WorldWideScience

Sample records for complex female genitalia

  1. [Cosmetic surgery of the female genitalia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldès, P; Droupy, S; Cuzin, B

    2013-07-01

    This review studies rationale and outcome of vulvovaginal aesthetic surgery. Medline search of the existing literature utilizing terms labiaplasty, clitoral hood reduction, hymenoplasty, vaginoplasty, perineoplasty, female genital surgery, sexual satisfaction/body image, and anterior/posterior colporrhaphy; references from bibliographies of papers found through the literature search and in the author's reading of available literature until January 2012. Clinicians who receive requests from patients for such procedures should discuss with the patient the reason for request and perform an evaluation for any physical signs or symptoms that may indicate the need for surgical intervention. A physical psychological and sexological evaluation is mandatory before a procedure of female cosmetic genital surgery. Perineoplasties in wide vagina sensations should be proposed after careful evaluation of patients, by trained surgeons, in part of a multidisciplinary approach especially sexologic, after attempt of conservative treatments (pelvic floor rehabilitation). Patients should be informed of results and complications. Female genital mutilation repair with surgery is possible and improve majority of patients. Improvement mechanism is complex and clinical trials are ongoing. Asking for this surgery, is more often result of a deep reflexion for patient who integrate his own story and those of her family. She should be listened to, respected and managed in a reference center. Sexotherapy should be systematically proposed. Concerning hymenoplasty, the procedure is considered as "legally" by medical doctors. Several techniques are available, few described, and there is no evidence-based publication. Labioplasty is a procedure whose patient expectations should be properly evaluated by surgeon and benefits risks should be informed. A preliminary discussion around "normality" and a psychotherapy should be tried, in order to not treat a dysmorphobia by surgery. Vaginal "rejuvenation

  2. The macroevolution of size and complexity in insect male genitalia.

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    Rudoy, Andrey; Ribera, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of insect male genitalia has received much attention, but there is still a lack of data on the macroevolutionary origin of its extraordinary variation. We used a calibrated molecular phylogeny of 71 of the 150 known species of the beetle genus Limnebius to study the evolution of the size and complexity of the male genitalia in its two subgenera, Bilimneus, with small species with simple genitalia, and Limnebius s.str., with a much larger variation in size and complexity. We reconstructed ancestral values of complexity (perimeter and fractal dimension of the aedeagus) and genital and body size with Bayesian methods. Complexity evolved more in agreement with a Brownian model, although with evidence of weak directional selection to a decrease or increase in complexity in the two subgenera respectively, as measured with an excess of branches with negative or positive change. On the contrary, aedeagus size, the variable with the highest rates of evolution, had a lower phylogenetic signal, without significant differences between the two subgenera in the average change of the individual branches of the tree. Aedeagus size also had a lower correlation with time and no evidence of directional selection. Rather than to directional selection, it thus seems that the higher diversity of the male genitalia in Limnebius s.str. is mostly due to the larger variance of the phenotypic change in the individual branches of the tree for all measured variables.

  3. The macroevolution of size and complexity in insect male genitalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Rudoy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of insect male genitalia has received much attention, but there is still a lack of data on the macroevolutionary origin of its extraordinary variation. We used a calibrated molecular phylogeny of 71 of the 150 known species of the beetle genus Limnebius to study the evolution of the size and complexity of the male genitalia in its two subgenera, Bilimneus, with small species with simple genitalia, and Limnebius s.str., with a much larger variation in size and complexity. We reconstructed ancestral values of complexity (perimeter and fractal dimension of the aedeagus and genital and body size with Bayesian methods. Complexity evolved more in agreement with a Brownian model, although with evidence of weak directional selection to a decrease or increase in complexity in the two subgenera respectively, as measured with an excess of branches with negative or positive change. On the contrary, aedeagus size, the variable with the highest rates of evolution, had a lower phylogenetic signal, without significant differences between the two subgenera in the average change of the individual branches of the tree. Aedeagus size also had a lower correlation with time and no evidence of directional selection. Rather than to directional selection, it thus seems that the higher diversity of the male genitalia in Limnebius s.str. is mostly due to the larger variance of the phenotypic change in the individual branches of the tree for all measured variables.

  4. The function and evolution of male and female genitalia in Phyllophaga Harris scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, M P; Park, J; Henry, C S

    2016-11-01

    Genitalia diversity in insects continues to fuel investigation of the function and evolution of these dynamic structures. Whereas most studies have focused on variation in male genitalia, an increasing number of studies on female genitalia have uncovered comparable diversity among females, but often at a much finer morphological scale. In this study, we analysed the function and evolution of male and female genitalia in Phyllophaga scarab beetles, a group in which both sexes exhibit genitalic diversity. To document the interaction between male and female structures during mating, we dissected flash-frozen mating pairs from three Phyllophaga species and investigated fine-scale morphology using SEM. We then reconstructed ancestral character states using a species tree inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear loci to elucidate and compare the evolutionary history of male and female genitalia. Our dissections revealed an interlocking mechanism of the female pubic process and male parameres that appears to improve the mechanical fit of the copulatory position. The comparative analyses, however, did not support coevolution of male and female structures and showed more erratic evolution of the female genitalia relative to males. By studying a group that exhibits obvious female genitalic diversity, we were able to demonstrate the relevance of female reproductive morphology in studies of male genital diversity. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. Ways of Conceptualising Male and Female Genitalia in Spanish and Polish: a Contrastive Study

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    Katarzyna Popek-Bernat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ways of Conceptualising Male and Female Genitalia in Spanish and Polish: a Contrastive Study The article deals with the reconstruction of the ways of conceptualising male and female genitalia encoded in Spanish and Polish lexicon. In order to carry out our investigation we propose a 5-stage analytical procedure based on the ideas developed previously by Pragglejaz Group in 2007 and by the investigators from Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul in 2009. We pretend to demonstrate that the metalexicographic analysis applied to cognitive studies enables us to observe some interesting linguistic trends which reflect sociocultural attitudes towards, among others, erotic issues.

  6. Unlocking the "Black box": internal female genitalia in Sepsidae (Diptera) evolve fast and are species-specific

    OpenAIRE

    Puniamoorthy, Nalini; Kotrba, Marion; Meier, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The species-specificity of male genitalia has been well documented in many insect groups and sexual selection has been proposed as the evolutionary force driving the often rapid, morphological divergence. The internal female genitalia, in sharp contrast, remain poorly studied. Here, we present the first comparative study of the internal reproductive system of Sepsidae. We test the species-specificity of the female genitalia by comparing recently diverged sister taxa. We al...

  7. Ambiguous Genitalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a genetic female. Mutations in certain genes can influence fetal sex development and cause ambiguous genitalia. Chromosomal abnormalities, such as ... excess male hormones if the mother has a disease or condition that causes hormone ... Impaired testicle development . This may be due to genetic abnormalities or ...

  8. External female genitalia of six species of the genus Meccus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Nancy; Sánchez-Cordero, Victor; Camacho, Alejandro D; Alejandre-Aguilar, Ricardo

    2017-12-01

    Triatomine classification is based on morphological characteristics. Studies have been conducted to improve their identification by observing many characteristics. However, there are problems of differentiating among highly interrelated species and new criteria are required. The purpose of this study was to determine the morphological differences in the external female genitalia of M. pallidipennis, M. longipennis, M. picturatus, M. bassolsae, M. mazzottii, and M. phyllosomus in order to distinguish among species using scanning electron microscopy. Observations were made of the dorsal, posterior, lateral, and ventral views of the female external genitalia for each species. In the six species we studied, relevant differences were observed in the dorsal view of the X segment, as well as the IX, VIII, and VII tergites. In the posterior and lateral view, the most visible differences were registered in the gonocoxite size of the segments VIII, IX, and X. Finally, in the ventral view of the VII sternite, differences among species were observed in the size of the inflection in the top and upper corner. Our results show that it was possible to differentiate among the triatominae species for each of the four views by using a scanning electron microscope to analyze morphological characteristics of the VII, VIII, IX, and X abdomen segments. © 2017 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  9. Red is not a proxy signal for female genitalia in humans.

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    Sarah E Johns

    Full Text Available Red is a colour that induces physiological and psychological effects in humans, affecting competitive and sporting success, signalling and enhancing male social dominance. The colour is also associated with increased sexual attractiveness, such that women associated with red objects or contexts are regarded as more desirable. It has been proposed that human males have a biological predisposition towards the colour red such that it is 'sexually salient'. This hypothesis argues that women use the colour red to announce impending ovulation and sexual proceptivity, with this functioning as a proxy signal for genital colour, and that men show increased attraction in consequence. In the first test of this hypothesis, we show that contrary to the hypothesis, heterosexual men did not prefer redder female genitalia and, by extension, that red is not a proxy signal for genital colour. We found a relative preference for pinker genital images with redder genitalia rated significantly less sexually attractive. This effect was independent of raters' prior sexual experience and variation in female genital morphology. Our results refute the hypothesis that men's attraction to red is linked to an implied relationship to genital colour and women's signalling of fertility and sexual proceptivity.

  10. Red is not a proxy signal for female genitalia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Sarah E; Hargrave, Lucy A; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E

    2012-01-01

    Red is a colour that induces physiological and psychological effects in humans, affecting competitive and sporting success, signalling and enhancing male social dominance. The colour is also associated with increased sexual attractiveness, such that women associated with red objects or contexts are regarded as more desirable. It has been proposed that human males have a biological predisposition towards the colour red such that it is 'sexually salient'. This hypothesis argues that women use the colour red to announce impending ovulation and sexual proceptivity, with this functioning as a proxy signal for genital colour, and that men show increased attraction in consequence. In the first test of this hypothesis, we show that contrary to the hypothesis, heterosexual men did not prefer redder female genitalia and, by extension, that red is not a proxy signal for genital colour. We found a relative preference for pinker genital images with redder genitalia rated significantly less sexually attractive. This effect was independent of raters' prior sexual experience and variation in female genital morphology. Our results refute the hypothesis that men's attraction to red is linked to an implied relationship to genital colour and women's signalling of fertility and sexual proceptivity.

  11. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXXII. Genus Jarnellius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Jarnellius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted. The female genitalia of the genus are characterized and a comparison with other taxa is provided. The type species of the genus, Ja. varipalpus (Coquil...

  12. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXXI. Genus Sallumia Reinert, Harbach and Kitching

    Science.gov (United States)

    A morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Sallumia Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted. The genitalia of the type species of the genus, Sl. hortator (Dyar and Knab), are illustrated. Treatment of the genital morphology of the genus includes a description...

  13. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXX. Genus Gilesius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching.

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    A morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Gilesius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted. The genitalia of the type species of the genus, Gi. pulchriventer (Giles), are illustrated for the first time. Treatment of the genital morphology of the genus includ...

  14. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXXV. Genus Elpeytonius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching

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    A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Elpeytonius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted. The genitalia of the two species included in the genus, El. apicoannulatus (Edwards) and El. simulans (Newstead and Carter), are illustrated. Treatmen...

  15. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXXIII. Genus Lewnielsenius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching

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    A morphological analysis of the female genitalia of the species included in genus Lewnielsenius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted. The genitalia of the type species of the genus, Ln. muelleri (Dyar), are illustrated. Treatment of the genital morphology of the genus includes a detailed de...

  16. Continent cutaneous diversion and external genitalia reconstruction in a child with severe variety urogenital sinus and ambiguous genitalia

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    Sajni I Khemchandani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis and management of a child with ambiguous genitalia and severe variety of urogenital sinus with a high vesico-vaginal confluence is challenging. This 4-year-old female child had solitary right kidney with ectopic ureter opening in high variety of urogenital sinus with hypo-plastic urinary bladder and incontinence. We describe genitourinary reconstruction with complete functional rehabilitation in this child. This complex problem was managed with continent urinary diversion with Penn pouch and refashioning of external genitalia, rendering continence and near normal female external genitalia. The child and parents are happy with continence and aesthetically normal external genitalia.

  17. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXXVIII. Genus Petermattinglyius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching.

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    A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species of the genus Petermattinglyius Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted and a composite description is provided. Petermattinglyius is divided into two subgenera, Petermattinglyius and Aglaonotus Reinert, Harbach and Kitchin...

  18. Unlocking the "Black box": internal female genitalia in Sepsidae (Diptera) evolve fast and are species-specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puniamoorthy, Nalini; Kotrba, Marion; Meier, Rudolf

    2010-09-10

    The species-specificity of male genitalia has been well documented in many insect groups and sexual selection has been proposed as the evolutionary force driving the often rapid, morphological divergence. The internal female genitalia, in sharp contrast, remain poorly studied. Here, we present the first comparative study of the internal reproductive system of Sepsidae. We test the species-specificity of the female genitalia by comparing recently diverged sister taxa. We also compare the rate of change in female morphological characters with the rate of fast-evolving, molecular and behavioral characters. We describe the ectodermal parts of the female reproductive tract for 41 species representing 21 of the 37 described genera and define 19 morphological characters with discontinuous variation found in eight structures that are part of the reproductive tract. Using a well-resolved molecular phylogeny based on 10 genes, we reconstruct the evolution of these characters across the family [120 steps; Consistency Index (CI): 0.41]. Two structures, in particular, evolve faster than the rest. The first is the ventral receptacle, which is a secondary sperm storage organ. It accounts for more than half of all the evolutionary changes observed (7 characters; 61 steps; CI: 0.46). It is morphologically diverse across genera, can be bi-lobed or multi-chambered (up to 80 chambers), and is strongly sclerotized in one clade. The second structure is the dorsal sclerite, which is present in all sepsids except Orygma luctuosum and Ortalischema albitarse. It is associated with the opening of the spermathecal ducts and is often distinct even among sister species (4 characters; 16 steps; CI: 0.56). We find the internal female genitalia are diverse in Sepsidae and diagnostic for all species. In particular, fast-evolving structures like the ventral receptacle and dorsal sclerite are likely involved in post-copulatory sexual selection. In comparison to behavioral and molecular data, the

  19. Unlocking the "Black box": internal female genitalia in Sepsidae (Diptera evolve fast and are species-specific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puniamoorthy Nalini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The species-specificity of male genitalia has been well documented in many insect groups and sexual selection has been proposed as the evolutionary force driving the often rapid, morphological divergence. The internal female genitalia, in sharp contrast, remain poorly studied. Here, we present the first comparative study of the internal reproductive system of Sepsidae. We test the species-specificity of the female genitalia by comparing recently diverged sister taxa. We also compare the rate of change in female morphological characters with the rate of fast-evolving, molecular and behavioral characters. Results We describe the ectodermal parts of the female reproductive tract for 41 species representing 21 of the 37 described genera and define 19 morphological characters with discontinuous variation found in eight structures that are part of the reproductive tract. Using a well-resolved molecular phylogeny based on 10 genes, we reconstruct the evolution of these characters across the family [120 steps; Consistency Index (CI: 0.41]. Two structures, in particular, evolve faster than the rest. The first is the ventral receptacle, which is a secondary sperm storage organ. It accounts for more than half of all the evolutionary changes observed (7 characters; 61 steps; CI: 0.46. It is morphologically diverse across genera, can be bi-lobed or multi-chambered (up to 80 chambers, and is strongly sclerotized in one clade. The second structure is the dorsal sclerite, which is present in all sepsids except Orygma luctuosum and Ortalischema albitarse. It is associated with the opening of the spermathecal ducts and is often distinct even among sister species (4 characters; 16 steps; CI: 0.56. Conclusions We find the internal female genitalia are diverse in Sepsidae and diagnostic for all species. In particular, fast-evolving structures like the ventral receptacle and dorsal sclerite are likely involved in post-copulatory sexual selection

  20. Physical examination of the female internal and external genitalia with and without pelvic organ prolapse: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Avita K; Siegelman, Evan S; Arya, Lily A

    2015-04-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse, a herniation of pelvic organs through the vagina, is a common condition in older women. Pelvic organ prolapse distorts vaginal anatomy making pelvic examination difficult. A clinician must accurately identify anatomic landmarks both in women presenting with symptoms of prolapse and in women noted to have coincidental prolapse during routine gynecologic examination. We present a systematic approach to the female pelvic examination including anatomic landmarks of the external genitalia, vagina, and uterus in women with normal support as well as changes that occur with pelvic organ prolapse. Knowledge and awareness of normal anatomic landmarks will improve a clinician's ability to identify defects in pelvic support and allow for better diagnosis and treatment of pelvic organ prolapse. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXXVI. Genus Polyleptiomyia Theobald

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    A morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Polyleptiomyia Theobald was conducted. Treatment of the genital morphology of the genus includes a description of the genus, a detailed description and illustration of the type species, Po. albocephala (Theobald), a list ...

  2. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXXIV. Genus Catageiomyia Theobald

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Catageiomyia Theobald was conducted. Treatment of the genital morphology of the genus includes a composite description of the genus, a detailed description and illustration of the type species (Cg. irritans (...

  3. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Part XXXVII. Genus Bifidistylus Reinert, Harbach and Kitching

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Bifidistylus Reinert, Harbach and Kitching was conducted. Treatment of the genital morphology of the genus includes a composite description of the genus, a detailed description and illustration of the type sp...

  4. Patients' Priorities Regarding Female-to-Male Gender Affirmation Surgery of the Genitalia-A Pilot Study of 47 Patients in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, Josephine; Andréasson, My; Kölby, Lars; Elander, Anna; Selvaggi, Gennaro

    2017-06-01

    their specific benefits and limitations to make an informed choice. Jacobsson J, Andréasson M, Kölby L, et al. Patients' Priorities Regarding Female-to-Male Gender Affirmation Surgery of the Genitalia-A Pilot Study of 47 Patients in Sweden. J Sex Med 2017;14:857-864. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Children born with ambiguous genitalia].

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    Diseth, Trond H

    2008-02-28

    For 10 - 12 children born with ambiguous genitalia in Norway annually, the sex cannot be decided directly after birth. The condition is now termed "Disorders of Sex Development" (DSD). Severely undervirilised chromosomal and gonadal boys (46,XY DSD) represent the greatest challenge; the sex assignment has traditionally been female. This review focuses on challenges within diagnostics and treatment and provides an update on the scientific basis for sex assignment in 46,XY DSD children. The article is based on articles retrieved from Pub Med and own clinical experience. During the last decade the scientific basis for sex assignment in children born with ambiguous genitalia has been increasingly questioned. The traditional DSD management has been dominated by the belief that DSD children will develop into the assigned sex regardless of the underlying cause as long as the external genitalia are "normalised" before two years of age. The most severely undervirilised 46,XY DSD children were surgically assigned as females, based on an emphasis of the size and functionality of the phallus being important for later psychosexual development into men. New guidelines for DSD management are now being developed based on recent knowledge about prenatal cerebral exposure to critical sex chromosome genes and hormones that influence foetal brain predisposition for later psychosexual development. Assignment of a sex should be based on a precise diagnosis of the condition's underlying cause and thereby a best possible prediction of future gender identity.

  6. The impact of pre- or postoperative radiochemotherapy on complication following anterior resection with en bloc excision of female genitalia for T4 rectal cancer.

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    Szynglarewicz, B; Matkowski, R; Gisterek, I; Forgacz, J; Lacko, A; Pudelko, M; Kornafel, J

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the mortality and morbidity following extended anterior resection with excision of internal female genitalia combined with pre- or postoperative chemoradiotherapy in women with extensive rectal cancer. The study included a consecutive series of 21 women with T4 adenocarcinoma of the rectum infiltrating the reproductive organs treated with curative intent between 1997 and 2003. All patients had an extended anterior sphincter preserving resection of the rectum (total mesorectal excision) and hysterectomy with or without posterior vaginal wall excision. In all patients, surgery was combined with adjuvant radiochemotherapy. Ten patients received preoperative radiotherapy (50.4 Gy) concurrently with two courses of chemotherapy [fluorouracil with folinic acid (FA)] followed by surgery within 6-8 weeks and subsequently four courses of postoperative chemotherapy. Eleven received postoperative chemoradiotherapy (50.4 Gy plus fluorouracil with FA). There was no postoperative mortality. Postoperative complications were observed in 57% patients (early in 14% and late in 52%). These included: anterior resection syndrome with anorectal dysfunction in 52% (requiring proximal diversion in 5%), urinary complications in 24% (complete incontinence requiring a permanent catheter in 5%). In addition, postoperative acute bleeding requiring relaparotomy, delayed wound healing caused by superficial infection, anastomotic leakage, prolonged bowel paralysis, benign rectovaginal fistula and anastomotic stricture occurred (5% each). The risk of postoperative morbidity (52%) was similar for patients with or without preoperative radiochemotherapy. Despite this aggressive therapeutic approach, most postoperative complications were transient or could be treated. Preoperative radiochemotherapy did not increase the risk of morbidity.

  7. Surgical conversion of genitalia in transsexual patients.

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    Jarolím, L

    2000-05-01

    To describe the techniques and outcome of genital and urethral reconstructive surgery during gender conversion as part of the treatment of transsexuals. From 1992 to 1999, 82 patients were surgically converted after previous sexual and hormonal therapy. Using the male genital tissue to create new female genitalia, and vice versa, 30 male and 52 female transsexuals were converted. For male-to-female transsexuals, the technique of penile skin inversion was used 29 times and sigmoidocolpoplasty five times (in one patient primarily and in four patients to correct inadequate neovaginal size after penile skin inversion). In female-to-male transsexuals, 28 meta-idoioplasties and seven neophalloplasties were performed using the groin skin-flap technique, with 42 breast reductions also included as a part of the therapy. Surgical gender reassignment of the male transsexuals resulted in replicas of female genitalia which enabled coitus with orgasm. Depending on the technique used in the reverse conversion, the patient maintained the ability to attain orgasm, and in many cases had a satisfactory appearance of the neopenis, with the potential to void while standing. The morphological proportions of each patient vary, and the different shapes and sizes of the tissues can be used for plastic operations. Thus the modelling of each individual genital in transsexuals can be considered 'original'.

  8. Bacteriology of the Anterior Genitalia of the Domestic House Cat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacteriology of the anterior genitalia of the domestic house cat was determined using vaginal swabs collected from sixty apparently healthy female domestic cats (20 kittens, 20 pregnant and 20 non-pregnant adults). The swabs were streaked on blood agar, Mac Conkey agar and eosin methylene blue agar plates ...

  9. Genital evolution: why are females still understudied?

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    Malin Ah-King

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been explicitly pointed out in the past. Early critics argued that previous investigators too often considered only males and their genitalia, while overlooking female genitalia or physiology. Our analysis of the literature shows that overall this male bias has worsened with time. The degree of bias is not consistent between subdisciplines: studies of the lock-and-key hypothesis have been the most male focused, while studies of cryptic female choice usually consider both sexes. The degree of bias also differed across taxonomic groups, but did not associate with the ease of study of male and female genital characteristics. We argue that the persisting male bias in this field cannot solely be explained by anatomical sex differences influencing accessibility. Rather the bias reflects enduring assumptions about the dominant role of males in sex, and invariant female genitalia. New research highlights how rapidly female genital traits can evolve, and how complex coevolutionary dynamics between males and females can shape genital structures. We argue that understanding genital evolution is hampered by an outdated single-sex bias.

  10. The Functional Significance of Chiral Genitalia: Patterns of Asymmetry, Functional Morphology and Mating Success in the Praying Mantis Ciulfina baldersoni.

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    Gregory I Holwell

    Full Text Available Genital asymmetry is relatively common and widespread throughout the animal kingdom. The functional significance of genital asymmetry is however, poorly understood for most species. Male praying mantids of the genus Ciulfina are remarkable in possessing complex and directionally asymmetric genital phallomeres in some species, and chirally dimorphic/antisymmetric genitalia in others. Here we explore the chiral dimorphism in male genitalia of Ciulfina baldersoni which appear to exhibit genital antisymmetry. We test whether genital orientation influences mating success, copulation duration and the attachment duration of spermatophores. Additionally we investigate genital interactions between male and females using x-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Lastly we assess whether genital asymmetry is associated with non-genital morphological asymmetry of a range of traits. Our results highlight the complex functional morphology of genitalia in this praying mantis species and yet demonstrate no functional difference between dextral and sinistral morphs other than the direction of attachment with both morphs enjoying equal levels of mating success. Chiral morphs also did not strongly associate with any other forms of asymmetry. We therefore conclude that genital chirality in Ciulfina baldersoni is a likely case of antisymmetry with no functional significance to genital orientation, and is likely to be selectively neutral.

  11. The evolution of asymmetric genitalia in Coleoptera.

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    Schilthuizen, Menno; de Jong, Paulien; van Beek, Rick; Hoogenboom, Tamara; Schlochtern, Melanie Meijer Zu

    2016-12-19

    The evolution of asymmetry in male genitalia is a pervasive and recurrent phenomenon across almost the entire animal kingdom. Although in some taxa the asymmetry may be a response to the evolution of one-sided, male-above copulation from a more ancestral female-above condition, in other taxa, such as Mammalia and Coleoptera, this explanation appears insufficient. We carried out an informal assessment of genital asymmetry across the Coleoptera and found that male genital asymmetry is present in 43% of all beetle families, and at all within-family taxonomic levels. In the most diverse group, Cucujiformia, however, genital asymmetry is comparatively rare. We also reconstructed the phylogeny of the leiodid tribe Cholevini, and mapped aspects of genital asymmetry on the tree, revealing that endophallus sclerites, endophallus, median lobe and parameres are, in a nested fashion, increasingly unlikely to have evolved asymmetry. We interpret these results in the light of cryptic female choice versus sexually antagonistic coevolution and advocate further ways in which the phenomenon may be better understood.This article is part of the themed issue 'Provocative questions in left-right asymmetry'. © 2016 The Authors.

  12. Surgical management of ambiguous genitalia in infants and children: An SGPGI experience

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    Subodh Kumar Das

    2003-01-01

    to the society as far as their gen-der assignment is concerned. However the functional re-sults are yet to be evaluated, as most of the patients have not yet achieved full sexual maturity. Conclusion: This retrospective review emphasizes the complexities of assessment and management of ambigu-ous genitalia in infants and children. It also confirms the data from other series that the vast majority of infants born with the 4 most common forms of ambiguous genitalia (CAH, MGD, male pseudohermaphroditism, and true hermaphroditism may be raised as females as phallic in-adequacy usually makes it difficult to achieve a cosmeti-cally acceptable appearance. However the sex of rearing and parents′ intentions and wishes should be taken into consideration in the reconstruction of genitalia of a child.

  13. Management of a 3-year-old child with ambiguous genitalia

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    Amarendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available True hermaphrodites have characteristics tissue both sex in the form of presence of vagina uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries as in female and presence of testis seminiferous tubules but penis as in penoscrotal hypospadias and bifid scrotal sac confuses as well developed labia majora. Determination of sex as per parents view in our social set up. The case was provisionally diagnosed as intersex. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salphingo-oophorectomy and colpectomy were conducted. A 3-year-old child referred by a pediatrician to Nalanda Medical College, child surgical department for investigation and management of his ambiguous genitalia having following features like, urine was not passing from the tip of penis; penis along with apparently looking female genitalia was taken under treatment. Examination under general anesthesia showed a presence of both male/female internal genitalia and gonads with features of external genitalia of both sexes. After total abdominal hysterectomy and human chorionic gonadotrophin treatment growth of phallus and testicle was noted. The child was made male after extirpation of female genitals. This case illustrates that gender correction can be made as per patients consent in adult but at this stage social customs and parents consent dictated the treatment.

  14. Management of ambiguous genitalia in ile ife, Nigeria: Challenges and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowande Oludayo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ambiguous genitalia are a major cause of parental anxiety and can create social problems if not properly managed. Diagnosis and management can however be challenging. The aim of this study is to highlight some of the challenges in management of ambiguous genitalia in our environment. Patients and Methods: All cases of ambiguous genitalia managed at the Paediatric surgical unit of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching hospital, Ile Ife, Nigeria, between January 1993 and October 2007 were analysed for age, sex at presentation, investigation modality, and final sex of rearing and outcome of surgery. Result: Nine patients had surgical reconstruction for ambiguous genitalia during the study period. Their age ranges from 5 weeks to 19 years at presentation. The causes of genital ambiguity in the patients was congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH in 6, true hermaphroditism in 2 and male pseudo-hermaphroditism in 1. Seven patients were reconstructed as females while 2 were raised as males. Change of sex of raring was necessary in 2 patients. Conclusion: The diagnosis and management of ambiguous genitalia is a challenging problem in our environment. Early presentation and treatment is necessary to avoid psychological and social embarrassment.

  15. Explosive eversion and functional morphology of the duck penis supports sexual conflict in waterfowl genitalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Patricia L. R.; Clark, Christopher J.; Prum, Richard O.

    2010-01-01

    Coevolution of male and female genitalia in waterfowl has been hypothesized to occur through sexual conflict. This hypothesis raises questions about the functional morphology of the waterfowl penis and the mechanics of copulation in waterfowl, which are poorly understood. We used high-speed video of phallus eversion and histology to describe for the first time the functional morphology of the avian penis. Eversion of the 20 cm muscovy duck penis is explosive, taking an average of 0.36 s, and achieving a maximum velocity of 1.6 m s−1. The collagen matrix of the penis is very thin and not arranged in an axial-orthogonal array, resulting in a penis that is flexible when erect. To test the hypothesis that female genital novelties make intromission difficult during forced copulations, we investigated penile eversion into glass tubes that presented different mechanical challenges to eversion. Eversion occurred successfully in a straight tube and a counterclockwise spiral tube that matched the chirality of the waterfowl penis, but eversion was significantly less successful into glass tubes with a clockwise spiral or a 135° bend, which mimicked female vaginal geometry. Our results support the hypothesis that duck vaginal complexity functions to exclude the penis during forced copulations, and coevolved with the waterfowl penis via antagonistic sexual conflict. PMID:20031991

  16. Differential effects of prenatal testosterone timing and duration on phenotypic and behavioral masculinization and defeminization of female sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Eila K; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Lee, Theresa M

    2008-07-01

    The process of sexual differentiation leaves genetically female individuals at risk of being masculinized by exogenous androgens. Previous research with sheep indicates that exposure to excess testosterone from Gestational Day (GD) 30 to GD 90 of the 147-day gestation masculinizes and defeminizes behavior as well as genitalia. Lower doses and shorter durations produce animals with varying degrees of genital virilization and alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, but to our knowledge, the effects on complex behavior and its prediction by the amount of external virilization have not been explored. Previous research in rodents has suggested that sexual differentiation of the central nervous system and the external genitalia can be dissociated. Therefore, we hypothesized that the extent of virilization of external genitalia would not be predictive of the lack of female-typical, or the presence of male-typical, mating behavior. To test this hypothesis, we compared control females, females exposed to exogenous testosterone from GD 30 to GD 90 (T60 females) that have virilized genitalia, and females exposed to testosterone from GD 60 to GD 90 (T30 females) that have female-typical genitalia. Both natural behavioral estrus in the flock and hormonally controlled behavioral tests were used to explore reproductive behavior. The T60 and T30 females exhibited more masculinized reproductive behavior than the controls; however, the T30 females also exhibited feminine behavior. Neither testosterone-treated group was receptive or was mounted at rates comparable to those of controls. These data illustrate that variation in the timing or duration of exposure to prenatal testosterone during a critical period for masculinization can have variable effects on defeminization and that the effects of testosterone on genitalia are not entirely predictive of behavior.

  17. The presentation and management of complex female genital malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acién, Pedro; Acién, Maribel

    2016-01-01

    Common uterine anomalies are important owing to their impact on fertility, and complex mesonephric anomalies and certain Müllerian malformations are particularly important because they cause serious clinical symptoms and affect woman's quality of life, in addition to creating fertility problems. In these cases of complex female genital tract malformations, a correct diagnosis is essential to avoid inappropriate and/or unnecessary surgery. Therefore, acquiring and applying the appropriate embryological knowledge, management and therapy is a challenge for gynaecologists. Here, we considered complex malformations to be obstructive anomalies and/or those associated with cloacal and urogenital sinus anomalies, urinary and/or extragenital anomalies, or other clinical implications or symptoms creating a difficult differential diagnosis. A diligent and comprehensive search of PubMed and Scopus was performed for all studies published from 1 January 2011 to 15 April 2015 (then updated up to September 2015) using the following search terms: 'management' in combination with either 'female genital malformations' or 'female genital tract anomalies' or 'Müllerian anomalies'. The MeSH terms 'renal agenesis', 'hydrocolpos', 'obstructed hemivagina' 'cervicovaginal agenesis or atresia', 'vaginal agenesis or atresia', 'Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome', 'uterine duplication' and 'cloacal anomalies' were also used to compile a list of all publications containing these terms since 2011. The basic embryological considerations for understanding female genitourinary malformations were also revealed. Based on our experience and the updated literature review, we studied the definition and classification of the complex malformations, and we analysed the clinical presentation and different therapeutic strategies for each anomaly, including the embryological and clinical classification of female genitourinary malformations. From 755 search retrieved references, 230 articles were analysed and

  18. 46,XY DSD with Female or Ambiguous External Genitalia at Birth due to Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome, 5-Reductase-2 Deficiency, or 17-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Deficiency: A Review of Quality of Life Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazur Tom

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of sex development refer to a collection of congenital conditions in which atypical development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex occurs. Studies of 46,XY DSD have focused largely on gender identity, gender role, and sexual orientation. Few studies have focused on other domains, such as physical and mental health, that may contribute to a person's quality of life. The current review focuses on information published since 1955 pertaining to psychological well-being, cognition, general health, fertility, and sexual function in people affected by androgen insensitivity syndromes, 5- reductase-2 deficiency, or 17-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3 deficiency—reared male or female. The complete form of androgen insensitivity syndrome has been the focus of the largest number of investigations in domains other than gender. Despite this, all of the conditions included in the current review are under-studied. Realms identified for further study include psychological well-being, cognitive abilities, general health, fertility, and sexual function. Such investigations would not only improve the quality of life for those affected by DSD but may also provide information for improving physical and mental health in the general population.

