equilibrium diagrams of IL and aromatic or aliphatic hydrocarbons exhibit eutectic systems with immiscibility in the liquid phase with an upper critical solution temperature as for most of the ILs. The correlation of the experimental data has been carried out using the UNIQUAC, Wilson and the non-random two liquid (NRTL) correlation equations. The results reported here have been compared with analogous phase diagrams reported by our group previously for systems containing the tosylate-based ILs.

  7. Liquidity, welfare and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Gil Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a dynamic general equilibrium model where wealth distribution is endogenous. I provide channels of causality that suggest a complex relationship between financial markets and the real activity which breaks down the classical dichotomy. As a consequence, the Friedman rule does not hold. In terms of the current events taking place in the world economy, this paper provides a rationale to advert against the perils of an economy satiated with liquidity. Efficiency and distribution cannot thus be considered as separate attributes once we account for the interactions between financial markets and the economic performance.

  8. Solutal Marangoni flows of miscible liquids drive transport without surface contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoungsoo; Muller, Koen; Shardt, Orest; Afkhami, Shahriar; Stone, Howard A.

    2017-11-01

    Mixing and spreading of different liquids are omnipresent in nature, life and technology, such as oil pollution on the sea, estuaries, food processing, cosmetic and beverage industries, lab-on-a-chip devices, and polymer processing. However, the mixing and spreading mechanisms for miscible liquids remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that a fully soluble liquid drop deposited on a liquid surface remains as a static lens without immediately spreading and mixing, and simultaneously a Marangoni-driven convective flow is generated, which are counterintuitive results when two liquids have different surface tensions. To understand the dynamics, we develop a theoretical model to predict the finite spreading time and length scales, the Marangoni-driven convection flow speed, and the finite timescale to establish the quasi-steady state for the Marangoni flow. The fundamental understanding of this solutal Marangoni flow may enable driving bulk flows and constructing an effective drug delivery and surface cleaning approach without causing surface contamination by immiscible chemical species.

  9. Experimental and numerical study of the migration of gas bubbles through an interface between two liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonhomme, R.

    2012-01-01

    In order to predict the evolution of a hypothetical accident in pressurized water nuclear reactors, this study aims to understand the dynamics of gas bubbles ascending in a stratified mixture made of two superimposed liquids. To this aim, an experimental device equipped with two high-speed video cameras was designed, allowing us to observe isolated air bubbles and bubble trains crossing a horizontal interface separating two Newtonian immiscible liquids initially at rest. The size of the bubbles and the viscosity contrast between the two liquids were varied by more than one and four orders of magnitude respectively, making it possible to observe a wide variety of flow regimes. In some situations, small millimetric bubbles remain trapped at the liquid-liquid interface, whereas larger bubbles succeed in crossing the interface and tow a significant column of lower fluid behind them. After the influence of the physical parameters was qualitatively established thanks to simple models, direct numerical simulations of several selected experimental situations were performed with two different approaches. These are both based on the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, one making use of an interface capturing technique, the other of a diffuse Cahn-Hilliard description. Comparisons between experimental and numerical results confirmed the reliability of the computational approaches in most situations but also highlighted the need for improvements to capture small-scale physical phenomena especially those related to film drainage. (author)

  10. Laser Welding-Brazing of Immiscible AZ31B Mg and Ti-6Al-4V Alloys Using an Electrodeposited Cu Interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zequn; Tan, Caiwang; Wang, Gang; Chen, Bo; Song, Xiaoguo; Zhao, Hongyun; Li, Liqun; Feng, Jicai

    2018-03-01

    Metallurgical bonding between immiscible system AZ31B magnesium (Mg) and Ti-6Al-4V titanium (Ti) was achieved by adding Cu interlayer using laser welding-brazing process. Effect of the laser power on microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of Mg/Cu-coated Ti joints was studied. Visually acceptable joints were obtained at the range of 1300 to 1500 W. The brazed interface was divided into three parts due to temperature gradient: direct irradiation zone, intermediate zone and seam head zone. Ti3Al phase was produced along the interface at the direct irradiation zone. Ti-Al reaction layer grew slightly with the increase in laser power. A small amount of Ti2(Cu,Al) interfacial compounds formed at the intermediate zone and the ( α-Mg + Mg2Cu) eutectic structure dispersed in the fusion zone instead of gathering when increasing the laser power at this zone. At the seam head zone, Mg-Cu eutectic structure was produced in large quantities under all cases. Joint strength first increased and then decreased with the variation of the laser power. The maximum fracture load of Mg/Cu-coated Ti joint reached 2314 N at the laser power of 1300 W, representing 85.7% joint efficiency when compared with Mg base metal. All specimens fractured at the interface. The feature of fracture surface at the laser power of 1100 W was characterized by overall smooth surface. Obvious tear ridge and Ti3Al particles were observed at the fracture surface with increase in laser power. It suggested atomic diffusion was accelerated with more heat input giving rise to the enhanced interfacial reaction and metallurgical bonding in direct irradiation zone, which determined the mechanical properties of the joint.

  11. Exchange reactions between a molten salt and a solution of tri-butyl phosphate in a liquid silicone; Reactions d'echange entre un sel fondu et une solution de phosphate de tributyle dans un silicone liquide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzog, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Present interest centred around molten salts can be explained by their possible use in the field of nuclear energy, in particular as a support for fuels and also as reprocessing agents. It seemed of interest to consider the molten salt as a solvent and to study partition phenomena with a second phase stable at high temperatures. The salt chosen is a ternary eutectic of alkali nitrates and the second phase is a solution of tri-butyl phosphate in a liquid silicone. The working temperature is fixed at 150 deg. C. We have studied first of all the stability of the two phases and their mutual solubilities at this temperature. It has been shown that the two solvents are immiscible and stable. We have also described the extraction by the silicone solution of various products in solution in the salt phase, and have determined the partition coefficients and the formulae of the extracted molecules. It has been possible to calculate the partition coefficients of the following ions extracted as nitrates: Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Sr{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+} whose partition coefficients are very low: Mg{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} whose extraction yields are greater than 50 per cent; finally Ce{sup 3+}, La{sup 3+}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, highly extracted. Also the following anions have been extracted in the form of alkali salts: F{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, Br{sup -}, I{sup -}, IO{sub 3}{sup -}, CN{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup -}, C{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}. Amongst these, only the halogens have non-negligible partition coefficients. In certain particular cases we have been able to study the influence of complex formation on the extraction phenomena. Two applications are described: - The separation of two products by complex formation and extraction (separation of magnesium from cobalt, nickel and zinc); - The calculation of the equilibrium constant of a complex by measurement of the variation in the partition coefficient of the ion complexed

  12. Liquid diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The liquid diode is designed for a flowmeter chamber which has an inlet and an outlet duct, and a flow chamber with a cross-section which is greater than inlet. In the space between the inlet and outlet are two screens with a number of spheres, which may be of different sizes and weights. The screen on the inlet side is smaller than that at the outlet, so that the spheres are able to block the inlet under reverse flow conditions, but do not block the outlet. The system functions as a non-return valve. (G.C.)

  13. Density-viscosity product of small-volume ionic liquid samples using quartz crystal impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Glen; Hardacre, Chris; Ge, Rile; Doy, Nicola; Allen, Ray W K; MacInnes, Jordan M; Bown, Mark R; Newton, Michael I

    2008-08-01

    Quartz crystal impedance analysis has been developed as a technique to assess whether room-temperature ionic liquids are Newtonian fluids and as a small-volume method for determining the values of their viscosity-density product, rho eta. Changes in the impedance spectrum of a 5-MHz fundamental frequency quartz crystal induced by a water-miscible room-temperature ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimiclazolium trifluoromethylsulfonate ([C4mim][OTf]), were measured. From coupled frequency shift and bandwidth changes as the concentration was varied from 0 to 100% ionic liquid, it was determined that this liquid provided a Newtonian response. A second water-immiscible ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [C4mim][NTf2], with concentration varied using methanol, was tested and also found to provide a Newtonian response. In both cases, the values of the square root of the viscosity-density product deduced from the small-volume quartz crystal technique were consistent with those measured using a viscometer and density meter. The third harmonic of the crystal was found to provide the closest agreement between the two measurement methods; the pure ionic liquids had the largest difference of approximately 10%. In addition, 18 pure ionic liquids were tested, and for 11 of these, good-quality frequency shift and bandwidth data were obtained; these 12 all had a Newtonian response. The frequency shift of the third harmonic was found to vary linearly with square root of viscosity-density product of the pure ionic liquids up to a value of square root(rho eta) approximately 18 kg m(-2) s(-1/2), but with a slope 10% smaller than that predicted by the Kanazawa and Gordon equation. It is envisaged that the quartz crystal technique could be used in a high-throughput microfluidic system for characterizing ionic liquids.

