WorldWideScience

Sample records for complex geometry reactor

  1. Complex analysis and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Alessandro

    1993-01-01

    The papers in this wide-ranging collection report on the results of investigations from a number of linked disciplines, including complex algebraic geometry, complex analytic geometry of manifolds and spaces, and complex differential geometry.

  2. FOCUS, Neutron Transport System for Complex Geometry Reactor Core and Shielding Problems by Monte-Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: FOCUS enables the calculation of any quantity related to neutron transport in reactor or shielding problems, but was especially designed to calculate differential quantities, such as point values at one or more of the space, energy, direction and time variables of quantities like neutron flux, detector response, reaction rate, etc. or averages of such quantities over a small volume of the phase space. Different types of problems can be treated: systems with a fixed neutron source which may be a mono-directional source located out- side the system, and Eigen function problems in which the neutron source distribution is given by the (unknown) fundamental mode Eigen function distribution. Using Monte Carlo methods complex 3- dimensional geometries and detailed cross section information can be treated. Cross section data are derived from ENDF/B, with anisotropic scattering and discrete or continuous inelastic scattering taken into account. Energy is treated as a continuous variable and time dependence may also be included. 2 - Method of solution: A transformed form of the adjoint Boltzmann equation in integral representation is solved for the space, energy, direction and time variables by Monte Carlo methods. Adjoint particles are defined with properties in some respects contrary to those of neutrons. Adjoint particle histories are constructed from which estimates are obtained of the desired quantity. Adjoint cross sections are defined with which the nuclide and reaction type are selected in a collision. The energy after a collision is selected from adjoint energy distributions calculated together with the adjoint cross sections in advance of the actual Monte Carlo calculation. For multiplying systems successive generations of adjoint particles are obtained which will die out for subcritical systems with a fixed neutron source and will be kept approximately stationary for Eigen function problems. Completely arbitrary problems can

  3. Complex and symplectic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Medori, Costantino; Tomassini, Adriano

    2017-01-01

    This book arises from the INdAM Meeting "Complex and Symplectic Geometry", which was held in Cortona in June 2016. Several leading specialists, including young researchers, in the field of complex and symplectic geometry, present the state of the art of their research on topics such as the cohomology of complex manifolds; analytic techniques in Kähler and non-Kähler geometry; almost-complex and symplectic structures; special structures on complex manifolds; and deformations of complex objects. The work is intended for researchers in these areas.

  4. Complex differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Fangyang

    2002-01-01

    The theory of complex manifolds overlaps with several branches of mathematics, including differential geometry, algebraic geometry, several complex variables, global analysis, topology, algebraic number theory, and mathematical physics. Complex manifolds provide a rich class of geometric objects, for example the (common) zero locus of any generic set of complex polynomials is always a complex manifold. Yet complex manifolds behave differently than generic smooth manifolds; they are more coherent and fragile. The rich yet restrictive character of complex manifolds makes them a special and interesting object of study. This book is a self-contained graduate textbook that discusses the differential geometric aspects of complex manifolds. The first part contains standard materials from general topology, differentiable manifolds, and basic Riemannian geometry. The second part discusses complex manifolds and analytic varieties, sheaves and holomorphic vector bundles, and gives a brief account of the surface classifi...

  5. Complex algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kollár, János

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains the lectures presented at the third Regional Geometry Institute at Park City in 1993. The lectures provide an introduction to the subject, complex algebraic geometry, making the book suitable as a text for second- and third-year graduate students. The book deals with topics in algebraic geometry where one can reach the level of current research while starting with the basics. Topics covered include the theory of surfaces from the viewpoint of recent higher-dimensional developments, providing an excellent introduction to more advanced topics such as the minimal model program. Also included is an introduction to Hodge theory and intersection homology based on the simple topological ideas of Lefschetz and an overview of the recent interactions between algebraic geometry and theoretical physics, which involve mirror symmetry and string theory.

  6. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  7. Global aspects of complex geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Catanese, Fabrizio; Huckleberry, Alan T

    2006-01-01

    Present an overview of developments in Complex Geometry. This book covers topics that range from curve and surface theory through special varieties in higher dimensions, moduli theory, Kahler geometry, and group actions to Hodge theory and characteristic p-geometry.

  8. Computational geometry for reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, F.B.; Bischoff, F.G.

    1988-01-01

    Monte Carlo codes for simulating particle transport involve three basic computational sections: a geometry package for locating particles and computing distances to regional boundaries, a physics package for analyzing interactions between particles and problem materials, and an editing package for determining event statistics and overall results. This paper describes the computational geometry methods in RACER, a vectorized Monte Carlo code used for reactor physics analysis, so that comparisons may be made with techniques used in other codes. The principal applications for RACER are eigenvalue calculations and power distributions associated with reactor core physics analysis. Successive batches of neutrons are run until convergence and acceptable confidence intervals are obtained, with typical problems involving >10 6 histories. As such, the development of computational geometry methods has emphasized two basic needs: a flexible but compact geometric representation that permits accurate modeling of reactor core details and efficient geometric computation to permit very large numbers of histories to be run. The current geometric capabilities meet these needs effectively, supporting a variety of very large and demanding applications

  9. Complex analysis and CR geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zampieri, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Cauchy-Riemann (CR) geometry is the study of manifolds equipped with a system of CR-type equations. Compared to the early days when the purpose of CR geometry was to supply tools for the analysis of the existence and regularity of solutions to the \\bar\\partial-Neumann problem, it has rapidly acquired a life of its own and has became an important topic in differential geometry and the study of non-linear partial differential equations. A full understanding of modern CR geometry requires knowledge of various topics such as real/complex differential and symplectic geometry, foliation theory, the geometric theory of PDE's, and microlocal analysis. Nowadays, the subject of CR geometry is very rich in results, and the amount of material required to reach competence is daunting to graduate students who wish to learn it. However, the present book does not aim at introducing all the topics of current interest in CR geometry. Instead, an attempt is made to be friendly to the novice by moving, in a fairly relaxed way, f...

  10. Discrete approach to complex planar geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupini, E.; De Matteis, A.

    1974-01-01

    Planar regions in Monte Carlo transport problems have been represented by a finite set of points with a corresponding region index for each. The simulation of particle free-flight reduces then to the simple operations necessary for scanning appropriate grid points to determine whether a region other than the starting one is encountered. When the complexity of the geometry is restricted to only some regions of the assembly examined, a mixed discrete-continuous philosophy may be adopted. By this approach, the lattice of a thermal reactor has been treated, discretizing only the central regions of the cell containing the fuel rods. Excellent agreement with experimental results has been obtained in the computation of cell parameters in the energy range from fission to thermalization through the 238 U resonance region. (U.S.)

  11. Hyperbolic Metamaterials with Complex Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Andryieuski, Andrei; Zhukovsky, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    We investigate new geometries of hyperbolic metamaterialssuch as highly corrugated structures, nanoparticle monolayer assemblies, super-structured or vertically arranged multilayersand nanopillars. All structures retain basic propertiesof hyperbolic metamaterials, but have functionality improved...

  12. RGG: Reactor geometry (and mesh) generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, R.; Tautges, T.

    2012-01-01

    The reactor geometry (and mesh) generator RGG takes advantage of information about repeated structures in both assembly and core lattices to simplify the creation of geometry and mesh. It is released as open source software as a part of the MeshKit mesh generation library. The methodology operates in three stages. First, assembly geometry models of various types are generated by a tool called AssyGen. Next, the assembly model or models are meshed by using MeshKit tools or the CUBIT mesh generation tool-kit, optionally based on a journal file output by AssyGen. After one or more assembly model meshes have been constructed, a tool called CoreGen uses a copy/move/merge process to arrange the model meshes into a core model. In this paper, we present the current state of tools and new features in RGG. We also discuss the parallel-enabled CoreGen, which in several cases achieves super-linear speedups since the problems fit in available RAM at higher processor counts. Several RGG applications - 1/6 VHTR model, 1/4 PWR reactor core, and a full-core model for Monju - are reported. (authors)

  13. 3D modeling and visualization software for complex geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guse, Guenter; Klotzbuecher, Michael; Mohr, Friedrich

    2011-01-01

    The reactor safety depends on reliable nondestructive testing of reactor components. For 100% detection probability of flaws and the determination of their size using ultrasonic methods the ultrasonic waves have to hit the flaws within a specific incidence and squint angle. For complex test geometries like testing of nozzle welds from the outside of the component these angular ranges can only be determined using elaborate mathematical calculations. The authors developed a 3D modeling and visualization software tool that allows to integrate and present ultrasonic measuring data into the 3D geometry. The software package was verified using 1:1 test samples (example: testing of the nozzle edge of the feedwater nozzle of a steam generator from the outside; testing of the reactor pressure vessel nozzle edge from the inside).

  14. Network geometry with flavor: From complexity to quantum geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianconi, Ginestra; Rahmede, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    Network geometry is attracting increasing attention because it has a wide range of applications, ranging from data mining to routing protocols in the Internet. At the same time advances in the understanding of the geometrical properties of networks are essential for further progress in quantum gravity. In network geometry, simplicial complexes describing the interaction between two or more nodes play a special role. In fact these structures can be used to discretize a geometrical d -dimensional space, and for this reason they have already been widely used in quantum gravity. Here we introduce the network geometry with flavor s =-1 ,0 ,1 (NGF) describing simplicial complexes defined in arbitrary dimension d and evolving by a nonequilibrium dynamics. The NGF can generate discrete geometries of different natures, ranging from chains and higher-dimensional manifolds to scale-free networks with small-world properties, scale-free degree distribution, and nontrivial community structure. The NGF admits as limiting cases both the Bianconi-Barabási models for complex networks, the stochastic Apollonian network, and the recently introduced model for complex quantum network manifolds. The thermodynamic properties of NGF reveal that NGF obeys a generalized area law opening a new scenario for formulating its coarse-grained limit. The structure of NGF is strongly dependent on the dimensionality d . In d =1 NGFs grow complex networks for which the preferential attachment mechanism is necessary in order to obtain a scale-free degree distribution. Instead, for NGF with dimension d >1 it is not necessary to have an explicit preferential attachment rule to generate scale-free topologies. We also show that NGF admits a quantum mechanical description in terms of associated quantum network states. Quantum network states evolve by a Markovian dynamics and a quantum network state at time t encodes all possible NGF evolutions up to time t . Interestingly the NGF remains fully classical but

  15. Documentation for MeshKit - Reactor Geometry (&mesh) Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Rajeev [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mahadevan, Vijay [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This report gives documentation for using MeshKit’s Reactor Geometry (and mesh) Generator (RGG) GUI and also briefly documents other algorithms and tools available in MeshKit. RGG is a program designed to aid in modeling and meshing of complex/large hexagonal and rectilinear reactor cores. RGG uses Argonne’s SIGMA interfaces, Qt and VTK to produce an intuitive user interface. By integrating a 3D view of the reactor with the meshing tools and combining them into one user interface, RGG streamlines the task of preparing a simulation mesh and enables real-time feedback that reduces accidental scripting mistakes that could waste hours of meshing. RGG interfaces with MeshKit tools to consolidate the meshing process, meaning that going from model to mesh is as easy as a button click. This report is designed to explain RGG v 2.0 interface and provide users with the knowledge and skills to pilot RGG successfully. Brief documentation of MeshKit source code, tools and other algorithms available are also presented for developers to extend and add new algorithms to MeshKit. RGG tools work in serial and parallel and have been used to model complex reactor core models consisting of conical pins, load pads, several thousands of axially varying material properties of instrumentation pins and other interstices meshes.

  16. International conference on Algebraic and Complex Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kloosterman, Remke; Schütt, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Several important aspects of moduli spaces and irreducible holomorphic symplectic manifolds were highlighted at the conference “Algebraic and Complex Geometry” held September 2012 in Hannover, Germany. These two subjects of recent ongoing progress belong to the most spectacular developments in Algebraic and Complex Geometry. Irreducible symplectic manifolds are of interest to algebraic and differential geometers alike, behaving similar to K3 surfaces and abelian varieties in certain ways, but being by far less well-understood. Moduli spaces, on the other hand, have been a rich source of open questions and discoveries for decades and still continue to be a hot topic in itself as well as with its interplay with neighbouring fields such as arithmetic geometry and string theory. Beyond the above focal topics this volume reflects the broad diversity of lectures at the conference and comprises 11 papers on current research from different areas of algebraic and complex geometry sorted in alphabetic order by the ...

  17. Parameters calculation of fuel assembly with complex geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hongchun; Ju Haitao; Yao Dong

    2006-01-01

    The code DRAGON was developed for CANDU reactor by Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal of Canada. In order to validate the DRAGON code's applicability for complex geometry fuel assembly calculation, the rod shape fuel assembly of PWR benchmark problem and the plate shape fuel assembly of MTR benchmark problem were analyzed by DRAGON code. Some other shape fuel assemblies were also discussed simply. Calculation results show that the DRAGON code can be used to calculate variform fuel assembly and the precision is high. (authors)

  18. An introduction to complex analysis and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    D'Angelo, John P

    2010-01-01

    An Introduction to Complex Analysis and Geometry provides the reader with a deep appreciation of complex analysis and how this subject fits into mathematics. The book developed from courses given in the Campus Honors Program at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. These courses aimed to share with students the way many mathematics and physics problems magically simplify when viewed from the perspective of complex analysis. The book begins at an elementary level but also contains advanced material. The first four chapters provide an introduction to complex analysis with many elementary

  19. Phased array ultrasound testing on complex geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuan Arif Tuan Mat; Khazali Mohd Zin

    2009-01-01

    Phase array ultrasonic inspection is used to investigate its response to complex welded joints geometry. A 5 MHz probe with 64 linear array elements was employed to scan mild steel T-joint, nozzle and node samples. These samples contain many defects such as cracks, lack of penetration and lack of fusion. Ultrasonic respond is analysed and viewed using the Tomoview software. The results show the actual phase array images on respective types of defect. (author)

  20. Conference on Complex Geometry and Mirror Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Vinet, Luc; Yau, Shing-Tung; Mirror Symmetry III

    1999-01-01

    This book presents surveys from a workshop held during the theme year in geometry and topology at the Centre de recherches mathématiques (CRM, University of Montréal). The volume is in some sense a sequel to Mirror Symmetry I (1998) and Mirror Symmetry II (1996), copublished by the AMS and International Press. Included are recent developments in the theory of mirror manifolds and the related areas of complex and symplectic geometry. The long introductory articles explain the key physical ideas and motivation, namely conformal field theory, supersymmetry, and string theory. Open problems are emphasized. Thus the book provides an efficient way for a very broad audience of mathematicians and physicists to reach the frontier of research in this fast expanding area. - See more at: http://bookstore.ams.org/amsip-10#sthash.DbxEFJDx.dpuf

  1. Complex geometry and quantum string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belavin, A.A.; Knizhnik, V.G.

    1986-01-01

    Summation over closed oriented surfaces of genus p ≥ 2 (p - loop vacuum amplitudes in boson string theory) in a critical dimensions D=26 is reduced to integration over M p space of complex structures of Riemann surfaces of genus p. The analytic properties of the integration measure as a function of the complex coordinates on M p are studied. It is shown that the measure multiplied by (det Im τ-circumflex) 13 (τ-circumflex is the surface period matrix) is the square of the modulus of a function which is holomorphic on M p and does not vanish anywhere. The function has a second order pole at infinity of compactified space of moduli M p . These properties define the measure uniquely up to a constant multiple and this permits one to set up explicitformulae for p=2,3 in terms of the theta-constants. Power and logarithmic divergences connected with renormalization of the tachyon wave function and of the slope respectively are involved in the theory. Quantum geometry of critical strings turns out to be a complex geometry

  2. Chemotactic droplet swimmers in complex geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chenyu; Hokmabad, Babak V.; Baldwin, Kyle A.; Maass, Corinna C.

    2018-02-01

    Chemotaxis1 and auto-chemotaxis are key mechanisms in the dynamics of micro-organisms, e.g. in the acquisition of nutrients and in the communication between individuals, influencing the collective behaviour. However, chemical signalling and the natural environment of biological swimmers are generally complex, making them hard to access analytically. We present a well-controlled, tunable artificial model to study chemotaxis and autochemotaxis in complex geometries, using microfluidic assays of self-propelling oil droplets in an aqueous surfactant solution (Herminghaus et al 2014 Soft Matter 10 7008-22 Krüger et al 2016 Phys. Rev. Lett. 117). Droplets propel via interfacial Marangoni stresses powered by micellar solubilisation. Moreover, filled micelles act as a chemical repellent by diffusive phoretic gradient forces. We have studied these chemotactic effects in a series of microfluidic geometries, as published in Jin et al (2017 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 114 5089-94): first, droplets are guided along the shortest path through a maze by surfactant diffusing into the maze from the exit. Second, we let auto-chemotactic droplet swimmers pass through bifurcating microfluidic channels and record anticorrelations between the branch choices of consecutive droplets. We present an analytical Langevin model matching the experimental data. In a previously unpublished experiment, pillar arrays of variable sizes and shapes provide a convex wall interacting with the swimmer and, in the case of attachment, bending its trajectory and forcing it to revert to its own trail. We observe different behaviours based on the interplay of wall curvature and negative autochemotaxis, i.e. no attachment for highly curved interfaces, stable trapping at large pillars, and a narrow transition region where negative autochemotaxis makes the swimmers detach after a single orbit.

  3. Mixing In Jet-Stirred Reactors With Different Geometries

    KAUST Repository

    Ayass, Wassim W.

    2013-12-01

    This work offers a well-developed understanding of the mixing process inside Jet- Stirred Reactors (JSR’s) with different geometries. Due to the difficulty of manufacturing these JSR’s made in quartz, existing JSR configurations were assessed with certain modifications and optimal operating conditions were suggested for each reactor. The effect of changing the reactor volume, the nozzle diameter and shape on mixing were both studied. Two nozzle geometries were examined in this study, a crossed shape nozzle and an inclined shape nozzle. Overall, six reactor configurations were assessed by conducting tracer experiments - using the state-of-art technologies of high-speed cameras and laser absorption spectroscopy- and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. The high-speed camera tracer experiment gives unique qualitative information – not present in the literature – about the actual flow field. On the other hand, when using the laser technique, a more quantitative analysis emerges with determining the experimental residence time distribution (RTD) curves of each reactor. Comparing these RTD curves with the ideal curve helped in eliminating two cases. Finally, the CFD simulations predict the RTD curves as well as the mixing levels of the JSR’s operated at different residence times. All of these performed studies suggested the use of an inclined nozzle configuration with a reactor diameter D of 40mm and a nozzle diameter d of 1mm as the optimal choice for low residence time operation. However, for higher residence times, the crossed configuration reactor with D=56mm and d=0.3mm gave a nearly perfect behavior.

  4. The Kerr geometry, complex world lines and hyperbolic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burinskii, A.Ya.

    1994-01-01

    In the Lind-Newman representation the Kerr geometry is created by a source moving along an analytical complex world line. An equivalence of the complex world line and complex (hyperbolic) string is considered. Therefore the hyperbolic string may play the role of the complex source of the Kerr geometry. The Kerr solution with the complex string source acquires Regge behavior of the angular momentum. (orig.)

  5. Application of finite element numerical technique to nuclear reactor geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouai, N M [Nuclear engineering department faculty of engineering Al-fateh universty, Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)

    1995-10-01

    Determination of the temperature distribution in nuclear elements is of utmost importance to ensure that the temperature stays within safe limits during reactor operation. This paper discusses the use of Finite element numerical technique (FE) for the solution of the two dimensional heat conduction equation in geometries related to nuclear reactor cores. The FE solution stats with variational calculus which considers transforming the heat conduction equation into an integral equation I(O) and seeks a function that minimizes this integral and hence gives the solution to the heat conduction equation. In this paper FE theory as applied to heat conduction is briefly outlined and a 2-D program is used to apply the theory to simple shapes and to two gas cooled reactor fuel elements. Good results are obtained for both cases with reasonable number of elements. 7 figs.

  6. Application of finite element numerical technique to nuclear reactor geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouai, N. M.

    1995-01-01

    Determination of the temperature distribution in nuclear elements is of utmost importance to ensure that the temperature stays within safe limits during reactor operation. This paper discusses the use of Finite element numerical technique (FE) for the solution of the two dimensional heat conduction equation in geometries related to nuclear reactor cores. The FE solution stats with variational calculus which considers transforming the heat conduction equation into an integral equation I(O) and seeks a function that minimizes this integral and hence gives the solution to the heat conduction equation. In this paper FE theory as applied to heat conduction is briefly outlined and a 2-D program is used to apply the theory to simple shapes and to two gas cooled reactor fuel elements. Good results are obtained for both cases with reasonable number of elements. 7 figs

  7. Differential and complex geometry origins, abstractions and embeddings

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, Jr , Raymond O

    2017-01-01

    Differential and complex geometry are two central areas of mathematics with a long and intertwined history. This book, the first to provide a unified historical perspective of both subjects, explores their origins and developments from the sixteenth to the twentieth century. Providing a detailed examination of the seminal contributions to differential and complex geometry up to the twentieth century embedding theorems, this monograph includes valuable excerpts from the original documents, including works of Descartes, Fermat, Newton, Euler, Huygens, Gauss, Riemann, Abel, and Nash. Suitable for beginning graduate students interested in differential, algebraic or complex geometry, this book will also appeal to more experienced readers.

  8. A 3D transport-based core analysis code for research reactors with unstructured geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Tengfei; Wu, Hongchun; Zheng, Youqi; Cao, Liangzhi; Li, Yunzhao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A core analysis code package based on 3D neutron transport calculation in complex geometry is developed. • The fine considerations on flux mapping, control rod effects and isotope depletion are modeled. • The code is proved to be with high accuracy and capable of handling flexible operational cases for research reactors. - Abstract: As an effort to enhance the accuracy in simulating the operations of research reactors, a 3D transport core analysis code system named REFT was developed. HELIOS is employed due to the flexibility of describing complex geometry. A 3D triangular nodal S N method transport solver, DNTR, endows the package the capability of modeling cores with unstructured geometry assemblies. A series of dedicated methods were introduced to meet the requirements of research reactor simulations. Afterwards, to make it more user friendly, a graphical user interface was also developed for REFT. In order to validate the developed code system, the calculated results were compared with the experimental results. Both the numerical and experimental results are in close agreement with each other, with the relative errors of k eff being less than 0.5%. Results for depletion calculations were also verified by comparing them with the experimental data and acceptable consistency was observed in results

  9. Introduction to the geometry of complex numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Deaux, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Geared toward readers unfamiliar with complex numbers, this text explains how to solve problems that frequently arise in the applied sciences and emphasizes constructions related to algebraic operations. 1956 edition.

  10. Generalized complex geometry, generalized branes and the Hitchin sigma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchini, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Hitchin's generalized complex geometry has been shown to be relevant in compactifications of superstring theory with fluxes and is expected to lead to a deeper understanding of mirror symmetry. Gualtieri's notion of generalized complex submanifold seems to be a natural candidate for the description of branes in this context. Recently, we introduced a Batalin-Vilkovisky field theoretic realization of generalized complex geometry, the Hitchin sigma model, extending the well known Poisson sigma model. In this paper, exploiting Gualtieri's formalism, we incorporate branes into the model. A detailed study of the boundary conditions obeyed by the world sheet fields is provided. Finally, it is found that, when branes are present, the classical Batalin-Vilkovisky cohomology contains an extra sector that is related non trivially to a novel cohomology associated with the branes as generalized complex submanifolds. (author)

  11. Numerical simulations and mathematical models of flows in complex geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Garcia, Anier

    The research work of the present thesis was mainly aimed at exploiting one of the strengths of the Lattice Boltzmann methods, namely, the ability to handle complicated geometries to accurately simulate flows in complex geometries. In this thesis, we perform a very detailed theoretical analysis...... and through the Chapman-Enskog multi-scale expansion technique the dependence of the kinetic viscosity on each scheme is investigated. Seeking for optimal numerical schemes to eciently simulate a wide range of complex flows a variant of the finite element, off-lattice Boltzmann method [5], which uses...... the characteristic based integration is also implemented. Using the latter scheme, numerical simulations are conducted in flows of different complexities: flow in a (real) porous network and turbulent flows in ducts with wall irregularities. From the simulations of flows in porous media driven by pressure gradients...

  12. Geometric Transitions, Topological Strings, and Generalized Complex Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Wu-yen

    2007-01-01

    Mirror symmetry is one of the most beautiful symmetries in string theory. It helps us very effectively gain insights into non-perturbative worldsheet instanton effects. It was also shown that the study of mirror symmetry for Calabi-Yau flux compactification leads us to the territory of ''Non-Kaehlerity''. In this thesis we demonstrate how to construct a new class of symplectic non-Kaehler and complex non-Kaehler string theory vacua via generalized geometric transitions. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. From a variety of sources, including super-gravity analysis and KK reduction on SU(3) structure manifolds, we conclude that string theory connects Calabi-Yau spaces to both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds and the resulting manifolds lie in generalized complex geometry. We go on to study the topological twisted models on a class of generalized complex geometry, bi-Hermitian geometry, which is the most general target space for (2, 2) world-sheet theory with non-trivial H flux turned on. We show that the usual Kaehler A and B models are generalized in a natural way. Since the gauged supergravity is the low energy effective theory for the compactifications on generalized geometries, we study the fate of flux-induced isometry gauging in N = 2 IIA and heterotic strings under non-perturbative instanton effects. Interestingly, we find we have protection mechanisms preventing the corrections to the hyper moduli spaces. Besides generalized geometries, we also discuss the possibility of new NS-NS fluxes in a new doubled formalism

  13. Geometric Transitions, Topological Strings, and Generalized Complex Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Wu-yen; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2007-06-29

    Mirror symmetry is one of the most beautiful symmetries in string theory. It helps us very effectively gain insights into non-perturbative worldsheet instanton effects. It was also shown that the study of mirror symmetry for Calabi-Yau flux compactification leads us to the territory of ''Non-Kaehlerity''. In this thesis we demonstrate how to construct a new class of symplectic non-Kaehler and complex non-Kaehler string theory vacua via generalized geometric transitions. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. From a variety of sources, including super-gravity analysis and KK reduction on SU(3) structure manifolds, we conclude that string theory connects Calabi-Yau spaces to both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds and the resulting manifolds lie in generalized complex geometry. We go on to study the topological twisted models on a class of generalized complex geometry, bi-Hermitian geometry, which is the most general target space for (2, 2) world-sheet theory with non-trivial H flux turned on. We show that the usual Kaehler A and B models are generalized in a natural way. Since the gauged supergravity is the low energy effective theory for the compactifications on generalized geometries, we study the fate of flux-induced isometry gauging in N = 2 IIA and heterotic strings under non-perturbative instanton effects. Interestingly, we find we have protection mechanisms preventing the corrections to the hyper moduli spaces. Besides generalized geometries, we also discuss the possibility of new NS-NS fluxes in a new doubled formalism.

  14. 3D Printer-Manufacturing of Complex Geometry Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciubară, A.; Burlea, Ș L.; Axinte, M.; Cimpoeșu, R.; Chicet, D. L.; Manole, V.; Burlea, G.; Cimpoeșu, N.

    2018-06-01

    In the last 5-10 years the process of 3D printing has an incredible advanced in all the fields with a tremendous number of applications. Plastic materials exhibit highly beneficial mechanical properties while delivering complex designs impossible to achieve using conventional manufacturing. In this article the printing process (filling degree, time, complications and details finesse) of few plastic elements with complicated geometry and fine details was analyzed and comment. 3D printing offers many of the thermoplastics and industrial materials found in conventional manufacturing. The advantages and disadvantages of 3D printing for plastic parts are discussed. Time of production for an element with complex geometry, from the design to final cut, was evaluated.

  15. Complex quantum network geometries: Evolution and phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianconi, Ginestra; Rahmede, Christoph; Wu, Zhihao

    2015-08-01

    Networks are topological and geometric structures used to describe systems as different as the Internet, the brain, or the quantum structure of space-time. Here we define complex quantum network geometries, describing the underlying structure of growing simplicial 2-complexes, i.e., simplicial complexes formed by triangles. These networks are geometric networks with energies of the links that grow according to a nonequilibrium dynamics. The evolution in time of the geometric networks is a classical evolution describing a given path of a path integral defining the evolution of quantum network states. The quantum network states are characterized by quantum occupation numbers that can be mapped, respectively, to the nodes, links, and triangles incident to each link of the network. We call the geometric networks describing the evolution of quantum network states the quantum geometric networks. The quantum geometric networks have many properties common to complex networks, including small-world property, high clustering coefficient, high modularity, and scale-free degree distribution. Moreover, they can be distinguished between the Fermi-Dirac network and the Bose-Einstein network obeying, respectively, the Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics. We show that these networks can undergo structural phase transitions where the geometrical properties of the networks change drastically. Finally, we comment on the relation between quantum complex network geometries, spin networks, and triangulations.

  16. A dissipative particle dynamics method for arbitrarily complex geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Bian, Xin; Tang, Yu-Hang; Karniadakis, George Em

    2018-02-01

    Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) is an effective Lagrangian method for modeling complex fluids in the mesoscale regime but so far it has been limited to relatively simple geometries. Here, we formulate a local detection method for DPD involving arbitrarily shaped geometric three-dimensional domains. By introducing an indicator variable of boundary volume fraction (BVF) for each fluid particle, the boundary of arbitrary-shape objects is detected on-the-fly for the moving fluid particles using only the local particle configuration. Therefore, this approach eliminates the need of an analytical description of the boundary and geometry of objects in DPD simulations and makes it possible to load the geometry of a system directly from experimental images or computer-aided designs/drawings. More specifically, the BVF of a fluid particle is defined by the weighted summation over its neighboring particles within a cutoff distance. Wall penetration is inferred from the value of the BVF and prevented by a predictor-corrector algorithm. The no-slip boundary condition is achieved by employing effective dissipative coefficients for liquid-solid interactions. Quantitative evaluations of the new method are performed for the plane Poiseuille flow, the plane Couette flow and the Wannier flow in a cylindrical domain and compared with their corresponding analytical solutions and (high-order) spectral element solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. We verify that the proposed method yields correct no-slip boundary conditions for velocity and generates negligible fluctuations of density and temperature in the vicinity of the wall surface. Moreover, we construct a very complex 3D geometry - the "Brown Pacman" microfluidic device - to explicitly demonstrate how to construct a DPD system with complex geometry directly from loading a graphical image. Subsequently, we simulate the flow of a surfactant solution through this complex microfluidic device using the new method. Its

  17. Inspection of complex geometry pieces with an intelligent contact transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatillon, S.; Roy, O.; Mahaut, St.

    2000-01-01

    A new multi-element contact transducer has been developed to improve the inspection of components with complex geometry. The emitting surface is flexible in order to optimize the contact with pieces. An algorithm, based on a simplified geometric model, has been used to determine the delays law which allows to control the focal characteristics of the transmitted field. Acquisition data lead in transmission with an articulated transducer validate the behavior provided by simulation. Thus the optimization of the delays law ensures the transmission of a beam which is homogeneous and controlled during the moving of the transducer. Inspections in echo-pulse mode are implemented on a sample simulating a component controlled on site. Results show that the dynamical adaptation of the delays law to the geometry of the piece leads to very good performances

  18. Mixing In Jet-Stirred Reactors With Different Geometries

    KAUST Repository

    Ayass, Wassim W.

    2013-01-01

    analysis emerges with determining the experimental residence time distribution (RTD) curves of each reactor. Comparing these RTD curves with the ideal curve helped in eliminating two cases. Finally, the CFD simulations predict the RTD curves as well

  19. Geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Sossinsky, A B

    2012-01-01

    The book is an innovative modern exposition of geometry, or rather, of geometries; it is the first textbook in which Felix Klein's Erlangen Program (the action of transformation groups) is systematically used as the basis for defining various geometries. The course of study presented is dedicated to the proposition that all geometries are created equal--although some, of course, remain more equal than others. The author concentrates on several of the more distinguished and beautiful ones, which include what he terms "toy geometries", the geometries of Platonic bodies, discrete geometries, and classical continuous geometries. The text is based on first-year semester course lectures delivered at the Independent University of Moscow in 2003 and 2006. It is by no means a formal algebraic or analytic treatment of geometric topics, but rather, a highly visual exposition containing upwards of 200 illustrations. The reader is expected to possess a familiarity with elementary Euclidean geometry, albeit those lacking t...

  20. Modelling and simulation of gas explosions in complex geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeter, Olav

    1998-12-31

    This thesis presents a three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code (EXSIM94) for modelling and simulation of gas explosions in complex geometries. It gives the theory and validates the following sub-models : (1) the flow resistance and turbulence generation model for densely packed regions, (2) the flow resistance and turbulence generation model for single objects, and (3) the quasi-laminar combustion model. It is found that a simple model for flow resistance and turbulence generation in densely packed beds is able to reproduce the medium and large scale MERGE explosion experiments of the Commission of European Communities (CEC) within a band of factor 2. The model for a single representation is found to predict explosion pressure in better agreement with the experiments with a modified k-{epsilon} model. This modification also gives a slightly improved grid independence for realistic gas explosion approaches. One laminar model is found unsuitable for gas explosion modelling because of strong grid dependence. Another laminar model is found to be relatively grid independent and to work well in harmony with the turbulent combustion model. The code is validated against 40 realistic gas explosion experiments. It is relatively grid independent in predicting explosion pressure in different offshore geometries. It can predict the influence of ignition point location, vent arrangements, different geometries, scaling effects and gas reactivity. The validation study concludes with statistical and uncertainty analyses of the code performance. 98 refs., 96 figs, 12 tabs.

  1. Geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . In the previous article we looked at the origins of synthetic and analytic geometry. More practical minded people, the builders and navigators, were studying two other aspects of geometry- trigonometry and integral calculus. These are actually ...

  2. Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Prasolov, V V

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a systematic introduction to various geometries, including Euclidean, affine, projective, spherical, and hyperbolic geometries. Also included is a chapter on infinite-dimensional generalizations of Euclidean and affine geometries. A uniform approach to different geometries, based on Klein's Erlangen Program is suggested, and similarities of various phenomena in all geometries are traced. An important notion of duality of geometric objects is highlighted throughout the book. The authors also include a detailed presentation of the theory of conics and quadrics, including the theory of conics for non-Euclidean geometries. The book contains many beautiful geometric facts and has plenty of problems, most of them with solutions, which nicely supplement the main text. With more than 150 figures illustrating the arguments, the book can be recommended as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate-level courses in geometry.

  3. Phased Array Imaging of Complex-Geometry Composite Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brath, Alex J; Simonetti, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    Progress in computational fluid dynamics and the availability of new composite materials are driving major advances in the design of aerospace engine components which now have highly complex geometries optimized to maximize system performance. However, shape complexity poses significant challenges to traditional nondestructive evaluation methods whose sensitivity and selectivity rapidly decrease as surface curvature increases. In addition, new aerospace materials typically exhibit an intricate microstructure that further complicates the inspection. In this context, an attractive solution is offered by combining ultrasonic phased array (PA) technology with immersion testing. Here, the water column formed between the complex surface of the component and the flat face of a linear or matrix array probe ensures ideal acoustic coupling between the array and the component as the probe is continuously scanned to form a volumetric rendering of the part. While the immersion configuration is desirable for practical testing, the interpretation of the measured ultrasonic signals for image formation is complicated by reflection and refraction effects that occur at the water-component interface. To account for refraction, the geometry of the interface must first be reconstructed from the reflected signals and subsequently used to compute suitable delay laws to focus inside the component. These calculations are based on ray theory and can be computationally intensive. Moreover, strong reflections from the interface can lead to a thick dead zone beneath the surface of the component which limits sensitivity to shallow subsurface defects. This paper presents a general approach that combines advanced computing for rapid ray tracing in anisotropic media with a 256-channel parallel array architecture. The full-volume inspection of complex-shape components is enabled through the combination of both reflected and transmitted signals through the part using a pair of arrays held in a yoke

  4. Pressure loss coefficient evaluation based on CFD analysis for simple geometries and PWR reactor vessel without geometry simplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko II, B.; Park, J. P.; Jeong, J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear vendors and utilities perform lots of simulations and analyses in order to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs). In general, the simulations are carried out using vendor-specific design codes and best-estimate system analysis codes and most of them were developed based on 1-dimensional lumped parameter models. These thermal-hydraulic system analysis codes require user input for pressure loss coefficient, k-factor; since they numerically solve Euler-equation. In spite of its high impact on the safety analysis results, there has not been good validation method for the selection of loss coefficient. During the past decade, however; computers, parallel computation methods, and 3-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes have been dramatically enhanced. It is believed to be beneficial to take advantage of advanced commercial CFD codes in safety analysis and design of NPP5. The present work aims to validate pressure loss coefficient evaluation for simple geometries and k-factor calculation for PWR based on CFD. The performances of standard k-ε model, RNG k-ε model, Reynolds stress model (RSM) on the simulation of pressure drop for simple geometry such as, or sudden-expansion, and sudden-contraction are evaluated. The calculated value was compared with pressure loss coefficient in handbook of hydraulic resistance. Then the present work carried out analysis for flow distribution in downcomer and lower plenum of Korean standard nuclear power plants (KSNPs) using STAR-CD. The lower plenum geometry of a PWR is very complicated since there are so many reactor internals, which hinders in CFD analysis for real reactor geometry up to now. The present work takes advantage of 3D CAD model so that real geometry of lower plenum is used. The results give a clear figure about flow fields in the reactor vessel, which is one of major safety concerns. The calculated pressure drop across downcomer and lower plenum appears to be in good agreement

  5. Theory for stationary nonlinear wave propagation in complex magnetic geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.; Hojo, H.; Nishikawa, Kyoji.

    1977-08-01

    We present our recent efforts to derive a systematic calculation scheme for nonlinear wave propagation in the self-consistent plasma profile in complex magnetic-field geometry. Basic assumptions and/or approximations are i) use of the collisionless two-fluid model with an equation of state; ii) restriction to a steady state propagation and iii) existence of modified magnetic surface, modification due to Coriolis' force. We discuss four situations: i) weak-field propagation without static flow, ii) arbitrary field strength with flow in axisymmetric system, iii) weak field limit of case ii) and iv) arbitrary field strength in nonaxisymmetric torus. Except for case iii), we derive a simple variation principle, similar to that of Seligar and Whitham, by introducing appropriate coordinates. In cases i) and iii), we derive explicit results for quasilinear profile modification. (auth.)

  6. A study of complexity of oral mucosa using fractal geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S R Shenoi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The oral mucosa lining the oral cavity is composed of epithelium supported by connective tissue. The shape of the epithelial-connective tissue interface has traditionally been used to describe physiological and pathological changes in the oral mucosa. Aim: The aim is to evaluate the morphometric complexity in normal, dysplastic, well-differentiated, and moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the oral mucosa using fractal geometry. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 periodic acid–Schiff stained histological images of four groups: normal mucosa, dysplasia, well-differentiated SCC, and moderately differentiated SCC were verified by the gold standard. These images were then subjected to fractal analysis. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA and post hoc test: Bonferroni was applied. Results: Fractal dimension (FD increases as the complexity increases from normal to dysplasia and then to SCC. Normal buccal mucosa was found to be significantly different from dysplasia and the two grades of SCC (P < 0.05. ANOVA of fractal scores of four morphometrically different groups of buccal mucosa was significantly different with F (3,76 = 23.720 and P< 0.01. However, FD of dysplasia was not significantly different from well-differentiated and moderately differentiated SCC (P = 1.000 and P = 0.382, respectively. Conclusion: This study establishes FD as a newer tool in differentiating normal tissue from dysplastic and neoplastic tissue. Fractal geometry is useful in the study of both physiological and pathological changes in the oral mucosa. A new grading system based on FD may emerge as an adjuvant aid in cancer diagnosis.

  7. Fractal reactor: An alternative nuclear fusion system based on nature's geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siler, T. L.

    2007-01-01

    The author presents his concept of the Fractal Reactor, which explores the possibility of building a plasma fusion power reactor based on the real geometry of nature [fractals], rather than the virtual geometry that Euclid postulated around 330 BC; nearly every architect of our plasma fusion devices has been influenced by his three-dimensional geometry. The idealized points, lines, planes, and spheres of this classical geometry continue to be used to represent the natural world and to describe the properties of all geometrical objects, even though they neither accurately nor fully convey nature's structures and processes. The Fractal Reactor concept contrasts the current containment mechanisms of both magnetic and inertial containment systems for confining and heating plasmas. All of these systems are based on Euclidean geometry and use geometrical designs that, ultimately, are inconsistent with the Non-Euclidean geometry and irregular, fractal forms of nature (3). The author explores his premise that a controlled, thermonuclear fusion energy system might be more effective if it more closely embodies the physics of a star

  8. Control rod interaction models for use in 2D and 3D reactor geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannerman, R.C.

    1985-11-01

    Control rod interaction models are developed for use in two-dimensional and three-dimensional reactor geometries. These models allow the total worth of any combination of control rods inserted to be determined from the individual worths in conjunction with an algorithm representing interaction effects between them. The validity of the assumptions is demonstrated for fast and thermal systems showing modelling errors of 1#percent# or less in inserted control rod worths. The models are ideally suited for most reactor systems. (UK)

  9. Optimization geometries of a vortex gliding-arc reactor for partial oxidation of methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guofeng, Xu; Xinwei, Ding

    2012-01-01

    The effects of the geometry of gliding-arc reactor – such as distance between the electrodes, outlet diameter, and inlet position – on the reactor characteristics (methane conversion, hydrogen yield, and energy efficiency) have not been fully investigated. In this paper, AC gliding-arc reactors including the vortex flow configuration are designed to produce hydrogen from the methane by partial oxidation. The influence of vortex flow configuration on the reactor characteristics is also studied by varying the inlet position. When the inlet of the gliding-arc reactor is positioned close to the outlet, reverse vortex flow reactor (RVFR), the maximum energy efficiency reaches 50% and the yields of hydrogen and carbon monoxide are 40% and 65%, respectively. As the distance between electrodes increases from 5 mm to 15 mm, both hydrogen yield and energy efficiency increase approximately 10% for the RVFR. The energy efficiency and hydrogen yield are highest when the ratio of the outlet diameter to the inner diameter is 0.5 for the RVFR. Experimental results indicate that the flow field in the plasma reactor has an important influence on the reactor performance. Furthermore, hydrogen production increases as the number of feed gas flows in contact with the plasma zone increases. -- Highlights: ► Gliding-arc reactors were designed to produce hydrogen for studying the characteristics of the vortex flow reactor. ► Hydrogen yield of reverse vortex flow reactor was 10% higher than that of forward vortex flow reactor. ► Maximum energy efficiency was 50% for reverse vortex flow reactor. ► If discharge power was supplied to the reactors, the reactor performance increased with increasing distance between electrodes. ► Optimum ratio of the outlet and inner diameter was 1/2.

  10. High performance ultrasonic field simulation on complex geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouh, H.; Rougeron, G.; Chatillon, S.; Iehl, J. C.; Farrugia, J. P.; Ostromoukhov, V.

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic field simulation is a key ingredient for the design of new testing methods as well as a crucial step for NDT inspection simulation. As presented in a previous paper [1], CEA-LIST has worked on the acceleration of these simulations focusing on simple geometries (planar interfaces, isotropic materials). In this context, significant accelerations were achieved on multicore processors and GPUs (Graphics Processing Units), bringing the execution time of realistic computations in the 0.1 s range. In this paper, we present recent works that aim at similar performances on a wider range of configurations. We adapted the physical model used by the CIVA platform to design and implement a new algorithm providing a fast ultrasonic field simulation that yields nearly interactive results for complex cases. The improvements over the CIVA pencil-tracing method include adaptive strategies for pencil subdivisions to achieve a good refinement of the sensor geometry while keeping a reasonable number of ray-tracing operations. Also, interpolation of the times of flight was used to avoid time consuming computations in the impulse response reconstruction stage. To achieve the best performance, our algorithm runs on multi-core superscalar CPUs and uses high performance specialized libraries such as Intel Embree for ray-tracing, Intel MKL for signal processing and Intel TBB for parallelization. We validated the simulation results by comparing them to the ones produced by CIVA on identical test configurations including mono-element and multiple-element transducers, homogeneous, meshed 3D CAD specimens, isotropic and anisotropic materials and wave paths that can involve several interactions with interfaces. We show performance results on complete simulations that achieve computation times in the 1s range.

  11. Transient analyses for a molten salt fast reactor with optimized core geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, R., E-mail: rui.li@kit.edu [Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies (IKET), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Wang, S.; Rineiski, A.; Zhang, D. [Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies (IKET), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Merle-Lucotte, E. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie – IN2P3 – CNRS/Grenoble INP/UJF, 53, rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • MSFR core is analyzed by fully coupling neutronics and thermal-hydraulics codes. • We investigated four types of transients intensively with the optimized core geometry. • It demonstrates MSFR has a high safety potential. - Abstract: Molten salt reactors (MSRs) have encountered a marked resurgence of interest over the past decades, highlighted by their inclusion as one of the six candidate reactors of the Generation IV advanced nuclear power systems. The present work is carried out in the framework of the European FP-7 project EVOL (Evaluation and Viability Of Liquid fuel fast reactor system). One of the project tasks is to report on safety analyses: calculations of reactor transients using various numerical codes for the molten salt fast reactor (MSFR) under different boundary conditions, assumptions, and for different selected scenarios. Based on the original reference core geometry, an optimized geometry was proposed by Rouch et al. (2014. Ann. Nucl. Energy 64, 449) on thermal-hydraulic design aspects to avoid a recirculation zone near the blanket which accumulates heat and very high temperature exceeding the salt boiling point. Using both fully neutronics thermal-hydraulic coupled codes (SIMMER and COUPLE), we also re-confirm the efforts step by step toward a core geometry without the recirculation zone in particular as concerns the modifications of the core geometrical shape. Different transients namely Unprotected Loss of Heat Sink (ULOHS), Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF), Unprotected Transient Over Power (UTOP), Fuel Salt Over Cooling (FSOC) are intensively investigated and discussed with the optimized core geometry. It is demonstrated that due to inherent negative feedbacks, an MSFR plant has a high safety potential.

  12. COSTANZA-AX, 1-D Neutronics and Thermodynamics of Liquid Cooled Reactor in Axial Geometry. COSTANZA-CYL, 1-D Neutronics and Thermodynamics of Liquid Cooled Reactor in Cylindrical Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agazzi, A.; Forti, G.; Vincenti, E.

    1984-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: Purpose of the programmes is to study reactor dynamics, considering the variation of the spatial flux distribution. The two programmes COSTANZA-CYL and COSTANZA-AX, solve the kinetics diffusion equations in two groups and one dimension (plane geometry for COSTANZA-AX, radial geometry for COSTANZA-CYL). The neutronic calculation is coupled with the calculation of the heat transmission from the fuel to the cladding and to the coolant, and with the thermo-hydraulics of channels with forced circulation of liquid coolant. The geometry of fuel element and channel may be cylindrical or slab. Up to ten groups of delayed neutrons are allowed. Temperature feedback of fuel (Doppler) and coolant are considered independently and affect the nuclear constants. Control rod movement or diffused poison concentrations are simulated by externally imposed variations of the thermal absorption cross section in the different regions of the reactors. Inlet temperatures and mass flow in the coolant channels may be varied according to any externally given time table. 2 - Method of solution: The kinetic diffusion equations in two groups are solved by finite-difference method. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: 10 concentric regions; 10 coolant channels; 10 groups of delayed neutrons

  13. Geometry modeling for SAM-CE Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, H.A.; Troubetzkoy, E.S.

    1980-01-01

    Three geometry packages have been developed and incorporated into SAM-CE, for representing in three dimensions the transport medium. These are combinatorial geometry - a general (non-lattice) system, complex combinatorial geometry - a very general system with lattice capability, and special reactor geometry - a special purpose system for light water reactor geometries. Their different attributes are described

  14. Multiphase flows in complex geometries: a UQ perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Icardi, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays computer simulations are widely used in many multiphase flow applications involving interphases, dispersed particles, and complex geometries. Most of these problems are solved with mixed models composed of fundamental physical laws, rigorous mathematical upscaling, and empirical correlations/closures. This means that classical inference techniques or forward parametric studies, for example, becomes computationally prohibitive and must take into account the physical meaning and constraints of the equations. However mathematical techniques commonly used in Uncertainty Quantification can come to the aid for the (i) modeling, (ii) simulation, and (iii) validation steps. Two relevant applications for environmental, petroleum, and chemical engineering will be presented to highlight these aspects and the importance of bridging the gaps between engineering applications, computational physics and mathematical methods. The first example is related to the mathematical modeling of sub-grid/sub-scale information with Probability Density Function (PDF) models in problems involving flow, mixing, and reaction in random environment. After a short overview of the research field, some connections and similarities with Polynomial Chaos techniques, will be investigated. In the second example, averaged correlations laws and effective parameters for multiphase flow and their statistical fluctuations, will be considered and efficient computational techniques, borrowed from high-dimensional stochastic PDE problems, will be applied. In presence of interfacial flow, where small spatial scales and fast time scales are neglected, the assessment of robustness and predictive capabilities are studied. These illustrative examples are inspired by common problems arising, for example, from the modeling and simulation of turbulent and porous media flows.

  15. Multiphase flows in complex geometries: a UQ perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Icardi, Matteo

    2015-01-07

    Nowadays computer simulations are widely used in many multiphase flow applications involving interphases, dispersed particles, and complex geometries. Most of these problems are solved with mixed models composed of fundamental physical laws, rigorous mathematical upscaling, and empirical correlations/closures. This means that classical inference techniques or forward parametric studies, for example, becomes computationally prohibitive and must take into account the physical meaning and constraints of the equations. However mathematical techniques commonly used in Uncertainty Quantification can come to the aid for the (i) modeling, (ii) simulation, and (iii) validation steps. Two relevant applications for environmental, petroleum, and chemical engineering will be presented to highlight these aspects and the importance of bridging the gaps between engineering applications, computational physics and mathematical methods. The first example is related to the mathematical modeling of sub-grid/sub-scale information with Probability Density Function (PDF) models in problems involving flow, mixing, and reaction in random environment. After a short overview of the research field, some connections and similarities with Polynomial Chaos techniques, will be investigated. In the second example, averaged correlations laws and effective parameters for multiphase flow and their statistical fluctuations, will be considered and efficient computational techniques, borrowed from high-dimensional stochastic PDE problems, will be applied. In presence of interfacial flow, where small spatial scales and fast time scales are neglected, the assessment of robustness and predictive capabilities are studied. These illustrative examples are inspired by common problems arising, for example, from the modeling and simulation of turbulent and porous media flows.

  16. Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Pedoe, Dan

    1988-01-01

    ""A lucid and masterly survey."" - Mathematics Gazette Professor Pedoe is widely known as a fine teacher and a fine geometer. His abilities in both areas are clearly evident in this self-contained, well-written, and lucid introduction to the scope and methods of elementary geometry. It covers the geometry usually included in undergraduate courses in mathematics, except for the theory of convex sets. Based on a course given by the author for several years at the University of Minnesota, the main purpose of the book is to increase geometrical, and therefore mathematical, understanding and to he

  17. MURLI, 1-D Flux, Reaction Rate in Cylindrical Geometry Thermal Reactor Lattice by Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huria, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: MURLI is an integral transport theory code to calculate fluxes and reaction rates in one- dimensional cylindrical geometry lattice cells of a thermal reactor. For a specified buckling, it computes k-effective using few-group diffusion theory and a few-group collapsed set of Cross sections. The code can optionally be used to solve a first order differential equation for the number density of fissile, fertile and fission product nuclei as a function of time, and to recalculate fluxes, reaction rates and k-effective at different stages of burnup. A 27-group cross section data library is included. There are four pseudo-fission products each associated with the decay chains of plutonium and uranium isotopes in addition to Rh-105, Xe-135, Np-239, U-236, Am-241, Am-242 and Am-243. There is also data for one lumped pseudo-fission product. 2 - Method of solution: Multiple collision probabilities and escape probabilities are calculated for each cylindrical shell region assuming protons are born uniformly and isotropically over the entire region volume. The equations of integral transport theory can then be solved for neutron flux. The first order differential burnup equation is solved by a fourth order Runge-Kutta method. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: There are maxima of 8 fissionable elements, 8 resonant elements, and 20 spatial regions

  18. MM99.81 Projection welding of complex geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars

    The objective of this work has been to establish a profound knowledge about design rules for projection welding geometries dependent of the actual material combination.Design rules and recommendations for geometries and projections in projection welding given in literature is summarised...... and these are catalogued into geometry-classes. A simulation software, SORPAS, based on the finite element method (FEM) is chosen as tool to investigate projection weld quality. SORPAS needs input of the material flow stress as function of strain, strain rate and temperature. Flow stress experiments are performed using...... been investigated.Two different welding geometries, disc with triangular ring projection welded to ring and hat welded to inside hole in ring, are both experimentally and numerically used to investigate the influence of different geometric parameters (thicknesses and angles) on weldability and weld...

  19. Verification of a neutronic code for transient analysis in reactors with Hex-z geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Pintor, S.; Verdu, G. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica Y Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera, 14, 46022. Valencia (Spain); Ginestar, D. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera, 14, 46022. Valencia (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    Due to the geometry of the fuel bundles, to simulate reactors such as VVER reactors it is necessary to develop methods that can deal with hexagonal prisms as basic elements of the spatial discretization. The main features of a code based on a high order finite element method for the spatial discretization of the neutron diffusion equation and an implicit difference method for the time discretization of this equation are presented and the performance of the code is tested solving the first exercise of the AER transient benchmark. The obtained results are compared with the reference results of the benchmark and with the results provided by PARCS code. (authors)

  20. Advancing the manufacture of complex geometry GFRC for today's building envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Henriksen

    2017-06-01

    With this research the current architectural knowledge base has been advanced in terms of complex geometry thin-walled GFRC for building envelopes. The identified solutions should allow building with complex geometries to be realised using thin-walled GFRC as the envelope cladding.

  1. Natural circulation in a VVER reactor geometry: Experiments with the PACTEL facility and Cathare simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raussi, P.; Kainulainen, S. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Lappeenranta (Finland); Kouhia, J. [VTT Energy, Lappeenranta (Finland)

    1995-09-01

    There are some 40 reactors based on the VVER design in use. Database available for computer code assessment for VVER reactors is rather limited. Experiments were conducted to study natural circulation behaviour in the PACTEL facility, a medium-scale integral test loop patterned after VVER pressurized water reactors. Flow behaviour over a range of coolant inventories was studied with a small-break experiment. In the small-break experiments, flow stagnation and system repressurization were observed when the water level in the upper plenum fell below the entrances to the hot legs. The cause was attributed to the hot leg loop seals, which are a unique feature of the VVER geometry. At low primary inventories, core cooling was achieved through the boiler-condenser mode. The experiment was simulated using French thermalhydraulic system code CATHARE.

  2. Numerical simulation and geometry optimization of hot-gas mixing in lower plenum of high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hang; Wang Jie; Laurien, E.

    2010-01-01

    The lower plenum in high temperature gas-cooled reactor was designed to mix the gas of different temperatures from the reactor core. Previous researches suggest the current geometry of the lower plenum to be improved for better mixing capability and lower pressure drop. In the presented work, a series of varied geometries were investigated with numerical simulation way. The choice of appropriate mesh type and size used in the geometry variation was discussed with the reference of experimental data. The original thin ribs in the current design were merged into thicker ones, and a junction located at the starting end of the outlet pipe was introduced. After comparing several potential optimization methods, an improved geometry was selected with the merged ribs increasing the pre-defined mixing coefficient and the junction reducing the pressure drop. Future work was discussed based on the simulation of real reactor case. The work shows a direction for design improvements of the lower plenum geometry. (authors)

  3. Full Core modeling techniques for research reactors with irregular geometries using Serpent and PARCS applied to the CROCUS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siefman, Daniel J.; Girardin, Gaëtan; Rais, Adolfo; Pautz, Andreas; Hursin, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Modeling of research reactors. • Serpent and PARCS coupling. • Lattice physics codes modeling techniques. - Abstract: This paper summarizes the results of modeling methodologies developed for the zero-power (100 W) teaching and research reactor CROCUS located in the Laboratory for Reactor Physics and Systems Behavior (LRS) at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL). The study gives evidence that the Monte Carlo code Serpent can be used effectively as a lattice physics tool for small reactors. CROCUS’ core has an irregular geometry with two fuel zones of different lattice pitches. This and the reactor’s small size necessitate the use of nonstandard cross-section homogenization techniques when modeling the full core with a 3D nodal diffusion code (e.g. PARCS). The primary goal of this work is the development of these techniques for steady-state neutronics and future transient neutronics analyses of not only CROCUS, but research reactors in general. In addition, the modeling methods can provide useful insight for analyzing small modular reactor concepts based on light water technology. Static computational models of CROCUS with the codes Serpent and MCNP5 are presented and methodologies are analyzed for using Serpent and SerpentXS to prepare macroscopic homogenized group cross-sections for a pin-by-pin model of CROCUS with PARCS. The most accurate homogenization scheme lead to a difference in terms of k eff of 385 pcm between the Serpent and PARCS model, while the MCNP5 and Serpent models differed in terms of k eff by 13 pcm (within the statistical error of each simulation). Comparisons of the axial power profiles between the Serpent model as a reference and a set of PARCS models using different homogenization techniques showed a consistent root-mean-square deviation of ∼8%, indicating that the differences are not due to the homogenization technique but rather arise from the definition of the diffusion coefficients

  4. A numerical calculation method for flow discretisation in complex geometry with body-fitted grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, X.