  19. Ultrastructure of male genitalia of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontigun, Narin; Sanit, Sangob; Wannasan, Anchalee; Sukontason, Kom; Amendt, Jens; Yasanga, Tippawan; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2018-03-01

    Male genitalia of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are distinctive in their morphological features and are often used for species identification. The aim of this work was to investigate the male genitalia of blow flies of medical and forensic importance from Thailand at the ultrastructural level, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flies in two subfamilies were examined: Chrysomyinae [Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve, Chrysomya chani Kurahashi, Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, Chrysomya pinguis (Walker), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya thanomthini Kurahashi & Tumrasvin, and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton] and Luciliinae [Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann), Hypopygiopsis infumata (Bigot), Hypopygiopsis tumrasvini Kurahashi, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Lucilia papuensis Macquart, Lucilia porphyrina (Walker), and Lucilia sinensis Aubertin]. Particular attention was paid to the main distinguishing features such as the shapes of the cercus and the surstylus, and the complex structure of the distiphallus. The differentiation of the male genitalia of these species at the SEM level is discussed and compared to the conditions in closely related species such as Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). A key for the identification of 14 blow fly species based on male genitalia is provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genitalia). Additional signs and symptoms of XLAG include chronic diarrhea, periods of increased blood sugar (transient hyperglycemia), and ... in the pancreas plays a role in the chronic diarrhea and hyperglycemia experienced by individuals with XLAG. Learn ...

  1. Postmating sexual selection and the enigmatic jawed genitalia of Callosobruchus subinnotatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merel M. Van Haren

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Insect genitalia exhibit rapid divergent evolution. Truly extraordinary structures have evolved in some groups, presumably as a result of postmating sexual selection. To increase our understanding of this phenomenon, we studied the function of one such structure. The male genitalia of Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Coleoptera: Bruchinae contain a pair of jaw-like structures with unknown function. Here, we used phenotypic engineering to ablate the teeth on these jaws. We then experimentally assessed the effects of ablation of the genital jaws on mating duration, ejaculate weight, male fertilization success and female fecundity, using a double-mating experimental design. We predicted that copulatory wounding in females should be positively related to male fertilization success; however, we found no significant correlation between genital tract scarring in females and male fertilization success. Male fertilization success was, however, positively related to the amount of ejaculate transferred by males and negatively related to female ejaculate dumping. Ablation of male genital jaws did not affect male relative fertilization success but resulted in a reduction in female egg production. Our results suggest that postmating sexual selection in males indeed favors these genital jaws, not primarily through an elevated relative success in sperm competition but by increasing female egg production.

  2. High-voltage electrical burn of the genitalia, perineum, and upper extremities: the importance of a multidisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiengo, Cesare; Castagnetti, Marco; Garolla, Andrea; Rigamonti, Waifro; Foresta, Carlo; Azzena, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    High-voltage electrical burns on genitalia and perineal areas are very rare and only sporadic reports are available in the literature with often confusing diagnoses and inconspicuous treatment protocols. Although the surgical treatment of extremities lesions is well established and includes appropriate debridement, temporary wounds coverage, and final adequate soft-tissue reconstruction, management of genital lesions remains controversial and challenging. The authors present a rare case of severe high-voltage electrical injury with involvement of upper extremities and complex lesions localized to the genitalia and perineal region. Treatment required a multidisciplinary approach including the plastic surgery and the urologic and andrologic teams.

  3. Ambiguous genitalia-A social dilemma in Bangladesh: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir; Anwar, Rashidul; Saha, Arnab

    2017-12-08

    Ambiguous Genitalia is a form of birth defect in which sex of the newborn cannot be readily distinguishable because of atypical appearance of the external genitalia. The patient, an 8 months old baby, was identified as a female baby since birth; but, some senior members of their neighborhood raised confusion regarding sex differentiation of the child. On examination, there was enlarged clitoris or micropenis, bifid scrotum or labioscrotal fold, and separate presence of urethral and vaginal orifices. Right testis was found in the middle of right inguinal canal and left testis was found near the deep inguinal ring. The ultrasonogram showed a rudimentary uterus measuring 26.7×7.27mm with no ovary and the right testis was found in the mid inguinal canal while the left testis was in the deep inguinal ring. Diagnostic endoscopic procedure showed normal appearing testes in deep inguinal ring, about 2cm vaginal remnant with normal urethra and bladder. Hormonal study revealed low serum testosterone with normal DHT and high oestradiol while the karyotyping revealed 46XY. After 3 months of hormonal treatment, multiple surgical interventions were taken to correctly determine the sex of the child. Later on the patient was discharged with follow up advices. 'Ambiguous genitalia' is considered as a taboo in Bangladesh; hence, the social awareness regarding this curable disorder is a timely need in Bangladesh. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Genitalia-associated microbes in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otti, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    In sexual reproduction different types of symbiotic relationships between insects and microbes have become established. For example, some bacteria have evolved almost exclusive vertical transmission and even define the compatibility of insect mating partners. Many strictly sexually transmitted diseases have also been described in insects. Apart from such rather specific relationships the role of opportunistic infections in the reproductive process has been widely neglected. Opportunistic microbes transmitted passively during mating might impose an energetic cost, as the immune system will need to be alert and will use resources to fight potential intruders. Through mating wounds and contaminated reproductive organs opportunistic microbes might be transferred to mating partners and even enter the body cavity. Females as the "receiving" sex are particularly likely to have evolved adaptations to avoid or reduce opportunistic infections. Males of several species show highly complex seminal fluids, which as well as containing components that influence a males' fertilization success, also possess antimicrobial substances. The role of antimicrobials in the reproductive process is not well understood. Some evidence hints at the protection of sperm against microbes, indicating a role for natural selection in shaping the evolution of reproductive traits. By highlighting the potential importance of microbes in sexual selection and their role in reproduction in general I will make a case for studies in sexual selection, especially the ones investigating postcopulatory processes, that should incorporate environmental, as well as genotypic variation, in reproductive traits. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. External genital morphology of the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta): females are naturally "masculinized".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drea, Christine M; Weil, Anne

    2008-04-01

    The extravagance and diversity of external genitalia have been well characterized in male primates; however, much less is known about sex differences or variation in female form. Our study represents a departure from traditional investigations of primate reproductive anatomy because we 1) focus on external rather than internal genitalia, 2) measure both male and female structures, and 3) examine a strepsirrhine rather than an anthropoid primate. The subjects for morphological study were 21 reproductively intact, adult ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), including 10 females and 11 males, two of which (one per sex) subsequently died of natural causes and also served as specimens for gross anatomical dissection. Male external genitalia presented a typical masculine configuration, with a complex distal penile morphology. In contrast, females were unusual among mammals, presenting an enlarged, pendulous external clitoris, tunneled by the urethra. Females had a shorter anogenital distance and a larger urethral meatus than did males, but organ diameter and circumference showed no sex differences. Dissection confirmed these characterizations. Noteworthy in the male were the presence of a "levator penis" muscle and discontinuity in the corpus spongiosum along the penile shaft; noteworthy in the female were an elongated clitoral shaft and glans clitoridis. The female urethra, while incorporated within the clitoral body, was not surrounded by erectile tissue, as we detected no corpus spongiosum. The os clitoridis was 43% the length and 24% the height of the os penis. On the basis of these first detailed descriptions of strepsirrhine external genitalia (for either sex), we characterize those of the female ring-tailed lemur as moderately "masculinized." Our results highlight certain morphological similarities and differences between ring-tailed lemurs and the most male-like of female mammals, the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), and call attention to a potential hormonal

  6. Lymphedema of the external genitalia: Experience of the Conakry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the management of lymphedema of the external genitalia at the department of general surgery, National Hospital Ignace Deen, Conakry, Republic of Guinea. Patients and Methods: In a retrospective study covering a period of 10 years, the files of all patients treated for genital ...

  7. Genitalia morphometry and testicular characteristics of male white ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was designed to evaluate genitalia morphometry of the male white Japanese quails at three different age groups. Fifty-four male Japanese quails were allotted to 3 treatment groups (Pubertal, Mature and Adult) in a completely randomized design. Pubertal (7-10 weeks), mature (15-20 weeks) and the adults ...

  8. Study of genitalia morphometric variability of the two Species Helix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our research aims for, firstly, the study of genitalia morphometric variability of the two species Helix aperta and Helix aspersa, and the relation of this variability with individual's weight and shell size. Secondly, differences in dimensions of the genital organs between the two studied species were investigated. This study ...

  9. Audit of clinical documentation of external genitalia examination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Over the years, poor medical documentation is a well known phenomenon in medical practice but the magnitude of the problem in our setting has not been defined. Objective: To assess the overall frequency of missed detection of anomalies of external genitalia following the routine newborn physical ...

  10. Ambiguous genitalia in rural Africa and the complexities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intersex disorders are amongst the most controversial conditions managed by doctors today. Although the diversity of their presentations demands broad classifications to help standardize management guidelines, each patient remains unique, requiring individualized care. The authors review the prevailing schools of ...

  11. Management of Complex Urogenital Fistulae in the Female | Al ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The procedures were individualized according to the existing pathology and included bladder augmentation and construction of a bladder tube. Results: The fistulae were repaired successfully and socially acceptable continence was achieved in all patients. Conclusion: Through urological evaluation of complex urinary ...

  12. Estudio comparativo de la Genitalia de las hembras de Llriomyza huidobrensis (blanchard y Llriomyza trifolii (Burgess (Diptera: agromyzidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saray M. Pablo

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Las caracteristicas morfológicas de la genitalia de hembras de Llriomyza huldobrensis (Blanchard y Llrlomyza trfolii (Burgess son de gran importancia para la identificación de estas especies. Al comparar las genitalias de estas dos especies, se puede observar que; en L. huldobrensls la genitalia es de mayor tamaño; las guías de los huevos son más largas y anchas; los "pegs" son de menor tamaño, rectos y localizados en un mismo nivel, sobre una zona demarcada en la parte distal del noveno segmento abdominal.The morfological characteristics of the female gen Italia of Llrlomyza huldobrensis (Blanchard and Llrlomyza trifolli (Burgess are the most important features in the identification
    of these two species. The gen Italia of L. huldobrensis is larger. The egg gulde is longer and wider, pegs are shorter, stralght and localized on the same lavel and over a definite area on the
    distal part of IX abdominal segmento

  13. Characterization of male and female wingbeat frequencies in the Anopheles quadrimaculatus complex in Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprio, M A; Huang, J X; Faver, M K; Moore, A

    2001-09-01

    Classifying individual mosquitoes of the Anopheles quadrimaculatus species complex to species has always been time consuming and complex, involving genetic analysis and profiling. We characterized the wingbeat frequencies of the 3 species of the Anopheles quadrimaculatus complex (An. quadrimaculatus, An. smaragdinus, and An. maverlius) that occur in Mississippi to determine if this character could successfully distinguish between individuals of the 3 species. Wingbeats of females varied from 320 to 480 beats/sec, but no significant differences in wingbeat frequencies were found among females from 3 populations of the 3 species. Wingbeats of males were higher than those of females (500-770 beats/sec), and the mean wingbeat frequency of An. maverlius was significantly different from the means of An. quadrimaculatus and An. smaragdinus, although overlap occurred at the individual level. Such overlap precludes use of wingbeat frequencies as an identification mechanism, and indicates that, at least for the An. quadrimaculatus complex, wingbeat frequencies are not involved in mate recognition.

  14. Female Urethral Duplication: Rare Anomaly with Unusual Presentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-19

    Aug 19, 2016 ... scrotal or labial structures were present and the perineum appeared flat and fused [Figure 1]. On further evaluation, ... genitalia and urinary incontinence) along with a review of pertinent literature. Key words: Ambiguous genitalia, female pseudohermaphroditism, urethral duplication. How to cite this article: ...

  15. Coevolution of male and female genital morphology in waterfowl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L R Brennan

    Full Text Available Most birds have simple genitalia; males lack external genitalia and females have simple vaginas. However, male waterfowl have a phallus whose length (1.5->40 cm and morphological elaborations vary among species and are positively correlated with the frequency of forced extra-pair copulations among waterfowl species. Here we report morphological complexity in female genital morphology in waterfowl and describe variation vaginal morphology that is unprecedented in birds. This variation comprises two anatomical novelties: (i dead end sacs, and (ii clockwise coils. These vaginal structures appear to function to exclude the intromission of the counter-clockwise spiralling male phallus without female cooperation. A phylogenetically controlled comparative analysis of 16 waterfowl species shows that the degree of vaginal elaboration is positively correlated with phallus length, demonstrating that female morphological complexity has co-evolved with male phallus length. Intersexual selection is most likely responsible for the observed coevolution, although identifying the specific mechanism is difficult. Our results suggest that females have evolved a cryptic anatomical mechanism of choice in response to forced extra-pair copulations.

  16. The evolution of genital shape variation in female cetaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbach, Dara N; Hedrick, Brandon; Würsig, Bernd; Mesnick, Sarah L; Brennan, Patricia L R

    2018-02-01

    Male genital diversification is likely the result of sexual selection. Female genital diversification may also result from sexual selection, although it is less well studied and understood. Female genitalia are complex among whales, dolphins, and porpoises, especially compared to other vertebrates. The evolutionary factors affecting the diversity of vaginal complexity could include ontogeny, allometry, phylogeny, sexual selection, and natural selection. We quantified shape variation in female genitalia using 2D geometric morphometric analysis, and validated the application of this method to study soft tissues. We explored patterns of variation in the shape of the cervix and vagina of 24 cetacean species (n = 61 specimens), and found that genital shape varies primarily in the relative vaginal length and overall aspect ratio of the reproductive tract. Extensive genital shape variation was partly explained by ontogenetic changes and evolutionary allometry among sexually mature cetaceans, whereas phylogenetic signal, relative testis size, and neonate size were not significantly associated with genital shape. Female genital shape is diverse and evolves rapidly even among closely related species, consistent with predictions of sexual selection models and with findings in invertebrate and vertebrate taxa. Future research exploring genital shape variation in 3D will offer new insights into evolutionary mechanisms because internal vaginal structures are variable and can form complex spirals. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Role of MRI in the evaluation of ambiguous genitalia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secaf, E. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States) Dept. de Radiologia, Faculdade de Medicina da Univ. de Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Hricak, H. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States) Dept. of Urology, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States)); Gooding, C.A. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States) Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States)); Ho, V.W. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States)); Gorczyca, D.P. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States) Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Ringertz, H. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)); Conte, F.A. (Dept. of Pediatr

    1994-08-01

    Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) interpretation was assessed prospectively in patients with ambiguous genitalia or intersex problems. MRI depiction of the uterus was possible in 93 %, the vagina in 95 %, the penis in 100 %, the testis in 88 %, and the ovary in 74 % of patients. The strength of MRI lies in the multiplanar capability and tissue characterization by means of T1- and T2-weighted sequences. MRI contributes to accurate morphologic evaluation of muellerian duct structures, the gonads, and the development of the phallus, all of which are essential for appropriate gender assignment and planning of surgical reconstruction. (orig.)

  18. Female genital morphology and mating behavior of Orchestina (Arachnida: Araneae: Oonopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Matthias; Izquierdo, Matías; Carrera, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    The unusual reproductive biology of many spider species makes them compelling targets for evolutionary investigations. Mating behavior studies combined with genital morphological investigations help to understand complex spider reproductive systems and explain their function in the context of sexual selection. Oonopidae are a diverse spider family comprising a variety of species with complex internal female genitalia. Data on oonopid phylogeny are preliminary and especially studies on their mating behavior are very rare. The present investigation reports on the copulatory behavior of an Orchestina species for the first time. The female genitalia are described by means of serial semi-thin sections and scanning electron microscopy. Females of Orchestina sp. mate with multiple males. On average, copulations last between 15.4 and 23.54min. During copulation, the spiders are in a position taken by most theraphosids and certain members of the subfamily Oonopinae: the male pushes the female back and is situated under her facing the female's sternum. Males of Orchestina sp. possibly display post-copulatory mate-guarding behavior. The female genitalia are complex. The genital opening leads into the uterus externus from which a single receptaculum emerges. The dorsal wall of the receptaculum forms a sclerite serving as muscle attachment. A sclerotized plate with attached muscles lies in the posterior wall of the uterus externus. The plate might be used to lock the uterus during copulation. The present study gives no direct evidence for cryptic female choice in Orchestina sp. but suggests that sexual selection occurs in the form of sperm competition through sperm mixing.

  19. [Genitalia of three species of Heilipus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) that damage avocado fruits (Persea americana Mill.) in Mexico and Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Vildózola, Alvaro; Valdez-Carrasco, Jorge; Equihua-Martínez, Armando; González-Hernández, Héctor; Romero-Nápoles, Jesús; Solís-Aguilar, Juan F; Ramírez-Alarcón, Samuel

    2007-01-01

    The male and female genitaliae of three species of the genus Heilipus Germar (H. lauri Boheman, H. pittieri Barber and H. trifasciatus Fabricius) that damage avocado fruits (Persea americana Mill.) in Mexico and Costa Rica are described and illustrated. The aedeagus, spiculum gastrale, styli of 8th sternite are different in each one of the three species studied and can be used for specific identification.

  20. Parents' experiences of having a baby with ambiguous genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Mailme de Souza; de Paiva-e-Silva, Roberto Benedito; Guerra-Junior, Gil; Maciel-Guerra, Andréa Trevas

    2015-07-01

    Health professionals must be aware of the impact on parents of the birth of children with ambiguous genitalia. This study aimed to analyze the experiences and perceptions of such parents. Parents of 30 children who were evaluated in a reference center for disorders of sex development (DSD) were interviewed. The questionnaire covered the prenatal period, the moment they were told about the disorder, initial management by health professionals, and problems they experienced. Only two cases were detected during pregnancy. The news was usually given to the mother alone by pediatricians. Most parents kept it secret and avoided exposing the baby to the prejudice of others. Parents of children who were referred without sex assignment usually held a personal belief of their child's sex. Previous assignment was based on clinical examination and/or karyotype. Spreading knowledge about DSD could increase awareness of this issue, thus reducing parents' shock and societal stigma. Training of neonatal care teams is required to avoid assignment before evaluation.

  1. Necrotizing Soft-Tissue Infections of the Perineum and Genitalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Peter R.; Cattolica, Eugene V.; Turzan, Charles W.; McAninch, Jack W.

    1986-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and genitalia is a rare, rapidly progressive, often fatal infection whose unique bacterial involvement has frequently been ignored. From our experience with 14 patients, we recommend the following: early, aggressive surgical debridement and drainage to reduce morbidity and mortality; prompt institution of antimicrobial therapy directed at both aerobic and anaerobic organisms, with subsequent tailoring to the specific bacteria cultured, and early surgical reconstruction to avoid extensive scarring and cosmetic deformity and to allow earlier skin closure and a reduced hospital stay. In our series, long-term complications occurred in 3 patients, and 3 of the 14 died. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:3953086

  2. One-shot genitalia are not an evolutionary dead end - Regained male polygamy in a sperm limited spider species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalik Peter

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monogynous mating systems with extremely low male mating rates have several independent evolutionary origins and are associated with drastic adaptations involving self-sacrifice, one-shot genitalia, genital damage, and termination of spermatogenesis immediately after maturation. The combination of such extreme traits likely restricts evolutionary potential perhaps up to the point of making low male mating rates irreversible and hence may constitute an evolutionary dead end. Here, we explore the case of a reversion to multiple mating from monogynous ancestry in golden orb-web spiders, Nephila senegalensis. Results Male multiple mating is regained by the loss of genital damage and sexual cannibalism but spermatogenesis is terminated with maturation, restricting males to a single loading of their secondary mating organs and a fixed supply of sperm. However, males re-use their mating organs and by experimentally mating males to many females, we show that the sperm supply is divided between copulations without reloading the pedipalps. Conclusion By portioning their precious sperm supply, males achieve an average mating rate of four females which effectively doubles the maximal mating rate of their ancestors. A heritage of one-shot genitalia does not completely restrict the potential to increase mating rates in Nephila although an upper limit is defined by the available sperm load. Future studies should now investigate how males use this potential in the field and identify selection pressures responsible for a reversal from monogynous to polygynous mating strategies.

  3. One-shot genitalia are not an evolutionary dead end - Regained male polygamy in a sperm limited spider species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Monogynous mating systems with extremely low male mating rates have several independent evolutionary origins and are associated with drastic adaptations involving self-sacrifice, one-shot genitalia, genital damage, and termination of spermatogenesis immediately after maturation. The combination of such extreme traits likely restricts evolutionary potential perhaps up to the point of making low male mating rates irreversible and hence may constitute an evolutionary dead end. Here, we explore the case of a reversion to multiple mating from monogynous ancestry in golden orb-web spiders, Nephila senegalensis. Results Male multiple mating is regained by the loss of genital damage and sexual cannibalism but spermatogenesis is terminated with maturation, restricting males to a single loading of their secondary mating organs and a fixed supply of sperm. However, males re-use their mating organs and by experimentally mating males to many females, we show that the sperm supply is divided between copulations without reloading the pedipalps. Conclusion By portioning their precious sperm supply, males achieve an average mating rate of four females which effectively doubles the maximal mating rate of their ancestors. A heritage of one-shot genitalia does not completely restrict the potential to increase mating rates in Nephila although an upper limit is defined by the available sperm load. Future studies should now investigate how males use this potential in the field and identify selection pressures responsible for a reversal from monogynous to polygynous mating strategies. PMID:21740561

  4. The morphology of mouthparts, wings and genitalia of Paleozoic insect families Protohymenidae and Scytohymenidae reveals new details and supposed function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecharová, Martina; Prokop, Jakub

    2017-12-18

    Megasecoptera is an extinct group of insects with specialized rostrum-like mouthparts, which is a synapomorphy shared with all members of the Late Paleozoic Palaeodictyopterida, and markedly slender wings that are unable to flex backwards. Here we describe the close up morphology of Protohymenidae and Scytohymenidae and uncover new aspects of the endoskeleton (tentorium) of the head, structure of the mouthparts with discernible proximal part of stylets controlled by muscles, surface of compound eyes that consist of a hexagonal pattern of large facets, structure and microstructures on the wings and reconstruct male and female external genitalia using ESEM and light stereomicroscopy. Furthermore, we describe Protohymen novokshonovi sp. n. based on an exceptionally well preserved fossil from the early Permian at Tshekarda in Russia, which shows crucial details, and the earliest species of Protohymenidae, Carbohymen testai gen. et sp. n. from a late Carboniferous siderite nodule at Mazon Creek in Illinois, USA. Our comparative study confirmed a set of structural and microstructural details on their wings, such as the composite anterior wing margin, development of an apical cell and the previously unknown external genitalia. Based on the results and comparison of homologous structures known primarily for extant relatives, such as mayflies and dragonflies, we outline for the first time the function of the mouthparts, in particular, the stylets, structure of the tentorium, vision provided by large hexagonal ommatidia and male copulatory structures bearing curved claspers for holding a female during copulation and penial lobes with seminal grooves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Penis Envy and the Female Oedipus Complex: A Plea to Reawaken an Ineffectual Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepf, Siegfried; Seel, Dietmar

    2016-06-01

    Going along with Laplanche's assumption that there is no endogenous sexuality, the authors discuss Freud's concepts of the female Oedipus complex and penis envy and some of its proposed alternatives. The female oedipal conflict turns out to be the outcome of a projective identification with the Oedipus complexes of the mother and father. In the context of the rivalry with the mother, penis envy refers to the maternal power over the father's penis that the daughter wants to have in herself, while, in the context of the rivalry with the father, penis envy arises from the jealousy of the father's penis that the daughter believes is necessary to have on herself in order to satisfy her mother. The authors conclude that in Freud's day such insights were already available, which might have culminated in the conceptualization they present in this paper.

  6. Female genital mutilation: Tradition versus human rights

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.E. Groeneveld

    'All procedures that involve partial or complete removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons'. This is the definition the WHO has given to a widespread practice that is known to many but discussed by few. Its terminology has developed from 'female circumcision' ...

  7. Complex mullerian duct anomaly in a young female with primary amenorrhoea, infertility, and chronic pelvic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanyal Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mullerian duct anomalies, though rare, can be a treatable cause of pelvic pain and infertility. Various complex Mullerian duct anomalies may exist with combination of features of more than one class. Since there are no precise clinical or imaging criteria to enable specific categorisation, there is ambiguous classification of these anomalies by various radiologists and clinicians. A young female presented with complaints of chronic pelvic pain, primary amenorrhoea and infertility. The patient was evaluated by sonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging and diagnosed as case of complex mullerian duct anomaly, a unicornuate uterus with cervical dysgenesis and cavitated, noncommunicating, rudimentary right horn. The findings were confirmed on laprohysteroscopy and the patient underwent hystertectomy. There should be an integrated clinico-radiological classification scheme and familiarity with rare and complex anomalies for appropriate diagnosis and management of complex Mullerian duct anomalies.

  8. Revision of the Ambrysus hybridus Montandon species complex (Heteroptera: Naucoridae: Cryphocricinae) with the description of a new species from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso-Velasco, Daniel; Sites, Robert W

    2016-09-19

    The Ambrysus hybridus Montandon species complex is revised and includes A. convexus Usinger, A. fuscus Usinger stat. rev., A. hybridus Montandon, A. lattini La Rivers, A. plautus Polhemus & Polhemus, A. spiculus Polhemus & Polhemus, A. thermarum La Rivers, and A. ultimus La Rivers. Ambrysus lariversi n. sp. is the ninth species in this complex and is described from Mexico. A. tridentatus La Rivers and A. woodburyi Usinger are proposed as junior synonyms of A. hybridus Montandon and for which a lectotype is designated. Most of the species in this complex occur only in Mexico, although A. thermarum is known only from the United States and A. hybridus occurs from the southwestern United States to southern Mexico and has the widest distribution of any species in this complex. Features uniting these species are related to male genitalia and structures associated with the male and female genitalia.

  9. Taxonomic utility of female copulation organs in Sericini chafers (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae), with special reference to asymmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özgül-Siemund, A.; Ahrens, D.

    2015-01-01

    Female genitalia are widely underrepresented in taxonomic studies. Here we investigate the morphological variation among female copulation organs for a group of scarab beetles (Sericini) with similar ecology, external morphology and copulation mechanics. We examined traits qualitatively and

  10. Beyond the G-spot: clitourethrovaginal complex anatomy in female orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannini, Emmanuele A; Buisson, Odile; Rubio-Casillas, Alberto

    2014-09-01

    The search for the legendary, highly erogenous vaginal region, the Gräfenberg spot (G-spot), has produced important data, substantially improving understanding of the complex anatomy and physiology of sexual responses in women. Modern imaging techniques have enabled visualization of dynamic interactions of female genitals during self-sexual stimulation or coitus. Although no single structure consistent with a distinct G-spot has been identified, the vagina is not a passive organ but a highly dynamic structure with an active role in sexual arousal and intercourse. The anatomical relationships and dynamic interactions between the clitoris, urethra, and anterior vaginal wall have led to the concept of a clitourethrovaginal (CUV) complex, defining a variable, multifaceted morphofunctional area that, when properly stimulated during penetration, could induce orgasmic responses. Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the CUV complex might help to avoid damage to its neural, muscular, and vascular components during urological and gynaecological surgical procedures.

  11. Evulvalution: the portrayal of women's external genitalia and physique across time and the current barbie doll ideals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Vanessa R; Rima, Brandi N; Calabrese, Sarah K

    2011-01-01

    Media images of the female body commonly represent reigning appearance ideals of the era in which they are published. To date, limited documentation of the genital appearance ideals in mainstream media exists. Analysis 1 sought to describe genital appearance ideals (i.e., mons pubis and labia majora visibility, labia minora size and color, and pubic hair style) and general physique ideals (i.e., hip, waist, and bust size, height, weight, and body mass index [BMI]) across time based on 647 Playboy Magazine centerfolds published between 1953 and 2007. Analysis 2 focused exclusively on the genital appearance ideals embodied by models in 185 Playboy photographs published between 2007 and 2008. Taken together, results suggest the perpetuation of a "Barbie Doll" ideal characterized by a low BMI, narrow hips, a prominent bust, and hairless, undefined genitalia resembling those of a prepubescent female.

  12. Morphological abnormalities in species of the quadrimaculatus complex of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, J F

    1999-03-01

    This report provides results of the first detailed examination of morphological abnormalities occurring in adults, pupae, and 4th-instar larvae of a sibling species complex within the family Culicidae. Aberrant and/or anomalous setae or structures are reported, along with their frequency of occurrence, for the 5 sibling species (Anopheles diluvialis, Anopheles inundatus, Anopheles maverlius, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, and Anopheles smaragdinus) of the Quadrimaculatus Complex of Anopheles. A total of 21,684 specimens were examined. In the pupal stage, the presence of seta 11-II was the most common anomaly, whereas in the 4th-instar larva, branching of seta 2-C occurred most frequently. Abnormalities in the male genitalia usually involved the claspette or tergum IX. Other abnormalities in females, male genitalia, pupae, and 4th-instar larvae occurred infrequently.

  13. DHA- RICH FISH OIL IMPROVES COMPLEX REACTION TIME IN FEMALE ELITE SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Guzmán

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 has shown to improve neuromotor function. This study examined the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA on complex reaction time, precision and efficiency, in female elite soccer players. 24 players from two Spanish female soccer Super League teams were randomly selected and assigned to two experimental groups, then administered, in a double-blind manner, 3.5 g·day-1 of either DHA-rich fish oil (FO =12 or olive oil (OO = 12 over 4 weeks of training. Two measurements (pre- and post-treatment of complex reaction time and precision were taken. Participants had to press different buttons and pedals with left and right hands and feet, or stop responding, according to visual and auditory stimuli. Multivariate analysis of variance displayed an interaction between supplement administration (pre/post and experimental group (FO/OO on complex reaction time (FO pre = 0.713 ± 0.142 ms, FO post = 0.623 ± 0.109 ms, OO pre = 0.682 ± 1.132 ms, OO post = 0.715 ± 0.159 ms; p = 0.004 and efficiency (FO pre = 40.88 ± 17.41, FO post = 57.12 ± 11.05, OO pre = 49.52 ± 14.63, OO post = 49. 50 ± 11.01; p = 0.003. It was concluded that after 4 weeks of supplementation with FO, there was a significant improvement in the neuromotor function of female elite soccer players

  14. Female genital mutilation: psychological and reproductive health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the reproductive health and psychological effects of female genital mutilation, in one traditional area in the Upper East region (i.e. Kayoro Traditional Area) of Ghana. The results of the study revealed that, the practice of FGM actually affects the physical (deforming the female genitalia), psychological (the ...

  15. Effect of a 12-week complex training on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of female college students

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seungsuk; Han, Gunsoo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a complex exercise program on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of female college students. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 20 female college students who had not participated in any particular sports in the last 3 months. The complex exercise program consisted of two parts, aerobic exercise and weight training. First, aerobic exercise was implemented (30?min 5 times a week for 12 weeks) according to the ...

  16. Fifteen into Three Does Go: Morphology, Genetics and Genitalia Confirm Taxonomic Inflation of New Zealand Beetles (Chrysomelidae: Eucolaspis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddala, Prasad R. C.; Minor, Maria A.; Rogers, David J.; Trewick, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Eucolaspis Sharp 1886 is a New Zealand native leaf beetle genus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae) with poorly described species and a complex taxonomy. Many economically important fruit crops are severely damaged by these beetles. Uncertain species taxonomy of Eucolaspis is leaving any biological research, as well as pest management, tenuous. We used morphometrics, mitochondrial DNA and male genitalia to study phylogenetic and geographic diversity of Eucolaspis in New Zealand. Freshly collected beetles from several locations across their distribution range, as well as identified voucher specimens from major museum collections were examined to test the current classification. We also considered phylogenetic relationships among New Zealand and global Eumolpinae (Coleoptera: Chyrosomelidae). We demonstrate that most of the morphological information used previously to define New Zealand Eucolaspis species is insufficient. At the same time, we show that a combination of morphological and genetic evidence supports the existence of just 3 mainland Eucolaspis lineages (putative species), and not 5 or 15, as previously reported. In addition, there may be another closely related lineage (putative species) on an offshore location (Three Kings Islands, NZ). The cladistic structure among the lineages, conferred through mitochondrial DNA data, was well supported by differences in male genitalia. We found that only a single species (lineage) infests fruit orchards in Hawke’s Bay region of New Zealand. Species-host plant associations vary among different regions. PMID:26600380

  17. Female Employment in Military Industrial Complex Enterprises of Post-Soviet Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana A. Demchenkova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reforms in Russian industry caused by disintegration of the USSR had a strong negative effect on military-industrial complex. Pre-reform Russian economy possessed a powerful efficient system of high-tech industries with defense industry being a core of the system in view of the government tasks which defense industry should effectively respond to. The defense industry accumulated elite of the labor force, highly skilled and educated workers. Socioeconomic and political transformation in Russian society resulted in significant qualitative and quantitative changes in human capital of military-industrial complex. The number of employees was cut down. Highly skilled workers turned out to be unemployed. In tough competition for working places caused by contraction of industrial production women turned out to be in the most vulnerable position. In this article results of the survey and documents analysis conducted by the author are looked at with gender perspective. The aim is to identify the basic trends in female employment in military-industrial complex of post-Soviet Russia. Job security, level of wages and managerial career chances for women are considered.