  14. Effects of Buoyancy Forces on Immiscible Water/Oil Displacements in a Vertically Oriented Porous Medium Effets des facteurs de flottabilité sur les déplacements non-miscibles eau/huile dans un milieu poreux vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirunavu S. R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of buoyancy forces on liquid-liquid displacement processes occurring in porous media are important in a variety of practical situations, in particular during the displacement of oil from partially-depleted underground reservoirs by means of aqueous solutions. Most previous studies involving the visualization of water/oil displacements in porous media have been undertaken in horizontal two-dimensional porous medium cells. The objective of the present work was to determine the effects of buoyancy forces; on the fingering pattern and oil recovery by conducting immiscible displacement experiments in two-dimensional consolidated porous medium cells aligned in the vertical plane. In order to obtain a clear understanding of the favourable and unfavourable effects of buoyancy forces, experiments were carried out in three different flow modes, namely horizontal, vertical upward, and vertical downward. As the effects of buoyancy forces are negligible for two-dimensional porous media in the horizontal flow mode, the recoveries obtained in this mode were used as a reference for comparison with those obtained in the two vertical modes. Displacements using five different density ratios were studied. The breakthrough time and percentage oil recovery were measured in each case. The effects of buoyancy forces, viscous forces, and capillary forces, as well as the injection flow rate, were also recorded. The results obtained indicate that the effects of buoyancy forces are very pronounced at low flow rates and low oil/water density ratios, and that even a slight increase in the flow rate causes the buoyancy forces to rapidly become less significant. Les facteurs de flottabilité exercent un effet important sur les déplacements liquide/liquide en milieu poreux dans toute une gamme de situations pratiques, en particulier lorsqu'on veut déplacer l'huile de roches réservoirs partiellement épuisées à l'aide de solutions aqueuses. La plupart des

  15. From Funding Liquidity to Market Liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Lund, Jesper; Gyntelberg, Jacob

    This paper shows empirically that funding liquidity drives market liquidity. As it becomes harder to secure term funding in the money markets, liquidity deteriorates in the Danish bond market. We show that the first principal component of bond market liquidity is driven by the market makers...... for other European government bonds using MTS data. The findings suggest that regulatory bond based liquidity buffers for banks will have limited effectiveness....

  16. Adsorption and ion-pairing interactions of phospholipids in the system of two immiscible electrolyte solutions - Part III: The behaviour of a lecithin layer...

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jänchenová, Hana; Štulík, K.; Mareček, Vladimír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 612, č. 2 (2008), s. 186-190 ISSN 1572-6657 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : liquid/liquid interfaces * surface tension * adsorption of phospholipids Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.484, year: 2008

  17. Ion transfer kinetics at the micro-interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and steady-state voltammetry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Silver, Barry Richard; Holub, Karel; Mareček, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 731, OCT 2014 (2014), s. 107-111 ISSN 1572-6657 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-04630S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Liquid/liquid interfaces * Ion transport * AC impedance Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.729, year: 2014

  18. Electrochemical ion transfer across liquid/liquid interfaces confined within solid-state micropore arrays--simulations and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strutwolf, Jörg; Scanlon, Micheál D; Arrigan, Damien W M

    2009-01-01

    Miniaturised liquid/liquid interfaces provide benefits for bioanalytical detection with electrochemical methods. In this work, microporous silicon membranes which can be used for interface miniaturisation were characterized by simulations and experiments. The microporous membranes possessed hexagonal arrays of pores with radii between 10 and 25 microm, a pore depth of 100 microm and pore centre-to-centre separations between 99 and 986 microm. Cyclic voltammetry was used to monitor ion transfer across arrays of micro-interfaces between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (microITIES) formed at these membranes, with the organic phase present as an organogel. The results were compared to computational simulations taking into account mass transport by diffusion and encompassing diffusion to recessed interfaces and overlapped diffusion zones. The simulation and experimental data were both consistent with the situation where the location of the liquid/liquid (l/l) interface was on the aqueous side of the silicon membrane and the pores were filled with the organic phase. While the current for the forward potential scan (transfer of the ion from the aqueous phase to the organic phase) was strongly dependent on the location of the l/l interface, the current peak during the reverse scan (transfer of the ion from the organic phase to the aqueous phase) was influenced by the ratio of the transferring ion's diffusion coefficients in both phases. The diffusion coefficient of the transferring ion in the gelified organic phase was ca. nine times smaller than in the aqueous phase. Asymmetric cyclic voltammogram shapes were caused by the combined effect of non-symmetrical diffusion (spherical and linear) and by the inequality of the diffusion coefficient in both phases. Overlapping diffusion zones were responsible for the observation of current peaks instead of steady-state currents during the forward scan. The characterisation of the diffusion behaviour is an important requirement

  19. Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation in Model Nuclear Waste Glasses: A Solid-State Double-Resonance NMR Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineau, Ch.; Michaelis, V.K.; Kroeker, S. [Univ Manitoba, Dept Chem, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Schuller, S. [CEA Valrho Marcoule, LDMC, SECM, DTCD, DEN, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France)

    2010-07-01

    Double-resonance nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are used in addition to single-resonance NMR experiments to probe the degree of mixing between network-forming cations Si and B, along with the modifier cations Cs{sup +} and Na{sup +} in two molybdenum-bearing model nuclear waste glasses. The double-resonance experiments involving {sup 29}Si in natural abundance are made possible by the implementation of a CPMG pulse-train during the acquisition period of the usual REDOR experiments. For the glass with lower Mo content, the NMR results show a high degree of Si-B mixing, as well as an homogeneous distribution of the cations within the borosilicate network, characteristic of a non-phase-separated glass. For the higher-Mo glass, a decrease of B-Si(Q{sup 4}) mixing is observed, indicating phase separation. {sup 23}Na and {sup 133}Cs NMR results show that although the Cs{sup +} cations, which do not seem to be influenced by the molybdenum content, are spread within the borate network, there is a clustering of the Na{sup +} cations, very likely around the molybdate units. The segregation of a Mo-rich region with Na{sup +} cations appears to shift the bulk borosilicate glass composition toward the metastable liquid liquid immiscibility region and induce additional phase separation. Although no crystallization is observed in the present case, this liquid liquid phase separation is likely to be the first stage of crystallization that can occur at higher Mo loadings or be driven by heat treatment. From this study emerges a consistent picture of the nature and extent of such phase separation phenomena in Mo-bearing glasses, and demonstrates the potential of double-resonance NMR methods for the investigation of phase separation in amorphous materials. (authors)

  20. Active liquid/liquid interfaces: contributions of non linear optics and tensiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassin, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction processes are widely used in the industrial fields of selective separation. Despite its numerous applications, the microscopic mechanisms which occur during a liquid-liquid extraction processes are really unknown specially at the liquid/liquid interface. Thus, this work deals on the understanding of the phenomena which drive the mass transfer across a liquid/liquid interface. Two experimental techniques were used in this work: dynamic interfacial tension measurement and non-linear optical experiments. Along with the use of this experimental approach, a numerical model describing the mass transfer dynamic has been developed. This model works under the assumption that both diffusion and a chemical step describing adsorption and desorption processes contribute to the global transfer kinetics. Model systems of surfactant molecules, chromophore molecules and complexing molecule were investigated at liquid/liquid and air/liquid interface. Interfacial phenomena like adsorption, surface aggregation and ion complexing were studied. Finally, the methodology developed in this work was applied to studied an extractant molecule with potential industrial application. (author) [fr

  1. Architecture, Assembly, and Emerging Applications of Branched Functional Polyelectrolytes and Poly(ionic liquid)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weinan; Ledin, Petr A; Shevchenko, Valery V; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2015-06-17

    Branched polyelectrolytes with cylindrical brush, dendritic, hyperbranched, grafted, and star architectures bearing ionizable functional groups possess complex and unique assembly behavior in solution at surfaces and interfaces as compared to their linear counterparts. This review summarizes the recent developments in the introduction of various architectures and understanding of the assembly behavior of branched polyelectrolytes with a focus on functional polyelectrolytes and poly(ionic liquid)s with responsive properties. The branched polyelectrolytes and poly(ionic liquid)s interact electrostatically with small molecules, linear polyelectrolytes, or other branched polyelectrolytes to form assemblies of hybrid nanoparticles, multilayer thin films, responsive microcapsules, and ion-conductive membranes. The branched structures lead to unconventional assemblies and complex hierarchical structures with responsive properties as summarized in this review. Finally, we discuss prospectives for emerging applications of branched polyelectrolytes and poly(ionic liquid)s for energy harvesting and storage, controlled delivery, chemical microreactors, adaptive surfaces, and ion-exchange membranes.

  2. Scattering methods in complex fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Summarising recent research on the physics of complex liquids, this in-depth analysis examines the topic of complex liquids from a modern perspective, addressing experimental, computational and theoretical aspects of the field. Selecting only the most interesting contemporary developments in this rich field of research, the authors present multiple examples including aggregation, gel formation and glass transition, in systems undergoing percolation, at criticality, or in supercooled states. Connecting experiments and simulation with key theoretical principles, and covering numerous systems including micelles, micro-emulsions, biological systems, and cement pastes, this unique text is an invaluable resource for graduate students and researchers looking to explore and understand the expanding field of complex fluids.