    2001-04-01

    A numerical calculation method basing on body fitted grids is developed in this work for computational fluid dynamics in complex geometry. The method solves the conservation equations in a general nonorthogonal coordinate system which matches the curvilinear boundary. The nonorthogonal, patched grid is generated by a grid generator which solves algebraic equations. By means of an interface its geometrical data can be used by this method. The conservation equations are transformed from the Cartesian system to a general curvilinear system keeping the physical Cartesian velocity components as dependent variables. Using a staggered arrangement of variables, the three Cartesian velocity components are defined on every cell surface. Thus the coupling between pressure and velocity is ensured, and numerical oscillations are avoided. The contravariant velocity for calculating mass flux on one cell surface is resulting from dependent Cartesian velocity components. After the discretisation and linear interpolation, a three dimensional 19-point pressure equation is found. Using the explicit treatment for cross-derivative terms, it reduces to the usual 7-point equation. Under the same data and process structure, this method is compatible with the code FLUTAN using Cartesian coordinates. In order to verify this method, several laminar flows are simulated in orthogonal grids at tilted space directions and in nonorthogonal grids with variations of cell angles. The simulated flow types are considered like various duct flows, transient heat conduction, natural convection in a chimney and natural convection in cavities. Their results achieve very good agreement with analytical solutions or empirical data. Convergence for highly nonorthogonal grids is obtained. After the successful validation of this method, it is applied for a reactor safety case. A transient natural convection flow for an optional sump cooling concept SUCO is simulated. The numerical result is comparable with the

  5. 2-DB, 2-D Multigroup Diffusion, X-Y, R-Theta, Hexagonal Geometry Fast Reactor, Criticality Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, W.W. Jr.; Hardie, R.W.; Hirons, T.J.; O'Dell, R.D.

    1969-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: 2DB is a flexible, two- dimensional (x-y, r-z, r-theta, hex geometry) diffusion code for use in fast reactor analyses. The code can be used to: (a) Compute fuel burnup using a flexible material shuffling scheme. (b) Perform criticality searches on time absorption (alpha), material concentrations, and region dimensions using a regular or adjoint model. Criticality searches can be performed during burnup to compensate for fuel depletion. (c) Compute flux distributions for an arbitrary extraneous source. 2 - Method of solution: Standard source-iteration techniques are used. Group re-balancing and successive over-relaxation with line inversion are used to accelerate convergence. Material burnup is by reactor zone. The burnup rate is determined by the zone and energy (group) averaged cross sections which are recomputed after each time-step. The isotopic chains, which can contain any number of isotopes, are formed by the user. The code does not contain built-in or internal chains. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Since variable dimensioning is employed, no simple bounds can be stated. The current 1108 version, however, is nominally restricted to 50 energy groups in a 65 K memory. In the 6600 version the power fraction, average burnup rate, and breeding ratio calculations are limited to reactors with a maximum of 50 zones

  6. Probability-neighbor method of accelerating geometry treatment in reactor Monte Carlo code RMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    She, Ding; Li, Zeguang; Xu, Qi; Wang, Kan; Yu, Ganglin

    2011-01-01

    Probability neighbor method (PNM) is proposed in this paper to accelerate geometry treatment of Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and validated in self-developed reactor Monte Carlo code RMC. During MC simulation by either ray-tracking or delta-tracking method, large amounts of time are spent in finding out which cell one particle is located in. The traditional way is to search cells one by one with certain sequence defined previously. However, this procedure becomes very time-consuming when the system contains a large number of cells. Considering that particles have different probability to enter different cells, PNM method optimizes the searching sequence, i.e., the cells with larger probability are searched preferentially. The PNM method is implemented in RMC code and the numerical results show that the considerable time of geometry treatment in MC calculation for complicated systems is saved, especially effective in delta-tracking simulation. (author)

  7. Equilibrium between Different Coordination Geometries in Oxidovanadium(IV) Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugone, Valeria; Garribba, Eugenio; Micera, Giovanni; Sanna, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory activity, the equilibrium between square pyramidal and octahedral V(IV)O[superscript 2+] complexes is described. We propose a set of experiments to synthesize and characterize two types of V(IV)O[superscript 2+] complexes. The experiment allows great flexibility and may be effectively used at a variety of levels and the activity…

  8. The effect of reactor geometry on the synthesis of graphene materials in plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavelkina, M. B.; Amirov, R. H.; Shatalova, T. B.

    2017-05-01

    The possibility of synthesis of graphene and graphane (hydrogenated graphene) using the decomposition of hydrocarbons by thermal plasma has been investigated. Investigations of the influence of the plasma-forming gas on the efficiency of synthesis and the morphology of graphene materials were carried out. The synthesis products have been characterized by the methods of scanning microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and thermal analysis. It is found that the morphology of graphene materials is affected by the geometry of the reactor. It was demonstrated that the obtained graphene materials are uniformly distributed in the volume of plastic based on cyanate ester resins under mixing.

  9. A co-ordinate system for reactor physics calculations in hexagonal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burte, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    A method for generating all the geometric information concerning typical reactor physics calculations for a basically hexagonal reactor core or its sector involving any of the possible symmetries is presented. The geometrically allowed symmetries for regular hexagons are discussed. The approach is based on the choice of a suitable co-ordinate system, viz. one using three coplanar (including one redundant) axes, each at 120 0 with its cyclically preceding one. A code named KEKULE' is developed for a 2-D, finite difference, one-group diffusion analysis of a hexagonal core using the approach. It can cater to a full hexagonal core as well as to any symmetric sectorial part of it. The main feature of the code is that the input concerning geometry is a bare minimum. It is hoped that the approach presented will be useful even for the calculations for hexagonal fuel assemblies. (author)

  10. Experimental and numerical investigation of shock wave propagation through complex geometry, gas continuous, two-phase media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien-Chih Liu, James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The work presented here investigates the phenomenon of shock wave propagation in gas continuous, two-phase media. The motivation for this work stems from the need to understand blast venting consequences in the HYLIFE inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor. The HYLIFE concept utilizes lasers or heavy ion beams to rapidly heat and compress D-T targets injected into the center of a reactor chamber. A segmented blanket of falling molten lithium or Li2BeF4 (Flibe) jets encircles the reactor`s central cavity, shielding the reactor structure from radiation damage, absorbing the fusion energy, and breeding more tritium fuel. X-rays from the fusion microexplosion will ablate a thin layer of blanket material from the surfaces which face toward the fusion site. This generates a highly energetic vapor, which mostly coalesces in the central cavity. The blast expansion from the central cavity generates a shock which propagates through the segmented blanket - a complex geometry, gas-continuous two-phase medium. The impulse that the blast gives to the liquid as it vents past, the gas shock on the chamber wall, and ultimately the liquid impact on the wall are all important quantities to the HYLIFE structural designers.

  11. Advances in Spectral Nodal Methods applied to SN Nuclear Reactor Global calculations in Cartesian Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, R.C.; Filho, H.A.; Oliveira, F.B.S.; Silva, F.C. da

    2004-01-01

    Presented here are the advances in spectral nodal methods for discrete ordinates (SN) eigenvalue problems in Cartesian geometry. These coarse-mesh methods are based on three ingredients: (i) the use of the standard discretized spatial balance SN equations; (ii) the use of the non-standard spectral diamond (SD) auxiliary equations in the multiplying regions of the domain, e.g. fuel assemblies; and (iii) the use of the non-standard spectral Green's function (SGF) auxiliary equations in the non-multiplying regions of the domain, e.g., the reflector. In slab-geometry the hybrid SD-SGF method generates numerical results that are completely free of spatial truncation errors. In X,Y-geometry, we obtain a system of two 'slab-geometry' SN equations for the node-edge average angular fluxes by transverse-integrating the X,Y-geometry SN equations separately in the y- and then in the x-directions within an arbitrary node of the spatial grid set up on the domain. In this paper, we approximate the transverse leakage terms by constants. These are the only approximations considered in the SD-SGF-constant nodal method, as the source terms, that include scattering and eventually fission events, are treated exactly. Moreover, we describe in this paper the progress of the approximate SN albedo boundary conditions for substituting the non-multiplying regions around the nuclear reactor core. We show numerical results to typical model problems to illustrate the accuracy of spectral nodal methods for coarse-mesh SN criticality calculations. (Author)

  12. Solar proton exposure of an ICRU sphere within a complex structure Part I: Combinatorial geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W; Slaba, Tony C; Badavi, Francis F; Reddell, Brandon D; Bahadori, Amir A

    2016-06-01

    The 3DHZETRN code, with improved neutron and light ion (Z≤2) transport procedures, was recently developed and compared to Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using simplified spherical geometries. It was shown that 3DHZETRN agrees with the MC codes to the extent they agree with each other. In the present report, the 3DHZETRN code is extended to enable analysis in general combinatorial geometry. A more complex shielding structure with internal parts surrounding a tissue sphere is considered and compared against MC simulations. It is shown that even in the more complex geometry, 3DHZETRN agrees well with the MC codes and maintains a high degree of computational efficiency. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Solar Proton Transport within an ICRU Sphere Surrounded by a Complex Shield: Combinatorial Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Slaba, Tony C.; Badavi, Francis F.; Reddell, Brandon D.; Bahadori, Amir A.

    2015-01-01

    The 3DHZETRN code, with improved neutron and light ion (Z (is) less than 2) transport procedures, was recently developed and compared to Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using simplified spherical geometries. It was shown that 3DHZETRN agrees with the MC codes to the extent they agree with each other. In the present report, the 3DHZETRN code is extended to enable analysis in general combinatorial geometry. A more complex shielding structure with internal parts surrounding a tissue sphere is considered and compared against MC simulations. It is shown that even in the more complex geometry, 3DHZETRN agrees well with the MC codes and maintains a high degree of computational efficiency.

  14. Complex structure of Kerr geometry and rotating 'photon rocket' solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burinskii, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    In the frame of the Kerr-Schild approach, we obtain a generalization of the Kerr solution to a nonstationary case corresponding to a rotating source moving with arbitrary acceleration. Similar to the Kerr solution, the solutions obtained have geodesic and shearfree principal null congruence. The current parameters of the solutions are determined by a complex retarded-time construction via a given complex worldline of source. The real part of the complex worldline defines the values of the boost and acceleration while the imaginary part controls the rotation. The acceleration of the source is accompanied by lightlike radiation along the principal null congruence. The solutions obtained generalize to the rotating case the known Kinnersley class of the 'photon rocket' solutions

  15. A new concept of smart flexible phased array transducer to inspect component of complex geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, O.; Mauhaut, S.; Casula, O.; Cattiaux, G.

    2001-01-01

    In most of industries as aeronautics, aerospace and nuclear, the main part of the non destructive testing is carried out directly in touch with the inspected component. Among others, the cooling piping of French pressurized water reactor comprises many welding components with complex geometry: elbows, butt welds, nozzles. In service inspections of such components performed with conventional ultrasonic contact transducers present limited performances. First, variations in sensitivity, due to unmatched contact on depressions or irregular surface are observed, resulting in poor detection performances. In addition, the beam orientation transmitted through complex interfaces cannot be totally controlled, because of the disorientations suffered by the transducer during its displacement. As a result, the possible defect cannot be correctly detected, positioned and characterized. To overcome these difficulties and to improve the performances of such inspections, the French Atomic Energy Commission has developed a new concept of transducer, allowing both to take into account the varying profile of the tested component and to efficiently compensate these effects. This transducer is a flexible phased array able to match the surface of the inspected specimen and to efficiently compensate the deformation of its own surface, in order to preserve the ultrasonic beam characteristics in spite of the profile variations encountered during the scanning. This ability is achieved thanks to a specific instrumentation, which measures the deformation of the transducer radiating surface, made of individual ultrasonic elements mechanically jointed to fit the actual surface of the component being inspected. Inspections in pulse-echo mode have been performed on a specimen with an irregular profile containing artificial embedded reflectors. The comparison with inspection carried out using conventional transducer shows the efficiency of the system to characterize defects under such complex

  16. Depth estimation of complex geometry scenes from light fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Lipeng; Wang, Qing

    2018-01-01

    The surface camera (SCam) of light fields gathers angular sample rays passing through a 3D point. The consistency of SCams is evaluated to estimate the depth map of scene. But the consistency is affected by several limitations such as occlusions or non-Lambertian surfaces. To solve those limitations, the SCam is partitioned into two segments that one of them could satisfy the consistency constraint. The segmentation pattern of SCam is highly related to the texture of spatial patch, so we enforce a mask matching to describe the shape correlation between segments of SCam and spatial patch. To further address the ambiguity in textureless region, a global method with pixel-wise plane label is presented. Plane label inference at each pixel can recover not only depth value but also local geometry structure, that is suitable for light fields with sub-pixel disparities and continuous view variation. Our method is evaluated on public light field datasets and outperforms the state-of-the-art.

  17. Geometry and quadratic nonlinearity of charge transfer complexes in solution: A theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Ramasesha, S.; Pandey, Ravindra; Das, Puspendu K.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have computed the quadratic nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of a class of weak charge transfer (CT) complexes. These weak complexes are formed when the methyl substituted benzenes (donors) are added to strong acceptors like chloranil (CHL) or di-chloro-di-cyano benzoquinone (DDQ) in chloroform or in dichloromethane. The formation of such complexes is manifested by the presence of a broad absorption maximum in the visible range of the spectrum where neither the donor nor the acceptor absorbs. The appearance of this visible band is due to CT interactions, which result in strong NLO responses. We have employed the semiempirical intermediate neglect of differential overlap (INDO/S) Hamiltonian to calculate the energy levels of these CT complexes using single and double configuration interaction (SDCI). The solvent effects are taken into account by using the self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) scheme. The geometry of the complex is obtained by exploring different relative molecular geometries by rotating the acceptor with respect to the fixed donor about three different axes. The theoretical geometry that best fits the experimental energy gaps, β HRS and macroscopic depolarization ratios is taken to be the most probable geometry of the complex. Our studies show that the most probable geometry of these complexes in solution is the parallel displaced structure with a significant twist in some cases.

  18. Practice of calculation of neutron-physical characteristics of reactors and radiating shielding in structure SNPS with program complex MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krotov, A.D.; Son'ko, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Calculation of neutron-physical properties and radiation protection of space power reactor was made by means of the MCNP code allowing simulation of neutron, γ- and electron transport by the Monte Carlo method in the systems with combined geometry. Universality of the MCNP code has been demonstrated both for the calculation of reactor-converter so for the optimization of radiation protection that allows to reserve a new level of complex simulation of SNPS [ru

  19. Solar Proton Transport Within an ICRU Sphere Surrounded by a Complex Shield: Ray-trace Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaba, Tony C.; Wilson, John W.; Badavi, Francis F.; Reddell, Brandon D.; Bahadori, Amir A.

    2015-01-01

    A computationally efficient 3DHZETRN code with enhanced neutron and light ion (Z is less than or equal to 2) propagation was recently developed for complex, inhomogeneous shield geometry described by combinatorial objects. Comparisons were made between 3DHZETRN results and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations at locations within the combinatorial geometry, and it was shown that 3DHZETRN agrees with the MC codes to the extent they agree with each other. In the present report, the 3DHZETRN code is extended to enable analysis in ray-trace geometry. This latest extension enables the code to be used within current engineering design practices utilizing fully detailed vehicle and habitat geometries. Through convergence testing, it is shown that fidelity in an actual shield geometry can be maintained in the discrete ray-trace description by systematically increasing the number of discrete rays used. It is also shown that this fidelity is carried into transport procedures and resulting exposure quantities without sacrificing computational efficiency.

  20. Geometry of real and complex canonical transformations in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossmann, A.

    1977-08-01

    Quantum mechanics of finitely many particles involves the group of linear (and affine) canonical transformations. A well-defined ray representation of this group acts in the space of states of any quantum-mechanical system with finitely many degrees of freedom and plays a central role in many different contexts. This representation appears quite naturally in quantum mechanics over phase space (Weyl-Wigner correspondence), that it becomes, when suitably written, just a matter of looking at one object from different symplectic reference frames. This is particularly interesting for complex canonical transformations which are represented by unbounded operators. The list of references gives an idea of the variety of motivations and points of view in the subject

  1. Geometry and Framework Interactions of Zeolite-Encapsulated Copper(II)-Histidine Complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Grommen, R.; Manikandan, P.; Gao, Y.; Shane, T.; Shane, J.J.; Schoonheydt, R.A.; Goldfarb, D.

    2000-01-01

    The coordination geometry of zeolite-encapsulated copper(II)-histidine (CuHis) complexes, prepared by ion exchange of the complexes from aqueous solutions into zeolite NaY, was determined by a combination of UV-vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-band EPR, electron-spin-echo envelope

  2. Surface complexation of selenite on goethite: MO/DFT geometry and charge distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, T.; Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption of selenite on goethite (alpha-FeOOH) has been analyzed with the charge distribution (CD) and the multi-site surface complexation (MUSIC) model being combined with an extended Stem (ES) layer model option. The geometry of a set of different types of hydrated iron-selenite complexes

  3. Method and program for complex calculation of heterogeneous reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikov, A.G.; Glebov, A.P.; Elovskaya, L.F.; Kuznetsova, L.I.

    1988-01-01

    An algorithm and the GITA program for complex one-dimensional calculation of a heterogeneous reactor which permits to conduct calculations for the reactor and its cell simultaneously using the same algorithm are described. Multigroup macrocross sections for reactor zones in the thermal energy range are determined according to the technique for calculating a cell with complicate structure and then the continuous multi group calculation of the reactor in the thermal energy range and in the range of neutron thermalization is made. The kinetic equation is solved using the Pi- and DSn- approximations [fr

  4. The geometry of chaotic dynamics — a complex network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, R. V.; Heitzig, J.; Donges, J. F.; Zou, Y.; Marwan, N.; Kurths, J.

    2011-12-01

    Recently, several complex network approaches to time series analysis have been developed and applied to study a wide range of model systems as well as real-world data, e.g., geophysical or financial time series. Among these techniques, recurrence-based concepts and prominently ɛ-recurrence networks, most faithfully represent the geometrical fine structure of the attractors underlying chaotic (and less interestingly non-chaotic) time series. In this paper we demonstrate that the well known graph theoretical properties local clustering coefficient and global (network) transitivity can meaningfully be exploited to define two new local and two new global measures of dimension in phase space: local upper and lower clustering dimension as well as global upper and lower transitivity dimension. Rigorous analytical as well as numerical results for self-similar sets and simple chaotic model systems suggest that these measures are well-behaved in most non-pathological situations and that they can be estimated reasonably well using ɛ-recurrence networks constructed from relatively short time series. Moreover, we study the relationship between clustering and transitivity dimensions on the one hand, and traditional measures like pointwise dimension or local Lyapunov dimension on the other hand. We also provide further evidence that the local clustering coefficients, or equivalently the local clustering dimensions, are useful for identifying unstable periodic orbits and other dynamically invariant objects from time series. Our results demonstrate that ɛ-recurrence networks exhibit an important link between dynamical systems and graph theory.

  5. A model of gas cavity breakup behind a blockage in fast breeder reactor subassembly geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuzawa, Y.

    1980-05-01

    A semi-empirical model has been developed to describe the transient behaviour of a gas cavity due to breakup behind a blockage in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor subassembly geometry. The main mechanisms assumed for gas cavity breakup in the present model are as follows: The gas cavity is broken up by the pressure fluctuation at the interface due to turbulence in the liquid. The centrifugal force on the liquid opposes breakup. The model is able to describe experimental results on the transient behaviour of a gas cavity due to breakup after the termination of gas injection. On the basis of the present model the residence time of a gas cavity behind a blockage in sodium is predicted and the dependence of the residence time on blockage size is discussed. (orig.) [de

  6. Fuel management optimization in pressure water reactors with hexagonal geometry using hill climbing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres Diaz, J.; Quintero, Ruben; Melian, Manuel; Rosete, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    In this work the general-purpose optimization method, Hill Climbing, was applied to the Fuel Management Optimization problem in PWR reactors, WWER type. They were carried out a series of experiments in order to study the performance of Hill Climbing. It was proven two starting point for initialize the search: a reload configuration by project and a reload configuration generated with the application of a minimal knowledge of the problem. It was also studied the effect of imposing constraints based on the physics of the reactor in order to reduce the number of possible solutions to be generated. The operator used in Hill Climbing was defined as a binary exchange of fuel assemblies. For the simulation of each generated configuration, the tridimensional simulator program SPPS-1 was used. It was formulated an objective function with power peaking constraint to guide the search. As results, a methodology ws proposed for the In-core Fuel Management Optimization in hexagonal geometry, and the feasibility of the application of the Hill Climbing to this type of problem was demonstrated. (author)

  7. Six-Coordinate Ln(III Complexes with Various Coordination Geometries Showing Distinct Magnetic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The syntheses, structural characterization, and magnetic properties of three lanthanide complexes with formulas [Ln(L13] (Ln = Dy (1Dy; Er (1Er; and [Dy(L22] (2Dy were reported. Complexes 1Dy and 1Er are isostructural with the metal ion in distorted trigonal-prismatic coordination geometry, but exhibit distinct magnetic properties due to the different shapes of electron density for DyIII (oblate and ErIII (prolate ions. Complex 1Dy shows obvious SMM behavior under a zero direct current (dc field with an effective energy barrier of 31.4 K, while complex 1Er only features SMM behavior under a 400 Oe external field with an effective energy barrier of 23.96 K. In stark contrast, complex 2Dy with the octahedral geometry only exhibits the frequency dependence of alternating current (ac susceptibility signals without χ″ peaks under a zero dc field.

  8. ALGOL geometrical module for reactor and reactor cell calculations in the R-Z geometry with the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usikov, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    A description of a geometrical module used in a program of the ARMONT complex of the Monte Carlo calculations is given. The geometrical module is designed to simulate the particle trajectory in the R-Z geometry. The geometrical module follows the particle trajectory from the start point to the next collision or flight-out points. The flight direction at the scattering point is assumed isotropic in the laboratory coordinate system. In the module the angle between the flight direction before and after collision is not determined. The principles for the module construction are presented alongside with the text-module in the ALGOL language. The module is optimumized as to the counting rate and it is rather compact not to cause difficulties due to the translator limitations in common translation with other program blocks based on the use of the Monte Carlo calculations

  9. Identification of different coordination geometries by XAFS in copper(II) complexes with trimesic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, A.; Klysubun, W.; Soni, Balram; Shrivastava, B. D.; Prasad, J.; Srivastava, K.

    2016-10-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is very useful in revealing the information about geometric and electronic structure of a transition-metal absorber and thus commonly used for determination of metal-ligand coordination. But XAFS analysis becomes difficult if differently coordinated metal centers are present in a system. In the present investigation, existence of distinct coordination geometries around metal centres have been studied by XAFS in a series of trimesic acid Cu(II) complexes. The complexes studied are: Cu3(tma)2(im)6 8H2O (1), Cu3(tma)2(mim)6 17H2O (2), Cu3(tma)2(tmen)3 8.5H2O (3), Cu3(tma) (pmd)3 6H2O (ClO4)3 (4) and Cu3(tma)2 3H2O (5). These complexes have not only Cu metal centres with different coordination but in complexes 1-3, there are multiple coordination geometries present around Cu centres. Using XANES spectra, different coordination geometries present in these complexes have been identified. The variation observed in the pre-edge features and edge features have been correlated with the distortion of the specific coordination environment around Cu centres in the complexes. XANES spectra have been calculated for the distinct metal centres present in the complexes by employing ab-initio calculations. These individual spectra have been used to resolve the spectral contribution of the Cu centres to the particular XANES features exhibited by the experimental spectra of the multinuclear complexes. Also, the variation in the 4p density of states have been calculated for the different Cu centres and then correlated with the features originated from corresponding coordination of Cu. Thus, these spectral features have been successfully utilized to detect the presence of the discrete metal centres in a system. The inferences about the coordination geometry have been supported by EXAFS analysis which has been used to determine the structural parameters for these complexes.

  10. A numerical calculation method for flow discretisation in complex geometry with body-fitted grids; Rechenverfahren zur Diskretisierung von Stroemungen in komplexer Geometrie mittels koerperangepasster Gitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, X.

    2001-04-01

    A numerical calculation method basing on body fitted grids is developed in this work for computational fluid dynamics in complex geometry. The method solves the conservation equations in a general nonorthogonal coordinate system which matches the curvilinear boundary. The nonorthogonal, patched grid is generated by a grid generator which solves algebraic equations. By means of an interface its geometrical data can be used by this method. The conservation equations are transformed from the Cartesian system to a general curvilinear system keeping the physical Cartesian velocity components as dependent variables. Using a staggered arrangement of variables, the three Cartesian velocity components are defined on every cell surface. Thus the coupling between pressure and velocity is ensured, and numerical oscillations are avoided. The contravariant velocity for calculating mass flux on one cell surface is resulting from dependent Cartesian velocity components. After the discretisation and linear interpolation, a three dimensional 19-point pressure equation is found. Using the explicit treatment for cross-derivative terms, it reduces to the usual 7-point equation. Under the same data and process structure, this method is compatible with the code FLUTAN using Cartesian coordinates. In order to verify this method, several laminar flows are simulated in orthogonal grids at tilted space directions and in nonorthogonal grids with variations of cell angles. The simulated flow types are considered like various duct flows, transient heat conduction, natural convection in a chimney and natural convection in cavities. Their results achieve very good agreement with analytical solutions or empirical data. Convergence for highly nonorthogonal grids is obtained. After the successful validation of this method, it is applied for a reactor safety case. A transient natural convection flow for an optional sump cooling concept SUCO is simulated. The numerical result is comparable with the

  11. An algorithm for solving thermalhydraulic equations in complex geometries: the Astec code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonsdale, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    By applying a finite volume approach to a finite element mesh, the ASTEC computer code allows three-dimensional incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer in complex geometries to be simulated realistically, without making excessive demands on computing resources. The methods used in the code are described, and examples of the application of the code are presented

  12. Cleaning of small components of complex geometry by means of the sodium-alcohol reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Luca, B.; Grasso, C.; Spadoni, M.

    1978-01-01

    The results of some experiments on the vacuum reaction between butylcellosolve and sodium, contained in small diameter capillaries, are reported. The effects on the cleaning rate of the temperature, amount of solvent, diameter and position of the capillaries are analyzed. The facility, used for the cleaning of small components of complex geometry, is described. (author)

  13. The simplified P3 approach on a trigonal geometry in the nodal reactor code DYN3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerigen, S.; Fridman, E.

    2011-01-01

    DYN3D is a three-dimensional nodal diffusion code for steady-state and transient analyses of Light-Water Reactors with square and hexagonal fuel assembly geometries. Currently, several versions of the DYN3D code are available including a multi-group diffusion and a simplified P 3 (SP 3 ) neutron transport option. In this work, the multi-group SP 3 method based on trigonal-z geometry was developed. The method is applicable to the analysis of reactor cores with hexagonal fuel assemblies and allows flexible mesh refinement, which is of particular importance for WWER-type Pressurized Water Reactors as well as for innovative reactor concepts including block type High-Temperature Reactors and Sodium Fast Reactors. In this paper, the theoretical background for the trigonal SP 3 methodology is outlined and the results of a preliminary verification analysis are presented by means of a simplified WWER-440 core test example. The accordant cross sections and reference solutions were produced by the Monte Carlo code SERPENT. The DYN3D results are in good agreement with the reference solutions. The average deviation in the nodal power distribution is about 1%. (Authors)

  14. Thermal plume above a simulated sitting person with different complexity of body geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska, Daria; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Popiolek, Zbigniew J.

    2007-01-01

    Occupants are one of the main heat sources in rooms. They generate thermal plumes with characteristics, which depend on geometry, surface temperature and area of the human body in contact with the surrounding air as well as temperature, velocity and turbulence intensity distribution in the room....... The characteristics of the thermal plume generated by a sitting person were studied using four human body simulators with different complexity of geometry but equal surface area: a vertical cylinder, a rectangular box, a dummy, and a thermal manikin. The results show that the dummy and the thermal manikin generate...

  15. CIME school “Fully Nonlinear PDEs in Real and Complex Geometry and Optics”

    CERN Document Server

    Capogna, Luca; Gutiérrez, Cristian E; Montanari, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this CIME summer school was to present current areas of research arising both in the theoretical and applied setting that involve fully nonlinear partial different equations. The equations presented in the school stem from the fields of Conformal Mapping Theory, Differential Geometry, Optics, and Geometric Theory of Several Complex Variables. The school consisted of four courses: Extremal problems for quasiconformal mappings in space by Luca Capogna, Fully nonlinear equations in geometry by Pengfei Guan, Monge-Ampere type equations and geometric optics by Cristian E. Gutiérrez, and On the Levi Monge Ampere equation by Annamaria Montanari.

  16. A computational approach to modeling cellular-scale blood flow in complex geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Peter; Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2017-04-01

    We present a computational methodology for modeling cellular-scale blood flow in arbitrary and highly complex geometry. Our approach is based on immersed-boundary methods, which allow modeling flows in arbitrary geometry while resolving the large deformation and dynamics of every blood cell with high fidelity. The present methodology seamlessly integrates different modeling components dealing with stationary rigid boundaries of complex shape, moving rigid bodies, and highly deformable interfaces governed by nonlinear elasticity. Thus it enables us to simulate 'whole' blood suspensions flowing through physiologically realistic microvascular networks that are characterized by multiple bifurcating and merging vessels, as well as geometrically complex lab-on-chip devices. The focus of the present work is on the development of a versatile numerical technique that is able to consider deformable cells and rigid bodies flowing in three-dimensional arbitrarily complex geometries over a diverse range of scenarios. After describing the methodology, a series of validation studies are presented against analytical theory, experimental data, and previous numerical results. Then, the capability of the methodology is demonstrated by simulating flows of deformable blood cells and heterogeneous cell suspensions in both physiologically realistic microvascular networks and geometrically intricate microfluidic devices. It is shown that the methodology can predict several complex microhemodynamic phenomena observed in vascular networks and microfluidic devices. The present methodology is robust and versatile, and has the potential to scale up to very large microvascular networks at organ levels.

  17. Comparative analysis of a fusion reactor blanket in cylindrical and toroidal geometry using Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapin, D.L.

    1976-03-01

    Differences in neutron fluxes and nuclear reaction rates in a noncircular fusion reactor blanket when analyzed in cylindrical and toroidal geometry are studied using Monte Carlo. The investigation consists of three phases--a one-dimensional calculation using a circular approximation to a hexagonal shaped blanket; a two-dimensional calculation of a hexagonal blanket in an infinite cylinder; and a three-dimensional calculation of the blanket in tori of aspect ratios 3 and 5. The total blanket reaction rate in the two-dimensional model is found to be in good agreement with the circular model. The toroidal calculations reveal large variations in reaction rates at different blanket locations as compared to the hexagonal cylinder model, although the total reaction rate is nearly the same for both models. It is shown that the local perturbations in the toroidal blanket are due mainly to volumetric effects, and can be predicted by modifying the results of the infinite cylinder calculation by simple volume factors dependent on the blanket location and the torus major radius

  18. GPU-accelerated depth map generation for X-ray simulations of complex CAD geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandin, Robert J.; Young, Gavin; Holland, Stephen D.; Krishnamurthy, Adarsh

    2018-04-01

    Interactive x-ray simulations of complex computer-aided design (CAD) models can provide valuable insights for better interpretation of the defect signatures such as porosity from x-ray CT images. Generating the depth map along a particular direction for the given CAD geometry is the most compute-intensive step in x-ray simulations. We have developed a GPU-accelerated method for real-time generation of depth maps of complex CAD geometries. We preprocess complex components designed using commercial CAD systems using a custom CAD module and convert them into a fine user-defined surface tessellation. Our CAD module can be used by different simulators as well as handle complex geometries, including those that arise from complex castings and composite structures. We then make use of a parallel algorithm that runs on a graphics processing unit (GPU) to convert the finely-tessellated CAD model to a voxelized representation. The voxelized representation can enable heterogeneous modeling of the volume enclosed by the CAD model by assigning heterogeneous material properties in specific regions. The depth maps are generated from this voxelized representation with the help of a GPU-accelerated ray-casting algorithm. The GPU-accelerated ray-casting method enables interactive (> 60 frames-per-second) generation of the depth maps of complex CAD geometries. This enables arbitrarily rotation and slicing of the CAD model, leading to better interpretation of the x-ray images by the user. In addition, the depth maps can be used to aid directly in CT reconstruction algorithms.

  19. The AFEN Method in Cylindrical (r,θ ,z) Geometry for Pebble Bed Reactors -Incorporation of Acceleration and Discontinuity Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaejun; Cho, Namzin

    2007-01-01

    Most existing methods of nuclear design analysis for pebble bed reactors (PBRs) are based on old finite difference solvers or on statistical methods. These methods require very long computer times. Therefore, there is strong desire of making available high fidelity coarse-mesh nodal computer codes. Recently, we extended the analytic function expansion nodal (AFEN) method developed quite extensively in Cartesian (x,y,z) geometry and in hexagonal-z geometry to the treatment of the full three dimensional cylindrical (r,θ,z) geometry for pebble bed reactors(PBRs). The AFEN methodology in this geometry as in hexagonal geometry is 'robust', due to the unique feature of the AFEN method that it does not use the transverse integration. This paper presents an acceleration scheme based on the coarse-group rebalance (CGR) concept and provides test results verifying the method and its implementation in the TOPS code. Also, we implemented discontinuity factors in the TOPS code and tested on benchmark problems. The TOPS results are in excellent agreement with those of the VENTURE code, using significantly less computer time

  20. XAFS study of copper(II) complexes with square planar and square pyramidal coordination geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, A.; Klysubun, W.; Nitin Nair, N.; Shrivastava, B. D.; Prasad, J.; Srivastava, K.

    2016-08-01

    X-ray absorption fine structure of six Cu(II) complexes, Cu2(Clna)4 2H2O (1), Cu2(ac)4 2H2O (2), Cu2(phac)4 (pyz) (3), Cu2(bpy)2(na)2 H2O (ClO4) (4), Cu2(teen)4(OH)2(ClO4)2 (5) and Cu2(tmen)4(OH)2(ClO4)2 (6) (where ac, phac, pyz, bpy, na, teen, tmen = acetate, phenyl acetate, pyrazole, bipyridine, nicotinic acid, tetraethyethylenediamine, tetramethylethylenediamine, respectively), which were supposed to have square pyramidal and square planar coordination geometries have been investigated. The differences observed in the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) features of the standard compounds having four, five and six coordination geometry points towards presence of square planar and square pyramidal geometry around Cu centre in the studied complexes. The presence of intense pre-edge feature in the spectra of four complexes, 1-4, indicates square pyramidal coordination. Another important XANES feature, present in complexes 5 and 6, is prominent shoulder in the rising part of edge whose intensity decreases in the presence of axial ligands and thus indicates four coordination in these complexes. Ab initio calculations were carried out for square planar and square pyramidal Cu centres to observe the variation of 4p density of states in the presence and absence of axial ligands. To determine the number and distance of scattering atoms around Cu centre in the complexes, EXAFS analysis has been done using the paths obtained from Cu(II) oxide model and an axial Cu-O path from model of a square pyramidal complex. The results obtained from EXAFS analysis have been reported which confirmed the inference drawn from XANES features. Thus, it has been shown that these paths from model of a standard compound can be used to determine the structural parameters for complexes having unknown structure.

  1. Measurements of plume geometry and argon-41 radiation field at the BR1 reactor in Mol, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drews, M.; Joergensen, H.; Lauritzen, Bent; Mikkelsen, T.; Aage, H.K.; Korsbech, U.; Bargholz, K.; Rojas-Palma, C.; Ammel, R. van

    2002-02-01

    An atmospheric dispersion experiment was conducted using a visible tracer along with the routine releases of 41 Ar from the BR1 air-cooled research reactor in Mol. In the experiment, simultaneous measurements of the radiation field from the 41 Ar decay, the meteorology, the 41 Ar source term and plume geometry were performed. The visible tracer was injected into the reactor emission stack, and the plume cross section determined by Lidar scanning of the released aerosols. The data collected in the exercise provide a valuable resource for atmospheric dispersion and dose rate modeling. (au)

  2. Steady-state and transient heat transfer through fins of complex geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taler Dawid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Various methods for steady-state and transient analysis of temperature distribution and efficiency of continuous-plate fins are presented. For a constant heat transfer coefficient over the fin surface, the plate fin can be divided into imaginary rectangular or hexangular fins. At first approximate methods for determining the steady-state fin efficiency like the method of equivalent circular fin and the sector method are discussed. When the fin geometry is complex, thus transient temperature distribution and fin efficiency can be determined using numerical methods. A numerical method for transient analysis of fins with complex geometry is developed. Transient temperature distributions in continuous fins attached to oval tubes is computed using the finite volume - finite element methods. The developed method can be used in the transient analysis of compact heat exchangers to calculate correctly the heat flow rate transferred from the finned tubes to the fluid.

  3. Calculation of Added Mass for Submerged Reactor with Complex Shape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jong-Oh; Kim, Gyeongho; Choo, Yeon-Seok; Yoo, Yeon-Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Kijang Research Reactor (KJRR) is currently under construction. Its reactor is located on the bottom of a reactor pool which is filled with water to a depth of 12m. Some components are installed on or inside the reactor and their structural integrity and safety performance need to be verified under seismic situations. For the verification, time history data or Floor Response Spectrum (FRS) on their support location, which is the reactor, should be obtained. A Finite Element (FE) model with fluid elements can give very accurate results for the matter; however, it costs too many resources and takes too much time for the transient analyses. In order to make the model more efficient and simple, added masses are often used to simulate the effect of water instead of the fluid elements. Many literatures introduce methods to calculate the added mass according to the exterior shape of structures. In this paper, how to calculate added masses for complex shaped structure was suggested. The proposed method was applied to RSA for KJRR and its accuracy was verified through comparison of the natural frequencies of RSA with fluid elements and the added masses. They showed the differences less than 1.5% between two models. Finally, it is concluded that the proposed method is quite useful to obtain added masses for complex shaped structure.

  4. Relaxed geometries and dipole moments of positron complexes with diatomic molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assafrao, Denise; Mohallem, Jose R, E-mail: rachid@fisica.ufmg.b [Laboratorio de Atomos e Moleculas Especiais, Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CP 702, 30123-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2010-01-01

    Relaxed geometries and dipole moments of diatomic molecules interacting with a slow positron are reported as functions of the positron distance to the more electronegative atom. A molecular model for the complex that allows applications to large systems is used. The electron population on the positron is proposed as a weighting function to calculate the average quantities. Results show Self-Consistent-Field quality or better.

  5. Hazards of nuclear reactors and other major industrial complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, F.R.

    1982-01-01

    Some of the problems of quantified risk analysis of the hazards of nuclear reactors and other major industrial complexes are raised particularly as seen by the proponents and opponents of atomic energy. These are exemplified by discussing the chemical accidents at Flixborough and Canvey Island and the Light Water Reactor Studies. The role of risk analysis in improving knowledge of the systems studies, improving methods of analysis, identifying weaknesses in systems and in improving engineering/maintenance/operation is also stressed. (U.K.)

  6. Structural design of SBWR reactor building complex using microcomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandagi, K.; Rajagopal, R.S.; Sawhney, P.S.; Gou, P.F.

    1993-01-01

    The design concept of Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) plant is based on simplicity and passive features to enhance safety and reliability, improve performance, and increase economic viability. The SBWR utilizes passive systems such as Gravity Driven Core-Cooling System (GDCS) and Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS). To suit these design features the Reactor Building (RB) complex of the SBWR is configured as an integrated structure consisting of a cylindrical Reinforced Concrete Containment Vessel (RCCV) surrounded by square reinforced concrete safety envelope and outer box structures, all sharing a common reinforced concrete basemat. This paper describes the structural analysis and design aspects of the RB complex. A 3D STARDYNE finite element model has been developed for the structural analysis of the complex using a PC Compaq 486/33L microcomputer. The structural analysis is performed for service and factored load conditions for the applicable loading combinations. The dynamic responses of containment structures due to pool hydrodynamic loads have been calculated by an axisymmetric shell model using COSMOS/M program. The RCCV is designed in accordance with ASME Section 3, Division 2 Code. The rest of the RB which is classified as Seismic Category 1 structure is designed in accordance with the ACI 349 Code. This paper shows that microcomputers can be efficiently used for the analysis and design of large and complex structures such as RCCV and Reactor Building complex. The use of microcomputers can result in significant savings in the computational cost compared with that of mainframe computers

  7. From Stein to Weinstein and back symplectic geometry of affine complex manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Cieliebak, Kai

    2013-01-01

    A beautiful and comprehensive introduction to this important field. -Dusa McDuff, Barnard College, Columbia University This excellent book gives a detailed, clear, and wonderfully written treatment of the interplay between the world of Stein manifolds and the more topological and flexible world of Weinstein manifolds. Devoted to this subject with a long history, the book serves as a superb introduction to this area and also contains the authors' new results. -Tomasz Mrowka, MIT This book is devoted to the interplay between complex and symplectic geometry in affine complex manifolds. Affine co

  8. Modelling of turbulence and combustion for simulation of gas explosions in complex geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, Bjoern Johan

    1998-12-31

    This thesis analyses and presents new models for turbulent reactive flows for CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation of gas explosions in complex geometries like offshore modules. The course of a gas explosion in a complex geometry is largely determined by the development of turbulence and the accompanying increased combustion rate. To be able to model the process it is necessary to use a CFD code as a starting point, provided with a suitable turbulence and combustion model. The modelling and calculations are done in a three-dimensional finite volume CFD code, where complex geometries are represented by a porosity concept, which gives porosity on the grid cell faces, depending on what is inside the cell. The turbulent flow field is modelled with a k-{epsilon} turbulence model. Subgrid models are used for production of turbulence from geometry not fully resolved on the grid. Results from laser doppler anemometry measurements around obstructions in steady and transient flows have been analysed and the turbulence models have been improved to handle transient, subgrid and reactive flows. The combustion is modelled with a burning velocity model and a flame model which incorporates the burning velocity into the code. Two different flame models have been developed: SIF (Simple Interface Flame model), which treats the flame as an interface between reactants and products, and the {beta}-model where the reaction zone is resolved with about three grid cells. The flame normally starts with a quasi laminar burning velocity, due to flame instabilities, modelled as a function of flame radius and laminar burning velocity. As the flow field becomes turbulent, the flame uses a turbulent burning velocity model based on experimental data and dependent on turbulence parameters and laminar burning velocity. The laminar burning velocity is modelled as a function of gas mixture, equivalence ratio, pressure and temperature in reactant. Simulations agree well with experiments. 139

  9. Low enriched uranium foil targets with different geometries for the production of Molybdenum-99 in the BMR (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingos, Douglas B.; Silva, Antonio T. e; Joao, Thiago G.; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Coelho, Talita S., E-mail: teixeira@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    A new research reactor is being planned in Brazil to take care of the demand of radiopharmaceuticals in the country and conduct research in various areas. This new reactor, the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB), planned for 30 MW, is now in the conception design phase. Two low enriched (<20% {sup 235}U) metallic uranium foil targets (cylinder and plate geometries) are being considered for production of Molybdenum-99 ({sup 99}Mo) by fission. Neutronic and thermal-hydraulics calculations were performed to compare the production of {sup 99}Mo for these targets in the RMB and to determine the temperatures achieved in the targets. For the neutronic calculations were utilized the computer codes HAMMER-TECHNION, CITATION and SCALE and for the thermal-hydraulics calculations were utilized the computer codes MTRCR-IEA-R1 and ANSYS CFX. (author)

  10. Low enriched uranium foil targets with different geometries for the production of Molybdenum-99 in the BMR (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingos, Douglas B.; Silva, Antonio T. e; Joao, Thiago G.; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Coelho, Talita S.

    2011-01-01

    A new research reactor is being planned in Brazil to take care of the demand of radiopharmaceuticals in the country and conduct research in various areas. This new reactor, the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB), planned for 30 MW, is now in the conception design phase. Two low enriched ( 235 U) metallic uranium foil targets (cylinder and plate geometries) are being considered for production of Molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) by fission. Neutronic and thermal-hydraulics calculations were performed to compare the production of 99 Mo for these targets in the RMB and to determine the temperatures achieved in the targets. For the neutronic calculations were utilized the computer codes HAMMER-TECHNION, CITATION and SCALE and for the thermal-hydraulics calculations were utilized the computer codes MTRCR-IEA-R1 and ANSYS CFX. (author)

  11. URDME: a modular framework for stochastic simulation of reaction-transport processes in complex geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawert, Brian; Engblom, Stefan; Hellander, Andreas

    2012-06-22

    Experiments in silico using stochastic reaction-diffusion models have emerged as an important tool in molecular systems biology. Designing computational software for such applications poses several challenges. Firstly, realistic lattice-based modeling for biological applications requires a consistent way of handling complex geometries, including curved inner- and outer boundaries. Secondly, spatiotemporal stochastic simulations are computationally expensive due to the fast time scales of individual reaction- and diffusion events when compared to the biological phenomena of actual interest. We therefore argue that simulation software needs to be both computationally efficient, employing sophisticated algorithms, yet in the same time flexible in order to meet present and future needs of increasingly complex biological modeling. We have developed URDME, a flexible software framework for general stochastic reaction-transport modeling and simulation. URDME uses Unstructured triangular and tetrahedral meshes to resolve general geometries, and relies on the Reaction-Diffusion Master Equation formalism to model the processes under study. An interface to a mature geometry and mesh handling external software (Comsol Multiphysics) provides for a stable and interactive environment for model construction. The core simulation routines are logically separated from the model building interface and written in a low-level language for computational efficiency. The connection to the geometry handling software is realized via a Matlab interface which facilitates script computing, data management, and post-processing. For practitioners, the software therefore behaves much as an interactive Matlab toolbox. At the same time, it is possible to modify and extend URDME with newly developed simulation routines. Since the overall design effectively hides the complexity of managing the geometry and meshes, this means that newly developed methods may be tested in a realistic setting already at

  12. Calibration of Ge gamma-ray spectrometers for complex sample geometries and matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semkow, T.M., E-mail: thomas.semkow@health.ny.gov [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, NY 12144 (United States); Bradt, C.J.; Beach, S.E.; Haines, D.K.; Khan, A.J.; Bari, A.; Torres, M.A.; Marrantino, J.C.; Syed, U.-F. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Kitto, M.E. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, NY 12144 (United States); Hoffman, T.J. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Curtis, P. [Kiltel Systems, Inc., Clyde Hill, WA 98004 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    A comprehensive study of the efficiency calibration and calibration verification of Ge gamma-ray spectrometers was performed using semi-empirical, computational Monte-Carlo (MC), and transfer methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the quantification of gamma-emitting radionuclides in complex matrices normally encountered in environmental and food samples. A wide range of gamma energies from 59.5 to 1836.0 keV and geometries from a 10-mL jar to 1.4-L Marinelli beaker were studied on four Ge spectrometers with the relative efficiencies between 102% and 140%. Density and coincidence summing corrections were applied. Innovative techniques were developed for the preparation of artificial complex matrices from materials such as acidified water, polystyrene, ethanol, sugar, and sand, resulting in the densities ranging from 0.3655 to 2.164 g cm{sup −3}. They were spiked with gamma activity traceable to international standards and used for calibration verifications. A quantitative method of tuning MC calculations to experiment was developed based on a multidimensional chi-square paraboloid. - Highlights: • Preparation and spiking of traceable complex matrices in extended geometries. • Calibration of Ge gamma spectrometers for complex matrices. • Verification of gamma calibrations. • Comparison of semi-empirical, computational Monte Carlo, and transfer methods of Ge calibration. • Tuning of Monte Carlo calculations using a multidimensional paraboloid.

  13. Calibration of Ge gamma-ray spectrometers for complex sample geometries and matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semkow, T.M.; Bradt, C.J.; Beach, S.E.; Haines, D.K.; Khan, A.J.; Bari, A.; Torres, M.A.; Marrantino, J.C.; Syed, U.-F.; Kitto, M.E.; Hoffman, T.J.; Curtis, P.

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the efficiency calibration and calibration verification of Ge gamma-ray spectrometers was performed using semi-empirical, computational Monte-Carlo (MC), and transfer methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the quantification of gamma-emitting radionuclides in complex matrices normally encountered in environmental and food samples. A wide range of gamma energies from 59.5 to 1836.0 keV and geometries from a 10-mL jar to 1.4-L Marinelli beaker were studied on four Ge spectrometers with the relative efficiencies between 102% and 140%. Density and coincidence summing corrections were applied. Innovative techniques were developed for the preparation of artificial complex matrices from materials such as acidified water, polystyrene, ethanol, sugar, and sand, resulting in the densities ranging from 0.3655 to 2.164 g cm −3 . They were spiked with gamma activity traceable to international standards and used for calibration verifications. A quantitative method of tuning MC calculations to experiment was developed based on a multidimensional chi-square paraboloid. - Highlights: • Preparation and spiking of traceable complex matrices in extended geometries. • Calibration of Ge gamma spectrometers for complex matrices. • Verification of gamma calibrations. • Comparison of semi-empirical, computational Monte Carlo, and transfer methods of Ge calibration. • Tuning of Monte Carlo calculations using a multidimensional paraboloid

  14. Algebrodynamics over complex space and phase extension of the Minkowski geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassandrov, V. V.

    2009-01-01

    First principles should predetermine physical geometry and dynamics both together. In the 'algebrodynamics' they follow solely from the properties of biquaternion algebra B and the analysis over B. We briefly present the algebrodynamics over Minkowski background based on a nonlinear generalization to B of the Cauchi-Riemann analyticity conditions. Further, we consider the effective real geometry uniquely resulting from the structure of B multiplication and found it to be of the Minkowski type, with an additional phase invariant. Then we pass to study the primordial dynamics that takes place in the complex B space and brings into consideration a number of remarkable structures: an ensemble of identical correlated matter pre-elements ('duplicons'), caustic-like signals (interaction carriers), a concept of random complex time resulting in irreversibility of physical time at macrolevel, etc. In partucular, the concept of 'dimerous electron' naturally arises in the framework of complex algebrodynamics and, together with the above-mentioned phase invariant, allows for a novel approach to explanation of quantum interference phenomena alternative to recently accepted wave-particle dualism paradigm.

  15. Innovation Study for Laser Cutting of Complex Geometries with Paper Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happonen, A.; Stepanov, A.; Piili, H.; Salminen, A.

    Even though technology for laser cutting of paper materials has existed for over 30 years, it seems that results of applications of this technology and possibilities of laser cutting systems are not easily available. The aim of this study was to analyze the feasibility of the complex geometry laser cutting of paper materials and to analyze the innovation challenges and potential of current laser cutting technologies offer. This research studied the potential and possible challenges in applying CO2 laser cutting technology for cutting of paper materials in current supply chains trying to fulfil the changing needs of customer in respect of shape, fast response during rapid delivery cycle. The study is focused on examining and analyzing the different possibilities of laser cutting of paper material in application area of complex low volume geometry cutting. The goal of this case was to analyze the feasibility of the laser cutting from technical, quality and implementation points of view and to discuss availability of new business opportunities. It was noticed that there are new business models still available within laser technology applications in complex geometry cutting. Application of laser technology, in business-to-consume markets, in synergy with Internet service platforms can widen the customer base and offer new value streams for technology and service companies. Because of this, existing markets and competition has to be identified, and appropriate new and innovative business model needs to be developed. And to be competitive in the markets, models like these need to include the earning logic and the stages from production to delivery as discussed in the paper.

  16. SCAP-82, Single Scattering, Albedo Scattering, Point-Kernel Analysis in Complex Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, R.K.; Vogtman, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: SCAP solves for radiation transport in complex geometries using the single or albedo scatter point kernel method. The program is designed to calculate the neutron or gamma ray radiation level at detector points located within or outside a complex radiation scatter source geometry or a user specified discrete scattering volume. Geometry is describable by zones bounded by intersecting quadratic surfaces within an arbitrary maximum number of boundary surfaces per zone. Anisotropic point sources are describable as pointwise energy dependent distributions of polar angles on a meridian; isotropic point sources may also be specified. The attenuation function for gamma rays is an exponential function on the primary source leg and the scatter leg with a build- up factor approximation to account for multiple scatter on the scat- ter leg. The neutron attenuation function is an exponential function using neutron removal cross sections on the primary source leg and scatter leg. Line or volumetric sources can be represented as a distribution of isotropic point sources, with un-collided line-of-sight attenuation and buildup calculated between each source point and the detector point. 2 - Method of solution: A point kernel method using an anisotropic or isotropic point source representation is used, line-of-sight material attenuation and inverse square spatial attenuation between the source point and scatter points and the scatter points and detector point is employed. A direct summation of individual point source results is obtained. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: - The SCAP program is written in complete flexible dimensioning so that no restrictions are imposed on the number of energy groups or geometric zones. The geometric zone description is restricted to zones defined by boundary surfaces defined by the general quadratic equation or one of its degenerate forms. The only restriction in the program is that the total

  17. Water-chemical regime of a fast reactor ower complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musikhin, R.N.; Piskunov, E.M.; Samarkin, A.A.; Yurchenko, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    Some peculiarities of water-chemical regime of a power compleX in Shevchenko are considered. The complex comprises a desalination unit, a gas-masout heating-and-power plant and the BN-350 reactor. The compleX is used for the production of electric and thermal energy and fresh water. The power complex peculiarity is the utilization of disalinated seawater in a technological cycle along with highly mineralized seawater with a total salt content of 13.5 g/l (for cooling) in heat exchanges. A regime of ammoniacal correction of feed water was used as a basic water-chemical regime in the initial period of the BN-350 steam generator operation. Deposits composed mainly of iron oxide slime were observed on steam generator surfaces during the operation under these conditions. A conclusion is made that the regime with chelating agent providing steam generator safe operation without chemical cleaning is the most expedient one

  18. Highly Manufacturable Deep (Sub-Millimeter) Etching Enabled High Aspect Ratio Complex Geometry Lego-Like Silicon Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    A highly manufacturable deep reactive ion etching based process involving a hybrid soft/hard mask process technology shows high aspect ratio complex geometry Lego-like silicon electronics formation enabling free-form (physically flexible

  19. Analysis of possibility to apply new mathematical methods (R-function theory) in Monte Carlo simulation of complex geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altiparmakov, D.

    1988-12-01

    This analysis is part of the report on ' Implementation of geometry module of 05R code in another Monte Carlo code', chapter 6.0: establishment of future activity related to geometry in Monte Carlo method. The introduction points out some problems in solving complex three-dimensional models which induce the need for developing more efficient geometry modules in Monte Carlo calculations. Second part include formulation of the problem and geometry module. Two fundamental questions to be solved are defined: (1) for a given point, it is necessary to determine material region or boundary where it belongs, and (2) for a given direction, all cross section points with material regions should be determined. Third part deals with possible connection with Monte Carlo calculations for computer simulation of geometry objects. R-function theory enables creation of geometry module base on the same logic (complex regions are constructed by elementary regions sets operations) as well as construction geometry codes. R-functions can efficiently replace functions of three-value logic in all significant models. They are even more appropriate for application since three-value logic is not typical for digital computers which operate in two-value logic. This shows that there is a need for work in this field. It is shown that there is a possibility to develop interactive code for computer modeling of geometry objects in parallel with development of geometry module [sr

  20. A Framework for the Interactive Handling of High-Dimensional Simulation Data in Complex Geometries

    KAUST Repository

    Benzina, Amal; Buse, Gerrit; Butnaru, Daniel; Murarasu, Alin; Treib, Marc; Varduhn, Vasco; Mundani, Ralf-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Flow simulations around building infrastructure models involve large scale complex geometries, which when discretized in adequate detail entail high computational cost. Moreover, tasks such as simulation insight by steering or optimization require many such costly simulations. In this paper, we illustrate the whole pipeline of an integrated solution for interactive computational steering, developed for complex flow simulation scenarios that depend on a moderate number of both geometric and physical parameters. A mesh generator takes building information model input data and outputs a valid cartesian discretization. A sparse-grids-based surrogate model—a less costly substitute for the parameterized simulation—uses precomputed data to deliver approximated simulation results at interactive rates. Furthermore, a distributed multi-display visualization environment shows building infrastructure together with flow data. The focus is set on scalability and intuitive user interaction.

  1. Ultrasonic non-destructive testing of pieces of complex geometry with a flexible phased array transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatillon; Cattiaux; Serre; Roy

    2000-03-01

    Ultrasonic non-destructive testing of components of complex geometry in the nuclear industry faces several difficulties: sensitivity variations due to unmatched contact, inaccurate localization of defects due to variations of transducer orientation, and uncovered area of the component. To improve the performances of such testing and defect characterization, we propose a new concept of ultrasonic contact phased array transducer. The phased array transducer has a flexible radiating surface able to fit the actual surface of the piece to optimize the contact and thus the sensitivity of the test. To control the transmitted field, and therefore to improve the defect characterization, a delay law optimizing algorithm is developed. To assess the capability of such a transducer, the Champ-Sons model, developed at the French Atomic Energy Commission for predicting field radiated by arbitrary transducers into pieces, has to be extended to sources directly in contact with pieces of complex geometry. The good behavior of this new type of probe predicted by computations is experimentally validated with a jointed transducer positioned on pieces of various profiles.