  18. Radiological evidence of lymphangioleiomyomatosis in female and male patients with tuberous sclerosis complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriaensen, M.E.A.P.M., E-mail: miraude@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Atrium Medical Center Parkstad, Heerlen (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Schaefer-Prokop, C.M. [Department of Radiology, Meander Medical Center, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Duyndam, D.A.C. [Department of Radiology, OLVG, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Zonnenberg, B.A. [Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Prokop, M. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2011-07-15

    Aim: To determine the gender-specific prevalence of pulmonary cysts typical for lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) in adult patients with known tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Materials and methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional study in a cohort of 206 adult TSC patients was performed. Institutional review board approval was obtained, and patient informed consent was waived. Patients had routinely undergone abdominal CT scanning between 1996 and 2006. All 186 patients (mean age 38 years; range 19-72 years; 91 (49%) male patients) in whom at least the lung bases were depicted on computed tomography (CT) were included. Images were reviewed for the presence of pulmonary thin-walled cysts. Descriptive statistics, two sample t-test to compare means, and {chi}{sup 2}-test to compare proportions were applied. Results: CT demonstrated pulmonary thin-walled cysts in the lung bases in 52 (28%) of 186 patients. Size varied from 2 mm in diameter to more than 2 cm. Pulmonary cysts were detected in 40 (42%) of 95 female patients and in 12 (13%) of 91 male patients (p < 0.001). In general, cysts were larger and more numerous in women than in men. Only minimal cystic changes were found in four women and two men, moderate cystic changes were seen in three women and seven men, but considerable cystic changes were seen almost exclusively in women (33 women versus three men). Conclusion: CT demonstrated thin-walled pulmonary cysts in the lung bases in 28% of 186 included patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. Female patients were more affected than male patients.

  19. Sex beyond the genitalia: The human brain mosaic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Daphna; Berman, Zohar; Tavor, Ido; Wexler, Nadav; Gaber, Olga; Stein, Yaniv; Shefi, Nisan; Pool, Jared; Urchs, Sebastian; Margulies, Daniel S; Liem, Franziskus; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jäncke, Lutz; Assaf, Yaniv

    2015-12-15

    Whereas a categorical difference in the genitals has always been acknowledged, the question of how far these categories extend into human biology is still not resolved. Documented sex/gender differences in the brain are often taken as support of a sexually dimorphic view of human brains ("female brain" or "male brain"). However, such a distinction would be possible only if sex/gender differences in brain features were highly dimorphic (i.e., little overlap between the forms of these features in males and females) and internally consistent (i.e., a brain has only "male" or only "female" features). Here, analysis of MRIs of more than 1,400 human brains from four datasets reveals extensive overlap between the distributions of females and males for all gray matter, white matter, and connections assessed. Moreover, analyses of internal consistency reveal that brains with features that are consistently at one end of the "maleness-femaleness" continuum are rare. Rather, most brains are comprised of unique "mosaics" of features, some more common in females compared with males, some more common in males compared with females, and some common in both females and males. Our findings are robust across sample, age, type of MRI, and method of analysis. These findings are corroborated by a similar analysis of personality traits, attitudes, interests, and behaviors of more than 5,500 individuals, which reveals that internal consistency is extremely rare. Our study demonstrates that, although there are sex/gender differences in the brain, human brains do not belong to one of two distinct categories: male brain/female brain.

  20. Urinary and Genital Tract Obstruction as a Complication of Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    several other procedures such as pricking, piercing, or. AbSTrACT. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is the partial or total removal of the female external genitalia or other deliberate injury to the female genital organs, either for cultural or non-therapeutic reasons. This barbaric act is accompanied by a variety of complications ...

  1. Serum complexed and free prostate specific antigen levels are lower in female elite athletes in comparison to control women

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Eklund; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.; Carla Muytjens; Sarah Wheeler; Anu Mathew; Martin Stengelin; Eli Glezer; Galina Nikolenko; Brown, Marshall D.; Yingye Zheng; Angelica Lindén Hirschberg

    2017-01-01

    Background: We hypothesize that prostate specific antigen (PSA), a protein that it is under regulation by androgens, may be differentially expressed in female elite athletes in comparison to control women. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 106 female athletes and 114 sedentary age-matched controls.? Serum from these women was analyzed for complexed prostate specific antigen (cPSA) and free prostate specific antigen (fPSA), by fifth generation assays with limits of detection of ...

  2. Sex beyond the genitalia: The human brain mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Daphna; Berman, Zohar; Tavor, Ido; Wexler, Nadav; Gaber, Olga; Stein, Yaniv; Shefi, Nisan; Pool, Jared; Urchs, Sebastian; Margulies, Daniel S.; Liem, Franziskus; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jäncke, Lutz; Assaf, Yaniv

    2015-01-01

    Whereas a categorical difference in the genitals has always been acknowledged, the question of how far these categories extend into human biology is still not resolved. Documented sex/gender differences in the brain are often taken as support of a sexually dimorphic view of human brains (“female brain” or “male brain”). However, such a distinction would be possible only if sex/gender differences in brain features were highly dimorphic (i.e., little overlap between the forms of these features in males and females) and internally consistent (i.e., a brain has only “male” or only “female” features). Here, analysis of MRIs of more than 1,400 human brains from four datasets reveals extensive overlap between the distributions of females and males for all gray matter, white matter, and connections assessed. Moreover, analyses of internal consistency reveal that brains with features that are consistently at one end of the “maleness-femaleness” continuum are rare. Rather, most brains are comprised of unique “mosaics” of features, some more common in females compared with males, some more common in males compared with females, and some common in both females and males. Our findings are robust across sample, age, type of MRI, and method of analysis. These findings are corroborated by a similar analysis of personality traits, attitudes, interests, and behaviors of more than 5,500 individuals, which reveals that internal consistency is extremely rare. Our study demonstrates that, although there are sex/gender differences in the brain, human brains do not belong to one of two distinct categories: male brain/female brain. PMID:26621705

  3. Juvenile Rank Can Predict Male-Typical Adult Mating Behavior in Female Sheep Treated Prenatally with Testosterone1

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Eila K.; Flak, Jonathan N.; Ye, Wen; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Lee, Theresa M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research with female sheep indicates that exposure to excess testosterone for 60 days (from Gestational Days 30–90 of the 147-day gestation) leads to virilized genitalia, severe neuroendocrine deficits, as well as masculinization and defeminization of sexual behavior (T60 females). In contrast, 30 days of testosterone exposure (Gestational Days 60–90) produce animals with female-typical genitalia, less severe neuroendocrine alterations, and variable gender patterns of sexual behavior...

  4. The management of dog bite injuries of genitalia in paediatric age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Bertozzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dog bite injuries are common in children and represent an important health-care problem. Most dog bite injuries involve the face or an extremity. Victims tend to seek medical care quickly. Dog bites to the external genitalia are rarely reported, but they potentially result in morbidity if improperly managed. Morbidity is also directly related to the severity of initial wound. Guidelines for the management of dog bites include irrigation, dιbridment, antibiotic therapy, consideration of tetanus and rabies immunisation and suture of wounds or surgical reconstruction. Literature review was conducted and focused to analyze the management of dog bite lesions involving external genitalia.

  5. Variations of the External Male Genitalia in Three Populations of Triatoma infestans Klug, 1834

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pires Herton Helder Rocha

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma infestans is the triatomine that presents the greatest dispersion area in South America. However, it is not known whether the original characteristics of this insect remained in its long dispersion process. The purpose of this work was to study comparatively the external male genitalia of insects from different populations of T. infestans, two from Brazil (Minas Gerais and Bahia and one from Bolivia (Cochabamba Valley, and to investigate the correlation between the morphological and behavioral variations. Differences were observed in one of the structures of the external genitalia (endosoma process that could be used to characterize the insects from the three populations studied.

  6. Shape--but not size--codivergence between male and female copulatory structures in Onthophagus beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L M Macagno

    Full Text Available Genitalia are among the fastest evolving morphological traits in arthropods. Among the many hypotheses aimed at explaining this observation, some explicitly or implicitly predict concomitant male and female changes of genital traits that interact during copulation (i.e., lock and key, sexual conflict, cryptic female choice and pleiotropy. Testing these hypotheses requires insights into whether male and female copulatory structures that physically interact during mating also affect each other's evolution and patterns of diversification. Here we compare and contrast size and shape evolution of male and female structures that are known to interact tightly during copulation using two model systems: (a the sister species O. taurus (1 native, 3 recently established populations and O. illyricus, and (b the species-complex O. fracticornis-similis-opacicollis. Partial Least Squares analyses indicated very little to no correlation between size and shape of copulatory structures, both in males and females. Accordingly, comparing shape and size diversification patterns of genitalia within each sex showed that the two components diversify readily--though largely independently of each other--within and between species. Similarly, comparing patterns of divergence across sexes showed that relative sizes of male and female copulatory organs diversify largely independent of each other. However, performing this analysis for genital shape revealed a signature of parallel divergence. Our results therefore suggest that male and female copulatory structures that are linked mechanically during copulation may diverge in concert with respect to their shapes. Furthermore, our results suggest that genital divergence in general, and co-divergence of male and female genital shape in particular, can evolve over an extraordinarily short time frame. Results are discussed in the framework of the hypotheses that assume or predict concomitant evolutionary changes in male and

  7. Evolutionary patterns of asymmetric genitalia in the beetle tribe Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeschoten, T.; Clark, D.R.; Schilthuizen, M.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of asymmetric genitalia is a common and recurrent phenomenon in a wide variety of insect taxa. However, little is understood about the evolution of left-right asymmetry in reproductive structures. Since a better knowledge of it could have an important impact on the study of genital

  8. Bacteria Flora Of The Anterior Genitalia Of The Sahelian Doe In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A variety of bacteria have been isolated from the genitalia of the doe and these include Staphylococci, Streptococci, Actinomyces, Pseudomonas, E. coli, Mycoplasma and Brucella species (Amin, 1988; Fasanya et al.,1987; Ababneh and Degefa,2006; Safiriyu et al., 2006). These organisms have been associated with ...

  9. Female-mediated differential sperm storage in a fly with complex spermathecae, Scatophaga stercoraria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellriegel; Bernasconi

    2000-02-01

    Multiple spermathecae potentially allow selective sperm use, provided that sperm from rival males are stored differentially, that is, in different proportions across storage compartments. In the yellow dung fly, Scatophaga stercoraria, females have three spermathecae arranged as a doublet and singlet. To test whether females store the sperm of rival males actively and differentially, we mated fixed male pairs to three females. After copulation, females were (1) dissected immediately before they could start laying a clutch of eggs, (2) left awake for 30 min but prevented from oviposition, or (3) anaesthetized with carbon dioxide for 30 min to interfere with the muscular control presumably required for sperm transport from the site of insemination to the spermathecae. For each female, we estimated the proportion of the second male's sperm stored in her spermathecae (S(2)value), using sperm length as a male marker. After copulation, the S(2)values in the singlet and doublet spermathecae differed significantly, indicating differential sperm storage during copulation. Postcopulatory treatment affected differential sperm storage significantly. Females dissected immediately had lower S(2)values in the doublet than in the singlet spermatheca, while females left awake showed the reverse pattern for the same two males. This reversal did not occur when females were treated with carbon dioxide. The results indicate differential storage of sperm from different males during copulation and that female muscular activity can affect storage and separation of competing ejaculates beyond copulation. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  10. Sex beyond the genitalia: The human brain mosaic

    OpenAIRE

    Joel, Daphna; Berman, Zohar; Tavor, Ido; Wexler, Nadav; Gaber, Olga; Stein, Yaniv; Shefi, Nisan; Pool, Jared; Urchs, Sebastian; Margulies, Daniel S.; Liem, Franziskus; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jäncke, Lutz; Assaf, Yaniv

    2015-01-01

    Whereas a categorical difference in the genitals has always been acknowledged, the question of how far these categories extend into human biology is still not resolved. Documented sex/gender differences in the brain are often taken as support of a sexually dimorphic view of human brains ("female brain" or "male brain"). However, such a distinction would be possible only if sex/gender differences in brain features were highly dimorphic (i.e., little overlap between the forms of these features ...

  11. Prevalence of female genital cutting among Egyptian girls/Prevalence des mutilations genitales feminines chez les filles en Egypte/Prevalencia de la mutilacion genital femenina entre las ninas en Egipto

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tag-Eldin, Mohammed A; Gadallah, Mohsen A; Al-Tayeb, Mahmoud N; Abdel-Aty, Mostafa; Mansour, Esmat; Sallem, Mona

    2008-01-01

    Objective Female genital cutting (FGC) is the collective name given to traditional practices that involve partial or total cutting away of the female external genitalia whether for cultural or other non-therapeutic reasons...

  12. The Jewish and Christian view on female genital mutilation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I. El-Damanhoury

    Abstract. Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a practice involving the removal of all or parts of the female external genitalia. It has been documented in 28 African countries and in some countries in Asia and the Middle. East, but due to increasing immigration from these countries to the western world, FGM has become a.

  13. Effect of a 12-week complex training on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungsuk; Han, Gunsoo

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a complex exercise program on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of female college students. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 20 female college students who had not participated in any particular sports in the last 3 months. The complex exercise program consisted of two parts, aerobic exercise and weight training. First, aerobic exercise was implemented (30 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks) according to the participants' exercise tolerance. Second, weight training was implemented (40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks) with 60% of 1 repetition maximum (RM). [Results] The t-test results showed significant differences in body composition between the before and after the complex exercise program. The subjects' body weights and body fat percentages were decreased, and their skeletal muscle masses were increased. Increased levels of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal expiratory volume (VEmax), and maximal heart rate (HRmax) were also observed. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the 12-week complex exercise program, including aerobic and weight training, had positive effects on the body composition and cardiorespiratory system of the female college students.

  14. Melkersson-Rosenthal Syndrome with Genitalia Involved in a 12-Year-Old Boy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhaowei; Liu, Yanting; Zhang, Huan; Zeng, Weihui

    2016-01-01

    Melkersson–Rosenthal syndrome (MRS) is an uncommon granulomatous disease characterized by the triad of relapsing facial paralysis, orofacial swelling, and fissured tongue. Genital swelling in MRS is rarely reported. We presented the first case of complete MRS with genital swelling in a child. Biopsy examinations of both the child's lower lip and penis showed noncaseating granuloma and intralymphatic granuloma infiltration. No symptoms or signs of other systemic disease (Crohn's disease or sarcoidosis) were observed after 2 years of follow-up. Genetic screening for CARD15/NOD2 in this patient showed negative, which further confirmed the diagnosis of MRS. Eleven other cases of suspected complete or incomplete MRS with genitalia involved were reviewed. Our case emphasizes the specific clinical feature of MRS with genitalia involved, which was genetically different from Crohn's disease and could be an independent entity. Lymphatic obstruction is responsible for localized edema in MRS. PMID:27081272

  15. MEDICAL AUDIT OF CHILDREN WITH AMBIGUOUS GENITALIA- REVIEW OF CHILDREN TREATED OVER 18 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praburam P. M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The survival of a newborn or a child presenting with ambiguous genitalia depends upon the timely diagnosis and institution of appropriate medical care. We undertook this study with the aim to determine if appropriate clinical and confirmatory diagnosis was arrived on time and if the treatment instituted was relevant and satisfactory. Methods: All children who were evaluated for ambiguous genitalia under the Department of Pediatric Endocrinology over the preceding 18 years were invited for a review. Data including time taken to make a clinical diagnosis, time taken to confirm the diagnosis, reasons for delay if any, and appropriateness of the sex assigned for rearing and treatment instituted were collected from the charts. Patients were evaluated for adequacy of response to treatment, compliance, problems encountered if any and subjective parental satisfaction. Results: A total of 165 children were diagnosed to have conditions with ambiguous genitalia and were called for a review. 33 children attended the review. 15 were being raised as boys and 18 as girls. 12 children had virilising congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, 6 had cryptorchidism, 6 had hypospadias, 3 had complete and 1 had partial testicular feminisation, 2 had mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD, 2 had hypogonadism and 1 was a true hermaphrodite. An appropriate clinical diagnosis was made in 30childrenon the day one and a final confirmatory diagnosis was made within a month in 23. Conclusion: In most conditions presenting with ambiguous genitalia, a clinical and confirmatory diagnosis can be made in a short duration. Initiation of appropriate treatment results in favourable outcomes in terms of growth sexual identity and adaptation.

  16. Diabetic fetopathy associated with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia and ambiguous genitalia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantbirojn Patou

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Many fetal malformations can occur because of maternal diabetes. However, ambiguous genital organs have never been reported as an associated finding in the literature. This is the first report of associated ambiguous genital organ and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia in a case of diabetic fetopathy. Case presentation A 19-year-old Thai primigravida with familial history of diabetes mellitus (DM was diagnosed as having gestational DM type 2, based on 100 g oral glucose tolerance test, and was poorly controlled with insulin injections. Delayed targeted ultrasonography at 28 weeks gestation revealed multiple fetal anomalies. The woman underwent low transverse cesarean section at 30 weeks gestation due to preterm labor and transverse lie. The newborn with ambiguous genitalia was delivered but expired after birth. Autopsy findings revealed alobar holoprosencephaly, a prominent forehead, hypotelorism, an absent nose, absent bilateral ears, median cleft lip and palate, preaxial polydactyly of the right hand, accessory spleens, single umbilical artery, markedly enlarged adrenal glands and ambiguous external genitalia The subsequent fetal chromosomal study revealed 46,XX. Conclusion We describe a case of diabetic fetopathy with classic facial malformation and preaxial hallucal polydactyly which has been proposed as a marker of diabetic embryopathy. Bilateral adrenal hyperplasia with ambiguous genitalia, an uncommon associated anomaly, was also identified. It is controversial whether adrenal hyperplasia can be a novel feature of diabetic fetopathy or just a coincidental finding. Further observation and adequate investigation are needed in such cases.

  17. A Novel Sex Chromosome Mosaicism 45,X/45,Y/46,XY/46,YY/47,XYY Causing Ambiguous Genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Riaz; Bukhari, Ihtisham; Junxiang, Tang; Hui, Liu; Muhammad, Niaz; Fan, Cui; Zhu, Jiangsheng; Wu, Mian

    2017-11-01

    Sex chromosomal mosaicism has been considered as a major cause of human sexual differentiation disorders, like partial virilization and ambiguous genitalia. 45,X/46,XX, 45,X/46,XY and 46,XY/47,XXY are three most common sex chromosome mosaics associated with human ambiguous genitalia. Here, we report the case of a 3-year-old boy with ambiguous genitalia, bilateral cryptorchidism, and with an inguinal hernia. G banded cytological karyotyping and FISH analyses revealed that the patient has extremely rare and novel sex chromosome mosaic 45,X/45,Y/46,XY/46,YY/47,XYY karyotype. These cells exist in different percentages, important for phenotypic appearance of the patient. This is a first report of an unusual mosaic karyotype causing ambiguous genitalia. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  18. The cohesin subunit Rad21 is required for synaptonemal complex maintenance, but not sister chromatid cohesion, during Drosophila female meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelin Urban

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Replicated sister chromatids are held in close association from the time of their synthesis until their separation during the next mitosis. This association is mediated by the ring-shaped cohesin complex that appears to embrace the sister chromatids. Upon proteolytic cleavage of the α-kleisin cohesin subunit at the metaphase-to-anaphase transition by separase, sister chromatids are separated and segregated onto the daughter nuclei. The more complex segregation of chromosomes during meiosis is thought to depend on the replacement of the mitotic α-kleisin cohesin subunit Rad21/Scc1/Mcd1 by the meiotic paralog Rec8. In Drosophila, however, no clear Rec8 homolog has been identified so far. Therefore, we have analyzed the role of the mitotic Drosophila α-kleisin Rad21 during female meiosis. Inactivation of an engineered Rad21 variant by premature, ectopic cleavage during oogenesis results not only in loss of cohesin from meiotic chromatin, but also in precocious disassembly of the synaptonemal complex (SC. We demonstrate that the lateral SC component C(2M can interact directly with Rad21, potentially explaining why Rad21 is required for SC maintenance. Intriguingly, the experimentally induced premature Rad21 elimination, as well as the expression of a Rad21 variant with destroyed separase consensus cleavage sites, do not interfere with chromosome segregation during meiosis, while successful mitotic divisions are completely prevented. Thus, chromatid cohesion during female meiosis does not depend on Rad21-containing cohesin.

  19. The complexities of female aging: Four women protagonists in Penelope Lively's novels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oró-Piqueras, Maricel

    2016-01-01

    Penelope Lively is a well-known contemporary British author who has published a good number of novels and short stories since she started her literary career in her late thirties. In her novels, Lively looks at the lives of contemporary characters moulded by specific historical as well as cultural circumstances. Four of her novels, published from 1987 to 2004, present middle-aged and older women as their main protagonists. Through the voices and thoughts of these female characters, the reader is presented with a multiplicity of realities in which women find themselves after their mid-fifties within a contemporary context. Being a woman and entering into old age is a double-sided jeopardy which has increasingly been present in contemporary fiction. Scholars such as Simone de Beauvoir (1949) and Susan Sontag (1972) were among the first to point out a "double standard of aging" when they assured that women were punished when showing external signs of aging much sooner than men. In Lively's four novels, the aging protagonists present their own stories and, through them, as well as through the voices of those around them, the reader is invited to go beyond the aging appearance of the female protagonists while challenging the limiting conceptions attached to the old body and, by extension, to the social and cultural overtones associated with old age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ambiguous genitalia with perineoscrotal hypospadias in 46,XY individuals: long-term medical, surgical, and psychosexual outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migeon, Claude J; Wisniewski, Amy B; Gearhart, John P; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Rock, John A; Brown, Terry R; Casella, Samuel J; Maret, Alexander; Ngai, Ka Ming; Money, John; Berkovitz, Gary D

    2002-09-01

    To identify and study adults (21 years or older) who have a 46,XY karyotype and presented as infants or children with genital ambiguity, including a small phallus and perineoscrotal hypospadias, reared male or female. Participants were classified according to the cause underlying their intersex condition based on review of medical and surgical records. Long-term medical and surgical outcome was assessed with a written questionnaire and physical examination. Long-term psychosexual development was assessed with a written questionnaire and semistructured interview. Thirty-nine (72%) of 54 eligible patients participated. The cause underlying genital ambiguity of participants included partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (n = 14; 5 men and 9 women), partial gonadal dysgenesis (n = 11; 7 men and 4 women), and other intersex conditions. Men had significantly more genital surgeries (mean: 5.8) than women (mean: 2.1), and physician-rated cosmetic appearance of the genitalia was significantly worse for men than for women. The majority of participants were satisfied with their body image, and men and women did not differ on this measure. Most men (90%) and women (83%) had sexual experience with a partner. Men and women did not differ in their satisfaction with their sexual function. The majority of participants were exclusively heterosexual, and men considered themselves to be masculine and women considered themselves to be feminine. Finally, 23% of participants (5 men and 4 women) were dissatisfied with their sex of rearing determined by their parents and physicians. Either male or female sex of rearing can lead to successful long-term outcome for the majority of cases of severe genital ambiguity in 46,XY individuals. We discuss factors that should be considered by parents and physicians when deciding on a sex of rearing for such infants.

  1. Reversal Surgery in Regretful Male-to-Female Transsexuals After Sex Reassignment Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Miroslav L; Bizic, Marta R; Duisin, Dragana; Bouman, Mark-Bram; Buncamper, Marlon

    2016-06-01

    Sex reassignment surgery (SRS) has proved an effective intervention for patients with gender identity disorder. However, misdiagnosed patients sometimes regret their decision and request reversal surgery. This review is based on our experience with seven patients who regretted their decision to undergo male-to-female SRS. To analyze retrospectively seven patients who underwent reversal surgery after regretting their decision to undergo male-to-female SRS elsewhere. From November 2010 through November 2014, seven men 33 to 53 years old with previous male-to-female SRS underwent reversal phalloplasty. Preoperatively, they were examined by three independent psychiatrists. Surgery included three steps: removal of female genitalia with scrotoplasty and urethral lengthening, total phalloplasty with microvascular transfer of a musculocutaneous latissimus dorsi flap, and neophallus urethroplasty with penile prosthesis implantation. Self-reported esthetic and psychosexual status after reversion surgery and International Index of Erectile Function scores for sexual health after phalloplasty and penile prosthesis implantation. Follow-up was 13 to 61 months (mean = 31 months). Good postoperative results were achieved in all patients. In four patients, all surgical steps were completed; two patients are currently waiting for penile implants; and one patient decided against the penile prosthesis. Complications were related to urethral lengthening: two fistulas and one stricture were observed. All complications were repaired by minor revision. According to patients' self-reports, all patients were pleased with the esthetic appearance of their genitalia and with their significantly improved psychological status. Reversal surgery in regretful male-to-female transsexuals after SRS represents a complex, multistage procedure with satisfactory outcomes. Further insight into the characteristics of persons who regret their decision postoperatively would facilitate better future

  2. Ambiguous Genitalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetics, endocrinology (hormones), pediatric surgery or urology, and psychology. Questions to ask your doctor • What is my baby’s sex? • Does my child need treatment now or later? • Are there support ...

  3. Ambiguous Genitalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reconstruct an incomplete penis may improve appearance and make erections possible. Results of surgery are often satisfying, but repeat surgeries may be needed later. Risks include a disappointing cosmetic result or sexual dysfunction, such as an impaired ...

  4. Ambiguous Genitalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetics, endocrinology (hormones), pediatric surgery or urology, and psychology. Questions to ask your doctor • What is my ... advanced clinical and scientific knowledge from The Endocrine Society ( www. endo- society. org ). The Network’s goal is ...

  5. Ambiguous genitalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 575. White PC. Disorders of sexual development. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 233. Witchel SF, Lee PA. Ambiguous ...

  6. Complex Genital Malformation in a Female with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Evaluation with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klessen, C.; Asbach, P.; Hein, P. A.; Beyersdorff, D.; Hamm, B.; Taupitz, M. [Humboldt-Univ. of Berlin, Campus Charite Mitte (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2005-12-01

    This is a case of complex genital malformation in a young patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings included ostium of the vagina into the urethra (common urogenital opening), prostate-like tissue surrounding the urethra, and hyperplasia of the left adrenal gland. The report provides information on the clinical findings, the MRI examination, including the applied sequences and the MR findings, and gives an overview of the disease pattern and its frequency of occurrence.

  7. Brucella melitensis: a rarely suspected cause of infections of genitalia and the lower urinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Stamatiou

    Full Text Available We examined the clinical presentation and outcome of Brucellar infections of genitalia and the lower urinary tract through a review of the medical records of 10 cases of male patients with brucellar infections of the genitalia and lower urinary tract. The mean age of the patients with brucellosis was 49.2, (median 52, range 15-77 years. Eleven out of 17 patients were rural residents, 15 reported that they might have consumed unpasteurized dairy products and four reported occupational exposure. Symptoms onset was acute in almost all cases. Scrotal pain, epidedimal swelling and fever were the most common symptoms. The Wright test was positive in 13 patients, while Brucella sp. was isolated from blood cultures in six cases. Only two patients were found with abnormal liver ultrasonography. All patients underwent treatment with doxycycline and aminoglycoside for seven days and doxycycline alone for two months. Most of them responded to antibiotic therapy with rapid regression of symptoms. One patient failed to respond to therapy and presented necrotizing orchitis, as well as abscesses, which required orchectomy. Brucellar infections of the genitalia and lower urinary tract have no specific clinical presentation; the usual laboratory examination is not sufficient to diagnose this kind of infection, therefore it could easily be misdiagnosed. An analytical medical history (including overall dietary habits and recent consumption of non-pasteurized dairy products could indicate Brucelosis as would the persistence of symptoms despite a one-week antibiotic treatment. In general, patients afflicted by brucellar epididymoorchitis respond to Brucellosis antibiotic therapy, except for some rare cases that present necrotizing orchitis and require surgical treatment.

  8. 46,XX Karyotype in a Male with Ambigious Genitalia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Balkan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available 40 days old case who were diagnosed with ambigious genitalia were sentto laboratory of cytogenetics. Mother was 26 years old and have to alivechildren and case were the second child and applied to Child SurgeryDepartment due to continiously vomiting and uneasy conditions. Sexualdevelopment were as male on physical examinations. Cell culture wasapplied for chromosomal analysis. Slides were stained with GiemsaBanding Staining (GTG and 100 cells were totaly counted and karyotypingwere done with 15 metaphase. Chromosome with 46,XX karyotype. Casewere taken under consideration of congenital adrenel hyperplasia afterevalution of karyotype. Case were discussed according to by information ofpresents literatures.

  9. Female genital mutilation: A tragedy for women's reproductive health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hamid Rushwan

    Immigrants from African and Middle Eastern countries to Europe and the United States and elsewhere ... Several varieties of FGM have been carried out in Europe in the past, although evidence indicates that such ... of; in addition, plastic surgery on the female genitalia has not been discontinued [11,12]. Reasons for the ...

  10. Management of a young female patient with Fournier's gangrene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of a young female patient with Fournier's gangrene and Lemierre's syndrome. Theodoros Aslanidis, Athena Myrou, Maria Giannakou-Peftoulidou. Abstract. Fournier's gangrene is an acute, rapidly progressive, and potentially fatal, infective necrotizing fasciitis affecting the external genitalia, perineal or perianal ...

  11. Medical supervision of young female athletes training in complex coordinational sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schevchenko, Irina; Abramov, Viktor V; Gibson, Paul T; Omar, Hatim A

    2008-01-01

    This article proposes simple medical criteria that can be used by trainers and others for effective medical supervision of young female athletes. The cross-sectional, age-stratified study compared girls 10-17 years of age involved in intensive training in gymnastic floor exercises, trampoline, or badminton. Each sport and/or control group was represented by 40-45 girls. Data included medical history, morphometric variables and observation of biological development. Gymnasts started training earliest (approximately 5-years-old) and trained most intensely (18-20 h/wk), followed by trampolinists and then badmintonists. Height, weight, body mass index, and % body fat were reduced in athletes, with gymnasts showing the greatest reduction. Athletes showed higher ratios of leg length to height and shoulder width/hip width, and smaller pelvic size compared to height. The average age of menarche of gymnasts was 13.8 (1.6 year later than controls). Delays of biological development of more than 2 years were common in athletes, and some gymnasts showed more than a 4-year delay. These delays were related to morphometric indicators of hormonal imbalance and to low body fat. Gymnasts had more childhood diseases, with an infection index of 2.8 compared to 1.1 for the control group, and had a higher level of chronic ENT problems. Trainers need to protect the health of athletes. During the course of training, anamneses, delayed menarche and other signs of delayed biological development must be monitored. Morphometric measures and indicators of biological development are proposed to provide simple criteria important in protecting the athletes' health.

  12. External genitalia gunshot wounds: a ten-year experience with fifty-six cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, S B; Buckman, R F; Chelsky, M J; Hanno, P M

    1995-08-01

    To determine the appropriate methods for the diagnosis and management of gunshot injuries to the external genitalia. Retrospective analysis. Fifty-six patients with gunshot wounds (GSWs) to the external genitalia were seen over the last 10 years. All patients underwent physical examination, radiographic staging, and surgical exploration, according to protocol. There were 25 testicular, 19 scrotal soft tissue, 14 penile, 4 epididymal, 4 urethral, 4 vasal, and 3 superficial scrotal skin injuries. When possible, all injuries, except for the vasal and 1 urethral injury, were primarily repaired with excellent long-term results. Orchiectomy was required in half of testes struck by gunshots. Associated injuries with single GSWs were mostly to the proximity soft tissue and were amenable to conservative management. Major associated injuries were present in patients with multiple GSWs. In the absence of a suspected major associated injury, genital GSWs required only two diagnostic studies, a retrograde urethrogram for suspected urethral injury and a routine abdominal radiograph. Gunshot injuries to the penis or perineum, blood at the penile meatus, or gross hematuria were highly suggestive of urethral injury. Successful management of genital GSWs is dependent upon prompt surgical exploration, conservative debridement, and primary repair.