  3. Toxicological evaluation of liquids proposed for use in direct contact liquid--liquid heat exchangers for solar heated and cooled buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchan, R.M.; Majestic, J.R.; Billau, R.

    1976-09-01

    This report contains the results of the toxicological evaluation part of the project entitled, ''Direct Contact Liquid-Liquid Heat Exchangers for Solar Heated and Cooled Buildings.'' Obviously any liquid otherwise suitable for use in such a device should be subjected to a toxicological evaluation. 34 liquids (24 denser than water, 10 less dense) have physical and chemical properties that would make them suitable for use in such a device. In addition to the complexity involved in selecting the most promising liquids from the standpoint of their chemical and physical properties is added the additional difficulty of also considering their toxicological properties. Some of the physical and chemical properties of these liquids are listed. The liquids are listed in alphabetical order within groups, the denser than water liquids are listed first followed by those liquids less dense than water.

  4. Stabilization of thin liquid films by repulsive van der waals force

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Erqiang

    2014-05-13

    Using high-speed video recording of bubble rise experiments, we study the stability of thin liquid films trapped between a rising bubble and a surfactant-free liquid-liquid meniscus interface. Using different combinations of nonpolar oils and water that are all immiscible, we investigate the extent to which film stability can be predicted by attractive and repulsive van der Waals (vdW) interactions that are indicated by the relative magnitude of the refractive indices of the liquid combinations, for example, water (refractive index, n = 1.33), perfluorohexane (n = 1.23), and tetradecane (n = 1.43). We show that, when the film-forming phase was oil (perfluorohexane or tetradecane), the stability of the film could always be predicted from the sign of the vdW interaction, with a repulsive vdW force resulting in a stable film and an attractive vdW force resulting in film rupture. However, if aqueous electrolyte is the film-forming bulk phase between the rising air bubble and the upper oil phase, the film always ruptured, even when a repulsive vdW interaction was predicted. We interpret these results as supporting the hypothesis that a short-ranged hydrophobic attraction determines the stability of the thin water film formed between an air phase and a nonpolar oil phase. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  5. Experimental study of extent and rate of gravity drainage of oil from matrix into fractures in presence of miscible and immiscible CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asghari, K.; Torabi, F. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The use of miscible carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection to improve oil recovery in naturally fractured reservoirs was discussed. The main production mechanism in fractured reservoirs is gravity drainage. The performance of this process is a function of a series of parameters such as fracture-matrix geometry, size, and matrix-fracture flow interaction. Both viscosity and density of oil and injected CO{sub 2} play important roles in the case of miscible CO{sub 2}. This paper presented the results of an experimental study of the effect of injecting CO{sub 2} into fractured media and its influence on the performance of gravity drainage and ultimate oil production. Both miscible and immiscible schemes for CO{sub 2} were examined in this study. In order to simulate a matrix with surrounding fractures, a steel holder was specifically designed to allow for an open space around a core of 30 cm long and 5 cm in diameter. CO{sub 2} and normal decane were used as solvent and oil, respectively. All experiments were conducted at constant temperature of 35 degrees C, and six series of experiments were carried out at 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1250, and 1500 psi. The produced oil was collected and measured continuously under the pressure and temperature conditions of the experiments. It was shown that injecting CO{sub 2} at higher pressures substantially improves the recovery factor of gravity drainage mechanism in fractured media. The injection of CO{sub 2} in fractures at pressures below minimum miscibility pressures (MMP) can recover up to 19 per cent of oil in-place (OIP). However, at miscible conditions, oil recovery can increase to more than 50 per cent of OIP. At a pressure much above MMP of CO{sub 2}, ultimate recovery may decrease due to the presence of denser fluid in fractures, which could prevent flow of fluid from matrix into fractures. It was concluded that CO{sub 2} injection in fractured reservoir may be a viable option for combined CO{sub 2} EOR and storage projects

  6. Understanding voltage-induced localization of nanoparticles at a liquid-liquid interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flatte, M E; Kornyshev, A A; Urbakh, M

    2008-01-01

    Functionalization of liquid-liquid interfaces is a hot area, driven by aspirations to build self-assembled interfacial structures with unique properties, in particular accessible to light from both sides of the interface. Adsorption of nanoparticles is an example of such functionalization. Interesting new developments take place in electrochemical liquid-liquid systems, consisting of two immiscible electrolytic solutions that form an interface impermeable to ions until a sufficiently high voltage is applied across the interface. The voltage drops across a nanoscale region near the interface due to the formation of two back-to-back electrical double layers on the two sides of the interface. This highly localized voltage drop opens a new possibility for the stabilization and control of interfacial architectures. This appears to be particularly important for metal and even semiconductor nanoparticles, because they are, in turn, 'functionalized'. They are covered by surfactants with acidic groups, some of which dissociate in water. Coverage with surfactants is required to avoid particle-particle agglomeration in the bulk. An electric field can push such nanoparticles to the interface or move them away, depending on the direction of the field. This, together with the change of the free energy of solvation of nanoparticles when they move from the bulk to the surface, are the two new decisive factors affecting their adsorption and desorption. We discuss these effects together with the more familiar ones that are known to determine interfacial localization of uncharged nanoparticles. The presented critical analysis is qualitative. Although we will try to rationalize the main effects by some simplified formulae, they should not be taken literally: they pave the way towards understanding of nanoparticle localization in these systems, rather than give exact answers. These equations will, however, help us to 'visualize' how a properly applied electric field, assisted by the

  7. The Liquid State

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    like iron, aluminium, lead, zinc, etc .. Metals are cast ... dropping molten liquid of the alloys on a rapidly spinning copper wheel. ... Ed. Computer simulation studies in ... liquids, modelling ofliquids and study of the dynamic behaviour of liquids ...

  8. Remotely controllable liquid marbles

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin; Cha, Dong Kyu; Wang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Liquid droplets encapsulated by self-organized hydrophobic particles at the liquid/air interface - liquid marbles - are prepared by encapsulating water droplets with novel core/shell-structured responsive magnetic particles, consisting of a

  9. A Cryo Complex Control

    CERN Document Server

    Alferov, V; Fedorchenko, V; Ivanova, N; Kholkin, A; Klimov, S; Krendelev, V; Kuznetsov, S; Lukyantsev, A; Lutchev, A; Milutkin, V; Sytin, A N; Vasilev, D

    2004-01-01

    A Cryogenic complex is being constructed to provide by liquid helium and nitrogen the RF-separator of kaons. About 500 parameters including temperature (1,8…300)K, liquid helium/nitrogen level, vacuum, 300 digital signals have to be measured, 70 commands generated, 20 closed loops activated. The paper describes controls electronics which includes home made I8051 compatible controllers connected by the CAN field bus to a bus controller and interface electronic modules for: - temperature measurements; - liquid Ni and He level measurements; - vacuum pumps current measurements; - analog and digital signals measurements and generations. The modules are tested together with signal imitators within a vertical slice of the Control System based on EPICS tools.

  10. Detailed simulations of liquid and solid-liquid mixing : Turbulent agitated flow and mass transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, H.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis aims at a contribution to reliable and accurate predictions of complex, multi-phase processes. The reader is presented detailed simulations on liquid and solid-liquid mixing using large eddy simulations (LES) including scalar mixing and particle transport in a Rushton turbine stirred

  11. Pulse radiolysis study on solvated electrons in ionic liquid with controlling water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jinfeng; Kondoh, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Nagaishi, R.

    2006-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquids, which are nonvolatile and nonflammable, have been proposed as 'green solvents' for new applications in chemical synthesis, separation chemistry, electrochemistry and other areas. In the separation chemistry, the hydrophobic ionic liquids have been practically expected to be alternative to traditional organic solvents for solvent extraction of 4f and 5f elements from the viewpoints of the immiscibility in water, especially in the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. However, the chemical reaction or kinetics studies are important to apply the ionic liquids for various processes. To understand the effects of ionic liquids on chemical reactions, pulse radiolysis studies of ionic liquid have been carried out on nanosecond scale by using a 27 MeV electron beam and an analyzing light source of xenon lamp. In the experiment, a hydrophobic ionic liquid of diethylmethyl(2-methoxy)ammonium-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (DEMMA-TFSI) salt was used. The ionic liquid of DEMMA-TFSI was prepared by reacting equimolar amounts of diethylmethyl(2-methoxy)ammonium chloride (C 10 H 20 F 6 N 2 O 5 S 2 Cl, >98%, Nisshinbo) with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiN(SO 2 CF 3 ) 2 , SynQuest Labs., Inc.) in aqueous solutions at room temperature. The ionic liquid was separated from the aqueous phase, purified by repeated extractions with water to LiCl and excess reagent, and finally dried at 110 degree C under vacuum. The transient absorptions of the ionic liquid were measured at wavelengths from 350 to 1400 nm, in which two photodiodes of silicon ( 1000 nm) were used. The spectrum of solvated electrons in the ionic liquid of DEMMA-TFSI was obtained with an absorption peak of 1060 nm and a wide bandwidth of about 600 nm (FWHM). The decay constant of the solvated electrons in the ionic liquid was 1.54 x 10 7 s -1 , which is independent on the wavelength. The absorption peak of the spectrum was blue-shifted from 1060 to 780 nm with increasing water

  12. Optimizing separations in online comprehensive two‐dimensional liquid chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Pirok, Bob W.J.; Gargano, Andrea F.G.; Schoenmakers, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Online comprehensive two‐dimensional liquid chromatography has become an attractive option for the analysis of complex nonvolatile samples found in various fields (e.g. environmental studies, food, life, and polymer sciences). Two‐dimensional liquid chromatography complements the highly popular hyphenated systems that combine liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Two‐dimensional liquid chromatography is also applied to the analysis of samples that are not compatible with mass...