  2. A review on research activities using the SANS spectrometer in transmission geometry at ET-RR-1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.

    1999-01-01

    The phased double rotor facility operating at ET-RR-1 reactor (2MW) was rearranged to operate as SANS spectrometer in transmission geometry. The rotors are suspended in magnetic fields and are spinning up to 16,000 rpm producing bursts of polyenergetic neutrons with wavelengths from 0.2 nm to 6.5 nm and beam divergence of 17' on the sample. The review on research activities using the SANS spectrometer and its applications for powder particle size determination and the long wavelength fluctuation of magnetization of the Fe-Ni alloys are discussed. (author)

  3. Material and geometry options and performance characteristics for a test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahshan, S.N.; Fletcher, C.D.; Terry, W.K.

    1993-01-01

    For the past 3 yr, an Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) design team has studied design options for a new test reactor to provide continued testing services after several aging test reactors in the United States are decommissioned. This new reactor, the Broad Application Test Reactor (BATR), would also fill other currently unmet needs, such as medical isotope production and space reactor component testing. Consideration of user needs, safety requirements, developmental uncertainties, and other factors led to the selection of an evolutionary design with plate fuel and several independently cooled test loops. The fuel would be cooled by light water, but most neutron moderation would come from heavy water or beryllium. The BATR design was tentatively scaled to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), an existing reactor at INEL: The power output of BATR is 250 MW(thermal), and the active core heights is 1 m. For safety in loss-of-flow events, the coolant flows upward through the core. The BATR design has one large test loop (with a test space diameter of 15.0 cm) along the central axis of the core and six smaller test loops (with test space diameters of 8.0 cm) centered at 6-deg azimuthal intervals on a 24.71-cm-diam circle around the central core axis

  4. Simulation of a reactor FBR with hexagonal-Z geometry using the code PARCS 3.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, M. C.; Del Valle G, E.; Filio L, C.

    2013-10-01

    The nuclear reactor core type FBR (Fast Breeder Reactor) was modeled in three dimensions of hexagonal-Z geometry using the code PARCS (Purdue Advanced Reactor Core Simulator) version 3.1 developed by Purdue University researchers. To carry out the modeling of the mentioned reactor was taken the corresponding information to one of the described benchmarks in the document NEACRP-L-330 (3-D Neutron Transport Benchmarks, 1991); fundamentally the corresponding to the geometric data and the cross sections. Being a quick reactor of breeding, known as the Knk-II, for which are considered 4 energy groups without dispersions up. The reactor core is formed by prismatic elements of hexagonal transversal cut where part of them only corresponds to nuclear fuel assemblies. This has four reflector rings and 6 identical control elements that together with the active part of the core is configured with 8 different types of elements.With the extracted information of the mentioned document the entrance file was prepared for PARCS 3.1 only considering a sixth part of the core due to the symmetry that presents their configuration. The NEACRP-L-330 shows a wide range of results reported by those who collaborated in its elaboration using different solution techniques that go from the Monte Carlo method to the approaches S 2 and P 1 . Of all the results were selected those obtained with the code HEXNOD, to which were carried out a comparison of the effective multiplication factor, being smaller differences to the 300 pcm, for three different scenarios: a) with the control bars extracted totally, b) with the semi-inserted control bars and c) with the control bars inserted completely and two different axial meshes, a thick mesh with 14 slices and another fine with 38, that which implies that the results can be considered very similar among if same. Radial maps and axial profiles are included, as much of the power as of the neutrons flow. (Author)

  5. Low Complexity Connectivity Driven Dynamic Geometry Compression for 3D Tele-Immersion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.N. Mekuria (Rufael); D.C.A. Bulterman (Dick); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractGeometry based 3D Tele-Immersion is a novel emerging media application that involves on the fly reconstructed 3D mesh geometry. To enable real-time communication of such live reconstructed mesh geometry over a bandwidth limited link, fast dynamic geometry compression is needed. However,

  6. Complex Structure of the Four-Dimensional Kerr Geometry: Stringy System, Kerr Theorem, and Calabi-Yau Twofold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Burinskii

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The 4D Kerr geometry displays many wonderful relations with quantum world and, in particular, with superstring theory. The lightlike structure of fields near the Kerr singular ring is similar to the structure of Sen solution for a closed heterotic string. Another string, open and complex, appears in the complex representation of the Kerr geometry initiated by Newman. Combination of these strings forms a membrane source of the Kerr geometry which is parallel to the structure of M-theory. In this paper we give one more evidence of this relationship, emergence of the Calabi-Yau twofold (K3 surface in twistorial structure of the Kerr geometry as a consequence of the Kerr theorem. Finally, we indicate that the Kerr stringy system may correspond to a complex embedding of the critical N = 2 superstring.

  7. The role of metal complexes in nuclear reactor decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prince, A.A.M.; Raghavan, P.S.; Gopalan, R. [Madras Christian College, Tambaram, Chennai (India); Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC) (IN). Water and Steam Chemistry Lab. (WSCL)

    2006-07-15

    Chemical decontamination is the process of removal of radioactivity from corrosion products formed on structural materials in the nuclear reactors. These corrosion products cause problems for the operation and maintenance of the plants. Removal of the radioactive contaminants can be achieved by dissolving the oxide from the system surface using organic complexing agents in low concentrations known as dilute chemical decontamination (DCD) formulations. These organic complexing agents attack the oxide surface and form metal complexes, which further accelerate the dissolution process. The stability of the complexes plays an important role in dissolving the radioactive contaminated oxides. In addition, the DCD process is operated through ion exchange resins for the removal of the dissolved metal ions and radioactive nuclides. In the present study, the kinetics of dissolution of various model corrosion products such as magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and maghemite ({gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) have been studied in the presence of complexing agents such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), hydroxyethylethylenediaminepentaacetic acid (HEEDTA), and 2,6 pyridinedicarboxylic acid (PDCA). The reductive roles of metal complexes and organic reducing agents are discussed. (orig.)

  8. A Qualitative Investigation of Deposition Velocities of a Non-Newtonian Slurry in Complex Pipeline Geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokuda, Satoru T.; Poloski, Adam P.; Adkins, Harold E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; Karri, Naveen K.; Luna, Maria; Minette, Michael J.; Tingey, Joel M.

    2009-05-11

    The External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) has identified the issues relating to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) pipe plugging. Per the review’s executive summary, “Piping that transports slurries will plug unless it is properly designed to minimize this risk. This design approach has not been followed consistently, which will lead to frequent shutdowns due to line plugging.” To evaluate the potential for plugging, testing was performed to determine critical velocities for the complex WTP piping layout. Critical velocity is defined as the point at which a moving bed of particles begins to form on the pipe bottom during slurry-transport operations. Pressure drops across the fittings of the test pipeline were measured with differential pressure transducers, from which the critical velocities were determined. A WTP prototype flush system was installed and tested upon the completion of the pressure-drop measurements. We also provide the data for the overflow relief system represented by a WTP complex piping geometry with a non-Newtonian slurry. A waste simulant composed of alumina (nominally 50 μm in diameter) suspended in a kaolin clay slurry was used for this testing. The target composition of the simulant was 10 vol% alumina in a suspending medium with a yield stress of 3 Pa. No publications or reports are available to confirm the critical velocities for the complex geometry evaluated in this testing; therefore, for this assessment, the results were compared to those reported by Poloski et al. (2008) for which testing was performed for a straight horizontal pipe. The results of the flush test are compared to the WTP design guide 24590-WTP-GPG-M-0058, Rev. 0 (Hall 2006) in an effort to confirm flushing-velocity requirements.

  9. A Qualitative Investigation of Deposition Velocities of a Non-Newtonian Slurry in Complex Pipeline Geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokuda, Satoru T.; Poloski, Adam P.; Adkins, Harold E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; Karri, Naveen K.; Luna, Maria; Minette, Michael J.; Tingey, Joel M.

    2009-01-01

    The External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) has identified the issues relating to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) pipe plugging. Per the review's executive summary, ''Piping that transports slurries will plug unless it is properly designed to minimize this risk. This design approach has not been followed consistently, which will lead to frequent shutdowns due to line plugging.'' To evaluate the potential for plugging, testing was performed to determine critical velocities for the complex WTP piping layout. Critical velocity is defined as the point at which a moving bed of particles begins to form on the pipe bottom during slurry-transport operations. Pressure drops across the fittings of the test pipeline were measured with differential pressure transducers, from which the critical velocities were determined. A WTP prototype flush system was installed and tested upon the completion of the pressure-drop measurements. We also provide the data for the overflow relief system represented by a WTP complex piping geometry with a non-Newtonian slurry. A waste simulant composed of alumina (nominally 50 (micro)m in diameter) suspended in a kaolin clay slurry was used for this testing. The target composition of the simulant was 10 vol% alumina in a suspending medium with a yield stress of 3 Pa. No publications or reports are available to confirm the critical velocities for the complex geometry evaluated in this testing; therefore, for this assessment, the results were compared to those reported by Poloski et al. (2008) for which testing was performed for a straight horizontal pipe. The results of the flush test are compared to the WTP design guide 24590-WTP-GPG-M-0058, Rev. 0 (Hall 2006) in an effort to confirm flushing-velocity requirements.

  10. Complex resistivity spectra in relation to multiscale pore geometry in carbonates and mixed-siliciclastic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbisrath, Jan Henrik

    Carbonate rocks are known to have complex and heterogeneous pore structures, which result from their biogenic origin and strong affinity for diagenetic processes that change their pore structure after burial. The combination of sheer endless variations of precursor biogenic material, depositional environments, and diagenetic effects results in rocks that are interesting to study but intricate to understand. Many schemes to categorize the diversity of carbonate rocks are in use today; most are based on the macropore structure and qualitative thin-section analysis. Many studies, however, acknowledge that micropores have a significant influence on the macroscopic petrophysical rock properties, which are essential to determine reservoir quality. Micropores are, by definition, smaller than the thickness of a thin-section (four major carbonate microporosity types: (1) small intercrystalline, (2) large inter-crystalline, (3) intercement, and (4) micromoldic. Each microporosity type shows a distinct capacity to conduct electrical charge, which largely controls the magnitude and range of cementation factors (m) in rocks with such microporosity type. The BIB-SEM method is also used on a dataset of mixed carbonate-siliciclastic (mudrock) samples with high kerogen and pyrite content. Results show that the nanopore geometry here has little influence on cementation factors, and instead porosity is the main control on m in mudrocks. Cementation factors are crucial for estimates of oil-in-place and water saturation in a wireline application, and a slight change of (assumed) cementation factor can change the interpreter's evaluation from dry hole to discovery. Therefore, accurate determination of cementation factors is a critical task in formation evaluation, similar to accurate estimates of permeability. To achieve this goal, this dissertation utilizes a new approach of using complex resistivity spectra (CRS) to assess the pore geometry and its resulting electrical and fluid flow

  11. Critical Parameters of Complex Geometries of Intersecting Cylinders Containing Uranyl Nitrate Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. B. Briggs (INEEL POC); R. E. Rothe

    1999-06-14

    About three dozen previously unreported critical configurations are presented for very complex geometries filled with high concentration enriched uranyl nitrate solution. These geometries resemble a tall, thin Central Column (or trunk of a ''tree'') having long, thin arms (or ''branches'') extending up to four directions off the column. Arms are equally spaced from one another in vertical planes, and that spacing ranges from arms in contact to quite wide spacings. Both the Central Column and the many different arms are critically safe by themselves with each, alone, is filled with fissile solution; but, in combination, criticality occurs due to the interactions between arms and the column. Such neutronic interactions formed the principal focus of this study. While these results are fresh to the nuclear criticality safety industry and to those seeking novel experiments against which to validate computer codes, the experiments, themselves, are not recent. Over 100 experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory between September, 1967, and February of the following year.

  12. Critical Parameters of Complex Geometry Intersecting Cylinders Containing Uranyl Nitrate Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, Robert Emil; Briggs, Joseph Blair

    1999-06-01

    About three dozen previously unreported critical configurations are presented for very complex geometries filled with high concentration enriched uranyl nitrate solution. These geometries resemble a tall, thin Central Column (or trunk of a "tree") having long, thin arms (or "branches") extending up to four directions off the column. Arms are equally spaced from one another in vertical planes; and that spacing ranges from arms in contact to quite wide spacings. Both the Central Column and the many different arms are critically safe by themselves when each, alone, is filled with fissile solution; but, in combination, criticality occurs due to the interactions between arms and the column. Such neutronic interactions formed the principal focus of this study. While these results are fresh to the nuclear criticality safety industry and to those seeking novel experiments against which to validate computer codes, the experiments, themselves, are not recent. Over 100 experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory between September, 1967, and February of the following year.

  13. Critical Parameters of Complex Geometries of Intersecting Cylinders Containing Uranyl Nitrate Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, R. E.

    1999-01-01

    About three dozen previously unreported critical configurations are presented for very complex geometries filled with high concentration enriched uranyl nitrate solution. These geometries resemble a tall, thin Central Column (or trunk of a ''tree'') having long, thin arms (or ''branches'') extending up to four directions off the column. Arms are equally spaced from one another in vertical planes, and that spacing ranges from arms in contact to quite wide spacings. Both the Central Column and the many different arms are critically safe by themselves with each, alone, is filled with fissile solution; but, in combination, criticality occurs due to the interactions between arms and the column. Such neutronic interactions formed the principal focus of this study. While these results are fresh to the nuclear criticality safety industry and to those seeking novel experiments against which to validate computer codes, the experiments, themselves, are not recent. Over 100 experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory between September, 1967, and February of the following year

  14. Some simulation aspects, from molecular systems to stochastic geometries of pebble bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzolo, A.

    2009-06-01

    After a brief presentation of his teaching and supervising activities, the author gives an overview of his research activities: investigation of atoms under high intensity magnetic field (investigation of the electronic structure under these fields), studies of theoretical and numerical electrochemistry (simulation coupling molecular dynamics and quantum calculations, comprehensive simulations of molecular dynamics), and studies relating stochastic geometry and neutron science

  15. Solving the neutron diffusion equation on combinatorial geometry computational cells for reactor physics calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Y. Y.

    2004-01-01

    An approach is developed for solving the neutron diffusion equation on combinatorial geometry computational cells, that is computational cells composed by combinatorial operations involving simple-shaped component cells. The only constraint on the component cells from which the combinatorial cells are assembled is that they possess a legitimate discretization of the underlying diffusion equation. We use the Finite Difference (FD) approximation of the x, y-geometry diffusion equation in this work. Performing the same combinatorial operations involved in composing the combinatorial cell on these discrete-variable equations yields equations that employ new discrete variables defined only on the combinatorial cell's volume and faces. The only approximation involved in this process, beyond the truncation error committed in discretizing the diffusion equation over each component cell, is a consistent-order Legendre series expansion. Preliminary results for simple configurations establish the accuracy of the solution to the combinatorial geometry solution compared to straight FD as the system dimensions decrease. Furthermore numerical results validate the consistent Legendre-series expansion order by illustrating the second order accuracy of the combinatorial geometry solution, the same as standard FD. Nevertheless the magnitude of the error for the new approach is larger than FD's since it incorporates the additional truncated series approximation. (authors)

  16. Solar proton exposure of an ICRU sphere within a complex structure part II: Ray-trace geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaba, Tony C; Wilson, John W; Badavi, Francis F; Reddell, Brandon D; Bahadori, Amir A

    2016-06-01

    A computationally efficient 3DHZETRN code with enhanced neutron and light ion (Z ≤ 2) propagation was recently developed for complex, inhomogeneous shield geometry described by combinatorial objects. Comparisons were made between 3DHZETRN results and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations at locations within the combinatorial geometry, and it was shown that 3DHZETRN agrees with the MC codes to the extent they agree with each other. In the present report, the 3DHZETRN code is extended to enable analysis in ray-trace geometry. This latest extension enables the code to be used within current engineering design practices utilizing fully detailed vehicle and habitat geometries. Through convergence testing, it is shown that fidelity in an actual shield geometry can be maintained in the discrete ray-trace description by systematically increasing the number of discrete rays used. It is also shown that this fidelity is carried into transport procedures and resulting exposure quantities without sacrificing computational efficiency. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A ghost-cell immersed boundary method for flow in complex geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, Y.-H.; Ferziger, Joel H.

    2003-01-01

    An efficient ghost-cell immersed boundary method (GCIBM) for simulating turbulent flows in complex geometries is presented. A boundary condition is enforced through a ghost cell method. The reconstruction procedure allows systematic development of numerical schemes for treating the immersed boundary while preserving the overall second-order accuracy of the base solver. Both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions can be treated. The current ghost cell treatment is both suitable for staggered and non-staggered Cartesian grids. The accuracy of the current method is validated using flow past a circular cylinder and large eddy simulation of turbulent flow over a wavy surface. Numerical results are compared with experimental data and boundary-fitted grid results. The method is further extended to an existing ocean model (MITGCM) to simulate geophysical flow over a three-dimensional bump. The method is easily implemented as evidenced by our use of several existing codes

  18. The accuracy of geometries for iron porphyrin complexes from density functional theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydberg, Patrik Åke Anders; Olsen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    functionals is evaluated with regard to how they reproduce experimental structures. Seven different functionals (BP86, PBE, PBE0, TPSS, TPSSH, B3LYP, and B97-D) are used to study eight different iron porphyrin complexes. The results show that the TPSSH, PBE0, and TPSS functionals give the best results...... (absolute bond distance deviations of 0.015-0.016 A), but the geometries are well-reproduced by all functionals except B3LYP. We also test four different basis sets of double-zeta quality, and we find that a combination of double-zeta basis set of Schafer et al. on the iron atom and the 6-31G* basis set...

  19. Development of a numerical methodology for flowforming process simulation of complex geometry tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Sonia; Santos, Maite; Arroyo, Amaia; Pérez, Iñaki; Puigjaner, Joan Francesc; Puigjaner, Blanca

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, the incremental flowforming process is widely explored because of the usage of complex tubular products is increasing due to the light-weighting trend and the use of expensive materials. The enhanced mechanical properties of finished parts combined with the process efficiency in terms of raw material and energy consumption are the key factors for its competitiveness and sustainability, which is consistent with EU industry policy. As a promising technology, additional steps for extending the existing flowforming limits in the production of tubular products are required. The objective of the present research is to further expand the current state of the art regarding limitations on tube thickness and diameter, exploring the feasibility to flowform complex geometries as tubes of elevated thickness of up to 60 mm. In this study, the analysis of the backward flowforming process of 7075 aluminum tubular preform is carried out to define the optimum process parameters, machine requirements and tooling geometry as demonstration case. Numerical simulation studies on flowforming of thin walled tubular components have been considered to increase the knowledge of the technology. The calculation of the rotational movement of the mesh preform, the high ratio thickness/length and the thermomechanical condition increase significantly the computation time of the numerical simulation model. This means that efficient and reliable tools able to predict the forming loads and the quality of flowformed thick tubes are not available. This paper aims to overcome this situation by developing a simulation methodology based on FEM simulation code including new strategies. Material characterization has also been performed through tensile test to able to design the process. Finally, to check the reliability of the model, flowforming tests at industrial environment have been developed.

  20. Modular fabrication and characterization of complex silicon carbide composite structures Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) Research Final Report (Feb 2015 – May 2017)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalifa, Hesham [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2017-08-03

    Advanced ceramic materials exhibit properties that enable safety and fuel cycle efficiency improvements in advanced nuclear reactors. In order to fully exploit these desirable properties, new processing techniques are required to produce the complex geometries inherent to nuclear fuel assemblies and support structures. Through this project, the state of complex SiC-SiC composite fabrication for nuclear components has advanced significantly. New methods to produce complex SiC-SiC composite structures have been demonstrated in the form factors needed for in-core structural components in advanced high temperature nuclear reactors. Advanced characterization techniques have been employed to demonstrate that these complex SiC-SiC composite structures provide the strength, toughness and hermeticity required for service in harsh reactor conditions. The complex structures produced in this project represent a significant step forward in leveraging the excellent high temperature strength, resistance to neutron induced damage, and low neutron cross section of silicon carbide in nuclear applications.

  1. Design Process Control for Improved Surface Finish of Metal Additive Manufactured Parts of Complex Build Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikdam Jamal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Metal additive manufacturing (AM is increasingly used to create complex 3D components at near net shape. However, the surface finish (SF of the metal AM part is uneven, with surface roughness being variable over the facets of the design. Standard post-processing methods such as grinding and linishing often meet with major challenges in finishing parts of complex shape. This paper reports on research that demonstrated that mass finishing (MF processes are able to deliver high-quality surface finishes (Ra and Sa on AM-generated parts of a relatively complex geometry (both internal features and external facets under select conditions. Four processes were studied in this work: stream finishing, high-energy (HE centrifuge, drag finishing and disc finishing. Optimisation of the drag finishing process was then studied using a structured design of experiments (DOE. The effects of a range of finishing parameters were evaluated and optimal parameters and conditions were determined. The study established that the proposed method can be successfully applied in drag finishing to optimise the surface roughness in an industrial application and that it is an economical way of obtaining the maximum amount of information in a short period of time with a small number of tests. The study has also provided an important step in helping understand the requirements of MF to deliver AM-generated parts to a target quality finish and cycle time.

  2. Complexity characterization in a probabilistic approach to dynamical systems through information geometry and inductive inference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S A; Kim, D-H; Cafaro, C; Giffin, A

    2012-01-01

    Information geometric techniques and inductive inference methods hold great promise for solving computational problems of interest in classical and quantum physics, especially with regard to complexity characterization of dynamical systems in terms of their probabilistic description on curved statistical manifolds. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of describing the macroscopic behavior of complex systems in terms of the underlying statistical structure of their microscopic degrees of freedom by the use of statistical inductive inference and information geometry. We review the maximum relative entropy formalism and the theoretical structure of the information geometrodynamical approach to chaos on statistical manifolds M S . Special focus is devoted to a description of the roles played by the sectional curvature K M S , the Jacobi field intensity J M S and the information geometrodynamical entropy S M S . These quantities serve as powerful information-geometric complexity measures of information-constrained dynamics associated with arbitrary chaotic and regular systems defined on M S . Finally, the application of such information-geometric techniques to several theoretical models is presented.

  3. An Automated Approach to Very High Order Aeroacoustic Computations in Complex Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rodger W.; Goodrich, John W.

    2000-01-01

    Computational aeroacoustics requires efficient, high-resolution simulation tools. And for smooth problems, this is best accomplished with very high order in space and time methods on small stencils. But the complexity of highly accurate numerical methods can inhibit their practical application, especially in irregular geometries. This complexity is reduced by using a special form of Hermite divided-difference spatial interpolation on Cartesian grids, and a Cauchy-Kowalewslci recursion procedure for time advancement. In addition, a stencil constraint tree reduces the complexity of interpolating grid points that are located near wall boundaries. These procedures are used to automatically develop and implement very high order methods (>15) for solving the linearized Euler equations that can achieve less than one grid point per wavelength resolution away from boundaries by including spatial derivatives of the primitive variables at each grid point. The accuracy of stable surface treatments is currently limited to 11th order for grid aligned boundaries and to 2nd order for irregular boundaries.

  4. Design of experiments and springback prediction for AHSS automotive components with complex geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgari, A.; Pereira, M.; Rolfe, B.; Dingle, M.; Hodgson, P.

    2005-01-01

    With the drive towards implementing Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) in the automotive industry; stamping engineers need to quickly answer questions about forming these strong materials into elaborate shapes. Commercially available codes have been successfully used to accurately predict formability, thickness and strains in complex parts. However, springback and twisting are still challenging subjects in numerical simulations of AHSS components. Design of Experiments (DOE) has been used in this paper to study the sensitivity of the implicit and explicit numerical results with respect to certain arrays of user input parameters in the forming of an AHSS component. Numerical results were compared to experimental measurements of the parts stamped in an industrial production line. The forming predictions of the implicit and explicit codes were in good agreement with the experimental measurements for the conventional steel grade, while lower accuracies were observed for the springback predictions. The forming predictions of the complex component with an AHSS material were also in good correlation with the respective experimental measurements. However, much lower accuracies were observed in its springback predictions. The number of integration points through the thickness and tool offset were found to be of significant importance, while coefficient of friction and Young's modulus (modeling input parameters) have no significant effect on the accuracy of the predictions for the complex geometry

  5. Tetrahydropentalenyl-phosphazene constrained geometry complexes of rare-earth metal alkyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangaly, Noa K; Petrov, Alexander R; Elfferding, Michael; Harms, Klaus; Sundermeyer, Jörg

    2014-05-21

    Reactions of Cp™HPPh2 (1, diphenyl(4,4,6,6-tetramethyl-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropentalen-2-yl)phosphane) with the organic azides AdN3 and DipN3 (Ad = 1-adamantyl; Dip = 2,6-di-iso-propylphenyl) led to the formation of two novel CpPN ligands: P-amino-cyclopentadienylidene-phosphorane (Cp™PPh2NHAd; L(Ad)H) and P-cyclopentadienyl-iminophosphorane (Cp™HPPh2NDip; L(Dip)H). Both were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray structure analysis. For both compounds only one isomer was observed. Neither possesses any detectable prototropic or elementotropic isomers. Reactions of these ligands with [Lu(CH2SiMe3)3(thf)2] or with rare-earth metal halides and three equivalents of LiCH2SiMe3 produced the desired bis(alkyl) Cp™PN complexes: [{Cp™PN}M(CH2SiMe3)2] (M = Sc (1(Ad), 1(Dip)), Lu (2(Ad), 2(Dip)), Y (3(Ad), 3(Dip)), Sm (4(Ad)), Nd (5(Ad)), Pr (6(Ad)), Yb (7(Ad))). These complexes were characterized by extensive NMR studies for the diamagnetic and the paramagnetic complexes with full signal assignment. An almost mirror inverted order of the paramagnetic shifts has been observed for ytterbium complex 7(Ad) compared to 4(Ad), 5(Ad) and 6(Ad). For the assignment of the NMR signals [{η(1) : η(5)-C5Me4PMe2NAd}Yb(CH2SiMe3)2] 7 was synthesized, characterized and the (1)H NMR signals were compared to 7(Ad) and to other paramagnetic lanthanide complexes with the same ligand. 1(Ad), 2(Ad), 2(Dip), 3(Ad) and 3(Dip) were characterized by X-ray structure analysis revealing a sterically congested constrained geometry structure.

  6. The relation between geometry, hydrology and stability of complex hillslopes examined using low-dimensional hydrological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talebi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Key words: Hillslope geometry, Hillslope hydrology, Hillslope stability, Complex hillslopes, Modeling shallow landslides, HSB model, HSB-SM model.

    The hydrologic response of a hillslope to rainfall involves a complex, transient saturated-unsaturated interaction that usually leads to a

  7. Simulation of biological flow and transport in complex geometries using embedded boundary/volume-of-fluid methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebotich, David

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a simulation capability to model multiscale flow and transport in complex biological systems based on algorithms and software infrastructure developed under the SciDAC APDEC CET. The foundation of this work is a new hybrid fluid-particle method for modeling polymer fluids in irregular microscale geometries that enables long-time simulation of validation experiments. Both continuum viscoelastic and discrete particle representations have been used to model the constitutive behavior of polymer fluids. Complex flow environment geometries are represented on Cartesian grids using an implicit function. Direct simulation of flow in the irregular geometry is then possible using embedded boundary/volume-of-fluid methods without loss of geometric detail. This capability has been used to simulate biological flows in a variety of application geometries including biomedical microdevices, anatomical structures and porous media

  8. Two Step Procedure Using a 1-D Slab Spectral Geometry in a Pebble Bed Reactor Core Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Kim, Kang Seog; Noh, Jae Man; Joo, Hyung Kook

    2005-01-01

    A strong spectral interaction between the core and the reflector has been one of the main concerns in the analysis of pebble bed reactor cores. To resolve this problem, VSOP adopted iteration between the spectrum calculation in a spectral zone and the global core calculation. In VSOP, the whole problem domain is divided into many spectral zones in which the fine group spectrum is calculated using bucklings for fast groups and albedos for thermal groups from the global core calculation. The resulting spectrum in each spectral zone is used to generate broad group cross sections of the spectral zone for the global core calculation. In this paper, we demonstrate a two step procedure in a pebble bed reactor core analysis. In the first step, we generate equivalent cross sections from a 1-D slab spectral geometry model with the help of the equivalence theory. The equivalent cross sections generated in this way include the effect of the spectral interaction between the core and the reflector. In the second step, we perform a diffusion calculation using the equivalent cross sections generated in the first step. A simple benchmark problem derived from the PMBR-400 Reactor was introduced to verify this approach. We compared the two step solutions with the Monte Carlo (MC) solutions for the problem

  9. Longitudinal Variation in Paleo-channel Complex Geometry and Associated Fill: Offshore South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, A. M.; Hill, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    In northeastern South Carolina, several shallow (migration of the ancestral Pee Dee River system along the southern limb of the Cape Fear Arch since the Pliocene. These paleo-channel complexes can be traced 80 km across the continental shelf via Boomer and Chirp subbottom data. The Murrells Inlet paleo-channel complex is the most well imaged offshore; and this data coverage provides an opportunity for a detailed seismic stratigraphic interpretation and analysis of downstream variability. Initial observations from this case study indicate that inner shelf incisions, where bedrock is folded and faulted, tend to be shallow with numerous channels, while the incisions across the middle shelf appear to be deeper and contains larger, more sinuous channels that are cut into broadly tilted strata with a gentle south-southeastward dip. This suggests the geometry and spatial distribution of the incisions were a function of the inherited fabric of the underlying basement, which created local deflection and areas of aggradation and degradation. The inner shelf paleo-channel complex fill is dominated by fluvial cut and fill seismic facies, while the middle shelf contains a wide variety of seismic facies (i.e. transparent, layered, chaotic, etc). This overall longitudinal fill pattern is most likely due to each location's general proximity to base level. The variation in the cut and fill seismic facies may be driven by substantial changes in discharge, driven locally by the joining of another major river or by climatic changes in the drainage basin. There also appears to be preferential reoccupation of previously filled paleo-channels, as the basement in this region is Tertiary and Cretaceous carbonates and siliciclastic rocks that are more resistant to erosion. The most recent occupation in any given paleo-channel tends to be on the southern margin, which may imply tectonic forcing from the uplift of the Cape Fear Arch. Preliminary results from this case study suggest that first

  10. Action Memorandum for Decommissioning the Engineering Test Reactor Complex under the Idaho Cleanup Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. B. Culp

    2007-01-01

    This Action Memorandum documents the selected alternative for decommissioning of the Engineering Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory under the Idaho Cleanup Project. Since the missions of the Engineering Test Reactor Complex have been completed, an engineering evaluation/cost analysis that evaluated alternatives to accomplish the decommissioning of the Engineering Test Reactor Complex was prepared and released for public comment. The scope of this Action Memorandum is to encompass the final end state of the Complex and disposal of the Engineering Test Reactor vessel. The selected removal action includes removing and disposing of the vessel at the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility and demolishing the reactor building to ground surface

  11. Observations of the behaviour of gas in the wake behind a corner blockage in fast breeder reactor subassembly geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuzawa, Y.

    1979-07-01

    Observations were made of gas behaviour in the wake behind a 21% corner blockage in the subassembly geometry of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. The test section used represented one half of the reactor fuel subassembly, divided along the vertical plane of symmetry through the blockage. A glass wall occupied the position of this plane. Water was allowed to flow between glass rods simulating fuel pins, the velocity being changed from 1.2 to 4.5 m/s. Argon was injected into the wake or into the flow upstream of the blockage, the injection rate being changed from 1 to 230 Ncm 3 /s (standard temperature and pressure). From the present experiment, the following is evident: The gas is accumulated in the wake behind the blockage, forming a gas cavity. The flow patterns of the two-phase mixture in the wake are classified into three types, depending on the liquid velocity. In the lower velocity range, a gas cavity cannot be present at rest, rising up through the wake as a single bubble due to buoyancy. In the higher velocity range, the gas cavity is broken up by the liquid flow forces, only small gas bubbles circulating in the wake. In the velocity range in between, the gas cavity is present in the wake. The cavity size depends on the gas injection rate and on the liquid velocity. From the results, the possibility of fuel failure caused by fission gas release at a blockage in the fast breeder reactor can be considered to depend on the operating conditions of the reactor, specially on the coolant velocity. (orig.) [de

  12. Investigation of fluid flow in various geometries related to nuclear reactor using PIV system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kansal, A.K.; Maheshwari, N.K.; Singh, R.K.; Vijayan, P.K.; Saha, D.; Singh, R.K.; Joshi, V.M.

    2011-01-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a non-intrusive technique for simultaneously measuring the velocities at many points in a fluid flow. The PIV system used is comprised of Nd:YAG laser source, CCD (Charged Coupled Device) camera, timing controller (to control the laser and camera) and software used for analyzing the flow velocities. Several case studies related to nuclear reactor were performed with the PIV system. Some of the cases like flow in circular tube, submerged jet, natural convection in a water pool, flow field of moderator inlet diffuser of 500 MWe Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) and fluidic flow control device (FFCD) used in advanced accumulator of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) have been studied using PIV system. Theoretical studies have been performed and comparisons with PIV results are also given in the present studies. (author)

  13. Reactive flow simulation in complex 3D geometries using the COM3D code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitung, W.; Kotchourko, A.; Veser, A.; Scholtyssek, W.

    1999-01-01

    The COM3D code, under development at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), is a 3-d CFD code to describe turbulent combustion phenomena in complex geometries. It is intended to be part of the advanced integral code system for containment analysis (INCA) which includes in addition GASFLOW for distribution calculations, V3D for slow combustion and DET3D for detonation analysis. COM3D uses a TVD-solver and optional models for turbulence, chemistry and thermodynamics. The hydrodynamic model considers mass, momentum and energy conservation. Advanced procedures were provided to facilitate grid-development for complex 3-d structures. COM3D was validated on experiments performed on different scales with generally good agreement for important physical quantities. The code was applied to combustion analysis of a large PWR. The initial conditions were obtained from a GASFLOW distribution analysis for a LOOP scenario. Results are presented concerning flame propagation and pressure evolution in the containment which clearly demonstrate the effects of internal structures, their influence on turbulence formation and consequences for local loads. (author)

  14. The relation between geometry and function of the ankle joint complex: a biomechanical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleipool, Roeland P; Blankevoort, Leendert

    2010-05-01

    This review deals with the relation between the anatomy and function of the ankle joint complex. The questions addressed are how high do the forces in the ankle joint get, where can the joints go (range of motion) and where do they go during walking and running. Finally the role of the ligaments and the articular surfaces is discussed, i.e. how does it happen. The magnitude of the loads on the ankle joint complex are primarily determined by muscle activity and can be as high as four times the body weight during walking. For the maximal range of motion, plantar and dorsiflexion occurs in the talocrural joint and marginally at the subtalar joint. In-eversion takes place at both levels. The functional range of motion is well within the limits of the maximal range of motion. The ligaments do not contribute to the forces for the functional range of motion but determine the maximal range of motion together with the articular surfaces. The geometry of the articular surfaces primarily determines the kinematics. Clinical studies must include these anatomical aspects to better understand the mechanism of injury, recovery, and interventions. Models can elucidate the mechanism by which the anatomy relates to the function. The relation between the anatomy and mechanical properties of the joint structures and joint function should be considered for diagnosis and treatment of ankle joint pathology.

  15. Fractal geometry and number theory complex dimensions of fractal strings and zeros of zeta functions

    CERN Document Server

    Lapidus, Michael L

    1999-01-01

    A fractal drum is a bounded open subset of R. m with a fractal boundary. A difficult problem is to describe the relationship between the shape (geo­ metry) of the drum and its sound (its spectrum). In this book, we restrict ourselves to the one-dimensional case of fractal strings, and their higher dimensional analogues, fractal sprays. We develop a theory of complex di­ mensions of a fractal string, and we study how these complex dimensions relate the geometry with the spectrum of the fractal string. We refer the reader to [Berrl-2, Lapl-4, LapPol-3, LapMal-2, HeLapl-2] and the ref­ erences therein for further physical and mathematical motivations of this work. (Also see, in particular, Sections 7. 1, 10. 3 and 10. 4, along with Ap­ pendix B. ) In Chapter 1, we introduce the basic object of our research, fractal strings (see [Lapl-3, LapPol-3, LapMal-2, HeLapl-2]). A 'standard fractal string' is a bounded open subset of the real line. Such a set is a disjoint union of open intervals, the lengths of which ...

  16. Contribution to analytical theory of neutron resonance absorption in heterogeneous reactor systems with cylindrical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slipicevic, K.

    1968-12-01

    Following a review of the existing theories od resonance absorption this thesis includes a new approach for calculating the effective resonance integral of absorbed neutrons, new approximate formula for the penetration factor, an analysis of the effective resonance integral and the correction of the resonance integral taking into account the interference of potential and resonance dissipation. A separate chapter is devoted to calculation of the effective resonance integral for the regular reactor lattice with cylindrical fuel elements

  17. A novel porous Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings acoustic methodology for complex geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzkorski, Zane Lloyd

    Predictive noise calculations from high Reynolds number flows in complex engineering geometry are becoming a possibility with the high performance computing resources that have become available in recent years. Increasing the applicability and reliability of solution methodologies have been two key challenges toward this goal. This dissertation develops a porous Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings methodology that uses a novel endcap methodology, and can be applied to unstructured grids. The use of unstructured grids allows complex geometry to be represented while porous formulation eliminates difficulties with the choice of acoustic Green's function. Specifically, this dissertation (1) proposes and examines a novel endcap procedure to account for spurious noise, (2) uses the proposed methodology to investigate noise production from a range of subcritical Reynolds number circular cylinders, and (3) investigates a trailing edge geometry for noise production and to illustrate the generality of the Green's function. Porous acoustic analogies need an endcap scheme in order to prevent spurious noise due to truncation errors. A dynamic end cap methodology is proposed to account for spurious contributions to the far--field sound within the context of the Ffowcs--Williams and Hawkings (FW--H) acoustic analogy. The quadrupole source terms are correlated over multiple planes to obtain a convection velocity which is then used to determine a corrective convective flux at the FW--H porous surface. The proposed approach is first demonstrated for a convecting potential vortex. The correlation is investigated by examining it pass through multiple exit planes. It is then evaluated by computing the sound emitted by flow over a circular cylinder at Reynolds number of 150 and compared to other endcap methods, such as Shur et al. [1]. Insensitivity to end plane location and spacing and the effect of the dynamic convection velocity are computed. Subcritical Reynolds number circular cylinder

  18. The code DYN3DR for steady-state and transient analyses of light water reactor cores with Cartesian geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundmann, U.

    1995-11-01

    The code DYN3D/M2 was developed for 3-dimensional steady-state and transient analyses of reactor cores with hexagonal fuel assemblies. The neutron kinetics of the new version DYN3DR is based on a nodal method for the solution of the 3-dimensional 2-group neutron diffusion equation for Cartesian geometry. The thermal-hydraulic model FLOCAL simulating the two phase flow of coolant and the fuel rod behaviour is used in the two versions. The fundamentals for the solution of the neutron diffusion equations in DYN3DR are described. The 3-dimensional NEACRP benchmarks for rod ejections in LWR with quadratic fuel assemblies were calculated and the results were compared with the published solutions. The developed algorithm for neutron kinetics are suitable for using parallel processing. The behaviour of speed-up versus the number of processors is demonstrated for calculations of a static neutron flux distribution using a workstation with 4 processors. (orig.) [de

  19. Neutron transport in hexagonal reactor cores modeled by trigonal-geometry diffusion and simplified P{sub 3} nodal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerigen, Susan

    2013-05-15

    The superior advantage of a nodal method for reactor cores with hexagonal fuel assemblies discretized as cells consisting of equilateral triangles is its mesh refinement capability. In this thesis, a diffusion and a simplified P{sub 3} (or SP{sub 3}) neutron transport nodal method are developed based on trigonal geometry. Both models are implemented in the reactor dynamics code DYN3D. As yet, no other well-established nodal core analysis code comprises an SP{sub 3} transport theory model based on trigonal meshes. The development of two methods based on different neutron transport approximations but using identical underlying spatial trigonal discretization allows a profound comparative analysis of both methods with regard to their mathematical derivations, nodal expansion approaches, solution procedures, and their physical performance. The developed nodal approaches can be regarded as a hybrid NEM/AFEN form. They are based on the transverse-integration procedure, which renders them computationally efficient, and they use a combination of polynomial and exponential functions to represent the neutron flux moments of the SP{sub 3} and diffusion equations, which guarantees high accuracy. The SP{sub 3} equations are derived in within-group form thus being of diffusion type. On this basis, the conventional diffusion solver structure can be retained also for the solution of the SP{sub 3} transport problem. The verification analysis provides proof of the methodological reliability of both trigonal DYN3D models. By means of diverse hexagonal academic benchmark and realistic detailed-geometry full-transport-theory problems, the superiority of the SP{sub 3} transport over the diffusion model is demonstrated in cases with pronounced anisotropy effects, which is, e.g., highly relevant to the modeling of fuel assemblies comprising absorber material.

  20. A versatile embedded boundary adaptive mesh method for compressible flow in complex geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Almarouf, Mohamad Abdulilah Alhusain Alali

    2017-02-25

    We present an embedded ghost-fluid method for numerical solutions of the compressible Navier Stokes (CNS) equations in arbitrary complex domains. A PDE multidimensional extrapolation approach is used to reconstruct the solution in the ghost-fluid regions and imposing boundary conditions on the fluid-solid interface, coupled with a multi-dimensional algebraic interpolation for freshly cleared cells. The CNS equations are numerically solved by the second order multidimensional upwind method. Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement, implemented with the Chombo framework, is utilized to reduce the computational cost while keeping high resolution mesh around the embedded boundary and regions of high gradient solutions. The versatility of the method is demonstrated via several numerical examples, in both static and moving geometry, ranging from low Mach number nearly incompressible flows to supersonic flows. Our simulation results are extensively verified against other numerical results and validated against available experimental results where applicable. The significance and advantages of our implementation, which revolve around balancing between the solution accuracy and implementation difficulties, are briefly discussed as well.

  1. Validation and Analysis of Forward Osmosis CFD Model in Complex 3D Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Mathias F.; Johnson, Carl J.; Tang, Chuyang; Jensen, Mogens H.; Yde, Lars; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    In forward osmosis (FO), an osmotic pressure gradient generated across a semi-permeable membrane is used to generate water transport from a dilute feed solution into a concentrated draw solution. This principle has shown great promise in the areas of water purification, wastewater treatment, seawater desalination and power generation. To ease optimization and increase understanding of membrane systems, it is desirable to have a comprehensive model that allows for easy investigation of all the major parameters in the separation process. Here we present experimental validation of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model developed to simulate FO experiments with asymmetric membranes. Simulations are compared with experimental results obtained from using two distinctly different complex three-dimensional membrane chambers. It is found that the CFD model accurately describes the solute separation process and water permeation through membranes under various flow conditions. It is furthermore demonstrated how the CFD model can be used to optimize membrane geometry in such as way as to promote the mass transfer. PMID:24958428

  2. Validation and Analysis of Forward Osmosis CFD Model in Complex 3D Geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Yde

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In forward osmosis (FO, an osmotic pressure gradient generated across a semi-permeable membrane is used to generate water transport from a dilute feed solution into a concentrated draw solution. This principle has shown great promise in the areas of water purification, wastewater treatment, seawater desalination and power generation. To ease optimization and increase understanding of membrane systems, it is desirable to have a comprehensive model that allows for easy investigation of all the major parameters in the separation process. Here we present experimental validation of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD model developed to simulate FO experiments with asymmetric membranes. Simulations are compared with experimental results obtained from using two distinctly different complex three-dimensional membrane chambers. It is found that the CFD model accurately describes the solute separation process and water permeation through membranes under various flow conditions. It is furthermore demonstrated how the CFD model can be used to optimize membrane geometry in such as way as to promote the mass transfer.

  3. A versatile embedded boundary adaptive mesh method for compressible flow in complex geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Almarouf, Mohamad Abdulilah Alhusain Alali; Samtaney, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    We present an embedded ghost-fluid method for numerical solutions of the compressible Navier Stokes (CNS) equations in arbitrary complex domains. A PDE multidimensional extrapolation approach is used to reconstruct the solution in the ghost-fluid regions and imposing boundary conditions on the fluid-solid interface, coupled with a multi-dimensional algebraic interpolation for freshly cleared cells. The CNS equations are numerically solved by the second order multidimensional upwind method. Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement, implemented with the Chombo framework, is utilized to reduce the computational cost while keeping high resolution mesh around the embedded boundary and regions of high gradient solutions. The versatility of the method is demonstrated via several numerical examples, in both static and moving geometry, ranging from low Mach number nearly incompressible flows to supersonic flows. Our simulation results are extensively verified against other numerical results and validated against available experimental results where applicable. The significance and advantages of our implementation, which revolve around balancing between the solution accuracy and implementation difficulties, are briefly discussed as well.

  4. POD evaluation using simulation: A phased array UT case on a complex geometry part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Nicolas; Reverdy, Frederic; Jenson, Frederic

    2014-02-01

    The use of Probability of Detection (POD) for NDT performances demonstration is a key link in products lifecycle management. The POD approach is to apply the given NDT procedure on a series of known flaws to estimate the probability to detect with respect to the flaw size. A POD is relevant if and only if NDT operations are carried out within the range of variability authorized by the procedure. Such experimental campaigns require collection of large enough datasets to cover the range of variability with sufficient occurrences to build a reliable POD statistics, leading to expensive costs to get POD curves. In the last decade research activities have been led in the USA with the MAPOD group and later in Europe with the SISTAE and PICASSO projects based on the idea to use models and simulation tools to feed POD estimations. This paper proposes an example of application of POD using simulation on the inspection procedure of a complex -full 3D- geometry part using phased arrays ultrasonic testing. It illustrates the methodology and the associated tools developed in the CIVA software. The paper finally provides elements of further progress in the domain.

  5. Highly Manufacturable Deep (Sub-Millimeter) Etching Enabled High Aspect Ratio Complex Geometry Lego-Like Silicon Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Mohamed Tarek; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-04-01

    A highly manufacturable deep reactive ion etching based process involving a hybrid soft/hard mask process technology shows high aspect ratio complex geometry Lego-like silicon electronics formation enabling free-form (physically flexible, stretchable, and reconfigurable) electronic systems. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Highly Manufacturable Deep (Sub-Millimeter) Etching Enabled High Aspect Ratio Complex Geometry Lego-Like Silicon Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2017-02-01

    A highly manufacturable deep reactive ion etching based process involving a hybrid soft/hard mask process technology shows high aspect ratio complex geometry Lego-like silicon electronics formation enabling free-form (physically flexible, stretchable, and reconfigurable) electronic systems.

  7. Integrative shell of the program complex MARS (Version 1.0) radiation transfer in three-dimensional geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degtyarev, I.I.; Lokhovitskij, A.E.; Maslov, M.A.; Yazynin, I.A.

    1994-01-01

    The first version of integrative shell of the program complex MARS is written for calculating radiation transfer in the three-dimensional geometries. The integrative shell allows the user to work in convenient form with complex MARS, creat input files data and get graphic visualization of calculated functions. Version 1.0 is adapted for personal computers of types IBM-286,386,486 with operative size memory not smaller than 500K. 5 refs

  8. Fracture network modelling: an integrated approach for realisation of complex fracture network geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    In its efforts to improve geological support of the safety case, Ontario Power Generation's Deep Geologic Repository Technology Programme (DGRTP) has developed a procedure (Srivastava, 2002) for creating realistic 3-D fracture network models (FNMs) that honor information typically available at the time of preliminary site characterisation: By accommodating all of the these various pieces of 'hard' and 'soft' data, these FNMs provide a single, coherent and consistent model that can serve the needs of many preliminary site characterisation studies. The detailed, complex and realistic models of 3-D fracture geometry produced by this method can serve as the basis for developing rock property models to be used in flow and transport studies. They can also be used for exploring the suitability of a proposed site by providing quantitative assessments of the probability that a proposed repository with a specified geometry will be intersected by fractures. When integrated with state-of-the-art scientific visualisation, these models can also help in the planning of additional data gathering activities by identifying critical fractures that merit further detailed investigation. Finally, these FNMs can serve as one of the central elements of the presentation and explanation of the Descriptive Conceptual Geosphere Model (DCM) to other interested parties, including non-technical audiences. In addition to being ideally suited to preliminary site characterisation, the approach also readily incorporates field data that may become available during subsequent site investigations, including ground reconnaissance, borehole programmes and other subsurface studies. A single approach can therefore serve the needs of the site characterisation from its inception through several years of data collection and more detailed site-specific investigations, accommodating new data as they become available and updating the FNMs accordingly. The FNMs from this method are probabilistic in the sense that

  9. Comparison of low enriched uranium (UAlx-Al and U-Ni) targets with different geometries for the production of molybdenum-99 in the RMB (Brazilian multipurpose reactor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingos, Douglas B.; Silva, Antonio T. e; Joao, Thiago G.; Silva, Jose Eduardo R. da; Angelo, Gabriel; Fedorenko, Giuliana G.; Nishiyama, Pedro J.B. de O.

    2011-01-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB), now in the conception design phase, is being designed in Brazil to attend the demand of radiopharmaceuticals in the country and conduct researches in various areas. The new reactor, planned for 30 MW, will replace the IEA-R1 reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. Low enriched uranium ( 235 U) UAl x dispersed in Al (plate geometry) and metallic uranium foil targets (plate and cylinder geometries) are being considered for production of Molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) by fission. Neutronic and thermal-hydraulics calculations were performed to compare the production of 99 Mo for these targets in the RMB. For the neutronic calculations were utilized the computer codes Hammer-Technion, Citation and Scale and for the thermal-hydraulics calculations were utilized the computer code MTRCR-IEAR1 and ANSYS CFX. (author)

  10. String theory flux vacua on twisted tori and generalized complex geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriot, David

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of flux vacua of string theory, with the ten-dimensional space-time split into a four-dimensional maximally symmetric space-time, and a six-dimensional internal manifold M, taken to be a solv-manifold (twisted torus). Such vacua are of particular interest when trying to relate string theory to supersymmetric (SUSY) extensions of the standard model of particles, or to cosmological models. For SUSY solutions of type II supergravities, allowing for fluxes on M helps to solve the moduli problem. Then, a broader class of manifolds than just the Calabi-Yau can be considered for M, and a general characterization is given in terms of Generalized Complex Geometry: M has to be a Generalized Calabi-Yau (GCY). A subclass of solv-manifolds have been proven to be GCY, so we look for solutions with such M. To do so, we use an algorithmic resolution method. Then we focus on specific new solutions: those admitting an intermediate SU(2) structure. A transformation named the twist is then discussed. It relates solutions on torus to solutions on solv-manifolds. Working out constraints on the twist to generate solutions, we can relate known solutions, and find a new one. We also use the twist to relate flux vacua of heterotic string. Finally we consider ten-dimensional de Sitter solutions. Looking for such solutions is difficult, because of several problems among which the breaking of SUSY. We propose an Ansatz for SUSY breaking sources which helps to overcome these difficulties. We give an explicit solution on a solv-manifold, and discuss partially its four-dimensional stability. (author)

  11. Comparison of surface extraction techniques performance in computed tomography for 3D complex micro-geometry dimensional measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torralba, Marta; Jiménez, Roberto; Yagüe-Fabra, José A.

    2018-01-01

    micro-geometries as well (i.e., in the sub-mm dimensional range). However, there are different factors that may influence the CT process performance, being one of them the surface extraction technique used. In this paper, two different extraction techniques are applied to measure a complex miniaturized......The number of industrial applications of computed tomography (CT) for dimensional metrology in 100–103 mm range has been continuously increasing, especially in the last years. Due to its specific characteristics, CT has the potential to be employed as a viable solution for measuring 3D complex...... dental file by CT in order to analyze its contribution to the final measurement uncertainty in complex geometries at the mm to sub-mm scales. The first method is based on a similarity analysis: the threshold determination; while the second one is based on a gradient or discontinuity analysis: the 3D...

  12. Molecular geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rodger, Alison

    1995-01-01

    Molecular Geometry discusses topics relevant to the arrangement of atoms. The book is comprised of seven chapters that tackle several areas of molecular geometry. Chapter 1 reviews the definition and determination of molecular geometry, while Chapter 2 discusses the unified view of stereochemistry and stereochemical changes. Chapter 3 covers the geometry of molecules of second row atoms, and Chapter 4 deals with the main group elements beyond the second row. The book also talks about the complexes of transition metals and f-block elements, and then covers the organometallic compounds and trans

  13. The water desalination complex based on ABV-type reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, Yu.K.; Fadeev, Yu.P.; Vorobiev, V.M.; Baranaev, Yu.D.

    1997-01-01

    A floating nuclear desalination complex with two barges, one for ABV type reactor plant, with twin reactor 2 x 6 MW(e), and one for reverse osmosis desalination plant, was described. The principal specifications of the ABV type reactor plant and desalination barge were given. The ABV type reactor has a traditional two-circuit layout using an integral type reactor vessel with all mode natural convection of primary coolant. The desalted water cost was estimated to be around US $0.86 per cubic meter. R and D work has been performed and preparations for commercial production are under way. (author)

  14. Planification de trajectoires pour placement automatise de fibres sur surfaces de geometries complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hely, Clement

    During the past 50 years, the use of composite materials drastically increase, mainly thanks to the interest of aeronautical industries for these strong and lightweight materials. To improve the productivity of composite materials manufacturing some of the largest aeronautics companies began to develop automated processes such as Automated Fibre Placement (AFP). The AFP workcells currently used by the industry were mainly developed for production of large, nearly flat, plates with low curvatures such as aircraft fuselages. However, the fields of aeronautics and sport goods production begin nowadays to show an interest for manufacturing of smaller and more complex parts. The aim of the project in which this research takes place is to design a new AFP workcell and to develop new techniques allowing production of parts with small size and complex geometry. The work presented in this thesis focuses on the path planning on multi-axial revolution surfaces, e.g. Y-shaped tubes of constant circular cross section. Several path planning algorithms will be presented aiming at the exhaustive coverage of a mandrel with pre-impregnated (prepreg) composite tape. The methodology used in two of these algorithms is to individually cover each branch of the Y-shaped part with paths deriving from a helix. In the first one, the helix will be cut at the boundary between a branch and the junction region (algorithm HD) while in the second (algorithm HA) the pseudo-helix path can be adjusted to follow this boundary. These two methods were shown to have some drawbacks compromising their practical use and possibly leading to parts with diminished mechanical properties. To avoid these drawbacks, two others algorithms were developed with a new methodology. With them, the aim is to cover two branches of the Y-shape with a continuous course (i.e. without cut). The first one uses a well known strategy which defines plies with a constant fibre orientation. Parallel paths are then computed to

  15. Colony geometry and structural complexity of the endangered species Acropora cervicornis partly explains the structure of their associated fish assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo-Adriani, Esteban A; Cappelletto, Jose; Cavada-Blanco, Francoise; Croquer, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, significant efforts have been made to describe fish-habitat associations. However, most studies have oversimplified actual connections between fish assemblages and their habitats by using univariate correlations. The purpose of this study was to identify the features of habitat forming corals that facilitate and influences assemblages of associated species such as fishes. For this we developed three-dimensional models of colonies of Acropora cervicornis to estimate geometry (length and height), structural complexity (i.e., volume, density of branches, etc.) and biological features of the colonies (i.e., live coral tissue, algae). We then correlated these colony characteristics with the associated fish assemblage using multivariate analyses. We found that geometry and complexity were better predictors of the structure of fish community, compared to other variables such as percentage of live coral tissue or algae. Combined, the geometry of each colony explained 40% of the variability of the fish assemblage structure associated with this coral species; 61% of the abundance and 69% of fish richness, respectively. Our study shows that three-dimensional reconstructions of discrete colonies of Acropora cervicornis provides a useful description of the colonial structural complexity and may explain a great deal of the variance in the structure of the associated coral reef fish community. This demonstration of the strongly trait-dependent ecosystem role of this threatened species has important implications for restoration and conservation efforts.

  16. Colony geometry and structural complexity of the endangered species Acropora cervicornis partly explains the structure of their associated fish assemblage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban A. Agudo-Adriani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, significant efforts have been made to describe fish-habitat associations. However, most studies have oversimplified actual connections between fish assemblages and their habitats by using univariate correlations. The purpose of this study was to identify the features of habitat forming corals that facilitate and influences assemblages of associated species such as fishes. For this we developed three-dimensional models of colonies of Acropora cervicornis to estimate geometry (length and height, structural complexity (i.e., volume, density of branches, etc. and biological features of the colonies (i.e., live coral tissue, algae. We then correlated these colony characteristics with the associated fish assemblage using multivariate analyses. We found that geometry and complexity were better predictors of the structure of fish community, compared to other variables such as percentage of live coral tissue or algae. Combined, the geometry of each colony explained 40% of the variability of the fish assemblage structure associated with this coral species; 61% of the abundance and 69% of fish richness, respectively. Our study shows that three-dimensional reconstructions of discrete colonies of Acropora cervicornis provides a useful description of the colonial structural complexity and may explain a great deal of the variance in the structure of the associated coral reef fish community. This demonstration of the strongly trait-dependent ecosystem role of this threatened species has important implications for restoration and conservation efforts.