  13. Transgenic Expression of the piRNA-Resistant Masculinizer Gene Induces Female-Specific Lethality and Partial Female-to-Male Sex Reversal in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroki; Sumitani, Megumi; Chikami, Yasuhiko; Yahata, Kensuke; Uchino, Keiro; Kiuchi, Takashi; Katsuma, Susumu; Aoki, Fugaku; Sezutsu, Hideki; Suzuki, Masataka G

    2016-08-01

    In Bombyx mori (B. mori), Fem piRNA originates from the W chromosome and is responsible for femaleness. The Fem piRNA-PIWI complex targets and cleaves mRNAs transcribed from the Masc gene. Masc encodes a novel CCCH type zinc-finger protein and is required for male-specific splicing of B. mori doublesex (Bmdsx) transcripts. In the present study, several silkworm strains carrying a transgene, which encodes a Fem piRNA-resistant Masc mRNA (Masc-R), were generated. Forced expression of the Masc-R transgene caused female-specific lethality during the larval stages. One of the Masc-R strains weakly expressed Masc-R in various tissues. Females heterozygous for the transgene expressed male-specific isoform of the Bombyx homolog of insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein (ImpM) and Bmdsx. All examined females showed a lower inducibility of vitellogenin synthesis and exhibited abnormalities in the ovaries. Testis-like tissues were observed in abnormal ovaries and, notably, the tissues contained considerable numbers of sperm bundles. Homozygous expression of the transgene resulted in formation of the male-specific abdominal segment in adult females and caused partial male differentiation in female genitalia. These results strongly suggest that Masc is an important regulatory gene of maleness in B. mori.

  14. Transgenic Expression of the piRNA-Resistant Masculinizer Gene Induces Female-Specific Lethality and Partial Female-to-Male Sex Reversal in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Sakai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Bombyx mori (B. mori, Fem piRNA originates from the W chromosome and is responsible for femaleness. The Fem piRNA-PIWI complex targets and cleaves mRNAs transcribed from the Masc gene. Masc encodes a novel CCCH type zinc-finger protein and is required for male-specific splicing of B. mori doublesex (Bmdsx transcripts. In the present study, several silkworm strains carrying a transgene, which encodes a Fem piRNA-resistant Masc mRNA (Masc-R, were generated. Forced expression of the Masc-R transgene caused female-specific lethality during the larval stages. One of the Masc-R strains weakly expressed Masc-R in various tissues. Females heterozygous for the transgene expressed male-specific isoform of the Bombyx homolog of insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein (ImpM and Bmdsx. All examined females showed a lower inducibility of vitellogenin synthesis and exhibited abnormalities in the ovaries. Testis-like tissues were observed in abnormal ovaries and, notably, the tissues contained considerable numbers of sperm bundles. Homozygous expression of the transgene resulted in formation of the male-specific abdominal segment in adult females and caused partial male differentiation in female genitalia. These results strongly suggest that Masc is an important regulatory gene of maleness in B. mori.

  15. Transgenic Expression of the piRNA-Resistant Masculinizer Gene Induces Female-Specific Lethality and Partial Female-to-Male Sex Reversal in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikami, Yasuhiko; Yahata, Kensuke; Uchino, Keiro; Kiuchi, Takashi; Katsuma, Susumu; Aoki, Fugaku; Sezutsu, Hideki; Suzuki, Masataka G.

    2016-01-01

    In Bombyx mori (B. mori), Fem piRNA originates from the W chromosome and is responsible for femaleness. The Fem piRNA-PIWI complex targets and cleaves mRNAs transcribed from the Masc gene. Masc encodes a novel CCCH type zinc-finger protein and is required for male-specific splicing of B. mori doublesex (Bmdsx) transcripts. In the present study, several silkworm strains carrying a transgene, which encodes a Fem piRNA-resistant Masc mRNA (Masc-R), were generated. Forced expression of the Masc-R transgene caused female-specific lethality during the larval stages. One of the Masc-R strains weakly expressed Masc-R in various tissues. Females heterozygous for the transgene expressed male-specific isoform of the Bombyx homolog of insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein (ImpM) and Bmdsx. All examined females showed a lower inducibility of vitellogenin synthesis and exhibited abnormalities in the ovaries. Testis-like tissues were observed in abnormal ovaries and, notably, the tissues contained considerable numbers of sperm bundles. Homozygous expression of the transgene resulted in formation of the male-specific abdominal segment in adult females and caused partial male differentiation in female genitalia. These results strongly suggest that Masc is an important regulatory gene of maleness in B. mori. PMID:27579676

  16. Multimodal physical therapy management of a 48-year-old female with post-stroke complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandkumar, Sudarshan; Manivasagam, Murugavel

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes a 48-year-old female who presented with complaints of right shoulder pain, hyperesthesias and swelling of the hand along with added symptoms of pain centralization following a cerebrovascular accident. On clinical evaluation, the patient satisfied the Budapest diagnostic criteria for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) type-1. Physical therapy management (1st three sessions) was initially focused on pain neurophysiology education with an aim to reduce kinesiophobia and reconceptualise her pain perception. The patient had an immediate significant improvement in her pain and functional status. Following this, pain modulation in the form of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, kinesio tape application, "pain exposure" physical therapy and exercise therapy was carried out for a period of 7 weeks. The patient had complete resolution of her symptoms which was maintained at a six-month follow-up.

  17. Infantile sexuality, primary object-love and the anthropological significance of the Oedipus complex: re-reading Freud's 'Female sexuality'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haute, Philippe

    2005-12-01

    The author attempts to show why and in what respect Freud's famous article 'Female sexuality' can still be a source of inspiration for a contemporary metapsychology. In this text, Freud acknowledges the importance of the child's tie to its mother for the first time. Both Balint and Bowlby consider this text to be a distant forerunner of their own theories on primary object-love and attachment respectively. At the same time, Freud's text contains some elements of a 'theory of generalized seduction' as it was developed in the last decades by Jean Laplanche. 'Female sexuality' therefore presents itself as the perfect point of departure for a discussion of the relation between primary object-love (and attachment) and sexuality. Based on his reading of Freud's text, the author argues that human subjectivity is characterized by the lack of attunement between the world of the adult and the world of the child. This insight allows for a reformulation of the anthropological significance of the Oedipus and castration complexes. They are no longer interpreted as universal problems that every child has to face, but as historical and contingent solutions to the lack of attunement between the child and the adult that is essential to human subjectivity.

  18. Specific IgG and immune complex responses to parthenogenetic females and eggs of nematode Strongyloides venezuelensis for the diagnosis of immunosuppression in infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, A L R; de Araújo, K C L; Carvalho, E F G; Ueta, M T; Costa-Cruz, J M

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, antigens from parthenogenetic females and eggs of Strongyloides venezuelensis, or anti-parthenogenetic-female and anti-egg antigens were used to detect specific IgG and immune complex responses, respectively. Serum samples from experimentally infected immunocompetent and immunosuppressed rats were analysed on days 5, 8, 13 and 21 post-infection (dpi). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed using alkaline parasite extract for specific IgG detection, and anti-parthenogenetic-female or anti-egg antigens for immune complex detection. The data were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by a Bonferroni test. When parthenogenetic female or egg extracts were used as antigens, specific IgGs were not detected in either immunocompetent or immunosuppressed rats. When anti-parthenogenetic-female or anti-S. venezuelensis-eggs were used, immune complexes were detected for the duration of the infection in immunosuppressed animals and were only detected between 5 and 13 dpi in immunocompetent animals. The duration of infection was not significantly different between the immunocompetent and immunosuppressed groups when anti-parthenogenetic-female or anti-S. venezuelensis-eggs were used. Parthenogenetic female extracts yielded significant differences between antibody and immune complex responses in immunocompetent rats from 5 to 13 dpi, but only on day 5 dpi in immunosuppressed rats. Exposure to S. venezuelensis egg extract yielded significant differences in both antibody and immune complex detection between immunocompetent and immunosuppressed rats for the duration of the infection. In conclusion, ELISA using alternative antigens may be a successful strategy for identifying immune complexes in serum samples and diagnosing active strongyloidiasis, particularly under conditions of immunosuppression.

  19. Regional molecular and cellular differences in the female rabbit Achilles tendon complex: potential implications for understanding responses to loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Elise S; Andersson, Gustav; Scott, Alexander; Reno, Carol R; Hart, David A; Thornton, Gail M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was: (i) to analyze the morphology and expression of extracellular matrix genes in six different regions of the Achilles tendon complex of intact normal rabbits; and (ii) to assess the effect of ovariohysterectomy (OVH) on the regional expression of these genes. Female New Zealand White rabbits were separated into two groups: (i) intact normal rabbits (n = 4); and (ii) OVH rabbits (n = 8). For each rabbit, the Achilles tendon complex was dissected into six regions: distal gastrocnemius (DG); distal flexor digitorum superficialis; proximal lateral gastrocnemius (PLG); proximal medial gastrocnemius; proximal flexor digitorum superficialis; and paratenon. For each of the regions, hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed for histological evaluation of intact normal rabbit tissues and mRNA levels for proteoglycans, collagens and genes associated with collagen regulation were assessed by real-time reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction for both the intact normal and OVH rabbit tissues. The distal regions displayed a more fibrocartilaginous phenotype. For intact normal rabbits, aggrecan mRNA expression was higher in the distal regions of the Achilles tendon complex compared with the proximal regions. Collagen Type I and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression levels were increased in the PLG compared to the DG in the intact normal rabbit tissues. The tendons from OVH rabbits had lower gene expressions for the proteoglycans aggrecan, biglycan, decorin and versican compared with the intact normal rabbits, although the regional differences of increased aggrecan expression in distal regions compared with proximal regions persisted. The tensile and compressive forces experienced in the examined regions may be related to the regional differences found in gene expression. The lower mRNA expression of the genes examined in the OVH group confirms a potential effect of systemic estrogen on tendon. PMID:24571598

  20. X-Linked Lissencephaly With Absent Corpus Callosum and Abnormal Genitalia

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    David Coman FRACP

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia is a rare and devastating syndrome. The authors present an infant with a multisystem phenotype where the intestinal manifestations were as life limiting as the central nervous system features. Severe chronic diarrhea resulted in failure to thrive, dehydration, electrolyte derangements, long-term hospitalization, and prompted transition to palliative care. Other multisystem manifestations included megacolon, colitis, pancreatic insufficiency hypothalamic dysfunction, hypothyroidism, and hypophosphatasia. A novel aristaless-related homeobox gene mutation, c.1136G>T/p.R379L, was identified. This case contributes to the clinical, histological, and molecular understanding of the multisystem nature of this disorder, especially the role of ARX in the development of the enteroendocrine system.

  1. Bacterial and fungal microflora on the external genitalia of male donkeys (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Carla L; Donahue, J Michael; Marteniuk, Judith V; Sells, Stephen F; Timoney, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the bacterial and fungal microflora on the external genitalia of a population of healthy male donkeys in the state of Michigan, USA. The aim was to identify and determine the frequency of occurrence of these microorganisms using seven different isolation media and standard microbiological procedures. The sites (urethral fossa [fossa glandis], dorsal diverticulum of the urethral sinus, distal urethra, and penile surface) in the distal reproductive tract were cultured and each isolated microorganism identified. Ten different genera of gram-positive bacteria, eight different genera of gram-negative bacteria, and two genera of fungi were isolated from the external genitalia of the 43 donkeys in this study. All 43 donkeys yielded gram-positive bacteria (2-8 species) from all four sites sampled. Arcanobacterium spp., Corynebacterium spp., and Bacillus spp. were the most frequently isolated gram-positive bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria were cultured from 16 (37.2%) of the 43 donkeys, with Acinetobacterlwoffii (16.3%), Oligella urethralis (11.6%), and Taylorellaasinigenitalis (9.3%), the most frequently isolated. Fungi were cultured from only 5 (11.6%) of the 43 donkeys, with Rhizopus spp. isolated from 3 (7.0%) and Cladosporium spp. from 2 (4.7%) individuals. The testes and epididymides collected from 40 donkeys at time of castration were culture negative. Few differences were found in the bacterial flora between prepubertal and mature intact and castrated donkeys. Of notable interest was the scarcity of known equine pathogens across the population tested and isolation of T. asinigenitalis from normal donkeys, especially prepubertal individuals and previously castrated males. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effect of a Complex Multi-modality Ayurvedic Treatment in a Case of Unknown Female Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Christian; Stapelfeldt, Elmar; Michalsen, Andreas; Kowalcek, Ingrid; Kronpaß, Ludwig; Dhruva, Anand

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of female infertility has been growing globally in recent years. In spite of improvements in medical strategies and the improved outcomes for infertile couples, treatment attempts remain largely unsuccessful. A growing number of patients pursue complementary and alternative medicine treatment options like Ayurveda that offers a variety of inpatient and outpatient treatments for infertility. A case of a 38 year-old woman with infertility of unknown origin is presented. She received 18 conventional fertility treatments in 5 different fertility centers and 3 different countries. After several complications, the patient quitted conventional treatment and admitted to an Ayurvedic outpatient clinic where she received a complex Ayurvedic treatment, which included botanicals, dietary and lifestyle advice, manual therapy, yoga, and spiritual elements. The patient then became pregnant and gave birth to a healthy boy in 2012. Ayurveda may be a useful complementary option in the case of futile conventional treatment attempts in female infertility. Nevertheless, the evidence base for Ayurvedic interventions remains weak and requires well-designed clinical trials. This case raises some questions, such as whether the exposure to a large number of assisted reproduction procedures can lead to more health problems than health benefits. The Ayurvedic approach to fertility strives first to improve the health of the patient leading to a higher likelihood of pregnancy. As this is a case report, we are not able to exclude temporal factors stimulating the pregnancy. However, the chronology suggests that this approach might have been an important factor in the eventual pregnancy. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  3. Description of the female of Eulamprotes gemerensis Elsner, 2013 (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae

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    Zdenko Tokár

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The female of Eulamprotes gemerensis Elsner, 2013 is described and illustrated with colour photographs of the adult, exuviae, as well as the figures of female genitalia, tree of COI barcodes, its habitat and distribution map. The female was reared from a pupa found in moss on a stone in the Slovak Paradise National Park in Eastern Slovakia. The species is sexually dimorphic, with female having a reduced hindwing.

  4. Complex interaction of religiousness with other factors in relation to substance use and misuse among female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavar, Mile; Sekulic, Damir; Culjak, Zoran

    2012-06-01

    Strength of religious faith (SRF) is rarely studied as a protective factor against substance use and misuse in sports. Herein, we studied the potential buffering effect of the complex socio-educational, sports, and religiousness factors in the protection against substance use and misuse, including cigarettes, analgesics, appetite suppressants, potential doping behavior, and binge drinking. The sample of subjects included 40 high-class female athletes (22-26 years of age). Using a strictly anonymous questionnaire, we investigated different social, educational, and sports factors (including SRF measured by the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire) in relation to substance use and misuse. Following the calculation of simple correlations, multiple regression analysis revealed that in combination with low sports experience, SRF has a significant buffering effect against binge alcohol drinking and consumption of appetite suppressants. The data are discussed in comparison with previous findings and theoretical background. Future studies should study the topic while observing samples of recreational and competitive athletes of both genders.

  5. Simultaneously Diagnosed and Successfully Treated Rectovaginal and Vesicovaginal Fistulae after Low Anterior Resection with Concomitant Resection of Female Genitalia

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    Chisato Takagi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rectovaginal fistula (RVF and vesicovaginal fistula (VVF are infrequent but distressing complications after pelvic surgery. However, their adequate treatment is not well described. Here, we simultaneously encountered and successfully treated RVF and VVF after radical surgery for rectal cancer. A 70-year-old woman underwent low anterior resection (LAR combined with resection of the uterus, the bilateral adnexa, and the upper side of the vagina, as well as diverted ileostomy for rectal cancer. A month after the surgery, she developed urinary incontinence and underwent medical treatment, but her symptoms did not improve. Evaluation with contrast enema before stoma closure revealed the presence of RVF and VVF. We repaired the VVF and RVF via transabdominal and transperineal approaches. After 6 months, ileostomy was closed and the patient had no recurrence of cancer and fistula. In LAR with hysterectomy and resection of the vaginal wall, there is a risk of RVF and VVF. The excision and closure of the fistula tract and omental flap can be effective to treat both fistulae.

  6. The preponderance and dye-tissue receptive variability analyses of malignant and benign lesions of the female genitalia

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    F.M. Onyije

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Our study reported the preponderance of benign lesions than malignant lesions in the sample population. Comparatively, MT exhibited the best dye-tissue receptivity in both benign and malignant lesions than the baseline dye (H&E and remains a valuable tool for the diagnosis of gynecological lesions.

  7. Evidence of sexual selection in Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): correlation of female moth genitalia and Solanaceae host fruit size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neoleucinodes elegantalis is a Neotropical moth considered a quarantine pest in the family Solanaceae. In previous studies, this species has shown population genetic structure FST =0.57 (P<0.0001) based on host plant associations. This genetic differentiation is further demonstrated here based on ad...

  8. [Glycolysis and pentose-phosphate pathway ratio in staphylococcus from the female genitalia in norm and dysbiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishko, T M; Sirokvasha, O A; Vinnikov, A I

    2008-01-01

    Decrease in intensity of lactate accumulation and activity of glycolytic enzyme such as: phosphofructokinase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, pyruvate kinase found in staphylococcus of the second group isolated at vaginosis in comparison with staphylococcus of the third group isolated at vaginosis and concomitant additional infection pathology as well in comparison with staphylococcus of the first control group. Minimal inhibitory effect (MIA) and increase of enzyme activity of pentosephosphate ways such as: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, transketolase testify to an intensification pentose-phosphate ways and decrease in activity of found the second groups staphylococcus isolated at vaginosis in comparison with of the in third group isolated at vaginosis and additional infection pathology as well as in comparison with the first control group staphylococcus isolated at normal state of UGT.

  9. Trastornos de la diferenciación sexual: presentación de un caso de genitales ambiguos y revisión del tema Disorders of sexual differentiation: a case presentation of ambiguous genitalia and literature review on this topic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoerquis Mejías Sánchez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Los trastornos de la diferenciación sexual constituyen un grupo complejo de entidades y síndromes. El término estados intersexuales hace referencia a aquellos recién nacidos que presentan genitales ambiguos, esto es, sin evidencia clara sobre sexo asignable. Su frecuencia en nuestro medio es relativamente escasa. Se presenta el caso de un recién nacido en el que, en el examen físico, presenta micropenisomía y escroto bífido. La fusión labioescrotal está alterada con rodetes separados que semejan labios mayores y una estructura que remeda un introito vaginal. En el estudio ultrasonográfico se descartó la presencia de útero y ovarios y se constató la presencia de testículos en canal inguinal. La cromatina sexual de células en interfase de la mucosa oral reveló la presencia de 0 % de cuerpo Barr y el estudio cromosómico mostró un cariotipo masculino normal (46, XY, por lo que se interpreta el caso como un pseudohermafroditismo masculino. Se realiza una revisión de los trastornos de la diferenciación sexual.Sexual differentiation disorders constitute a group of complex syndromes and entities. The term intersexual states makes reference to those newborns that present with ambiguos genitalia, that is, without any clear evidence of defined sex. Intersexuality may be classified as masculine and femenine pseudohermaphroditism and true hermaphroditism, which is caused by incomplete sexual differentiation in the male or virilization in the female. This disorder is relatively rare in our context, though knowledge increases more and more about it thanks to the development of molecular biology and the discovered involvement of genes in the normal sexual differentiation process. This article presented the case of a newborn whose dysmorphological exam at birth indicated positive findings in external genitalia such as micropenis and bifid scrotum. Labioscrotal fusion was upset with separated folds resembling labia majoris and a structure

  10. The identification of a spontaneous 47, XX, +21/46, XY chimeric fetus with male genitalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kuei-Fang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 30 sex-chromosome discordant chimera cases have been reported to date, of which only four cases carried trisomy 21. Here, we present an additional case, an aborted fetus with a karyotype of 47,XX, +21/46,XY. Case presentation Autopsy demonstrated that this fetus was normally developed and had male genitalia. Major characteristics of Down syndrome were not observed except an enlarged gap between the first and second toes. Karyotyping of tissues cultured from the fetus revealed the same chimeric chromosomal composition detected in the amniotic fluid but with a different ratio of [47,XX,+21] to [46,XY]. Further short tandem repeat analysis indicated a double paternal contribution and single maternal contribution to the fetus, with the additional chromosome 21 in the [47,XX,+21] cell lineage originating from the paternal side. Conclusion We thus propose that this chimeric fetus was formed via the dispermic fertilization of a parthenogenetic ovum with one (Y sperm and one (X,+21 sperm.

  11. A del(X(p11 carrying SRY sequences in an infant with ambiguous genitalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Fatah S

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SRY (sex-determining region, Y is the gene responsible of gonadal differentiation in the male and it is essential for the regular development of male genitalia. Translocations involving the human sex chromosomes are rarely reported, however here we are reporting a very rare translocation of SRY gene to the q -arm of a deleted X chromosome. This finding was confirmed by cytogenetic, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Case presentation A 7-month infant was clinically diagnosed as an intersex case, with a phallus, labia majora and minora, a blind vagina and a male urethra. Neither uterus nor testes was detected by Ultrasonography. G-banding of his chromosomes showed 46,X,del(X(p11 and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH analysis showed a very small piece from the Y chromosome translocated to the q-arm of the del(X. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis revealed the presence of material from the sex-determining region Y (SRY gene. Conclusion It is suggested that the phenotype of the patient was caused by activation of the deleted X chromosome with SRY translocation, which is responsible for gonadal differentiation.

  12. Revision of the Ambrysus guttatipennis Stål species complex (Heteroptera: Naucoridae: Cryphocricinae) with the descriptions of six new species from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso-Velasco, Daniel; Sites, Robert W

    2016-08-22

    The Ambrysus guttatipennis Stål species complex is revised and includes A. arizonus La Rivers, A. bispinus La Rivers, A. drakei La Rivers, A. guttatipennis Stål, A. mexicanus Montandon, and A. mormon Montandon. Six new species that belong to this complex are described from Mexico: A. ayoyolin n. sp., A. bowlesi n. sp., A. contrerasi n. sp., A. itsipatsari n. sp., A. noveloi n. sp., and A. veracruzanus n. sp. The subspecies A. mormon australis La Rivers, A. m. heidemanni Montandon, and A. m. minor La Rivers are proposed as junior synonyms of A. m. mormon Montandon. A supplemental redescription of A. guttatipennis Stål based on the holotype is provided and a lectotype of A. mexicanus Montandon is designated. Ambrysus arizonus is newly recorded from Mexico and A. bispinus from Guatemala. Most of the species in this complex occur only in Mexico, although A. arizonus and A. mormon are distributed in Mexico and the United States, and A. bispinus is distributed in Mexico and Guatemala. Ambrysus mormon has the widest distribution of any species in this complex. Features uniting these species are related to male genitalia and structures associated with male and female genitalia.

  13. Variations in the male genitalia of Aedes (Stegomyia Albopictus (Skuse from Chandigarh and its surrounding areas (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Sagandeep Kaur

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is the most dominant species of subgenus Stegomyia and is medically important from the standpoint of transmitting wide range of human pathogens of deadly diseases like dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya. During present investigations, it has been observed that IX tergum in the male genitalia of Aedes albopictus varies greatly. It shows variations with respect to the presence or absence of lateral projections on the IX tergum, as well as in the shape and size of median and lateral projections. The shape of IX tergum in the male genitalia of Aedes species is of great taxonomic importance as it is a diagnostic character of the species. These variations have been observed both in natural populations collected from various breeding sites as well as in the adults reared in laboratory. The observed differences have not been noticed by any of the previous workers.

  14. Taxonomic notes on Amarodytes duponti (Aubé, 1838 (Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae, Bidessini with redescription of male genitalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benetti, C. J.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The male genitalia of the water beetle Amarodytes duponti (Aubé, 1838 are described and illustrated. The species was collectedin small pools of rainwater on the margins of a river. A. duponti is distinguished from other species of the genus by the presence of bi-segmented parameres. This species is related to Bidessodes Régimbart, Hypodessus Guignot and Tepuidessus Spangler.

  15. Radiofrequency in female external genital cosmetics and sexual function: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordêlo, Patrícia; Leal, Mariana Robatto Dantas; Brasil, Cristina Aires; Santos, Juliana Menezes; Lima, Maria Clara Neves Pavie Cardoso; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira

    2016-11-01

    Female sexual behavior goes through cultural changes constantly, and recently, some women have shown the desire the ideal genitalia. In this study, we aimed to evaluate clinical responses to nonablative radiofrequency (RF) in terms of its cosmetic outcome in the female external genitalia and its effect on sexual function. A single-masking randomized controlled trial was conducted in 43 women (29 sexually active) who were unsatisfied with the appearance of their external genitalia. The women were divided into an RF group (n = 21, 14 sexually active) and a control group (n = 22, 15 sexually active). Eight sessions of RF were performed once a week. Photographs (taken before the first session and 8 days after the last session) were evaluated by the women and three blinded health professionals by using two 3-point Likert scales (unsatisfied, unchanged, and satisfied; and worst, unchanged, and improved). Sexual function was evaluated using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and analyzed using the Student t test. Women's satisfaction and health professional evaluation were analyzed using the chi-square test and inter- and intragroup binomial comparisons. Satisfaction response rates were 76 and 27 % for the RF and control groups, respectively (p = 0.001). All professionals found a clinical improvement association in the treated group with RF in comparison with the control group (p cosmetic outcome for the female external genitalia, with positives changes in patients' satisfaction and FSFI scores.

  16. Use of larval, parasitic female and egg antigens from Strongyloides venezuelensis to detect parasite-specific IgG and immune complexes in immunodiagnosis of human strongyloidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, A L R; Nunes, D S; Gonçalves-Pires, M R F; Ueta, M T; Costa-Cruz, J M

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to use larval, parasitic female and egg antigens from Strongyloides venezuelensis to detect parasite-specific IgG and immune complexes in human serum samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In total, 95 serum samples were analysed, consisting of 30 patients harbouring S. stercoralis larvae, 30 healthy subjects and 35 patients with other parasites. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficiency were calculated. A significant statistical difference was found in the detection of immune complexes and antibodies in patients harbouring S. stercoralis larvae from larval and eggs antigens, with higher positivity using larval antigen. The larval antigen showed the highest values for sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficiency in ELISA from detection of immune complexes. For the first time we used IgG anti-larvae, IgG anti-parasitic females or IgG anti-eggs for immune complex detection. We concluded that the association of antibody and immune complex detection could be used in the diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis.

  17. Step by step male to female transsexual surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rodrigo Uliano Moser; Abreu, Fernando Jahn da Silva; da Silva, Gabriel M V; Dos Santos, João Vitor Quadra Vieira; Batezini, Nelson Sivonei da Silva; Silva, Brasil; Rosito, Tiago Elias

    2017-10-17

    After the diagnosis of transsexualism is confirmed therapy commences with psychotherapeutic preparation for the conversion, and after conversion, long-term patient rehabilitation is maintained for at least two years. The indication for surgery is chronic discomfort caused by discord with the patient's natural gender, intense dislike of developing secondary sex characteristics and the onset of puberty. The surgical conversion of transsexuals is the main step in the complex care of these problematic patients (1). This surgery was first described by Benjamin H, using a flap of inverted penile skin (2) and is considered the gold standard since then. Male-to-female transsexual surgical techniques are well defined and give good cosmetic and functional results. Sex reassignment surgery promotes the improvement of psychological aspects and social relationships as shown in the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment applied in the patients submitted to this procedure (3). Techniques include the creation of a normal appearing female introitus, a vaginoplasty allowing sexual intercourse and the capability of clitoral orgasm (4). Various methods for neovaginoplasty have been described and can be classified into five categories, i.e. pedicled intestinal transplants, penile skin grafts, penile skin flaps, non-genital skin flaps and non-genital skin grafts (5). In our Hospital, we use penile and scrotal skin flaps. Until now, 174 procedures have been performed by our team using this technique with high rates of satisfaction (3). We present a step-by-step male to female transsexual surgery. Surgical gender reassignment of male transsexuals resulted in replicas of female genitalia which enabled coitus with orgasm (1). With this video we show step by step that a surgery using penile skin flaps is able to be performed with good cosmetic results. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  18. Genital tuberculosis in females

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    G Angeline Grace

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The morbidity and mortality due to tuberculosis (TB is high worldwide, and the burden of disease among women is significant, especially in developing countries. Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli reach the genital tract primarily by haematogenous spread and dissemination from foci outside the genitalia with lungs as the common primary focus. Genital TB in females is a chronic disease with low-grade symptoms. The fallopian tubes are affected in almost all cases of genital TB, and along with endometrial involvement, it causes infertility in patients. Many women present with atypical symptoms which mimic other gynaecological conditions. A combination of investigations is needed to establish the diagnosis of female genital TB (FGTB. Multidrug anti-TB treatment is the mainstay of management and surgery may be required in advanced cases. Conception rates are low among infertile women with genital TB even after multidrug therapy for TB, and the risk of complications such as ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage is high. More research is needed on the changing trends in the prevalence and on the appropriate methods for diagnosis of FGTB.

  19. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  20. Aesthetic, urological, orthopaedic and functional outcomes in complex bladder exstrophy-epispadias′s management

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    Bertin Dibi Kouame

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative complications are related to the surgical procedures, of failures of initial bladder closure and influence the urological, aesthetical and orthopaedic outcomes. Materials and Methods: We reviewed four patients who underwent complex bladder exstrophy-epispadias repair over a period of 14 years. The outcomes of treatment were assessed using, aesthetic, urological and orthopaedic examination data. Orthopaedic complications were explored by a radiography of the pelvis. Results: Out of four patients who underwent bladder exstrophy surgical management, aesthetic, functional outcomes and complications in the short and long follow-up were achieved in three patients. The first patient is a male and had a good penis aspect. He has a normal erection during micturition with a good jet miction. He has a moderate urinary incontinence, which requires diaper. In the erection, his penis-measures 4 cm long and 3 cm as circumference. The second patient was a female. She had an unsightly appearance of the female external genitalia with bipartite clitoris. Urinary continence could not be assessed; she did not have the age of cleanness yet. The third patient had a significant urinary leakage due to the failure of the epispadias repair. He has a limp, a pelvic obliquity, varus and internal rotation of the femoral head. He has an inequality of limbs length. Pelvis radiograph shows the right osteotomy through the ilium bone, the left osteotomy through the hip joint at the acetabular roof. Conclusion: When, the epispadias repair is performed contemporary to initial bladder closure, its success is decisive for urinary continence. In the female, surgical revision is required after the initial bladder closure for an aesthetic appearance to the external genitalia. Innominate osteotomy must be performed with brilliancy amplifier to avoid osteotomy through to the hip joint to prevent inequality in leg length.

  1. The spider Harpactea sadistica: co-evolution of traumatic insemination and complex female genital morphology in spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Řezáč, Milan

    2009-01-01

    The males of invertebrates from a few phyla, including arthropods, have been reported to practise traumatic insemination (TI; i.e. injecting sperm by using the copulatory organ to penetrate the female's body wall). As all previously reported arthropod examples have been insects, there is considerable interest in whether TI might have evolved independently in other arthropods. The research reported here demonstrates the first case of TI in the arthropod subphylum Chelicerata, in particular how the genital morphology and mating behaviour of Harpactea sadistica (Řezáč 2008), a spider from Israel, has become adapted specifically for reproduction based on TI. Males have needle-like intromittent organs and females have atrophied spermathecae. In other spiders, eggs are fertilized simultaneously with oviposition, but the eggs of H. sadistica are fertilized in the ovaries (internal fertilization) and develop as embryos before being laid. Sperm-storage organs of phylogenetically basal groups to H. sadistica provide males with last male sperm priority and allow removal of sperm by males that mate later, suggesting that TI might have evolved as an adaptive strategy to circumvent an unfavourable structure of the sperm-storage organs, allowing the first male to mate with paternity advantage. Understanding the functional significance of TI gives us insight into factors underlying the evolution of the genital and sperm-storage morphology in spiders. PMID:19403531

  2. Communication between spaces formed by fasciae of male external genitalia and perineum: computed tomographic cadaveric study and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Beom Jin; Sung, Deuk Jae; Yeom, Suk Keu; Sohn, Yu Mee; Kim, Yun Hwan; Cho, Sung Bum; Kim, Je Jong; Park, Sun Hwa

    2010-01-01

    The purposes were to evaluate the communication and the extent of the spaces formed by fasciae of the male external genitalia and the perineum and to correlate the spaces with clinical observations regarding anatomic progression of diseases. Multi-detector row computed tomography (CT) was performed through the perineum and the pelvis of 5 fresh cadavers injected with contrast material in the space between dartos and Buck fasciae of the penis. Two of the 5 cadavers, injected with the contrast material mixed with blue ink, were dissected to confirm the observations made on multi-detector row computed tomography. Computed tomographic images of 11 patients with diseases involving the potential spaces formed by the fasciae of the male genitalia and the perineum were correlated with observations made on CT of the cadavers. The contrast material filling the scrotal cavity extended posteriorly in the perineum, remained far below the urogenital diaphragm, and reached superiorly to the potential space along Scarpa fascia in all cadavers. At cadaveric dissection, the ink-stained spaces were confined by the fascial planes involving Colles, Buck, dartos, and Scarpa fasciae. Spread of disease in the 11 patients (6 patients with localized genital edema, 4 with Fournier gangrene, and 1 with bulbous urethral rupture) was confined in the spaces demonstrated on CT images of the cadavers. Free communication and disease spread occur within the confines of the superficial perineal, scrotal, penile, and abdominal wall spaces formed by Colles, Buck, dartos, and Scarpa fasciae.