  13. Selective Oxidative Carbonylation of Aniline to Diphenylurea with Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahrtmann, Nanette; Claver, Carmen; Godard, Cyril

    2018-01-01

    A catalytic system for the selective oxidative carbonylation of aniline to diphenylurea based on Pd complexes in combination with imidazolium ionic liquids is presented. Both oxidants, Pd complexes and ionic liquids affect the activity of the reaction while the choice of oxidant determines...

  14. Progress in liquid ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Genkichi

    1974-01-01

    Review is made on the extraction with anion exchangers and the extraction with liquid cation exchangers. On the former, explanation is made on the extraction of acids, the relation between anion exchange and the extraction of metals, the composition of the metallic complexes that are extracted, and the application of the extraction with anion exchangers to analytical chemistry. On the latter, explanation is made on the extraction of metals and its application to analytical chemistry. The extraction with liquid ion exchangers is suitable for the operation in chromatography, because the distribution of extracting agents into aqueous phase is small, and extraction equilibrium is quickly reached, usually within 1 to several minutes. The separation by means of anion exchangers is usually made from hydrochloric acid solution. For example, Brinkman et al. determined Rf values for more than 50 elements by thin layer chromatography. Tables are given for showing the structure of the liquid ion exchangers and the polymerized state of various amines. (Mori, K.)

  15. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of perfluorocarbons with fluorinated ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinho, S.; Araújo, J.M.M.; Rebelo, L.P.N.; Pereiro, A.B.; Marrucho, I.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • (Liquid + liquid) equilibria perfluorocarbons and fluorinated ionic liquids. • Non-Random Two Liquid model was successfully applied. • Thermodynamic functions that describe the solvation process were calculated. -- Abstract: In order to evaluate the feasibility of partially replace perfluorocarbons (PFCs) with fluorinated ionic liquids (FILs) in PFCs-in-water emulsions, usually used for biomedical purposes, herein the (liquid + liquid) phase equilibria of FILs containing fluorinated chains longer than four carbons with PFCs were carried out in a wide range of temperatures. With this goal in mind, two PFCs (perfluorooctane and perfluorodecalin) were selected and the (liquid + liquid) equilibria of the binary mixtures of these PFCs and FILs were studied at atmospheric pressure in a temperature range from T (293.15 to 343.15) K. For these studies, FILs containing ammonium, pyridinium and imidazolium cations and different anions with fluorocarbon alkyl chains between 4 and 8 were included. Additionally, Non-Random Two Liquid (NRTL) thermodynamic model was successfully applied to correlate the behaviour of the PFCs + FILs binary mixtures. Moreover, thermodynamic functions that describe the solvation process were calculated from the experimental data

  16. CASH AND LIQUIDITY/LIQUIDITY AND LIQUIDITY RATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEATRIX LIGHEZAN BREUER

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to present the correlation as well as the differences between liquidity/cash and liquidity ratio in terms of economic entities. Researches on this topic are based on the opinions of some specialists in accounting and in the economic-financial analysis, as well as on the national legal stipulations and the ones set out in the International Accounting Standards, the Financial report, respectively. The object of this paper is represented by the correlation between liquidity/cash and liquidity ratios representing the liquidity as current assets, assets implied in the determination of liquidity ratios. The end of the paper consists of the conclusions drawn from the issues presented in the paper but also our views on this research topic.

  17. Ionic liquids in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshina, Julia L; Barber, Patrick S; Rogers, Robin D

    2013-10-01

    To overcome potential problems with solid-state APIs, such as polymorphism, solubility and bioavailability, pure liquid salt (ionic liquid) forms of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API-ILs) are considered here as a design strategy. After a critical review of the current literature, the recent development of the API-ILs strategy is presented, with a particular focus on the liquefaction of drugs. A variety of IL tools for control over the liquid salt state of matter are discussed including choice of counterion to produce an IL from a given API; the concept of oligomeric ions that enables liquefaction of solid ILs by changing the stoichiometry or complexity of the ions; formation of 'liquid co-crystals' where hydrogen bonding is the driving force in the liquefaction of a neutral acid-base complex; combining an IL strategy with the prodrug strategy to improve the delivery of solid APIs; using ILs as delivery agents via trapping a drug in a micelle and finally ILs designed with tunable hydrophilic-lipophilic balance that matches the structural requirements needed to solubilize poorly water-soluble APIs. The authors believe that API-IL approaches may save failed lead candidates, extend the patent life of current APIs, lead to new delivery options or even new pharmaceutical action. They encourage the pharmaceutical industry to invest more research into the API-IL platform as it could lead to fast-tracked approval based on similarities to the APIs already approved.

  18. Inorganic liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlicek, Z.; Barta, C.; Jursova, L.

    1986-01-01

    An inorganic liquid scintillator is designed which contains 1 to 30 wt.% of an inorganic molecular compound as the basic active component; the compound contains a cation with an atomic number higher than 47 and a halogen anion. The basic inorganic component is dissolved in water or in an organic solvent in form of non-dissociated molecules or self-complexes in which the bond is preserved between the cation and anion components. The light yield from these scintillators ranges between 70 and 150% of the light yield of a standard organic scintillator based on toluene. They are advantageous in that that they allow to increase the water content in the sample to up to 100%. (M.D.)

  19. Measurement and modeling of high-pressure (vapour + liquid) equilibria of (CO{sub 2} + alcohol) binary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, Jorge E.; Bejarano, Arturo [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Fuente, Juan C. de la, E-mail: juan.delafuente@usm.c [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Centro Regional de Estudios en Alimentos Saludables, Blanco 1623, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2010-05-15

    An apparatus based on a static-analytic method assembled in this work was utilized to perform high pressure (vapour + liquid) equilibria measurements with uncertainties estimated at <5%. Complementary isothermal (vapour + liquid) equilibria results are reported for the (CO{sub 2} + 1-propanol), (CO{sub 2} + 2-methyl-1-propanol), (CO{sub 2} + 3-methyl-1-butanol), and (CO{sub 2} + 1-pentanol) binary systems at temperatures of (313, 323, and 333) K, and at pressure range of (2 to 12) MPa. For all the (CO{sub 2} + alcohol) systems, it was visually monitored to insure that there was no liquid immiscibility at the temperatures and pressures studied. The experimental results were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state using the quadratic mixing rules of van der Waals with two adjustable parameters. The calculated (vapour + liquid) equilibria compositions were found to be in good agreement with the experimental values with deviations for the mol fractions <0.12 and <0.05 for the liquid and vapour phase, respectively.

  20. Solvent extraction of aromatic sulfur compounds from n-heptane using the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tricyanomethanide ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Królikowski, Marek; Walczak, Klaudia; Domańska, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • LLE data for (EMIMTCM + thiophene/benzothiophene + n-heptane) were determined. • High S and β for the extraction of thiophene/benzothiophene from n-heptane was found. • Results of S and β were compared with available literature. • The NRTL model satisfactorily correlates the LLE data. -- Abstract: The ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tricyanomethanide ([EMIM][TCM]) has been tested as a solvent for the separation of sulfur compounds from aliphatic hydrocarbon. Liquid–liquid phase equilibrium data have been determined for ternary systems containing the ionic liquid, thiophene or benzothiophene and n-heptane. The influence of temperature on the separation of thiophene from n-heptane was determined. High solubility of sulfur compounds and practical immiscibility of aliphatic hydrocarbon in ionic liquid have been found. The values of selectivity and solute distribution ratios have been calculated for all systems and compared with literature data for other 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids. High values of selectivity were obtained. The experimental data were correlated using the NRTL equation, and the binary interaction parameters have been reported. The phase equilibria diagrams for the ternary mixtures including the experimental and calculated tie-lines have been presented

  1. Sample clean-up, enrichment and determination of s-triazine herbicides from southern ethiopian lakes supported using liquid membrane extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Åke Jönsson

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The liquid membrane extraction method has been employed for selectively extracting trace quantities of s-triazine herbicides in environmental waters collected from lakes Awassa, Chamo and Abbya, located in close proximity to the agricultural farms in Southern Ethiopia. In liquid membrane extraction, the uncharged triazine compounds from the flowing donor solution diffuse through a porous poly(tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE membrane, containing a water immiscible organic solvent. The s-triazine molecules are then irreversibly trapped in the stagnant acidic acceptor phase since they become protonated. Using both di-n-hexylether and n-undecane membrane solvents, s-traizine herbicides were extracted and low detection limits of about 1 ng/L have been obtained by extraction of three liters of sample solution spiked with 0.1 g/L of each triazine. Residues of atrazine and terbutryn ranging in concentration from 0.02 to 0.05 g/L have been successfully determined.