  17. Numerical investigation on complex target geometries in the context of laser-accelerated proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deppert, O.; Harres, K.; Busold, S.; Schaumann, G.; Roth, M. [IKP, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Brabetz, C. [IAP, Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Schollmeier, M.; Geissel, M. [Sandia National Laboratories, NM (United States); Bagnoud, V. [GSI - Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Neely, D. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (United Kingdom); McKenna, P. [University of Strathclyde (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The irradiation of thin metal foils by an ultra-intense laser pulse leads to the generation of a highly laminar, intense proton beam accelerated from the target rear side by a mechanism called TNSA. This acceleration mechanism strongly depends on the geometry of the target. The acceleration originates from the formation of a Gaussian-like electron sheath leading to an electric field in the order of TV/m. This sheath field-ionizes the target rear side and is able to accelerate protons from a hydrogen contamination layer. The Gaussian-like sheath adds an energy dependent divergence to the spatial proton beam profile. For future applications it is essential to reduce the divergence already from the source of the acceleration process. Therefore different target geometries were studied numerically with the help of Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations. Both, the influence of the target geometry as well as the influence of the laser beam profile onto the proton trajectories are discussed. Furthermore, the first experimental results of a dedicated target geometry for laser-ion acceleration are presented.

  18. Analysis of the temperature field in a reactor fuel element of complex geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spasojevic, D; Vehauc, A [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1969-06-15

    An effective analytical method for determining the steady integral thermal conductivity and temperature distributions in cluster fuel elements has been developed. This method takes into account: distribution of heat generation, given by nonsymmetric function over the fuel rod cross section, q = q(r,{phi}); the thermal conductivity of the fuel and cladding material dependent on temperature, {lambda} = {lambda}(t), {lambda}{sub k} = {lambda}{sub k} (t); the fuel element cooling conditions defined by boundary conditions of the first, second or third kind. The second part of the paper presents the application of the developed method to a given fuel element. (author)

  19. Numerical modeling of optical coherent transient processes with complex configurations - I. Angled beam geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Tiejun; Tian Mingzhen; Randall Babbitt, Wm.

    2004-01-01

    We present a theoretical model for optical coherent transient (OCT) processes based on Maxwell-Bloch equations for angled beam geometry. This geometry is critical in various OCT applications where the desired coherence outputs need to be spatially separated from the rest of the field. The model takes into account both the local interactions between inhomogeneously broadened two-level atoms and the laser fields, and the field propagation in optically thick media. Under the small-angle condition, the spatial dimensions transversing to the main propagation direction were treated with spatial Fourier transform to make the numerical computations for the practical settings confined within a reasonable time frame. The simulations for analog correlators and continuous processing based on stimulated photon echo have been performed using the simulator developed using the theory

  20. Accurate simulation of geometry, singlet-singlet and triplet-singlet excitation of cyclometalated iridium(III) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Bai, Fu-Quan; Xia, Bao-Hui; Zhang, Hong-Xing; Cui, Tian

    2014-03-01

    In the current contribution, we present a critical study of the theoretical protocol used for the determination of the electronic spectra properties of luminescent cyclometalated iridium(III) complex, [Ir(III)(ppy)₂H₂dcbpy]⁺ (where, ppy = 2-phenylpyridine, H₂dcbpy = 2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid), considered as a representative example of the various problems related to the prediction of electronic spectra of transition metal complex. The choice of the exchange-correlation functional is crucial for the validity of the conclusions that would be drawn from the numerical results. The influence of the exchange-correlation on geometry parameter and absorption/emission band, the role of solvent effects on time-dependent density function theory (TD-DFT) calculations, as well as the importance of the chosen proper procedure to optimize triplet excited geometry, have been thus examined in detail. From the obtained results, some general conclusions and guidelines are presented: i) PBE0 functional is the most accurate in prediction of ground state geometry; ii) the well-established B3LYP, B3P86, PBE0, and X3LYP have similar accuracy in calculation of absorption spectrum; and iii) the hybrid approach TD-DFT//CIS gives out excellent agreement in the evaluation of triplet excitation energy.

  1. A study on axial and torsional resonant mode matching for a mechanical system with complex nonlinear geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Brett; Yeo, Leslie; Friend, James

    2010-06-01

    Making use of mechanical resonance has many benefits for the design of microscale devices. A key to successfully incorporating this phenomenon in the design of a device is to understand how the resonant frequencies of interest are affected by changes to the geometric parameters of the design. For simple geometric shapes, this is quite easy, but for complex nonlinear designs, it becomes significantly more complex. In this paper, two novel modeling techniques are demonstrated to extract the axial and torsional resonant frequencies of a complex nonlinear geometry. The first decomposes the complex geometry into easy to model components, while the second uses scaling techniques combined with the finite element method. Both models overcome problems associated with using current analytical methods as design tools, and enable a full investigation of how changes in the geometric parameters affect the resonant frequencies of interest. The benefit of such models is then demonstrated through their use in the design of a prototype piezoelectric ultrasonic resonant micromotor which has improved performance characteristics over previous prototypes.

  2. Mispairs with Watson-Crick base-pair geometry observed in ternary complexes of an RB69 DNA polymerase variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shuangluo; Konigsberg, William H

    2014-04-01

    Recent structures of DNA polymerase complexes with dGMPCPP/dT and dCTP/dA mispairs at the insertion site have shown that they adopt Watson-Crick geometry in the presence of Mn(2+) indicating that the tautomeric or ionization state of the base has changed. To see whether the tautomeric or ionization state of base-pair could be affected by its microenvironment, we determined 10 structures of an RB69 DNA polymerase quadruple mutant with dG/dT or dT/dG mispairs at position n-1 to n-5 of the Primer/Template duplex. Different shapes of the mispairs, including Watson-Crick geometry, have been observed, strongly suggesting that the local environment of base-pairs plays an important role in their tautomeric or ionization states. © 2014 The Protein Society.

  3. PENTrack-a simulation tool for ultracold neutrons, protons, and electrons in complex electromagnetic fields and geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, W.; Kikawa, T.; Losekamm, M. J.; Paul, S.; Picker, R.

    2017-06-01

    Modern precision experiments trapping low-energy particles require detailed simulations of particle trajectories and spin precession to determine systematic measurement limitations and apparatus deficiencies. We developed PENTrack, a tool that allows to simulate trajectories of ultracold neutrons and their decay products-protons and electrons-and the precession of their spins in complex geometries and electromagnetic fields. The interaction of ultracold neutrons with matter is implemented with the Fermi-potential formalism and diffuse scattering using Lambert and microroughness models. The results of several benchmark simulations agree with STARucn v1.2, uncovered several flaws in Geant4 v10.2.2, and agree with experimental data. Experiment geometry and electromagnetic fields can be imported from commercial computer-aided-design and finite-element software. All simulation parameters are defined in simple text files allowing quick changes. The simulation code is written in C++ and is freely available at github.com/wschreyer/PENTrack.git.

  4. PENTrack—a simulation tool for ultracold neutrons, protons, and electrons in complex electromagnetic fields and geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreyer, W., E-mail: w.schreyer@tum.de [Technical University of Munich, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Kikawa, T. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver (Canada); Losekamm, M.J.; Paul, S. [Technical University of Munich, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Picker, R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver (Canada); Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby (Canada)

    2017-06-21

    Modern precision experiments trapping low-energy particles require detailed simulations of particle trajectories and spin precession to determine systematic measurement limitations and apparatus deficiencies. We developed PENTrack, a tool that allows to simulate trajectories of ultracold neutrons and their decay products—protons and electrons—and the precession of their spins in complex geometries and electromagnetic fields. The interaction of ultracold neutrons with matter is implemented with the Fermi-potential formalism and diffuse scattering using Lambert and microroughness models. The results of several benchmark simulations agree with STARucn v1.2, uncovered several flaws in Geant4 v10.2.2, and agree with experimental data. Experiment geometry and electromagnetic fields can be imported from commercial computer-aided-design and finite-element software. All simulation parameters are defined in simple text files allowing quick changes. The simulation code is written in C++ and is freely available at (github.com/wschreyer/PENTrack.git).

  5. Assessment of capability for modeling the core degradation in 2D geometry with ASTEC V2 integral code for VVER type of reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimov, D.

    2011-01-01

    The ASTEC code is progressively becoming the reference European severe accident integral code through in particular the intensification of research activities carried out since 2004. The purpose of this analysis is to assess ASTEC code modelling of main phenomena arising during hypothetical severe accidents and particularly in-vessel degradation in 2D geometry. The investigation covers both early and late phase of degradation of reactor core as well as determination of corium which will enter the reactor cavity. The initial event is station back-out. In order to receive severe accident condition, failure of all active component of emergency core cooling system is apply. The analysis is focus on ICARE module of ASTEC code and particularly on so call MAGMA model. The aim of study is to determine the capability of the integral code to simulate core degradation and to determine the corium composition entering the reactor cavity. (author)

  6. Complexities of three dimensional part geometry. [Ambiguities in specification of pieces for manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, R.H.

    1977-05-01

    This report is a non-technical exposition on the ambiguities in conventional specification of the shape of a part to be manufactured and on various alternatives for representing its geometry for computer processing. It touches lightly on wire-frame and bounded surface representations and on the concept of design by volumes. It concludes that no existing computer-aided design system has yet shown its long-range superiority over he spectrum of parts and of uses to which its information base should be applicable. 9 figures.

  7. Symplectic geometry on moduli spaces of holomorphic bundles over complex surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Khesin, Boris; Rosly, Alexei

    2000-01-01

    We give a comparative description of the Poisson structures on the moduli spaces of flat connections on real surfaces and holomorphic Poisson structures on the moduli spaces of holomorphic bundles on complex surfaces. The symplectic leaves of the latter are classified by restrictions of the bundles to certain divisors. This can be regarded as fixing a "complex analogue of the holonomy" of a connection along a "complex analogue of the boundary" in analogy with the real case.

  8. MORET: a Monte Carlo program for fast computation of the effective multiplying factors of fissile media within complex geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caizergues, Robert; Poullot, Gilles; Teillet, J.-R.

    1976-06-01

    The MORET code determines effective multiplying factors. It uses the Monte Carlo technique and the multigroup theory; a collision is taken as isotropic, but anisotropy is taken into account by means of the transport correction. Complex geometries can be rapidly treated: the array to be studied is divided in simple elementary volumes (spheres, cylinders, boxes, cones, half space planes...) to which are applied operators of the theory of sets. Some constant or differential (albedos) reflection coefficients simulate neighboring reflections on the outer volume [fr

  9. High-Order Finite-Difference Solution of the Poisson Equation Involving Complex Geometries in Embedded Meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Alexandre; Nave, Jean-Christophe; Rosales, Ruben

    2011-11-01

    The Poisson equation is of central importance in the description of fluid flows and other physical phenomena. In prior work, Marques, Nave, and Rosales introduced the Correction Function Method (CFM) to obtain fourth-order accurate solutions for the constant coefficient Poisson problem with prescribed jump conditions for the solution and its normal derivative across arbitrary interfaces. Here we combine this method with the ideas introduced by Mayo to solve other Poisson problems involving complex geometries. In summary, we are able to rewrite the problem as a boundary integral equation in terms of a potential distribution over the boundary or interface. The solution of this integral equation is discontinuous across the boundary or interface. Hence, after this integral equation is solved using standard techniques, the potential distribution can be used to determine the jump discontinuities. We are then able to use the CFM to solve the resulting Poisson equation with jump discontinuities. The outcome is a fourth-order accurate scheme to solve general Poisson problems which, over arbitrary geometries, has a cost that is approximately twice that of a fast Poisson solver using FFT on a rectangular geometry of the same size. Details of the method and applications will be presented.

  10. Programming While Construction of Engineering 3D Models of Complex Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheyfets, A. L.

    2017-11-01

    The capabilities of geometrically accurate computational 3D models construction with the use of programming are presented. The construction of models of an architectural arch and a glo-boid worm gear is considered as an example. The models are designed in the AutoCAD pack-age. Three programs of construction are given. The first program is for designing a multi-section architectural arch. The control of the arch’s geometry by impacting its main parameters is shown. The second program is for designing and studying the working surface of a globoid gear’s worm. The article shows how to make the animation for this surface’s formation. The third program is for formation of a worm gear cavity surface. The cavity formation dynamics is studied. The programs are written in the AutoLisp programming language. The program texts are provided.

  11. Information geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ay, Nihat; Lê, Hông Vân; Schwachhöfer, Lorenz

    2017-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive introduction and a novel mathematical foundation of the field of information geometry with complete proofs and detailed background material on measure theory, Riemannian geometry and Banach space theory. Parametrised measure models are defined as fundamental geometric objects, which can be both finite or infinite dimensional. Based on these models, canonical tensor fields are introduced and further studied, including the Fisher metric and the Amari-Chentsov tensor, and embeddings of statistical manifolds are investigated. This novel foundation then leads to application highlights, such as generalizations and extensions of the classical uniqueness result of Chentsov or the Cramér-Rao inequality. Additionally, several new application fields of information geometry are highlighted, for instance hierarchical and graphical models, complexity theory, population genetics, or Markov Chain Monte Carlo. The book will be of interest to mathematicians who are interested in geometry, inf...

  12. Neutron flux calculations for the Rossendorf research reactor in (hex)- and (hex,z)-geometry using SNAP-3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.; Findeisen, A.

    1986-04-01

    The multigroup neutron diffusion theory code SNAP-3D has been used to perform time independent neutron flux and power calculations of the 10 MW Rossendorf research reactor of the type WWR-SM. The report describes these calculations, as well as the actual reactor configuration, some details of the code SNAP-3D, and two- and three-dimensional reactor models. For evaluating the calculations some flux values and control rod worths have been compared with those of measurements. (author)

  13. Two-dimensional DORT discrete ordinates X-Y geometry neutron flux calculations for the Halden Heavy Boiling Water Reactor core configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, C.O.

    1990-07-01

    Results are reported for two-dimensional discrete ordinates, X-Y geometry calculations performed for seven Halden Heavy Boiling Water Reactor core configurations. The calculations were performed in support of an effort to reassess the neutron fluence received by the reactor vessel. Nickel foil measurement data indicated considerable underprediction of fluences by the previously used multigroup removal- diffusion method. Therefore, calculations by a more accurate method were deemed appropriate. For each core configuration, data are presented for (1) integral fluxes in the core and near the vessel wall, (2) neutron spectra at selected locations, (3) isoflux contours superimposed on the geometry models, (4) plots of the geometry models, and (5) input for the calculations. The initial calculations were performed with several mesh sizes. Comparisons of the results from these calculations indicated that the uncertainty in the calculated fluxes should be less than 10%. However, three-dimensional effects (such as axial asymmetry in the fuel loading) could contribute to much greater uncertainty in the calculated neutron fluxes. 7 refs., 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Reactive flow simulations in complex geometries with high-performance supercomputing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehm, W.; Gerndt, M.; Jahn, W.; Vogelsang, R.; Binninger, B.; Herrmann, M.; Olivier, H.; Weber, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a modern field code cluster consisting of state-of-the-art reactive Navier-Stokes- and reactive Euler solvers that has been developed on vector- and parallel supercomputers at the research center Juelich. This field code cluster is used for hydrogen safety analyses of technical systems, for example, in the field of nuclear reactor safety and conventional hydrogen demonstration plants with fuel cells. Emphasis is put on the assessment of combustion loads, which could result from slow, fast or rapid flames, including transition from deflagration to detonation. As a sample of proof tests, the special tools have been tested for specific tasks, based on the comparison of experimental and numerical results, which are in reasonable agreement. (author)

  15. Complex nonlinear behaviour of a fixed bed reactor with reactant recycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Recke, Bodil; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1999-01-01

    The fixed bed reactor with reactant recycle investigated in this paper can exhibit periodic solutions. These solutions bifurcate from the steady state in a Hopf bifurcation. The Hopf bifurcation encountered at the lowest value of the inlet concentration turns the steady state unstable and marks......,that the dynamic behaviour of a fixed bed reactor with reactant recycle is much more complex than previously reported....

  16. Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Vivek; Vaz Salles, Marcos António

    2018-01-01

    The requirements for OLTP database systems are becoming ever more demanding. Domains such as finance and computer games increasingly mandate that developers be able to encode complex application logic and control transaction latencies in in-memory databases. At the same time, infrastructure...... engineers in these domains need to experiment with and deploy OLTP database architectures that ensure application scalability and maximize resource utilization in modern machines. In this paper, we propose a relational actor programming model for in-memory databases as a novel, holistic approach towards......-level function calls. In contrast to classic transactional models, however, reactors allow developers to take advantage of intra-transaction parallelism and state encapsulation in their applications to reduce latency and improve locality. Moreover, reactors enable a new degree of flexibility in database...

  17. Coherent neutrino scattering with low temperature bolometers at Chooz reactor complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, J; Gascon, J; Jesus, M De; Carr, R; Formaggio, J A; Heine, S T; Johnston, J; Leder, A; Sibille, V; Winslow, L; Dawson, J; Lasserre, T; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Palladino, K J; Vivier, M

    2017-01-01

    We present the potential sensitivity of a future recoil detector for a first detection of the process of coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering (CE ν NS). We use the Chooz reactor complex in France as our luminous source of reactor neutrinos. Leveraging the ability to cleanly separate the rate correlated with the reactor thermal power against (uncorrelated) backgrounds, we show that a 10 kg cryogenic bolometric array with 100 eV threshold should be able to extract a CE ν NS signal within one year of running. (paper)

  18. 3D simulation of polyurethane foam injection and reacting mold flow in a complex geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, İ. Bedii; Akar, Fırat

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop a flow model which can be used to determine the paths of the polyurethane foam in the mold filling process of a refrigerator cabinet so that improvements in the distribution and the size of the venting holes can be achieved without the expensive prototyping and experiments. For this purpose, the multi-component, two-phase chemically reacting flow is described by Navier Stokes and 12 scalar transport equations. The air and the multi-component foam zones are separated by an interface, which moves only with advection since the mass diffusion of species are set zero in the air zone. The inverse density, viscosity and other diffusion coefficients are calculated by a mass fraction weighted average of the corresponding temperature-dependent values of all species. Simulations are performed in a real refrigerator geometry, are able to reveal the problematical zones where air bubbles and voids trapped in the solidified foam are expected to occur. Furthermore, the approach proves itself as a reliable design tool to use in deciding the locations of air vents and sizing the channel dimensions.

  19. CALIPSO - a computer code for the calculation of fluiddynamics, thermohydraulics and changes of geometry in failing fuel elements of a fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedziur, F.

    1982-07-01

    The computer code CALIPSO was developed for the calculation of a hypothetical accident in an LMFBR (Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor), where the failure of fuel pins is assumed. It calculates two-dimensionally the thermodynamics, fluiddynamics and changes in geometry of a single fuel pin and its coolant channel in a time period between failure of the pin and a state, at which the geometry is nearly destroyed. The determination of temperature profiles in the fuel pin cladding and the channel wall make it possible to take melting and freezing processes into account. Further features of CALIPSO are the variable channel cross section in order to model disturbances of the channel geometry as well as the calculation of two velocity fields including the consideration of virtual mass effects. The documented version of CALIPSO is especially suited for the calculation of the SIMBATH experiments carried out at the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, which simulate the above-mentioned accident. The report contains the complete documentation of the CALIPSO code: the modeling of the geometry, the equations used, the structure of the code and the solution procedure as well as the instructions for use with an application example. (orig.) [de

  20. Temperature profile in a fix-bed reactor and with cylindrical geometry by the method of orthogonal collocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basta, C.

    1982-01-01

    Using the method of orthogonal colocation the boundary problem for a fix bed with cylindrical geometry was solved. The axial disposal term was despicable and the results were compared with those the explicit finite difference method. (E.G.) [pt

  1. Spinning geometry = Twisted geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freidel, Laurent; Ziprick, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the SU(2)-gauge invariant phase space of loop gravity can be represented in terms of twisted geometries. These are piecewise-linear-flat geometries obtained by gluing together polyhedra, but the resulting geometries are not continuous across the faces. Here we show that this phase space can also be represented by continuous, piecewise-flat three-geometries called spinning geometries. These are composed of metric-flat three-cells glued together consistently. The geometry of each cell and the manner in which they are glued is compatible with the choice of fluxes and holonomies. We first remark that the fluxes provide each edge with an angular momentum. By studying the piecewise-flat geometries which minimize edge lengths, we show that these angular momenta can be literally interpreted as the spin of the edges: the geometries of all edges are necessarily helices. We also show that the compatibility of the gluing maps with the holonomy data results in the same conclusion. This shows that a spinning geometry represents a way to glue together the three-cells of a twisted geometry to form a continuous geometry which represents a point in the loop gravity phase space. (paper)

  2. High performance parallel computing of flows in complex geometries: II. Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourdain, N; Gicquel, L; Staffelbach, G; Vermorel, O; Duchaine, F; Boussuge, J-F; Poinsot, T

    2009-01-01

    Present regulations in terms of pollutant emissions, noise and economical constraints, require new approaches and designs in the fields of energy supply and transportation. It is now well established that the next breakthrough will come from a better understanding of unsteady flow effects and by considering the entire system and not only isolated components. However, these aspects are still not well taken into account by the numerical approaches or understood whatever the design stage considered. The main challenge is essentially due to the computational requirements inferred by such complex systems if it is to be simulated by use of supercomputers. This paper shows how new challenges can be addressed by using parallel computing platforms for distinct elements of a more complex systems as encountered in aeronautical applications. Based on numerical simulations performed with modern aerodynamic and reactive flow solvers, this work underlines the interest of high-performance computing for solving flow in complex industrial configurations such as aircrafts, combustion chambers and turbomachines. Performance indicators related to parallel computing efficiency are presented, showing that establishing fair criterions is a difficult task for complex industrial applications. Examples of numerical simulations performed in industrial systems are also described with a particular interest for the computational time and the potential design improvements obtained with high-fidelity and multi-physics computing methods. These simulations use either unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes methods or large eddy simulation and deal with turbulent unsteady flows, such as coupled flow phenomena (thermo-acoustic instabilities, buffet, etc). Some examples of the difficulties with grid generation and data analysis are also presented when dealing with these complex industrial applications.

  3. A Parallel Cartesian Approach for External Aerodynamics of Vehicles with Complex Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftosmis, M. J.; Berger, M. J.; Adomavicius, G.

    2001-01-01

    This workshop paper presents the current status in the development of a new approach for the solution of the Euler equations on Cartesian meshes with embedded boundaries in three dimensions on distributed and shared memory architectures. The approach uses adaptively refined Cartesian hexahedra to fill the computational domain. Where these cells intersect the geometry, they are cut by the boundary into arbitrarily shaped polyhedra which receive special treatment by the solver. The presentation documents a newly developed multilevel upwind solver based on a flexible domain-decomposition strategy. One novel aspect of the work is its use of space-filling curves (SFC) for memory efficient on-the-fly parallelization, dynamic re-partitioning and automatic coarse mesh generation. Within each subdomain the approach employs a variety reordering techniques so that relevant data are on the same page in memory permitting high-performance on cache-based processors. Details of the on-the-fly SFC based partitioning are presented as are construction rules for the automatic coarse mesh generation. After describing the approach, the paper uses model problems and 3- D configurations to both verify and validate the solver. The model problems demonstrate that second-order accuracy is maintained despite the presence of the irregular cut-cells in the mesh. In addition, it examines both parallel efficiency and convergence behavior. These investigations demonstrate a parallel speed-up in excess of 28 on 32 processors of an SGI Origin 2000 system and confirm that mesh partitioning has no effect on convergence behavior.

  4. Interplay between Dephasing and Geometry and Directed Heat Flow in Exciton Transfer Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Dubi, Yonatan

    2015-01-01

    The striking efficiency of energy transfer in natural photosynthetic systems and the recent evidence of long-lived quantum coherence in biological light harvesting complexes has triggered much excitement, due to the evocative possibility that these systems - essential to practically all life on earth -- use quantum mechanical effects to achieve optimal functionality. A large body of theoretical work has addressed the role of local environments in determining the transport properties of excito...

  5. Direct numerical simulation of supercritical gas flow in complex nanoporous media: Elucidating the relationship between permeability and pore space geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, C. J.; Prodanovic, M.; Eichhubl, P.

    2015-12-01

    Mudrocks and shales are currently a significant source of natural gas and understanding the basic transport properties of these formations is critical to predicting long-term production, however, the nanoporous nature of mudrocks presents a unique challenge. Mudrock pores are predominantly in the range of 1-100 nm, and within this size range the flow of gas at reservoir conditions will fall within the slip-flow and early transition-flow regime (0.001 clays). Here we present a local effective viscosity lattice Boltzmann model (LEV-LBM) constructed for flow simulation in the slip- and early-transition flow regimes, adapted here for complex geometries. At the macroscopic scale the LEV-LBM is parameterized with local effective viscosities at each node to capture the variance of the mean free path of gas molecules in a bounded system. The LEV-LBM is first validated in simple tube geometries, where excellent agreement with linearized Boltzmann solutions is found for Knudsen numbers up to 1.0. The LEV-LBM is then employed to quantify the length effect on the apparent permeability of tubes, which suggests pore network modeling of flow in the slip and early-transition regime will result in overestimation unless the length effect is considered. Furthermore, the LEV-LBM is used to evaluate the predictive value of commonly measured pore geometry characteristics such as porosity, pore size distribution, and specific solid surface area for the calculation of permeability. We show that bundle of tubes models grossly overestimate apparent permeability, as well as underestimate the increase in apparent permeability with decreasing pressure as a result of excluding topology and pore shape from calculations.

  6. Approximate analytical solutions in the analysis of elastic structures of complex geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goloskokov, Dmitriy P.; Matrosov, Alexander V.

    2018-05-01

    A method of analytical decomposition for analysis plane structures of a complex configuration is presented. For each part of the structure in the form of a rectangle all the components of the stress-strain state are constructed by the superposition method. The method is based on two solutions derived in the form of trigonometric series with unknown coefficients using the method of initial functions. The coefficients are determined from the system of linear algebraic equations obtained while satisfying the boundary conditions and the conditions for joining the structure parts. The components of the stress-strain state of a bent plate with holes are calculated using the analytical decomposition method.

  7. Flow MRI simulation in complex 3D geometries: Application to the cerebral venous network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Alexandre; Salmon, Stéphanie; Baruthio, Joseph; Delbany, Maya; Durand, Emmanuel

    2018-02-05

    Develop and evaluate a complete tool to include 3D fluid flows in MRI simulation, leveraging from existing software. Simulation of MR spin flow motion is of high interest in the study of flow artifacts and angiography. However, at present, only a few simulators include this option and most are restricted to static tissue imaging. An extension of JEMRIS, one of the most advanced high performance open-source simulation platforms to date, was developed. The implementation of a Lagrangian description of the flow allows simulating any MR experiment, including both static tissues and complex flow data from computational fluid dynamics. Simulations of simple flow models are compared with real experiments on a physical flow phantom. A realistic simulation of 3D flow MRI on the cerebral venous network is also carried out. Simulations and real experiments are in good agreement. The generality of the framework is illustrated in 2D and 3D with some common flow artifacts (misregistration and inflow enhancement) and with the three main angiographic techniques: phase contrast velocimetry (PC), time-of-flight, and contrast-enhanced imaging MRA. The framework provides a versatile and reusable tool for the simulation of any MRI experiment including physiological fluids and arbitrarily complex flow motion. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Reactor Technology Complex Operable Unit 2-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard P. Wells

    2007-01-01

    This Groundwater Monitoring Plan describes the objectives, activities, and assessments that will be performed to support the on-going groundwater monitoring requirements at the Reactor Technology Complex, formerly the Test Reactor Area (TRA). The requirements for groundwater monitoring were stipulated in the Final Record of Decision for Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, signed in December 1997. The monitoring requirements were modified by the First Five-Year Review Report for the Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to focus on those contaminants of concern that warrant continued surveillance, including chromium, tritium, strontium-90, and cobalt-60. Based upon recommendations provided in the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Status Report for 2006, the groundwater monitoring frequency was reduced to annually from twice a year

  9. Peaks, plateaus, canyons, and craters: The complex geometry of simple mid-domain effect models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colwell, Robert K.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Rahbek, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    dye algorithm to place assemblages of species of uniform We used a spreading dye algorithm to place assemblages of species of uniform range size in one-dimensional or two-dimensional bounded domains. In some models, we allowed dispersal to introduce range discontinuity. Results: As uniform range size...... increases from small to medium, a flat pattern of species As uniform range size increases from small to medium, a flat pattern of species richness is replaced by a pair of peripheral peaks, separated by a valley (one-dimensional models), or by a cratered ring (two-dimensional models) of species richness...... of a uniform size generate more complex patterns, including peaks, plateaus, canyons, and craters of species richness....

  10. An Embedded Ghost-Fluid Method for Compressible Flow in Complex Geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Almarouf, Mohamad Abdulilah Alhusain Alali; Samtaney, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    We present an embedded ghost-fluid method for numerical solutions of the compressible Navier Stokes (CNS) equations in arbitrary complex domains. The PDE multidimensional extrapolation approach of Aslam [1] is used to reconstruct the solution in the ghost-fluid regions and impose boundary conditions at the fluid-solid interface. The CNS equations are numerically solved by the second order multidimensional upwind method of Colella [2] and Saltzman [3]. Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement implemented under the Chombo framework is utilized to reduce the computational cost while keeping high-resolution mesh around the embedded boundary and regions of high gradient solutions. Numerical examples with different Reynolds numbers for low and high Mach number flow will be presented. We compare our simulation results with other reported experimental and computational results. The significance and advantages of our implementation, which revolve around balancing between the solution accuracy and implementation difficulties, are briefly discussed as well. © 2016 Trans Tech Publications.

  11. An Embedded Ghost-Fluid Method for Compressible Flow in Complex Geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Almarouf, Mohamad Abdulilah Alhusain Alali

    2016-06-03

    We present an embedded ghost-fluid method for numerical solutions of the compressible Navier Stokes (CNS) equations in arbitrary complex domains. The PDE multidimensional extrapolation approach of Aslam [1] is used to reconstruct the solution in the ghost-fluid regions and impose boundary conditions at the fluid-solid interface. The CNS equations are numerically solved by the second order multidimensional upwind method of Colella [2] and Saltzman [3]. Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement implemented under the Chombo framework is utilized to reduce the computational cost while keeping high-resolution mesh around the embedded boundary and regions of high gradient solutions. Numerical examples with different Reynolds numbers for low and high Mach number flow will be presented. We compare our simulation results with other reported experimental and computational results. The significance and advantages of our implementation, which revolve around balancing between the solution accuracy and implementation difficulties, are briefly discussed as well. © 2016 Trans Tech Publications.

  12. Effect of the kinetics of ammonium and nitrite oxidation on nitritation success or failure for different biofilm reactor geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lackner, Susanne; Smets, Barth F.

    2012-01-01

    was on the influence of key biokinetic parameters (maximum specific growth rates, oxygen and nitrogen affinity constants of AOB (ammonium oxidizing bacteria) and NOB (nitrite oxidizing bacteria)) and their ratios on nitritation efficiency in these geometries. This exhaustive simulation study revealed that nitritation...... strongly depends on the chosen kinetic parameters of AOB and NOB. The maximum specific growth rates (μmax,AOB and μmax,NOB) had the strongest impact on nitritation efficiency (NE). In comparison, the counter-diffusion geometry yielded more parameter combinations (27.5%) that resulted in high NE than the co...

  13. A novel rheo-optical device for studying complex fluids in a double shear plate geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitte, Jean-Baptiste; Vizcaïno, Claude; Benyahia, Lazhar; Herry, Jean-Marie; Michon, Camille; Hayert, Murielle

    2013-01-01

    A new rheo-optical shearing device was designed to investigate the structural evolution of complex material under shear flow. Seeking to keep the area under study constantly within the field of vision, it was conceived to produce shear flow by relying on the uniaxial translation of two parallel plates. The device features three modes of translation motion: step strain (0.02-320), constant shear rate (0.01-400 s-1), and oscillation (0.01-20 Hz) flow. Because the temperature is controlled by using a Peltier module coupled with a water cooling system, temperatures can range from 10 to 80 °C. The sample is loaded onto a user-friendly plate on which standard glasses can be attached with a depression vacuum pump. The principle innovation of the proposed rheo-optical shearing device lies in the fact that this suction system renders the microscopy glasses one with the plates, thereby ensuring their perfect planarity and parallelism. The gap width between the two plates can range from 0 to 5 mm. The device was designed to fit on any inverted confocal laser scanning microscope. In terms of controlled deformation, the conception and technical solutions achieve a high level of accuracy. Moreover, user-friendly software has been developed to control both shear flow parameters and temperature. The validation of specifications as well as the three modes of motion was carried out, first of all without a sample, and then by tracking fluorescent particles in a model system, in our case a micro-gel. Real values agreed well with those we targeted. In addition, an experiment with bread dough deformation under shear flow was initiated to gain some insight into the potential use of our device. These results show that the RheOptiCAD® promises to be a useful tool to better understand, from both a fundamental and an industrial point of view, the rheological behavior of the microstructure of complex fluids under controlled thermo-mechanical parameters in the case of food and non

  14. Wing geometry as a tool for studying the Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J De la Riva

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Toro Toro (T and Yungas (Y have been described as genetically well differentiated populations of the Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 complex in Bolivia. Here we use geometric morphometrics to compare samples from these populations and new populations (Bolivia and Nicaragua, representing distant geographical origins, qualitative morphological variation ("one-spot" or "two-spots" phenotypes, ecologically distinct traits (peridomestic and silvatic populations, and possibly different epidemiological roles (transmitting or nor transmitting Leishmania chagasi. The Nicaragua (N (Somotillo sample was "one-spot" phenotype and a possible peridomestic vector. The Bolivian sample of the Y was also "one-spot" phenotype and a demonstrated peridomestic vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL. The three remaining samples were silvatic, "two-spots" phenotypes. Two of them (Uyuni and T were collected in the highlands of Bolivian where VL never has been reported. The last one (Robore, R came from the lowlands of Bolivia, where human cases of VL are sporadically reported. The decomposition of metric variation into size and shape by geometric morphometric techniques suggests the existence of two groups (N/Y/R, and U/T. Several arguments indicate that such subdivision of Lu. longipalpis could correspond to different evolutionary units.

  15. LSHINSE, Air Scattering Neutron and Gamma Dose rates for Complex Shielding Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, A.; Gruen, M.; Leicht, R.

    1991-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The program LSHINSE is used to calculate the flux and the dose rate caused by gamma radiation emanating from a point source and being scattered in surrounding air. The program considers all forms of single scattering. Multiple scattering is taken into account in an approximate way by use of buildup factors. 2 - Method of solution: The program LSHINSE solves the equations for skyshine by use of Simpson integration. The integration limits are chosen such that the partial shielding is approximated by rectangular walls around the source. In addition, the attenuation of the primary radiation by a room ceiling can be calculated for several materials. By giving the height of the ceiling, the scattering in the air of the room can be calculated. By specifying energy groups the spectrum of the scattered radiation can be obtained. Valid energy range is 0.1 - 0.2 MeV, where the lower limit is due to uncertainties in the buildup factors. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program is restricted to rectangular shielding problems involving gamma radiation in the range of 0.1 to 2.0 MeV

  16. After Action Report: Advanced Test Reactor Complex 2015 Evaluated Drill October 6, 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Forest Howard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Complex, operated by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducted an evaluated drill on October 6, 2015, to allow the ATR Complex emergency response organization (ERO) to demonstrate the ability to respond to and mitigate an emergency by implementing the requirements of DOE O 151.1C, “Comprehensive Emergency Management System.”

  17. High performance parallel computing of flows in complex geometries: I. Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourdain, N; Gicquel, L; Montagnac, M; Vermorel, O; Staffelbach, G; Garcia, M; Boussuge, J-F; Gazaix, M; Poinsot, T

    2009-01-01

    Efficient numerical tools coupled with high-performance computers, have become a key element of the design process in the fields of energy supply and transportation. However flow phenomena that occur in complex systems such as gas turbines and aircrafts are still not understood mainly because of the models that are needed. In fact, most computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions as found today in industry focus on a reduced or simplified version of the real system (such as a periodic sector) and are usually solved with a steady-state assumption. This paper shows how to overcome such barriers and how such a new challenge can be addressed by developing flow solvers running on high-end computing platforms, using thousands of computing cores. Parallel strategies used by modern flow solvers are discussed with particular emphases on mesh-partitioning, load balancing and communication. Two examples are used to illustrate these concepts: a multi-block structured code and an unstructured code. Parallel computing strategies used with both flow solvers are detailed and compared. This comparison indicates that mesh-partitioning and load balancing are more straightforward with unstructured grids than with multi-block structured meshes. However, the mesh-partitioning stage can be challenging for unstructured grids, mainly due to memory limitations of the newly developed massively parallel architectures. Finally, detailed investigations show that the impact of mesh-partitioning on the numerical CFD solutions, due to rounding errors and block splitting, may be of importance and should be accurately addressed before qualifying massively parallel CFD tools for a routine industrial use.

  18. Stiffeners in variational-difference method for calculating shells with complex geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov Vyacheslav Nikolaevich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We have already considered an introduction of reinforcements in the variational-difference method (VDM of shells analysis with complex shape. At the moment only ribbed shells of revolution and shallow shells can be calculated with the help of developed analytical and finite-difference methods. Ribbed shells of arbitrary shape can be calculated only using the finite element method (FEM. However there are problems, when using FEM, which are absent in finite- and variational-difference methods: rigid body motion; conforming trial functions; parameterization of a surface; independent stress strain state. In this regard stiffeners are entered in VDM. VDM is based on the Lagrange principle - the principle of minimum total potential energy. Stress-strain state of ribs is described by the Kirchhoff-Clebsch theory of curvilinear bars: tension, bending and torsion of ribs are taken into account. Stress-strain state of shells is described by the Kirchhoff-Love theory of thin elastic shells. A position of points of the middle surface is defined by curvilinear orthogonal coordinates α, β. Curved ribs are situated along coordinate lines. Strain energy of ribs is added into the strain energy to account for ribs. A matrix form of strain energy of ribs is formed similar to a matrix form of the strain energy of the shell. A matrix of geometrical characteristics of a rib is formed from components of matrices of geometric characteristics of a shell. A matrix of mechanical characteristics of a rib contains rib’s eccentricity and geometrical characteristics of a rib’s section. Derivatives of displacements in the strain vector are replaced with finite-difference relations after the middle surface of a shell gets covered with a grid (grid lines coincide with the coordinate lines of principal curvatures. By this case the total potential energy functional becomes a function of strain nodal displacements. Partial derivatives of unknown nodal displacements are

  19. Experimental approach for the uncertainty assessment of 3D complex geometry dimensional measurements using computed tomography at the mm and sub-mm scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez, Roberto; Torralba, Marta; Yagüe-Fabra, José A.

    2017-01-01

    The dimensional verification of miniaturized components with 3D complex geometries is particularly challenging. Computed Tomography (CT) can represent a suitable alternative solution to micro metrology tools based on optical and tactile techniques. However, the establishment of CT systems......’ traceability when measuring 3D complex geometries is still an open issue. In this work, an alternative method for the measurement uncertainty assessment of 3D complex geometries by using CT is presented. The method is based on the micro-CT system Maximum Permissible Error (MPE) estimation, determined...... experimentally by using several calibrated reference artefacts. The main advantage of the presented method is that a previous calibration of the component by a more accurate Coordinate Measuring System (CMS) is not needed. In fact, such CMS would still hold all the typical limitations of optical and tactile...

  20. Validation of numerical solvers for liquid metal flow in a complex geometry in the presence of a strong magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anita; Pulugundla, Gautam; Smolentsev, Sergey; Abdou, Mohamed; Bhattacharyay, Rajendraprasad

    2018-04-01

    Following the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code validation and verification proposal by Smolentsev et al. (Fusion Eng Des 100:65-72, 2015), we perform code to code and code to experiment comparisons between two computational solvers, FLUIDYN and HIMAG, which are presently considered as two of the prospective CFD tools for fusion blanket applications. In such applications, an electrically conducting breeder/coolant circulates in the blanket ducts in the presence of a strong plasma-confining magnetic field at high Hartmann numbers, it{Ha} (it{Ha}^2 is the ratio between electromagnetic and viscous forces) and high interaction parameters, it{N} (it{N} is the ratio of electromagnetic to inertial forces). The main objective of this paper is to provide the scientific and engineering community with common references to assist fusion researchers in the selection of adequate computational means to be used for blanket design and analysis. As an initial validation case, the two codes are applied to the classic problem of a laminar fully developed MHD flows in a rectangular duct. Both codes demonstrate a very good agreement with the analytical solution for it{Ha} up to 15, 000. To address the capabilities of the two codes to properly resolve complex geometry flows, we consider a case of three-dimensional developing MHD flow in a geometry comprising of a series of interconnected electrically conducting rectangular ducts. The computed electric potential distributions for two flows (Case A) it{Ha}=515, it{N}=3.2 and (Case B) it{Ha}=2059, it{N}=63.8 are in very good agreement with the experimental data, while the comparisons for the MHD pressure drop are still unsatisfactory. To better interpret the observed differences, the obtained numerical data are analyzed against earlier theoretical and experimental studies for flows that involve changes in the relative orientation between the flow and the magnetic field.

  1. MODEL SIMULATION OF GEOMETRY AND STRESS-STRAIN VARIATION OF BATAN FUEL PIN PROTOTYPE DURING IRRADIATION TEST IN RSG-GAS REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwardi Suwardi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available MODEL SIMULATION OF GEOMETRY AND STRESS-STRAIN VARIATION OF BATAN FUEL PIN PROTOTYPE DURING IRRADIATION TEST IN RSG-GAS REACTOR*. The first short fuel pin containing natural UO2 pellet in Zry4 cladding has been prepared at the CNFT (Center for Nuclear Fuel Technology then a ramp test will be performed. The present work is part of designing first irradiation experiments in the PRTF (Power Ramp Test Facility of RSG-GAS 30 MW reactor. The thermal mechanic of the pin during irradiation has simulated. The geometry variation of pellet and cladding is modeled by taking into account different phenomena such as thermal expansion, densification, swelling by fission product, thermal creep and radiation growth. The cladding variation is modeled by thermal expansion, thermal and irradiation creeps. The material properties are modeled by MATPRO and standard numerical parameter of TRANSURANUS code. Results of irradiation simulation with 9 kW/m LHR indicates that pellet-clad contacts onset from 0.090 mm initial gaps after 806 d, when pellet radius expansion attain 0.015 mm while inner cladding creep-down 0.075 mm. A newer computation data show that the maximum measured LHR of n-UO2 pin in the PRTF 12.4 kW/m. The next simulation will be done with a higher LHR, up to ~ 25 kW/m. MODEL SIMULASI VARIASI GEOMETRI DAN STRESS-STRAIN DARI PROTOTIP BAHAN BAKAR PIN BATAN SELAMA UJI IRADIASI DI REAKTOR RSG-GAS. Pusat Teknologi Bahan Bakar Nuklir (PTBBN telah menyiapkan tangkai (pin bahan bakar pendek perdana yang berisi pelet UO2 alam dalam kelongsong paduan zircaloy untuk dilakukan uji iradiasi daya naik. Penelitian ini merupakan bagian dari perancangan percobaan iradiasi pertama di PRTF (Power Ramp Test Fasility yang terpasang di reaktor serbaguna RSG-GAS berdaya 30 MW. Telah dilakukan pemodelan dan simulasi kinerja termal mekanikal pin selama iradiasi. Variasi geometri pelet dan kelongsong selama pengujian dimodelkan dengan memperhatikan fenomena ekspansi termal

  2. A nuclear desalination complex with a VK-300 boiling type reactor facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetzov, Y.N.; Mishanina, Y.A.; Romenkov, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    RDIPE has developed a detailed design of an enhanced safety nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) with a VK-300 boiling water reactor for combined heat and power generation. The thermal power of the reactor is 750 MW. The maximum electrical power in the condensation mode is 250 MWe. The maximum heat generation capacity of 400 Gcal/h is reached at 150 MWe. This report describes, in brief, the basic technical concepts for the VK-300 NSSS and the power unit, with an emphasis on enhanced safety and good economic performance. With relatively small power, good technical and economic performance of the VK-300 reactor that is a base for the desalination complex is attained through: reduced capital costs of the nuclear plant construction thanks to technical approaches ensuring maximum simplicity of the reactor design and the NSSS layout; a single-circuit power unit configuration (reactor-turbine) excluding expensive equipment with a lot of metal, less pipelines and valves; reduced construction costs of the basic buildings thanks to reduced construction volumes due to rational arrangement concepts; higher reliability of equipment and reduced maintenance and repair costs; longer reactor design service life of up to 60 years; selection of the best reactor and desalination equipment interface pattern. The report considers the potential application of the VK-300 reactor as a source of energy for distillation desalination units. The heat from the reactor is transferred to the desalination unit via an intermediate circuit. Comparison is made between variants of the reactor integration with desalination units of the following types: multi-stage flash (MSF technology); multi-effect distillation horizontal-tube film units of the DOU GTPA type (MED technology). The NDC capacity with the VK-300 reactor, in terms of distillate, will be more than 200,000 m 3 /day, with the simultaneous output of electric power from the turbine generator buses of around 150 MWe. The variants of the

  3. Seismic analysis of fast breeder reactor block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantenbein, F.

    1990-01-01

    Seismic analysis of LMFBR reactor block is complex due mainly to the fluid structure interaction and the 3D geometry of the structure. Analytical methods which have been developed for this analysis will be briefly described in the paper and applications to a geometry similar to SPX1 will be shown

  4. SAM-CE, Time-Dependent 3-D Neutron Transport, Gamma Transport in Complex Geometry by Monte-Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: The SAM-CE system comprises two Monte Carlo codes, SAM-F and SAM-A. SAM-F supersedes the forward Monte Carlo code, SAM-C. SAM-A is an adjoint Monte Carlo code designed to calculate the response due to fields of primary and secondary gamma radiation. The SAM-CE system is a FORTRAN Monte Carlo computer code designed to solve the time-dependent neutron and gamma-ray transport equations in complex three-dimensional geometries. SAM-CE is applicable for forward neutron calculations and for forward as well as adjoint primary gamma-ray calculations. In addition, SAM-CE is applicable for the gamma-ray stage of the coupled neutron-secondary gamma ray problem, which may be solved in either the forward or the adjoint mode. Time-dependent fluxes, and flux functionals such as dose, heating, count rates, etc., are calculated as functions of energy, time and position. Multiple scoring regions are permitted and these may be either finite volume regions or point detectors or both. Other scores of interest, e.g., collision and absorption densities, etc., are also made. 2 - Method of solution: A special feature of SAM-CE is its use of the 'combinatorial geometry' technique which affords the user geometric capabilities exceeding those available with other commonly used geometric packages. All nuclear interaction cross section data (derived from the ENDF for neutrons and from the UNC-format library for gamma-rays) are tabulated in point energy meshes. The energy meshes for neutrons are internally derived, based on built-in convergence criteria and user- supplied tolerances. Tabulated neutron data for each distinct nuclide are in unique and appropriate energy meshes. Both resolved and unresolved resonance parameters from ENDF data files are treated automatically, and extremely precise and detailed descriptions of cross section behaviour is permitted. Such treatment avoids the ambiguities usually associated with multi-group codes, which use flux

  5. Condensation in complex geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauro, F.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical evaluation of the condensation exchange coefficient can only succeds for well specified cases: small upright or inclined plates, horizontal tubes, small height vertical tubes. Among the main hypotheses accounted for this mathematical development in the case of the condensate, a laminar flow and uniform surface temperature are always considered. In practice certain shapes of surfaces significantly increase the heat transfer during the vapor condensation on a surface wet by the condensate. Such surfaces are rough surfaces such as the condensate is submitted to surface tension effects, negligeable for plane or large curvature surfaces, and the nature of the material may play an important role (temperature gradients). Results from tests on tubes with special shapes, performed in France or out of France, are given [fr

  6. Influence of Irradiance, Flow Rate, Reactor Geometry, and Photopromoter Concentration in Mineralization Kinetics of Methane in Air and in Aqueous Solutions by Photocatalytic Membranes Immobilizing Titanium Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignazio Renato Bellobono

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Photomineralization of methane in air (10.0–1000 ppm (mass/volume of C at 100% relative humidity (dioxygen as oxygen donor was systematically studied at 318±3 K in an annular laboratory-scale reactor by photocatalytic membranes immobilizing titanium dioxide as a function of substrate concentration, absorbed power per unit length of membrane, reactor geometry, and concentration of a proprietary vanadium alkoxide as photopromoter. Kinetics of both substrate disappearance, to yield intermediates, and total organic carbon (TOC disappearance, to yield carbon dioxide, were followed. At a fixed value of irradiance (0.30 W⋅cm-1, the mineralization experiments in gaseous phase were repeated as a function of flow rate (4–400 m3⋅h−1. Moreover, at a standard flow rate of 300 m3⋅h−1, the ratio between the overall reaction volume and the length of the membrane was varied, substantially by varying the volume of reservoir, from and to which circulation of gaseous stream took place. Photomineralization of methane in aqueous solutions was also studied, in the same annular reactor and in the same conditions, but in a concentration range of 0.8–2.0 ppm of C, and by using stoichiometric hydrogen peroxide as an oxygen donor. A kinetic model was employed, from which, by a set of differential equations, four final optimised parameters, k1 and K1, k2 and K2, were calculated, which is able to fit the whole kinetic profile adequately. The influence of irradiance on k1 and k2, as well as of flow rate on K1 and K2, is rationalized. The influence of reactor geometry on k values is discussed in view of standardization procedures of photocatalytic experiments. Modeling of quantum yields, as a function of substrate concentration and irradiance, as well as of concentration of photopromoter, was carried out very satisfactorily. Kinetics of hydroxyl radicals reacting between themselves, leading to hydrogen peroxide, other than with substrate or

  7. Comparison of THALES and VIPRE-01 Subchannel Codes for Loss of Flow and Single Reactor Coolant Pump Rotor Seizure Accidents using Lumped Channel APR1400 Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezdemir, Erdal; Moon, Kang Hoon; Oh, Seung Jong [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yongdeog [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Subchannel analysis plays important role to evaluate safety critical parameters like minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio (MDNBR), peak clad temperature and fuel centerline temperature. In this study, two different subchannel codes, VIPRE-01 (Versatile Internals and Component Program for Reactors: EPRI) and THALES (Thermal Hydraulic AnaLyzer for Enhanced Simulation of core) are examined. In this study, two different transient cases for which MDNBR result play important role are selected to conduct analysis with THALES and VIPRE-01 subchannel codes. In order to get comparable results same core geometry, fuel parameters, correlations and models are selected for each code. MDNBR results from simulations by both code are agree with each other with negligible difference. Whereas, simulations conducted by enabling conduction model in VIPRE-01 shows significant difference from the results of THALES.

  8. Experiences in the D ampersand D of the EBWR reactor complex at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.K.; Boing, L.E.; Fellhauer, C.R.

    1995-02-01

    EBWR went critical in Dec 1957 at 20 MW(t), was upgraded to 100 MW(t) operation. EBWR was shut down July 1967 and placed in dry lay-up. In 1986, the D ampersand D work was planned in 4 phases: final planning and preparations for D ampersand D, removal of reactor systems, removal of reactor vessel complex, and final decontamination and project closeout. Despite precautions, there was an uptake of 241 Am by D ampersand D workers following underwater plasma arc cutting within the pool; the cause was traced to an experimental 241 Pu foil (200 μg) that was lost in the mid-1960s in the reactor vessel. Several major lessons were learned from this episode, among which is the fact that research facilities often involve unusual experiments which may not be recorded. Safety analysis and review procedure for D ampersand D operations need to be carefully considered since they represent considerably different situations than reactor operations. EBWR is one of the very few cases of a prototypic reactor facility designed, operated, tested and now D ampersand D'd by one organization

  9. The Y-12 National Security Complex Foreign Research Reactor Uranium Supply Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, T. [Nuclear Technology and Nonproliferation Programs, B and W Y-12, L.L.C., Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); Keller, A.P. [Disposition and Supply Programs, B and W Y-12, L.L.C., Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The Foreign Research Reactor (FRR) Uranium Supply Program at the Y-12 National Security Complex supports the nonproliferation objectives of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) HEU Disposition, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactors (RERTR), and the United States (U.S.) FRR Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Acceptance Programs. The FRR Supply Program supports the important U.S. government nuclear nonproliferation commitment to serve as a reliable and cost-effective uranium supplier for those foreign research reactors that are converting or have converted to Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel under the RERTR Program. The NNSA Y-12 Site Office maintains the prime contracts with foreign government agencies for the supply of LEU for their research reactors. The LEU is produced by down blending Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) that has been declared surplus to the U.S. national defense needs. The down blending and sale of the LEU supports the Surplus HEU Disposition Program Record of Decision to make the HEU non-weapons usable and to recover the economic value of the uranium to the extent feasible. In addition to uranium metal feedstock for fuel fabrication, Y-12 can produce LEU in different forms to support new fuel development or target fabrication for medical isotope production. With production improvements and efficient delivery preparations, Y-12 continues to successfully support the global research reactor community. (author)

  10. A Three-Dimensional, Immersed Boundary, Finite Volume Method for the Simulation of Incompressible Heat Transfer Flows around Complex Geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Badreddine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work focuses on the development and application of a new finite volume immersed boundary method (IBM to simulate three-dimensional fluid flows and heat transfer around complex geometries. First, the discretization of the governing equations based on the second-order finite volume method on Cartesian, structured, staggered grid is outlined, followed by the description of modifications which have to be applied to the discretized system once a body is immersed into the grid. To validate the new approach, the heat conduction equation with a source term is solved inside a cavity with an immersed body. The approach is then tested for a natural convection flow in a square cavity with and without circular cylinder for different Rayleigh numbers. The results computed with the present approach compare very well with the benchmark solutions. As a next step in the validation procedure, the method is tested for Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS of a turbulent flow around a surface-mounted matrix of cubes. The results computed with the present method compare very well with Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA measurements of the same case, showing that the method can be used for scale-resolving simulations of turbulence as well.

  11. Free energy landscape of siRNA-polycation complexation: Elucidating the effect of molecular geometry, polymer flexibility, and charge neutralization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianvito Grasso

    Full Text Available The success of medical threatments with DNA and silencing interference RNA is strongly related to the design of efficient delivery technologies. Cationic polymers represent an attractive strategy to serve as nucleic-acid carriers with the envisioned advantages of efficient complexation, low cost, ease of production, well-defined size, and low polydispersity index. However, the balance between efficacy and toxicity (safety of these polymers is a challenge and in need of improvement. With the aim of designing more effective polycationic-based gene carriers, many parameters such as carrier morphology, size, molecular weight, surface chemistry, and flexibility/rigidity ratio need to be taken into consideration. In the present work, the binding mechanism of three cationic polymers (polyarginine, polylysine and polyethyleneimine to a model siRNA target is computationally investigated at the atomistic level. In order to better understand the polycationic carrier-siRNA interactions, replica exchange molecular dynamic simulations were carried out to provide an exhaustive exploration of all the possible binding sites, taking fully into account the siRNA flexibility together with the presence of explicit solvent and ions. Moreover, well-tempered metadynamics simulations were employed to elucidate how molecular geometry, polycation flexibility, and charge neutralization affect the siRNA-polycations free energy landscape in term of low-energy binding modes and unbinding free energy barriers. Significant differences among polymer binding modes have been detected, revealing the advantageous binding properties of polyarginine and polylysine compared to polyethyleneimine.

  12. Compound and Geometry-Dependent Pre-Compound Models to Calculate the Nuclear Data for Fusion Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Compound and geometry-dependent pre-compound nuclear reactions are very useful concepts of nuclear theory to calculate cross sections of neutrons of around 14 MeV and below scattered by nuclei of material of installations producing energy of nuclear fusion. If these concepts are used to discuss and improve the experimental data they have to be completed by DWBA-type contributions to the small-step region of the incident neutron which can account for the angular distribution of the scattered neutron because there is the difficulty to separate experimentally the incoming from the scattered beam. The angle integrated cross-section in this region can be shown to be accounted for the surface dependent components of Blanns geometry-dependent precompound mechanism of the statistical state density and level density contributions of the compound and precompound components beeing calculated according to the recent developments of Anzaldo using the analytic number theory. The experimental data have been taken from the results of Hermsdorf, Meister, Sassonov, Seeliger, Seidel, Shahin and of A.Takahashi

  13. Analytical evaluation of neutron diffusion equation for the geometry of very intense continuous high flux pulsed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narain, Rajendra

    1995-01-01

    Using the concept of Very Intense Continuous High Flux Pulsed Reactor to obtain a rotating high flux pulse in an annular core an analytical treatment for the quasi-static solution with a moving reflector is presented. Under quasi-static situation, time averaged values for important parameters like multiplication factor, flux, leakage do not change with time. As a result the instantaneous solution can be considered to be separable in time and space after correcting for the coordinates for the motion of the pulser. The space behaviour of the pulser is considered as exp(-αx 2 ). Movement of delayed neutron precursors is also taken into account. (author). 4 refs

  14. Study of the distributions of flow rate and enthalpy in the sub-channels of a bundle geometry of nuclear reactors in one and two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayoumi, M.A.A.