  3. Psychosexual development in individuals who have female pseudohermaphroditism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa

    2004-07-01

    This article describes psychosexual outcomes and issues in syndromes of female pseudohermaphroditism, broadly defined. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, the most common cause of intersex genitalia at birth, is covered as are Turner Syndrome and syndromes in which XY infants who are born with undervirilized genitalia are assigned and reared as girls (androgen insensitivity syndrome; cloacal exstrophy). The same hormonal abnormalities that cause most physical intersex conditions also influence brain development and behavior; individuals who have intersex conditions can show behavior that is in between that of the typical boy/man and the typical girl/woman. Changes in sex-typical play behavior in childhood are larger than in sexual orientation or core gender identity in adulthood. Most female pseudohermaphrodites, whether XX or XY, who are assigned and reared as girls evolve a feminine core gender identity and primarily are heterosexual. Implications for current debate about the treatment of infants who have ambiguous genitalia are discussed, as is the need for additional research and for consideration of psychologic counseling as part of the treatment program.

  4. Complexity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahul Pandit

    2008-10-31

    Oct 31, 2008 ... ”The more complex a thing is, the more you can talk about it.” - attributed to Giorgio Parisi. ▻ ”C'est magnifique, mais ce n'est pas de la science.” (It is magnificent, but not all of it is science.) - attributed ... Earliest examples: theoretical computer science, algorithmic complexity, etc. ▻ Rapid progress after the ...

  5. Rehabilitation training using complex motor learning rescues deficits in eyeblink classical conditioning in female rats induced by binge-like neonatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jennifer L; Klintsova, Anna Y; Greenough, William T; Goodlett, Charles R

    2013-09-01

    Effective treatments for the behavioral and cognitive deficits in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are lacking, and translational approaches using animal models can help develop rational interventions. One such model, binge-like alcohol exposure in neonatal rats during the period of brain development comparable with that of the human third trimester, causes structural and functional damage to the cerebellum and disrupts cerebellar-dependent eyeblink classical conditioning. The eyeblink conditioning deficits first demonstrated in this rat model predicted the similar deficits subsequently demonstrated in children with FASD. The current study extends this translational approach by testing the hypothesis that rehabilitation training involving 20 days of training on traversal of an obstacle course (complex motor learning) would ameliorate the deficits on classical conditioning of eyeblink responses produced by the neonatal alcohol exposure. We have previously shown that this training stimulates cerebellar synaptic plasticity and improves alcohol-induced deficits on motor coordination tasks. The current studies found that rehabilitation training significantly attenuated alcohol-induced deficits in acquisition of eyeblink conditioning in females but not in males. These results are consistent with normalization of cerebellar-dependent learning, at least in alcohol-exposed females. These findings extend previous studies in this model suggesting that rehabilitation of adolescents with FASD using training with complex motor learning tasks could be effective in ameliorating functional impairments associated with cerebellar damage. Eyeblink classical conditioning deficits are now well documented in children with FASD and could serve as an evaluation measure to continue to develop therapeutic interventions such as complex motor learning. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  6. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  7. Measurements of female genital appearance in Chinese adults seeking genital cosmetic surgery: a preliminary report from a gynecological center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yujiao; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Chuande; Li, Fengyong; Li, Senkai; Zhou, Yu

    2015-05-01

    Accurate and comprehensive measurements of the external genitalia in female adults are of great significance in surgery designs and for aesthetic evaluation in genital plastic surgeries. The authors carried out a 319-case study and provided baseline data and morphometric reference for plastic surgery involving the genital deformity caused by trauma or burns and male-to-female transsexual operations. Our study design recruited 319 women referred to the out-patient clinic from August 2010 to August 2013. From each individual we measured 16 parameters and assessed the significance of variations in age, height, weight, BMI, and marital status (as a proxy for parity). We tried to establish a female external genitalia database of the population presenting for cosmetic surgery and define the general proportions of female genitalia in Chinese adults from the data we obtained. A wide range of values was noted in female genital measurements especially in labia minora parameters. Four parameters, including clitoral prepuce length, clitoris to urethra, labial length, and perineal body length had a proportional relationship to some extent. The position of the clitoris and urethral orifice was found to be regular in female adults. Compared with unmarried women, perineal body length decreased (P = 0.048), while the apex to perineum (bilateral) and labial length increased (P = 0.005, 0.006, cosmetic surgery. Although the ranges of genital measurements vary, there is a proportional relationship in female genital appearance, which should be heeded in surgical designs and genital aesthetic evaluation.

  8. The prostatic utricle: An under-recognized condition resulting in significant morbidity in boys with both hypospadias and normal external genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Austin G; Kogan, Stanley J

    2017-10-01

    Pediatric presentations of a prostatic utricle have received only scant attention. Though recognized with increased frequency in boys with hypospadias, little is described about their incidence and potential for morbidity in boys with normal external genitalia. We initially reviewed a cohort of 64 patients with hypospadias seen over a 3-year period to determine the frequency of investigative lower urinary tract studies and utricle identification. Children with disorders of sexual differentiation were excluded from this review. A subsequent group of 70 boys with hypospadias and 23 boys with normal external genitalia presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) who were found to have an unsuspected utricle were reviewed. This comparative group was investigated since symptomatology was the indication for evaluation, contrasting with those in the hypospadias group who were investigated because of hypospadias presence alone. In our initial review of 64 patients only 24 (37.5%) underwent an investigative study and six (9.4%) had a utricle. Three (50%) required surgical excision, allowing their hypospadias repair to proceed. Results in the subsequent group with hypospadias confirmed these findings with increased rates of investigation and identification. The boys with normal external male genitalia all required surgery since symptoms were the result of the utricle alone. Penile pain with voiding, hematuria, epididymitis, and urinary infection were the most common causes for interventions. The prostatic utricle should be considered as a cause of morbidity in boys with both normal external genitalia and those with hypospadias. Endoscopic or radiological evaluation (see Figure) should be undertaken in all boys with proximal hypospadias, boys with hypospadias and associated cryptorchidism, and those with hypospadias with associated urinary symptoms. Boys with normal external genitalia with lower urinary tract symptoms not explained with imaging should undergo

  9. Serum complexed and free prostate specific antigen levels are lower in female elite athletes in comparison to control women [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Eklund

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: We hypothesize that prostate specific antigen (PSA, a protein that it is under regulation by androgens, may be differentially expressed in female elite athletes in comparison to control women. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 106 female athletes and 114 sedentary age-matched controls.  Serum from these women was analyzed for complexed prostate specific antigen (cPSA and free prostate specific antigen (fPSA, by fifth generation assays with limits of detection of around 6 and 140 fg/mL, respectively.  A panel of estrogens, androgens and progesterone in the same serum was also quantified by tandem mass spectrometry.  Results: Both components of serum PSA (cPSA and fPSA were lower in the elite athletes vs the control group (P=0.033 and 0.013, respectively.  Furthermore, estrone (p=0.003 and estradiol (p=0.004 were significantly lower, and dehydroepiandrosterone  (p=0.095 and 5-androstene-3β, 17β-diol (p=0.084 tended to be higher in the athletes vs controls. Oral contraceptive use was similar between groups and significantly associated with increased cPSA and fPSA in athletes (p= 0.046 and 0.009, respectively.  PSA fractions were not significantly associated with progesterone changes. The Spearman correlation between cPSA and fPSA in both athletes and controls was 0.75 (P < 0.0001 and 0.64 (P < 0.0001, respectively.  Conclusions: Elite athletes have lower complexed and free PSA, higher levels of androgen precursors and lower levels of estrogen in their serum than sedentary control women. Abbreviations: cPSA, complexed PSA; fPSA, free PSA; PCOS, polycystic ovarian syndrome; E1, estrone; E2, estradiol; DHEA, dehydroepiandrosterone, Testo, testosterone; DHT, dihydrotestosterone; PROG, progesterone; Delta 4, androstenedione; Delta 5, androst-5-ene-3β, 17β-diol; BMD, body mineral density; LLOQ, lower limit of quantification; ULOQ, upper limit of quantification; LOD, limit of detection; ACT, α1-antichymotrypsin

  10. PROBLEMATIC ISSUES OF DIAGNOSTICS AND THERAPY OF NON-PSYCHOTIC MENTAL DISORDERS IN FEMALE PATIENTS OF CLIMACTERIC AGE WITH HYSTERICAL SYMPTOM COMPLEX (LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V. Lukiyanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, problematic questions of diagnostics and therapy of non-psychotic mental disorders (NPMD in female patients of climacteric age with hysterical symptom complex are considered. Efficacy of psychotherapy (PT in NPMD, hypnopsychotherapy in hysterical states: hysterical neurosis, neurasthenia and obsessive-compulsive neurosis is indicated. In treatment of NPMD, PT by creative selfexpression is successfully used. It is highlighted that PT forms conscious-critical attitude of patients toward themselves. Combination of PT with physiotherapy in hysterical conversional symptoms has been described. In hysterical manifestations neuroleptics are recommended, in neurotic depressions – antidepressants of mild action. In severe hysterical state, psychopharmacotherapy (PPhT with tranquilizers and neuroleptics is applied on long-term basis. Stable recovery in dissociative and hysterical disorders has been shown. In vegetovascular disorders in structure of climacteric syndrome (CS vinpocetine, in psychoemotional manifestations phenibut was administered. In therapy of hysterical neurosis, “minor neuroleptics”, hypnosuggestive therapy, social rehabilitation were applied. Effective group PT of psychogenically conditioned disorders in asthenicand anxiety-depressive symptoms is effective. Complex therapy of NPMD in hysterical and asthenic neurosis, obsessive-compulsive neurosis has been suggested. Organization of specialized preventive examinations for early revealing of persons with personality pathology is based. Efficacy of a number of medications in periand post-menopause – SSRIs and gabapentin, during menopause paroxetine, in depressions of non-psychotic level – pyrazidol, coaxil, in neurotic hypochondriasis sulpiride and quetiapine, diazepam, in climacteric vegetative and mental disorders hormone replacement therapy (HRT, hormonal therapy, PPhT and PT, in neurovegetative symptoms of CS – antidepressants, in psychovegetative syndromes

  11. Effects of perinatal ethinyl estradiol exposure in male and female Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Isling, Louise Krag

    2013-01-01

    and a deeper urethral slit length was seen in adulthood. In prepubertal male offspring, estrogen-regulated gene expression in ventral prostate was increased dose-dependently and a decreased ventral prostate weight was seen at 15μg/kg.Female external sexual characteristics and prostate development were found...... and lactation with 0, 5, 15 or 50μg/kg bw/day of ethinyl estradiol.This potent estrogen was found to induce an increased number of nipples and reduced ovary weight in female offspring. Malformations of female genitalia were found in young as well as adult offspring, as an increased AGD was seen at birth...

  12. Cytogenetic and molecular studies of a familial paracentric inversion of Y chromosome present in a patient with ambiguous genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J D; Ma, Y Y; Gibson, L H; Su, H; Charest, N; Lau, Y F; Yang-Feng, T L

    1997-05-16

    Here we describe the first reported case of a patient with a familial paracentric inversion in the long arm of the Y chromosome and ambiguous genitalia. FISH analyses with Y chromosome YACs demonstrated that the inversion breakpoints of the patients and the father's Ys appear to be the same and lie within interval 5B of the Y chromosome. PCR and sequence analysis indicated that our patient carries a normal SRY gene. For an additional comparison of the patient's inv(Y) with the father, two other Y chromosome sequences were examined. Molecular studies of this familial inverted Y chromosome showed no differences in the ZFY and TSPY genes between the father and the patient suggesting that the short arm of our patient's inv(Y) is identical to that of the patient's father. Southern analysis using a probe of the DAX-1 gene indicated that a single copy of DSS (dosage sensitive sex reversal) locus was present in the patient. Our results suggest that the abnormal sexual development in our patient is likely attributable to (an)other mechanism(s) than mutation in the SRY gene and dosage alteration of the DAX-1 gene.

  13. Sexual conflict and correlated evolution between male persistence and female resistance traits in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Liam R; van Lieshout, Emile; McNamara, Kathryn B; Moschilla, Joe A; Arnqvist, Göran; Simmons, Leigh W

    2017-05-31

    Traumatic mating (or copulatory wounding) is an extreme form of sexual conflict whereby male genitalia physically harm females during mating. In such species females are expected to evolve counter-adaptations to reduce male-induced harm. Importantly, female counter-adaptations may include both genital and non-genital traits. In this study, we examine evolutionary associations between harmful male genital morphology and female reproductive tract morphology and immune function across 13 populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus We detected positive correlated evolution between the injuriousness of male genitalia and putative female resistance adaptations across populations. Moreover, we found evidence for a negative relationship between female immunity and population productivity, which suggests that investment in female resistance may be costly due to the resource trade-offs that are predicted between immunity and reproduction. Finally, the degree of female tract scarring (harm to females) was greater in those populations with both longer aedeagal spines and a thinner female tract lining. Our results are thus consistent with a sexual arms race, which is only apparent when both male and female traits are taken into account. Importantly, our study provides rare evidence for sexually antagonistic coevolution of male and female traits at the within-species level. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Complex epithelial remodeling underlie the fusion event in early fetal development of the human penile urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Joel; Overland, Maya; Sinclair, Adriane; Cao, Mei; Yue, Xuan; Cunha, Gerald; Baskin, Laurence

    We recently described a two-step process of urethral plate canalization and urethral fold fusion to form the human penile urethra. Canalization ("opening zipper") opens the solid urethral plate into a groove, and fusion ("closing zipper") closes the urethral groove to form the penile urethra. We hypothesize that failure of canalization and/or fusion during human urethral formation can lead to hypospadias. Herein, we use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analysis of transverse serial sections to better characterize development of the human fetal penile urethra as contrasted to the development of the human fetal clitoris. Eighteen 7-13 week human fetal external genitalia specimens were analyzed by SEM, and fifteen additional human fetal specimens were sectioned for histologic analysis. SEM images demonstrate canalization of the urethral/vestibular plate in the developing male and female external genitalia, respectively, followed by proximal to distal fusion of the urethral folds in males only. The fusion process during penile development occurs sequentially in multiple layers and through the interlacing of epidermal "cords". Complex epithelial organization is also noted at the site of active canalization. The demarcation between the epidermis of the shaft and the glans becomes distinct during development, and the epithelial tag at the distal tip of the penile and clitoral glans regresses as development progresses. In summary, SEM analysis of human fetal specimens supports the two-zipper hypothesis of formation of the penile urethra. The opening zipper progresses from proximal to distal along the shaft of the penis and clitoris into the glans in identical fashion in both sexes. The closing zipper mechanism is active only in males and is not a single process but rather a series of layered fusion events, uniquely different from the simple fusion of two epithelial surfaces as occurs in formation of the palate and neural tube. Copyright © 2016 International Society

  15. Vas deferens and penis development in the imposex-exhibiting female rock shell, Thais clavigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Urushitani, Hiroshi; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Jeong-Chae; Cho, Hyeon-Seo; Shiraishi, Hiroaki

    2012-05-01

    The characteristics of the development of male genitalia (penis and vas deferens) in imposex-exhibiting female rock shells, Thais clavigera, were histologically examined using specimens from a wild population and tributyltin (TBT)-exposed females in the laboratory. A variety of vas deferens morphogenesis patterns were observed in wild female T. clavigera, and the characteristics were summarized. The immature vas deferens at an initial stage, however, was only observed beneath or behind the penis, and no vas deferens was observed close to the vaginal opening (i.e., vulva) of the capsule gland in TBT-exposed females, which was different from the characteristics of vas deferens formation observed in wild females. Taking into consideration both the observed results from wild female specimens and from TBT-exposed females in the laboratory, the vas deferens sequence (VDS) index for T. clavigera was proposed as VDS 1-6. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Female genital mutilation and legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonessio, L; Bartucca, B; Bertelli, S; Morini, F; Spina, V

    2000-11-01

    This article deals with the legal aspect concerning female genital mutilations (FGM). Such a practice (a partial excision of the external genitalia) is highly widespread in Central Africa, especially in Ethiopia and Somalia, and currently involves approximately 130,000,000 women worldwide and, in Italy, about 30,000 women amongst the immigrant population. Since 1982 the World Health Organization (WHO), which condemns such a practice as injurious to women's rights and health, proposed that laws and professional codes prohibit it in all countries. Legislation, although insufficient as a sole measure, is considered indispensable for the elimination of FMG. Since a long time some western countries (Sweden, Great Britain, Belgium and Norway), involved by immigration from countries with FGM tradition, legislated with regard to FGM. In Italy, a specific law does not exist; however, FGM are not allowed by the article 5 of the Civil Code. Nevertheless, recently, several cases of mutilations took place: this led some members of the Parliament to introduce a bill in order to specifically forbid FGM. The authors believe that legislation could effectively support the job of prevention and education, which physicians may carry out in order to save little girls from the risk of familial tradition of genital mutilations.

  17. Imaging of the female perineum in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Keyanoosh; Heller, Matthew T; Houshmand, Golbahar

    2012-01-01

    The female perineum is a diamond-shaped structure inferior to the pelvic diaphragm and between the symphysis pubis and coccyx. The perineum is divided into the anterior urogenital triangle and the posterior anal triangle; the vulva represents the external genitalia. A wide array of diseases affect the female perineum in adults. Vulvar trauma, infection (including Fournier gangrene), developmental lesions, and thrombophlebitis can be investigated with various imaging modalities; vulvar malignancies are best imaged with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to identify local-regional extent of disease. MR imaging is also the modality of choice for imaging of the distal urethra, although imaging of a urethral diverticulum also includes voiding cystourethrography and ultrasonography. The distal vagina at the level of the introitus is best imaged with MR imaging for assessment of Bartholin gland cysts and malignancies. Diseases encountered in the anus include anal carcinoma, fistula-in-ano, and anovaginal fistula, which can all be imaged with various modalities offering different sensitivities and fields of view. Lastly, musculoskeletal neoplasms affecting the perineum and vulva include mesenchymal, lipomatous, nerve sheath, and osseous neoplasms. These neoplasms can be imaged with both computed tomography and MR imaging, although the latter provides higher soft-tissue contrast and greater anatomic detail for diagnosis and determination of the extent of necessary surgery. Familiarity with the anatomy of the female perineum and appropriate selection of imaging modalities facilitate prompt and accurate diagnosis and treatment.

  18. A Pictorial Key for Culex pipiens Complex (Diptera: Culicidae In Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Dehghan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to design pictorial key and taxonomic literature of Culex pipiens complex in Iran.Methods: Larvae were collected using standard dipping methods in 13 randomly selected areas of Bushehr, Hame­dan, Kerman, Khorasan-e-Razavi, Khuzistan, Mazandaran, Tehran, Sistan and Baluchistan and Yazd Provinces from April 2009 to October 2010. The data were analyzed using SPSS Ver. 11.5.Results: Culex pipiens larvae were identified based on the Seta 1 of the abdominal segments III–IV in north and central parts of Iran. This diagnostic character had some variation among the Cx. quinquefasciatus collected from south of the country. The identification value of intersection of costa, subcosta and bifurcation of R2+3 of female veins, was calculated as 90–100 % for Cx. pipiens. This diagnostic character was varied among the Cx. quinquefas­ciatus specimens. The male genitalia found as the main characters to distinguish of Cx. quinquefasciatus from Cx. pipiens.Conclusion: It is necessary more studies on the behavior and genetic variations of Cx. pipiens complex in Iran.

  19. The Jewish and Christian view on female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. El-Damanhoury

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM is a practice involving the removal of all or parts of the female external genitalia. It has been documented in 28 African countries and in some countries in Asia and the Middle East, but due to increasing immigration from these countries to the western world, FGM has become a worldwide human rights and health issue. Contrary to the belief that it is a practice carried out by Muslims only, it is also practiced by Christians and a minority group of Ethiopian Jews. However, FGM is neither mentioned in the Torah, nor in the Gospels, and – like in Islam – bodily mutilation is condemned by both religions. In fact, FGM is a mix of mainly cultural and social factors which may put tremendous pressure on the members of the society in question.

  20. Juvenile Rank Can Predict Male-Typical Adult Mating Behavior in Female Sheep Treated Prenatally with Testosterone1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Eila K.; Flak, Jonathan N.; Ye, Wen; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Lee, Theresa M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research with female sheep indicates that exposure to excess testosterone for 60 days (from Gestational Days 30–90 of the 147-day gestation) leads to virilized genitalia, severe neuroendocrine deficits, as well as masculinization and defeminization of sexual behavior (T60 females). In contrast, 30 days of testosterone exposure (Gestational Days 60–90) produce animals with female-typical genitalia, less severe neuroendocrine alterations, and variable gender patterns of sexual behavior (T30 females). Variation in adult sexual behavior of male ungulates is influenced by early social experience, but this has never been tested in females. Here we investigate the influence of rank in the dominance hierarchy on the expression of adult sexual behavior in females. Specifically, we hypothesized that juvenile rank would predict the amount of male- and female-typical mating behavior exhibited by adult female sheep. This hypothesis was tested in two treatment groups and their controls (group 1: T60 females; group 2: T30 females). Dominance hierarchies were determined by observing competition over resources. Both groups of prenatal testosterone-treated females were higher ranking than controls (T60: P = 0.05; T30: P < 0.01). During the breeding season, both T60 and T30 females exhibited more male-typical mating behavior than did controls; however, the T30 animals also exhibited female-typical behavior. For the T60 group, prenatal treatment, not juvenile rank, best predicted male-typical sex behavior (P = 0.007), while juvenile rank better predicted male mating behavior for the T30 group (P = 0.006). Rank did not predict female mating behavior in the hormone-treated or control ewes. We conclude that the effect of prenatal testosterone exposure on adult male-specific but not female-specific mating behavior is modulated by juvenile social experiences. PMID:19122184

  1. Identification of Brain Sites Controlling Female Receptivity in Mosaics of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Laurie; Hall, Jeffrey C.

    1983-01-01

    We have identified cells in the brain of Drosophila melanogaster that are required to be of female genotype for receptivity to copulation with males. To do this, we determined experimental conditions in which female flies virtually always copulate, then measured the minimum amount of male courtship that is required to stimulate females to indicate their receptivity to copulation. We then observed gynandromorphs with female genitalia to determine whether the sex mosaics elicited at least the minimum amount of courtship and, if so, whether they copulated. By analyzing these gynandromorphs, in which the genotype of external and internal tissues could be ascertained, we were able to identify a group of cells in the dorsal anterior brain that, when bilaterally female, is necessary and sufficient for receptivity to copulation. This group of cells is anatomically distinct from those that are required to be of male genotype for the performance of courtship behaviors. PMID:17246106

  2. The role of chromosome variation in the speciation of the red brocket deer complex: the study of reproductive isolation in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cursino, Marina Suzuki; Salviano, Maurício Barbosa; Abril, Vanessa Veltrini; Zanetti, Eveline dos Santos; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti

    2014-03-04

    The red brocket deer, Mazama americana, has at least six distinct karyotypes in different regions of South America that suggest the existence of various species that are today all referred to as M. americana. From an evolutionary perspective, the red brockets are a relatively recent clade that has gone through intense diversification. This study sought to prove the existence of post-zygotic reproductive isolation in deer offspring between distinct chromosome lineages. To achieve this, inter-cytotype and intra-cytotype crosses were performed, which resulted in both F1 hybrid (n = 5) and pure offspring (n = 3) in captivity. F1 females were analyzed in terms of their karyotypes, ovarian histology, estrous cycles and in vitro embryo production. Pure females presented parameters that were similar to those previously reported for M. Americana; however, the parameters for hybrid females were different. Two hybrids were determined to be sterile, while the remaining hybrids presented characteristics of subfertility. The results support the existence of well-established reproductive isolation among the most distant karyotype lineages and elucidates the need to define all karyotype variants and their geographical ranges in order to define the number of species of red brocket.

  3. Juvenile rank can predict male-typical adult mating behavior in female sheep treated prenatally with testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Eila K; Flak, Jonathan N; Ye, Wen; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Lee, Theresa M

    2009-04-01

    Previous research with female sheep indicates that exposure to excess testosterone for 60 days (from Gestational Days 30-90 of the 147-day gestation) leads to virilized genitalia, severe neuroendocrine deficits, as well as masculinization and defeminization of sexual behavior (T60 females). In contrast, 30 days of testosterone exposure (Gestational Days 60-90) produce animals with female-typical genitalia, less severe neuroendocrine alterations, and variable gender patterns of sexual behavior (T30 females). Variation in adult sexual behavior of male ungulates is influenced by early social experience, but this has never been tested in females. Here we investigate the influence of rank in the dominance hierarchy on the expression of adult sexual behavior in females. Specifically, we hypothesized that juvenile rank would predict the amount of male- and female-typical mating behavior exhibited by adult female sheep. This hypothesis was tested in two treatment groups and their controls (group 1: T60 females; group 2: T30 females). Dominance hierarchies were determined by observing competition over resources. Both groups of prenatal testosterone-treated females were higher ranking than controls (T60: P = 0.05; T30: P mating behavior than did controls; however, the T30 animals also exhibited female-typical behavior. For the T60 group, prenatal treatment, not juvenile rank, best predicted male-typical sex behavior (P = 0.007), while juvenile rank better predicted male mating behavior for the T30 group (P = 0.006). Rank did not predict female mating behavior in the hormone-treated or control ewes. We conclude that the effect of prenatal testosterone exposure on adult male-specific but not female-specific mating behavior is modulated by juvenile social experiences.

  4. The Exstrophy-epispadias complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reutter Heiko

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exstrophy-epispadias complex (EEC represents a spectrum of genitourinary malformations ranging in severity from epispadias (E to classical bladder exstrophy (CEB and exstrophy of the cloaca (EC. Depending on severity, EEC may involve the urinary system, musculoskeletal system, pelvis, pelvic floor, abdominal wall, genitalia, and sometimes the spine and anus. Prevalence at birth for the whole spectrum is reported at 1/10,000, ranging from 1/30,000 for CEB to 1/200,000 for EC, with an overall greater proportion of affected males. EEC is characterized by a visible defect of the lower abdominal wall, either with an evaginated bladder plate (CEB, or with an open urethral plate in males or a cleft in females (E. In CE, two exstrophied hemibladders, as well as omphalocele, an imperforate anus and spinal defects, can be seen after birth. EEC results from mechanical disruption or enlargement of the cloacal membrane; the timing of the rupture determines the severity of the malformation. The underlying cause remains unknown: both genetic and environmental factors are likely to play a role in the etiology of EEC. Diagnosis at birth is made on the basis of the clinical presentation but EEC may be detected prenatally by ultrasound from repeated non-visualization of a normally filled fetal bladder. Counseling should be provided to parents but, due to a favorable outcome, termination of the pregnancy is no longer recommended. Management is primarily surgical, with the main aims of obtaining secure abdominal wall closure, achieving urinary continence with preservation of renal function, and, finally, adequate cosmetic and functional genital reconstruction. Several methods for bladder reconstruction with creation of an outlet resistance during the newborn period are favored worldwide. Removal of the bladder template with complete urinary diversion to a rectal reservoir can be an alternative. After reconstructive surgery of the bladder, continence rates

  5. Female Condom

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... P080002. Accessed Nov. 13, 2014. Female condom About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  6. La sexualidad femenina, el holismo epistemológico y la complejidad: reflexiones para la vida contemporánea Female sexuality, epistemological holism and complexity: reflections for contemporary life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Massó Guijarro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo del reconocimiento de la condición compleja del mundo en la globalización y de la necesaria consideración holística de los fenómenos que se le vinculan, se defenderá aquí una perspectiva de la sexualidad femenina análogamente compleja, desde la sugerencia y la defensa del holismo erótico, y como fuente posible de propuestas y soluciones ante los dilemas y encrucijadas propios de la 'era global'. La problematización de la sexualidad y el erotismo femeninos desde el paradigma holístico de la complejidad servirá de pretexto para la consideración de los problemas globales hoy desde una perspectiva diferente y multidisciplinar, y desde la denuncia de los paradigmas reduccionistas y mono-explicativos.Starting from the recognition of the globalized world's complex condition and the need of a holistic consideration of its interconnected phenomena, this paper will present a defense of the complex perspective of the female sexuality, including the suggestion and defense of erotic holism as a possible source of proposals and solutions for the dilemmas posed by the 'global era'. The problematization of female sexuality and eroticism from the holistic paradigm of complexity will be a pretext for the consideration of the current global problems through a different and multidisciplinary perspective, by pointing out existing reductionist mono-explanatory paradigms.

  7. Prune belly syndrome with overlapping presentation of partial urorectal septum malformation sequence in a female newborn with absent perineal openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Azhar; AlAqeel, Alaa; Habib, Zakaria

    2014-01-01

    Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized in males by a triad of anomalous genitourinary tract, deficient development of abdominal wall muscles, and bilateral cryptorchidism. Although similar anomalies have been reported in females, by definition they do not full fill the classical triad. Urorectal septum malformation sequence (URSM) is a lethal condition characterized by presence of ambiguous genitalia, absent perineal openings (urogenital and anal), and lumbosacral abnormalities. In this original case report, the authors discuss the presentation and management of what would be analogous to a Woodhouse category 1 PBS in a female newborn associated with an overlapping presentation of URSM.

  8. Prune Belly Syndrome with Overlapping Presentation of Partial Urorectal Septum Malformation Sequence in a Female Newborn with Absent Perineal Openings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Farooqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prune belly syndrome (PBS is a rare congenital anomaly characterized in males by a triad of anomalous genitourinary tract, deficient development of abdominal wall muscles, and bilateral cryptorchidism. Although similar anomalies have been reported in females, by definition they do not full fill the classical triad. Urorectal septum malformation sequence (URSM is a lethal condition characterized by presence of ambiguous genitalia, absent perineal openings (urogenital and anal, and lumbosacral abnormalities. In this original case report, the authors discuss the presentation and management of what would be analogous to a Woodhouse category 1 PBS in a female newborn associated with an overlapping presentation of URSM.

  9. Why do males of the spider Pisaura mirabilis wrap their nuptial gifts in silk: Female preference or male control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tina; Bollerup, Kristine; Toft, Søren

    2008-01-01

    the female maternal care instinct and not her foraging motivation in a sexual context. The shape of the gift (round) and appearance (white) should then increase female acceptance of males. We tested these predictions experimentally and found that neither gift shape (round or oblong) nor silk wrapping...... of wrapping the nuptial gift: to reduce the risk of losing the gift to females without copulation, and make it possible to reshape an oblong prey into a round gift that facilitates the male's access to the female's genitalia. Our results suggest that the male gift wrapping trait may be selected though sexual......Males of the spider Pisaura mirabilis present a nuptial prey gift to the female during courtship as a mating effort. The gift is usually round and wrapped in white silk. It was suggested that the wrapped gift functions as a sensory trap by mimicking the female's eggsac implying that males exploit...

  10. An alternate dissection approach to the female urogenital triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Margaret I; Walters, Linda M

    2013-09-01

    Traditional dissections of the female urogenital (UG) triangle can lead to early destruction of the erectile tissues, associated musculature, and neurovascular structures. Here, we present an alternate dissection of the female UG triangle. Rather than begin the female UG triangle dissection with the fatty tissue of the labia majora, we utilize an early identification of the suspensory ligament of the clitoris to organize the dissection. The suspensory ligament leads to the body of the clitoris, which can be palpated from distal to proximal to find the crura of the clitoris with overlying ischiocavernosus muscles. Once the crura have been defined, the bulbs of the vestibule with overlying bulbospongiosus muscles can be palpated medially and posteriorly. This dissection approach results in a clean dissection that well demonstrates homologies between male and female external genitalia. Through the use of this method, most student dissection attempts are able to demonstrate the erectile tissues and associated musculature that comprise the female UG triangle. This technique can also be used for male UG triangle dissections, encouraging identification of male and female homologies. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Psychosexual development in genetic males assigned female: the cloacal exstrophy experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, William G

    2004-07-01

    Genetic males who have cloacal exstrophy, a rare, severe pelvic field defect that leads to aphallia, traditionally have been socially, legally, and surgically sex-assigned female at birth and reared female, despite a male karyotype and a typical male prenatal hormonal milieu. Psychosexual development in such children previously has been unknown. Studies of 29 children revealed that despite the absence of the typical postnatal and pubertal androgen surges and the presence of female genitalia, all female-assigned subjects displayed a marked male-typical shift in psychosocial and psychosexual development. Nearly half of them have declared themselves male. Psychosexual development, including gender identity, in genetic and hormonal male neonates seems to be influenced heavily by prenatal androgen exposure. The clinical practice of surgical sex assignment at birth requires re-evaluation.

  12. Ambigüidade genital: a percepção da doença e os anseios dos pais Ambiguous genitalia: perception of the disease and parents anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Bruno da Silva

    2006-03-01

    anguish noted in the neonatal period are expressed by the fear of death, incurable disease and medication. During childhood, of the surgical procedure (ambiguous genitalia and sexuality (homosexuality. During puberty and adulthood there's the fear of marginalization, prejudice, homosexuality and infertility. There is anguish related to pointing at the guilty party, sexual definition (ambiguity and the need for secrecy. CONCLUSIONS: ambiguous genitalia is a highly complex condition affecting the family psychological balance. In situations of genital ambiguity determining and demystifying fears and expectations should be part of the therapeutic plan.

  13. Female Genital Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z Health Topics Female genital cutting Female genital cutting > A-Z Health Topics Female genital cutting fact ... Publications email updates Enter email Submit Female genital cutting Female genital cutting (FGC), sometimes called female circumcision ...