  2. Ionic liquid-based single-drop microextraction/gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers in waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Herrador, Eva; Lucena, Rafael; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2008-08-01

    The direct coupling between ionic liquid-based single-drop microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry is proposed for the rapid and simple determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes isomers (BTEX) in water samples. The extraction procedure exploits not only the high affinity of the selected ionic liquid (1-methyl-3-octyl-imidazolium hexaflourophosphate) to these aromatic compounds but also its special properties like viscosity, low vapour pressure and immiscibility with water. All the variables involved in the extraction process have been studied in depth. The developed method allows the determination of these single-ring compounds in water under the reference concentration level fixed by the international legislation. In this case, limits of detection were in the range 20 ng L(-1) (obtained for benzene) and 91 ng L(-1) (for o-xylene). The repeatability of the proposed method, expressed as RSD (n=5), varied between 3.0% (o-xylene) and 5.2% (toluene).

  3. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  4. Study of liquids and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellissent-Funel, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    A critical review of what has been achieved on the structure of liquids and solutions and the capabilities and developments of neutron scattering in this domain, are presented. A great variety of simple to complex systems has been investigated with the aim of obtaining a full microscopic description of the structure. Selected examples demonstrate the neutron scattering determination of interaction potentials, intermolecular structures and partial structure factors of complex systems. The isotopic substitution method is illustrated by the application to the study of the solvation of ions in aqueous and non aqueous solutions. (author). 9 figs., 32 refs

  5. Complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon

    2006-06-01

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  6. Implied liquidity : towards stochastic liquidity modeling and liquidity trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corcuera, J.M.; Guillaume, F.M.Y.; Madan, D.B.; Schoutens, W.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of implied (il)liquidity of vanilla options. Implied liquidity is based on the fundamental theory of conic finance, in which the one-price model is abandoned and replaced by a two-price model giving bid and ask prices for traded assets. The pricing is done by

  7. Occurrence model for magmatic sulfide-rich nickel-copper-(platinum-group element) deposits related to mafic and ultramafic dike-sill complexes: Chapter I in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Klaus J.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Seal, Robert R.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Chandler, Val W.; Mars, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Magmatic sulfide deposits containing nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu), with or without (±) platinum-group elements (PGE), account for approximately 60 percent of the world’s nickel production. Most of the remainder of the Ni production is derived from lateritic deposits, which form by weathering of ultramafic rocks in humid tropical conditions. Magmatic Ni-Cu±PGE sulfide deposits are spatially and genetically related to bodies of mafic and/or ultramafic rocks. The sulfide deposits form when the mantle-derived mafic and/or ultramafic magmas become sulfide-saturated and segregate immiscible sulfide liquid, commonly following interaction with continental crustal rocks.

  8. In line digital holography measurement for liquid-liquid flow: application to the characterization of emulsions produced in pulsed column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamadie, F.

    2013-01-01

    Several processes used in research and industry are based on liquid-liquid extraction, a method designed for selective separation of products in a mixture. In liquid-liquid extraction, two immiscible liquids are contacted: an aqueous phase and an organic phase, one of which generally contains an extractant molecule capable of transferring the desired elements to the other phase. The transfer occurs at the contact surface between the two phases. After transfer, both phases are separated by settling. In practice, these operations are performed in industrial apparatus. In order to optimize the operation of these devices, it's important to determine the fundamental characteristics of the emulsion. These include parameters related to the fluid flow velocity as well as parameters related to fluid mixing such as the interfacial area, hold-up, and size distribution of the droplets population. Numerous imaging techniques can be used to measure these parameters. One of them, digital holography, is well-known for allowing complete reconstruction of information about a 3D flow in a single shot. This PhD work deals with a direct application of digital in line holography to droplets rising in a continuous liquid phase. The droplet size imposes a regime of intermediate-field diffraction hardly explored to date. Acquired diffraction patterns show that the usual dark disk model is not valid and that good agreement is obtained with a mixed model coupling thin lens with opaque disk. Hologram focusing is nevertheless performed with a dedicated automated method. A literature review has been conducted to identify the sharpest auto-focus function for our application. In a second step, in order to measure high retention rates, an inverse problem approach is applied on all the outliers and missing droplets. This hologram restitution treatment has been applied to experimental results with a comparison to independent measurements. The main results obtained with calibrated droplets are

  9. Coherent Vortices in Strongly Coupled Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwin, J.; Ganesh, R.

    2011-01-01

    Strongly coupled liquids are ubiquitous in both nature and laboratory plasma experiments. They are unique in the sense that their average potential energy per particle dominates over the average kinetic energy. Using ''first principles'' molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we report for the first time the emergence of isolated coherent tripolar vortices from the evolution of axisymmetric flows in a prototype two-dimensional (2D) strongly coupled liquid, namely, the Yukawa liquid. Linear growth rates directly obtained from MD simulations are compared with a generalized hydrodynamic model. Our MD simulations reveal that the tripolar vortices persist over several turn over times and hence may be observed in strongly coupled liquids such as complex plasma, liquid metals and astrophysical systems such as white dwarfs and giant planetary interiors, thereby making the phenomenon universal.

  10. Coherent Vortices in Strongly Coupled Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, J.; Ganesh, R.

    2011-04-01

    Strongly coupled liquids are ubiquitous in both nature and laboratory plasma experiments. They are unique in the sense that their average potential energy per particle dominates over the average kinetic energy. Using “first principles” molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we report for the first time the emergence of isolated coherent tripolar vortices from the evolution of axisymmetric flows in a prototype two-dimensional (2D) strongly coupled liquid, namely, the Yukawa liquid. Linear growth rates directly obtained from MD simulations are compared with a generalized hydrodynamic model. Our MD simulations reveal that the tripolar vortices persist over several turn over times and hence may be observed in strongly coupled liquids such as complex plasma, liquid metals and astrophysical systems such as white dwarfs and giant planetary interiors, thereby making the phenomenon universal.

  11. Magnetic nanoparticles stimulation to enhance liquid-liquid two-phase mass transfer under static and rotating magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azimi, Neda; Rahimi, Masoud, E-mail: masoudrahimi@yahoo.com

    2017-01-15

    Rotating magnetic field (RMF) was applied on a micromixer to break the laminar flow and induce chaotic flow to enhance mass transfer between two-immiscible organic and aqueous phases. The results of RMF were compared to those of static magnetic field (SMF). For this purpose, experiments were carried out in a T-micromixer at equal volumetric flow rates of organic and aqueous phases. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation technique and they were dissolved in organic phase. Results obtained from RMF and SMF were compared in terms of overall volumetric mass transfer coefficient (K{sub L}a) and extraction efficiency (E) at various Reynolds numbers. Generally, RMF showed higher effect in mass transfer characteristics enhancement compared with SMF. The influence of rotational speeds of magnets (ω) in RMF was investigated, and measurable enhancements of K{sub L}a and E were observed. In RMF, the effect of magnetic field induction (B) was investigated. The results reveal that at constant concentration of nanoparticles, by increasing of B, mass transfer characteristics will be enhanced. The effect of various nanoparticles concentrations (ϕ) within 0.002–0.01 (w/v) on K{sub L}a and E at maximum induction of RMF (B=76 mT) was evaluated. Maximum values of K{sub L}a (2.1±0.001) and E (0.884±0.001) were achieved for the layout of RMF (B=76 mT), ω=16 rad/s and MNPs concentration of 0.008–0.01 (w/v). - Highlights: • Magnetic nanoparticles used for mixing of two immiscible liquids in a micromixer. • Extraction efficiency of rotating magnetic field (RMF) is compared with static one. • In RMF, the effect of the angular speed on KLa and E enhancement is reported. • In RMF, at a selected magnet distance effect of nanoparticle concentration is reported.

  12. Suspended liquid subtractive lithography: printing three dimensional channels directly into uncured PDMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, D.; Voigt, A.; Wagner, S.; Keller, N.; Sachsenheimer, K.; Kotz, F.; Nargang, T. M.; Rapp, B. E.

    2018-02-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is one of the most widely used polymers for the generation of microfluidic chips. The standard procedures of soft lithography require the formation of a new master structure for every design which is timeconsuming and expensive. All channel generated by soft lithography need to be consecutively sealed by bonding which is a process that can proof to be hard to control. Channel cross-sections are largely restricted to squares or flat-topped designs and the generation of truly three-dimensional designs is not straightforward. Here we present Suspended Liquid Subtractive Lithography (SLSL) a method for generating microfluidic channels of nearly arbitrary three-dimensional structures in PDMS that do not require master formation or bonding and give circular channel cross sections which are especially interesting for mimicking in vivo environments. In SLSL, an immiscible liquid is introduced into the uncured PDMS by a capillary mounted on a 3D printer head. The liquid forms continuous "threads" inside the matrix thus creating void suspended channel structures.