    1976-10-01

    A bibliographic study shows that the experimental studies examined, have been developed to understand the phenomenon acting on the mixing between the sub-channels of which geometries are such these of rod bundles used in some nuclear reactors. Experimental devices and tests have been developed to study the influence of the following parameters, operating conditions, pressure, flow rate, power brought to the bundle and inlet temperature on the distribution of flow rates and vapor content among the different sub-channels. By means of non isokinetic sampling, one has determined the enthalpy of the fluid participating to the mixing between the communicating sub-channels and it has been shown that the value of this enthalpy depends strongly on the type of fluid flow and that this enthalpy cannot be either the enthalpy of one of the two sub-channels, nor (always) an average of these two enthalpies. The experimental results have been compared with calculations developed with the code FLICA, concerning the mass velocity distribution, the exchange term of linear momentum, and the variation of the transversal enthalpy with regard to the type of fluid flow. A study of local void ratio measurement, by means of optical probes, has been proposed. The present study has been carried out with a smooth geometry [fr

  15. Special geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1990-01-01

    A special manifold is an allowed target manifold for the vector multiplets of D=4, N=2 supergravity. These manifolds are of interest for string theory because the moduli spaces of Calabi-Yau threefolds and c=9, (2,2) conformal field theories are special. Previous work has given a local, coordinate-dependent characterization of special geometry. A global description of special geometries is given herein, and their properties are studied. A special manifold M of complex dimension n is characterized by the existence of a holomorphic Sp(2n+2,R)xGL(1,C) vector bundle over M with a nowhere-vanishing holomorphic section Ω. The Kaehler potential on M is the logarithm of the Sp(2n+2,R) invariant norm of Ω. (orig.)

  16. 3-DB, 3-D Multigroup Diffusion, X-Y-Z, R-Theta-Z, Triangular-Z Geometry, Fast Reactor Burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardie, R.W.; Little, W.W. Jr.; Mroz, W.

    1974-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: 3DB is a three-dimensional (x-y-z, r-theta-z, triangular-z) multigroup diffusion code for use in detailed fast-reactor criticality and burnup analysis. The code can be used to - (a) compute k eff and perform criticality searches on time absorption, reactor composition, and reactor dimensions by means of either a flux or an adjoint model, (b) compute material burnup using a flexible material shuffling scheme, and (c) compute flux distributions for an arbitrary extraneous source. 2 - Method of solution: Eigenvalues are computed by standard source- iteration techniques. Group re-balancing and successive over-relaxation with line inversion are used to accelerate convergence. Adjoint solutions are obtained by inverting the input data and redefining the source terms. Material burnup is by reactor zone. The burnup rate is determined by the zone and energy-averaged cross sections which are recomputed after each time-step. The isotopic chains, which can contain any number of isotopes are formed by the user. The code does not contain built- in or internal chains. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Since variable dimensioning is employed, no simple bounds can be stated

  17. Development of a sensitivity analysis systems in nuclear reactors through generalized perturbation theory at first order in 2 D geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Juan Matias

    2005-01-01

    Perturbation Methods represent a powerful tool to do sensitivity analysis, and they found many aplications in nuclear engineering.As an introduction to this kind of analysis, we develope a program that apply the Generalized Perturbation Theory or GPT Method to bidimensional system of rectangular geometry.We first consider an homogeneous system of non-multiplying material and then an heterogeneous system with region of multiplying material, with the intention of make concret aplications of perturbation method to nuclear engineering problems.The program, that we called Pert, determines neutron fluxes and importance functions applying the Multigroup Diffusion Theory; and also solves the integrals required to calculate sensitivity coefficients.Using this perturbation methods we could verify the low computational cost required to make this kind of analysis and the simplicity of the equations systems involved, allowing us to make elaborates sensitivity analysis for the responses of our interest

  18. Experimental and numerical investigation of shock wave propagation through complex geometry, gas continuous, two-phase media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, James Chien-Chih [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The work presented here investigates the phenomenon of shock wave propagation in gas continuous, two-phase media. The motivation for this work stems from the need to understand blast venting consequences in the HYLIFE inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor. The HYLIFE concept utilizes lasers or heavy ion beams to rapidly heat and compress D-T targets injected into the center of a reactor chamber. A segmented blanket of failing molten lithium or Li2BeF4 (Flibe) jets encircles the reactors central cavity, shielding the reactor structure from radiation damage, absorbing the fusion energy, and breeding more tritium fuel.

  19. Experimental and numerical investigation of shock wave propagation through complex geometry, gas continuous, two-phase media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J. Chien-Chih

    1993-01-01

    The work presented here investigates the phenomenon of shock wave propagation in gas continuous, two-phase media. The motivation for this work stems from the need to understand blast venting consequences in the HYLIFE inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor. The HYLIFE concept utilizes lasers or heavy ion beams to rapidly heat and compress D-T targets injected into the center of a reactor chamber. A segmented blanket of failing molten lithium or Li 2 BeF 4 (Flibe) jets encircles the reactors central cavity, shielding the reactor structure from radiation damage, absorbing the fusion energy, and breeding more tritium fuel

  20. Determination of contaminants in nuclear materials by measuring the capture gamma rays of thermal neutrons in a reactor internal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    A new method for analysis of impurities in nuclear fuel material was developed. Prompt gamma rays following thermal neutron capture, from a sample placed inside the research reactor were analyzed with a solid state high resolution detector. A number of improvements were introduced to improve the background-to-signal ratio, and the sensitivity of the method: use of collimeters for gamma rays and 6 Li 2 CO 3 filters to eliminate thermal neutrons from the beam were supplemented with the application of a pair spectrometer. Using a 42.5 cm 3 true coaxial Ge(Li) detector, and two optically separated NaI (Tl) scintillation detector, the sensitivity of the method for quantitative determination of impurities reached 30 p.p.m. The reproducibility of the results was better than 2%

  1. Presentation of geometries and transient results of TRAC-calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, A.; Lang, U.; Ruehle, R.

    1985-02-01

    The computer code TRAC is used to analyze the transient behaviour of nuclear reactors. The input of a TRAC-Calculation, as well as the produced result files serve for the graphical presentation of the geometries and transient results. This supports the search for errors during input generation and the understanding of complex processes by dynamic presentation of calculational result in colour. (orig.) [de

  2. Evaluation of the use of color-set geometry during lattice physics constants generation for boiling water reactor simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, S.; Ivanov, K.

    2013-01-01

    Current methods for BWR nuclear design and analysis consist of using lattice physics neutron transport methods to generate the two-group homogenized cross-sections that are then used in a nodal diffusion theory code. The lattice transport solutions are performed for a single assembly with reflective boundary conditions, which is a practical approximation. A method is developed to account for assembly exposure distributions (environment) in the core within the lattice transport calculations with the use of color-sets (2x2) geometry. The loading pattern is examined and an appropriate number of characteristic color-set cells are selected for analysis. Treatment of the co-resident exposed fuel within this method is also presented. The calculation process was followed for a recent BWR cycle design with comparisons being performed on both a lattice and core-wide basis to evaluate the proposed method. The lattice based comparisons show noticeable differences in the pin power distribution predictions, which require further investigation to see how this translates into core performance calculations. The core-wide comparisons show minor differences and are generally in a good agreement, which is expected with this small perturbation. A slight improvement was noticed in the reduction of the power distribution uncertainty. However, given the additional amount of work and computer run time increase, further evaluation, especially of core pin power predictions, is needed to consider this method for production level design and safety analysis calculations. (authors)

  3. Simulation of a reactor FBR with hexagonal-Z geometry using the code PARCS 3.1; Simulacion de un reactor FBR con geometria hexagonal-Z usando el codigo PARCS 3.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes F, M. C.; Del Valle G, E. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional s/n, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Filio L, C., E-mail: rf.melisa@gmail.com [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The nuclear reactor core type FBR (Fast Breeder Reactor) was modeled in three dimensions of hexagonal-Z geometry using the code PARCS (Purdue Advanced Reactor Core Simulator) version 3.1 developed by Purdue University researchers. To carry out the modeling of the mentioned reactor was taken the corresponding information to one of the described benchmarks in the document NEACRP-L-330 (3-D Neutron Transport Benchmarks, 1991); fundamentally the corresponding to the geometric data and the cross sections. Being a quick reactor of breeding, known as the Knk-II, for which are considered 4 energy groups without dispersions up. The reactor core is formed by prismatic elements of hexagonal transversal cut where part of them only corresponds to nuclear fuel assemblies. This has four reflector rings and 6 identical control elements that together with the active part of the core is configured with 8 different types of elements.With the extracted information of the mentioned document the entrance file was prepared for PARCS 3.1 only considering a sixth part of the core due to the symmetry that presents their configuration. The NEACRP-L-330 shows a wide range of results reported by those who collaborated in its elaboration using different solution techniques that go from the Monte Carlo method to the approaches S{sub 2} and P{sub 1}. Of all the results were selected those obtained with the code HEXNOD, to which were carried out a comparison of the effective multiplication factor, being smaller differences to the 300 pcm, for three different scenarios: a) with the control bars extracted totally, b) with the semi-inserted control bars and c) with the control bars inserted completely and two different axial meshes, a thick mesh with 14 slices and another fine with 38, that which implies that the results can be considered very similar among if same. Radial maps and axial profiles are included, as much of the power as of the neutrons flow. (Author)

  4. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Masahiro; Kasai, Shigeo.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a lmfbr type reactor wherein effusion of coolants through a loop contact portion is reduced even when fuel assemblies float up, and misloading of reactor core constituting elements is prevented thereby improving the reactor safety. Constitution: The reactor core constituents are secured in the reactor by utilizing the differential pressure between the high-pressure cooling chamber and low-pressure cooling chamber. A resistance port is formed at the upper part of a connecting pipe, and which is connect the low-pressure cooling chamber and the lower surface of the reactor core constituent. This resistance part is formed such that the internal sectional area of the connecting pipe is made larger stepwise toward the upper part, and the cylinder is formed larger so that it profiles the inner surface of the connecting pipe. (Aizawa, K.)

  5. Nuclear power desalinating complex with IRIS reactor plant and Russian distillation desalinating unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostin, V. I.; Panov, Yu.K.; Polunichev, V. I.; Fateev, S. A.; Gureeva, L. V.

    2004-01-01

    This paper has been prepared as a result of Russian activities on the development of nuclear power desalinating complex (NPDC) with the IRIS reactor plant (RP). The purpose of the activities was to develop the conceptual design of power desalinating complex (PDC) and to evaluate technical and economical indices, commercial attractiveness and economical efficiency of PDC based on an IRIS RP with distillation desalinating plants. The paper presents the main results of studies as applied to dual-purpose PDC based on IRIS RP with different types of desalinating plants, namely: characteristics of nuclear power desalinating complex based on IRIS reactor plant using Russian distillation desalinating technologies; prospective options of interface circuits of the IRIS RP with desalinating plants; evaluations of NPDC with IRIS RP output based on selected desalinating technologies for water and electric power supplied to the grid; cost of water generated by NPDC for selected interface circuits made by the IAEA DEEP code as well as by the Russian TEO-INVEST code; cost evaluation results for desalinated water of PDC operating on fossil fuel and conditions for competitiveness of the nuclear PDC based on IRIS RP compared with analog desalinating complexes operating on fossil fuel.(author)

  6. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Masaomi; Kashimura, Kazuo; Inoue, Kazuyuki; Nishioka, Kazuya.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the construction of a reactor containment building, whereby the inspections of the outer wall of a reactor container after the completion of the construction of the reactor building can be easily carried out. Constitution: In a reactor accommodated in a container encircled by a building wall, a space is provided between the container and the building wall encircling the container, and a metal wall is provided in the space so that it is fitted in the building wall in an attachable or detatchable manner. (Aizawa, K.)

  7. Comparison of low enriched uranium (UAl{sub x}-Al and U-Ni) targets with different geometries for the production of molybdenum-99 in the RMB (Brazilian multipurpose reactor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingos, Douglas B.; Silva, Antonio T. e; Joao, Thiago G.; Silva, Jose Eduardo R. da; Angelo, Gabriel; Fedorenko, Giuliana G., E-mail: teixeira@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nishiyama, Pedro J.B. de O., E-mail: pedro.julio@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB), now in the conception design phase, is being designed in Brazil to attend the demand of radiopharmaceuticals in the country and conduct researches in various areas. The new reactor, planned for 30 MW, will replace the IEA-R1 reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. Low enriched uranium (<20% {sup 235}U) UAl{sub x} dispersed in Al (plate geometry) and metallic uranium foil targets (plate and cylinder geometries) are being considered for production of Molybdenum-99 ({sup 99}Mo) by fission. Neutronic and thermal-hydraulics calculations were performed to compare the production of {sup 99}Mo for these targets in the RMB. For the neutronic calculations were utilized the computer codes Hammer-Technion, Citation and Scale and for the thermal-hydraulics calculations were utilized the computer code MTRCR-IEAR1 and ANSYS CFX. (author)

  8. Foreign research reactor uranium supply program: The Y-12 national security complex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, T.; Eddy, B.G.

    2010-01-01

    The Foreign Research Reactor (FRR) Uranium Supply Program at the Y-12 National Security Complex supports the nonproliferation objectives of the HEU Disposition Program, the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program, and the United States FRR Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Acceptance Program. The Y-12 National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Y-12 Site Office maintains the prime contracts with foreign governments for the supply of Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU) for their research reactors. The LEU is produced by down blending Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) that has been declared surplus to the U.S. national defense needs. The down blending and sale of the LEU supports the Surplus HEU Disposition Program Record of Decision to make the HEU non-weapons usable and to recover the economic value of the uranium to the extent feasible. This program supports the important U.S. government and nuclear nonproliferation commitment to serve as a reliable and cost-effective uranium supplier for those foreign research reactors that are converting or have converted to LEU fuel under the guidance of the NNSA RERTR Program. In conjunction with the FRR SNF Acceptance Program which supports the global nonproliferation efforts to disposition U.S.-origin HEU, the Y-12 FRR Uranium Supply Program can provide the LEU for the replacement fuel fabrication. In addition to feedstock for fuel fabrication, Y-12 supplies LEU for target fabrication for medical isotope production. The Y-12 process uses supply forecasting tools, production improvements and efficient delivery preparations to successfully support the global research reactor community

  9. Dynamic Complexity Study of Nuclear Reactor and Process Heat Application Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J'Tia Patrice; Shropshire, David E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the key obstacles and challenges facing the integration of nuclear reactors with process heat applications as they relate to dynamic issues. The paper also presents capabilities of current modeling and analysis tools available to investigate these issues. A pragmatic approach to an analysis is developed with the ultimate objective of improving the viability of nuclear energy as a heat source for process industries. The extension of nuclear energy to process heat industries would improve energy security and aid in reduction of carbon emissions by reducing demands for foreign derived fossil fuels. The paper begins with an overview of nuclear reactors and process application for potential use in an integrated system. Reactors are evaluated against specific characteristics that determine their compatibility with process applications such as heat outlet temperature. The reactor system categories include light water, heavy water, small to medium, near term high-temperature, and far term high temperature reactors. Low temperature process systems include desalination, district heating, and tar sands and shale oil recovery. High temperature processes that support hydrogen production include steam reforming, steam cracking, hydrogen production by electrolysis, and far-term applications such as the sulfur iodine chemical process and high-temperature electrolysis. A simple static matching between complementary systems is performed; however, to gain a true appreciation for system integration complexity, time dependent dynamic analysis is required. The paper identifies critical issues arising from dynamic complexity associated with integration of systems. Operational issues include scheduling conflicts and resource allocation for heat and electricity. Additionally, economic and safety considerations that could impact the successful integration of these systems are considered. Economic issues include the cost differential arising due to an integrated system

  10. Dynamic Complexity Study of Nuclear Reactor and Process Heat Application Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J' Tia Patrice Taylor; David E. Shropshire

    2009-09-01

    Abstract This paper describes the key obstacles and challenges facing the integration of nuclear reactors with process heat applications as they relate to dynamic issues. The paper also presents capabilities of current modeling and analysis tools available to investigate these issues. A pragmatic approach to an analysis is developed with the ultimate objective of improving the viability of nuclear energy as a heat source for process industries. The extension of nuclear energy to process heat industries would improve energy security and aid in reduction of carbon emissions by reducing demands for foreign derived fossil fuels. The paper begins with an overview of nuclear reactors and process application for potential use in an integrated system. Reactors are evaluated against specific characteristics that determine their compatibility with process applications such as heat outlet temperature. The reactor system categories include light water, heavy water, small to medium, near term high-temperature, and far term high temperature reactors. Low temperature process systems include desalination, district heating, and tar sands and shale oil recovery. High temperature processes that support hydrogen production include steam reforming, steam cracking, hydrogen production by electrolysis, and far-term applications such as the sulfur iodine chemical process and high-temperature electrolysis. A simple static matching between complementary systems is performed; however, to gain a true appreciation for system integration complexity, time dependent dynamic analysis is required. The paper identifies critical issues arising from dynamic complexity associated with integration of systems. Operational issues include scheduling conflicts and resource allocation for heat and electricity. Additionally, economic and safety considerations that could impact the successful integration of these systems are considered. Economic issues include the cost differential arising due to an integrated

  11. Investigation on the influence of electrode geometry on characteristics of coaxial dielectric barrier discharge reactor driven by an oscillating microsecond pulsed power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Chuanrun; Liu, Feng; Wang, Qian; Cai, Meiling; Fang, Zhi

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, an oscillating microsecond pulsed power supply with rise time of several tens of nanosecond (ns) is used to excite a coaxial DBD with double layer dielectric barriers. The effects of various electrode geometries by changing the size of inner quartz tube (different electrode gaps) on the discharge uniformity, power deposition, energy efficiency, and operation temperature are investigated by electrical, optical, and temperature diagnostics. The electrical parameters of the coaxial DBD are obtained from the measured applied voltage and current using an equivalent electrical model. The energy efficiency and the power deposition in air gap of coaxial DBD with various electrode geometries are also obtained with the obtained electrical parameters, and the heat loss and operation temperature are analyzed by a heat conduction model. It is found that at the same applied voltage, with the increasing of the air gap, the discharge uniformity becomes worse and the discharge power deposition and the energy efficiency decrease. At 2.5 mm air gap and 24 kV applied voltage, the energy efficiency of the coaxial DBD reaches the maximum value of 68.4%, and the power deposition in air gap is 23.6 W and the discharge uniformity is the best at this case. The corresponding operation temperature of the coaxial DBD reaches 64.3 °C after 900 s operation and the temperature of the inner dielectric barrier is 114.4 °C under thermal balance. The experimental results provide important experimental references and are important to optimize the design and the performance of coaxial DBD reactor.

  12. A spectral nodal method for eigenvalue S{sub N} transport problems in two-dimensional rectangular geometry for energy multigroup nuclear reactor global calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Davi Jose M.; Alves Filho, Hermes; Barros, Ricardo C., E-mail: davijmsilva@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: halves@iprj.uerj.br, E-mail: rcbarros@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Computacional

    2015-07-01

    A spectral nodal method is developed for multigroup x,y-geometry discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) eigenvalue problems for nuclear reactor global calculations. This method uses the conventional multigroup SN discretized spatial balance nodal equations with two non-standard auxiliary equations: the spectral diamond (SD) auxiliary equations for the discretization nodes inside the fuel regions, and the spectral Green's function (SGF) auxiliary equations for the non-multiplying regions, such as the baffle and the reactor. This spectral nodal method is derived from the analytical general solution of the SN transverse integrated nodal equations with constant approximations for the transverse leakage terms within each discretization node. The SD and SGF auxiliary equations have parameters, which are determined to preserve the homogeneous and the particular components of these local general solutions. Therefore, we refer to the offered method as the hybrid SD-SGF-Constant Nodal (SD-SGF-CN) method. The S{sub N} discretized spatial balance equations, together with the SD and the SGF auxiliary equations form the SD-SGF-CN equations. We solve the SD-SGF-CN equations by using the one-node block inversion inner iterations (NBI), wherein the most recent estimates for the incoming group node-edge average or prescribed boundary conditions are used to evaluate the outgoing group node-edge average fluxes in the directions of the S{sub N} transport sweeps, for each estimate of the dominant eigenvalue in the conventional Power outer iterations. We show in numerical calculations that the SD-SGF-CN method is very accurate for coarse-mesh multigroup S{sub N} eigenvalue problems, even though the transverse leakage terms are approximated rather simply. (author)

  13. A spectral nodal method for eigenvalue SN transport problems in two-dimensional rectangular geometry for energy multigroup nuclear reactor global calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Davi Jose M.; Alves Filho, Hermes; Barros, Ricardo C.

    2015-01-01

    A spectral nodal method is developed for multigroup x,y-geometry discrete ordinates (S N ) eigenvalue problems for nuclear reactor global calculations. This method uses the conventional multigroup SN discretized spatial balance nodal equations with two non-standard auxiliary equations: the spectral diamond (SD) auxiliary equations for the discretization nodes inside the fuel regions, and the spectral Green's function (SGF) auxiliary equations for the non-multiplying regions, such as the baffle and the reactor. This spectral nodal method is derived from the analytical general solution of the SN transverse integrated nodal equations with constant approximations for the transverse leakage terms within each discretization node. The SD and SGF auxiliary equations have parameters, which are determined to preserve the homogeneous and the particular components of these local general solutions. Therefore, we refer to the offered method as the hybrid SD-SGF-Constant Nodal (SD-SGF-CN) method. The S N discretized spatial balance equations, together with the SD and the SGF auxiliary equations form the SD-SGF-CN equations. We solve the SD-SGF-CN equations by using the one-node block inversion inner iterations (NBI), wherein the most recent estimates for the incoming group node-edge average or prescribed boundary conditions are used to evaluate the outgoing group node-edge average fluxes in the directions of the S N transport sweeps, for each estimate of the dominant eigenvalue in the conventional Power outer iterations. We show in numerical calculations that the SD-SGF-CN method is very accurate for coarse-mesh multigroup S N eigenvalue problems, even though the transverse leakage terms are approximated rather simply. (author)

  14. Progress Toward Affordable High Fidelity Combustion Simulations Using Filtered Density Functions for Hypersonic Flows in Complex Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozda, Tomasz G.; Quinlan, Jesse R.; Pisciuneri, Patrick H.; Yilmaz, S. Levent

    2012-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the development of subgrid scale (SGS) closures based on a filtered density function (FDF) for large eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent reacting flows. The FDF is the counterpart of the probability density function (PDF) method, which has proven effective in Reynolds averaged simulations (RAS). However, while systematic progress is being made advancing the FDF models for relatively simple flows and lab-scale flames, the application of these methods in complex geometries and high speed, wall-bounded flows with shocks remains a challenge. The key difficulties are the significant computational cost associated with solving the FDF transport equation and numerically stiff finite rate chemistry. For LES/FDF methods to make a more significant impact in practical applications a pragmatic approach must be taken that significantly reduces the computational cost while maintaining high modeling fidelity. An example of one such ongoing effort is at the NASA Langley Research Center, where the first generation FDF models, namely the scalar filtered mass density function (SFMDF) are being implemented into VULCAN, a production-quality RAS and LES solver widely used for design of high speed propulsion flowpaths. This effort leverages internal and external collaborations to reduce the overall computational cost of high fidelity simulations in VULCAN by: implementing high order methods that allow reduction in the total number of computational cells without loss in accuracy; implementing first generation of high fidelity scalar PDF/FDF models applicable to high-speed compressible flows; coupling RAS/PDF and LES/FDF into a hybrid framework to efficiently and accurately model the effects of combustion in the vicinity of the walls; developing efficient Lagrangian particle tracking algorithms to support robust solutions of the FDF equations for high speed flows; and utilizing finite rate chemistry parametrization, such as flamelet models, to reduce

  15. Using SpaceClaimTD Direct for Modeling Components with Complex Geometries for the Thermal Desktop-Based Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabanich, William A., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    SpaceClaim/TD Direct has been used extensively in the development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) thermal model. This paper outlines the workflow for that aspect of the task and includes proposed best practices and lessons learned. The ASRG thermal model was developed to predict component temperatures and power output and to provide insight into the prime contractor's thermal modeling efforts. The insulation blocks, heat collectors, and cold side adapter flanges (CSAFs) were modeled with this approach. The model was constructed using mostly TD finite difference (FD) surfaces/solids. However, some complex geometry could not be reproduced with TD primitives while maintaining the desired degree of geometric fidelity. Using SpaceClaim permitted the import of original CAD files and enabled the defeaturing/repair of those geometries. TD Direct (a SpaceClaim add-on from CRTech) adds features that allowed the "mark-up" of that geometry. These so-called "mark-ups" control how finite element (FE) meshes are to be generated through the "tagging" of features (e.g. edges, solids, surfaces). These tags represent parameters that include: submodels, material properties, material orienters, optical properties, and radiation analysis groups. TD aliases were used for most tags to allow analysis to be performed with a variety of parameter values. "Domain-tags" were also attached to individual and groups of surfaces and solids to allow them to be used later within TD to populate objects like, for example, heaters and contactors. These tools allow the user to make changes to the geometry in SpaceClaim and then easily synchronize the mesh in TD without having to redefine the objects each time as one would if using TDMesher. The use of SpaceClaim/TD Direct helps simplify the process for importing existing geometries and in the creation of high fidelity FE meshes to represent complex parts. It also saves time and effort in the subsequent analysis.

  16. Using SpaceClaim/TD Direct for Modeling Components with Complex Geometries for the Thermal Desktop-Based Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabanich, William

    2014-01-01

    SpaceClaim/TD Direct has been used extensively in the development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) thermal model. This paper outlines the workflow for that aspect of the task and includes proposed best practices and lessons learned. The ASRG thermal model was developed to predict component temperatures and power output and to provide insight into the prime contractors thermal modeling efforts. The insulation blocks, heat collectors, and cold side adapter flanges (CSAFs) were modeled with this approach. The model was constructed using mostly TD finite difference (FD) surfaces solids. However, some complex geometry could not be reproduced with TD primitives while maintaining the desired degree of geometric fidelity. Using SpaceClaim permitted the import of original CAD files and enabled the defeaturing repair of those geometries. TD Direct (a SpaceClaim add-on from CRTech) adds features that allowed the mark-up of that geometry. These so-called mark-ups control how finite element (FE) meshes were generated and allowed the tagging of features (e.g. edges, solids, surfaces). These tags represent parameters that include: submodels, material properties, material orienters, optical properties, and radiation analysis groups. TD aliases were used for most tags to allow analysis to be performed with a variety of parameter values. Domain-tags were also attached to individual and groups of surfaces and solids to allow them to be used later within TD to populate objects like, for example, heaters and contactors. These tools allow the user to make changes to the geometry in SpaceClaim and then easily synchronize the mesh in TD without having to redefine these objects each time as one would if using TD Mesher.The use of SpaceClaim/TD Direct has helped simplify the process for importing existing geometries and in the creation of high fidelity FE meshes to represent complex parts. It has also saved time and effort in the subsequent analysis.

  17. Numerical Simulation of Voltage Electric Field in Complex Geometries for Different Electrode Arrangements using Meshless Local MQ-DQ Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalaal, M.; Soleimani, Soheil; Domairry, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the meshless Local Multi Quadrics-based Differential Quadrature (MQ-DQ) method is applied to obtain the electric field distribution for different applicable irregular geometries. This method is the combination of Differential Quadrature approximation of derivatives and function...

  18. Experimental Approach for the Uncertainty Assessment of 3D Complex Geometry Dimensional Measurements Using Computed Tomography at the mm and Sub-mm Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Roberto; Torralba, Marta; Yagüe-Fabra, José A; Ontiveros, Sinué; Tosello, Guido

    2017-05-16

    The dimensional verification of miniaturized components with 3D complex geometries is particularly challenging. Computed Tomography (CT) can represent a suitable alternative solution to micro metrology tools based on optical and tactile techniques. However, the establishment of CT systems' traceability when measuring 3D complex geometries is still an open issue. In this work, an alternative method for the measurement uncertainty assessment of 3D complex geometries by using CT is presented. The method is based on the micro-CT system Maximum Permissible Error (MPE) estimation, determined experimentally by using several calibrated reference artefacts. The main advantage of the presented method is that a previous calibration of the component by a more accurate Coordinate Measuring System (CMS) is not needed. In fact, such CMS would still hold all the typical limitations of optical and tactile techniques, particularly when measuring miniaturized components with complex 3D geometries and their inability to measure inner parts. To validate the presented method, the most accepted standard currently available for CT sensors, the Verein Deutscher Ingenieure/Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker (VDI/VDE) guideline 2630-2.1 is applied. Considering the high number of influence factors in CT and their impact on the measuring result, two different techniques for surface extraction are also considered to obtain a realistic determination of the influence of data processing on uncertainty. The uncertainty assessment of a workpiece used for micro mechanical material testing is firstly used to confirm the method, due to its feasible calibration by an optical CMS. Secondly, the measurement of a miniaturized dental file with 3D complex geometry is carried out. The estimated uncertainties are eventually compared with the component's calibration and the micro manufacturing tolerances to demonstrate the suitability of the presented CT calibration procedure. The 2U/T ratios resulting from the

  19. Calculation of neutron spectra in the reactor cell of the RA experimental reactor in Vinca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosevski, T.; Altiparmakov, D.; Marinkovic, N.

    1974-01-01

    In the frame of neutron properties of RA experimental reactor the study of energy neutron spectra in the reactor cell are planned. Complex reactor cell geometry, nine cylindrical regions causes high space-energy variations of neutron flux with a significant gradient both in energy and space variables. Treatment of such a complex problem needs adequate methodology which ensures reliable results and control of accuracy. This paper describes in detail the method for calculating group constants based on lattice cell calculation for the need of calculation of reactor core parameters. In 26 group approximation for the energy region from 0 - 10.5 MeV, values of neutron spectra are obtained in 18 space points chosen to describe, with high accuracy, integral reactor cell parameters of primary importance for the reactor core calculation. Obtained space-energy distribution of neutron flux in the reactor cell is up to now unique in the study of neutron properties of Ra reactor [sr

  20. Hyperbolic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Iversen, Birger

    1992-01-01

    Although it arose from purely theoretical considerations of the underlying axioms of geometry, the work of Einstein and Dirac has demonstrated that hyperbolic geometry is a fundamental aspect of modern physics

  1. Developments in special geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohaupt, Thomas; Vaughan, Owen

    2012-01-01

    We review the special geometry of N = 2 supersymmetric vector and hypermultiplets with emphasis on recent developments and applications. A new formulation of the local c-map based on the Hesse potential and special real coordinates is presented. Other recent developments include the Euclidean version of special geometry, and generalizations of special geometry to non-supersymmetric theories. As applications we discuss the proof that the local r-map and c-map preserve geodesic completeness, and the construction of four- and five-dimensional static solutions through dimensional reduction over time. The shared features of the real, complex and quaternionic version of special geometry are stressed throughout.

  2. Multiregion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de; Nair, R.P.K.

    1979-08-01

    The study of reflected reactors can be done employing the multigroup diffusion method. The neutron conservation equations, inside the intervals, can be written by fluxes and group constants. A reflected reactor (one and two groups) for a slab geometry is studied, aplying the continuity of flux and current in the interface. At the end, the appropriated solutions for a infinite cylindrical reactor and for a spherical reactor are presented. (Author) [pt

  3. Twistor geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a detailed exposition of the relation between the geometry of twistor space and the geometry of Minkowski space. The paper has a didactical purpose; no use has been made of differential geometry and cohomology.

  4. Culham conceptual Tokamak reactor MkII. Conceptual layout of buildings for a twin reactor power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, J.A.S.; Harding, N.H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses the conceptual design of the nuclear complex of a 2400 MWe twin fusion reactor power station utilising common services and a single containment building. The design is based upon environmental and maintenance logistical requirements, the provision of adequate storage, workshop and construction facilities and the constraints imposed by the geometry of the main and auxiliary reactor coolant systems. (author)

  5. Impact of Thermal Plumes Generated by Occupant Simulators with Different Complexity of Body Geometry on Airflow Pattern in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska, Daria; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Popiolek, Zbigniew

    2008-01-01

    The impact of thermal plumes generated by human body simulators with different geometry on the airflow pattern in a full scale room with displacement ventilation (supply air temperature 21.6°C, total flow rate 80 L/s) was studied when two seated occupants were simulated first by two thermal...... manikins resembling accurately human body shape and then by two heated cylinders. The manikins and the cylinders had the same surface area of 1.63 m2 and the same heat generation of 73 W. CO2 supplied from the top of the heat sources was used for simulating bio-effluents. CO2 concentration was measured...

  6. Towards the Rational Design of MRI Contrast Agents: Electron Spin Relaxation Is Largely Unaffected by the Coordination Geometry of Gadolinium(III)–DOTA-Type Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Jonathan F.; Clarkson, Robert B.; Helm, Lothar; Moriggi, Loïck; Sherry, A. Dean

    2009-01-01

    Electron-spin relaxation is one of the determining factors in the efficacy of MRI contrast agents. Of all the parameters involved in determining relaxivity it remains the least well understood, particularly as it relates to the structure of the complex. One of the reasons for the poor understanding of electron-spin relaxation is that it is closely related to the ligand-field parameters of the Gd3+ ion that forms the basis of MRI contrast agents and these complexes generally exhibit a structural isomerism that inherently complicates the study of electron spin relaxation. We have recently shown that two DOTA-type ligands could be synthesised that, when coordinated to Gd3+, would adopt well defined coordination geometries and are not subject to the problems of intramolecular motion of other complexes. The EPR properties of these two chelates were studied and the results examined with theory to probe their electron-spin relaxation properties. PMID:18283704

  7. Experimental approach to investigate the dynamics of mixing coolant flow in complex geometry using PIV and PLIF techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutli Ezddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate experimentally the increase of mixing phenomenon in a coolant flow in order to improve the heat transfer, the economical operation and the structural integrity of Light Water Reactors-Pressurized Water Reactors (LWRs-PWRs. Thus the parameters related to the heat transfer process in the system will be investigated. Data from a set of experiments, obtained by using high precision measurement techniques, Particle Image Velocimetry and Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PIV and PLIF, respectively are to improve the basic understanding of turbulent mixing phenomenon and to provide data for CFD code validation. The coolant mixing phenomenon in the head part of a fuel assembly which includes spacer grids has been investigated (the fuel simulator has half-length of a VVER 440 reactor fuel. The two-dimensional velocity vector and temperature fields in the area of interest are obtained by PIV and PLIF technique, respectively. The measurements of the turbulent flow in the regular tube channel around the thermocouple proved that there is rotation and asymmetry in the coolant flow caused by the mixing grid and the geometrical asymmetry of the fuel bundle. Both PIV and PLIF results showed that at the level of the core exit thermocouple the coolant is homogeneous. The discrepancies that could exist between the outlet average temperature of the coolant and the temperature at in-core thermocouple were clarified. Results of the applied techniques showed that both of them can be used as good provider for data base and to validate CFD results.

  8. Imaging the complex geometry of a magma reservoir using FEM-based linear inverse modeling of InSAR data: application to Rabaul Caldera, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchin, Erika; Masterlark, Timothy; Dawson, John; Saunders, Steve; Martì Molist, Joan

    2017-06-01

    We test an innovative inversion scheme using Green's functions from an array of pressure sources embedded in finite-element method (FEM) models to image, without assuming an a-priori geometry, the composite and complex shape of a volcano deformation source. We invert interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data to estimate the pressurization and shape of the magma reservoir of Rabaul caldera, Papua New Guinea. The results image the extended shallow magmatic system responsible for a broad and long-term subsidence of the caldera between 2007 February and 2010 December. Elastic FEM solutions are integrated into the regularized linear inversion of InSAR data of volcano surface displacements in order to obtain a 3-D image of the source of deformation. The Green's function matrix is constructed from a library of forward line-of-sight displacement solutions for a grid of cubic elementary deformation sources. Each source is sequentially generated by removing the corresponding cubic elements from a common meshed domain and simulating the injection of a fluid mass flux into the cavity, which results in a pressurization and volumetric change of the fluid-filled cavity. The use of a single mesh for the generation of all FEM models avoids the computationally expensive process of non-linear inversion and remeshing a variable geometry domain. Without assuming an a-priori source geometry other than the configuration of the 3-D grid that generates the library of Green's functions, the geodetic data dictate the geometry of the magma reservoir as a 3-D distribution of pressure (or flux of magma) within the source array. The inversion of InSAR data of Rabaul caldera shows a distribution of interconnected sources forming an amorphous, shallow magmatic system elongated under two opposite sides of the caldera. The marginal areas at the sides of the imaged magmatic system are the possible feeding reservoirs of the ongoing Tavurvur volcano eruption of andesitic products on the

  9. Impact of zeolite-Y framework on the geometry and reactivity of Ru (III) benzimidazole complexes - A DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Tamilmani; Rajalingam, Renganathan; Balasubramanian, Viswanathan

    2018-03-01

    A detailed comparative Density Functional Theory (DFT) study is made to understand the structural changes of the guest complex due to steric and electronic interactions with the host framework. In this study, Ru(III) benzimidazole and 2- ethyl Ru(III) benzimidazole complexes encapsulated in a supercage of zeolite Y. The zeolitic framework integrity is not disturbed by the intrusion of the large guest complex. A blue shift in the d-d transition observed in the UV-Visible spectroscopic studies of the zeolite encapsulated complexes and they shows a higher catalytic efficiency. Encapsulation of zeolite matrix makes the metal center more viable to nucleophilic attack and favors the phenol oxidation reaction. Based on the theoretical calculations, transition states and structures of reaction intermediates involved in the catalytic cycles are derived.

  10. Linking computer-aided design (CAD) to Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulations for precise implementation of complex treatment head geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, Magdalena; Constantin, Dragos E; Keall, Paul J; Narula, Anisha; Svatos, Michelle; Perl, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Most of the treatment head components of medical linear accelerators used in radiation therapy have complex geometrical shapes. They are typically designed using computer-aided design (CAD) applications. In Monte Carlo simulations of radiotherapy beam transport through the treatment head components, the relevant beam-generating and beam-modifying devices are inserted in the simulation toolkit using geometrical approximations of these components. Depending on their complexity, such approximations may introduce errors that can be propagated throughout the simulation. This drawback can be minimized by exporting a more precise geometry of the linac components from CAD and importing it into the Monte Carlo simulation environment. We present a technique that links three-dimensional CAD drawings of the treatment head components to Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations of dose deposition. (note)

  11. Microinstabilities in complex magnetic field geometries and high-β sheared sheath structure. Progress report, June 1, 1975--February 27, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakshi, P.; Kalman, G.

    1976-02-01

    A new approach for the solution of the Vlasov equation for complex magnetic field geometries has been developed using operator techniques. The general approach is illustrated by determining the perturbed distribution function and density operator for the problem of shear stabilization of drift waves for transverse and arbitrary directions of propagation. The ensuing corrections to stability criteria of current theories are obtained for certain domains of physical parameters. Preliminary work on the integral equation approach to the dispersion relation has been initiated. As a prelude to the study of particle orbits in complex mirror geometries, the adiabatic and non-adiabatic behavior of a harmonic oscillator has been studied using operator methods. High-β, high shear plasma sheath configurations have been studied with the full ion dynamics taken into account and electrons treated in the zero and first order approximation, in the ratio of the electron Larmor radius to the scale length. The resulting sheath structure equation in the lowest order approximation has been solved for certain entering ion distributions, and prepared for computer analysis for others. In this approximation the electron current parallel to magnetic field lines has to be assumed suppressed or predetermined. Equations in the next order approximation include the finite Larmor radius stress tensor. This equation is under study

  12. Quasi-dimensional modeling of a fast-burn combustion dual-plug spark-ignition engine with complex combustion chamber geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altın, İsmail; Bilgin, Atilla

    2015-01-01

    This study builds on a previous parametric investigation using a thermodynamic-based quasi-dimensional (QD) cycle simulation of a spark-ignition (SI) engine with dual-spark plugs. The previous work examined the effects of plug-number and location on some performance parameters considering an engine with a simple cylindrical disc-shaped combustion chamber. In order to provide QD thermodynamic models applicable to complex combustion chamber geometries, a novel approach is considered here: flame-maps, which utilizes a computer aided design (CAD) software (SolidWorks). Flame maps are produced by the CAD software, which comprise all the possible flame radiuses with an increment of one-mm between them, according to the spark plug positions, spark timing, and piston position near the top dead center. The data are tabulated and stored as matrices. Then, these tabulated data are adapted to the previously reported cycle simulation. After testing for simple disc-shaped chamber geometries, the simulation is applied to a real production automobile (Honda-Fit) engine to perform the parametric study. - Highlights: • QD model was applied in dual plug engine with complex realistic combustion chamber. • This method successfully modeled the combustion in the dual-plug Honda-Fit engine. • The same combustion chamber is tested for various spark plug(s) locations. • The centrally located single spark-plug results in the fastest combustion

  13. Modeling of the radiative field in complex geometries using computerized graphical tools. Application to comfort characterization in environments equipped with important radiative sources; Modelisation du champ radiatif dans des geometries complexes a l`aide d`outils infographiques. Application a la caracterisation du confort dans les ambiances munies de sources radiatives importantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manolescu, M; Sperandio, M; Allard, F [La Rochelle Universite, 17 - La Rochelle, LEPTAB (France)

    1997-12-31

    Bibliographic studies in the domain of radiant heat transfers in complex geometries demonstrate the impossibility of resolving such problems using classical analytical methods. The numerical analysis can theoretically be performed successfully but requires enormous computer means. The contribution of this study consists in using computerized graphical techniques to treat general problems of radiant heat transfers in complex geometries. This paper presents the model used, the calculation technique and the optimizations that allow to greatly reduce the computer memory required and the calculation time. The code developed uses evocative images for the synthetic presentation of results which facilitate the searcher`s and conceiver`s choices. Finally, an application to the characterization of thermal comfort in residential environments is developed to illustrate the potentialities of this method. (J.S.) 19 refs.

  14. Modeling of the radiative field in complex geometries using computerized graphical tools. Application to comfort characterization in environments equipped with important radiative sources; Modelisation du champ radiatif dans des geometries complexes a l`aide d`outils infographiques. Application a la caracterisation du confort dans les ambiances munies de sources radiatives importantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manolescu, M.; Sperandio, M.; Allard, F. [La Rochelle Universite, 17 - La Rochelle, LEPTAB (France)

    1996-12-31

    Bibliographic studies in the domain of radiant heat transfers in complex geometries demonstrate the impossibility of resolving such problems using classical analytical methods. The numerical analysis can theoretically be performed successfully but requires enormous computer means. The contribution of this study consists in using computerized graphical techniques to treat general problems of radiant heat transfers in complex geometries. This paper presents the model used, the calculation technique and the optimizations that allow to greatly reduce the computer memory required and the calculation time. The code developed uses evocative images for the synthetic presentation of results which facilitate the searcher`s and conceiver`s choices. Finally, an application to the characterization of thermal comfort in residential environments is developed to illustrate the potentialities of this method. (J.S.) 19 refs.

  15. Industrial complex in organizing the high-speed in-line construction of reactor compartments at the Balakovo NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksakov, A.I.; Kovrigin, Yu.K.; Zhila, V.P.

    1986-01-01

    Qualitatively new technology of reactor compartment construction presupposing organizing of an industrial-mounting in-line complex is described. Maximum level of construction industrialization and noticeable reduction of construction duration are noted to be ensured by means of this technology

  16. MOCUM: A two-dimensional method of characteristics code based on constructive solid geometry and unstructured meshing for general geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xue; Satvat, Nader

    2012-01-01

    Highlight: ► A two-dimensional numerical code based on the method of characteristics is developed. ► The complex arbitrary geometries are represented by constructive solid geometry and decomposed by unstructured meshing. ► Excellent agreement between Monte Carlo and the developed code is observed. ► High efficiency is achieved by parallel computing. - Abstract: A transport theory code MOCUM based on the method of characteristics as the flux solver with an advanced general geometry processor has been developed for two-dimensional rectangular and hexagonal lattice and full core neutronics modeling. In the code, the core structure is represented by the constructive solid geometry that uses regularized Boolean operations to build complex geometries from simple polygons. Arbitrary-precision arithmetic is also used in the process of building geometry objects to eliminate the round-off error from the commonly used double precision numbers. Then, the constructed core frame will be decomposed and refined into a Conforming Delaunay Triangulation to ensure the quality of the meshes. The code is fully parallelized using OpenMP and is verified and validated by various benchmarks representing rectangular, hexagonal, plate type and CANDU reactor geometries. Compared with Monte Carlo and deterministic reference solution, MOCUM results are highly accurate. The mentioned characteristics of the MOCUM make it a perfect tool for high fidelity full core calculation for current and GenIV reactor core designs. The detailed representation of reactor physics parameters can enhance the safety margins with acceptable confidence levels, which lead to more economically optimized designs.

  17. Apparent change in cardiac geometry during single-photon emission tomography thallium-201 acquisition: a complex phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisner, R.L.; Aaron, A.M.; Worthy, M.R.; Boyers, A.S.; Leon, A.R.; Fajman, W.A.; Patterson, R.E.; Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the frequency and extent of changes in heart positon and geometry independent of body motion during stress single-photon emission tomography (SPET) thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging. Following an exercise treadmill test, patients had a 22.1-min SPET acquisition which was followed immediately by a static image acquisition for 1 min with the camera position identical to the first fiew of the SPET study. Point sources were placed on the body to monitor patient motion. Cardiac motion was assessed by an approach which mimicked a cross-correlation technique applied to cardia count profiles along the horizontal and vertical directions from the first view of the SPET study and the static image. A large percentage (87.5%) of cases had some degree of horizontal or vertical motion. Pixel shifts in caridac position of ≥2 pixels (12 mm) occurred in 60% of patients. In 37% of patients who moved the caridac motion was consistent with simple translation of the heart and thus amenable to correction using proposed SPET motion-correction programs. The peak heart rate achieved during stress and the ratio of the heart rate immediately before SPET acquisition to the resting heart rate were determined to be independent predictors of patient motion during SPET acquisition. Cardiac motion changes were minimal at (13.3±2.2) min after cessation of exercise. The implications of these findings for the accuracy of SPET 201 TI require further investigation. (orig.)

  18. Polymerization of propene with modified constrained geometry complexes. Double-bond isomerization in pendant alkenyl groups attached to cyclopentadienyl ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, OKB; Beetstra, DJ; Jekel, AP; Hessen, B; Teuben, JH; Stepnicka, P; Gyepes, R; Horacek, M; Pinkas, J; Mach, K; Beetstra, Dirk J.; Štěpnička, Petr; Horáček, Michal; Štepnicka, P.

    2003-01-01

    Polymerization of propene with dimethylsilylene-bridged (amidocyclopentadienyl) dichlorotitanium( IV) complexes [TiCl2 {eta(5)-1-(t-BuSiMe2N-kappaN)- 2,3,4- Me-3 -5- R-C-5}], where R =Me (1), H (2), Ph (3), 4-fluorophenyl (4), but-2-en-2-yl (5), and butyl (6), combined with excess methylaluminoxane

  19. Mathematics Teachers' Visualization of Complex Number Multiplication and the Roots of Unity in a Dynamic Geometry Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglayan, Gunhan

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative research, drawing on the theoretical frameworks by Even (1990, 1993) and Sfard (2007), investigated five high school mathematics teachers' geometric interpretations of complex number multiplication along with the roots of unity. The main finding was that mathematics teachers constructed the modulus, the argument, and the conjugate…

  20. Optical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, I.; Trautman, A.

    1988-01-01

    The geometry of classical physics is Lorentzian; but weaker geometries are often more appropriate: null geodesics and electromagnetic fields, for example, are well known to be objects of conformal geometry. To deal with a single null congruence, or with the radiative electromagnetic fields associated with it, even less is needed: flag geometry for the first, optical geometry, with which this paper is chiefly concerned, for the second. The authors establish a natural one-to-one correspondence between optical geometries, considered locally, and three-dimensional Cauchy-Riemann structures. A number of Lorentzian geometries are shown to be equivalent from the optical point of view. For example the Goedel universe, the Taub-NUT metric and Hauser's twisting null solution have an optical geometry isomorphic to the one underlying the Robinson congruence in Minkowski space. The authors present general results on the problem of lifting a CR structure to a Lorentz manifold and, in particular, to Minkowski space; and exhibit the relevance of the deviation form to this problem

  1. A robust and efficient finite volume scheme for the discretization of diffusive flux on extremely skewed meshes in complex geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, Philippe; Ahipo, Yves Marcel; Louste, Christophe

    2009-08-01

    In this paper an improved finite volume scheme to discretize diffusive flux on a non-orthogonal mesh is proposed. This approach, based on an iterative technique initially suggested by Khosla [P.K. Khosla, S.G. Rubin, A diagonally dominant second-order accurate implicit scheme, Computers and Fluids 2 (1974) 207-209] and known as deferred correction, has been intensively utilized by Muzaferija [S. Muzaferija, Adaptative finite volume method for flow prediction using unstructured meshes and multigrid approach, Ph.D. Thesis, Imperial College, 1994] and later Fergizer and Peric [J.H. Fergizer, M. Peric, Computational Methods for Fluid Dynamics, Springer, 2002] to deal with the non-orthogonality of the control volumes. Using a more suitable decomposition of the normal gradient, our scheme gives accurate solutions in geometries where the basic idea of Muzaferija fails. First the performances of both schemes are compared for a Poisson problem solved in quadrangular domains where control volumes are increasingly skewed in order to test their robustness and efficiency. It is shown that convergence properties and the accuracy order of the solution are not degraded even on extremely skewed mesh. Next, the very stable behavior of the method is successfully demonstrated on a randomly distorted grid as well as on an anisotropically distorted one. Finally we compare the solution obtained for quadrilateral control volumes to the ones obtained with a finite element code and with an unstructured version of our finite volume code for triangular control volumes. No differences can be observed between the different solutions, which demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach.

  2. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibayashi, Toru.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a boiling water reactor which can enhance a quake resisting strength and flatten power distribution. Structure: At least more than four fuel bundles, in which a plurality of fuel rods are arranged in lattice fashion which upper and lower portions are supported by tie-plates, are bundled and then covered by a square channel box. The control rod is movably arranged within a space formed by adjoining channel boxes. A spacer of trapezoidal section is disposed in the central portion on the side of the channel box over substantially full length in height direction, and a neutron instrumented tube is disposed in the central portion inside the channel box. Thus, where a horizontal load is exerted due to earthquake or the like, the spacers come into contact with each other to support the channel box and prevent it from abnormal vibrations. (Furukawa, Y.)

  3. Baikal-1 stand complex. Preparation and carrying out of the first energy start-up of the IVG-1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhomirov, L.N.

    1995-01-01

    The IVG-1 reactor was a first ground prototype of nuclear rocket engine. The reactor was built on the site 10 of the Semipalatinsk test site. Since the first energy start-up in 1975 the reactor was exploited 14 years till its modernization in 1989. The Bajkal-1 stand complex was designed and built for the carrying out of tests for fuel assemblies of different modifications. The energy start-up has been sum of long creative work of different research and constructive staffs on creation of high-temperature gas-cooled IVG-1 reactor. The history of construction, project and assembling of the stand complex is presented. Complex start and put works were carried out in the December 1974. Control physical start-up was carried out in the January 1975. Cold start-up by hydrogen was in the February 1975. Hot start-up was in the March 1975. The result of the hot start-up was experimental confirmation of metodics of thermohydrovlical estimations. 2 figs., 3 tabs

  4. NF-6 program complex for BESM-6 computation of the basic neutron-physical characteristics of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zizin, M.N.; Savochkina, O.A.; Chukhlova, O.P.

    1978-01-01

    A structure of standard designations is described and semantics of a number of standard values used in a NF-6 program complex is given. Main source data and results of neutron-physical reactor calculation are standard values, the peculiarities of FORTRAN and ALGOL-GDR algorithm languages in the DUBNA monitoring system were taken account of. As a base of standard values list the FIHAR system list, supplemented with new standard designations for integral reactor characteristics, is used. Developed is also a list of standard values to organize the exchange with external memory in the process of task solution and long-range storage

  5. Cation and anion dependence of stable geometries and stabilization energies of alkali metal cation complexes with FSA(-), FTA(-), and TFSA(-) anions: relationship with physicochemical properties of molten salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Seiji; Kubota, Keigo; Matsumoto, Hajime

    2013-12-19

    Stable geometries and stabilization energies (Eform) of the alkali metal complexes with bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide, (fluorosulfonyl)(trifluoromethylslufonyl)amide and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (FSA(-), FTA(-) and TFSA(-)) were studied by ab initio molecular orbital calculations. The FSA(-) complexes prefer the bidentate structures in which two oxygen atoms of two SO2 groups have contact with the metal cation. The FTA(-) and TFSA(-) complexes with Li(+) and Na(+) prefer the bidentate structures, while the FTA(-) and TFSA(-) complexes with Cs(+) prefer tridentate structures in which the metal cation has contact with two oxygen atoms of an SO2 group and one oxygen atom of another SO2 group. The two structures are nearly isoenergetic in the FTA(-) and TFSA(-) complexes with K(+) and Rb(+). The magnitude of Eform depends on the alkali metal cation significantly. The Eform calculated for the most stable TFSA(-) complexes with Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Rb(+) and Cs(+) cations at the MP2/6-311G** level are -137.2, -110.5, -101.1, -89.6, and -84.1 kcal/mol, respectively. The viscosity and ionic conductivity of the alkali TFSA molten salts have strong correlation with the magnitude of the attraction. The viscosity increases and the ionic conductivity decreases with the increase of the attraction. The melting points of the alkali TFSA and alkali BETA molten salts also have correlation with the magnitude of the Eform, which strongly suggests that the magnitude of the attraction play important roles in determining the melting points of these molten salts. The anion dependence of the Eform calculated for the complexes is small (less than 2.9 kcal/mol). This shows that the magnitude of the attraction is not the cause of the low melting points of alkali FTA molten salts compared with those of corresponding alkali TFSA molten salts. The electrostatic interactions are the major source of the attraction in the complexes. The electrostatic energies for the most stable TFSA

  6. Architectural geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut; Eigensatz, Michael; Vaxman, Amir; Wallner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Around 2005 it became apparent in the geometry processing community that freeform architecture contains many problems of a geometric nature to be solved, and many opportunities for optimization which however require geometric understanding. This area of research, which has been called architectural geometry, meanwhile contains a great wealth of individual contributions which are relevant in various fields. For mathematicians, the relation to discrete differential geometry is significant, in particular the integrable system viewpoint. Besides, new application contexts have become available for quite some old-established concepts. Regarding graphics and geometry processing, architectural geometry yields interesting new questions but also new objects, e.g. replacing meshes by other combinatorial arrangements. Numerical optimization plays a major role but in itself would be powerless without geometric understanding. Summing up, architectural geometry has become a rewarding field of study. We here survey the main directions which have been pursued, we show real projects where geometric considerations have played a role, and we outline open problems which we think are significant for the future development of both theory and practice of architectural geometry.

  7. Architectural geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2014-11-26

    Around 2005 it became apparent in the geometry processing community that freeform architecture contains many problems of a geometric nature to be solved, and many opportunities for optimization which however require geometric understanding. This area of research, which has been called architectural geometry, meanwhile contains a great wealth of individual contributions which are relevant in various fields. For mathematicians, the relation to discrete differential geometry is significant, in particular the integrable system viewpoint. Besides, new application contexts have become available for quite some old-established concepts. Regarding graphics and geometry processing, architectural geometry yields interesting new questions but also new objects, e.g. replacing meshes by other combinatorial arrangements. Numerical optimization plays a major role but in itself would be powerless without geometric understanding. Summing up, architectural geometry has become a rewarding field of study. We here survey the main directions which have been pursued, we show real projects where geometric considerations have played a role, and we outline open problems which we think are significant for the future development of both theory and practice of architectural geometry.

  8. Beautiful geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Maor, Eli

    2014-01-01

    If you've ever thought that mathematics and art don't mix, this stunning visual history of geometry will change your mind. As much a work of art as a book about mathematics, Beautiful Geometry presents more than sixty exquisite color plates illustrating a wide range of geometric patterns and theorems, accompanied by brief accounts of the fascinating history and people behind each. With artwork by Swiss artist Eugen Jost and text by acclaimed math historian Eli Maor, this unique celebration of geometry covers numerous subjects, from straightedge-and-compass constructions to intriguing configur

  9. An inexpensive and fast method for infiltration coating of complex geometry matrices for ISOL production target applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Y.; Alton, G.D.; Bilheux, J.-C.