  14. Alterations in serum growth hormone (GH)/GH dependent ternary complex components (IGF-I, IGFBP-3, ALS, IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio) and the influence of these alterations on growth pattern in female rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiyaman, P; Ocal, G; Berberoğlu, M; Evliyaoğlu, O; Aycan, Z; Cetinkaya, E; Bulca, Y; Ersöz, G; Akar, N

    2004-06-01

    Normal growth in children is regulated to a great extent through the actions of the GH/IGF-I axis, a system consisting of GH and its mediators (ternary complex) that modulate growth in many tissues. The ternary complex (IGF-I/IGFBP-3/ALS) provides an acute regulatory mechanism in which IGF-I may be mobilized from the circulating reservoir of 150 kDa complexes to the tissues. Acute exercise is known to be a stimulus for GH secretion. The beneficial effects of scheduled exercise on body composition are also well established. However, the impact of strenuous exercise on the pubertal development of child athletes is still not well understood. The first goal of this study was to assess the acute effects of high intensity exercise training on GH-dependent ternary complex components in female rhythmic gymnasts compared to age-matched healthy female controls with normal physical activity. The second goal was to explore the influence of these exercise-induced changes on skeletal and pubertal growth in the same group prospectively over a period of 4 years. Seventeen female rhythmic gymnasts, aged 11.4 +/- 0.9 years, who had 10 h per week intense exercise for at least 4 months volunteered to participate in this study. Anthropometric measurement of height (Height SDS for chronological age [HtSDS(CA)], parentally adjusted height, predicted adult height), bone age and weight (BMI) were made using standard techniques in gymnasts and controls (aged 12.5 +/- 3.0 years, n = 12). Gymnasts were followed up to 4 years to observe growth velocity and pubertal progression. In order to determine the acute impact of exercise on levels of GH and GH-dependent ternary complex component (IGF-I, IGFBP-3, ALS, IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio), blood samples were obtained from gymnasts after a routine 2-h high-intensity training program and then after a 2-day rest period. These results were compared with age-matched controls with no scheduled sports activity. Despite the significant increment in serum

  15. Female genital mutilation: the role of medical professional organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazi, Tony

    2017-04-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) refers to alteration of the external genitalia of girls without medical benefit. It is estimated by United Nations agencies that 200 million living girls and women have been subjected to different forms of FGM worldwide. Despite the criminalization of the procedure in the vast majority of countries where it is practiced, the decline in the incidence of this ritual is far from satisfactory. Immediate and long-term ill effects are well documented. Most publications of relevance originate from countries outside the map of FGM. In addition, there are major gaps in research related to this issue, considering the magnitude of the problem. International medical organizations and societies should assume their responsibility by providing a platform to professionals engaged in the prevention and treatment of the consequences of FGM, especially those living in the communities where the practice is endemic.

  16. Female aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Esposito Sorpreso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Female aging is a process that involves hypoestrogenism time, the individual impact on each woman, and what we can do as experts to reduce morbidity and provide quality of life. This natural process in the female life cycle has been of concern to women after menopause. Changes in different biophysical and psychosocial aspects, and their individual experiences, have repercussions on the lives of patients seeking specialized and multidisciplinary support to reduce the harmful effects of prolonged hypoestrogenism. Overweight and obesity, inadequate living habits and the presence of multi-morbidities cause damage to the quality of life and impact the functional capacity. Behavioral prescription and hormone therapy are among the treatments given to ease symptoms and reduce morbidity. A better understanding of these factors can help identify groups that require more care after menopause.

  17. Female sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  18. Female sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality.

  19. Chronic administration during early adulthood does not alter the hormonally-dependent disruptive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) on complex behavior in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsauer, Peter J; Sutton, Jessie L

    2014-02-01

    This study examined whether chronic Δ(9)-THC during early adulthood would produce the same hormonally-dependent deficits in learning that are produced by chronic Δ(9)-THC during adolescence. To do this, either sham-operated (intact) or ovariectomized (OVX) female rats received daily saline or 5.6 mg/kg of Δ(9)-THC i.p. for 40 days during early adulthood. Following chronic administration, and a drug-free period to train both a learning and performance task, acute dose-effect curves for Δ(9)-THC (0.56-10 mg/kg) were established in each of the four groups (intact/saline, intact/THC, OVX/saline and OVX/THC). The dependent measures of responding under the learning and performance tasks were the overall response rate and the percentage of errors. Although the history of OVX and chronic Δ(9)-THC in early adulthood did not significantly affect non-drug or baseline behavior under the tasks, acute administration of Δ(9)-THC produced both rate-decreasing and error-increasing effects on learning and performance behavior, and these effects were dependent on their hormone condition. More specifically, both intact groups were more sensitive to the rate-decreasing and error-increasing effects of Δ(9)-THC than the OVX groups irrespective of chronic Δ(9)-THC administration, as there was no significant main effect of chronic treatment and no significant interaction between chronic treatment (saline or Δ(9)-THC) and the dose of Δ(9)-THC administered as an adult. Post mortem examination of 10 brain regions also indicated there were significant differences in agonist-stimulated GTPγS binding across brain regions, but no significant effects of chronic treatment and no significant interaction between the chronic treatment and cannabinoid signaling. Thus, acute Δ(9)-THC produced hormonally-dependent effects on learning and performance behavior, but a period of chronic administration during early adulthood did not alter these effects significantly, which is contrary to what we

  20. Analysis of the Anopheles (Anopheles) quadrimaculatus complex of sibling species (Diptera: Culicidae) using morphological, cytological, molecular, genetic, biochemical, and ecological techniques in an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, J F; Kaiser, P E; Seawright, J A

    1997-12-01

    The Anopheles quadrimaculatus complex of 5 cryptic species (i.e., An. diluvialis Reinert, new species; An. inundatus Reinert, new species; An. maverlius Reinert, new species; An. quadrimaculatus Say; An. smaragdinus Reinert, new species) is analyzed using multiple techniques, including morphological, cytological, molecular, genetic, biochemical, and ecological procedures. All life stages (egg, 4th-instar larva, pupa, and female and male adults) are described using morphological features, and pertinent stages or structures are illustrated. A neotype for An. quadrimaculatus is designated, and the synonymy of An. annulimanus Van der Wulp is confirmed. Several new morphological features are described. New and summarized data from published literature on hybridization, cytological, electrophoretic, molecular, and cuticular hydrocarbon studies are included. Immature and adult bionomics are given. The geographic distribution for each species is listed and shown on maps. Procedures for collecting, processing, and rearing specimens are described. Keys using morphological characters are included for the eggs, 4th-instar larvae, pupae, adult females, and male genitalia. Also, a biochemical key for the 5 species is included. Color and pattern variations of larvae and pupae are discussed.

  1. Matrix metalloproteinase 9/neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinasess type 1 complexes are localized within cardiomyocytes and serve as a reservoir of active metalloproteinase in porcine female myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiczak, L; Tomaszek, A; Bania, J; Paslawska, U; Zacharski, M; Janiszewski, A; Rybinska, I; Dziegiel, P; von Haehling, S; Ardehali, H; Jankowska, E A; Ponikowski, P

    2014-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is crucial for physiological tissue repair and pathophysiological myocardial remodeling. The regulation of its functioning has been shown to be mediated by formation of complexes with tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) and neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL). We investigated the mRNA and protein expression of MMP-9, TIMP-1 and NGAL, the formation of complexes, their gelatinolytic activity and cellular localization in left ventricle (LV) from 10 female pigs with induced systolic heart failure (HF), 5 control pigs, and a woman with severe HF. The MMP-9, TIMP-1 and NGAL mRNA in LV did not differ between diseased and healthy pigs. In all pigs MMP-9, TIMP-1 and NGAL proteins were present in LV as high molecular weight (HMW) complexes (115, 130, 170 and 220 kDa), and no monomers were found. A 80 and 115 kDa gelatinolytically active bands were present in all LV homogenates. A 130-kDa active band was seen only in LV from pigs with severe HF. Similar results were found in the explanted heart of a female patient with severe HF. The incubation of the homogenates of porcine LV at 37°C resulted in appearance of 88 kDa active band, which was accompanied by a decreased intensity of HMW bands. The incubation of the homogenates of porcine LV (depleted of active MMP-9) with trypsin generated 80 and 115 kDa active bands. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of MMP-9 in the cytoplasm of porcine cardiomyocytes, but not in cardiofibroblasts. Our data suggest that MMP-9 originates from cardiomyocytes, forms the gelatinolytically inactive complexes with TIMP-1 and NGAL, present in normal and failing myocardium, likely serving as a reservoir of active MMP-9. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of these HMW complexes in the extracellular matrix remodeling during the progression of HF, which presence should be considered when developing efficient strategies inhibiting myocardial matrix metalloproteinases.

  2. Complexities of X chromosome inactivation status in female human induced pluripotent stem cells-a brief review and scientific update for autism research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandulakis, Mary G; Meganathan, Kesavan; Kroll, Kristen L; Bonni, Azad; Constantino, John N

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) allow researchers to make customized patient-derived cell lines by reprogramming noninvasively retrieved somatic cells. These cell lines have the potential to faithfully represent an individual's genetic background; therefore, in the absence of available human brain tissue from a living patient, these models have a significant advantage relative to other models of neurodevelopmental disease. When using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to model X-linked developmental disorders or inherited conditions that undergo sex-specific modulation of penetrance (e.g., autism spectrum disorders), there are significant complexities in the course and status of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) that are crucial to consider in establishing the validity of cellular models. There are major gaps and inconsistencies in the existing literature regarding XCI status during the derivation and maintenance of hiPSCs and their differentiation into neurons. Here, we briefly describe the importance of the problem, review the findings and inconsistencies of the existing literature, delineate options for specifying XCI status in clonal populations, and develop recommendations for future studies.

  3. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Review of the Ambrysus stali La Rivers species complex (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: Naucoridae) with the description of a new species from Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites, Robert W; Reynoso-Velasco, Daniel

    2015-09-15

    The Neotropical Ambrysus stali La Rivers species complex is reviewed and includes A. bifidus La Rivers & Nieser, A. scolius La Rivers, A. stali La Rivers, and A. tricuspis La Rivers. Ambrysus oblongulus Montandon is removed as a member of this complex. Features uniting these species are related to male genitalia and associated structures. Ambrysus maya n. sp. is the fifth species in the complex and is described from Belize, Guatemala, and Mexico based on specimens from recent collecting and museum collections.

  5. Towards a clean slit: how medicine and notions of normality are shaping female genital aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Lindy Joan

    2013-01-01

    In the West, a specific ideal has emerged for female genitalia. The ideal is one of absence, a clean slit that can be attained through the removal of pubic hair and, increasingly, through female genital cosmetic surgery. This ideal is largely created in the media, which generates contradictory messages for women. The popular press, backed by medical opinion, explicitly acknowledges that a wide range of variation is normal--female genitals vary in appearance 'about as much as snowflakes'--but by showing only altered minimalist clean slits, it carries an implicit message that women should be worried if their genitals do not match up to this exacting ideal. Consequently, some women feel their genitals are not satisfactory and choose surgery. Using biomedicine to fix normal body parts in order to fashion desirable femininity, releases medicine from its rigid scientific underpinnings exposing it as an increasingly cultural and commercial pursuit.

  6. Female sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Lynne; Magos, Adam

    2008-07-01

    There has been considerable development and implementation of new contraceptive methods over the last 15 years. However, sterilization has remained the most widely used method around the world. Ideally, the procedure should be safe, have a high efficacy, be readily accessible, and be personally and culturally acceptable. The cost for each procedure would be low and the method would be simple, quick, easily learned and be able to be performed in an outpatient setting without general anesthesia. A transuterine method of female sterilization has long been the ideal for the gynecologist. The Essure system fulfils many of the criteria, and is the first one to be approved by the US FDA. However, there is still a need for further research to find a device with the success rate of the Essure but without its irreversibility.

  7. Peculiarities of systemic violations in patients with genital endometriosis in combination with benign diseases of genitalia and syndrome of chronic pelvic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grek L.P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is determination of intercommunication of cytokines ІL-10, ІL-6 levels, TNF-α with subjective estimation of pain, processes of the nervous system desadaptation in patients with genital endometriosis in combination with benign hormonal pathology of the genitalia followed by chronic pelvic pain (CPP. There were 120 women in research divided into several groups, depending on visual analogue scale (VAS and durations of disease: 1st group (n=44, VAS was 7-10 points; 2-d group (n=41 VAS – 4-6 points; 3-d group (n=35 VAS – 0-3 points. Along with progress of CPP there was marked decline of cytokines ІL-10, and increase of ІL-6, TNF -α comparatively with 3-d group (р<0,05; this correlated with the higher points of intensity of pain syndrome in the 1st group, with pain anamnesis duration and increased level of anxiety and depression. Imbalance of cytokines towards the proinflammatory link in definite clinical provoking factors of pain can be considered as a predictor of CPP.

  8. Re- reconstructive surgery in failure of genitoplasty in male-to-female transsexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyar Tavakkoli Tabassi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various surgical procedures were described for the correction of the external genitalia in male-to-female transsexualism. In all these methods complications such as vaginal stenosis, unpleasant appearance of external genitalia and lack of consent are seen. This paper describes a method of surgery for repair of these complications and success rate of this surgery.Methods: Reconstructive surgery was performed by one surgeon in 16 patients from 2009 to 2011 in Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad. Mean age 25.75 years of age from 21 to 31 years. Due to the condition of each patient appropriate reconstructive surgery was performed. These surgeries include: clitoroplasty, inverted U flap, labioplasty, urethroplasty, removal of excess skin and increasing depth of vagina. After the surgery, the patients admitted for complete bed rest up to 5 days. They received postoperative prophylaxis medication for anti-thromboembolic events.Results: Only 3 complications were seen in all 16 patients. One hematoma of surgery site, one infection of surgery site and a blood transfusion. Eleven patients had history of vaginoplasty using small intestine and 10 patients with penile and perineal skin. From 3 to 24 months follow up after discharge were done, no patient had a major complication in long-term follow up and were generally satisfied with their sexual intercourse.Conclusion: This study has some limitations. Follow-up of the patients was performed for about one year that longer follow-up for these patients is favorable. Also, evaluation of patients' satisfaction from their intercourse was not performed as systematically with using an standard questionnaire and by a person who is blind to the study. Using this method of restoring external genitalia in the hands of expert surgeon, aesthetic and functional result would be expected very well.

  9. Females overweight and osteoarthritis : a complex puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. de Klerk (Bianca)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractEvery year many people consult their general practitioner (GP) for complaints related to the musculoskeletal system. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common progressive joint disease causing pain and disability. This disorder is frequently experienced by middle-aged and older people [1] and

  10. Female, Lesbian, and Jewish: Complex and Invisible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Sari H.

    Managing a marginal identity different from the dominant culture is a difficult process. For a woman who is a lesbian and also Jewish, this means feeling marginal in each of the communities she considers to be her primary support systems. Within the Jewish community, lesbianism is not acceptable, and within the lesbian community, there is often…

  11. Female genital cutting in Hargeisa, Somaliland: is there a move towards less severe forms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunde, Ingvild Bergom; Sagbakken, Mette

    2014-05-01

    According to several sources, little progress is being made in eliminating the cutting of female genitalia. This paper, based on qualitative interviews and observations, explores perceptions of female genital cutting and elimination of the phenomenon in Hargeisa, Somaliland. Two main groups of participants were interviewed: (1) 22 representatives of organisations whose work directly relates to female genital cutting; and (2) 16 individuals representing different groups of society. It was found that there is an increasing use of medical staff and equipment when a girl undergoes the procedure of female genital cutting; the use of terminology is crucial in understanding current perceptions of female genital cutting; religion is both an important barrier and facilitator of elimination; and finally, traditional gender structures are currently being challenged in Hargeisa. The findings of this study suggest that it is important to consider current perceptions on practices of female genital cutting and on abandonment of female genital cutting, in order to gain useful knowledge on the issue of elimination. The study concludes that elimination of female genital cutting is a multifaceted process which is constantly negotiated in a diversity of social settings. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Transplant Vision Facts and Myths Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... or sperm. continue Parts of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  13. Identification of the Doublesex protein binding sites that activate expression of lozenge in the female genital disc in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagamitsu, Shunsuke; Takase, Dan; Aoki, Fugaku; Suzuki, Masataka G

    2017-02-01

    Normal sexual differentiation in the genital organs is essential for the animal species that use sexual reproduction. Although it is known that doublesex (dsx) is required for the sexual development of the genitalia in various insect species, the direct target genes responsible for the sexual differentiation of the genitalia have not been identified. The lozenge (lz) gene is expressed in the female genital disc and is essential for developments of spermathecae and accessory glands in Drosophila melanogaster. The female-specific isoform of DSX (DSXF) is required for activating lz expression in the female genital disc. However, it still remains unclear whether the DSXF directly activates the transcription of lz in the female genital disc. In this study, we found two sequences (lz-DBS1 and lz-DBS2) within lz locus that showed high homoloty to the DSX binding motif identified previously. Competition assays using recombinant DSX DNA-binding domain (DSX-DBD) protein verified that the DSX-DBD protein bound to lz-DBS1 and lz-DBS2 in a sequence-specific manner with lower affinity than to the known DSX binding site in the bric-à-brac 1 (bab1) gene. Reporter gene analyses revealed that a 2.5-kbp lz genomic fragment containing lz-DBS1 and lz-DBS2 drove reporter gene (EGFP) expression in a manner similar to endogenous lz expression in the female genital disc. Mutations in lz-DBS1 alone significantly reduced the area of EGFP-expressing region, while EGFP expression in the female genital disc was abolished when both sites were mutated. These results demonstrated that DSX directly activates female-specific lz expression in the genital disc through lz-DBS1 and lz-DBS2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. No evidence for differential dose effects of hydrocortisone on intrusive memories in female patients with complex post-traumatic stress disorder--a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludäscher, Petra; Schmahl, Christian; Feldmann, Robert E; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Schneider, Miriam; Bohus, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder is characterized by intrusive traumatic memories. Presently, a controversial debate is ongoing regarding whether reduced cortisol secretion in post-traumatic stress disorder promotes an automatic retrieval of trauma-associated memories. Hence, a pharmacological elevation of cortisol was proposed to decrease post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, particularly intrusions. The present study investigated the impact of two different doses of hydrocortisone on automatic memory retrieval using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 30 inpatients with post-traumatic stress disorder. All participants were female and received various psychotropic medications. They were randomly assigned to one of two groups within a crossover design: they received either 1 week placebo followed by 1 week hydrocortisone 10/d, followed by 1 week placebo, followed by hydrocortisone 30 mg/d (15 participants) or 1 week hydrocortisone 30 mg/d, followed by 1 week placebo, followed by 1 week hydrocortisone 10 mg/d, followed by 1 week placebo (15 participants). The outcome measures were the frequency and the intensity of intrusions, the overall symptomatology of post-traumatic stress disorder and the general psychopathology. We did not find any differences in the frequency and the intensity of post-traumatic stress disorder-related intrusions between the 10 mg hydrocortisone, the 30 mg hydrocortisone and the placebo condition. All effect sizes for the hydrocortisone condition vs. placebo were very small. Additionally, the overall symptomatology of post-traumatic stress disorder and the general psychopathology did not differ between the hydrocortisone therapies and placebo. Our results do not show any effect of the hydrocortisone administration on intrusions in complex post-traumatic stress disorder. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  16. THE MEANING OF ALPHA FEMALE IN FEMALE LIBRARIAN: Building a Positive Image of Libraries through Female Librarians as Alpha Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Winoto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available MAKNA DIRI ALPHA FEMALE PADA PUSTAKAWAN PEREMPUAN: Membangun Citra Positif Perpustakaan Melalui Kiprah Pustakawan Perempuan Sebagai Alpha Female Abstract The profession of librarians is often associated with women. This can be justified if we refer to data and research results that have been done in several countries. However, many women who work in the library, this does not necessarily describe that library work is a simple and easy job. However, on the contrary, work in the field of library is increasingly complex and demands the competence and mastery of information technology. Moreover, the expectations of some users who demand a fast and quality service. Therefore to answer this problem required a female librarian who has the competence, intelligent and able to become a leader for his group and can show the characteristics as a professional. As for the description of people like this people call it with the term alpha female. With the birth of alpha female figures among female librarians is expected to change the positive image of librarians and library institutions. This is because the female alpha figure in the female librarian is a figure of women who are considered "perfect" are still rare today. Keywords: library, librarian, symbolic interaction, alpha female. Abstrak Profesi pustakawan kerapkali dikaitkan dengan kaum perempuan. Hal ini dapat dibenarkan jika kita merujuk pada data dan hasil riset yang telah dilakukan di beberapa negara. Namun demikian banyaknya kaum perempuan yang bekerja di perpustakaan, ini tidak serta merta menggambarkan bahwa pekerjaaan perpustakaan merupakan pekerjaan yang sederhana dan mudah. Namun justru sebaliknya pekerjaaan di bidang perpustakaan saat ini semakin kompleks dan menuntut kompetensi dan penguasaan teknologi informasi. Apalagi harapan sebagian pengguna yang menuntut suatu pelayanan ayang cepat dan berkualitas. Oleh karena demikian untuk menjawab permasalahan ini diperlukan sosok pustakawan

  17. Psychosocial and sexual aspects of female circumcision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. Abdel-Azim

    be triggered by stimulation of erotogenic areas; part of which is the clitoris. Female circumcision is done to minimize ... peripheral nervous systems, modified by various psychological and physical factors [1]. Masters and ... responding the touch, its stimulation can trigger an orgasm. But orgasm in the female is a complex ...

  18. Reflections on Female Circumcision Discourse in Hargeysa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Body and. Gruenbaum have pointed out that a lack of understanding about the complexity of the practice has characterized the discourse ever since the seventies2,12-14. Female ... parts of the world, and the challenges related to how to perceive and ..... female circumcision is a sensitive topic, none of the study participants ...

  19. Type I female genital mutilation: a cause of completely closed vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzi, Abdulrahim A; Sahly, Nora; Alhachim, Estabraq; Abduljabbar, Hassan

    2014-09-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) ranges in severity from a nick of the clitoris to partial or total removal of the external genitalia. Sexual complications after FGM include sexual dysfunction, difficult intercourse, and dyspareunia. We report a case of Type I FGM presenting as complete vaginal closure and urinary retention. A 16-year-old adolescent was referred for obliterated vagina and urinary retention. She had recurrent urinary tract infections, difficulty in voiding, and cyclic hematuria. At the age of 1 year she had been taken by her mother to a pediatric surgeon to have a Type I FGM procedure. On examination, the urethral meatus and vaginal orifices were completely closed by the FGM scar. She underwent uneventful surgical opening of the vagina. A normal vaginal orifice was created and normal flow of urine and menses occurred. Type I FGM can present as complete vaginal closure and urinary retention. Proper diagnosis and treatment are of paramount importance. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. A typological approach to testing the evolutionary functions of human female orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Robert; Belsky, Jay

    2012-10-01

    Building on previous work that identified different types of orgasm in women (King, Belsky, Mah, & Binik, 2011), the goal of the present study was to extend such typological work and determine whether female orgasmic variability tracked potentially evolutionarily salient sexual partner characteristics (e.g., those displaying possible immune-system compatibility). A total of 265 females completed an Internet survey about their orgasmic experience-achieved either with partners or alone. For partnered orgasms, they also provided details of partner characteristics and sexual behaviors. Latent class analysis revealed two orgasm types which were meaningfully distinguishable in terms of sensations and location-either centered on the surface of genitalia or deep inside. Deep orgasms were associated with internal sensations consistent with proposed functions of female orgasm in terms of differential sperm insuck. Such orgasms were associated with partners who were perceived as considerate, dominant, with a noticeably attractive smell, and as providing firm penetration. However, some hypothesized reproductively significant partner characteristics were not differentially associated with deep orgasms (i.e., muscularity, aggression, masculinity). Results were discussed and future research directions outlined. In particular, it is suggested that sexual passion between partners is a non-accidental component of sexual functioning and that this has too frequently been missing in sex research involving humans. Direct physiological measures of the results of female orgasm need to be undertaken. Additionally, the intriguing phenomenon of female ejaculation deserves scientific attention.

  1. Male genital morphology and its influence on female mating preferences and paternity success in guppies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelia Gasparini

    Full Text Available In internally fertilizing species male genitalia often show a higher degree of elaboration than required for simply transferring sperm to females. Among the hypotheses proposed to explain such diversity, sexual selection has received the most empirical support, with studies revealing that genital morphology can be targeted by both pre-and postcopulatory sexual selection. Until now, most studies have focused on these two episodes of selection independently. Here, we take an alternative approach by considering both components simultaneously in the livebearing fish, Poecilia reticulata. We allowed females to mate successively (and cooperatively with two males and determined whether male genital length influenced the female's propensity to mate with a male (precopulatory selection, via female choice and whether male genital size and shape predicted the relative paternity share of subsequent broods (postcopulatory selection, via sperm competition/cryptic female choice. We found no evidence that either episode of sexual selection targets male genital size or shape. These findings, in conjunction with our recent work exposing a role of genital morphology in mediating unsolicited (forced matings in guppies, further supports our prior speculation that sexual conflict may be an important broker of genital evolution in this species.

  2. Male Genital Morphology and Its Influence on Female Mating Preferences and Paternity Success in Guppies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Clelia; Pilastro, Andrea; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    In internally fertilizing species male genitalia often show a higher degree of elaboration than required for simply transferring sperm to females. Among the hypotheses proposed to explain such diversity, sexual selection has received the most empirical support, with studies revealing that genital morphology can be targeted by both pre-and postcopulatory sexual selection. Until now, most studies have focused on these two episodes of selection independently. Here, we take an alternative approach by considering both components simultaneously in the livebearing fish, Poecilia reticulata. We allowed females to mate successively (and cooperatively) with two males and determined whether male genital length influenced the female's propensity to mate with a male (precopulatory selection, via female choice) and whether male genital size and shape predicted the relative paternity share of subsequent broods (postcopulatory selection, via sperm competition/cryptic female choice). We found no evidence that either episode of sexual selection targets male genital size or shape. These findings, in conjunction with our recent work exposing a role of genital morphology in mediating unsolicited (forced) matings in guppies, further supports our prior speculation that sexual conflict may be an important broker of genital evolution in this species. PMID:21799825

  3. Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medically as female sexual dysfunction. Many women experience problems with sexual function at some point. Female sexual dysfunction can occur at any stage of life. It can be lifelong or be acquired later in life. It can ...

  4. Fertility Treatments for Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Females Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Fertility Treatments for Females Once a woman is diagnosed ... The presence or absence of male factor infertility Fertility treatments are most likely to benefit women whose ...

  5. Female Prisoners in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Yik Koon

    2006-01-01

    This is a study on 422 female prisoners in peninsular Malaysia. More than half of the female prisoners are foreigners, mainly from Indonesia and Thailand. This study surveys the background of the respondents and identifies factors that may have influenced them to commit the offences. Female prisoners in Malaysia, particularly those who are…

  6. [Female child sexual abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enyedy, Andrea; Csorba, Roland

    2017-06-01

    The prevalence of child sexual abuse is 12-13% worldwide (18% by girls, 8% by boys). The exact knowledge of sexual abuse and the spread of the adequate medical diagnosis is an essential medical, social and national requirement. In our present study we examine the medical diagnosis of female child sexual abuse. Selective literature research in the available international and domestic databases. Majority of children assessed for suspected sexual abuse have normal genital and anal findings. Contrary to popular belief, the majority of child sexual abuse is a chronic multiple event, caused by a family member. The task of the medical staff is difficult and various, due to the diagnostic challenges of child sexual abuse. The difficulties of the medical diagnosis, evaluation and therapy, the complexity of the legal proceedings and prosecution, the isolation of the profession and the victim and the issue treated like a taboo subject often lead to failure. The physicians dealing with children have suboptimal knowledge of child sexual abuse, the characteristics of victims and perpetretors, the medical diagnosis and therapy of sexual abuse and the rehabilitation of victims. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(23): 910-917.

  7. Aromatase deficiency in male and female siblings caused by a novel mutation and the physiological role of estrogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishima, Akira; Grumbach, M.M.; Simpson, E.R. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)]|[Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    The aromatase enzyme complex catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens in a wide variety of tissues, including the ovary, testis, placenta, brain, and adipose tissue. Only a single human gene encoding aromatase P450 (CYP19) has been isolated; tissue-specific regulation is controlled in part by alternative promoters in a tissue-specific manner. We report a novel mutation in the CYP19 gene in a sister and brother. The 28-yr-old XX proband, followed since infancy, exhibited the cardinal features of the aromatase deficiency syndrome as recently defined. She had nonadrenal female pseudohermaphrodism at birth and underwent repair of the external genitalia, including a clitorectomy. Her adult height is 177.6 cm (+2.5 SD). Her only sibling, and XY male, was studied at 24 yr of age. During both pregnancies, the mother exhibited signs of progressive virilization that regressed postpartum. The height of the brother was 204 cm (+3.7 SD) with eunuchoid skeletal proportions, and the weight was 135.1 kg (+2.1 SD). He was sexually fully mature and had macroorchidism. The bone age was 14 yr at a chronological age of 24 3/12 yr. Bone mineral densitometric indexes of the lumbar spine (cancellous bone) and distal radius (cortical bone) were consistent with osteoporosis; the distal radius was -4.7 SD below the mean value for age- and sex-matched normal men; indexes of bone turnover were increased. Analysis of genomic DNA in transformed lymphoblasts from both the sister and brother indicated a homozygous single base change at base pair 1123 (C{r_arrow}T) in exon IX of the CYP19 gene, a highly conserved region, that results in a cysteine instead of an arginine at position 375 (R375C). The parents are obligate heterozygotes in this consanguineous pedigree. Expression of the mutant complementary DNA showed that the R375C mutation had 0.2% the aromatase activity of the wild-type enzyme. 44 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Cognitive development and female psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, M A

    1981-01-01

    Freud was an astute observer, but his understanding of female psychology was distorted by centration on biological forces, the adult neurosis, libido theory, the Oedipus complex, and male psychology. His views on the role of penis envy, narcissism, and masochism in women, and on the female superego, currently are being updated on the basis of new data emerging out of psychoanalytic investigation and direct observational studies. It has become clear, for example, that core feminine gender identity develops very early and that it is mediated in large part by cognitive development and learning rather than by the impact of the observation of genital differences between the sexes. The little girl's level of cognitive organization does not permit her at first to construct logical, consistent categories of female and male, predicated or coordination of criteria of inclusion and exclusion. She puts girls and women into one group out of intuitive recognition that they "go together" and builds up a view of herself as female on the basis of what she feels as her mother's daughter and what she perceives of the way her parents and other significant object see her. Her mother's feelings about her, about herself, and about females in general influence her greatly, and her father's responses to and expectations of her have an important impact on her self-image and self-esteem. Her representation of herself as female at first does not necessarily take genital differences between the sexes into account. The discovery, some time in the second or third year, that the genitals of boys and girls are different from one another presents the girl with a number of problems, however. Her cognitive organization makes it extremely difficult for her to apprehend her complex, incompletely demarcated, and to a large extent internal, unobservable, and impalpable sexual organs. Her initial conclusion is that she lacks desirable body parts which are possessed by other beings. Because of the

  9. Female Genital Mutilation Is a Violation of Reproductive Rights of Women: Implications for Health Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungari, Suresh Banayya

    2016-02-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for nonmedical reasons. This coercive practice is still prevalent in many parts of the world, in both developed and developing countries. However, FGM is more prevalent in African countries and some Asian countries. In this study, an attempt has been made to understand the prevalence and practice of FGM worldwide and its adverse effects on women's reproductive health. To fulfill the study objectives, the author collected evidence from various studies conducted by international agencies. Many studies found that FGM has no health benefits; is mostly carried out on girls before they reach the age of 15 years; can cause severe bleeding, infections, psychological illness, and infertility; and, most important, can have serious consequences during childbirth. The practice is mainly governed by the traditions and cultures of the communities without having any scientific or medical benefit. In conclusion, FGM is a practice that violates the human and reproductive rights of women.

  10. Resurrection of two species from synonymy of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) strodei Root, and characterization of a distinct morphological form from the Strodei Complex (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Foster, Peter G; Dos Santos, Cecilia L S; Flores, Daniel C; Motoki, Maysa T; Bergo, Eduardo S

    2010-07-01

    Anopheles albertoi Unti and Anopheles arthuri Unti are revived from the synonymy with Anopheles strodei Root, and a distinct morphological form (designated in this study as Anopheles CP Form) from the Strodei Complex of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) is characterized. The male genitalia of An. arthuri and An. albertoi are described and illustrated for the first time. An. strodei, An. arthuri, and An. albertoi were first distinguished based on scanning electron microphotos of the eggs, and then each egg type was associated with diagnostic characters of the male genitalia. Identification of Anopheles CP Form was based on morphological characters of the male genitalia, characterized and illustrated in this study. Molecular phylogenetic analysis was most clear when an outgroup was not included, in which case using the nuclear white gene, or the white gene in combination with the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, clearly separated these four taxa. When Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say and Anopheles stephensi Liston were included as an outgroup, combined white and COI data resolved An. strodei and An. albertoi, whereas An. arthuri was not well resolved. The single sequence of Anopheles CP Form was recovered well separated from other groups in all analyses.