  13. On-line radiometry in high-performance liquid chromatography using a storage loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieuwkerk, H.J. van.

    1987-01-01

    Difficulty with radiometric chromatography is that large measured volumes are required for accurate detections, but large volumes cause band widening and thus poor separation capacity. The solution proposed here is based on the use of a capillary storage loop for temporary residence of the column eluate. To avoid back mixing, the liquid is interspaced with a second, immiscible, phase ('spacer') so as to form a sequence of small 10-50 μl separate segments. This train passes the on-line radiometric detector to obtain a first scan of the chromatogram, called the 'direct' measurement. It then reaches the storage loop. The usual on-line UV measurement is done in the same run. The eluate cum spacer is, at a later stage, pumped through the detector at a greatly reduced flow rate to obtain the 'reversed' or 'delayed' measurement. Beta-detection is based on liquid scintillation. Accordingly, the (organic) liquid scintillant is used as the 'spacer'. In most cases it is possible to extract the analyte from the aqueous eluate into the organic phase during transport to and storage in the loop. This ensures a high counting efficiency. If the analyte is non-extractable, the counting efficiency is considerably less but the number of counts collected is still sufficient for quantitative assay, due to the extended counting time. The report is divided into 5 chapters, each dealing with a radiometric HPCL separation making use of this method. 36 figs.; 124 refs.; 16 tables

  14. Liquid scintillation alpha counting and spectrometry and its application to bone and tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.J.; Weiss, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    Three methods for determination of alpha-emitting nuclides using liquid scintillation counting are compared, and the pertinent literature is reviewed. Data showing the application of each method to the measurement of plutonium concentration in tissue and bone samples are presented. Counting with a commercial beta-liquid scintillation counter and an aqueous-phase-accepting scintillator is shown to be accurate only in cases where the alpha activity is high (several hundred counts/min or more), only gross alpha counting is desired, and beta-gamma emitters are known to be absent from the sample or present at low levels compared with the alpha activity. Counting with the same equipment and an aqueous immiscible scintillator containing an extractant for the nuclide of interest (extractive scintillator) is shown to allow better control of alpha peak shift due to quenching, a significant reduction of beta-gamma interference, and, usually, a low background. The desirability of using a multichannel pulse-height analyzer in the above two counting methods is stressed. The use of equipment and procedures designed for alpha liquid scintillation counting is shown to allow alpha spectrometry with an energy resolution capability of 200 to 300 keV full-peak-width-at-half-peak-height and a background of 0.3 to 1.0 counts/min, or as low as 0.01 counts/min if pulse-shape discrimination methods are used. Methods for preparing animal bone and tissue samples for assay are described

  15. Alkaline ionic liquids applied in supported ionic liquid catalyst for selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero eSalminen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The challenge in preparation of ionic liquids containing a strong alkaline anion is to identify a suitable cation which can tolerate the harsh conditions induced by the anion. In this study, a commercial quaternary ammonium compound (quat benzalkonium [ADBA] (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium was used as a cation in the synthesis of different alkaline ionic liquids. In fact, the precursor, benzalkonium chloride, is a mixture of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths and is commonly used in the formulation of various antiseptic products. The prepared ionic liquids were utilized as Supported Ionic Liquid Catalysts (SILCAs. Typically, a SILCA contains metal nanoparticles, enzymes or metal complexes in an ionic liquid layer which is immobilized on a solid carrier material such as an active carbon cloth (ACC. The catalysts were applied in the selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal which is an important perfumery chemical. Interestingly, 70 % molar yield towards citronellal was achieved over a catalyst containing the alkaline ionic liquid benzalkonium methoxide.

  16. Alkaline ionic liquids applied in supported ionic liquid catalyst for selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Eero; Virtanen, Pasi; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

    2014-01-01

    The challenge in preparation of ionic liquids containing a strong alkaline anion is to identify a suitable cation which can tolerate the harsh conditions induced by the anion. In this study, a commercial quaternary ammonium compound (quat) benzalkonium [ADBA] (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium) was used as a cation in the synthesis of different alkaline ionic liquids. In fact, the precursor, benzalkonium chloride, is a mixture of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths and is commonly used in the formulation of various antiseptic products. The prepared ionic liquids were utilized as Supported Ionic Liquid Catalysts (SILCAs). Typically, a SILCA contains metal nanoparticles, enzymes, or metal complexes in an ionic liquid layer which is immobilized on a solid carrier material such as an active carbon cloth (ACC). The catalysts were applied in the selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal which is an important perfumery chemical. Interestingly, 70% molar yield toward citronellal was achieved over a catalyst containing the alkaline ionic liquid benzalkonium methoxide. PMID:24790972

  17. Nanotribology of Symmetric and Asymmetric Liquid Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Yamada

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available When liquid molecules are confined in a narrow gap between smooth surfaces, their dynamic properties are completely different from those of the bulk. The molecular motions are highly restricted and the system exhibits solid-like responses when sheared slowly. This solidification behavior is very dependent on the molecular geometry (shape of liquids because the solidification is induced by the packing of molecules into ordered structures in confinement. This paper reviews the measurements of confined structures and friction of symmetric and asymmetric liquid lubricants using the surface forces apparatus. The results show subtle and complex friction mechanisms at the molecular scale.

  18. Liquidation of wastes as tuition topic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, K.; Hysplerova, L.; Holy, I.

    1999-01-01

    Authors deal in this paper with tuition project aimed on the liquidation of wastes. Structure of project includes next thematic complex: classification of inorganic and organic wastes; characterization of wastes and proposition for their liquidation (detoxication) or recyclation; chemical (physical) nature of neutralize of inorganic and organic wastes; general method of neutralize of wastes; analytical methods necessary for control of course of neutralize (detoxication) of wastes. This tuition project allows for students to know manipulation with wastes and methods of their liquidation from ecologic point of view

  19. Combination of deep eutectic solvent and ionic liquid to improve biocatalytic reduction of 2-octanone with Acetobacter pasteurianus GIM1.158 cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei; Du, Peng-Xuan; Zong, Min-Hua; Li, Ning; Lou, Wen-Yong

    2016-05-01

    The efficient anti-Prelog asymmetric reduction of 2-octanone with Acetobacter pasteurianus GIM1.158 cells was successfully performed in a biphasic system consisting of deep eutectic solvent (DES) and water-immiscible ionic liquid (IL). Various DESs exerted different effects on the synthesis of (R)-2-octanol. Choline chloride/ethylene glycol (ChCl/EG) exhibited good biocompatibility and could moderately increase the cell membrane permeability thus leading to the better results. Adding ChCl/EG increased the optimal substrate concentration from 40 mM to 60 mM and the product e.e. kept above 99.9%. To further improve the reaction efficiency, water-immiscible ILs were introduced to the reaction system and an enhanced substrate concentration (1.5 M) was observed with C4MIM·PF6. Additionally, the cells manifested good operational stability in the reaction system. Thus, the efficient biocatalytic process with ChCl/EG and C4MIM·PF6 was promising for efficient synthesis of (R)-2-octanol.

  20. Finite-element simulations of the influence of pore wall adsorption on cyclic voltammetry of ion transfer across a liquid-liquid interface formed at a micropore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jonathan S; Strutwolf, Jörg; Arrigan, Damien W M

    2012-02-21

    Adsorption onto the walls of micropores was explored by computational simulations involving cyclic voltammetry of ion transfer across an interface between aqueous and organic phases located at the micropore. Micro-interfaces between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (micro-ITIES) have been of particular research interest in recent years and show promise for biosensor and biomedical applications. The simulation model combines diffusion to and within the micropore, Butler-Volmer kinetics for ion transfer at the liquid-liquid interface, and Langmuir-style adsorption on the pore wall. Effects due to pore radius, adsorption and desorption rates, surface adsorption site density, and scan rates were examined. It was found that the magnitude of the reverse peak current decreased due to adsorption of the transferring ion on the pore wall; this decrease was more marked as the scan rate was increased. There was also a shift in the half-wave potential to lower values following adsorption, consistent with a wall adsorption process which provides a further driving force to transfer ions across the ITIES. Of particular interest was the disappearance of the reverse peak from the cyclic voltammogram at higher scan rates, compared to the increase in the reverse peak size in the absence of wall adsorption. This occurred for scan rates of 50 mV s(-1) and above and may be useful in biosensor applications using micropore-based ITIES.