    2005-01-01

    An inexpensive, fast, and close to universal infiltration coating technique has been developed for fabricating fast diffusion-release ISOL targets. Targets are fabricated by deposition of finely divided (∼1μm) compound materials in a paint-slurry onto highly permeable, complex structure reticulated-vitreous-carbon-foam (RVCF) matrices, followed by thermal heat treatment. In this article, we describe the coating method and present information on the physical integrity, uniformity of deposition, and matrix adherence of SiC, HfC and UC 2 targets, destined for on-line use as targets at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF)

  10. Performance of a fine-grained parallel model for multi-group nodal-transport calculations in three-dimensional pin-by-pin reactor geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masahiro, Tatsumi; Akio, Yamamoto

    2003-01-01

    A production code SCOPE2 was developed based on the fine-grained parallel algorithm by the red/black iterative method targeting parallel computing environments such as a PC-cluster. It can perform a depletion calculation in a few hours using a PC-cluster with the model based on a 9-group nodal-SP3 transport method in 3-dimensional pin-by-pin geometry for in-core fuel management of commercial PWRs. The present algorithm guarantees the identical convergence process as that in serial execution, which is very important from the viewpoint of quality management. The fine-mesh geometry is constructed by hierarchical decomposition with introduction of intermediate management layer as a block that is a quarter piece of a fuel assembly in radial direction. A combination of a mesh division scheme forcing even meshes on each edge and a latency-hidden communication algorithm provided simplicity and efficiency to message passing to enhance parallel performance. Inter-processor communication and parallel I/O access were realized using the MPI functions. Parallel performance was measured for depletion calculations by the 9-group nodal-SP3 transport method in 3-dimensional pin-by-pin geometry with 340 x 340 x 26 meshes for full core geometry and 170 x 170 x 26 for quarter core geometry. A PC cluster that consists of 24 Pentium-4 processors connected by the Fast Ethernet was used for the performance measurement. Calculations in full core geometry gave better speedups compared to those in quarter core geometry because of larger granularity. Fine-mesh sweep and feedback calculation parts gave almost perfect scalability since granularity is large enough, while 1-group coarse-mesh diffusion acceleration gave only around 80%. The speedup and parallel efficiency for total computation time were 22.6 and 94%, respectively, for the calculation in full core geometry with 24 processors. (authors)

  11. Practice in development and utilization of program-technical complex (PTK) in in-reactor control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribov, A.A.; Kuzil, A.C.; Padun, S.P.; Surnachov, S.I.; Jakovlev, G.V.

    2001-01-01

    Experience with the development and utilization of the program-technical complex PTK 'KRUIZ' is analyzed in the paper. A peculiarity of PTK is the orientation on acquisition, processing and diagnostics of signals from in-reactor sensors (thermocouples and SPD). The PTK 'KRUIZ' represents a new generation of tools open for further development, oriented specifically on the use in in-reactor control systems in modernized and built power units of the WWER type. In the PTK 'KRUIZ', methods, models and algorithms proved in nuclear power plants are used accounting for the utilization of up to date technical tools and systematic technical solutions. Experience with the use of basic elements of the PTK 'KRUIZ' at existing WWER reactors including peculiarities of temperature control in nuclear power plants are also dealt within the paper. (Authors)

  12. Analytische Geometrie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemnitz, Arnfried

    Der Grundgedanke der Analytischen Geometrie besteht darin, dass geometrische Untersuchungen mit rechnerischen Mitteln geführt werden. Geometrische Objekte werden dabei durch Gleichungen beschrieben und mit algebraischen Methoden untersucht.

  13. Algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Lefschetz, Solomon

    2005-01-01

    An introduction to algebraic geometry and a bridge between its analytical-topological and algebraical aspects, this text for advanced undergraduate students is particularly relevant to those more familiar with analysis than algebra. 1953 edition.

  14. Advanced 3D tools used in reverse engineering and ray tracing simulation of phased array inspection of turbine components with complex geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daks, W.; Kovacshazy, C.; Mair, D.; Ciorau, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper outlines the practical aspects of reverse engineering and the integration of multiple pieces of software (Drafting, CNC Machining, Ray Tracing, Inspection Simulation Scenario and Phased Array UT Analysis), in order to inspect turbine components comprised of complex geometry. The CNC software, Mastercam, and design software, CADKEY/FastSURF, were used to validate the phased-array automated and manual inspection of blade root, rotor steeples and disk-blade rim attachment. The integration of a 3D part in the software engine, Imagine 3D and SimScan, as well as Tomoview analysis (specimen feature) is based on CADKEY Developer Kit - IGES/SAT file format. A generic Ray Tracing simulation for multi-probe beam was integrated into Imagine 3D. Representative examples of reference blocks and mock-ups, UT simulation and phased-array data comparison are presented. (author)

  15. Development of Quality Assessment Techniques for Large Eddy Simulation of Propulsion and Power Systems in Complex Geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacaze, Guilhem [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Oefelein, Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Large-eddy-simulation (LES) is quickly becoming a method of choice for studying complex thermo-physics in a wide range of propulsion and power systems. It provides a means to study coupled turbulent combustion and flow processes in parameter spaces that are unattainable using direct-numerical-simulation (DNS), with a degree of fidelity that can be far more accurate than conventional engineering methods such as the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approx- imation. However, development of predictive LES is complicated by the complex interdependence of different type of errors coming from numerical methods, algorithms, models and boundary con- ditions. On the other hand, control of accuracy has become a critical aspect in the development of predictive LES for design. The objective of this project is to create a framework of metrics aimed at quantifying the quality and accuracy of state-of-the-art LES in a manner that addresses the myriad of competing interdependencies. In a typical simulation cycle, only 20% of the computational time is actually usable. The rest is spent in case preparation, assessment, and validation, because of the lack of guidelines. This work increases confidence in the accuracy of a given solution while min- imizing the time obtaining the solution. The approach facilitates control of the tradeoffs between cost, accuracy, and uncertainties as a function of fidelity and methods employed. The analysis is coupled with advanced Uncertainty Quantification techniques employed to estimate confidence in model predictions and calibrate model's parameters. This work has provided positive conse- quences on the accuracy of the results delivered by LES and will soon have a broad impact on research supported both by the DOE and elsewhere.

  16. Blue copper model complexes with distorted tetragonal geometry acting as effective electron-transfer mediators in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Shigeki; Wada, Yuji; Yanagida, Shozo; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2005-07-06

    The electron self-exchange rate constants of blue copper model complexes, [(-)-sparteine-N,N'](maleonitriledithiolato-S,S')copper ([Cu(SP)(mmt)])(0/)(-), bis(2,9-dimethy-1,10-phenanthroline)copper ([Cu(dmp)(2)](2+/+)), and bis(1,10-phenanthroline)copper ([Cu(phen)(2)](2+/+)) have been determined from the rate constants of electron transfer from a homologous series of ferrocene derivatives to the copper(II) complexes in light of the Marcus theory of electron transfer. The resulting electron self-exchange rate constant increases in the order: [Cu(phen)(2)](2+/+) geometry. The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) were constructed using the copper complexes as redox couples to compare the photoelectrochemical responses with those using the conventional I(3)(-)/I(-) couple. The light energy conversion efficiency (eta) values under illumination of simulated solar light irradiation (100 mW/cm(2)) of DSSCs using [Cu(phen)(2)](2+/+), [Cu(dmp)(2)](2+/+), and [Cu(SP)(mmt)](0/)(-) were recorded as 0.1%, 1.4%, and 1.3%, respectively. The maximum eta value (2.2%) was obtained for a DSSC using the [Cu(dmp)(2)](2+/+) redox couple under the light irradiation of 20 mW/cm(2) intensity, where a higher open-circuit voltage of the cell was attained as compared to that of the conventional I(3)(-)/I(-) couple.

  17. Comparative performance of UASB and anaerobic hybrid reactors for the treatment of complex phenolic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Anushuya; Surampalli, Rao Y

    2012-11-01

    The performance of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and an anaerobic hybrid reactor (AHR) was investigated for the treatment of simulated coal wastewater containing toxic phenolics at different hydraulic retention times (0.75-0.33d). Fast start-up and granulation of biomass could be achieved in an AHR (45d) than UASB (58d) reactor. Reduction of HRT from 1.5 to 0.33d resulted in a decline in phenolics removal efficiency from 99% to 77% in AHR and 95% to 68% in UASB reactor respectively. AHR could withstand 2.5 times the selected phenolics loading compared to UASB reactor that could not withstand even 1.2 times the selected phenolics loading. Residence time distribution (RTD) study revealed a plug flow regime in the AHR and completely mixed regime in UASB reactor respectively. Energy economics of the reactors revealed that 12,159MJd(-1) more energy can be generated using AHR than UASB reactor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 2015 Annual Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This report describes conditions and information, as required by the state of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality Reuse Permit I-161-02, for the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds located at Idaho National Laboratory from November 1, 2014–October 31, 2015. The effective date of Reuse Permit I-161-02 is November 20, 2014 with an expiration date of November 19, 2019.

  19. 2015 Annual Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Michael George

    2016-01-01

    This report describes conditions and information, as required by the state of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality Reuse Permit I-161-02, for the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds located at Idaho National Laboratory from November 1, 2014-October 31, 2015. The effective date of Reuse Permit I-161-02 is November 20, 2014 with an expiration date of November 19, 2019.

  20. Lectures on Symplectic Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Ana Cannas

    2001-01-01

    The goal of these notes is to provide a fast introduction to symplectic geometry for graduate students with some knowledge of differential geometry, de Rham theory and classical Lie groups. This text addresses symplectomorphisms, local forms, contact manifolds, compatible almost complex structures, Kaehler manifolds, hamiltonian mechanics, moment maps, symplectic reduction and symplectic toric manifolds. It contains guided problems, called homework, designed to complement the exposition or extend the reader's understanding. There are by now excellent references on symplectic geometry, a subset of which is in the bibliography of this book. However, the most efficient introduction to a subject is often a short elementary treatment, and these notes attempt to serve that purpose. This text provides a taste of areas of current research and will prepare the reader to explore recent papers and extensive books on symplectic geometry where the pace is much faster. For this reprint numerous corrections and cl...

  1. Introduction to tropical geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Maclagan, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Tropical geometry is a combinatorial shadow of algebraic geometry, offering new polyhedral tools to compute invariants of algebraic varieties. It is based on tropical algebra, where the sum of two numbers is their minimum and the product is their sum. This turns polynomials into piecewise-linear functions, and their zero sets into polyhedral complexes. These tropical varieties retain a surprising amount of information about their classical counterparts. Tropical geometry is a young subject that has undergone a rapid development since the beginning of the 21st century. While establishing itself as an area in its own right, deep connections have been made to many branches of pure and applied mathematics. This book offers a self-contained introduction to tropical geometry, suitable as a course text for beginning graduate students. Proofs are provided for the main results, such as the Fundamental Theorem and the Structure Theorem. Numerous examples and explicit computations illustrate the main concepts. Each of t...

  2. The new electricity of France PWR: calculation scheme of neutron leakages from the reactor cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergnaud, T.; Bourdet, L.; Nimal, J.C.; Brandicourt, G.; Champion, G.

    1987-04-01

    A new calculation scheme is adapted to evaluate neutron fluxes in the reactor cavity and the containment of next french PWR. In this scheme a large part is given to Monte Carlo method, coupled with SN-method, in order to take into account multiple neutron diffusions and the complexity of the reactor geometry

  3. Effect of hydraulic retention time on the biodegradation of complex phenolic mixture from simulated coal wastewater in hybrid UASB reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishnan, Anushuya [Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Gupta, Sudhir Kumar [Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)], E-mail: skgupta@iitb.ac.in

    2008-05-01

    This study describes the feasibility of anaerobic treatment of complex phenolics mixture from a simulated synthetic coal wastewater using four identical 13.5 L (effective volume) bench scale hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB) (combining UASB + anaerobic filter) reactors at four different hydraulic retention times (HRT) under mesophilic (27 {+-} 5 {sup o}C) conditions. Synthetic coal wastewater with an average chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 2240 mg/L and phenolics concentration of 752 mg/L was used as substrate. The phenolics contained phenol (490 mg/L); m-, o-, p-cresols (123.0, 58.6, 42 mg/L); 2,4-, 2,5-, 3,4- and 3,5-dimethyl phenols (6.3, 6.3, 4.4 and 21.3 mg/L) as major phenolic compounds. The study demonstrated that at optimum HRT, 24 h, and phenolic loading rate of 0.75 g COD/(m{sup 3}-d), the phenolics and COD removal efficiency of the reactors were 96% and 86%, respectively. Bio-kinetic models were applied to data obtained from experimental studies in hybrid UASB reactor. Grau second-order multi-component substrate removal model was best fitted to the hybrid UASB reactor. The second-order substrate removal rate constant (k{sub 2(s)}) was found as 1.72 h{sup -1} for the hybrid reactor treating complex phenolic mixture. Morphological examination of the sludge revealed rod-type Methanothrix-like, cells to be dominant on the surface.

  4. Effect of hydraulic retention time on the biodegradation of complex phenolic mixture from simulated coal wastewater in hybrid UASB reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishnan, Anushuya; Gupta, Sudhir Kumar

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the feasibility of anaerobic treatment of complex phenolics mixture from a simulated synthetic coal wastewater using four identical 13.5 L (effective volume) bench scale hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB) (combining UASB + anaerobic filter) reactors at four different hydraulic retention times (HRT) under mesophilic (27 ± 5 o C) conditions. Synthetic coal wastewater with an average chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 2240 mg/L and phenolics concentration of 752 mg/L was used as substrate. The phenolics contained phenol (490 mg/L); m-, o-, p-cresols (123.0, 58.6, 42 mg/L); 2,4-, 2,5-, 3,4- and 3,5-dimethyl phenols (6.3, 6.3, 4.4 and 21.3 mg/L) as major phenolic compounds. The study demonstrated that at optimum HRT, 24 h, and phenolic loading rate of 0.75 g COD/(m 3 -d), the phenolics and COD removal efficiency of the reactors were 96% and 86%, respectively. Bio-kinetic models were applied to data obtained from experimental studies in hybrid UASB reactor. Grau second-order multi-component substrate removal model was best fitted to the hybrid UASB reactor. The second-order substrate removal rate constant (k 2(s) ) was found as 1.72 h -1 for the hybrid reactor treating complex phenolic mixture. Morphological examination of the sludge revealed rod-type Methanothrix-like, cells to be dominant on the surface

  5. Analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Burdette, A C

    1971-01-01

    Analytic Geometry covers several fundamental aspects of analytic geometry needed for advanced subjects, including calculus.This book is composed of 12 chapters that review the principles, concepts, and analytic proofs of geometric theorems, families of lines, the normal equation of the line, and related matters. Other chapters highlight the application of graphing, foci, directrices, eccentricity, and conic-related topics. The remaining chapters deal with the concept polar and rectangular coordinates, surfaces and curves, and planes.This book will prove useful to undergraduate trigonometric st

  6. Geometry Revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    Both classical geometry and modern differential geometry have been active subjects of research throughout the 20th century and lie at the heart of many recent advances in mathematics and physics. The underlying motivating concept for the present book is that it offers readers the elements of a modern geometric culture by means of a whole series of visually appealing unsolved (or recently solved) problems that require the creation of concepts and tools of varying abstraction. Starting with such natural, classical objects as lines, planes, circles, spheres, polygons, polyhedra, curves, surfaces,

  7. Vector geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Gilbert de B

    2011-01-01

    This brief undergraduate-level text by a prominent Cambridge-educated mathematician explores the relationship between algebra and geometry. An elementary course in plane geometry is the sole requirement for Gilbert de B. Robinson's text, which is the result of several years of teaching and learning the most effective methods from discussions with students. Topics include lines and planes, determinants and linear equations, matrices, groups and linear transformations, and vectors and vector spaces. Additional subjects range from conics and quadrics to homogeneous coordinates and projective geom

  8. Noncommutative geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Connes, Alain

    1994-01-01

    This English version of the path-breaking French book on this subject gives the definitive treatment of the revolutionary approach to measure theory, geometry, and mathematical physics developed by Alain Connes. Profusely illustrated and invitingly written, this book is ideal for anyone who wants to know what noncommutative geometry is, what it can do, or how it can be used in various areas of mathematics, quantization, and elementary particles and fields.Key Features* First full treatment of the subject and its applications* Written by the pioneer of this field* Broad applications in mathemat

  9. Computational synthetic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bokowski, Jürgen

    1989-01-01

    Computational synthetic geometry deals with methods for realizing abstract geometric objects in concrete vector spaces. This research monograph considers a large class of problems from convexity and discrete geometry including constructing convex polytopes from simplicial complexes, vector geometries from incidence structures and hyperplane arrangements from oriented matroids. It turns out that algorithms for these constructions exist if and only if arbitrary polynomial equations are decidable with respect to the underlying field. Besides such complexity theorems a variety of symbolic algorithms are discussed, and the methods are applied to obtain new mathematical results on convex polytopes, projective configurations and the combinatorics of Grassmann varieties. Finally algebraic varieties characterizing matroids and oriented matroids are introduced providing a new basis for applying computer algebra methods in this field. The necessary background knowledge is reviewed briefly. The text is accessible to stud...

  10. Projective Geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mathematicians are trained to use very precise language, and so find it hard to simplify and state .... thing. If you take a plane on which there are two such triangles which enjoy the above ... within this geometry to simplify things if needed.

  11. Geometry -----------~--------------RESONANCE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Parallel: A pair of lines in a plane is said to be parallel if they do not meet. Mathematicians were at war ... Subsequently, Poincare, Klein, Beltrami and others refined non-. Euclidean geometry. ... plane divides the plane into two half planes and.

  12. Principle of an operational complexity index for the characterization of the human factor relevance of future reactors concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papin, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    With the increasing reliability of the modern technological systems, the human contribution to the global risk in the operation of industrial systems is becoming more and more significant : in the nuclear reactor operation for example, a recent PSA estimation of this contribution is about 25% of the risk of core melting, all situations considered. This urges the designers of future nuclear reactors to consider the minimisation of this Human Factor (HF) contribution, at the very early stage of their design : the experience feedback shows that this is indeed at this stage that the fundamental design options, impacting the most the human reliability in operation, are fixed. The problem is that at these early design stages, it is also quite impossible to apply formal human reliability methods to support this HF optimisation, while the precise operating conditions of the reactor are not yet known in enough details. In this paper, another approach of the HF evaluation during the design, based on the functional and operational complexity assessment, is proposed. As an illustration, this approach is used to compare various concepts of Pressurized Water Reactors from the point of view of the Human Factor relevance. (Author)

  13. Contributions to the fundamental optimization and higher reliability of nuclear reactor complex control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapu, C.

    1979-01-01

    The reference control system automatically adjusted to the reactor state and the reliability analysis of the control systems which survive the first defect with given solution for detecting all kinds of defects in the system with parallel redundancy, supply additional data on the high performance and largely available solutions. The results of the paper have been applied in the following cases: The reference control system automatically adapted to the reactor state has been tested with the VVR-S reactor and was patented. The solutions advanced for period and reactivity monitoring by the numerical technique were worked up during the training in France-CEN-Saclay and have been applied on the Ulysse reactor at INSTN (CERN-Saclay). At the same time, the papers published on these subjects have been cited in ''Revue General d'Electricite (February 1976)'' and in ''MCH/MENT 10 - Materiel Electronique Nucleaire pour tableau de commande et de controle (1976)'' issued by CEA France, as marking a progress in the control of nuclear power plants. The reliability analysis of the control system with parallel redundancy was performed during a specialization in France and on the basis of this analysis, the control system for the high flux reactor in Grenoble was selected. (author)

  14. Optimizing a neutron-beam focusing device for the direct geometry time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF at the FRM II reactor source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, N. G.; Simeoni, G. G.; Lefmann, K.

    2016-01-01

    A dedicated beam-focusing device has been designed for the direct geometry thermal-cold neutron time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF at the neutron facility FRM II (Garching, Germany). The prototype, based on the compressed Archimedes' mirror concept, benefits from the adaptive-optics technology (a...... than 3.5 would have only marginal influence on the optimal behaviour, whereas comparable spectrometers could take advantage of longer focusing segments, with particular impact for the thermal region of the neutron spectrum....

  15. Study on dynamic behavior of fusion reactor materials and their response to variable and complex irradiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Kohyama, A.; Namba, C.; Wiffen, F.W.; Jones, R.H.

    2001-01-01

    A Japan-USA Program of irradiation experiments for fusion research, 'JUPITER', has been established as a 6 year program from 1995 to 2000. The goal is to study the dynamic behavior of fusion reactor materials and their response to variable and complex irradiation environment using fission reactors. The irradiation experiments in this program include low activation structural materials, functional ceramics and other innovative materials. The experimental data are analyzed by theoretical modeling and computer simulation to integrate the above effects. The irradiation capsules for in-situ measurement and varying temperature were developed successfully. It was found that insulating ceramics were worked up to 3 dpa. The property changes and related issues in low activation structural materials were summarized. (author)

  16. Complex risk analysis for loss of electric power in liquid metal nuclear reactor by system dynamics (SD) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2012-07-15

    The power stabilization of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) is investigated in the aspect of the liquid metal coolant. The quantification of the risk analysis is performed by the system dynamics (SD) method which is processed by the feedback and accumulation complex algorithms. The Vensim software package is used for the simulations, which is supported by the Monte-Carlo method. There are 2 kinds of considerations as the economic and safety properties. The result shows the stability of the operations when the power can be decided. This shows the higher efficiency of the reactor. The failure frequency is 16/60 = 27%. In the event of Power Stabilized, the failure event is in the quite lower frequency rate. The commercial use of the reactor is important in the operations. (orig.)

  17. Riemannian geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Intended for a one year course, this text serves as a single source, introducing readers to the important techniques and theorems, while also containing enough background on advanced topics to appeal to those students wishing to specialize in Riemannian geometry. This is one of the few Works to combine both the geometric parts of Riemannian geometry and the analytic aspects of the theory. The book will appeal to a readership that have a basic knowledge of standard manifold theory, including tensors, forms, and Lie groups. Important revisions to the third edition include: a substantial addition of unique and enriching exercises scattered throughout the text; inclusion of an increased number of coordinate calculations of connection and curvature; addition of general formulas for curvature on Lie Groups and submersions; integration of variational calculus into the text allowing for an early treatment of the Sphere theorem using a proof by Berger; incorporation of several recent results about manifolds with posit...

  18. Risk assessment of occupational exposure to benzene using numerical simulation in a complex geometry of a reforming unit of petroleum refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayatian, Majid; Ashrafi, Khosro; Azari, Mansour Rezazadeh; Jafari, Mohammad Javad; Mehrabi, Yadollah

    2018-04-01

    There has been an increasing concern about the continuous and the sudden release of volatile organic pollutants from petroleum refineries and occupational and environmental exposures. Benzene is one of the most prevalent volatile compounds, and it has been addressed by many authors for its potential toxicity in occupational and environmental settings. Due to the complexities of sampling and analysis of benzene in routine and accidental situations, a reliable estimation of the benzene concentration in the outdoor setting of refinery using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) could be instrumental for risk assessment of occupational exposure. In the present work, a computational fluid dynamic model was applied for exposure risk assessment with consideration of benzene being released continuously from a reforming unit of a refinery. For simulation of benzene dispersion, GAMBIT, FLUENT, and CFD post software are used as preprocessing, processing, and post-processing, respectively. Computational fluid dynamic validation was carried out by comparing the computed data with the experimental measurements. Eventually, chronic daily intake and lifetime cancer risk for routine operations through the two seasons of a year are estimated through the simulation model. Root mean square errors are 0.19 and 0.17 for wind speed and concentration, respectively. Lifetime risk assessments of workers are 0.4-3.8 and 0.0096-0.25 per 1000 workers in stable and unstable atmospheric conditions, respectively. Exposure risk is unacceptable for the head of shift work, chief engineer, and general workers in 141 days (38.77%) in a year. The results of this study show that computational fluid dynamics is a useful tool for modeling of benzene exposure in a complex geometry and can be used to estimate lifetime risks of occupation groups in a refinery setting.

  19. Contribution to analytical theory of neutron resonance absorption in heterogeneous reactor systems with cylindrical geometry; Prilog analitickoj teoriji rezonzntne apsorpcije neutron u heterogenom reaktorskim sistemima sa cilindricnom geometrijom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slipicevic, K [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1968-07-01

    Following a review of the existing theories od resonance absorption this thesis includes a new approach for calculating the effective resonance integral of absorbed neutrons, new approximate formula for the penetration factor, an analysis of the effective resonance integral and the correction of the resonance integral taking into account the interference of potential and resonance dissipation. A separate chapter is devoted to calculation of the effective resonance integral for the regular reactor lattice with cylindrical fuel elements.

  20. General Geometry and Geometry of Electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Shahverdiyev, Shervgi S.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that Electromagnetism creates geometry different from Riemannian geometry. General geometry including Riemannian geometry as a special case is constructed. It is proven that the most simplest special case of General Geometry is geometry underlying Electromagnetism. Action for electromagnetic field and Maxwell equations are derived from curvature function of geometry underlying Electromagnetism. And it is shown that equation of motion for a particle interacting with electromagnetic...

  1. Lectures on discrete geometry

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Discrete geometry investigates combinatorial properties of configurations of geometric objects. To a working mathematician or computer scientist, it offers sophisticated results and techniques of great diversity and it is a foundation for fields such as computational geometry or combinatorial optimization. This book is primarily a textbook introduction to various areas of discrete geometry. In each area, it explains several key results and methods, in an accessible and concrete manner. It also contains more advanced material in separate sections and thus it can serve as a collection of surveys in several narrower subfields. The main topics include: basics on convex sets, convex polytopes, and hyperplane arrangements; combinatorial complexity of geometric configurations; intersection patterns and transversals of convex sets; geometric Ramsey-type results; polyhedral combinatorics and high-dimensional convexity; and lastly, embeddings of finite metric spaces into normed spaces. Jiri Matousek is Professor of Com...

  2. Differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ciarlet, Philippe G

    2007-01-01

    This book gives the basic notions of differential geometry, such as the metric tensor, the Riemann curvature tensor, the fundamental forms of a surface, covariant derivatives, and the fundamental theorem of surface theory in a selfcontained and accessible manner. Although the field is often considered a classical one, it has recently been rejuvenated, thanks to the manifold applications where it plays an essential role. The book presents some important applications to shells, such as the theory of linearly and nonlinearly elastic shells, the implementation of numerical methods for shells, and

  3. From double Chooz to triple Chooz - neutrino physics at the Chooz reactor complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Patrick; Kopp, Joachim; Lindner, Manfred; Rolinec, Mark; Winter, Walter

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the potential of the proposed Double Chooz reactor experiment to measure the neutrino mixing angle sin 2 2θ 13 . We especially consider systematical uncertainties and their partial cancellation in a near and far detector operation, and we discuss implications of a delayed near detector startup. Furthermore, we introduce Triple Chooz, which is a possible upgrade scenario assuming a second, larger far detector, which could start data taking in an existing cavern five years after the first far detector. We review the role of the Chooz reactor experiments in the global context of future neutrino beam experiments. We find that both Double Chooz and Triple Chooz can play a leading role in the search for a finite value of sin 2 2θ 13 . Double Chooz could achieve a sensitivity limit of ∼ 2.10 -2 at the 90% confidence level after 5 years while the Triple Chooz setup could give a sensitivity below 10 -2

  4. Complex of two-dimensional multigroup programs for neutron-physical computations of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpov, V.A.; Protsenko, A.N.

    1975-01-01

    Briefly stated mathematical aspects of the two-dimensional multigroup method of neutron-physical computation of nuclear reactor. Problems of algorithmization and BESM-6 computer realisation of multigroup diffuse approximations in hexagonal and rectangular calculated lattices are analysed. The results of computation of fast critical assembly having complicated composition of the core are given. The estimation of computation accuracy of criticality, neutron fields distribution and efficiency of absorbing rods by means of computer programs developed is done. (author)

  5. Análisis de tensiones en árboles de geometría compleja. // Stress analysis in complex geometry shafts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sánchez Noa

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se exponen los resultados del análisis realizado en árboles de compleja geometría pertenecientes a unmultiplicador planetario tipo 2KH-A destinado a emplearse en aerogeneradores de electricidad. En el mismo, se presentanlos modelos físico-matemáticos de dichos árboles para ser analizados mediante el método de los elementos finitos,considerando el estado de carga que surge al funcionar el mecanismo y contemplando el efecto adicional de las cargasgiroscópicas. Se muestran las zonas de conflicto de tensiones y se analizan propuestas de diseño que permitan, garantizandola resistencia y rigidez, realizar variaciones dimensionales y mejorar la compacidad de los elementos, disminuyendo a lavez el peso de los mismos.Palabras claves: Elementos finitos, multiplicador planetario, diseño de árbol, resistencia mecánica.____________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe results of the analysis in shafts of complex geometry, belonging to a planetary multiplier type 2KH-AM to be usedin wind generators is presented. The physical-mathematical models of these shafts are analyzed by means of finiteelement method. Can increasing of load when the mechanism is working and contemplating the additional effect of thegyroscopic loads. The tension distribution are shown and design proposals are analyzed to improve the resistance, rigidityand to improve the compactness of the elements. This analysis constitutes an application of the the finite element methodof which reference doesn't existKey Words: Finite elements method, planetary gear unit, shaft design, mechanical strength.

  6. Intercomparison of the finite difference and nodal discrete ordinates and surface flux transport methods for a LWR pool-reactor benchmark problem in X-Y geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dell, R.D.; Stepanek, J.; Wagner, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to compare and discuss the three of the most advanced two dimensional transport methods, the finite difference and nodal discrete ordinates and surface flux method, incorporated into the transport codes TWODANT, TWOTRAN-NODAL, MULTIMEDIUM and SURCU. For intercomparison the eigenvalue and the neutron flux distribution are calculated using these codes in the LWR pool reactor benchmark problem. Additionally the results are compared with some results obtained by French collision probability transport codes MARSYAS and TRIDENT. Because the transport solution of this benchmark problem is close to its diffusion solution some results obtained by the finite element diffusion code FINELM and the finite difference diffusion code DIFF-2D are included

  7. S/sub N/ computational benchmark solutions for slab geometry models of a gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) lattice cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    S/sub N/ computational benchmark solutions are generated for a onegroup and multigroup fuel-void slab lattice cell which is a rough model of a gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) lattice cell. The reactivity induced by the extrusion of the fuel material into the voided region is determined for a series of partially extruded lattice cell configurations. A special modified Gauss S/sub N/ ordinate array design is developed in order to obtain eigenvalues with errors less than 0.03% in all of the configurations that are considered. The modified Gauss S/sub N/ ordinate array design has a substantially improved eigenvalue angular convergence behavior when compared to existing S/sub N/ ordinate array designs used in neutron streaming applications. The angular refinement computations are performed in some cases by using a perturbation theory method which enables one to obtain high order S/sub N/ eigenvalue estimates for greatly reduced computational costs

  8. Rotating reactors : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, F.; Schaaf, van der J.; Nijhuis, T.A.; Schouten, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    This review-perspective paper describes the current state-of-the-art in the field of rotating reactors. The paper has a focus on rotating reactor technology with applications at lab scale, pilot scale and industrial scale. Rotating reactors are classified and discussed according to their geometry:

  9. Diagnostic mirror concept development for use in the complex environment of a fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krimmer, Andreas Joachim

    2016-07-01

    Light-based diagnostic systems of fusion reactors require optical mirrors to channel light through the structures surrounding the plasma. With increasing plasma volume, power and plasma burn time, the environmental conditions grow more demanding and new requirements arise. In this dissertation, the design of optical mirrors inside the vacuum chamber of the prototype reactor ITER (Latin ''the way'') and future fusion power plants are investigated. Comparing the state of the art with the boundary conditions close to the fusion plasma, existing mirror designs and choices for the reflective surface are evaluated. For the design, it is not the individual boundary conditions that are critical, but rather, their combination and the resulting interactions. Drawing from the existing designs, possible realizations for central functionality are discussed. Included in the discussion are substrate choice, mounting, adjustment and thermal contacting as well as positioning of the mirror assembly compatible with hot cell maintenance. Building on the general discussion, mirror concepts for the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) diagnostic system for the ITER plasma core are proposed and simulated. In addition, prototypes are manufactured and tested to assess critical aspects of the proposed design. Testing includes positioning by pins, manufacturing of a stainless steel substrate with fluid channels adapted to the mirror shape, and tests with an SiO{sub 2} /TiO{sub 2} dielectric coating under selected ITER conditions. As a result of the work, the fusion reactor mirror design considerations given in the principal design discussion can be used as a basis for other diagnostic systems as well. In the case of the core CXRS mirror concept for ITER, the basic suitability was shown and critical topics were identified where additional work is necessary.

  10. Diagnostic mirror concept development for use in the complex environment of a fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimmer, Andreas Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Light-based diagnostic systems of fusion reactors require optical mirrors to channel light through the structures surrounding the plasma. With increasing plasma volume, power and plasma burn time, the environmental conditions grow more demanding and new requirements arise. In this dissertation, the design of optical mirrors inside the vacuum chamber of the prototype reactor ITER (Latin ''the way'') and future fusion power plants are investigated. Comparing the state of the art with the boundary conditions close to the fusion plasma, existing mirror designs and choices for the reflective surface are evaluated. For the design, it is not the individual boundary conditions that are critical, but rather, their combination and the resulting interactions. Drawing from the existing designs, possible realizations for central functionality are discussed. Included in the discussion are substrate choice, mounting, adjustment and thermal contacting as well as positioning of the mirror assembly compatible with hot cell maintenance. Building on the general discussion, mirror concepts for the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) diagnostic system for the ITER plasma core are proposed and simulated. In addition, prototypes are manufactured and tested to assess critical aspects of the proposed design. Testing includes positioning by pins, manufacturing of a stainless steel substrate with fluid channels adapted to the mirror shape, and tests with an SiO_2 /TiO_2 dielectric coating under selected ITER conditions. As a result of the work, the fusion reactor mirror design considerations given in the principal design discussion can be used as a basis for other diagnostic systems as well. In the case of the core CXRS mirror concept for ITER, the basic suitability was shown and critical topics were identified where additional work is necessary.

  11. THEAP-I: A computer program for thermal hydraulic analysis of a thermally interacting channel bundle of complex geometry. Code description and user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartzis, J G; Megaritou, A; Belessiotis, V

    1987-09-01

    THEAP-I is a computer code developed in NRCPS `DEMOCRITUS` with the aim to contribute to the safety analysis of the open pool research reactors. THEAP-I is designed for three dimensional, transient thermal/hydraulic analysis of a thermally interacting channel bundle totally immersed into water or air, such as the reactor core. In the present report the mathematical and physical models and methods of the solution are given as well as the code description and the input data. A sample problem is also included, refering to the Greek Research Reactor analysis, under an hypothetical severe loss of coolant accident.

  12. Study of guided wave transmission through complex junction in sodium cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elie, Q.; Le Bourdais, F.; Jezzine, K.; Baronian, V.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic guided wave techniques are seen as suitable candidates for the inspection of welded structures within sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR), as the long range propagation of guided waves without amplitude attenuation can overcome the accessibility problem due to the liquid sodium. In the context of the development of the Advanced Sodium Test Reactor for Industrial Demonstration (ASTRID), the French Atomic Commission (CEA) investigates non-destructive testing techniques based on guided wave propagation. In this work, guided wave NDT methods are applied to control the integrity of welds located in a junction-type structure welded to the main vessel. The method presented in this paper is based on the analysis of scattering matrices peculiar to each expected defect, and takes advantage of the multi-modal and dispersive characteristics of guided wave generation. In a simulation study, an algorithm developed using the CIVA software is presented. It permits selecting appropriate incident modes to optimize detection and identification of expected flawed configurations. In the second part of this paper, experimental results corresponding to a first validation step of the simulation results are presented. The goal of the experiments is to estimate the effectiveness of the incident mode selection in plates. The results show good agreement between experience and simulation. (authors)

  13. A world class nuclear research reactor complex for South Africa's nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshaw, Jeetesh

    2008-01-01

    South Africa recently made public its rather ambitious goals pertaining to nuclear energy developments in a Draft Policy and Strategy issued for public comment. Not much attention was given to an important tool for nuclear energy research and development, namely a well equipped and maintained research reactor, which on its own does not do justice to its potential, unless it is fitted with all the ancillaries and human resources as most first world countries have. In South Africa's case it is suggested to establish at least one Nuclear Energy Research and Development Centre at such a research reactor, where almost all nuclear energy related research can be carried out on par with some of the best in the world. The purpose of this work is to propose how this could be done, and motivate why it is important that it be done with great urgency, and with full involvement of young professionals, if South Africa wishes to face up to the challenges mentioned in the Draft Strategy and Policy. (authors)

  14. A world class nuclear research reactor complex for South Africa's nuclear future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshaw, Jeetesh [South African Young Nuclear Professional Society, PO Box 9396, Centurion, 0157 (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    South Africa recently made public its rather ambitious goals pertaining to nuclear energy developments in a Draft Policy and Strategy issued for public comment. Not much attention was given to an important tool for nuclear energy research and development, namely a well equipped and maintained research reactor, which on its own does not do justice to its potential, unless it is fitted with all the ancillaries and human resources as most first world countries have. In South Africa's case it is suggested to establish at least one Nuclear Energy Research and Development Centre at such a research reactor, where almost all nuclear energy related research can be carried out on par with some of the best in the world. The purpose of this work is to propose how this could be done, and motivate why it is important that it be done with great urgency, and with full involvement of young professionals, if South Africa wishes to face up to the challenges mentioned in the Draft Strategy and Policy. (authors)

  15. Advances in Multi-Sensor Scanning and Visualization of Complex Plants: the Utmost Case of a Reactor Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullo, J.-F.; Thibault, G.; Boucheny, C.

    2015-02-01

    In a context of increased maintenance operations and workers generational renewal, a nuclear owner and operator like Electricité de France (EDF) is interested in the scaling up of tools and methods of "as-built virtual reality" for larger buildings and wider audiences. However, acquisition and sharing of as-built data on a large scale (large and complex multi-floored buildings) challenge current scientific and technical capacities. In this paper, we first present a state of the art of scanning tools and methods for industrial plants with very complex architecture. Then, we introduce the inner characteristics of the multi-sensor scanning and visualization of the interior of the most complex building of a power plant: a nuclear reactor building. We introduce several developments that made possible a first complete survey of such a large building, from acquisition, processing and fusion of multiple data sources (3D laser scans, total-station survey, RGB panoramic, 2D floor plans, 3D CAD as-built models). In addition, we present the concepts of a smart application developed for the painless exploration of the whole dataset. The goal of this application is to help professionals, unfamiliar with the manipulation of such datasets, to take into account spatial constraints induced by the building complexity while preparing maintenance operations. Finally, we discuss the main feedbacks of this large experiment, the remaining issues for the generalization of such large scale surveys and the future technical and scientific challenges in the field of industrial "virtual reality".

  16. Microcrystalline thin-film solar cell deposition on moving substrates using a linear VHF-PECVD reactor and a cross-flow geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flikweert, A J; Zimmermann, T; Merdzhanova, T; Weigand, D; Appenzeller, W; Gordijn, A

    2012-01-01

    A concept for high-rate plasma deposition (PECVD) of hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon on moving substrates (dynamic deposition) is developed and evaluated. The chamber allows for substrates up to a size of 40 × 40 cm 2 . The deposition plasma is sustained between linear VHF electrodes (60 MHz) and a moving substrate. Due to the gas flow geometry and the high degree of source gas depletion, from the carrier's point of view the silane concentration varies when passing the electrodes. This is known to lead to different growth conditions which can induce transitions from microcrystalline to amorphous growth. The effect of different silane concentrations is simulated at a standard RF showerhead electrode by intentionally varying the silane concentration during deposition in static mode. This variation may decrease the layer quality of microcrystalline silicon, due to a shift of the crystallinity away from the optimum. However, adapting the input silane concentration, state-of-the-art solar cells are obtained. Microcrystalline cells (ZnO : Al/Ag back contacts) produced by the linear VHF plasma sources show an efficiency of 7.9% and 6.6% for depositions in static and dynamic mode, respectively. (paper)

  17. Optimizing a neutron-beam focusing device for the direct geometry time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF at the FRM II reactor source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, N.G. [Nanoscience Center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Simeoni, G.G., E-mail: ggsimeoni@outlook.com [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ) and Physics Department, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lefmann, K. [Nanoscience Center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2016-04-21

    A dedicated beam-focusing device has been designed for the direct geometry thermal-cold neutron time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF at the neutron facility FRM II (Garching, Germany). The prototype, based on the compressed Archimedes' mirror concept, benefits from the adaptive-optics technology (adjustable supermirror curvature) and the compact size (only 0.5 m long). We have simulated the neutron transport across the entire guide system. We present a detailed computer characterization of the existing device, along with the study of the factors mostly influencing the future improvement. We have optimized the simulated prototype as a function of the neutron wavelength, accounting also for all relevant features of a real instrument like the non-reflecting side edges. The results confirm the “chromatic” displacement of the focal point (flux density maximum) at fixed supermirror curvature, and the ability of a variable curvature to keep the focal point at the sample position. Our simulations are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions and the experimentally measured beam profile. With respect to the possibility of a further upgrade, we find that supermirror coatings with m-values higher than 3.5 would have only marginal influence on the optimal behaviour, whereas comparable spectrometers could take advantage of longer focusing segments, with particular impact for the thermal region of the neutron spectrum.

  18. Local analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Abhyankar, Shreeram Shankar

    1964-01-01

    This book provides, for use in a graduate course or for self-study by graduate students, a well-motivated treatment of several topics, especially the following: (1) algebraic treatment of several complex variables; (2) geometric approach to algebraic geometry via analytic sets; (3) survey of local algebra; (4) survey of sheaf theory. The book has been written in the spirit of Weierstrass. Power series play the dominant role. The treatment, being algebraic, is not restricted to complex numbers, but remains valid over any complete-valued field. This makes it applicable to situations arising from

  19. Comparison of neutron fluxes obtained by 2-D and 3-D geometry with different shielding libraries in biological shield of the TRIGA MARK II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozic, M.; Zagar, T.; Ravnik, M.

    2003-01-01

    Neutron fluxes in different spatial locations in biological shield are obtained with TORT code (TORT-Three Dimensional Oak Ridge Discrete Ordinates Neutron/Photon Transport Code). Libraries used with TORT code were BUGLE-96 library (coupled library with 47 neutron groups and 20 gamma groups) and VITAMIN-B6 library (coupled library with 199 neutron groups and 42 gamma groups). BUGLE-96 library is derived from VITAMIN-B6 library. 2-D and 3-D models for homogeneous type of problem (without inserted beam port 4) and problem with asymmetry (non-homogeneous problem; inserted beam port 4, filled with different materials) were of interest for neutron flux calculation. The main purpose is to verify the possibility for using 2-D approximation model instead of large 3-D model in some calculations. Another purpose of this paper was to compare neutron spectral constants obtained from neutron fluxes (3-D model) determined with smaller BUGLE-96 library with new constants obtained from fluxes calculated with bigger VITAMIN-B6 library. These neutron spectral constants are used in isotopic calculation with SCALE code package (ORIGEN-S). In past only neutron spectral constants determined by neutron fluxes from BUGLE-96 library were used. Experimental results used for isotopic composition comparison are available from irradiation experiment with selected type of concrete and other materials in beam port 4 (irradiation channel 4) in TRIGA Mark II reactor. These experimental results were used as a benchmark in this paper. (author)

  20. Particle image velocimetry measurement of complex flow structures in the diffuser and spherical casing of a reactor coolant pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchao Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of turbulent flow in the reactor coolant pump (RCP is a premise of the optimal design of the RCP. Flow structures in the RCP, in view of the specially devised spherical casing, are more complicated than those associated with conventional pumps. Hitherto, knowledge of the flow characteristics of the RCP has been far from sufficient. Research into the nonintrusive measurement of the internal flow of the RCP has rarely been reported. In the present study, flow measurement using particle image velocimetry is implemented to reveal flow features of the RCP model. Velocity and vorticity distributions in the diffuser and spherical casing are obtained. The results illuminate the complexity of the flows in the RCP. Near the lower end of the discharge nozzle, three-dimensional swirling flows and flow separation are evident. In the diffuser, the imparity of the velocity profile with respect to different axial cross sections is verified, and the velocity increases gradually from the shroud to the hub. In the casing, velocity distribution is nonuniform over the circumferential direction. Vortices shed consistently from the diffuser blade trailing edge. The experimental results lend sound support for the optimal design of the RCP and provide validation of relevant numerical algorithms. Keywords: Diffuser, Flow Structures, Particle Image Velocimetry, Reactor Coolant Pump, Spherical Casing, Velocity Distribution

  1. Basic algebraic geometry, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Shafarevich, Igor Rostislavovich

    1994-01-01

    Shafarevich Basic Algebraic Geometry 2 The second edition of Shafarevich's introduction to algebraic geometry is in two volumes. The second volume covers schemes and complex manifolds, generalisations in two different directions of the affine and projective varieties that form the material of the first volume. Two notable additions in this second edition are the section on moduli spaces and representable functors, motivated by a discussion of the Hilbert scheme, and the section on Kähler geometry. The book ends with a historical sketch discussing the origins of algebraic geometry. From the Zentralblatt review of this volume: "... one can only respectfully repeat what has been said about the first part of the book (...): a great textbook, written by one of the leading algebraic geometers and teachers himself, has been reworked and updated. As a result the author's standard textbook on algebraic geometry has become even more important and valuable. Students, teachers, and active researchers using methods of al...

  2. Validation of the Canadian atmospheric dispersion model for the CANDU reactor complex at Wolsong, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klukas, M.H.; Davis, P.A.

    2000-01-01

    AECL is undertaking the validation of ADDAM, an atmospheric dispersion and dose code based on the Canadian Standards Association model CSA N288.2. The key component of the validation program involves comparison of model predicted and measured vertical and lateral dispersion parameters, effective release height and air concentrations. A wind tunnel study of the dispersion of exhaust gases from the CANDU complex at Wolsong, Korea provides test data for dispersion over uniform and complex terrain. The test data are for distances close enough to the release points to evaluate the model for exclusion area boundaries (EAB) as small as 500 m. Lateral and vertical dispersion is described well for releases over uniform terrain but the model tends to over-predict these parameters for complex terrain. Both plume rise and entrainment are modelled conservatively and the way they are combined in the model produces conservative estimates of the effective release height for low and high wind speeds. Estimates for the medium wind speed case (50-m wind speed, 3.8 ms -1 ) are conservative when the correction for entrainment is made. For the highest ground-level concentrations, those of greatest interest in a safety analysis, 82% of the predictions were within a factor 2 of the observed values. The model can be used with confidence to predict air concentrations of exhaust gases at the Wolsong site for neutral conditions, even for flows over the hills to the west, and is unlikely to substantially under-predict concentrations. (author)

  3. Atmospheric dispersion of sodium aerosol due to a sodium leak in a fast breeder reactor complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punitha, G.; Sudha, A. Jasmin; Kasinathan, N.; Rajan, M.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid sodium at high temperatures (470 K to 825 K) is used as the primary and secondary coolant in Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). In the event of a postulated sodium leak in the Steam Generator Building (SGB) of a LMFBR, sodium readily combusts in the ambient air, especially at temperatures above 523 K. Intense sodium fire results and sodium oxide fumes are released as sodium aerosols. Sodium oxides are readily converted to sodium hydroxide in air due to the presence of moisture in it. Hence, sodium aerosols are invariably in the form of particulate sodium hydroxide. These aerosols damage not only the equipment and instruments due to their corrosive nature but also pose health hazard to humans. Hence, it is essential to estimate the concentration of sodium aerosols within the plant boundary for a sodium leak event. The Gaussian Plume Dispersion Model can obtain the atmospheric dispersion of sodium aerosols in an open terrain. However, this model dose not give accurate results for dispersion in spaces close to the point of release and with buildings in between. The velocity field due to the wind is altered to a large extent by the intervening buildings and structures. Therefore, a detailed 3-D estimation of the velocity field and concentration has to be obtained through rigorous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. PHOENICS code has been employed to determine concentration of sodium aerosols at various distances from the point of release. The dispersion studies have been carried out for the release of sodium aerosols at different elevations from the ground and for different wind directions. (author)

  4. Elementary algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kendig, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Designed to make learning introductory algebraic geometry as easy as possible, this text is intended for advanced undergraduates and graduate students who have taken a one-year course in algebra and are familiar with complex analysis. This newly updated second edition enhances the original treatment's extensive use of concrete examples and exercises with numerous figures that have been specially redrawn in Adobe Illustrator. An introductory chapter that focuses on examples of curves is followed by a more rigorous and careful look at plane curves. Subsequent chapters explore commutative ring th

  5. INTEGRATING GEOPHYSICS, GEOLOGY, AND HYDROLOGY TO DETERMINE BEDROCK GEOMETRY CONTROLS ON THE ORIGIN OF ISOLATED MEADOW COMPLEXES WITHIN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN, NEVADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian meadow complexes found in mountain ranges of the Central Great Basin physiographic region (western United States) are of interest to researchers as they contain significant biodiversity relative to the surrounding basin areas. These meadow complexes are currently degradi...

  6. CBM RICH geometry optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Tariq; Hoehne, Claudia [II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen Univ. (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future FAIR complex will investigate the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at high baryon density and moderate temperatures in A+A collisions from 2-11 AGeV (SIS100) beam energy. The main electron identification detector in the CBM experiment will be a RICH detector with a CO{sub 2} gaseous-radiator, focusing spherical glass mirrors, and MAPMT photo-detectors being placed on a PMT-plane. The RICH detector is located directly behind the CBM dipole magnet. As the final magnet geometry is now available, some changes in the RICH geometry become necessary. In order to guarantee a magnetic field of 1 mT at maximum in the PMT plane for effective operation of the MAPMTs, two measures have to be taken: The PMT plane is moved outwards of the stray field by tilting the mirrors by 10 degrees and shielding boxes have been designed. In this contribution the results of the geometry optimization procedure are presented.

  7. THEAP-I: A computer program for thermal hydraulic analysis of a thermally interacting channel bundle of complex geometry. The micro computer version user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megaritou, A; Bartzis, J G

    1987-09-01

    In the present report the micro computer version of the code is described. More emphasis is given in the new features of the code (i.e. input data structure). A set of instructions for running in an IBM-AT2 computer with the Microsoft FORTRAN V.4.0 is also included together with a sample problem refering to the Greek Research Reactor.

  8. Non-Riemannian geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenhart, Luther Pfahler

    2005-01-01

    This concise text by a prominent mathematician deals chiefly with manifolds dominated by the geometry of paths. Topics include asymmetric and symmetric connections, the projective geometry of paths, and the geometry of sub-spaces. 1927 edition.

  9. Geometry of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, L.Eh.; Gliner, Eh.B.

    1978-01-01

    Problems of investigating the Universe space-time geometry are described on a popular level. Immediate space-time geometries, corresponding to three cosmologic models are considered. Space-time geometry of a closed model is the spherical Riemann geonetry, of an open model - is the Lobachevskij geometry; and of a plane model - is the Euclidean geometry. The Universe real geometry in the contemporary epoch of development is based on the data testifying to the fact that the Universe is infinitely expanding

  10. GEOMETRY – AN IMPORTANT MEANS OF EDUCATION IN THE CIVILISATION SCOPE

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana TOCARIU, PhD

    2017-01-01

    Geometry (from the Greek: γεωμετρία; geo = earth, metria = measure) is a genuine science, rooted in mathematics, which studies the plane and spatial forms of bodies from the objective or conceptual reality and the nature of the relationship that exists between them. Due to its complexity, geometry is divided into: Euclidian geometry, analytical geometry, descriptive geometry, projective geometry, kinematic geometry, surface and curve differential geometry, axiomatic geometry,...

  11. The geometry description markup language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chytracek, R.

    2001-01-01

    Currently, a lot of effort is being put on designing complex detectors. A number of simulation and reconstruction frameworks and applications have been developed with the aim to make this job easier. A very important role in this activity is played by the geometry description of the detector apparatus layout and its working environment. However, no real common approach to represent geometry data is available and such data can be found in various forms starting from custom semi-structured text files, source code (C/C++/FORTRAN), to XML and database solutions. The XML (Extensible Markup Language) has proven to provide an interesting approach for describing detector geometries, with several different but incompatible XML-based solutions existing. Therefore, interoperability and geometry data exchange among different frameworks is not possible at present. The author introduces a markup language for geometry descriptions. Its aim is to define a common approach for sharing and exchanging of geometry description data. Its requirements and design have been driven by experience and user feedback from existing projects which have their geometry description in XML

  12. On geometric simulating in nuclear reactor calculations by the Monte-Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostashenko, S.V.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of existing geometric modules makes it possible to reveal their disadvantages and to formulate requirements list, which should be satisfied by any usefull geometry system. Short description of GDL language used for complex reactor systems simulating is given. GDL language applies hierarchical representation scheme to assemblies, which aids to reduce significantly amount of input data. The language is part of GDL geometry system designed for MCU package and implemented on ES computers

  13. The Complex Accretion Geometry of Gx 339–4 as Seen by Nustar and Swift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuerst, F.; Nowak, M. A.; Tomsick, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    We present spectral analyses of five Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array and Swift observations of GX 339-4 taken during a failed outburst during the summer of 2013. These observations cover Eddington luminosity fractions in the range approximate to 0.9%-6%. Throughout this outburst GX 339-4 st....... The iron line around 6.4 keV is clearly broadened, and we detect a superimposed narrow core as well. This core originates from a fluorescent region outside the influence of the strong gravity of the black hole. Additionally, we discuss possible geometries....

  14. Advances in discrete differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This is one of the first books on a newly emerging field of discrete differential geometry and an excellent way to access this exciting area. It surveys the fascinating connections between discrete models in differential geometry and complex analysis, integrable systems and applications in computer graphics. The authors take a closer look at discrete models in differential geometry and dynamical systems. Their curves are polygonal, surfaces are made from triangles and quadrilaterals, and time is discrete. Nevertheless, the difference between the corresponding smooth curves, surfaces and classical dynamical systems with continuous time can hardly be seen. This is the paradigm of structure-preserving discretizations. Current advances in this field are stimulated to a large extent by its relevance for computer graphics and mathematical physics. This book is written by specialists working together on a common research project. It is about differential geometry and dynamical systems, smooth and discrete theories, ...

  15. Determination of a geometry-dependent parameter and development of a calculation model for describing the fission products transport from spherical fuel elements of graphite moderated gas-cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissfloch, R

    1973-07-15

    The fuel elements of high-temperature reactors, coated with pyrolitic carbon and covered with graphite, release fission products like all other fuel elements. Because of safety reasons, the rate of this release has to be kept low and has also to be predictable. Measured values from irradiation tests and from post-irradiation tests about the actual release of different fission products are presented. The physical and chemical mechanism, which determines the release, is extraordinarily complex and in particular not clearly defined. Because of the mentioned reasons, a simplified calculation model was developed, which only considers the release-mechanisms phenomenologically. This calculation model coincides very well in its results with values received in experiments until now. It can be held as an interim state on the way to a complete theory.

  16. Determination of a geometry-dependent parameter and development of a calculation model for describing the fission products transport from spherical fuel elements of graphite moderated gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissfloch, R.

    The fuel elements of High-Temperature Reactors, coated with pyrolitic carbon and covered with graphite, release fission products like all other fuel elements. Because of safety reasons the rate of this release has to be kept low and has also to be predictable. Measured values from irradiation tests and from post-irradiation tests about the actual release of different fission products are present. The physical and chemical mechanism, which determines the release, is extraordinarily complex and in particular not clearly defined. Because of the mentioned reasons a simplified calculation model was developed, which only considers the release-mechanisms phenomenologically. This calculation model coincides very well in its results with values received in experiments until now. It can serve as an interim state on the way to a complete theory. (U.S.)

  17. The nonlinear response of the complex structural system in nuclear reactors using dynamic substructure method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Z.C.; Xie, G.; Du, Q.H.

    1987-01-01

    Because of the existence of nonlinear characteristics in practical engineering structures, such as large steam turbine-foundation system and offshore platform, it is necessary to predict nonlinear dynamic responses for these very large and complex structural systems subjected extreme load. Due to the limited storage and high executing cost of computers, there are still some difficulties in the analysis for such systems although the traditional finite element methods provide basic available methods to the problems. The dynamic substructure methods, which were developed as a branch of general structural dynamics in the past more than 20 years and have been widely used from aircraft, space vehicles to other mechanical and civil engineering structures, present a powerful method to the analysis of very large structural systems. The key to success is due to the considerable reduction in the number of degrees of freedom while not changing the physical essence of the problems investigated. The dynamic substructure method has been extended to nonlinear system and applicated to the analysis of nonlinear dynamic response of an offshore platform by Z.C. Zheng, et al. (1983, 1985a, b, c). In this paper, the method is presented to analyze dynamic responses of the systems contained intrinsic nonlinearities and with nonlinear attachments and nonlinear supports of nuclear structural systems. The efficiency of the method becomes more clear for nonlinear dynamic problems due to the adoption of iterating processes. For simplicity, the analysis procedure is demonstrated briefly. The generalized substructure method of nonlinear systems is similar to linear systems, only the nonlinear terms are treated as pseudo-forces. Interface coordinates are classified into two categories, the connecting interface coordinates which connect with each other directly in the global system and the linking interface coordinates which link to each other through attachments. (orig./GL)

  18. 2016 Annual Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report describes conditions and information, as required by the state of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality Reuse Permit I-161-02, for the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds located at Idaho National Laboratory from November 1, 2015–October 31, 2016. The effective date of Reuse Permit I-161-02 is November 20, 2014 with an expiration date of November 19, 2019. This report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Permit required groundwater monitoring data • Status of compliance activities • Issues • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2016 permit year, 180.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Ponds. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest in well USGS-065, which is the closest downgradient well to the Cold Waste Ponds. Sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations decrease rapidly as the distance downgradient from the Cold Waste Ponds increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are significantly higher in well USGS-065 than in the other monitoring wells, both parameters remained below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in well USGS-065. The facility was in compliance with the Reuse Permit during the 2016 permit year.