  11. "The first cut is the deepest": a psychological, sexological and gynecological perspective on female genital cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, Giussy; Facchin, Federica; Meschia, Michele; Vercellini, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    In recent years increased numbers of healthy women and girls have been seeking female genital cosmetic surgery for esthetic reasons and/or to enhance sexual functioning. This phenomenon is associated with the development of a new vulvovaginal standard due to Internet pornography and the increased exposure of female genitalia. This strict standard may negatively affect women's psychological health and cause increased insecurity, which may drive even teenagers to seek female genital cosmetic surgery. Psychological counseling is recommended to inform women that surgery is not a definitive solution to treat psychologically based pain or dysfunction. Moreover, there is no robust evidence supporting the effectiveness of female genital cosmetic surgery, especially regarding sexual enhancement, as underlined by major scientific societies. The importance of a definite regulation of female genital cosmetic surgery should be emphasized and be based on an ethically oriented, multidisciplinary model aimed at providing exhaustive information on all gynecological, sexological, and psychological concerns raised by this type of surgery. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Female terrorism : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacques, Karen; Taylor, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The sharp growth in the number of publications examining female involvement in terrorism has produced a valuable but un-integrated body of knowledge spread across many disciplines. In this paper, we bring together 54 publications on female terrorism and use qualitative and quantitative analyses to

  13. The Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  14. Male-female and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques: a comparative study of posture and movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasey, Paul L; Foroud, Afra; Duckworth, Nadine; Kovacovsky, Stefani D

    2006-04-01

    Mounting is generally considered to be a male-typical behavior. Female Japanese macaques, in certain populations, are unusual, in that they routinely mount other females. In this study, we examined to what extent female Japanese macaques mount same-sex partners in a male-typical manner. We compared the mount postures males and females adopt and their rate of pelvic thrusting. In addition, we employed a modified form of Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) to compare patterns of pelvic movement during mounts. LMA is a universal language for movement that describes quantitative features of movement, such as changes in the relation of the body segments, as well as qualitative features, such as the style of movements. Our results indicate that female Japanese macaques do not mount in a male-typical manner. Females exhibited a much greater variety of mount postures than did males. Some of the most common types of mount postures employed by females were never exhibited by males. Females performed fewer pelvic thrusts per mount than males, but they executed more pelvic movements per mount, as well as, greater variety and complexity of movement. In addition, the qualitative style of pelvic mounting that females employed differed, in general, from that of males. We argue that these sex differences in mounting can be explained by the fact that both sexes sought sexual reward via genital stimulation during mounting, but they did so in different ways owing to the constraints imposed by their genital architecture. This study raises the larger question as to what constitutes a male-typical or female-typical behavior.

  15. Meier–Gorlin syndrome genotype–phenotype studies: 35 individuals with pre-replication complex gene mutations and 10 without molecular diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Munnik, Sonja A; Bicknell, Louise S; Aftimos, Salim; Al-Aama, Jumana Y; van Bever, Yolande; Bober, Michael B; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Edrees, Alaa Y; Feingold, Murray; Fryer, Alan; van Hagen, Johanna M; Hennekam, Raoul C; Jansweijer, Maaike C E; Johnson, Diana; Kant, Sarina G; Opitz, John M; Ramadevi, A Radha; Reardon, Willie; Ross, Alison; Sarda, Pierre; Schrander-Stumpel, Constance T R M; Schoots, Jeroen; Temple, I Karen; Terhal, Paulien A; Toutain, Annick; Wise, Carol A; Wright, Michael; Skidmore, David L; Samuels, Mark E; Hoefsloot, Lies H; Knoers, Nine V A M; Brunner, Han G; Jackson, Andrew P; Bongers, Ernie M H F

    2012-01-01

    Meier–Gorlin syndrome (MGS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by microtia, patellar aplasia/hypoplasia, and short stature. Recently, mutations in five genes from the pre-replication complex (ORC1, ORC4, ORC6, CDT1, and CDC6), crucial in cell-cycle progression and growth, were identified in individuals with MGS. Here, we report on genotype–phenotype studies in 45 individuals with MGS (27 females, 18 males; age 3 months–47 years). Thirty-five individuals had biallelic mutations in one of the five causative pre-replication genes. No homozygous or compound heterozygous null mutations were detected. In 10 individuals, no definitive molecular diagnosis was made. The triad of microtia, absent/hypoplastic patellae, and short stature was observed in 82% of individuals with MGS. Additional frequent clinical features were mammary hypoplasia (100%) and abnormal genitalia (42% predominantly cryptorchidism and hypoplastic labia minora/majora). One individual with ORC1 mutations only had short stature, emphasizing the highly variable clinical spectrum of MGS. Individuals with ORC1 mutations had significantly shorter stature and smaller head circumferences than individuals from other gene categories. Furthermore, compared with homozygous missense mutations, compound heterozygous mutations appeared to have a more severe effect on phenotype, causing more severe growth retardation in ORC4 and more frequently pulmonary emphysema in CDT1. A lethal phenotype was seen in four individuals with compound heterozygous ORC1 and CDT1 mutations. No other clear genotype–phenotype association was observed. Growth hormone and estrogen treatment may be of some benefit, respectively, to growth retardation and breast hypoplasia, though further studies in this patient group are needed. PMID:22333897

  16. A review of the Paectes arcigera species complex (Guenée (Lepidoptera, Euteliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pogue

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Five new species of Paectes Hübner [1818] related to Paectes arcigera (Guenée (Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, British Virgin Islands, Guadeloupe, Dominica, St. Lucia, Trinidad and P. longiformis Pogue (Brazil are described: P. asper sp. n. (Florida, Bahamas, Cuba, Cayman Islands, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, British Virgin Islands, U.S. Virgin Islands, Dominica, Colombia, P. medialba sp. n. (Argentina, P. similis sp. n. (Brazil, P. sinuosa sp. n. (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and P. tumida sp. n. (Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana. Adults and genitalia are illustrated for all species. Taxonomic changes include the rev. stat. of P. nana (Walker (Florida, Greater Antilles, Mexico, Guatemala, Galapagos as a valid species and revised synonyms P. indefatigabilis Schaus and P. isabel Schaus as junior synonyms of P. nana instead of P. arcigera. New host records for P. sinuosa and P. nana reared on Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae are presented. The holotype and female genitalia of P. obrotunda (Guenée are illustrated.

  17. Female pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alopecia in women; Baldness - female; Hair loss in women; Androgenetic alopecia in women; Hereditary balding or thinning in women ... in the skin called a follicle. In general, baldness occurs when the hair follicle shrinks over time, ...

  18. Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be due to an eating disorder, such as anorexia.Girls and women may be at risk for the female athlete triad if they:are a competitive athleteplay sports that require them to maintain a certain weight ...

  19. Inbreeding Promotes Female Promiscuity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Łukasz Michalczyk; Anna L. Millard; Oliver Y. Martin; Alyson J. Lumley; Brent C. Emerson; Tracey Chapman; Matthew J. G. Gage

    2011-01-01

    .... Using the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, we identify major fitness benefits of polyandry to females under inbreeding, when the risks of fertilization by incompatible male haplotypes are especially high...

  20. Online Female Escort Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Griffith

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Female escorts represent an occupational group that charges a fee for sex, which can be regarded as an extreme form of short-term mating. The present study examined if the fees charged by escorts are related to traits typically associated with female short-term mate value. A total of 2,925 advertisements for female escorts offering sexual services in the United States were examined, as a customized software program was used to download all the advertisements from an online escort directory. The advertisement content was coded, and relationships between advertised physical characteristics and the hourly rate charged by female escorts were examined. The analyses showed that higher fees were associated with female escorts who advertised a waist-to-hip ratio near 0.7, lower weight and body mass index, younger age, and photographic displays of breast and buttocks nudity. The findings provide evidence that evolutionarily relevant traits associated with female short-term mate value are systematically related to fees charged for sexual services.

  1. Female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    To strengthen the national framework for care of adolescents and women affected by female genital cutting (FGC) in Canada by providing health care professionals with: (1) information intended to strengthen their knowledge and understanding of the practice; (2) directions with regard to the legal issues related to the practice; (3) clinical guidelines for the management of obstetric and gynaecological care, including FGC related complications; and (4) guidance on the provision of culturally competent care to adolescents and women with FGC. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in September 2010 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., Circumcision, Female) and keywords (e.g., female genital mutilation, clitoridectomy, infibulation). We also searched Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses in 2010 and 2011. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2011. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Summary Statements 1. Female genital cutting is internationally recognized as a harmful practice and a violation of girls' and women's rights to life, physical integrity, and health. (II-3) 2. The immediate and long-term health risks and complications of female genital cutting can be serious and life threatening. (II-3) 3. Female genital cutting continues to be practised in many countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt, and Sudan. (II-3) 4. Global migration

  2. Gender Dysphoria in a 62-Year-Old Genetic Female With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Mariana Telles; Knobloch, Felícia; Silva Janovsky, Carolina C P; Kater, Claudio E

    2016-10-01

    We report a case of gender dysphoria (GD) in a 62-year-old genetic female patient, raising the pros and cons of performing corrective surgery later in life. This 46,XX DSD patient was registered and reared as a girl; CAH was diagnosed late in childhood. Poor adherence to treatment and lack of proper psychological management contributed to evident GD. Living for years as a male, the patient applied for a legitimate male identification document in his late 50s; thereafter, he requested a sex-reassignment surgery "to disguise his female body upon his death." We informed the patient and family about surgery hazards, while analytical therapy allowed the group to evaluate the actual wish for surgery. When the wish was brought up, the role of death urged the group to rethink the course of treatment. During the process, it became clear that the patient's desire for surgery, more than a wish for changing the genitalia, expressed an impulse related to issues of endorsement and acceptance of his male identity. This report raises interesting questions about sexuality in a social context and prompts the idea that sexuality is broader than sex itself, raising new questions on the psychological risks faced when considering a body change after years of living with a disorder of sex development.

  3. Psychosexual Complications of Female Genital Mutilation for Couples: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Mahmoudi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Female genital mutilation (FGM comprises of various procedures that damage female genitalia for non-therapeutic intentions, and it offers multidimensional and interdependent effects. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether FGM versus non-FGM couples in Kermanshah in Iran vary in relationship characteristics, such as relationship satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, and mental health. Methods: To achieve this goal of research, a sample of 414 couples (206 FGM couples and 208 normal couples of Uramanat area in Kermanshah Province, were selected by non-randomized sampling. Enrich Marital Inventory, 25-SCL Mental Health Inventory and the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale were used for data collection. Data were analyzed between the two groups by utilizing independent t-test. The significance level was P < 0.05. Results: The findings indicated that there was a significant difference between FGM couples and normal couples. Besides, the results revealed that the two groups of participants had significant differences in mental health, marital satisfaction, and sexual function. Overall, FGM couples compared with normal couples had lower levels of mental health, marital satisfaction, and sexual function. Conclusion: FGM is associated with frequent psychosexual difficulties in Uramanat couples; notably orgasm difficulties, sense of incomplete sexual-needs fulfillment, and neurotic symptoms. Awareness of the psychosexual effects of this operation could help women cope with psychological and psychosexual problems, and could prevent the performing of this inhuman action on others.

  4. Female physicist doctoral experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine P. Dabney

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.

  5. Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees.

  6. Stalking by females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabellese, F; La Tegola, D; Alfarano, E; Tamma, M; Candelli, C; Catanesi, R

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this review was to study "female stalking" in the sense of the specific traits characterizing the phenomenon of stalking behaviour committed by women. The main medical databases were searched (Medline, Social Science Research Network, Apa Psyc Net), and 67 articles were selected, reporting studies conducted in clinical populations, case series, reports, reviews, retrospective studies and original articles. We outline a variety of different tactics adopted by female stalkers and a lesser propensity to pass on to physical violence. Nevertheless, female stalkers are more frequently affected by erotomania, and this condition generally increases the risk of violence. If there have previously been intimate relations between the stalker and her victim, this will increase the risk of violence. In a significant proportion of female stalkers, the behavior is carried out in the occupational setting, especially in the field of psychotherapy, where the male-female ratio is reversed. No significant differences emerged between the motivations of heterosexual or homosexual stalkers. In the category of crimes of harassment committed by women, stalking, at least in Italy, seems to be among the most prominent.

  7. A large multicenter outcome study of female genital plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael P; Placik, Otto J; Benson, Royal H; Miklos, John R; Moore, Robert D; Jason, Robert A; Matlock, David L; Simopoulos, Alex F; Stern, Bernard H; Stanton, Ryan A; Kolb, Susan E; Gonzalez, Federico

    2010-04-01

    undergoing vaginal tightening/perineal support procedures. Complications were acceptable and not of major consequence. While emphasizing that these female genital plastic procedures are not performed to correct "abnormalities," as there is a wide range of normality in the external and internal female genitalia, both parous and nulliparous, many women chose to modify their vulvas and vaginas. From the results of this large study pooling data from a diverse group of experienced genital plastic surgeons, outcome in both general and sexual satisfaction appear excellent.

  8. Interval Female Sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Gretchen S; Ramesh, Shanthi S

    2018-01-01

    Female sterilization is relied on by nearly one in three women aged 35-44 years in the United States. Sterilization procedures are among the most common procedures that obstetrician-gynecologists perform. The most frequent sterilization procedures include postpartum tubal ligation, laparoscopic tubal disruption or salpingectomy, and hysteroscopic tubal occlusion. The informed consent process for sterilization is crucial and requires shared decision-making between the patient and the health care provider. Counseling should include the specific risks and benefits of the specific surgical approaches. Additionally, women should be counseled on the alternatives to sterilization, including intrauterine contraceptives and subdermal contraceptive implants. Complications, including unplanned pregnancy after successful female sterilization, are rare. The objectives of this Clinical Expert Series are to describe the epidemiology of female sterilization, access to postpartum sterilization, advances in interval sterilization techniques, and clinical considerations in caring for women requesting sterilization.

  9. CHD's Impact on Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sexual partners because they don't protect against sexually transmitted diseases, which can result in endocarditis. In addition, women with complex heart disease, cyanosis or pulmonary hypertension ...

  10. Effect of female genital mutilation on female sexual function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The global prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM) ranges from 0.6% up to 98%. It has many health psychological impacts including abnormalities of female sexual function. Objectives: To study female genital mutilation and its effect on female sexual function, Alexandria, Egypt 2013. Methods: A ...

  11. Perspectives on Female Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Janulevièienë, Rûta

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the contents of the academic evidence and debate on female entrepreneurship in the West with the current stream of research and thinking in the Central and Eastern European Countries with a view to identifying similarities and differences in thoughts and findin...

  12. Chechen Female Suicide Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    SUICIDE TERRORISM by Zane K. Crawford June 2017 Thesis Advisor: Tristan Mabry Second Reader: Thomas Johnson THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT......the 20th century. This thesis focuses on one product of this alliance: the emergence of female suicide terrorism (FST) in the first (1994–1996) and

  13. Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have a lasting effect on how strong a woman's bones are later in life. Who Gets Female Athlete Triad? Many girls have concerns about the size and shape of their bodies. But being a highly competitive athlete and participating in a sport that requires you to train extra hard can ...

  14. Female Genital Mutilation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FINEPRINT

    female genital organs for non-medical. 1 reasons . This practice is mostly carried out by traditional circumcisers, who often perform other central and crucial roles in communities, such as attending to. 1,2 childbirths . An estimated 100–140 million girls and women worldwide are currently living with the consequences of. 2,3.

  15. Female sexual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a controversial condition, which has prompted much debate regarding its aetiology, components, and even its existence. Our inability to work together as clinicians, psychologists, patients, and advocates hinders our understanding of FSD, and we will only improve...

  16. Female sexual arousal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Pfaus, James; Laan, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined in one entity.

  17. Transfiguration: A Narrative Analysis of Male-to-Female Transsexual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Jodi

    2007-01-01

    In the West, "transsexual" emerged as a narrative position (Prosser, 1998). In order to begin to understand the complex relations between the discursive formation and the dangerous lived experience of male-to-female transsexuals, in this narrative analysis, which is a part of a larger study, the author examines how male-to-female transsexual is…

  18. Reading the complex skipper butterfly fauna of one tropical place.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H Janzen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An intense, 30-year, ongoing biodiversity inventory of Lepidoptera, together with their food plants and parasitoids, is centered on the rearing of wild-caught caterpillars in the 120,000 terrestrial hectares of dry, rain, and cloud forest of Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG in northwestern Costa Rica. Since 2003, DNA barcoding of all species has aided their identification and discovery. We summarize the process and results for a large set of the species of two speciose subfamilies of ACG skipper butterflies (Hesperiidae and emphasize the effectiveness of barcoding these species (which are often difficult and time-consuming to identify. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adults are DNA barcoded by the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, Guelph, Canada; and they are identified by correlating the resulting COI barcode information with more traditional information such as food plant, facies, genitalia, microlocation within ACG, caterpillar traits, etc. This process has found about 303 morphologically defined species of eudamine and pyrgine Hesperiidae breeding in ACG (about 25% of the ACG butterfly fauna and another 44 units indicated by distinct barcodes (n = 9,094, which may be additional species and therefore may represent as much as a 13% increase. All but the members of one complex can be identified by their DNA barcodes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Addition of DNA barcoding to the methodology greatly improved the inventory, both through faster (hence cheaper accurate identification of the species that are distinguishable without barcoding, as well as those that require it, and through the revelation of species "hidden" within what have long been viewed as single species. Barcoding increased the recognition of species-level specialization. It would be no more appropriate to ignore barcode data in a species inventory than it would be to ignore adult genitalia variation or caterpillar ecology.

  19. Reading the Complex Skipper Butterfly Fauna of One Tropical Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie; Burns, John M.; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Bertrand, Claudia; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2011-01-01

    Background An intense, 30-year, ongoing biodiversity inventory of Lepidoptera, together with their food plants and parasitoids, is centered on the rearing of wild-caught caterpillars in the 120,000 terrestrial hectares of dry, rain, and cloud forest of Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. Since 2003, DNA barcoding of all species has aided their identification and discovery. We summarize the process and results for a large set of the species of two speciose subfamilies of ACG skipper butterflies (Hesperiidae) and emphasize the effectiveness of barcoding these species (which are often difficult and time-consuming to identify). Methodology/Principal Findings Adults are DNA barcoded by the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, Guelph, Canada; and they are identified by correlating the resulting COI barcode information with more traditional information such as food plant, facies, genitalia, microlocation within ACG, caterpillar traits, etc. This process has found about 303 morphologically defined species of eudamine and pyrgine Hesperiidae breeding in ACG (about 25% of the ACG butterfly fauna) and another 44 units indicated by distinct barcodes (n = 9,094), which may be additional species and therefore may represent as much as a 13% increase. All but the members of one complex can be identified by their DNA barcodes. Conclusions/Significance Addition of DNA barcoding to the methodology greatly improved the inventory, both through faster (hence cheaper) accurate identification of the species that are distinguishable without barcoding, as well as those that require it, and through the revelation of species “hidden” within what have long been viewed as single species. Barcoding increased the recognition of species-level specialization. It would be no more appropriate to ignore barcode data in a species inventory than it would be to ignore adult genitalia variation or caterpillar ecology. PMID:21857895

  20. Linfangite granulomatosa de genitália infantil: relato de caso e revisão da literatura Granulomatous lymphangitis of children's genitalia: report of a case and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Camargo Martins

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Linfangite granulomatosa de genitália não-infecciosa é causa rara de linfedema genital autolimitado e idiopático em crianças(4, 6, 9. A maioria dos casos de linfedema com granuloma não-infeccioso de genitália em pacientes jovens ocorre em associação à doença de Crohn subseqüente ou concomitante(1, 3, 4, 9. O caso relatado é de um menino de 14 anos que apresentava história de linfedema genital principalmente em região dorsal do corpo do pênis, poupando prepúcio, parte distal do pênis e saco escrotal. Estudos laboratoriais não revelavam doenças sistêmicas. O exame anatomopatológico da peça revelou tratar-se de linfangite granulomatosa não-infecciosa.Non-infectious granulomatous lymphangitis of genitalia is a rare cause of self-limited and idiopathic genital lymphoedema in children(4, 6, 9. Most cases of lymphoedema with non-infectious genital granulomas in young patients occur subsequent to or concomitant with Crohn's disease(1, 3, 4, 9. The case described is of a 14-year-old boy with history of genital lymphoedema mainly on the dorsal region of the body of the penis, sparing the prepuce, the distal part of the penis and the scrotum. Laboratory studies did not reveal systemic diseases. The histopathological analysis showed it was non-infectious granulomatous lymphangitis.

  1. The evolution of female sexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Girones, M.A.; Enquist, M.

    2001-01-01

    Females in monogamous species tend to be more sexually active than females in species with other mating systems. In this paper we consider the possibility that female sexuality has evolved because more sexually active females have received more male assistance. We develop a model in which there is

  2. Male depression in females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Yücel, Mete

    2010-02-01

    Scientific evidence for a male-typed depression ("male depression") is still limited, but mainly supports this concept with respect to single externalizing symptoms or symptom clusters. In particular, studies on non-clinical populations including males and females are lacking. The present study aims at assessing general well-being, the risk and the symptoms of male depression dependent on biological sex and gender-role orientation on instrumental (masculine) and expressive (feminine) personality traits in an unselected community sample of males and females. Students (518 males, 500 females) of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Germany, were asked to participate in a "stress study" and complete the following self-report questionnaires: the WHO-5 Well-being Index [Bech, P., 1998. Quality of Life in the Psychiatric Patient. Mosby-Wolfe, London], the Gotland Scale for Male Depression [Walinder, J., Rutz, W., 2001. Male depression and suicide. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 16 (suppl 2), 21-24] and the German Extended Personal Attribute Questionnaire [Runge, T.E., Frey, D., Gollwitzer, P.M., et al., 1981. Masculine (instrumental) and feminine (expressive) traits. A comparison between students in the United States and West Germany. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 12, 142-162]. General well-being of the students was significantly lower compared to population norms. Contrary to expectations, female students had a greater risk of male depression than male students (28.9% vs. 22.4%; pmasculinity/instrumentality significantly predicted higher risk of male depression, independent of biological sex. The study sample is not representative to the general population. Self-reports of the participants were not validated by a clinical evaluation. The results suggest that male depression might also be highly prevalent in females, at least in university students. This can be explained by a growing social acceptance of aggression in women, by a greater

  3. Female genital cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Bouchard, Celine; Shapiro, Jodi; Blake, Jennifer; Allen, Lisa; Cassell, Krista

    2013-12-01

    To provide Canadian gynaecologists with evidence-based direction for female genital cosmetic surgery in response to increasing requests for, and availability of, vaginal and vulvar surgeries that fall well outside the traditional realm of medically-indicated reconstructions. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or MEDLINE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in 2011 and 2012 using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (female genital cosmetic surgery). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to May 2012. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). Recommendations 1. The obstetrician and gynaecologist should play an important role in helping women to understand their anatomy and to respect individual variations. (III-A) 2. For women who present with requests for vaginal cosmetic procedures, a complete medical, sexual, and gynaecologic history should be obtained and the absence of any major sexual or psychological dysfunction should be ascertained. Any possibility of coercion or exploitation should be ruled out. (III-B) 3. Counselling should be a priority for women requesting female genital cosmetic surgery. Topics should include normal variation and physiological changes over the lifespan, as well as the possibility of unintended consequences of cosmetic surgery to the genital area. The lack of evidence regarding outcomes and the lack of data on the

  4. Predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae from Montenegro with new records and description of the female of Hydroporus Macedonicus Fery & Pešić, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavićević Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the aquatic beetle species of the family Dytiscidae collected from various freshwaters habitats in Montenegro. In total 39 water beetle species were collected from 56 localities in Montenegro between 2007 and 2010. Twelve species and one subspecies are reported for the first time for Montenegro: Agabus sturmii (Gyllenhal, 1808, A. paludosus (Fabricius, 1801, Deronectes moestus inconspectus (Leprieur, 1876, D. platynotus (Germar, 1834, Dytiscus circumcinctus Ahrens, 1811, D. dimidiatus Bergstrдsser, 1778, Hydroporus macedonicus Fery & Pešić, 2006, H. pubescens (Gyllenhal, 1808, Ilybius chalconatus (Panzer, 1797, I. fuliginosus fuliginosus (Fabricius, 1792, I. pseudoneglectus (Franciscolo, 1972, Liopterus haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius, 1787 and Nebrioporus luctuosus (Aubй, 1838. The female genitalia of Hydroporus macedonicus Fery & Pešić, 2006, a rare water beetle previously known only from southern Macedonia, are illustrated. The present state of knowledge of the Montenegrin diving beetle fauna and its ecological characteristics is discussed.

  5. Descriptions of a new Brazilian Tacora species and the female of T. saturata, and a key to the species of the genus (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Cicadellini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mejdalani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tacora johanni, a new species from Rondônia State, North Brazil, is described and illustrated. The new species can be recognized by the male genital features, especially the subgenital plates with the basal half distinctly expanded and with outer lateral margin round, the long and slender preapical pygofer process, and the styles with apical half strongly curved. Also, the genus is recorded for the first time from Venezuela, based on specimens of T. saturata Young, 1977, while the female of this species (here described in detail for the first time shows two unusual features of the genitalia. A key to males of all known Tacora species and a map showing the known distribution of the genus are provided.

  6. Female athletes and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malara Marzena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well documented that regular physical activity has a beneficial effect on human health by affecting the metabolic processes that are of fundamental importance in the body’s functions, such as insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal, as well as lipid and lipoprotein turnover. On the other hand, there is a wealth of studies which indicate that strenuous, regular physical activity, such as that performed by high performance athletes, may be detrimental for the athletes’ health especially in women. This review focuses on the factors that contribute to health problems in female athletes, named the female athlete triad, which includes excessive dieting, menstrual dysfunctions (anovulatory menstrual cycles, oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea and a low bone mineral density (BMD. As a result of these factors, women who participate in sports, especially those focused on leanness, need special attention and education from health professionals, coaches and the athletes themselves to prevent the detrimental effects of an inadequate energy supply against high energy demands.

  7. Female urethral dilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazi, Tony; Abou-Ghannam, Gael; Khauli, Raja

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this manuscript is to review the subject of urethral dilation (UD) in female patients and to conduct a critical appraisal of the available evidence for its use. We used an online search of electronic databases. UD has been cited as a treatment option for various conditions that do not share common etiologies and that affect the lower urinary tract in female patients. Outcome measurement was not consistent, even when performed for the same conditions. A total of six randomized controlled trials failed to prove any benefit for UD in repetitive urinary tract infections (UTI), urethral syndrome, and overactive bladder. Conflicting results and diverse opinions have characterized the use of UD until present time. Professional societies are urged to attend to this issue, and to identify possible areas where UD could be potentially investigated.

  8. Female Sexual Dysfunctions and Urogynecological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emillio Sacco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Female sexual dysfunctions are a highly prevalent and often-underestimated health problem and include disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm and sexual pain, associated with self-distress. Pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunctions is complex and still poorly understood, although it has been related to several biological, medical and psychological factors. Amongst women, urogynecological disorders such as urinary incontinence, overactive bladder syndrome, bladder pain syndrome and pelvic organ prolapse, have been found to be associated with sexual dysfunctions, although the biological and psychological bases of these associations are poorly investigated. Data on sexual function impact of these conditions come from several cross-sectional or community-based, epidemiological studies based on self-administered validated psychometric tools. This review focuses on the most relevant available evidence on the impact of urogynecological disorders and related surgical treatments on female sexual function.

  9. The enigmatic Otway odd-clawed spider (Progradungula otwayensis Milledge, 1997, Gradungulidae, Araneae: Natural history, first description of the female and micro-computed tomography of the male palpal organ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Michalik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The recently described cribellate gradungulid Progradungula otwayensis Milledge, 1997 is endemic to the Great Otway National Park (Victoria, Australia and known from only one male and a few juvenile specimens. In a recent survey we recorded 47 specimens at several localities across the western part of the Great Otway National park. Our field data suggest that this species is dependant on the microclimate in the hollows of old myrtle beech trees since other hollow trees were very much less inhabited. Furthermore, we describe the female for the first time and study the male palpal organ by using X-ray microtomography. The female genitalia are characterized by eight spermathecae which are grouped in two quartets. The spermophor resembles the general organization of gradungulids, but is similar to Kaiya Gray, 1987 by a convoluted appearance within the embolus. The muscle 30 is located in the cymbium and resembles the organization of other non-entelegyne Araneomorphae.

  10. Mathematicians, Attributional Complexity, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Daniel R.

    Given indirect indications in sex role and soda! psychology research that mathematical-deductive reasoning may negatively relate to social acuity, Study 1 investigated whether mathematicians were less attributionally complex than nonmathematicians. Study 1 administered the Attributional Complexity Scale, a measure of social acuity, to female and male faculty members and graduate students in four Midwestern schools. Atlrihutional complexity (AC) is the ability and motivation to give complex explanations for behavior. Study 1 found a significant interaction between field and gender. Only among women did mathematicians score lower on AC. In addition, an established gender difference in AC (that women score higher than men) was present only among nonmathematicians. Studies 2 and 3 offered some preliminary support for the possibility that it is generally female students who score tow on AC who aspire to he mathematicians and for the underlying view that female students' perceived similarity to mathematicians can influence their vocational choices.

  11. Females and Toxic Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    than uplifting followers. Toxic leadership plummets productivity and applies brakes to organizational growth , causing progress to screech to a halt...uplifting followers. Toxic leadership plummets productivity and applies brakes to organizational growth , causing progress to screech to a halt.”5...FEMALES AND TOXIC LEADERSHIP A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in

  12. female collegiate athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Ayers

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches, on power (vertical jump height, strength (1RM back squat, and speed (40-yard sprint in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01. However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46. Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed.

  13. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  14. Female Urethral Anomalies in Pediatric Age Group: Uncovered

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The child had normal developmental milestones. There were no other urological complaints. The child was voiding good quantity of urine. To quantify her incontinence it was around 4–5 pads/day. On examination of external genitalia revealed bifid clitoris [Figure 1]. Vagina and hymen were normal. The urethra was splayed ...

  15. The history of female ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korda, Joanna B; Goldstein, Sue W; Sommer, Frank

    2010-05-01

    The existence of female ejaculation and the female prostate is controversial; however, most scientists are not aware that historians of medicine and psychology described the phenomenon of female ejaculation approximately 2,000 years ago. To review historical literature in which female ejaculation is described. A comprehensive systematic literature review. Emission of fluid at the acme of orgasm and/or sexual pleasure in females was considered as a description of female ejaculation and therefore all documents referring to this phenomenon are included. Physicians, anatomists, and psychologists in both eastern and western culture have described intellectual concepts of female ejaculation during orgasm. In ancient Asia female ejaculation was very well known and mentioned in several Chinese Taoist texts starting in the 4th century. The ancient Chinese concept of female ejaculation as independent of reproduction was supported by ancient Indian writings. First mentioned in a 7th century poem, female ejaculation and the Gräfenberg spot (G-spot) are described in detail in most works of the Kāmaśāstra. In ancient Western writings the emission of female fluid is mentioned even earlier, depicted about 300 B.C. by Aristotle and in the 2nd century by Galen. Reinjier De Graaf in the 16th century provided the first scientific description of female ejaculation and was the first to refer to the periurethral glands as the female prostate. This concept was held by other scientists during the following centuries through 1952 A.D. when Ernst Gräfenberg reported on "The role of the urethra in female orgasm. Current research provides insight into the anatomy of the female prostate and describes female ejaculation as one of its functions. Credible evidence exists among different cultures that the female prostate and female ejaculation have been discovered, described and then forgotten over the last 2,000 years.

  16. De morseir syndrome presenting as ambiguous genitalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Thukral

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A 10-year-old boy presented with genital ambiguity, poor linear growth, and delayed milestones. The aim and to highlight that although rare but congenital, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism may rarely present as ambiguity. Materials and Methods: The patient was found to have bilateral cryptorchidism with proximal penile hypospadias, microphallus with a proportionate dwarfism with mildly delayed bone age, and karyotype 46XY. Euthyroid with normal steroid axis, growth hormone insufficient as suggested by auxology, low IGF1, and poor response to clonidine stimulation. MRI brain shows hypoplastic corpus callosum, hypoplastic anterior pituitary, and ectopic posterior pituitary bright spot. Results: The patient underwent laparoscopic removal of right intrabdominal testis and orchidoplexy was performed on the left one. Testicular biopsy revealed no malignancy and growth hormone replacement was initiated. The patient awaits definitive repair of hypospadias. Conclusion: As a provisional diagnosis of combined growth hormone and gonadotropin deficiency, most probable diagnosis is septo-optic dysplasia or de moseir syndrome leading to genital ambiguity.

  17. Autoamputation of Genitalia in Bipolar Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to literature, genital self-mutilation (GSM is more commonly associated with psychosis as compared with self-mutilation as a whole. There have been many case reports of GSM in psychotic disorders. We describe herein a case of a Caucasian, employed, and married male suffering from bipolar disorder type II with history of self-mutilating behavior, who amputated his penis during symptom-free phase of his illness. Several features are reflected as risky elements for genital self-mutilation, for example, homosexual and transsexual tendencies, abandonment of the male genitals, lack of competent male for identification during childhood, feeling of guilt for sexual offences, and self-injuries in anamnesis. This report will highlight various factors responsible for self-mutilation in nonpsychotic and nondelusional person.