  1. On-line comprehensive two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography × reversed-phase liquid chromatography for preparative isolation of Peucedanum praeruptorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Yuan; Li, Jia-Fu; Jian, Ya-Mei; Wu, Zhen; Fang, Mei-Juan; Qiu, Ying-Kun

    2015-03-27

    A new on-line comprehensive preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography × reversed-phase liquid chromatography (2D NPLC × RPLC) system was developed for the separation of complicated natural products. It was based on the use of a silica gel packed medium-pressure column as the first dimension and an ODS preparative HPLC column as the second dimension. The two dimensions were connected with normal-phase (NP) and reversed-phase (RP) enrichment units, involving a newly developed airflow assisted adsorption (AAA) technique. The instrument operation and the performance of this NPLC × RPLC separation method were illustrated by gram-scale isolation of ethanol extract from the roots of Peucedanum praeruptorum. In total, 19 compounds with high purity were obtained via automated multi-step preparative separation in a short period of time using this system, and their structures were comprehensively characterized by ESI-MS, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR. Including two new compounds, five isomers in two groups with identical HPLC and TLC retention values were also obtained and identified by 1D NMR and 2D NMR. This is the first report of an NPLC × RPLC system successfully applied in an on-line preparative process. This system not only solved the interfacing problem of mobile-phase immiscibility caused by NP and RP separation, it also exhibited apparent advantages in separation efficiency and sample treatment capacity compared with conventional methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Liquid waste sampling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosuge, Tadashi

    1998-01-01

    A liquid pumping pressure regulator is disposed on the midway of a pressure control tube which connects the upper portion of a sampling pot and the upper portion of a liquid waste storage vessel. With such a constitution, when the pressure in the sampling pot is made negative, and liquid wastes are sucked to the liquid pumping tube passing through the sampling pot, the difference between the pressure on the entrance of the liquid pumping pressure regulator of the pressure regulating tube and the pressure at the bottom of the liquid waste storage vessel is made constant. An opening degree controlling meter is disposed to control the degree of opening of a pressure regulating valve for sending actuation pressurized air to the liquid pumping pressure regulator. Accordingly, even if the liquid level of liquid wastes in the liquid waste storage vessel is changed, the height for the suction of the liquid wastes in the liquid pumping tube can be kept constant. With such procedures, sampling can be conducted correctly, and the discharge of the liquid wastes to the outside can be prevented. (T.M.)

  3. A twin purification/enrichment procedure based on two versatile solid/liquid extracting agents for efficient uptake of ultra-trace levels of lorazepam and clonazepam from complex bio-matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Maryam; Rajabi, Maryam; Asghari, Alireza

    2017-11-17

    In this research work, two consecutive dispersive solid/liquid phase microextractions based on efficient extraction media were developed for the influential and clean pre-concentration of clonazepam and lorazepam from complicated bio-samples. The magnetism nature of the proposed nanoadsorbent proceeded the clean-up step conveniently and swiftly (∼5min), pursued by a further enrichment via a highly effective and rapid emulsification microextraction process (∼4min) based on a deep eutectic solvent (DES). Finally, the instrumental analysis step was practicable via high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. The solid phase used was an adequate magnetic nanocomposite termed as polythiophene-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate/iron oxide (PTh-DBSNa/Fe 3 O 4 ), easily and cost-effectively prepared by the impressive co-precipitation method followed by the efficient in situ sonochemical oxidative polymerization approach. The identification techniques viz. FESEM, XRD, and EDX certified the supreme physico-chemical properties of this effective nanosorbent. Also the powerful liquid extraction agent, DES, based on bio-degradable choline chloride, possessed a high efficiency, tolerable safety, low cost, and facile and mild synthesis route. The parameters involved in this versatile hyphenated procedure, efficiently evaluated via the central composite design (CCD), showed that the best extraction conditions consisted of an initial pH value of 7.2, 17mg of the PTh-DBSNa/Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposite, 20 air-agitation cycles (first step), 245μL of methanol, 250μL of DES, 440μL of THF, and 8 air-agitation cycles (second step). Under the optimal conditions, the understudied drugs could be accurately determined in the wide linear dynamic ranges (LDRs) of 4.0-3000ngmL -1 and 2.0-2000ngmL -1 for clonazepam and lorazepam, respectively, with low limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.7 to 1.0ngmL -1 . The enrichment factor (EF) and percentage extraction recovery (%ER

  4. Caractérisation de quelques stabilisants naturels de l'émulsion d'eau dans le pétrole brut, grace à l'extension de la technique de "moussage" au système liquide-liquide eau-huile Characterising Several Natural Stabilizants of Water Emulsion in Crude Oil by Extending the "Foaming" Technique to Oil/Water Liquid-Liquid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coste J. -F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'extension de la technique, de " moussage "au système liquide-liquide eau-pétrole brut a permis d'augmenter la concentration d'une fraction du pétrole en acides naphténiques, amines, asphaltènes et porphyrines, grâce à l'accroissement de l'aire de l'interface entre les deux phases non miscibles. Ces espèces chimiques présentes à l'interface favorisent la formation des films entre les gouttelettes de phase aqueuse dispersée. Elles sont à l'origine de la stabilité de I'émulsion d'eau dans le pétrole. The " foaming " technique was extended to a water/crude-oil liquid-liquid system so as to increase the concentration of naphthenic acids, amines, asphaltenes and porphyrins in an oil fraction by enlarging the interface orea between the two immiscible phases. The presence of these chemical species at the interface promotes the formation of films between the dispersed aqueuss-phase droplets. They are at the origin of the stability of a water in oil emulsion.

  5. Molecular and Thermodynamic Properties of Zwitterions versus Ionic Liquids: A Comprehensive Computational Analysis to Develop Advanced Separation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Daniel; Gonzalez-Miquel, Maria; Ferro, Victor R; Palomar, Jose

    2018-04-05

    Zwitterion ionic liquids (ZIs) are compounds in which both counterions are covalently tethered, conferring them with unique characteristics; however, most of their properties are still unknown, representing a bottleneck to exploit their practical applications. Herein, the molecular and fluid properties of ZIs and their mixtures were explored by means of quantum chemical analysis based on the density functional theory (DFT) and COSMO-RS method, and compared against homologous ionic liquids (ILs) to provide a comprehensive overview of the effect of the distinct structures on their physicochemical and thermodynamic behavior. Overall, ZIs were revealed as compounds with higher polarity and stronger hydrogen-bonding capacity, implying higher density, viscosity, melting point, and even lower volatility than structurally similar ILs. The phase equilibrium of binary and ternary systems supports stronger attractive interactions between ZIs and polar compounds, whereas higher liquid-liquid immiscibility with nonpolar compounds may be expected. Ultimately, the performance of ZIs in the wider context of separation processes is illustrated, while providing molecular insights to allow their selection and design for relevant applications. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Study of liquid deposition during laser printing of liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duocastella, M.; Patrascioiu, A. [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Dinca, V. [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Atomistilor No. 409, PO Box MG 16, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Fernandez-Pradas, J.M.; Morenza, J.L. [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Serra, P., E-mail: pserra@ub.edu [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-04-01

    Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) is a direct-writing technique which can be used to successfully print various complex and sensitive materials with a high degree of spatial resolution. However, the optimization of its performances requires a deep understanding of the LIFT dynamics. Such understanding should allow correlating the phenomena underlying the liquid transfer process with the morphology of the obtained deposits. To this end, in this work it is presented a study related to two aspects: first, the correlation of the morphological characteristics of the transferred droplets with the variation of the film thickness combined with laser fluence; and second, a correlation of the dependences observed with the dynamics of the transfer process. The work is focused on the understanding of the observed dependences for which the information provided by time-resolved analysis on liquid transfer dynamics has proved to be crucial.

  7. Study of liquid deposition during laser printing of liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duocastella, M.; Patrascioiu, A.; Dinca, V.; Fernandez-Pradas, J.M.; Morenza, J.L.; Serra, P.

    2011-01-01

    Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) is a direct-writing technique which can be used to successfully print various complex and sensitive materials with a high degree of spatial resolution. However, the optimization of its performances requires a deep understanding of the LIFT dynamics. Such understanding should allow correlating the phenomena underlying the liquid transfer process with the morphology of the obtained deposits. To this end, in this work it is presented a study related to two aspects: first, the correlation of the morphological characteristics of the transferred droplets with the variation of the film thickness combined with laser fluence; and second, a correlation of the dependences observed with the dynamics of the transfer process. The work is focused on the understanding of the observed dependences for which the information provided by time-resolved analysis on liquid transfer dynamics has proved to be crucial.

  8. CASH AND LIQUIDITY/LIQUIDITY AND LIQUIDITY RATIO

    OpenAIRE

    ADELA BREUER; MIHAELA LESCONI FRUMUSANU; BEATRIX LIGHEZAN BREUER; ANDRA MANCIU

    2012-01-01

    The present paper aims to present the correlation as well as the differences between liquidity/cash and liquidity ratio in terms of economic entities. Researches on this topic are based on the opinions of some specialists in accounting and in the economic-financial analysis, as well as on the national legal stipulations and the ones set out in the International Accounting Standards, the Financial report, respectively. The object of this paper is represented by the correlation between liquidit...