  19. 2016 Annual Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Michael George

    2017-01-01

    This report describes conditions and information, as required by the state of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality Reuse Permit I-161-02, for the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Ponds located at Idaho National Laboratory from November 1, 2015-October 31, 2016. The effective date of Reuse Permit I-161-02 is November 20, 2014 with an expiration date of November 19, 2019. This report contains the following information: · Facility and system description · Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates · Permit required groundwater monitoring data · Status of compliance activities · Issues · Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2016 permit year, 180.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Ponds. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest in well USGS-065, which is the closest downgradient well to the Cold Waste Ponds. Sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations decrease rapidly as the distance downgradient from the Cold Waste Ponds increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are significantly higher in well USGS-065 than in the other monitoring wells, both parameters remained below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in well USGS-065. The facility was in compliance with the Reuse Permit during the 2016 permit year.

  20. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2009 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of compliance activities; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2010 permit year, approximately 164 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  1. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Mike

    2012-01-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance and other issues Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts During the 2011 permit year, approximately 166 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  2. Molten salt reactors: reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In this critical analysis of the MSBR I project are examined the problems concerning the reactor core. Advantages of breeding depend essentially upon solutions to technological problems like continuous reprocessing or graphite behavior under neutron irradiation. Graphite deformation, moderator unloading, control rods and core instrumentation require more studies. Neutronics of the core, influence of core geometry and salt composition, fuel evolution, and thermohydraulics are reviewed [fr

  3. Influence of organic component on geometry and stability of the Dy(3) complexes with benzoic and aminobenzoic acids in water-80 vol.% DMSO(DMFA) mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrashina, Yu.G.; Mustafina, A.R.; Devyatov, F.V.; Vul'fson, S.G.; Kazanskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Kazan

    1995-01-01

    Data of pH-metric and magnetooptical analyses were used to evaluate stability and structure of benzoate and aminobenzoate dysprosium (3) complexes in water and water - 80 vol.% DMSO (DMFA) mixtures. Factors, dictating change of complex structure and stability when passing from water to organic water solvents, are discussed. 19 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  4. Blast venting through blanket material in the HYLIFE ICF reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.C.; Peterson, P.F.; Schrock, V.E.

    1992-01-01

    This work presents a numerical study of blast venting through various blanket configurations in the HYLIFE ICF reactor design. The study uses TSUNAMI -- a multi-dimensional, high-resolution, shock capturing code -- to predict the momentum exchange and gas dynamics for blast venting in complex geometries. In addition, the study presents conservative predictions of wall loading by gas shock and impulse delivered to the protective liquid blanket. Configurations used in the study include both 2700 MJ and 350 MJ fusion yields per pulse for 5 meter and 3 meter radius reactor chambers. For the former, an annular jet array is used for the blanket geometry, while in the latter, both annular jet array as well as slab geometries are used. Results of the study indicate that blast venting and wall loading may be manageable in the HYLIFE-II design by a judicious choice of blanket configuration

  5. Immobilization of metal-humic acid complexes in anaerobic granular sludge for their application as solid-phase redox mediators in the biotransformation of iopromide in UASB reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Zavala, Aracely S; Pat-Espadas, Aurora M; Rangel-Mendez, J Rene; Chazaro-Ruiz, Luis F; Ascacio-Valdes, Juan A; Aguilar, Cristobal N; Cervantes, Francisco J

    2016-05-01

    Metal-humic acid complexes were synthesized and immobilized by a granulation process in anaerobic sludge for their application as solid-phase redox mediators (RM) in the biotransformation of iopromide. Characterization of Ca- and Fe-humic acid complexes revealed electron accepting capacities of 0.472 and 0.556milli-equivalentsg(-1), respectively. Once immobilized, metal-humic acid complexes significantly increased the biotransformation of iopromide in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. Control UASB reactor (without humic material) achieved 31.6% of iopromide removal, while 80% was removed in UASB reactors supplied with each metal-humic acid complex. Further analyses indicated multiple transformation reactions taking place in iopromide including deiodination, N-dealkylation, decarboxylation and deacetylation. This is the first successful application of immobilized RM, which does not require a supporting material to maintain the solid-phase RM in long term operation of bioreactors. The proposed redox catalyst could be suitable for enhancing the redox conversion of different recalcitrant pollutants present in industrial effluents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Neutronic study of a nuclear reactor of fused salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia B, F. B.; Francois L, J. L.

    2012-10-01

    The reactors of fused salts called Molten Salt Reactor have presented a resurgence of interest in the last decade, due to they have a versatility in particular to operate, either with a thermal or fast neutrons spectrum. The most active development was by the middle of 1950 and principles of 1970 in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In this work some developed models are presented particularly and studied with the help of the MCNPX code, for the development of the neutronic study of this reactor, starting of proposed models and from a simple and homogeneous geometry until other more complex models and approximate to more real cases. In particular the geometry conditions and criticality of each model were analyzed, the isotopic balance, as well as the concentrations of the salts and different assigned fuel types. (Author)

  7. Spectral dimension of quantum geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Oriti, Daniele; Thürigen, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The spectral dimension is an indicator of geometry and topology of spacetime and a tool to compare the description of quantum geometry in various approaches to quantum gravity. This is possible because it can be defined not only on smooth geometries but also on discrete (e.g., simplicial) ones. In this paper, we consider the spectral dimension of quantum states of spatial geometry defined on combinatorial complexes endowed with additional algebraic data: the kinematical quantum states of loop quantum gravity (LQG). Preliminarily, the effects of topology and discreteness of classical discrete geometries are studied in a systematic manner. We look for states reproducing the spectral dimension of a classical space in the appropriate regime. We also test the hypothesis that in LQG, as in other approaches, there is a scale dependence of the spectral dimension, which runs from the topological dimension at large scales to a smaller one at short distances. While our results do not give any strong support to this hypothesis, we can however pinpoint when the topological dimension is reproduced by LQG quantum states. Overall, by exploring the interplay of combinatorial, topological and geometrical effects, and by considering various kinds of quantum states such as coherent states and their superpositions, we find that the spectral dimension of discrete quantum geometries is more sensitive to the underlying combinatorial structures than to the details of the additional data associated with them. (paper)

  8. Neutronic study of a nuclear reactor of fused salts; Estudio neutronico de un reactor nuclear de sales fundidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia B, F. B.; Francois L, J. L., E-mail: faviolabelen@gmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The reactors of fused salts called Molten Salt Reactor have presented a resurgence of interest in the last decade, due to they have a versatility in particular to operate, either with a thermal or fast neutrons spectrum. The most active development was by the middle of 1950 and principles of 1970 in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In this work some developed models are presented particularly and studied with the help of the MCNPX code, for the development of the neutronic study of this reactor, starting of proposed models and from a simple and homogeneous geometry until other more complex models and approximate to more real cases. In particular the geometry conditions and criticality of each model were analyzed, the isotopic balance, as well as the concentrations of the salts and different assigned fuel types. (Author)

  9. TIMTEM - a digital program for the calculation of two-dimensional, non-linear temperature fields of reactor components of complex structure taking into account inhomogeneity and anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon-Weidner, J.

    1975-05-01

    The digital program TIMTEM calculates twodimensional, nonlinear temperature fields of reactor components of complex structure; inhomogeneity and anisotropy are taken into account. Systems consisting of different materials and therefore having different temperature- and/or time-dependent material characteristics are allowed. Various local, time- and/or temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be considered, too, which may be locally different from each other or can be interconnected. (orig.) [de

  10. Development of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics for Flow in Complex Geometries and Application of Open Source Software for the Simulation of Turbulent Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obeidat, Anas Hassan MohD

    devel-oping a computational method which can deal with complex fluid structure, simulate complex geometers that change topology is particular challenging as the connectivity of the computational domain may change dynamically, and still eÿcient is important. In this thesis we are presenting a remeshed...... engines removes combustion gases from the engine cylinder and fills up the cylinder with the fresh air charge for the next cycle. Understanding the scavenging flow is crucial for the development of such engines, since it a˙ects fuel consumption, engine cooling and production of pollutants. We consider...

  11. Fluid flow and heat transfer investigation of pebble bed reactors using mesh-adaptive LES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlidis, Dimitrios; Lathouwers, Danny

    2013-01-01

    The very high temperature reactor is one of the designs currently being considered for nuclear power generation. One its variants is the pebble bed reactor in which the coolant passes through complex geometries (pores) at high Reynolds numbers. A computational fluid dynamics model with anisotropic mesh adaptivity is used to investigate coolant flow and heat transfer in such reactors. A novel method for implicitly incorporating solid boundaries based on multi-fluid flow modelling is adopted. The resulting model is able to resolve and simulate flow and heat transfer in randomly packed beds, regardless of the actual geometry, starting off with arbitrarily coarse meshes. The model is initially evaluated using an orderly stacked square channel of channel-height-to-particle diameter ratio of unity for a range of Reynolds numbers. The model is then applied to the face-centred cubical geometry. coolant flow and heat transfer patterns are investigated

  12. Real algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bochnak, Jacek; Roy, Marie-Françoise

    1998-01-01

    This book is a systematic treatment of real algebraic geometry, a subject that has strong interrelation with other areas of mathematics: singularity theory, differential topology, quadratic forms, commutative algebra, model theory, complexity theory etc. The careful and clearly written account covers both basic concepts and up-to-date research topics. It may be used as text for a graduate course. The present edition is a substantially revised and expanded English version of the book "Géometrie algébrique réelle" originally published in French, in 1987, as Volume 12 of ERGEBNISSE. Since the publication of the French version the theory has made advances in several directions. Many of these are included in this English version. Thus the English book may be regarded as a completely new treatment of the subject.

  13. Geometry of Quantum States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hook, D W

    2008-01-01

    applications of the geometric approach. The first four chapters contain the standard mathematics required to understand the rest of the material presented: specific areas in colour theory, set theory, probability theory, differential geometry and projective geometry are all covered with an eye to the material that follows. Chapter 5 starts the first real discussion of quantum theory in GQS and serves as an elegant, succinct introduction to the geometry which underlies quantum theory. This may be the most worthwhile chapter for the casual reader who wants to understand the key ideas in this field. Chapter 6 builds on the discussion in Chapter 5, introducing a group theoretic approach to understand coherent states and Chapter 7 describes a geometric tool in the form of an approach to complex projective geometry called 'the stellar representation'. Chapter 8 returns to a more purely quantum mechanical discussion as the authors turn to study the space of density matrices. This chapter completes the discussion which started in Chapter 5. Chapter 9 begins the part of the book concerned with applications of the geometric approach. From this point on the book aims, specifically, to prepare the reader for the material in Chapter 15 beginning with a discussion on the purification of mixed quantum states. In the succeeding chapters a definite choice has been made to present a geometric approach to certain quantum information problems. For example, Chapter 10 contains an extremely well formulated discussion of measurement and positive operator-valued measures with several well illustrated examples and Chapter 11 reopens the discussion of density matrices. Entropy and majorization are again revisited in Chapter 12 in much greater detail than in previous chapters. Chapters 13 and 14 concern themselves with a discussion of various metrics and their relation to the problem of distinguishing between probability distributions and their suitability as probability measures. (book review)

  14. Flux compactifications and generalized geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grana, Mariana

    2006-01-01

    Following the lectures given at CERN Winter School 2006, we present a pedagogical overview of flux compactifications and generalized geometries, concentrating on closed string fluxes in type II theories. We start by reviewing the supersymmetric flux configurations with maximally symmetric four-dimensional spaces. We then discuss the no-go theorems (and their evasion) for compactifications with fluxes. We analyse the resulting four-dimensional effective theories for Calabi-Yau and Calabi-Yau orientifold compactifications, concentrating on the flux-induced superpotentials. We discuss the generic mechanism of moduli stabilization and illustrate with two examples: the conifold in IIB and a T 6 /(Z 3 x Z 3 ) torus in IIA. We finish by studying the effective action and flux vacua for generalized geometries in the context of generalized complex geometry

  15. Flux compactifications and generalized geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grana, Mariana [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2006-11-07

    Following the lectures given at CERN Winter School 2006, we present a pedagogical overview of flux compactifications and generalized geometries, concentrating on closed string fluxes in type II theories. We start by reviewing the supersymmetric flux configurations with maximally symmetric four-dimensional spaces. We then discuss the no-go theorems (and their evasion) for compactifications with fluxes. We analyse the resulting four-dimensional effective theories for Calabi-Yau and Calabi-Yau orientifold compactifications, concentrating on the flux-induced superpotentials. We discuss the generic mechanism of moduli stabilization and illustrate with two examples: the conifold in IIB and a T{sup 6} /(Z{sub 3} x Z{sub 3}) torus in IIA. We finish by studying the effective action and flux vacua for generalized geometries in the context of generalized complex geometry.

  16. Geometry and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Walter J

    2006-01-01

    Meyer''s Geometry and Its Applications, Second Edition, combines traditional geometry with current ideas to present a modern approach that is grounded in real-world applications. It balances the deductive approach with discovery learning, and introduces axiomatic, Euclidean geometry, non-Euclidean geometry, and transformational geometry. The text integrates applications and examples throughout and includes historical notes in many chapters. The Second Edition of Geometry and Its Applications is a significant text for any college or university that focuses on geometry''s usefulness in other disciplines. It is especially appropriate for engineering and science majors, as well as future mathematics teachers.* Realistic applications integrated throughout the text, including (but not limited to): - Symmetries of artistic patterns- Physics- Robotics- Computer vision- Computer graphics- Stability of architectural structures- Molecular biology- Medicine- Pattern recognition* Historical notes included in many chapters...

  17. Algebraic geometry in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    algebraic geometry but also in related fields like number theory. ... every vector bundle on the affine space is trivial. (equivalently ... les on a compact Riemann surface to unitary rep- ... tial geometry and topology and was generalised in.

  18. Spinorial Geometry and Branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloane, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We adapt the spinorial geometry method introduced in [J. Gillard, U. Gran and G. Papadopoulos, 'The spinorial geometry of supersymmetric backgrounds,' Class. Quant. Grav. 22 (2005) 1033 [ (arXiv:hep-th/0410155)

  19. Spinorial Geometry and Branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloane, Peter [Department of Mathematics, King' s College, University of London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-15

    We adapt the spinorial geometry method introduced in [J. Gillard, U. Gran and G. Papadopoulos, 'The spinorial geometry of supersymmetric backgrounds,' Class. Quant. Grav. 22 (2005) 1033 [ (arXiv:hep-th/0410155)

  20. Improvements in or relating to nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, A.V.; Batjukov, V.I.; Fadeev, A.I.; Shapkin, A.F.; Shikhiyan, T.G.; Ordynsky, G.V.; Drachev, V.P.; Pogodin, E.N.

    1980-01-01

    A refuelling installation for nuclear reactor complexes is described for recharging the reactor vessels of such complexes with new fuel assemblies and for removing spent fuel assemblies from the reactor vessel. (U.K.)

  1. Contribution to the development and the modelling of an ultrasonic conformable phased array transducer for the contact inspection of 3D complex geometry components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes, O.

    2005-04-01

    With the difficulties encountered for the exploration of complex shape surfaces, particularly in nuclear industry, the ultrasonic conformable phased array transducer allows a non destructive evaluation of parts with 3D complex parts. For this, one can use the Smart Contact Transducer principle to generate an ultrasonic field by adaptive dynamic focalisation, with a matrix array composed of independent elements moulded in a soft resin. This work deals with the electro-acoustic conception, with the realization of such a prototype and with the study of it's mechanical and acoustic behaviour. The array design is defined using a radiation model adapted to the simulation of contact sources on a free surface. Once one have defined the shape of the radiating elements, a vibratory analysis using finite elements method allows the determination of the emitting structure with 1-3 piezocomposite, witch leads to the realization of emitting-receiving elements. With the measurement of the field transmitted by such elements, we deduced new hypothesis to change the model of radiation. Thus one can take into account normal and tangential stresses calculated with finite element modelling at the interface between the element and the propagation medium, to use it with the semi-analytical model. Some vibratory phenomena dealing with fluid coupling of contact transducers have been studied, and the prediction of the transverse wave radiation profile have been improved. The last part of this work deals with the realization of the first prototype of the conformable phased array transducer. For this a deformation measuring system have been developed, to determine the position of each element on real time with the displacement of the transducer on complex shape surfaces. With those positions, one can perform the calculation of the a delay law intended for the adaptive dynamic focusing of the desired ultrasonic field. The conformable phased array transducer have been characterized in

  2. Investigation of the applicability of MCNP code to complicated geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Yukichi

    1994-03-01

    Applicability of MCNP code, which is a general purpose Monte Carlo code for particle transport problems, to complicated geometries, has been investigated as a study in Human Acts Simulation Program (HASP), in which basic studies for intelligent robot for patrol and inspection of nuclear facilities are being performed. In HASP, basic software systems simulating the behavior of intelligent robot of human shape working in Japan Research Reactor No.3 are being developed. The aim of Dose Evaluation system in HASP is to establish the methodology to evaluate irradiation damage of the LSI/VLSI circuits embedded within a robot body and to give design criteria of intelligent robot. Monte Carlo method is used to solve particle transport problem in a complicated geometry such as robot body. Preliminary evaluation to establish the methodology has been conducted using continuous energy Monte Carlo code, MCNP with the anthropomorphic phantom. The phantom has the same degree of geometric complexity as robot body and is widely used for the calculation of the effective dose equivalent for radiological protection. It allowed us to verify the validity of the methodology by comparison of calculation results with the data in ICRP Pub. 51. In this report, the method used in the calculation of effective dose equivalent, visualization system supporting visualization of input data for complicated geometry and the results in the evaluation of validity of the method by the comparison of the calculated results with the data in the ICRP publication are described. (author)

  3. Reducing NO(x) emissions from a nitric acid plant of domestic petrochemical complex: enhanced conversion in conventional radial-flow reactor of selective catalytic reduction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasfard, Hamed; Hashemi, Seyed Hamid; Rahimpour, Mohammad Reza; Jokar, Seyyed Mohammad; Ghader, Sattar

    2013-01-01

    The nitric acid plant of a domestic petrochemical complex is designed to annually produce 56,400 metric tons (based on 100% nitric acid). In the present work, radial-flow spherical bed reactor (RFSBR) for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxides (NO(x)) from the stack of this plant was modelled and compared with the conventional radial-flow reactor (CRFR). Moreover, the proficiency of a radial-flow (water or nitrogen) membrane reactor was also compared with the CRFR which was found to be inefficient at identical process conditions. In the RFSBR, the space between the two concentric spheres is filled by a catalyst. A mathematical model, including conservation of mass has been developed to investigate the performance of the configurations. The model was checked against the CRFR in a nitric acid plant located at the domestic petrochemical complex. A good agreement was observed between the modelling results and the plant data. The effects of some important parameters such as pressure and temperature on NO(x) conversion were analysed. Results show 14% decrease in NO(x) emission annually in RFSBR compared with the CRFR, which is beneficial for the prevention of NO(x) emission, global warming and acid rain.

  4. The estimation of collision probabilities in complicated geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, M.J.

    1969-04-01

    This paper demonstrates how collision probabilities in complicated geometries may be estimated. It is assumed that the reactor core may be divided into a number of cells each with simple geometry so that a collision probability matrix can be calculated for each cell by standard methods. It is then shown how these may be joined together. (author)

  5. Loading pattern optimization in hexagonal geometry using PANTHER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, G.T.; Knight, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    The extension of the loading pattern optimization capability of Nuclear Electric's reactor physics code PANTHER to hexagonal geometry cores is described. The variety of search methods available and the code's performance are illustrated by an example in which three search different methods are used in turn in order to find an optimal reload design for a sample hexagonal geometry problem. (author)

  6. Geometry essentials for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Just the critical concepts you need to score high in geometry This practical, friendly guide focuses on critical concepts taught in a typical geometry course, from the properties of triangles, parallelograms, circles, and cylinders, to the skills and strategies you need to write geometry proofs. Geometry Essentials For Dummies is perfect for cramming or doing homework, or as a reference for parents helping kids study for exams. Get down to the basics - get a handle on the basics of geometry, from lines, segments, and angles, to vertices, altitudes, and diagonals Conque

  7. A tokamak reactor with servicing capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.T.D.; Hollis, A.

    1976-01-01

    A conceptual design for a Tokamak reactor with practical facilities for the regular replacement of blanket components after the inevitable damage from neutron irradiation, and fatigue is described. This essential facility has been largely ignored in published fusion reactor designs. One exception is the inertially-confined Saturn proposal. Tokamak and other toroidal closed-line systems have very complex geometries and sub-system requirements, which result in blanket servicing being a very difficult problem. In the concept described the magnet shield is divided into two structures - an outer permanent one with access doors and an inner shield, part of and supporting the blanket inside. Servicing access is horizontally between the toroidal magnet coils, after moving some outer poloidal magnet coils. The reactor, reactor hall, workshops and remote-handling facilities are described, and the servicing requirements discussed. The important servicing operation is the remote replacement of radiation damaged blanket and shield - divided in this design into 20 sectors, each weighing 75-100 tons and 11-12 metres high. Analysis of the operation indicates that if one sector can be replaced during a single weekend - i.e. a period of low power demand - then the annual reactor-generator availability allowing as well for the general plant servicing should be >0.9. This level of availability should meet the requirements of generating authorities but the facilities, equipment and workshops necessary may be complex and expensive

  8. Special metrics and group actions in geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Fino, Anna; Musso, Emilio; Podestà, Fabio; Vezzoni, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    The volume is a follow-up to the INdAM meeting “Special metrics and quaternionic geometry” held in Rome in November 2015. It offers a panoramic view of a selection of cutting-edge topics in differential geometry, including 4-manifolds, quaternionic and octonionic geometry, twistor spaces, harmonic maps, spinors, complex and conformal geometry, homogeneous spaces and nilmanifolds, special geometries in dimensions 5–8, gauge theory, symplectic and toric manifolds, exceptional holonomy and integrable systems. The workshop was held in honor of Simon Salamon, a leading international scholar at the forefront of academic research who has made significant contributions to all these subjects. The articles published here represent a compelling testimony to Salamon’s profound and longstanding impact on the mathematical community. Target readership includes graduate students and researchers working in Riemannian and complex geometry, Lie theory and mathematical physics.

  9. Arithmetic noncommutative geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Marcolli, Matilde

    2005-01-01

    Arithmetic noncommutative geometry denotes the use of ideas and tools from the field of noncommutative geometry, to address questions and reinterpret in a new perspective results and constructions from number theory and arithmetic algebraic geometry. This general philosophy is applied to the geometry and arithmetic of modular curves and to the fibers at archimedean places of arithmetic surfaces and varieties. The main reason why noncommutative geometry can be expected to say something about topics of arithmetic interest lies in the fact that it provides the right framework in which the tools of geometry continue to make sense on spaces that are very singular and apparently very far from the world of algebraic varieties. This provides a way of refining the boundary structure of certain classes of spaces that arise in the context of arithmetic geometry, such as moduli spaces (of which modular curves are the simplest case) or arithmetic varieties (completed by suitable "fibers at infinity"), by adding boundaries...

  10. Deposited power in a complex device by gamma radiation of test reactors; experiments and calculations carried out at SILOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitcolas, H.; Besson, A.; Bevilacqua, A.; Cosoli, G.

    1984-09-01

    Eight samples, which represent different materials used in testing reactors, were irradiated in the device ''CYRANO'' placed in the water reflector at different distances from the reactor core. The power dissipated in the device was measured by the ''CYRANO'' equipment itself, whereas the calorimeter juxtaposed served to monitor the gamma flux. Parallel to each experiment, the power deposited in the samples, the device materials and the calorimeter was calculated by the code MERCURE 4. The measured values were compared with the calculated ones, both in relative and in absolute values, for each sample and for each distance in the reflector. The comparison shows very good agreement [fr

  11. Analysis of short-term reactor cavity transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, T.C.; Fischer, S.R.

    1981-01-01

    Following the transient of a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a nuclear reactor, peak pressures are reached within the first 0.03 s at different locations inside the reactor cavity. Due to the complicated multidimensional nature of the reactor cavity, the short-term analysis of the LOCA transient cannot be performed by using traditional containment codes, such as CONTEMPT. The advanced containment code, BEACON/MOD3, developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), can be adapted for such analysis. This code provides Eulerian, one and two-dimensional, nonhomogeneous, nonequilibrium flow modeling as well as lumped parameter, homogeneous, equilibrium flow modeling for the solution of two-component, two-phase flow problems. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of the BEACON code to analyze complex containment geometry such as a reactor cavity

  12. Geometry of surfaces a practical guide for mechanical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Radzevich, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    Presents an in-depth analysis of geometry of part surfaces and provides the tools for solving complex engineering problems Geometry of Surfaces: A Practical Guide for Mechanical Engineers is a comprehensive guide to applied geometry of surfaces with focus on practical applications in various areas of mechanical engineering. The book is divided into three parts on Part Surfaces, Geometry of Contact of Part Surfaces and Mapping of the Contacting Part Surfaces. Geometry of Surfaces: A Practical Guide for Mechanical Engineers combines differential geometry and gearing theory and presents new developments in the elementary theory of enveloping surfaces. Written by a leading expert of the field, this book also provides the reader with the tools for solving complex engineering problems in the field of mechanical engineering. Presents an in-depth analysis of geometry of part surfaces Provides tools for solving complex engineering problems in the field of mechanical engineering Combines differential geometry an...

  13. Structure and reactivity of heterogeneous surfaces and study of the geometry of surface complexes. Progress report, January 1, 1984-December 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landman, U.

    1984-01-01

    Since the beginning of this project, our group has been involved in theoretical studies of surface phenomena and processes, aimed toward increasing our understanding of fundamental processes which govern the properties of material surfaces. Our studies cover a wide spectrum of surface phenomena: surface reactivity, surface crystallography, electronic and vibrational structure, dynamical processes, phase transformations and phase change, the properties of interfaces and investigations of material processing and novel materials preparation techniques. In these investigations we develop and employ analytical and novel numerical, simulation, methods for the study of complex surface phenomena. Our recent surface molecular dynamics studies and simulations of laser annealing phenomena opened new avenues for the investigation of the microscopic dynamics and evolution of equilibrium and non-equilibrium processes at surfaces and interfaces. Our current studies of metallic glasses using a new langrangian formulation which includes all components of the total energy (density dependent electron gas, single particle and pair interactions) of the system, represents a novel approach for theoretical studies of this important class of systems

  14. Effect of effluent recycling and shock loading on the biodegradation of complex phenolic mixture in hybrid UASB reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishnan, A.; Gupta, S.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India)

    2008-06-15

    This study describes the feasibility of anaerobic treatment of synthetic coal wastewater using four identical 13.5 L (effective volume) bench scale hybrid up flow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB) reactors (R1, R2, R3 and R4) under mesophilic (27 {+-} 5{sup o}C) conditions. Synthetic coal wastewater with an average chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 2240 mg/L and phenolics concentration of 752 mg/L was used as substrate. Effluent recirculation was employed at four different effluent to feed recirculation ratios (R/F) of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 for 100 days to study the effect of recirculation on the performance of the reactors. Phenolics and COD removal was found to improve with increase in effluent recirculation. An effluent to feed recycle ratio of 1.0 resulted in maximum removal of phenolics and COD. Phenolics and COD removal improved from 88% and 92% to 95% each, respectively. The concentration of volatile fatty acids in the effluent was lower than the influent when effluent to feed recirculation was employed. Effect of shock loading on the reactors revealed that phenolics shock load up to 2.5 times increase in the normal input phenolics concentration in the form of continuous shock load for 4 days did not affect the reactors performance irreversibly.

  15. Geometric Transformations in Engineering Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. F. Borovikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, for business purposes, in view of current trends and world experience in training engineers, research and faculty staff there has been a need to transform traditional courses of descriptive geometry into the course of engineering geometry in which the geometrical transformations have to become its main section. On the basis of critical analysis the paper gives suggestions to improve a presentation technique of this section both in the classroom and in academic literature, extend an application scope of geometrical transformations to solve the position and metric tasks and simulation of surfaces, as well as to design complex engineering configurations, which meet a number of pre-specified conditions.The article offers to make a number of considerable amendments to the terms and definitions used in the existing courses of descriptive geometry. It draws some conclusions and makes the appropriate proposals on feasibility of coordination in teaching the movement transformation in the courses of analytical and descriptive geometry. This will provide interdisciplinary team teaching and allow students to be convinced that a combination of analytical and graphic ways to solve geometric tasks is useful and reasonable.The traditional sections of learning courses need to be added with a theory of projective and bi-rational transformations. In terms of application simplicity and convenience it is enough to consider the central transformations when solving the applied tasks. These transformations contain a beam of sub-invariant (low-invariant straight lines on which the invariant curve induces non-involution and involution projectivities. The expediency of nonlinear transformations application is shown in the article by a specific example of geometric modeling of the interfacing surface "spar-blade".Implementation of these suggestions will contribute to a real transformation of a traditional course of descriptive geometry to the engineering geometry

  16. The Geometry Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Bárány, Imre; Vilcu, Costin

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents easy-to-understand yet surprising properties obtained using topological, geometric and graph theoretic tools in the areas covered by the Geometry Conference that took place in Mulhouse, France from September 7–11, 2014 in honour of Tudor Zamfirescu on the occasion of his 70th anniversary. The contributions address subjects in convexity and discrete geometry, in distance geometry or with geometrical flavor in combinatorics, graph theory or non-linear analysis. Written by top experts, these papers highlight the close connections between these fields, as well as ties to other domains of geometry and their reciprocal influence. They offer an overview on recent developments in geometry and its border with discrete mathematics, and provide answers to several open questions. The volume addresses a large audience in mathematics, including researchers and graduate students interested in geometry and geometrical problems.

  17. Integral Design Methodology of Photocatalytic Reactors for Air Pollution Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Passalía

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An integral reactor design methodology was developed to address the optimal design of photocatalytic wall reactors to be used in air pollution control. For a target pollutant to be eliminated from an air stream, the proposed methodology is initiated with a mechanistic derived reaction rate. The determination of intrinsic kinetic parameters is associated with the use of a simple geometry laboratory scale reactor, operation under kinetic control and a uniform incident radiation flux, which allows computing the local superficial rate of photon absorption. Thus, a simple model can describe the mass balance and a solution may be obtained. The kinetic parameters may be estimated by the combination of the mathematical model and the experimental results. The validated intrinsic kinetics obtained may be directly used in the scaling-up of any reactor configuration and size. The bench scale reactor may require the use of complex computational software to obtain the fields of velocity, radiation absorption and species concentration. The complete methodology was successfully applied to the elimination of airborne formaldehyde. The kinetic parameters were determined in a flat plate reactor, whilst a bench scale corrugated wall reactor was used to illustrate the scaling-up methodology. In addition, an optimal folding angle of the corrugated reactor was found using computational fluid dynamics tools.

  18. Complex reactor cell calculation by means of consecutive use of the one-dimensional algorithms based on the DSsub(n)-method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikov, A.G.; Elovskaya, L.F.; Glebov, A.P.; Kuznetsova, L.I.

    1981-01-01

    The technique for approximate calculation of the water cooled and moderated reactor cell based on using the DSn-method and the TESI-2S program for the BESM-6 computer in which the proposed technique is realized are described. The calculational technique is based on division of the reactor complex cell into simple one-dimensional cylindrical cells. Series of cells obtained that way is calculated beginning from the first one. After each cell calculation the macrocross sections are averaged over the cell vomome using the neutron spatial and energy distribution. The possibility of approximate account for neutron transport between the cells of the same rank by equating neutron fluxes on the cell boundary is supposed. The spatially and energy neutron flux distribution over cells is performed using the conditions of isotropic neutron reflection on the cell boundary. The results of the proposed technique approbation on the example of the ABV-1.5 reactor fuel assembly high accuracy and reliability of the employed algorithm [ru

  19. Application of the complex equilibrium code QUIL to cesium-impurity equilibria in the primary coolant of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feber, R.D.; Lunsford, J.L.; Stark, W.A. Jr.

    1976-05-01

    An equilibrium analysis has been made of the fission-product cesium in the primary coolant loop of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). The species distributions that result at equilibrium have been calculated for various conditions of reactor operation. The cesium species considered were the monomer, dimer, oxides, hydroxides, and the hydride. The effect of cesium sorption isotherms on graphite also was included in the analysis. During normal reactor operations, the abundant species of cesium were calculated to be elemental cesium, Cs, and the monomeric hydroxide, CsOH. Under most conditions of steam ingress, the abundant species was calculated to be CsOH. Cesium adsorbed onto graphite was stable under all steam-ingress conditions considered. Thermal transients above 1500 0 K were required for equilibrium transport of cesium from the core to the coolant. The analysis was carried out using the complex equilibrium code QUIL, designed and written with special emphasis on features that make it applicable to the fission-product problem

  20. Algorithms in Algebraic Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dickenstein, Alicia; Sommese, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been a burgeoning of activity in the design and implementation of algorithms for algebraic geometric computation. Some of these algorithms were originally designed for abstract algebraic geometry, but now are of interest for use in applications and some of these algorithms were originally designed for applications, but now are of interest for use in abstract algebraic geometry. The workshop on Algorithms in Algebraic Geometry that was held in the framework of the IMA Annual Program Year in Applications of Algebraic Geometry by the Institute for Mathematics and Its

  1. Revolutions of Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    O'Leary, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Guides readers through the development of geometry and basic proof writing using a historical approach to the topic. In an effort to fully appreciate the logic and structure of geometric proofs, Revolutions of Geometry places proofs into the context of geometry's history, helping readers to understand that proof writing is crucial to the job of a mathematician. Written for students and educators of mathematics alike, the book guides readers through the rich history and influential works, from ancient times to the present, behind the development of geometry. As a result, readers are successfull

  2. Fundamental concepts of geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Meserve, Bruce E

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrates relationships between different types of geometry. Provides excellent overview of the foundations and historical evolution of geometrical concepts. Exercises (no solutions). Includes 98 illustrations.

  3. Study of a system devoted for ultrasonic non destructive testing of complex geometry pieces using smart contacts transducers; Etude d'un systeme de controle par ultrasons des pieces de geometrie conplexe a l'aide de traducteurs contacts intelligents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatillon, S

    2000-07-01

    This work is devoted to the enhancement of the ultrasonic non destructive testing in contact of nuclear components with complex geometry. In service inspections of such components performed with conventional probes present limited performances: variations in sensitivity, due to unmatched contact, incorrect characterization of the defect, because of the disorientations of the transducer during its displacement, and uncovered scan area when the geometry of the components disturbs the displacement of the transducer. We propose a new concept of smart transducer to improve the performances of such inspections. The radiating surface is flexible to optimize the sensitivity of the testing. Using the measure of the radiating surface distortion, performed by a specific instrumentation, phased array techniques allow the control of the transmitted beam to optimize the defect localization and characterization. Thus, this system is self-contained. We present the different steps involved to develop this system and its experimental validation. A computing model is extended to predict the field transmitted by a flexible contact transducer. This model is used to optimize the radiating surface of a jointed transducer. A delay law optimizing algorithm is developed to ensure the control of the transmitted beam. At last, a method and the associated instrumentation designed to measure the radiating surface distortion are proposed. Experimental Measures in the through-transmission mode validate the ability of this system to control the field transmitted through complex interfaces. At last, inspections in the pulse-echo mode are performed on a specimen with an irregular profile, representative of a real component inspected on site, and artificial embedded reflectors. Two control configurations are used. In the first one, the transducer is displaced along the surface, in the second one, the transducer is fixed and the region of interest is scanned using beam steering. The results show that

  4. Integrating sequencing batch reactor with bio-electrochemical treatment for augmenting remediation efficiency of complex petrochemical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruva, Dileep Kumar; Jukuri, Srinivas; Velvizhi, G; Naresh Kumar, A; Swamy, Y V; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluates the sequential integration of two advanced biological treatment methods viz., sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and bioelectrochemical treatment systems (BET) for the treatment of real-field petrochemical wastewater (PCW). Initially two SBR reactors were operated in aerobic (SBR(Ae)) and anoxic (SBR(Ax)) microenvironments with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 9.68 kg COD/m(3)-day. Relatively, SBR(Ax) showed higher substrate degradation (3.34 kg COD/m(3)-day) compared to SBR(Ae) (2.9 kg COD/m(3)-day). To further improve treatment efficiency, the effluents from SBR process were fed to BET reactors. BET(Ax) depicted higher SDR (1.92 kg COD/m(3)-day) with simultaneous power generation (17.12 mW/m(2)) followed by BET(Ae) (1.80 kg COD/m(3)-day; 14.25 mW/m(2)). Integrating both the processes documented significant improvement in COD removal efficiency due to the flexibility of combining multiple microenvironments sequentially. Results were supported with GC-MS and FTIR, which confirmed the increment in biodegradability of wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis, characterization, X-ray crystal structure and conductometry studying of a number of new Schiff base complexes; a new example of binuclear square pyramidal geometry of Cu(II) complex bridged with an oxo group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbedaghi, Reza; Alavipour, Ehsan

    2015-11-01

    Three new binuclear Cu(II), Mn(II), Co(II) complexes [Cu2(L) (ClO4)](ClO4)2 (1), [Mn2(L) (ClO4)](ClO4)2 (2), and [Co2(L) (ClO4)](ClO4)2 (3), {L = 1,3-bis(2-((Z)-(2-aminopropylimino)methyl)phenoxy)propan-2-ol} have been synthesized. Single crystal X-ray structure analysis of complex 1 showed that the complex is binuclear and all nitrogen and oxygen atoms of ligand (N4O3) are coordinated to two Cu(II) center ions. In addition, the crystal structure studying shows, a perchlorate ion has been bridged to the Cu(II) metal centers. However, two distorted square pyramidal Cu(II) ions are bridged asymmetrically by a perchlorate ion and oxygen of hydroxyl group of Schiff base ligand. In addition, the conductometry behaviors of all complexes were studied in acetonitrile solution.

  6. Theoretical Prediction on [5]Radialene Sandwich Complexes (CpM)2(C10H10) (Cp = η5-C5H5; M = Fe, Co, Ni): Geometry, Spin States, and Bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan-Nan; Xue, Ying-Ying; Ding, Yi-Hong

    2017-02-09

    [5]Radialene, the missing link for synthesis of radialene family, has been finally obtained via the preparation and decomplexation of the [5]radialene-bis-Fe(CO) 3 complex. The stability of [5]radialene complex benefits from the coordination with Fe(CO) 3 by losing free 1,3-butadiene structures to avoid polymerization. In light of the similar coordination ability of half-sandwiches CpM(Cp = η 5 -C 5 H 5 ; M = Fe, Co, Ni), there is a great possibility that the sandwiched complexes of [5]radialene with CpM are available. Herein, we present the first theoretical prediction on the geometry, spin states and bonding of (CpM)(C 10 H 10 ) and (CpM) 2 (C 10 H 10 ). For M = Fe, Co, Ni, the ground states of (CpM)(C 10 H 10 ) and (CpM) 2 (C 10 H 10 ) are doublet and triplet, singlet and singlet, and doublet and triplet states, where each Fe, Co, and Ni adopts 17, 18, and 19 electron-configuration, respectively. In particular, (CpFe) 2 (C 10 H 10 ) and (CpNi) 2 (C 10 H 10 ) have considerable open-shell singlet features. Generally the trans isomers of (CpM) 2 (C 10 H 10 ) with two CpM fragments on the opposite sides of the [5]radialene plane are apparently more stable than the cis ones with CpM fragments on the same side. However, for the singlet and triplet isomers of (CpNi) 2 (C 10 H 10 ) (both cis and trans isomers), the energy differences are relatively small, indicating that these isomers all have the opportunity to exist. Besides, the easy Diels-Alder (DA) dimerization between the [3]dendralene-like fragments of (CpM)(C 10 H 10 ) suggests the great difficulty in isolating the (CpM)(C 10 H 10 ) monomer.

  7. Geometry of multihadron production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1994-10-01

    This summary talk only reviews a small sample of topics featured at this symposium: Introduction; The Geometry and Geography of Phase space; Space-Time Geometry and HBT; Multiplicities, Intermittency, Correlations; Disoriented Chiral Condensate; Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA; and Other Contributions.

  8. Designs and finite geometries

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Designs and Finite Geometries brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this important area of mathematics. Designs and Finite Geometries serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most important research issues in the field.

  9. Geometry of multihadron production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1994-10-01

    This summary talk only reviews a small sample of topics featured at this symposium: Introduction; The Geometry and Geography of Phase space; Space-Time Geometry and HBT; Multiplicities, Intermittency, Correlations; Disoriented Chiral Condensate; Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA; and Other Contributions

  10. The Beauty of Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Barbara H.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a geometry project that used the beauty of stained-glass-window designs to teach middle school students about geometric figures and concepts. Three honors prealgebra teachers and a middle school mathematics gifted intervention specialist created a geometry project that covered the curriculum and also assessed students'…

  11. A Lorentzian quantum geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotz, Andreas

    2011-10-07

    In this thesis, a formulation of a Lorentzian quantum geometry based on the framework of causal fermion systems is proposed. After giving the general definition of causal fermion systems, we deduce space-time as a topological space with an underlying causal structure. Restricting attention to systems of spin dimension two, we derive the objects of our quantum geometry: the spin space, the tangent space endowed with a Lorentzian metric, connection and curvature. In order to get the correspondence to classical differential geometry, we construct examples of causal fermion systems by regularizing Dirac sea configurations in Minkowski space and on a globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifold. When removing the regularization, the objects of our quantum geometry reduce to the common objects of spin geometry on Lorentzian manifolds, up to higher order curvature corrections.

  12. Methods of information geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Amari, Shun-Ichi

    2000-01-01

    Information geometry provides the mathematical sciences with a new framework of analysis. It has emerged from the investigation of the natural differential geometric structure on manifolds of probability distributions, which consists of a Riemannian metric defined by the Fisher information and a one-parameter family of affine connections called the \\alpha-connections. The duality between the \\alpha-connection and the (-\\alpha)-connection together with the metric play an essential role in this geometry. This kind of duality, having emerged from manifolds of probability distributions, is ubiquitous, appearing in a variety of problems which might have no explicit relation to probability theory. Through the duality, it is possible to analyze various fundamental problems in a unified perspective. The first half of this book is devoted to a comprehensive introduction to the mathematical foundation of information geometry, including preliminaries from differential geometry, the geometry of manifolds or probability d...

  13. A Lorentzian quantum geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotz, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, a formulation of a Lorentzian quantum geometry based on the framework of causal fermion systems is proposed. After giving the general definition of causal fermion systems, we deduce space-time as a topological space with an underlying causal structure. Restricting attention to systems of spin dimension two, we derive the objects of our quantum geometry: the spin space, the tangent space endowed with a Lorentzian metric, connection and curvature. In order to get the correspondence to classical differential geometry, we construct examples of causal fermion systems by regularizing Dirac sea configurations in Minkowski space and on a globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifold. When removing the regularization, the objects of our quantum geometry reduce to the common objects of spin geometry on Lorentzian manifolds, up to higher order curvature corrections.

  14. Foliation theory in algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    McKernan, James; Pereira, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Featuring a blend of original research papers and comprehensive surveys from an international team of leading researchers in the thriving fields of foliation theory, holomorphic foliations, and birational geometry, this book presents the proceedings of the conference "Foliation Theory in Algebraic Geometry," hosted by the Simons Foundation in New York City in September 2013.  Topics covered include: Fano and del Pezzo foliations; the cone theorem and rank one foliations; the structure of symmetric differentials on a smooth complex surface and a local structure theorem for closed symmetric differentials of rank two; an overview of lifting symmetric differentials from varieties with canonical singularities and the applications to the classification of AT bundles on singular varieties; an overview of the powerful theory of the variety of minimal rational tangents introduced by Hwang and Mok; recent examples of varieties which are hyperbolic and yet the Green-Griffiths locus is the whole of X; and a classificati...

  15. Effects of the [OC6F5] moiety upon structural geometry: crystal structures of half-sandwich tantalum(V) aryloxide complexes from reaction of Cp*Ta(N(t)Bu)(CH2R)2 with pentafluorophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jacqueline M; Chan, Michael C W; Gibson, Vernon C; Howard, Judith A K

    2011-10-01

    The synthesis, chemical and structural characterization of a series of pentamethylcyclopentadienyl (Cp*) tantalum imido complexes and aryloxide derivatives are presented. Specifically, the imido complexes Cp*Ta(N(t)Bu)(CH(2)R)(2), where R = Ph [dibenzyl(tert-butylamido) (η(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)tantalum(IV) (1)], Me(2)Ph [tert-butylamido)bis(2-methyl-2-phenylpropyl) (η(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)tantalum(IV) (2)], CMe(3) [(tert-butylamido)bis(2,2-dimethylpropyl) (η(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)tantalum(IV) (3)], are reported. The crystal structure of (3) reveals α-agostic interactions with the Ta atom. The resulting increase in the tantalum core coordination improves electronic stability. As such it does not react with pentafluorophenol, in contrast to the other two reported imido complexes [(1) and (2)]. Addition of C(6)F(5)OH to (1) yields a dimeric aryl-oxide derivative, [Cp*Ta(CH(2)Ph)(OC(6)H(5))(μ-O)](2) [di-μ-oxido-bis[benzyl(pentafluorophenolato) (η(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)tantalum(V)] (4)]. Its crystal structure reveals long Ta-O(C(6)H(5)) bonds but short oxo-bridging Ta-O bonds. This is explained by accounting for the fierce electronic competition for the vacant d(π) orbitals of the electrophilic Ta(V) centre. Steric congestion around each metal is alleviated by a large twist angle (77.1°) between the benzyl and pentafluorophenyl ligands and the ordering of each of these groups into stacked pairs. The imido complex (2) reacts with C(6)F(5)OH to produce a mixture of Cp*Ta(OC(6)F(5))(4) [tetrakis(pentafluorophenolato)(η(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)tantalum(V) (5)] and [Cp*Ta(OC(6)F(5))(2)(μ-O)](2) [di-μ-oxido-bis[bis(pentafluorophenolato)(η(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)tantalum(V)] (6)]. Steric congestion is offset in both cases by the twisting of its pentafluorophenyl ligands. Particularly strong electronic competition for the empty d(π) metal orbitals in (6) is reflected in its bond geometry, and owes itself to the

  16. Complex geometry and string theory. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A.; Perelomov, A.

    1989-01-01

    Methods of calculation on the Reimann surfaces are given. The structure of determinant stratifications over spaces of the Riemann surface moduli is described. Obvious formulas for cross sections of the stratifications and for the Polyakov measure in the theory of closed boson strings are given

  17. Completion summary for boreholes USGS 140 and USGS 141 near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2014-01-01

    organic compounds, stable isotopes, and radionuclides. Water samples from both wells indicated that concentrations of tritium, sulfate, and chromium were affected by wastewater disposal practices at the Advanced Test Reactor Complex. Most constituents in water from wells USGS 140 and USGS 141 had concentrations similar to concentrations in well USGS 136, which is upgradient from wells USGS 140 and USGS 141.

  18. Geometry on the space of geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christodoulakis, T.; Zanelli, J.

    1988-06-01

    We discuss the geometric structure of the configuration space of pure gravity. This is an infinite dimensional manifold, M, where each point represents one spatial geometry g ij (x). The metric on M is dictated by geometrodynamics, and from it, the Christoffel symbols and Riemann tensor can be found. A ''free geometry'' tracing a geodesic on the manifold describes the time evolution of space in the strong gravity limit. In a regularization previously introduced by the authors, it is found that M does not have the same dimensionality, D, everywhere, and that D is not a scalar, although it is covariantly constant. In this regularization, it is seen that the path integral measure can be absorbed in a renormalization of the cosmological constant. (author). 19 refs

  19. SABRINA, Geometry Plot Program for MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEIDL, Marcus

    2003-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: SABRINA is an interactive, three-dimensional, geometry-modeling code system, primarily for use with CCC-200/MCNP. SABRINA's capabilities include creation, visualization, and verification of three-dimensional geometries specified by either surface- or body-base combinatorial geometry; display of particle tracks are calculated by MCNP; and volume fraction generation. 2 - Method of solution: Rendering is performed by ray tracing or an edge and intersection algorithm. Volume fraction calculations are made by ray tracing. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: A graphics display with X Window capability is required

  20. Geometry of quantum computation with qutrits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Yu, Zu-Huan; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Determining the quantum circuit complexity of a unitary operation is an important problem in quantum computation. By using the mathematical techniques of Riemannian geometry, we investigate the efficient quantum circuits in quantum computation with n qutrits. We show that the optimal quantum circuits are essentially equivalent to the shortest path between two points in a certain curved geometry of SU(3(n)). As an example, three-qutrit systems are investigated in detail.

  1. Perspectives in Analysis, Geometry, and Topology

    CERN Document Server

    Itenberg, I V; Passare, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    The articles in this volume are invited papers from the Marcus Wallenberg symposium and focus on research topics that bridge the gap between analysis, geometry, and topology. The encounters between these three fields are widespread and often provide impetus for major breakthroughs in applications. Topics include new developments in low dimensional topology related to invariants of links and three and four manifolds; Perelman's spectacular proof of the Poincare conjecture; and the recent advances made in algebraic, complex, symplectic, and tropical geometry.

  2. Non-Euclidean geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kulczycki, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    This accessible approach features two varieties of proofs: stereometric and planimetric, as well as elementary proofs that employ only the simplest properties of the plane. A short history of geometry precedes a systematic exposition of the principles of non-Euclidean geometry.Starting with fundamental assumptions, the author examines the theorems of Hjelmslev, mapping a plane into a circle, the angle of parallelism and area of a polygon, regular polygons, straight lines and planes in space, and the horosphere. Further development of the theory covers hyperbolic functions, the geometry of suff

  3. IVA2 - a computer code for modelling of transient 3D-three phase three component flows using three velocity fields in cylindrical geometry with arbitrary internals including nuclear reactor PWR/BWR-core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolev, N.I.

    1986-06-01

    This report contains a formal code description (description of the input data, contents of the COMMON blocks, functions of the IVA2/001 routines). In addition the nonformal description of the current IVA2/001 constitutive package and the reactor core model are given. (orig.) [de

  4. Diversity of total and functional microbiome of anammox reactors fed with complex and synthetic nitrogen-rich wastewaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gülay, Arda; Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Mutlu, Ayten Gizem

    diversity than the bioreactors treating synthetic wastewaters inferred from observed OTUs0.03, Chao1, Shannon index and Phylogenetic distance calculations. Differences in total microbial diversity agreed with the ecological theory concerning the positive correlation between substrate complexity...

  5. Lectures on coarse geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Roe, John

    2003-01-01

    Coarse geometry is the study of spaces (particularly metric spaces) from a 'large scale' point of view, so that two spaces that look the same from a great distance are actually equivalent. This point of view is effective because it is often true that the relevant geometric properties of metric spaces are determined by their coarse geometry. Two examples of important uses of coarse geometry are Gromov's beautiful notion of a hyperbolic group and Mostow's proof of his famous rigidity theorem. The first few chapters of the book provide a general perspective on coarse structures. Even when only metric coarse structures are in view, the abstract framework brings the same simplification as does the passage from epsilons and deltas to open sets when speaking of continuity. The middle section reviews notions of negative curvature and rigidity. Modern interest in large scale geometry derives in large part from Mostow's rigidity theorem and from Gromov's subsequent 'large scale' rendition of the crucial properties of n...

  6. Geometry and Combinatorics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkendorff, Simon Lyngby

    2002-01-01

    The subject of this Ph.D.-thesis is somewhere in between continuous and discrete geometry. Chapter 2 treats the geometry of finite point sets in semi-Riemannian hyperquadrics,using a matrix whose entries are a trigonometric function of relative distances in a given point set. The distance...... to the geometry of a simplex in a semi-Riemannian hyperquadric. In chapter 3 we study which finite metric spaces that are realizable in a hyperbolic space in the limit where curvature goes to -∞. We show that such spaces are the so called leaf spaces, the set of degree 1 vertices of weighted trees. We also...... establish results on the limiting geometry of such an isometrically realized leaf space simplex in hyperbolic space, when curvature goes to -∞. Chapter 4 discusses negative type of metric spaces. We give a measure theoretic treatment of this concept and related invariants. The theory developed...

  7. The geometry of geodesics

    CERN Document Server

    Busemann, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive approach to qualitative problems in intrinsic differential geometry, this text examines Desarguesian spaces, perpendiculars and parallels, covering spaces, the influence of the sign of the curvature on geodesics, more. 1955 edition. Includes 66 figures.

  8. Geometry and billiards

    CERN Document Server

    Tabachnikov, Serge

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical billiards describe the motion of a mass point in a domain with elastic reflections off the boundary or, equivalently, the behavior of rays of light in a domain with ideally reflecting boundary. From the point of view of differential geometry, the billiard flow is the geodesic flow on a manifold with boundary. This book is devoted to billiards in their relation with differential geometry, classical mechanics, and geometrical optics. The topics covered include variational principles of billiard motion, symplectic geometry of rays of light and integral geometry, existence and nonexistence of caustics, optical properties of conics and quadrics and completely integrable billiards, periodic billiard trajectories, polygonal billiards, mechanisms of chaos in billiard dynamics, and the lesser-known subject of dual (or outer) billiards. The book is based on an advanced undergraduate topics course (but contains more material than can be realistically taught in one semester). Although the minimum prerequisit...

  9. Rudiments of algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Jenner, WE

    2017-01-01

    Aimed at advanced undergraduate students of mathematics, this concise text covers the basics of algebraic geometry. Topics include affine spaces, projective spaces, rational curves, algebraic sets with group structure, more. 1963 edition.

  10. Implosions and hypertoric geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dancer, A.; Kirwan, F.; Swann, A.

    2013-01-01

    The geometry of the universal hyperkahler implosion for SU (n) is explored. In particular, we show that the universal hyperkahler implosion naturally contains a hypertoric variety described in terms of quivers. Furthermore, we discuss a gauge theoretic approach to hyperkahler implosion.......The geometry of the universal hyperkahler implosion for SU (n) is explored. In particular, we show that the universal hyperkahler implosion naturally contains a hypertoric variety described in terms of quivers. Furthermore, we discuss a gauge theoretic approach to hyperkahler implosion....

  11. Intermediate algebra & analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gondin, William R

    1967-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra & Analytic Geometry Made Simple focuses on the principles, processes, calculations, and methodologies involved in intermediate algebra and analytic geometry. The publication first offers information on linear equations in two unknowns and variables, functions, and graphs. Discussions focus on graphic interpretations, explicit and implicit functions, first quadrant graphs, variables and functions, determinate and indeterminate systems, independent and dependent equations, and defective and redundant systems. The text then examines quadratic equations in one variable, system

  12. d-geometries revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Ceresole, Anna; Gnecchi, Alessandra; Marrani, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    We analyze some properties of the four dimensional supergravity theories which originate from five dimensions upon reduction. They generalize to N>2 extended supersymmetries the d-geometries with cubic prepotentials, familiar from N=2 special K\\"ahler geometry. We emphasize the role of a suitable parametrization of the scalar fields and the corresponding triangular symplectic basis. We also consider applications to the first order flow equations for non-BPS extremal black holes.

  13. CMS geometry through 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, I; Brownson, E; Eulisse, G; Jones, C D; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Lange, D J

    2014-01-01

    CMS faces real challenges with upgrade of the CMS detector through 2020 and beyond. One of the challenges, from the software point of view, is managing upgrade simulations with the same software release as the 2013 scenario. We present the CMS geometry description software model, its integration with the CMS event setup and core software. The CMS geometry configuration and selection is implemented in Python. The tools collect the Python configuration fragments into a script used in CMS workflow. This flexible and automated geometry configuration allows choosing either transient or persistent version of the same scenario and specific version of the same scenario. We describe how the geometries are integrated and validated, and how we define and handle different geometry scenarios in simulation and reconstruction. We discuss how to transparently manage multiple incompatible geometries in the same software release. Several examples are shown based on current implementation assuring consistent choice of scenario conditions. The consequences and implications for multiple/different code algorithms are discussed.