  9. Lessons from a “Failed” Experiment: Zinc Silicates with Complex Morphology by Reaction of Zinc Acetate, the Ionic Liquid Precursor (ILP Tetrabutylammonium Hydroxide (TBAH, and Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Taubert

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available At elevated temperatures, the ionic liquid precursor (ILP tetrabutylammonium hydroxide reacts with zinc acetate and the glass wall of the reaction vessel. While the reaction of OH- with the glass wall is not surprising as such and could be considered a failed experiment, the resulting materials are interesting for a variety of applications. If done on purpose and under controlled conditions, the reaction with the glass wall results in uniform, well-defined hemimorphite Zn4Si2O7(OH2·nH2O and willemite Zn2SiO4 microcrystals and films. Their morphology can be adjusted by variation of the reaction time and reaction temperature. The hemimorphite can be transformed to Zn2SiO4 via calcination. The process is therefore a viable approach for the fabrication of porous films on glass surfaces with potential applications as catalyst support, among others.

  10. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  11. Successful vitrification of bovine immature oocyte using liquid helium instead of liquid nitrogen as cryogenic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xue-Li; Xu, Ya-Kun; Wu, Hua; Guo, Xian-Fei; Li, Xiao-Xia; Han, Wen-Xia; Li, Ying-Hua

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the effectiveness of liquid helium (LHe) and liquid nitrogen (LN2) as cryogenic liquid for vitrification of bovine immature oocytes with open-pulled straw (OPS) system and determine the optimal cryoprotectant concentration of LHe vitrification. Cumulus oocyte complexes were divided into three groups, namely, untreated group (control), LN2 vitrified with OPS group, and LHe vitrified with OPS group. Oocyte survival was assessed by morphology, nuclear maturation, and developmental capability. Results indicated that the rates of normal morphology, maturation, cleavage, and blastocyst (89.3%, 52.8%, 42.7%, and 10.1%, respectively) in the LHe-vitrified group were all higher than those (79.3%, 43.4%, 34.1%, and 4.7%) in the LN2-vitrified group (P 0.05). The maturation rate of the EDS35 group (65.0%) was higher than those of the EDS30 (51.3%), EDS40 (50.1%), EDS45 (52.1%), and EDS50 groups (36.9%; P liquid for vitrification of bovine immature oocytes, and it is more efficient than LN2-vitrified oocytes in terms of blastocyst production. EDS35 was the optimal cryoprotectant agent combination for LHe vitrification in this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  13. Liquid helium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Y.; Kitami, T.; Torikoshi, M.

    1984-12-01

    A liquid helium target system has been built and used for the experiment on the reaction 4 He(γ, p). The target system has worked satisfactorily; the consumption rate of liquid helium is 360 ml/h and the cryogenic system retains liquid helium for about ten hours. The structure, operation and performance of the target system are reported. (author)

  14. Liquid metal cold trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundal, R.

    1976-01-01

    A cold trap assembly for removing impurities from a liquid metal is described. A hole between the incoming impure liquid metal and purified outgoing liquid metal acts as a continuous bleed means and thus prevents the accumulation of cover gases within the cold trap assembly

  15. Suspended solids in liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    An international literature review and telephone mail survey was conducted with respect to technical and regulatory aspects of suspended solids in radioactive liquid wastes from nuclear power stations. Results of the survey are summarized and show that suspended solids are an important component of some waste streams. The data available, while limited, show these solids to be associated largely with corrosion products. The solids are highly variable in quantity, size and composition. Filtration is commonly applied for their removal from liquid effluents and is effective. Complex interactions with receiving waters can result in physical/chemical changes of released radionuclides and these phenomena have been seen as reason for not applying regulatory controls based on suspended solids content. 340 refs

  16. Liquid--liquid contact in vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, A.

    1978-08-01

    The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This well-known phenomenon is called a ''vapor explosion.'' One method of producing intimate, liquid--liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. In this experiment cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials (mineral oil, silicone oil, water, mercury, molten Wood's metal or molten salt mixture). The main conclusion from the experimental study is that hydrodynamic effects may be very significant in any shock tube analyses, especially when multiple interactions are observed. A theoretical study was performed to check the possibility of vapor film squeezing (between a drop in film boiling and a surface) as a controlling mechanism for making liquid--liquid contact. Using experimental data, the film thickness was calculated and it was found to be too thick for any conceivable film rupture mechanism. It was suggested that the coalescence is a two-stage process, in which the controlling stage depends mainly on temperature and surface properties and can be described as the ability of cold liquid to spread on a hot surface

  17. Hybrid Multiphase CFD Solver for Coupled Dispersed/Segregated Flows in Liquid-Liquid Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent E. Wardle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The flows in stage-wise liquid-liquid extraction devices include both phase segregated and dispersed flow regimes. As a additional layer of complexity, for extraction equipment such as the annular centrifugal contactor, free-surface flows also play a critical role in both the mixing and separation regions of the device and cannot be neglected. Traditionally, computional fluid dynamics (CFD of multiphase systems is regime dependent—different methods are used for segregated and dispersed flows. A hybrid multiphase method based on the combination of an Eulerian multifluid solution framework (per-phase momentum equations and sharp interface capturing using Volume of Fluid (VOF on selected phase pairs has been developed using the open-source CFD toolkit OpenFOAM. Demonstration of the solver capability is presented through various examples relevant to liquid-liquid extraction device flows including three-phase, liquid-liquid-air simulations in which a sharp interface is maintained between each liquid and air, but dispersed phase modeling is used for the liquid-liquid interactions.

  18. Communication complexity and information complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, Denis

    Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information

  19. Phase equilibria of didecyldimethylammonium nitrate ionic liquid with water and organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska, Urszula; Lugowska, Katarzyna; Pernak, Juliusz

    2007-01-01

    The phase diagrams for binary mixtures of an ammonium ionic liquid, didecyldimethylammonium nitrate, [DDA][NO 3 ], with: alcohols (propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, octan-1-ol, and decan-1-ol): hydrocarbons (toluene, propylbenzene, hexane, and hexadecane) and with water were determined in our laboratory. The phase equilibria were measured by a dynamic method from T 220 K to either the melting point of the ionic liquid, or to the boiling point of the solvent. A simple liquidus curve in a eutectic system was observed for [DDA][NO 3 ] with: alcohols (propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, and octan-1-ol); aromatic hydrocarbons (toluene and propylbenzene) and with water. (Solid + liquid) equilibria with immiscibility in the liquid phase were detected with the aliphatic hydrocarbons heptane and hexadecane and with decan-1-ol. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria for the system [DDA][NO 3 ] with hexadecane was observed for the whole mole fraction range of the ionic liquid. The observation of the upper critical solution temperature in binary mixtures of ([DDA][NO 3 ] + decan-1-ol, heptane, or hexadecane) was limited by the boiling temperature of the solvent. Characterisation and purity of the compounds were determined by elemental analysis, water content (Fisher method) and differential scanning microcalorimetry (d.s.c.) analysis. The d.s.c. method of analysis was used to determine melting temperatures and enthalpies of fusion. The thermal stability of the ionic liquid was resolved by the thermogravimetric technique-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) technique over a wide temperature range from (200 to 780) K. The thermal decomposition temperature of 50% of the sample was greater than 500 K. The (solid + liquid) phase equilibria, curves were correlated by means of different G Ex models utilizing parameters derived from the (solid + liquid) equilibrium. The root-mean-square deviations of the solubility temperatures for all calculated data are dependent upon the particular system and the particular

  20. 60Co γ-irradiation induced polymerization of methyl methacrylate in imidazolium ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Mingying; Wu Gongzhong; Liu Yaodong; Chen Shimou; Sha Maolin

    2006-01-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), as a class of novel environmental benign 'green solvents', have been used as reaction media for various polymerizations due to their unique properties of non-volatility, high polarity, ease of recycling and chirality. In radiation polymerization, the energetic photons or electrons result in the formation of solvated electron and radical ions in ionic liquids, which initiate polymerization of monomers without any chemical initiator. In this work, effects of gamma ray irradiation on pure ionic liquid [bmim][PF 6 ] was investigated in detail in a dose range of 5-400 kGy. The ionic liquids were quite stable under low dose irradiations, but underwent notable radiolysis with high doses. With the irradiated [bmim][PF 6 ], the UV-Vis absorbance increased and the fluorescence intensity decreased with increasing doses. Raman spectra proved that gamma radiation induced significant chemical scission of n-butyl group (e.g. C-H and C-C scission), along with damages to the [PF6] - anion. In cooled samples of the irradiated [bmim][PF 6 ] we found two coexist crystal structures, which had suffered a continuous destruction under high dose irradiation. After ensuring stability of the ionic liquids to low dose irradiation, radiation polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in ionic liquids and IL/organic solutions was performed. By adding the ionic liquids, the monomer conversion and molecular weight (Mw) of the polymer increased significant. Mw of PMMA in neat ionic liquid increased by about 60 times, from 3 x 10 4 with pure organic solvent to about 2 x 10 6 . Molecular weight of the polymer increased with the IL fraction in the IL/organic solutions, and it was dependent on ionic liquids and solvents used, too. It was also found that the polymer obtained in the existence of IL showed multi-modal broadened molecular weight distribution (MWD). A reasonable explanation is the inhomogeneous nature of the ionic liquid in micron scale and the