  14. Software Geometry in Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alion, Tyler; Viren, Brett; Junk, Tom

    2015-04-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) involves many detectors. The experiment's near detector (ND) facility, may ultimately involve several detectors. The far detector (FD) will be significantly larger than any other Liquid Argon (LAr) detector yet constructed; many prototype detectors are being constructed and studied to motivate a plethora of proposed FD designs. Whether it be a constructed prototype or a proposed ND/FD design, every design must be simulated and analyzed. This presents a considerable challenge to LBNE software experts; each detector geometry must be described to the simulation software in an efficient way which allows for multiple authors to easily collaborate. Furthermore, different geometry versions must be tracked throughout their use. We present a framework called General Geometry Description (GGD), written and developed by LBNE software collaborators for managing software to generate geometries. Though GGD is flexible enough to be used by any experiment working with detectors, we present it's first use in generating Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML) files to interface with LArSoft, a framework of detector simulations, event reconstruction, and data analyses written for all LAr technology users at Fermilab. Brett is the other of the framework discussed here, the General Geometry Description (GGD).

  15. Introduction to combinatorial geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.; Emmett, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    The combinatorial geometry package as used in many three-dimensional multimedia Monte Carlo radiation transport codes, such as HETC, MORSE, and EGS, is becoming the preferred way to describe simple and complicated systems. Just about any system can be modeled using the package with relatively few input statements. This can be contrasted against the older style geometry packages in which the required input statements could be large even for relatively simple systems. However, with advancements come some difficulties. The users of combinatorial geometry must be able to visualize more, and, in some instances, all of the system at a time. Errors can be introduced into the modeling which, though slight, and at times hard to detect, can have devastating effects on the calculated results. As with all modeling packages, the best way to learn the combinatorial geometry is to use it, first on a simple system then on more complicated systems. The basic technique for the description of the geometry consists of defining the location and shape of the various zones in terms of the intersections and unions of geometric bodies. The geometric bodies which are generally included in most combinatorial geometry packages are: (1) box, (2) right parallelepiped, (3) sphere, (4) right circular cylinder, (5) right elliptic cylinder, (6) ellipsoid, (7) truncated right cone, (8) right angle wedge, and (9) arbitrary polyhedron. The data necessary to describe each of these bodies are given. As can be easily noted, there are some subsets included for simplicity

  16. Contribution to the development and the modelling of an ultrasonic conformable phased array transducer for the contact inspection of 3D complex geometry components; Contribution au developpement et a la modelisation d'un traducteur ultrasonore multielements conformable pour l'inspection au contact de composants a geometrie complexe 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedes, O

    2005-04-15

    With the difficulties encountered for the exploration of complex shape surfaces, particularly in nuclear industry, the ultrasonic conformable phased array transducer allows a non destructive evaluation of parts with 3D complex parts. For this, one can use the Smart Contact Transducer principle to generate an ultrasonic field by adaptive dynamic focalisation, with a matrix array composed of independent elements moulded in a soft resin. This work deals with the electro-acoustic conception, with the realization of such a prototype and with the study of it's mechanical and acoustic behaviour. The array design is defined using a radiation model adapted to the simulation of contact sources on a free surface. Once one have defined the shape of the radiating elements, a vibratory analysis using finite elements method allows the determination of the emitting structure with 1-3 piezocomposite, witch leads to the realization of emitting-receiving elements. With the measurement of the field transmitted by such elements, we deduced new hypothesis to change the model of radiation. Thus one can take into account normal and tangential stresses calculated with finite element modelling at the interface between the element and the propagation medium, to use it with the semi-analytical model. Some vibratory phenomena dealing with fluid coupling of contact transducers have been studied, and the prediction of the transverse wave radiation profile have been improved. The last part of this work deals with the realization of the first prototype of the conformable phased array transducer. For this a deformation measuring system have been developed, to determine the position of each element on real time with the displacement of the transducer on complex shape surfaces. With those positions, one can perform the calculation of the a delay law intended for the adaptive dynamic focusing of the desired ultrasonic field. The conformable phased array transducer have been characterized in

  17. Contribution to the development and the modelling of an ultrasonic conformable phased array transducer for the contact inspection of 3D complex geometry components; Contribution au developpement et a la modelisation d'un traducteur ultrasonore multielements conformable pour l'inspection au contact de composants a geometrie complexe 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedes, O

    2005-04-15

    With the difficulties encountered for the exploration of complex shape surfaces, particularly in nuclear industry, the ultrasonic conformable phased array transducer allows a non destructive evaluation of parts with 3D complex parts. For this, one can use the Smart Contact Transducer principle to generate an ultrasonic field by adaptive dynamic focalisation, with a matrix array composed of independent elements moulded in a soft resin. This work deals with the electro-acoustic conception, with the realization of such a prototype and with the study of it's mechanical and acoustic behaviour. The array design is defined using a radiation model adapted to the simulation of contact sources on a free surface. Once one have defined the shape of the radiating elements, a vibratory analysis using finite elements method allows the determination of the emitting structure with 1-3 piezocomposite, witch leads to the realization of emitting-receiving elements. With the measurement of the field transmitted by such elements, we deduced new hypothesis to change the model of radiation. Thus one can take into account normal and tangential stresses calculated with finite element modelling at the interface between the element and the propagation medium, to use it with the semi-analytical model. Some vibratory phenomena dealing with fluid coupling of contact transducers have been studied, and the prediction of the transverse wave radiation profile have been improved. The last part of this work deals with the realization of the first prototype of the conformable phased array transducer. For this a deformation measuring system have been developed, to determine the position of each element on real time with the displacement of the transducer on complex shape surfaces. With those positions, one can perform the calculation of the a delay law intended for the adaptive dynamic focusing of the desired ultrasonic field. The conformable phased array transducer have been characterized in

  18. Standard Guide for Benchmark Testing of Light Water Reactor Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers general approaches for benchmarking neutron transport calculations in light water reactor systems. A companion guide (Guide E2005) covers use of benchmark fields for testing neutron transport calculations and cross sections in well controlled environments. This guide covers experimental benchmarking of neutron fluence calculations (or calculations of other exposure parameters such as dpa) in more complex geometries relevant to reactor surveillance. Particular sections of the guide discuss: the use of well-characterized benchmark neutron fields to provide an indication of the accuracy of the calculational methods and nuclear data when applied to typical cases; and the use of plant specific measurements to indicate bias in individual plant calculations. Use of these two benchmark techniques will serve to limit plant-specific calculational uncertainty, and, when combined with analytical uncertainty estimates for the calculations, will provide uncertainty estimates for reactor fluences with ...

  19. Convex-based void filling method for CAD-based Monte Carlo geometry modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Shengpeng; Cheng, Mengyun; Song, Jing; Long, Pengcheng; Hu, Liqin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a new void filling method named CVF for CAD based MC geometry modeling. • We describe convex based void description based and quality-based space subdivision. • The results showed improvements provided by CVF for both modeling and MC calculation efficiency. - Abstract: CAD based automatic geometry modeling tools have been widely applied to generate Monte Carlo (MC) calculation geometry for complex systems according to CAD models. Automatic void filling is one of the main functions in the CAD based MC geometry modeling tools, because the void space between parts in CAD models is traditionally not modeled while MC codes such as MCNP need all the problem space to be described. A dedicated void filling method, named Convex-based Void Filling (CVF), is proposed in this study for efficient void filling and concise void descriptions. The method subdivides all the problem space into disjointed regions using Quality based Subdivision (QS) and describes the void space in each region with complementary descriptions of the convex volumes intersecting with that region. It has been implemented in SuperMC/MCAM, the Multiple-Physics Coupling Analysis Modeling Program, and tested on International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Alite model. The results showed that the new method reduced both automatic modeling time and MC calculation time

  20. On specific features of neutron spatial-energy distribution formation in a complex cell of a channel water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurova, L.N.; Naumov, V.I.; Belousov, N.I.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the results of calculations of spatial-energy neutron distribution formation specific features in the cells with great amount and heterogeneous distribution of water. Considered is the two-region cylindrical cell with the central zone of 4 cm radius, consisting of moderators of different types. The calculation results show, that in the absence of absorption with the energy decrease flattening of neutron flux density by the cell takes place. Here in the case of hydrogen bearing moderator in the central zone the effect of the flux initial perturbation covers the essentially wider energy range, than in the case of hydrogenless moderator. Perturbation effect strongly depends on the composition of the peripheric zone (graphite, heavy water) and the size of the cell. The energy range, which is covered by the perturbation in the case of a hydrogen-bearing moderator in the central zone, is comparable with resonance energy range for uranium-238. A conclusion is made on the limited possibilities of the ''flat flux'' approximation for analyzing the resonance absorption in heterogeneous reactors with essential content of water in the channels

  1. Sources of hyperbolic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Stillwell, John

    1996-01-01

    This book presents, for the first time in English, the papers of Beltrami, Klein, and Poincaré that brought hyperbolic geometry into the mainstream of mathematics. A recognition of Beltrami comparable to that given the pioneering works of Bolyai and Lobachevsky seems long overdue-not only because Beltrami rescued hyperbolic geometry from oblivion by proving it to be logically consistent, but because he gave it a concrete meaning (a model) that made hyperbolic geometry part of ordinary mathematics. The models subsequently discovered by Klein and Poincaré brought hyperbolic geometry even further down to earth and paved the way for the current explosion of activity in low-dimensional geometry and topology. By placing the works of these three mathematicians side by side and providing commentaries, this book gives the student, historian, or professional geometer a bird's-eye view of one of the great episodes in mathematics. The unified setting and historical context reveal the insights of Beltrami, Klein, and Po...

  2. Generalizing optical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Rickard; Westman, Hans

    2006-01-01

    We show that by employing the standard projected curvature as a measure of spatial curvature, we can make a certain generalization of optical geometry (Abramowicz M A and Lasota J-P 1997 Class. Quantum Grav. A 14 23-30). This generalization applies to any spacetime that admits a hypersurface orthogonal shearfree congruence of worldlines. This is a somewhat larger class of spacetimes than the conformally static spacetimes assumed in standard optical geometry. In the generalized optical geometry, which in the generic case is time dependent, photons move with unit speed along spatial geodesics and the sideways force experienced by a particle following a spatially straight line is independent of the velocity. Also gyroscopes moving along spatial geodesics do not precess (relative to the forward direction). Gyroscopes that follow a curved spatial trajectory precess according to a very simple law of three-rotation. We also present an inertial force formalism in coordinate representation for this generalization. Furthermore, we show that by employing a new sense of spatial curvature (Jonsson R 2006 Class. Quantum Grav. 23 1)) closely connected to Fermat's principle, we can make a more extensive generalization of optical geometry that applies to arbitrary spacetimes. In general this optical geometry will be time dependent, but still geodesic photons move with unit speed and follow lines that are spatially straight in the new sense. Also, the sideways experienced (comoving) force on a test particle following a line that is straight in the new sense will be independent of the velocity

  3. Ab Initio investigation of chloroaqualead (II) complexes as possible corrosion products in Super Critical Water Cooled Reactor (SCWR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzelj, D.; Pye, C.C., E-mail: diki1979@hotmail.com, E-mail: cory.pye@smu.ca [Saint Mary' s University, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    One of the undesirable processes hindering development of Generation IV SCWR is the possibility of corrosion of construction material. Formation of corrosion products such as metal-ligand complexes is poorly understood both experimentally and computationally. It is essential to predict and control its water chemistry to ensure sustainability of SCWR. Pressurized and heated solutions are challenging for experimental research; computational method becomes an important research tool. A series of ab initio calculations of chloroaqualead (II) complexes have been performed at HF, MP2 and B3LYP levels of theory with CEP-121G, LANL2DZ, SDD basis sets for Pb and 6-31G*, 6-31+G*, 6-311+G* for water. (author)

  4. Ab Initio investigation of chloroaqualead (II) complexes as possible corrosion products in Super Critical Water Cooled Reactor (SCWR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzelj, D.; Pye, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    One of the undesirable processes hindering development of Generation IV SCWR is the possibility of corrosion of construction material. Formation of corrosion products such as metal-ligand complexes is poorly understood both experimentally and computationally. It is essential to predict and control its water chemistry to ensure sustainability of SCWR. Pressurized and heated solutions are challenging for experimental research; computational method becomes an important research tool. A series of ab initio calculations of chloroaqualead (II) complexes have been performed at HF, MP2 and B3LYP levels of theory with CEP-121G, LANL2DZ, SDD basis sets for Pb and 6-31G*, 6-31+G*, 6-311+G* for water. (author)

  5. Development of CAD-Based Geometry Processing Module for a Monte Carlo Particle Transport Analysis Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sung Hoon; Kwark, Min Su; Shim, Hyung Jin

    2012-01-01

    As The Monte Carlo (MC) particle transport analysis for a complex system such as research reactor, accelerator, and fusion facility may require accurate modeling of the complicated geometry. Its manual modeling by using the text interface of a MC code to define the geometrical objects is tedious, lengthy and error-prone. This problem can be overcome by taking advantage of modeling capability of the computer aided design (CAD) system. There have been two kinds of approaches to develop MC code systems utilizing the CAD data: the external format conversion and the CAD kernel imbedded MC simulation. The first approach includes several interfacing programs such as McCAD, MCAM, GEOMIT etc. which were developed to automatically convert the CAD data into the MCNP geometry input data. This approach makes the most of the existing MC codes without any modifications, but implies latent data inconsistency due to the difference of the geometry modeling system. In the second approach, a MC code utilizes the CAD data for the direct particle tracking or the conversion to an internal data structure of the constructive solid geometry (CSG) and/or boundary representation (B-rep) modeling with help of a CAD kernel. MCNP-BRL and OiNC have demonstrated their capabilities of the CAD-based MC simulations. Recently we have developed a CAD-based geometry processing module for the MC particle simulation by using the OpenCASCADE (OCC) library. In the developed module, CAD data can be used for the particle tracking through primitive CAD surfaces (hereafter the CAD-based tracking) or the internal conversion to the CSG data structure. In this paper, the performances of the text-based model, the CAD-based tracking, and the internal CSG conversion are compared by using an in-house MC code, McSIM, equipped with the developed CAD-based geometry processing module

  6. Discrete and computational geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Devadoss, Satyan L

    2011-01-01

    Discrete geometry is a relatively new development in pure mathematics, while computational geometry is an emerging area in applications-driven computer science. Their intermingling has yielded exciting advances in recent years, yet what has been lacking until now is an undergraduate textbook that bridges the gap between the two. Discrete and Computational Geometry offers a comprehensive yet accessible introduction to this cutting-edge frontier of mathematics and computer science. This book covers traditional topics such as convex hulls, triangulations, and Voronoi diagrams, as well as more recent subjects like pseudotriangulations, curve reconstruction, and locked chains. It also touches on more advanced material, including Dehn invariants, associahedra, quasigeodesics, Morse theory, and the recent resolution of the Poincaré conjecture. Connections to real-world applications are made throughout, and algorithms are presented independently of any programming language. This richly illustrated textbook also fe...

  7. Geometry and Cloaking Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, T.; Nacher, J. C.

    2011-09-01

    Recently, the application of geometry and conformal mappings to artificial materials (metamaterials) has attracted the attention in various research communities. These materials, characterized by a unique man-made structure, have unusual optical properties, which materials found in nature do not exhibit. By applying the geometry and conformal mappings theory to metamaterial science, it may be possible to realize so-called "Harry Potter cloaking device". Although such a device is still in the science fiction realm, several works have shown that by using such metamaterials it may be possible to control the direction of the electromagnetic field at will. We could then make an object hidden inside of a cloaking device. Here, we will explain how to design invisibility device using differential geometry and conformal mappings.

  8. Discrete quantum geometries and their effective dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuerigen, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    In several approaches towards a quantum theory of gravity, such as group field theory and loop quantum gravity, quantum states and histories of the geometric degrees of freedom turn out to be based on discrete spacetime. The most pressing issue is then how the smooth geometries of general relativity, expressed in terms of suitable geometric observables, arise from such discrete quantum geometries in some semiclassical and continuum limit. In this thesis I tackle the question of suitable observables focusing on the effective dimension of discrete quantum geometries. For this purpose I give a purely combinatorial description of the discrete structures which these geometries have support on. As a side topic, this allows to present an extension of group field theory to cover the combinatorially larger kinematical state space of loop quantum gravity. Moreover, I introduce a discrete calculus for fields on such fundamentally discrete geometries with a particular focus on the Laplacian. This permits to define the effective-dimension observables for quantum geometries. Analysing various classes of quantum geometries, I find as a general result that the spectral dimension is more sensitive to the underlying combinatorial structure than to the details of the additional geometric data thereon. Semiclassical states in loop quantum gravity approximate the classical geometries they are peaking on rather well and there are no indications for stronger quantum effects. On the other hand, in the context of a more general model of states which are superposition over a large number of complexes, based on analytic solutions, there is a flow of the spectral dimension from the topological dimension d on low energy scales to a real number between 0 and d on high energy scales. In the particular case of 1 these results allow to understand the quantum geometry as effectively fractal.

  9. Geometry and symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Yale, Paul B

    2012-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the geometry of Euclidean, affine, and projective spaces with special emphasis on the important groups of symmetries of these spaces. The two major objectives of the text are to introduce the main ideas of affine and projective spaces and to develop facility in handling transformations and groups of transformations. Since there are many good texts on affine and projective planes, the author has concentrated on the n-dimensional cases.Designed to be used in advanced undergraduate mathematics or physics courses, the book focuses on ""practical geometry,"" emphasi

  10. Safety assessment of reactor components under complex multiaxial cyclic loading. Final report; Sicherheitsbewertung kerntechnischer Komponenten bei komplexer, mehrachsiger Schwingbeanspruchung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesich, Thomas M.; Herter, Karl-Heinz; Schuler, Xaver

    2012-12-15

    Objective of the project was the experimental assurance of investigations on the theoretical basis of multiaxial fatigue loading. The review of the applicability of existing hypotheses, as well as the extension of the corresponding data base was carried out by experimental studies in fatigue tests under complex multiaxial loading for a ferritic and austenitic material. To investigate the influence of complex multiaxial stress conditions on the fatigue behavior, in this project notched cylindrical specimens were examined under alternating tensile/pressure loading and alternating torsional loading. Through the notch in the notched section inhomogeneous, multiaxial stress states are generated. By uniaxial alternating tests on unnotched specimens and a further series of tests on unnotched specimens under alternating torsional loading an evaluation of the impact and influence of the notch of stress on fatigue behavior was possible. A series of experiments with superimposition of alternating torsional and alternating tensile/pressure loading permits verification of the effect of phase-shifted stress and rotating principal coordinate system. All experiments were performed at room temperature. As part of the research project, the experimental results with the ferritic and austenitic materials were evaluated in terms of material behavior (hardening or softening) under cyclic loading. These were to uniaxial alternating tensile/pressure tests, alternating torsional tests (unnotched cylindrical specimens), alternating tensile/pressure tests on notched cylindrical specimens, alternating torsional tests on notched cylindrical specimens, alternating tensiontorsion tests with complex proportional stresses on unnotched cylindrical specimens (superimposition of normal and shear stress components), as well as alternating tension-torsion tests with complex non-proportional strain on unnotched cylindrical specimens (superimposition of normal and shear stress components with 90 phase

  11. Differential Geometry Based Multiscale Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guo-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Large chemical and biological systems such as fuel cells, ion channels, molecular motors, and viruses are of great importance to the scientific community and public health. Typically, these complex systems in conjunction with their aquatic environment pose a fabulous challenge to theoretical description, simulation, and prediction. In this work, we propose a differential geometry based multiscale paradigm to model complex macromolecular systems, and to put macroscopic and microscopic descriptions on an equal footing. In our approach, the differential geometry theory of surfaces and geometric measure theory are employed as a natural means to couple the macroscopic continuum mechanical description of the aquatic environment with the microscopic discrete atom-istic description of the macromolecule. Multiscale free energy functionals, or multiscale action functionals are constructed as a unified framework to derive the governing equations for the dynamics of different scales and different descriptions. Two types of aqueous macromolecular complexes, ones that are near equilibrium and others that are far from equilibrium, are considered in our formulations. We show that generalized Navier–Stokes equations for the fluid dynamics, generalized Poisson equations or generalized Poisson–Boltzmann equations for electrostatic interactions, and Newton's equation for the molecular dynamics can be derived by the least action principle. These equations are coupled through the continuum-discrete interface whose dynamics is governed by potential driven geometric flows. Comparison is given to classical descriptions of the fluid and electrostatic interactions without geometric flow based micro-macro interfaces. The detailed balance of forces is emphasized in the present work. We further extend the proposed multiscale paradigm to micro-macro analysis of electrohydrodynamics, electrophoresis, fuel cells, and ion channels. We derive generalized Poisson–Nernst–Planck equations that

  12. Differential geometry based multiscale models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guo-Wei

    2010-08-01

    Large chemical and biological systems such as fuel cells, ion channels, molecular motors, and viruses are of great importance to the scientific community and public health. Typically, these complex systems in conjunction with their aquatic environment pose a fabulous challenge to theoretical description, simulation, and prediction. In this work, we propose a differential geometry based multiscale paradigm to model complex macromolecular systems, and to put macroscopic and microscopic descriptions on an equal footing. In our approach, the differential geometry theory of surfaces and geometric measure theory are employed as a natural means to couple the macroscopic continuum mechanical description of the aquatic environment with the microscopic discrete atomistic description of the macromolecule. Multiscale free energy functionals, or multiscale action functionals are constructed as a unified framework to derive the governing equations for the dynamics of different scales and different descriptions. Two types of aqueous macromolecular complexes, ones that are near equilibrium and others that are far from equilibrium, are considered in our formulations. We show that generalized Navier-Stokes equations for the fluid dynamics, generalized Poisson equations or generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equations for electrostatic interactions, and Newton's equation for the molecular dynamics can be derived by the least action principle. These equations are coupled through the continuum-discrete interface whose dynamics is governed by potential driven geometric flows. Comparison is given to classical descriptions of the fluid and electrostatic interactions without geometric flow based micro-macro interfaces. The detailed balance of forces is emphasized in the present work. We further extend the proposed multiscale paradigm to micro-macro analysis of electrohydrodynamics, electrophoresis, fuel cells, and ion channels. We derive generalized Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations that are

  13. Observations on the CANDLE burn-up in various geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    2007-01-01

    We have looked at all geometrical conditions under which an auto catalytically propagating burnup wave (CANDLE burn-up) is possible. Thereby, the Sine Gordon equation finds a new place in the burn-up theory of nuclear fission reactors. For a practical reactor design the axially burning 'spaghetti' reactor and the azimuthally burning 'pancake' reactor, respectively, seem to be the most promising geometries for a practical reactor design. Radial and spherical burn-waves in cylindrical and spherical geometry, respectively, are principally impossible. Also, the possible applicability of such fission burn-waves on the OKLO-phenomenon and the GEOREACTOR in the center of Earth, postulated by Herndon, is discussed. A fast CANDLE-reactor can work with only depleted uranium. Therefore, uranium mining and uranium-enrichment are not necessary anymore. Furthermore, it is also possible to dispense with reprocessing because the uranium utilization factor is as high as about 40%. Thus, this completely new reactor type can open a new era of reactor technology

  14. Modeling a Packed Bed Reactor Utilizing the Sabatier Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Malay G.; Meier, Anne J.; Hintze, Paul E.

    2017-01-01

    A numerical model is being developed using Python which characterizes the conversion and temperature profiles of a packed bed reactor (PBR) that utilizes the Sabatier process; the reaction produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. While the specific kinetics of the Sabatier reaction on the RuAl2O3 catalyst pellets are unknown, an empirical reaction rate equation1 is used for the overall reaction. As this reaction is highly exothermic, proper thermal control is of the utmost importance to ensure maximum conversion and to avoid reactor runaway. It is therefore necessary to determine what wall temperature profile will ensure safe and efficient operation of the reactor. This wall temperature will be maintained by active thermal controls on the outer surface of the reactor. Two cylindrical PBRs are currently being tested experimentally and will be used for validation of the Python model. They are similar in design except one of them is larger and incorporates a preheat loop by feeding the reactant gas through a pipe along the center of the catalyst bed. The further complexity of adding a preheat pipe to the model to mimic the larger reactor is yet to be implemented and validated; preliminary validation is done using the smaller PBR with no reactant preheating. When mapping experimental values of the wall temperature from the smaller PBR into the Python model, a good approximation of the total conversion and temperature profile has been achieved. A separate CFD model incorporates more complex three-dimensional effects by including the solid catalyst pellets within the domain. The goal is to improve the Python model to the point where the results of other reactor geometry can be reasonably predicted relatively quickly when compared to the much more computationally expensive CFD approach. Once a reactor size is narrowed down using the Python approach, CFD will be used to generate a more thorough prediction of the reactors performance.

  15. The analytic nodal method in cylindrical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prinsloo, Rian H.; Tomasevic, Djordje I.

    2008-01-01

    Nodal diffusion methods have been used extensively in nuclear reactor calculations, specifically for their performance advantage, but also for their superior accuracy. More specifically, the Analytic Nodal Method (ANM), utilising the transverse integration principle, has been applied to numerous reactor problems with much success. In this work, a nodal diffusion method is developed for cylindrical geometry. Application of this method to three-dimensional (3D) cylindrical geometry has never been satisfactorily addressed and we propose a solution which entails the use of conformal mapping. A set of 1D-equations with an adjusted, geometrically dependent, inhomogeneous source, is obtained. This work describes the development of the method and associated test code, as well as its application to realistic reactor problems. Numerical results are given for the PBMR-400 MW benchmark problem, as well as for a 'cylindrisized' version of the well-known 3D LWR IAEA benchmark. Results highlight the improved accuracy and performance over finite-difference core solutions and investigate the applicability of nodal methods to 3D PBMR type problems. Results indicate that cylindrical nodal methods definitely have a place within PBMR applications, yielding performance advantage factors of 10 and 20 for 2D and 3D calculations, respectively, and advantage factors of the order of 1000 in the case of the LWR problem

  16. Towards relativistic quantum geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridao, Luis Santiago [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina); Bellini, Mauricio, E-mail: mbellini@mdp.edu.ar [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, C.P. 7600, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2015-12-17

    We obtain a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum geometry by using a Weylian-like manifold with a geometric scalar field which provides a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum theory in which the algebra of the Weylian-like field depends on observers. An example for a Reissner–Nordström black-hole is studied.

  17. Multiplicity in difference geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasic, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    We prove a first principle of preservation of multiplicity in difference geometry, paving the way for the development of a more general intersection theory. In particular, the fibres of a \\sigma-finite morphism between difference curves are all of the same size, when counted with correct multiplicities.

  18. Spacetime and Euclidean geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Dieter; Jacobson, Ted

    2006-04-01

    Using only the principle of relativity and Euclidean geometry we show in this pedagogical article that the square of proper time or length in a two-dimensional spacetime diagram is proportional to the Euclidean area of the corresponding causal domain. We use this relation to derive the Minkowski line element by two geometric proofs of the spacetime Pythagoras theorem.

  19. Physics and geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopleva, N.P.

    2009-01-01

    The basic ideas of description methods of physical fields and elementary particle interactions are discussed. One of such ideas is the conception of space-time geometry. In this connection experimental measurement methods are analyzed. It is shown that measure procedures are the origin of geometrical axioms. The connection between space symmetry properties and the conservation laws is considered

  20. Origami, Geometry and Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Arsalan; Elstak, Iwan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the mathematics that emanates from the construction of an origami box. We first construct a simple origami box from a rectangular sheet and then discuss some of the mathematical questions that arise in the context of geometry and algebra. The activity can be used as a context for illustrating how algebra…

  1. Gravity is Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKeown, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    Clarifies two concepts of gravity--those of a fictitious force and those of how space and time may have geometry. Reviews the position of Newton's theory of gravity in the context of special relativity and considers why gravity (as distinct from electromagnetics) lends itself to Einstein's revolutionary interpretation. (JN)

  2. Towards a Nano Geometry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies I.M. Gelfand's distinction between adequate and non-adequate use of mathematical language in different contexts to the newly opened window of model-based measurements of intracellular dynamics. The specifics of geometry and dynamics on the mesoscale of cell physiology are elabo...

  3. Diophantine geometry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hindry, Marc

    2000-01-01

    This is an introduction to diophantine geometry at the advanced graduate level. The book contains a proof of the Mordell conjecture which will make it quite attractive to graduate students and professional mathematicians. In each part of the book, the reader will find numerous exercises.

  4. Sliding vane geometry turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Harold Huimin; Zhang, Jizhong; Hu, Liangjun; Hanna, Dave R

    2014-12-30

    Various systems and methods are described for a variable geometry turbine. In one example, a turbine nozzle comprises a central axis and a nozzle vane. The nozzle vane includes a stationary vane and a sliding vane. The sliding vane is positioned to slide in a direction substantially tangent to an inner circumference of the turbine nozzle and in contact with the stationary vane.

  5. History of analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Carl B

    2012-01-01

    Designed as an integrated survey of the development of analytic geometry, this study presents the concepts and contributions from before the Alexandrian Age through the eras of the great French mathematicians Fermat and Descartes, and on through Newton and Euler to the "Golden Age," from 1789 to 1850.

  6. Non-euclidean geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Coxeter, HSM

    1965-01-01

    This textbook introduces non-Euclidean geometry, and the third edition adds a new chapter, including a description of the two families of 'mid-lines' between two given lines and an elementary derivation of the basic formulae of spherical trigonometry and hyperbolic trigonometry, and other new material.

  7. Topics in Riemannian geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezin, J.P.

    1988-08-01

    The lectures given at the ''5th Symposium of Mathematics in Abidjan: Differential Geometry and Mechanics'' are presented. They are divided into four chapters: Riemannian metric on a differential manifold, curvature tensor fields on a Riemannian manifold, some classical functionals on Riemannian manifolds and questions. 11 refs

  8. Geometry Euclid and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Hartshorne, Robin

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, I have been teaching a junior-senior-level course on the classi­ cal geometries. This book has grown out of that teaching experience. I assume only high-school geometry and some abstract algebra. The course begins in Chapter 1 with a critical examination of Euclid's Elements. Students are expected to read concurrently Books I-IV of Euclid's text, which must be obtained sepa­ rately. The remainder of the book is an exploration of questions that arise natu­ rally from this reading, together with their modern answers. To shore up the foundations we use Hilbert's axioms. The Cartesian plane over a field provides an analytic model of the theory, and conversely, we see that one can introduce coordinates into an abstract geometry. The theory of area is analyzed by cutting figures into triangles. The algebra of field extensions provides a method for deciding which geometrical constructions are possible. The investigation of the parallel postulate leads to the various non-Euclidean geometries. And ...

  9. Reactor refurbishment in an outage environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowthorpe, P.; Hoare, R.

    2012-01-01

    Reactor life extension has typically been performed during specific refurbishment outages. These outages are long and costly due to the sheer complexity of the scope, not to mention the ever present discovery work. A scope of this size requires a huge labour force to execute, which poses significant challenges. The work is difficult to staff with qualified people able to execute the work smoothly and managing the required labour pool problematic. Cost and time overruns are inevitable in that environment. Reducing the cost and schedule is critical to the long term viability of reactor refurbishment projects. With planning, the total cost of the refurbishment can be reduced by managing the inspection and repairs during normal outages. Identifying what activities need to be done each outage for the life of the reactor and bringing the latest technology can make this viable. Tightly planned outages with a small well trained labour force will go a long way to reducing costs. The suite of services and tooling available to the utilities to manage their reactor integrity has improved significantly in recent years and continues to evolve. New feeder inspection technologies can provide improved inspection results for the complex feeder geometry. These improvements lead to more accurate wear rates and better predictions of component life. Feeders that need replacement based on improved inspection techniques can be replaced systematically during regular outages rather than specific refurbishment outages. Targeting areas rather than entire feeders reduces time, dose and cost. In cases where feeder replacement isn't feasible or where unpredicted wear is found, a feeder weld overlay process can be used. To manage the reactor work, new data systems are under development that allow for effective tracking of each activity performed and outcomes in a single package. (author)

  10. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubel, P.

    2002-01-01

    The BR2 materials testing reactor is one of SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. In 2001, the reactor was operated for a total of 123 days at a mean power of 59 MW in order to satisfy the irradiation conditions of the internal and external programmes using mainly the CALLISTO PWR loop. The mean consumption of fresh fuel elements was 5.26 per 1000 MWd. Main achievements in 2001 included the development of a three-dimensional full-scale model of the BR2 reactor for simulation and prediction of irradiation conditions for various experiments; the construction of the FUTURE-MT device designed for the irradiation of fuel plates under representative conditions of geometry, neutron spectrum, heat flux and thermal-hydraulic conditions and the development of in-pile instrumentation and a data acquisition system

  11. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2002-04-01

    The BR2 materials testing reactor is one of SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. In 2001, the reactor was operated for a total of 123 days at a mean power of 59 MW in order to satisfy the irradiation conditions of the internal and external programmes using mainly the CALLISTO PWR loop. The mean consumption of fresh fuel elements was 5.26 per 1000 MWd. Main achievements in 2001 included the development of a three-dimensional full-scale model of the BR2 reactor for simulation and prediction of irradiation conditions for various experiments; the construction of the FUTURE-MT device designed for the irradiation of fuel plates under representative conditions of geometry, neutron spectrum, heat flux and thermal-hydraulic conditions and the development of in-pile instrumentation and a data acquisition system.

  12. Contribution to the development of methods for nuclear reactor core calculations with APOLLO3 code: domain decomposition in transport theory with nonlinear diffusion acceleration for 2D and 3D geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenain, Roland

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the implementation of a domain decomposition method applied to the neutron transport equation. The objective of this work is to access high-fidelity deterministic solutions to properly handle heterogeneities located in nuclear reactor cores, for problems' size ranging from color-sets of assemblies to large reactor cores configurations in 2D and 3D. The innovative algorithm developed during the thesis intends to optimize the use of parallelism and memory. The approach also aims to minimize the influence of the parallel implementation on the performances. These goals match the needs of APOLLO3 project, developed at CEA and supported by EDF and AREVA, which must be a portable code (no optimization on a specific architecture) in order to achieve best estimate modeling with resources ranging from personal computer to compute cluster available for engineers analyses. The proposed algorithm is a Parallel Multigroup-Block Jacobi one. Each sub-domain is considered as a multi-group fixed-source problem with volume-sources (fission) and surface-sources (interface flux between the sub-domains). The multi-group problem is solved in each sub-domain and a single communication of the interface flux is required at each power iteration. The spectral radius of the resolution algorithm is made similar to the one of a classical resolution algorithm with a nonlinear diffusion acceleration method: the well-known Coarse Mesh Finite Difference. In this way an ideal scalability is achievable when the calculation is parallelized. The memory organization, taking advantage of shared memory parallelism, optimizes the resources by avoiding redundant copies of the data shared between the sub-domains. Distributed memory architectures are made available by a hybrid parallel method that combines both paradigms of shared memory parallelism and distributed memory parallelism. For large problems, these architectures provide a greater number of processors and the amount of

  13. ARGO, 1-D Neutron Diffusion in Slab, Cylindrical, Spherical Geometry from JAERI Fast-Set, ABBN, RCBN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikawa, Koji

    1971-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: ARGO is a one-dimensional (slab, cylinder or sphere), multigroup diffusion code for use in fast reactor criticality and kinetic parameter analysis. Three cross section sets, i.e., JAERI-Fast-Set, ABBN-Set and RCBN-Set, of 25 groups are prepared for the code as its library tapes. 2 - Method of solution: Eigenvalues are computed by ordinary source-iteration techniques with ordinary acceleration methods for convergence. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Sphere geometry

  14. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Bertrand

    2015-10-01

    After some remarks on the nuclear fuel, on the chain reaction control, on fuel loading and unloading, this article proposes descriptions of the design, principles and operations of different types of nuclear reactors as well as comments on their presence and use in different countries: pressurized water reactors (design of the primary and secondary circuits, volume and chemistry control, backup injection circuits), boiling water reactors, heavy water reactors, graphite and boiling water reactors, graphite-gas reactors, fast breeder reactors, and fourth generation reactors (definition, fast breeding). For these last ones, six concepts are presented: sodium-cooled fast reactor, lead-cooled fast reactor, gas-cooled fast reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor, supercritical water-cooled reactor, and molten salt reactor

  15. Multivariate calculus and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dineen, Seán

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate calculus can be understood best by combining geometric insight, intuitive arguments, detailed explanations and mathematical reasoning. This textbook has successfully followed this programme. It additionally provides a solid description of the basic concepts, via familiar examples, which are then tested in technically demanding situations. In this new edition the introductory chapter and two of the chapters on the geometry of surfaces have been revised. Some exercises have been replaced and others provided with expanded solutions. Familiarity with partial derivatives and a course in linear algebra are essential prerequisites for readers of this book. Multivariate Calculus and Geometry is aimed primarily at higher level undergraduates in the mathematical sciences. The inclusion of many practical examples involving problems of several variables will appeal to mathematics, science and engineering students.

  16. Transformational plane geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Umble, Ronald N

    2014-01-01

    Axioms of Euclidean Plane Geometry The Existence and Incidence Postulates The Distance and Ruler Postulates The Plane Separation Postulate The Protractor Postulate The Side-Angle-Side Postulate and the Euclidean Parallel Postulate Theorems of Euclidean Plane Geometry The Exterior Angle Theorem Triangle Congruence Theorems The Alternate Interior Angles Theorem and the Angle Sum Theorem Similar Triangles Introduction to Transformations, Isometries, and Similarities Transformations Isometries and SimilaritiesAppendix: Proof of Surjectivity Translations, Rotations, and Reflections Translations Rotations Reflections Appendix: Geometer's Sketchpad Commands Required by Exploratory Activities Compositions of Translations, Rotations, and Reflections The Three Points Theorem Rotations as Compositions of Two Reflections Translations as Compositions of Two Halfturns or Two Reflections The Angle Addition Theorem Glide Reflections Classification of Isometries The Fundamental Theorem and Congruence Classification of Isometr...

  17. Multilevel geometry optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Jocelyn M.; Fast, Patton L.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2000-02-01

    Geometry optimization has been carried out for three test molecules using six multilevel electronic structure methods, in particular Gaussian-2, Gaussian-3, multicoefficient G2, multicoefficient G3, and two multicoefficient correlation methods based on correlation-consistent basis sets. In the Gaussian-2 and Gaussian-3 methods, various levels are added and subtracted with unit coefficients, whereas the multicoefficient Gaussian-x methods involve noninteger parameters as coefficients. The multilevel optimizations drop the average error in the geometry (averaged over the 18 cases) by a factor of about two when compared to the single most expensive component of a given multilevel calculation, and in all 18 cases the accuracy of the atomization energy for the three test molecules improves; with an average improvement of 16.7 kcal/mol.

  18. Multilevel geometry optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, Jocelyn M. [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States); Fast, Patton L. [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States); Truhlar, Donald G. [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States)

    2000-02-15

    Geometry optimization has been carried out for three test molecules using six multilevel electronic structure methods, in particular Gaussian-2, Gaussian-3, multicoefficient G2, multicoefficient G3, and two multicoefficient correlation methods based on correlation-consistent basis sets. In the Gaussian-2 and Gaussian-3 methods, various levels are added and subtracted with unit coefficients, whereas the multicoefficient Gaussian-x methods involve noninteger parameters as coefficients. The multilevel optimizations drop the average error in the geometry (averaged over the 18 cases) by a factor of about two when compared to the single most expensive component of a given multilevel calculation, and in all 18 cases the accuracy of the atomization energy for the three test molecules improves; with an average improvement of 16.7 kcal/mol. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  19. Resonance integral calculations for high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, J.P.H.

    1960-02-01

    Methods of calculation of resonance integrals of finite dilution and temperature are given for both, homogeneous and heterogeneous geometries, together with results obtained from these methods as applied to the design of high temperature reactors. (author)

  20. Geometry and Destiny

    OpenAIRE

    Krauss, Lawrence M.; Turner, Michael S.

    1999-01-01

    The recognition that the cosmological constant may be non-zero forces us to re-evaluate standard notions about the connection between geometry and the fate of our Universe. An open Universe can recollapse, and a closed Universe can expand forever. As a corollary, we point out that there is no set of cosmological observations we can perform that will unambiguously allow us to determine what the ultimate destiny of the Universe will be.

  1. Electroweak vacuum geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepora, N.; Kibble, T.

    1999-01-01

    We analyse symmetry breaking in the Weinberg-Salam model paying particular attention to the underlying geometry of the theory. In this context we find two natural metrics upon the vacuum manifold: an isotropic metric associated with the scalar sector, and a squashed metric associated with the gauge sector. Physically, the interplay between these metrics gives rise to many of the non-perturbative features of Weinberg-Salam theory. (author)

  2. Architectural Geometry and Fabrication-Aware Design

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2013-04-27

    Freeform shapes and structures with a high geometric complexity play an increasingly important role in contemporary architecture. While digital models are easily created, the actual fabrication and construction remains a challenge. This is the source of numerous research problems many of which fall into the area of Geometric Computing and form part of a recently emerging research area, called "Architectural Geometry". The present paper provides a short survey of research in Architectural Geometry and shows how this field moves towards a new direction in Geometric Modeling which aims at combining shape design with important aspects of function and fabrication. © 2013 Kim Williams Books, Turin.

  3. W-geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    The geometric structure of theories with gauge fields of spins two and higher should involve a higher spin generalisation of Riemannian geometry. Such geometries are discussed and the case of W ∝ -gravity is analysed in detail. While the gauge group for gravity in d dimensions is the diffeomorphism group of the space-time, the gauge group for a certain W-gravity theory (which is W ∝ -gravity in the case d=2) is the group of symplectic diffeomorphisms of the cotangent bundle of the space-time. Gauge transformations for W-gravity gauge fields are given by requiring the invariance of a generalised line element. Densities exist and can be constructed from the line element (generalising √detg μν ) only if d=1 or d=2, so that only for d=1,2 can actions be constructed. These two cases and the corresponding W-gravity actions are considered in detail. In d=2, the gauge group is effectively only a subgroup of the symplectic diffeomorphisms group. Some of the constraints that arise for d=2 are similar to equations arising in the study of self-dual four-dimensional geometries and can be analysed using twistor methods, allowing contact to be made with other formulations of W-gravity. While the twistor transform for self-dual spaces with one Killing vector reduces to a Legendre transform, that for two Killing vectors gives a generalisation of the Legendre transform. (orig.)

  4. Integral geometry and valuations

    CERN Document Server

    Solanes, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Valuations are finitely additive functionals on the space of convex bodies. Their study has become a central subject in convexity theory, with fundamental applications to integral geometry. In the last years there has been significant progress in the theory of valuations, which in turn has led to important achievements in integral geometry. This book originated from two courses delivered by the authors at the CRM and provides a self-contained introduction to these topics, covering most of the recent advances. The first part, by Semyon Alesker, is devoted to the theory of convex valuations, with emphasis on the latest developments. A special focus is put on the new fundamental structures of the space of valuations discovered after Alesker's irreducibility theorem. Moreover, the author describes the newly developed theory of valuations on manifolds. In the second part, Joseph H. G. Fu gives a modern introduction to integral geometry in the sense of Blaschke and Santaló, based on the notions and tools presented...

  5. Development of M3C code for Monte Carlo reactor physics criticality calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Anek; Kannan, Umasankari; Krishanani, P.D.

    2015-06-01

    The development of Monte Carlo code (M3C) for reactor design entails use of continuous energy nuclear data and Monte Carlo simulations for each of the neutron interaction processes. BARC has started a concentrated effort for developing a new general geometry continuous energy Monte Carlo code for reactor physics calculation indigenously. The code development required a comprehensive understanding of the basic continuous energy cross section sets. The important features of this code are treatment of heterogeneous lattices by general geometry, use of point cross sections along with unionized energy grid approach, thermal scattering model for low energy treatment, capability of handling the microscopic fuel particles dispersed randomly. The capability of handling the randomly dispersed microscopic fuel particles which is very useful for the modeling of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled reactor fuels which are composed of thousands of microscopic fuel particle (TRISO fuel particle), randomly dispersed in a graphite matrix. The Monte Carlo code for criticality calculation is a pioneering effort and has been used to study several types of lattices including cluster geometries. The code has been verified for its accuracy against more than 60 sample problems covering a wide range from simple (like spherical) to complex geometry (like PHWR lattice). Benchmark results show that the code performs quite well for the criticality calculation of the system. In this report, the current status of the code, features of the code, some of the benchmark results for the testing of the code and input preparation etc. are discussed. (author)

  6. Interface tracking simulations of bubbly flows in PWR relevant geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Jun, E-mail: jfang3@ncsu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Rasquin, Michel, E-mail: michel.rasquin@colorado.edu [Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Bolotnov, Igor A., E-mail: igor_bolotnov@ncsu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Simulations were performed for turbulent bubbly flows in PWR subchannel geometry. • Liquid turbulence is fully resolved by direct numerical simulation approach. • Bubble behavior is captured using level-set interface tracking method. • Time-averaged single- and two-phase turbulent flow statistical quantities are obtained. - Abstract: The advances in high performance computing (HPC) have allowed direct numerical simulation (DNS) approach coupled with interface tracking methods (ITM) to perform high fidelity simulations of turbulent bubbly flows in various complex geometries. In this work, we have chosen the geometry of the pressurized water reactor (PWR) core subchannel to perform a set of interface tracking simulations (ITS) with fully resolved liquid turbulence. The presented research utilizes a massively parallel finite-element based code, PHASTA, for the subchannel geometry simulations of bubbly flow turbulence. The main objective for this research is to demonstrate the ITS capabilities in gaining new insight into bubble/turbulence interactions and assisting the development of improved closure laws for multiphase computational fluid dynamics (M-CFD). Both single- and two-phase turbulent flows were studied within a single PWR subchannel. The analysis of numerical results includes the mean gas and liquid velocity profiles, void fraction distribution and turbulent kinetic energy profiles. Two sets of flow rates and bubble sizes were used in the simulations. The chosen flow rates corresponded to the Reynolds numbers of 29,079 and 80,775 based on channel hydraulic diameter (D{sub h}) and mean velocity. The finite element unstructured grids utilized for these simulations include 53.8 million and 1.11 billion elements, respectively. This has allowed to fully resolve all the turbulence scales and the deformable interfaces of individual bubbles. For the two-phase flow simulations, a 1% bubble volume fraction was used which resulted in 17 bubbles in

  7. Neutronics comparative analysis of plate-type research reactor using deterministic and stochastic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shichang; Wang, Guanbo; Wu, Gaochen; Wang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • DRAGON and DONJON are applied and verified in calculations of research reactors. • Continuous-energy Monte Carlo calculations by RMC are chosen as the references. • “ECCO” option of DRAGON is suitable for the calculations of research reactors. • Manual modifications of cross-sections are not necessary with DRAGON and DONJON. • DRAGON and DONJON agree well with RMC if appropriate treatments are applied. - Abstract: Simulation of the behavior of the plate-type research reactors such as JRR-3M and CARR poses a challenge for traditional neutronics calculation tools and schemes for power reactors, due to the characteristics of complex geometry, highly heterogeneity and large leakage of the research reactors. Two different theoretical approaches, the deterministic and the stochastic methods, are used for the neutronics analysis of the JRR-3M plate-type research reactor in this paper. For the deterministic method the neutronics codes DRAGON and DONJON are used, while the continuous-energy Monte Carlo code RMC (Reactor Monte Carlo code) is employed for the stochastic approach. The goal of this research is to examine the capability of the deterministic code system DRAGON and DONJON to reliably simulate the research reactors. The results indicate that the DRAGON and DONJON code system agrees well with the continuous-energy Monte Carlo simulation on both k eff and flux distributions if the appropriate treatments (such as the ECCO option) are applied

  8. Introducing geometry concept based on history of Islamic geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarif, S.; Wahyudin; Raditya, A.; Perbowo, K. S.

    2018-01-01

    Geometry is one of the areas of mathematics interesting to discuss. Geometry also has a long history in mathematical developments. Therefore, it is important integrated historical development of geometry in the classroom to increase’ knowledge of how mathematicians earlier finding and constructing a geometric concept. Introduction geometrical concept can be started by introducing the Muslim mathematician who invented these concepts so that students can understand in detail how a concept of geometry can be found. However, the history of mathematics development, especially history of Islamic geometry today is less popular in the world of education in Indonesia. There are several concepts discovered by Muslim mathematicians that should be appreciated by the students in learning geometry. Great ideas of mathematicians Muslim can be used as study materials to supplement religious character values taught by Muslim mathematicians. Additionally, by integrating the history of geometry in teaching geometry are expected to improve motivation and geometrical understanding concept.

  9. Reliability analysis with the simulator S.ESCAF of a very complex sequential system: the electrical power supply system of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blot, M.

    1987-06-01

    The reliability analysis of complex sequential systems, in which the order of arrival of the events must be taken into account, can be very difficult, because the use of the classical modelling technique of Markov diagrams leads to an important limitation on the number of components which can be handled. The desk-top apparatus S.ESCAF, which electronically simulates very closely the behaviour of the system being studied, and is very easy to use, even by a non specialist in electronics, allows one to avoid these inconveniences and to enlarge considerably the analysis possibilities. This paper shows the application of the S.ESCAF method to the electrical power supply system of a nuclear reactor. This system requires the simulation of more than forty components with about sixty events such as failure, repair and refusal to start. A comparison of times necessary to perform the analysis by these means and by other methods is described, and the advantages of S.ESCAF are presented

  10. The Enhancement of the Selectivity of Complex Reactions by a Catalytic Membrane Reactor -Ethylene Oxidation Over a Ag Catalyst Supported in a Ceramic Membrane-

    OpenAIRE

    馮, 臨; 小林, 正義; Lin, FENG; Masayoshi, KOBAYASHI

    1991-01-01

    This research demonstrated that, using a membrane reactor consisting of a tubular, microporous, glass-ceramic membrane, it is possible to achieve selective oxidation of ethylene to ethylene oxide with an Ag catalyst. In experiments which a reaction temperature range of 115 to 300℃ and a contact time of 1.5 to 5 seconds, resulting data illustrated the following characteristics of this membrane reactor : 1) compared with a classic tubular reactor, the selectivity of ethylene oxide is increased ...

  11. Two lectures on D-geometry and noncommutative geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    This is a write-up of lectures given at the 1998 Spring School at the Abdus Salam ICTP. We give a conceptual introduction to D-geometry, the study of geometry as seen by D-branes in string theory, and to noncommutative geometry as it has appeared in D-brane and Matrix theory physics. (author)

  12. Subgroup complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    This book is intended as an overview of a research area that combines geometries for groups (such as Tits buildings and generalizations), topological aspects of simplicial complexes from p-subgroups of a group (in the spirit of Brown, Quillen, and Webb), and combinatorics of partially ordered sets. The material is intended to serve as an advanced graduate-level text and partly as a general reference on the research area. The treatment offers optional tracks for the reader interested in buildings, geometries for sporadic simple groups, and G-equivariant equivalences and homology for subgroup complexes.

  13. Extension of the comet method to 2-D hexagonal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, Kevin John; Rahnema, Farzad; Zhang, Dingkang

    2011-01-01

    The capability of the heterogeneous coarse mesh radiation transport (COMET) method developed at Georgia Tech has been expanded. COMET is now able to treat hexagonal geometry in two dimensions, allowing reactor problems to be solved for those next-generation reactors which utilize prismatic block structure and hexagonal lattice geometry in their designs. The COMET method is used to solve whole core reactor analysis problems without resorting to homogenization or low-order transport approximations. The eigenvalue and fission density distribution of the reactor are determined iteratively using response functions. The method has previously proven accurate in solving PWR, BWR, and CANDU eigenvalue problems. In this paper, three simple test cases inspired by high temperature test reactor material cross sections and fuel block geometry are presented. These cases are given not in an attempt to model realistic nuclear power systems, but in order to test the ability of the improved method. Solutions determined by the new hexagonal version of COMET, COMET-Hex, are compared with solutions determined by MCNP5, and the results show the accuracy and efficiency of the improved COMET-Hex method in calculating the eigenvalue and fuel pin fission density in sample full-core problems. COMETHex determines the eigenvalues of these simple problems to an order of within 50 pcm of the reference solutions and all pin fission densities to an average error of 0.2%, and it requires fewer than three minutes to produce these results. (author)

  14. Geometry of curves and surfaces with Maple

    CERN Document Server

    Rovenski, Vladimir

    2000-01-01

    This concise text on geometry with computer modeling presents some elementary methods for analytical modeling and visualization of curves and surfaces. The author systematically examines such powerful tools as 2-D and 3-D animation of geometric images, transformations, shadows, and colors, and then further studies more complex problems in differential geometry. Well-illustrated with more than 350 figures---reproducible using Maple programs in the book---the work is devoted to three main areas: curves, surfaces, and polyhedra. Pedagogical benefits can be found in the large number of Maple programs, some of which are analogous to C++ programs, including those for splines and fractals. To avoid tedious typing, readers will be able to download many of the programs from the Birkhauser web site. Aimed at a broad audience of students, instructors of mathematics, computer scientists, and engineers who have knowledge of analytical geometry, i.e., method of coordinates, this text will be an excellent classroom resource...

  15. Physical properties corresponding to vortical flow geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, K, E-mail: nakayama@aitech.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aichi Institute of Technology, Toyota, Aichi 470-0392 (Japan)

    2014-10-01

    We examine a vortical flow geometry specified by the velocity gradient tensor ∇v, and derive properties representing the symmetry (axisymmetry or skewness) of the vortical flow in the swirl plane and a property specifying inflowing (outflowing) motion in all directions around the point. We focus on the radial and azimuthal velocities in a plane nonparallel to the eigenvector corresponding to the real eigenvalue of ∇v and show that these components are expressed as specific quadratic forms. The real and imaginary parts of the complex eigenvalues of ∇v represent averages of these eigenvalues of the quadratic forms, and are inadequate to specify the detailed flow geometry uniquely. The new properties complement specifying the precise flow geometry of the vortical flow.

  16. Statistical properties of reactor antineutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Rusov, V D; Tarasov, V O; Shaaban, Y

    2002-01-01

    Based on the properties of the cascade statistics of reactor antineutrinos, the efficient method of searching for neutrino oscillations is offered. The determination of physical parameters of this statistics, i.e. the average number of fissions and the overage number of antineutrinos per fission, requires no a priori knowledge of the geometry and characteristics of the detector, the reactor power, and composition of nuclear fuel.

  17. Functional integration over geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottola, E.

    1995-01-01

    The geometric construction of the functional integral over coset spaces M/G is reviewed. The inner product on the cotangent space of infinitesimal deformations of M defines an invariant distance and volume form, or functional integration measure on the full configuration space. Then, by a simple change of coordinates parameterizing the gauge fiber G, the functional measure on the coset space M/G is deduced. This change of integration variables leads to a Jacobian which is entirely equivalent to the Faddeev--Popov determinant of the more traditional gauge fixed approach in non-abelian gauge theory. If the general construction is applied to the case where G is the group of coordinate reparameterizations of spacetime, the continuum functional integral over geometries, i.e. metrics modulo coordinate reparameterizations may be defined. The invariant functional integration measure is used to derive the trace anomaly and effective action for the conformal part of the metric in two and four dimensional spacetime. In two dimensions this approach generates the Polyakov--Liouville action of closed bosonic non-critical string theory. In four dimensions the corresponding effective action leads to novel conclusions on the importance of quantum effects in gravity in the far infrared, and in particular, a dramatic modification of the classical Einstein theory at cosmological distance scales, signaled first by the quantum instability of classical de Sitter spacetime. Finite volume scaling relations for the functional integral of quantum gravity in two and four dimensions are derived, and comparison with the discretized dynamical triangulation approach to the integration over geometries are discussed. Outstanding unsolved problems in both the continuum definition and the simplicial approach to the functional integral over geometries are highlighted

  18. Kinematic geometry of gearing

    CERN Document Server

    Dooner, David B

    2012-01-01

    Building on the first edition published in 1995 this new edition of Kinematic Geometry of Gearing has been extensively revised and updated with new and original material. This includes the methodology for general tooth forms, radius of torsure', cylinder of osculation, and cylindroid of torsure; the author has also completely reworked the '3 laws of gearing', the first law re-written to better parallel the existing 'Law of Gearing" as pioneered by Leonard Euler, expanded from Euler's original law to encompass non-circular gears and hypoid gears, the 2nd law of gearing describing a unique relat

  19. From geometry to topology

    CERN Document Server

    Flegg, H Graham

    2001-01-01

    This excellent introduction to topology eases first-year math students and general readers into the subject by surveying its concepts in a descriptive and intuitive way, attempting to build a bridge from the familiar concepts of geometry to the formalized study of topology. The first three chapters focus on congruence classes defined by transformations in real Euclidean space. As the number of permitted transformations increases, these classes become larger, and their common topological properties become intuitively clear. Chapters 4-12 give a largely intuitive presentation of selected topics.

  20. Torsional heterotic geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Katrin; Sethi, Savdeep

    2009-01-01

    We construct new examples of torsional heterotic backgrounds using duality with orientifold flux compactifications. We explain how duality provides a perturbative solution to the type I/heterotic string Bianchi identity. The choice of connection used in the Bianchi identity plays an important role in the construction. We propose the existence of a much larger landscape of compact torsional geometries using string duality. Finally, we present some quantum exact metrics that correspond to NS5-branes placed on an elliptic space. These metrics describe how torus isometries are broken by NS flux.