  18. Self mutilation of genitalia-using teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, Ugur; Gulacti, Umut; Benlioglu, Can; Buyukaslan, Hasan; Aktas, Nurettin

    2014-02-01

    Genital self-mutilation (GSM) is an uncommon self-inflicted injury, and rarely do self-mutilations have a serious nature. GSM is not a single clinical entity, and it can occur in any psychiatric state or condition. The instruments that are used for self-mutilation can vary, and treatment of these injuries requires a detailed clinical evaluation and multi disciplinary approach. We report here a case report about a 22-year-old mentally retarded man who referred to our emergency service for bloody vomitting by his family members. To our knowledge this is the first such case reported in literature as of injury technique.

  19. [Human papillomavirus infection in male genitalia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Garfias, R; Villarreal Peral, C; Juárez Azpilcueta, A

    1995-10-01

    A prospective and transversal study in 100 patients since January to December of 1994, was done, to know the human papiloma virus infection prevalence in male genitals. The patients were studied by a clinical history, genital area colposcopic revision after acetic acid 5% application, biopsy of the lesion and histopathology study. The patients age was among 16 to 71 years old, with a media of 38.8 years old. The sexual activity beginning was from 12 to 27 years old, with an average of 18 years old. Forty one percent of the patients have had sexual relations with prostitutes, 26% have had sexually transmitted diseases, 9% of the patients referred only 1 sexual mate and 82% had human papiloma virus infection.

  20. India bans female feticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Z

    1994-08-13

    About 70% of all abortions performed in Delhi, India, are terminations due to the fetus being female. Private clinics make a profit out of offering sex determination tests. The new bill (the Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques Bill) introduced in Lok Sabha by Deputy Health Minister Pawan Singh Ghatowatr would stop "sex determination shops" from helping parents and medical practitioners terminate female pregnancies. Prenatal diagnostic tests would be administered only to detect genetic and congenital abnormalities. Physicians would not be allowed to reveal the sex of the fetus unless it was linked to a sex disorder. Women's rights groups have campaigned for such a bill that forbids prenatal sex determination. Abortions based on the sex of the fetus are currently banned under Article 14 and 15 of the Indian Constitution as a violation of women's rights. The new bill would punish doctors who offer to identify the sex of the fetus by taking their names off the official medical register and imprisoning them for 3 years and fining them 10,000 rupees or 200 pounds. Pregnant women who undergo tests would also be punished with the same fine and prison term. Dr. Geeta Dwivedi, a medical physician with the Lucknow branch of the India Family Planning Association, reported that few tests are conducted for the sake of the health and well-being of the fetus. Female feticide is practiced because girls are viewed as an economic burden due to dowry practices and male children are valued for old age support and carrying on the family trade. The sex ratio in India is 927 women to 1000 men. The problem with the new legislation is enforcement, which would require oversight of as many as 2000 clinics in Delhi alone. It is anticipated that clinics would be uncooperative in complying with such a law because their self-interest is at stake.

  1. Antioxidants for female subfertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showell, Marian G; Mackenzie-Proctor, Rebecca; Jordan, Vanessa; Hart, Roger J

    2017-07-28

    A couple may be considered to have fertility problems if they have been trying to conceive for over a year with no success. This may affect up to a quarter of all couples planning a child. It is estimated that for 40% to 50% of couples, subfertility may result from factors affecting women. Antioxidants are thought to reduce the oxidative stress brought on by these conditions. Currently, limited evidence suggests that antioxidants improve fertility, and trials have explored this area with varied results. This review assesses the evidence for the effectiveness of different antioxidants in female subfertility. To determine whether supplementary oral antioxidants compared with placebo, no treatment/standard treatment or another antioxidant improve fertility outcomes for subfertile women. We searched the following databases (from their inception to September 2016) with no language or date restriction: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group (CGFG) specialised register, the Cochrane Central Register of Studies (CENTRAL CRSO), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and AMED. We checked reference lists of appropriate studies and searched for ongoing trials in the clinical trials registers. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared any type, dose or combination of oral antioxidant supplement with placebo, no treatment or treatment with another antioxidant, among women attending a reproductive clinic. We excluded trials comparing antioxidants with fertility drugs alone and trials that only included fertile women attending a fertility clinic because of male partner infertility. Two review authors independently selected eligible studies, extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. The primary review outcome was live birth; secondary outcomes included clinical pregnancy rates and adverse events. We pooled studies using a fixed-effect model, and calculated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the dichotomous

  2. Female Athletes Facing Discrimination: Curriculum Regarding Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palis, Regina

    There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…

  3. Tradition Versus Female Circumcision: A Study Of Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Female circumcision is a culturally sanctioned tradition practiced in many Africa countries and has deleterious consequences on women's health, sexuality and fertility. Objective: To determine the extent of the practice and factors that influence decisions on female circumcision. Methods: The first 700 female ...

  4. Do (Female) Founders Influence (Female) Joiners to Become Founders too?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Female founders are scarce, certainly those employing personnel. Do (female) founders affect the likelihood of (female) joiners to become founders too? Recent research demonstrates that joiners are more sensitive to contextual influences than founders. Joining a startup could provide a context to...

  5. Epidemiology, Regional Characteristics, Knowledge, and Attitude Toward Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting in Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghankhalili, Maryam; Fallahi, Soghra; Mahmudi, Forugh; Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz; Shahrzad, Mohammad Esmaeil; Taghavi, Mohsen; Fereydooni Asl, Marjan

    2015-07-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), also known as female circumcision, is an ancient traditional procedure that involves partial or total removal of the female external genitalia for nonmedical reasons. Although it is well described in African and some Arabic countries, data from Iran are scarce. To describe the epidemiology, regional characteristics, knowledge, and attitude toward FGM/C in Southern Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted during a 36-month period from 2010 to 2013 in Hormozgan, a southern province of Iran near the Persian Gulf. We included 780 women in six major rural areas of the province who referred to healthcare centers for vaccination, midwifery, or family planning services. All participants underwent complete pelvic examination to determine the type of FGM. The questionnaire consisted of several sections such as demographic and baseline characteristics, and two self-report sections addressing the knowledge and attitude toward FGM/C and its complications. Baseline sociodemographic characteristics including age, educational level, marital status, religion, and nationality were the independent variables. Among the participants, 535 (68.5%) had undergone FGM/C. FGM/C was associated with higher age (P = 0.002), Afghan nationality (P = 0.003), Sunni Islam as religion (P = 0.019), illiteracy (P family history of FGM/C in mother (P traditions in the area (57.1%) were mentioned as the most important factor leading to FMG/C. Urinary tract infection was the most common reported complication (60.4%). FGM/C is a common practice in rural areas of Southern Iran. It is associated with increased age, illiteracy, Sunni Islam religion, Afghan nationality, and positive family history. Lack of knowledge toward FGM/C is the main cause of its high prevalence and continuation in the area. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. Managing female sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buster, John E

    2013-10-01

    Female sexual dysfunctions (FSDs) range from short-term aggravations to major emotional disturbances adversely affecting family and workplace. This review highlights diagnosis and management of the four most widely diagnosed FSDs. It initially focuses on hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) as a driving force at the heart of all other FSDs; nothing happens without sexual desire. Successful resolution of HSDD frequently facilitates resolution of other disorders. Central to understanding HSDD is the impact of aging female sexual endocrinology and its effect on both prevalence and expression patterns of FSD. Advances in this field have enabled introduction of some the most effective treatments yet described for HSDD. Sexual arousal disorder, though commonly affected by the same factors as HSDD, is heavily associated with psychotropic drugs and mood elevators. Orgasmic disorder is frequently the downstream result of other sexual dysfunctions, particularly HSDD, or the result of a major psychosexual trauma. Successful management of the underlying disorder often resolves orgasmic disorder. Sexual pain disorder is frequently the result of a gynecologic disorder, such as endometriosis, that can be substantially managed through successful treatment of that disorder. This article ends with the article's most important note: how to initiate the conversation. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The prune belly syndrome in a female foetus with urorectal septum malformation sequence: a case report on a rare entity with an unusual association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Dibyajyoti; Kusre, Giriraj; Dutta, Hemonta Kumar; Sarma, Adity

    2013-08-01

    The prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly which is characterized by the triad of an absent or a deficient development of the abdominal muscle, bilateral cryptorchidism and an anomalous urinary tract. In its full form, this condition occurs only in males. However, a similar condition occurs in females in the absence of cryptorchidism. On the other hand, the urorectal septum malformation sequence is a lethal congenital malformation which is characterized by the development of a phallus like structure, a smooth perineum and the absence of urethral, vaginal and anal openings. We are reporting a case of a female foetus with the prune belly syndrome, which was associated with a urorectal septum malformation sequence. A dead foetus with a protruded abdomen and ambiguous genitalia, was born at 32 weeks of pregnancy. On autopsy, it was found to have female internal genital organs. The left kidney, the urinary bladder and the rectum were absent. The sigmoid colon, the ureters and the fallopian tubes opened into a common cloacal sac. The histopathological examination of the ovary showed the presence of Leydig's cells. The occurrence of the female counterpart of the prune belly syndrome is extremely rare and only few of such cases were found to be discussed in the details in the indexed English literature so far. Hence, we hope that this case report will contribute to the existing knowledge on the prune belly syndrome.

  8. The risk of female genital cutting in Europe: Comparing immigrant attitudes toward uncut girls with attitudes in a practicing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Sonja; Efferson, Charles; Fehr, Ernst

    2017-12-01

    Worldwide, an estimated 200 million girls and women have been subjected to female genital cutting. Female genital cutting is defined as an intentional injury to the female genitalia without medical justification. The practice occurs in at least 29 countries in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. In addition, globalization and migration have brought immigrants from countries where cutting is commonly practiced to countries where cutting is not traditionally practiced and may even be illegal. In countries receiving immigrants, governments and development agencies would like to know if girls with parents who immigrated from practicing countries are at risk of being cut. Risk assessments, for example, could help governments identify the need for programs promoting the abandonment of cutting among immigrants. Extrapolating from the prevalence and incidence rates in practicing countries, however, is generally not sufficient to guarantee a valid estimate of risk in immigrant populations. In particular, immigrants might differ from their counterparts in the country of origin in terms of attitudes toward female genital cutting. Attitudes can differ because migrants represent a special sample of people from the country of origin or because immigrants acculturate after arriving in a new country. To examine these possibilities, we used a fully anonymous, computerized task to elicit implicit attitudes toward female genital cutting among Sudanese immigrants living in Switzerland and Sudanese people in Sudan. Results show that Sudanese immigrants in Switzerland were significantly more positive about uncut girls than Sudanese in Sudan, and that selective migration out of Sudan likely contributed substantially to this difference. We conclude by suggesting how our method could potentially be coupled with recent efforts to refine extrapolation methods for estimating cutting risk among immigrant populations. More broadly, our results highlight the need to better understand how

  9. Female Sexual Arousal Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H; Pfaus, James

    2012-01-01

    Introduction.  Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined...... in one entity. Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a new entity which is suggested to be defined as Restless Genital Syndrome. Aims.  The aims of this brief review are to give definitions of the different types of FSAD, describe their aetiology, prevalence and comorbidity with somatic...... and psychological disorders, as well as to discuss different medical and psychological assessment and treatment modalities. Methods.  The experts of the International Society for Sexual Medicine's Standard Committee convened to provide a survey using relevant databases, journal articles, and own clinical experience...

  10. Human female meiosis revised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capalbo, Antonio; Hoffmann, Eva R.; Cimadomo, Danilo

    2017-01-01

    in the female germline is a crucial step towards the development of new diagnostic approaches and, possibly, for the development of therapeutic targets and molecules. Here, we have reviewed emerging mechanisms that may drive human aneuploidy, in particular the maternal age effect. SEARCH METHODS We conducted...... a systematic search in PubMed Central of the primary literature from 1990 through 2016 following the PRISMA guidelines, using MeSH terms related to human aneuploidy. For model organism research, we conducted a literature review based on references in human oocytes manuscripts and general reviews related...... to chromosome segregation in meiosis and mitosis. OUTCOMES Advances in genomic and imaging technologies are allowing unprecedented insight into chromosome segregation in human oocytes. This includes the identification of a novel chromosome segregation error, termed reverse segregation, as well as sister...

  11. Sensate Vagina Pedicled-Spot for Male-to-Female Transsexuals: The Experience in the First 50 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanhai, Robert C J

    2016-04-01

    The cosmetic and functional results of vaginoplasty by inversion of penile and scrotal skin in male-to-female transsexuals are, in general, satisfactory. The sexual arousal function of the neo-female genitalia depends mainly on the clitoris. Due to the lack of a sexual arousal organ within the neo-vagina, patients are denied sexual arousal during penetration of the neo-vagina. This necessitated improvement of sexual innervation within the neo-vagina. A new technique to create a sexual arousal organ in the anterior wall of the neo-vagina by creation of a sensate pedicled-spot, in combination with the neo-clitoroplasty. In this paper, this new technique and part of the long-term results in the first 50 patients with a sensate pedicled-spot plasty are presented and discussed. Sensate pedicled-spot plasty has proven to be a safe innovative technique which lead to adequate sexual functionality in all patients. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  12. Successful Surgical Management of Giant Condyloma Acuminatum (Buschke Lowenstein Tumor) in the Urethra of a Female Patient: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordsiek, Michael; Ross, Curtis; Metro, Michael

    2015-05-01

    The Buschke-Lowenstein tumor (BLT) is a slow-growing, locally destructive verrucous plaque that typically appears on the penis but may occur elsewhere in the anogenital region. It most commonly is considered to be a regional variant of verrucous carcinoma. It is rare but accounts for 5-24% of all penile cancers. It can also affect the perineum and other portions of the genitalia. It was first described by Buschke and Löwenstein in 1925, and is also known as giant condyloma acuminatum (GCA). Regardless of the treatment modality, careful follow-up is recommended because of the high risk of recurrence and the possibility for malignant transformation in 30-56% of patients. We present a case of a 47-year-old Hispanic female that presented to the urology clinic for dysuria and upon work-up was found to have a GCA. GCA typically affects the penis, although the perianal region, vulva, vagina, rectum, scrotum, perineum and bladder may be involved. To date, we believe this is the only reported case of GCA in the urethra of a female patient with sparing of the bladder. This lesion was successfully removed with wide local excision. We believe that further studies are needed to define this disease, identify its pathogenesis, and the most successful treatment protocol.

  13. Female Genital Mutilation in Sierra Leone: Forms, Reliability of Reported Status, and Accuracy of Related Demographic and Health Survey Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owolabi Bjälkander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine forms of female genital mutilation (FGM, assess consistency between self-reported and observed FGM status, and assess the accuracy of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS FGM questions in Sierra Leone. Methods. This cross-sectional study, conducted between October 2010 and April 2012, enrolled 558 females aged 12–47 from eleven antenatal clinics in northeast Sierra Leone. Data on demography, FGM status, and self-reported anatomical descriptions were collected. Genital inspection confirmed the occurrence and extent of cutting. Results. All participants reported FGM status; 4 refused genital inspection. Using the WHO classification of FGM, 31.7% had type Ib; 64.1% type IIb; and 4.2% type IIc. There was a high level of agreement between reported and observed FGM prevalence (81.2% and 81.4%, resp.. There was no correlation between DHS FGM responses and anatomic extent of cutting, as 2.7% reported pricking; 87.1% flesh removal; and 1.1% that genitalia was sewn closed. Conclusion. Types I and II are the main forms of FGM, with labia majora alterations in almost 5% of cases. Self-reports on FGM status could serve as a proxy measurement for FGM prevalence but not for FGM type. The DHS FGM questions are inaccurate for determining cutting extent.

  14. "Eu não preciso falar que eu sou branca, cara, eu sou Latina!" Ou a complexidade da identificação racial na ideologia de ativistas jovens (nãobrancas "I do not have to say that I am white, man, I am Latina!" Or the complexity of racial identification in the ideology of (nonwhite, young, female activists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieuwertje Dyi Huijg

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo procuro explorar a complexidade do processo de formação da identidade racial de mulheres, jovens ativistas (nãobrancas em São Paulo. Levando em conta a interação do indivíduo com o mundo social, distingue-se a identidade racial apropriada da atribuída e a identidade racial individual da coletiva. Isso requer atenção para o papel da posição social racial, com as subsequentes vantagens raciais, para os sentimentos da ativista neste processo e para a influência mútua da heterogeneidade de identidade racial, do deslocamento da identidade racial e, por conseguinte, do papel da formação de identidade como estratégia de ideologia e práxis ativista.In this article, I explore the complexity of racial identity formation of (nonwhite, young, female activists in São Paulo. Taking into account the interaction of the individual with the social world, one must distinguish between appropriated and attributed racial identities, as well as individual and collective identities. This requires attention to the role of racial social position and its subsequent racial advantages, to the feelings of activists about this process, and to the mutual influence of the heterogeneity of racial identity, the displacement of racial identity and, consequently, the role of identity formation as a strategy of activist ideology and praxis.

  15. Complex Narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.; Buckland, W.

    2014-01-01

    In the opening chapter, "Complex Narratives," Jan Simons brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. He presents an overview of the different concepts - forking path narratives, mind-game films,

  16. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  17. The tiger-beetles of “hybrida”-species group (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae. III. A taxonomic review of the Iberian Cicindela lagunensis Gautier, 1872 complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matalin, A. V.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available On the base of morphological as well as male’s and female’s genitalia peculiarities of four subspecies of the Iberian tiger beetle Cicindela lagunensis Gautier, 1872 (according to Gebert, 1995 their taxonomic status is discussed. There are three separate species which habitat in the Iberian Peninsula: C. lagunensis, C. iberica Mandl, 1935, stat. nov. and C. lusitanica Mandl, 1935, bona spec., stat. nov. C. lusitanica includes two subspecies: C. l. lusitanica Mandl, 1935 and C. l. silvaticoides W. Horn, 1937 comb. nov. The lectotypus and paralectotypus of Cicindela (s. str. hybrida silvaticoides W. Horn, 1937 were designated. Morphological characters and genitalia of both sexes are described. The geographic distribution is given. The results of phylogenetic analysis are discussed. The Iberian species of “lagunensis”-complex make a monophyletic group with C. hybrida Linnaeus, 1758, and this group has a sister group which was made up by C. sahlbergii Fischer von Waldheim, 1824 and other related species. A key for identify the Iberian species of “lagunensis”-complex is given.Se discute el estatus taxonómico de cuatro subespecies de Cicindela lagunensis Gautier, 1872 (sensu Gebert, 1995 sobre la base tanto de la morfología externa como de las características de las genitalias masculina y femenina. En la Península Ibérica viven tres especies de Cicindela: C. lagunensis, C. iberica Mandl, 1935, stat. nov. y C. lusitanica Mandl, 1935, bona spec., stat. nov. Cidindela lusitanica incluye dos subespecies: C. l. lusitanica Mandl, 1935 y C. l. silvaticoides W. Horn, 1937 comb. nov. Se designan lectotipo y paralectotipos de Cicindela (s. str. hybrida silvaticoides W. Horn, 1937; se describen los caracteres morfológicos y la genitalia de ambos sexos y se proporciona la distribución geográfica de la subespecie. El análisis filogenético muestra que las especies ibéricas del complejo “lagunensis” constituyen un grupo monofilético junto

  18. CERN's first female firefighter

    CERN Document Server

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, the women's changing room in the Fire Station, built in 2005, has always been empty. With the arrival of Séverine Peverelly, CERN's first female firefighter, it now has a purpose. Séverine Peverelly took up her post as a firefighter in April. Séverine, who comes from Gap in France, took up her post as a firefighter in the CERN fire brigade at the beginning of April. "We were looking for a new member," explains David Peyron, Head of the Fire and Rescue Service. It didn't matter if it was a man or a woman; we needed a firefighter with the right skills, and Séverine just happened to have them." With ten years experience working in French fire services, Séverine was looking for a new challenge. "What attracted me to CERN was the international dimension, because that creates additional challenges," she explains. And these can be considerable! For one thing, every country has its own way of worki...

  19. Endocrinology of female puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiVall, Sara A; Radovick, Sally

    2009-02-01

    Puberty is the developmental process that culminates in reproductive capability. It is initiated by the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone from specialized neurons of the hypothalamus to stimulate hormonal cascades and gonadal activation. The age of pubertal onset in girls may be younger than in previous decades, emphasizing the gaps in knowledge about pubertal onset and factors that modulate it. This review describes the state of the debate on the age of pubertal initiation, recent insights into the physiology of female puberty and its relationship to childhood obesity, and the regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons at puberty. Recent studies suggest that the average age of pubertal onset is decreasing in American girls, sparking controversy in defining the age at which puberty is considered precocious. Obese girls have hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenemia prepubertally, but it is unclear whether these factors play a role in the early onset of puberty in obese girls. The kisspeptin/G protein-coupled receptor 54 pathway is important for pubertal initiation; an activating mutation in the pathway has been associated with precocious puberty. The recent trend toward obesity has been proposed to play a role in the cause of early puberty in girls. The molecular mechanisms that initiate puberty are slowly being elucidated, with the discovery of kisspeptin prompting a novel direction in reproductive research.

  20. Female orgasmic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Clifton, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Female orgasmic disorder (FOD) is defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, as a persistent or recurrent delay in, or absence of, orgasm following a 'normal' sexual excitement phase. FOD is a common problem affecting sexual function in a substantial proportion of women. Studies suggest that it is prevalent in 11-41% of women worldwide and can have a tremendous impact on the individual's quality of life, relational satisfaction and general well-being. The etiology of FOD tends to be multifactorial as it relates to genetics, medical conditions, medications, alcohol and drug use, other sexual dysfunctions, mental illness, life stressors, communication deficits and relationship issues. It is critical that sexual functioning in patients is assessed frequently through interview and/or validated questionnaires to aid in treatment strategy and/or referral. Currently, there are no approved medications to treat FOD. However, there are medications and psychological treatments that have shown promise in either treating FOD or thwarting the side effects of medications that can cause FOD. This chapter discusses the epidemiology and etiology of FOD and provides a comprehensive critical review of the literature on assessment and treatment of FOD. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. A female mass murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsavdakis, Kostas A; Meloy, J Reid; White, Stephen G

    2011-05-01

    A case study of a 44-year-old woman who committed a mass murder is presented. Following a chronic course of psychotic deterioration, and a likely diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia that remained untreated, she returned to her workplace after 3 years from her termination and killed seven people and herself. Her history is reconstructed through investigation of primary and secondary source materials. Although there are very few female mass murderers in recorded criminal history, this case is quite similar to the known research on mass murderers in general. Such individuals often have a psychotic disorder evident in violent and paranoid delusions, show a deteriorating life course before the mass murder, intentionally plan and prepare for their assault, and methodically kill as many individuals as possible before taking their own lives. They typically do not directly threaten the target beforehand, but do leak their intent to third parties--however, in this case, leakage and other obvious warning behaviors did not occur. Such acts are impossible to predict but depend on threat management and target security for risk mitigation. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. [The neurophysiology of the female orgasm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigue, S; Bianchi-Demicheli, F

    2006-03-22

    The way women experience orgasm during passionate sexual activity has been of interest throughout the ages. The astonishing advances of functional imaging techniques recently allowed unravelling the neuroanatomy of female orgasm within a distributed corticosubcortical neural network. In the present article, we review the clinical and experimental evidence that attributes orgasm not only a peripheral but also a central origin. We thus outline the importance of integrating orgasm as a complex process involving the entire woman, mind and body. In light of this, future studies in female sexuality would need to take account of the consequences of both standard approaches in sexology and functional imaging results in the understanding of the human sexual function and in the treatment of sexual dysfunctions.

  3. Sensationalising the female pudenda: an examination of public communication of aesthetic genital surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashong, Ashong C; Batta, Herbert E

    2012-12-26

    We live in a society where beauty and sensations are important. Advances in medical technologies have brought on waves of new notions of beauty where commercial interests both in the media and the health industry spurred by fashion, advertising and celebrity promotion have tended to popularise body modifications and enhancements. In recent times, through offerings on cable television channels and glossy consumer magazines, medical procedures hitherto only in the precincts of medical schools, gyneacological clinics and medical journals have now pervaded the population. More seriously, on the Internet particularly, medical experts now offer services and graphic details of labiaplasty, clitoral hood reduction or enhancement, vaginal rejuvenation, etc. Here, we examine the public communication of the phenomenon of aesthetic genital surgery and interrogate thus; is it decent, honest, balanced and ethical? Relying on textual analysis, personal observation and literature review for data gathering, we observe that besides tending to commercialise and medicalise the female genitalia, a coalescence of medical, advertising and fashion interests as played out in the media sensationalises the benign science of plastic surgery and robs it of its truthfulness, genuineness, and purposefulness. The conclusion is that in Africa, where the effect of the development crises is telling, the hype surrounding cosmetic or aesthetic genital surgery is a damaging distraction particularly when the continent is waging a battle against female genital mutilation. The recommendations are that media and medical regulatory bodies should impress it upon media and medical industry operators that glaring commercial promotions of cosmetic genital surgery in the public media be checked, and that such communication should bear equal weight of facts related to risks, short comings, complications, and threats; in physical, social, and psychological terms.

  4. Laparotomy for female infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, T; Debdas, A K

    1980-05-01

    Laparotomy continues to be the only method available in India for dealing with female infertility. 45 consecutive cases of laparotomy for infertility were collected from among the new and follow-up patients who attended the Gynecological and Antenatal Clinic of Telco Maternity Hospital, Jamshedpur, India over the January 1977 to April 1979 period. Neither human pituitary gonadotropin nor ergobromocryptine were used in this unit. Only clomiphene citrate was used for treatment of infrequent ovulation. None of the patients had prior laparoscopy. All patients taken for laparotomy had transcervical dye test and transuterine injection of saline to check the tubal patency. All patients had healthy husbands. The proportion of primary and secondary infertility in this series was 62.22% and 37.77%, respectively. The single major indication for laparotomy was bilaterally blocked tubes on hysterosalpingogram which was present in 20 cases. Among other indications infrequent ovulation (with or without bilaterally enlarged ovaries) was present in 10 (22.2%) cases. All the 10 patients had clomiphene citrate in the usual regimen for 3 consecutive cycles in increasing doses up to 150 mg a day but without success. In terms of laparotomy findings, in no case was there any evidence of tuberculosis or pelvic endometriosis (apart from the case who had chocolate cyst). In all the 3 cases where the only abnormality was peritubal adhesions preoperative hysterosalpingograms were normal and in all of them laparotomy was performed as a final method of investigation. Of the 12 cases who showed bilateral cornual block in preoperative hysterosalpingogram, tubal patency tests at laparotomy showed unilateral blockage in 4 and no blockage at all in another 4. Of the 13 cases where no lesion was found, the indication of laparotomy was bilateral cornual block (4 cases) and in 9 cases it was performed simply as a method of investigation. In 10 of the 45 cases, the ovaries appeared to be like those

  5. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.

  6. Female urinary incontinence rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Benedetto, P

    2004-08-01

    Pelvic floor rehabilitation (PFR) is an important and recommended strategy for the treatment of many urogynecological disorders including urinary incontinence (UI). The recognised pioneer of PFR is the American gynecologist Arnold Kegel who, over 50 years ago, proposed pelvic floor muscle exercises (PFME) to prevent and/or treat female UI. Kegel's techniques were successfully used by others too, but as the years passed these techniques sank into unjustified oblivion. In the 1980s in Europe the medical world's interest in PFME techniques gained ground, contemporaneously with functional electrical stimulation (FES) and biofeedback (BFB). As a general rule, the least invasive and least dangerous procedure for the patient should be the first choice, and behavioural and rehabilitative techniques should be considered as the first line of therapy for UI. The behavioural approaches in women with UI and without cognitive deficits are tailored to the patient's underlying problem, such as bladder training or retraining (BR) for urge UI. BR has many variations but generally consists of education, scheduled voiding, and positive reinforcements. The rehabilitative approaches comprise BFB, FES, PFME, and vaginal cones (VC). BFB allows the subject to modify the unconscious physiological events, while FES is aimed at strengthening perineal awareness, increasing the tone and trophism of the pelvic floor, and inhibiting detrusor overactivity. PFME play an extremely important role in the conservative treatment of UI and overactive bladder, and many studies have demonstrated their effectiveness. Many authors have used the different methods for PFR in a heterogeneous manner: the best results were obtained when protocols requiring the contemporary use of 2 or more techniques were followed.

  7. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Taurodontism in 45,X females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varrela, J; Alvesalo, L; Mayhall, J

    1990-02-01

    Orthopantomograms of 87 45,X females, 61 first-degree female relatives of these females, and a population sample of 113 normal females and 44 normal males were examined for the occurrence of taurodontism in mandibular molars. In the sample of 45,X females, two showed taurodont lower molars. In one of them, a hypotaurodont second molar was detected, while hypotaurodont third molars were found in the other. Three of the females' relatives and four of the population control females showed taurodontism, three unilaterally and four bilaterally. In all cases, the affected teeth were hypotaurodont. The results suggest that taurodontism occurs in 45,X females with a frequency similar to that in normal females. This result is not in accordance with the hypothesis that low mitotic activity of the chromosomally abnormal cells is an etiological factor in the development of taurodontism. The present findings, together with earlier results, suggest that the gene content of the X chromosome, rather than the amount of heterochromatin, is the cause of taurodontism in individuals with chromosome aneuploidy.

  9. Male and Female Viewpoints on Female Circumcision in Ekpeye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and ninety five male and female volunteers across the social strata were interviewed using structured questionnaire. Data were analysed using frequency tables. The study revealed that 74.7% of female respondents were circumcised. They believe that the practice would help prevent sexual promiscuity, curb ...

  10. carbene complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Reaction of oligomeric Cu(I) complexes [Cu{µ-S-C(=NR)(O–Ar–CH3)}]n with Lewis acids gave Cu(I) carbene complexes, which were characterized by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Cu(I) car- bene complexes could be directly generated from RNCS, Cu(I)–OAr and Lewis acids; this method can be used to ...

  11. Appendix mucocele mimicking a complex ovarian cyst

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Demirci, Rojbin Karakoyun; Habibi, Mani; Karakaş, Barış Rafet; Buluş, Hakan; Akkoca, Muzaffer; Öner, Osman Zekai

    2015-01-01

    .... This study describes the case of a 26-year-old female for whom surgical intervention for a complex ovarian cyst was planned, but who instead underwent laparoscopic appendectomy because appendiceal...

  12. Female genital mutilation: prevalence, perceptions and effect on women's health in Kersa district of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremichael MW

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Wondimu Shanko Yirga1,2, Nega Assefa Kassa2, Mengistu Welday Gebremichael2, Arja R Aro31University of Southern Denmark, Faculty of Health Sciences, Esbjerg, Denmark; 2Haramaya University College of Health Sciences, Harar, Ethiopia; 3University of Southern Denmark, Unit for Health Promotion Research, Esbjerg, DenmarkBackground: Female genital mutilation (FGM is nontherapeutic surgical modification of the female genitalia. It is an ancient tradition in large parts of Africa, including Ethiopia, especially in the eastern part of the country. This study aimed to identify the prevalence, perceptions, perpetuators, reasons for conducting FGM, and factors associated with this practice with regard to women's health.Methods: Community-based cross-sectional house-to-house interviews were conducted during 2008 among 858 females of reproductive age (15–49 years, in Kersa district, East Hararge, Oromia region, Ethiopia. Proportions and Chi-square tests were used to describe the data and logistic regression was used to describe statistical associations. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.Results: FGM was reported to be known by 327 (38.5% of the interviewees. The majority (n = 249, 76.1% reported that local healers were the main performers of FGM, and 258 (78.9% respondents stated that the clitoris was the part removed during circumcision. The main reason for the practice of FGM was reduction of female sexual hyperactivity (reported by 198 women [60.3%]. Circumcision of daughters was reported by 288 (88.1% respondents, and this showed a statistically significant association with the Christian religion (P = 0.003, illiteracy (P = 0.01, and Amhara ethnicity (P = 0.012. The majority of the respondents (792, 92.3% were themselves circumcised and 68.8% did not know of any health-related problems associated with FGM.Conclusion: In spite of FGM being a common practice in the study area, only one third of the respondents stated that they knew about it

  13. Offender and victim characteristics of registered female sexual offenders in Texas: a proposed typology of female sexual offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandiver, Donna M; Kercher, Glen

    2004-04-01

    Victim and offender characteristic of all registered adult female sexual offenders in Texas (N = 471) were examined. The most common offenses the females were arrested for were indecency with a child--sexual contact, sexual assault on a child, and aggravated sexual assault on a child. The majority (88%) of the females were Caucasian and the ages ranged from 18 to 77 (M = 32). The results of Hierarchical Loglinear Modeling yielded a complex relationship between offender and victim characteristics; thus, identification of preferred victims is mitigated by more than one variable. Additionally, the employment of cluster analysis yielded 6 types of female sexual offenders. The most common group includes 146 offenders, heterosexual nurturers. They were the least likely to have an arrest for a sexual assault. The victims were males who averaged 12 years of age. The other types of offenders included, noncriminal homosexual offenders, female sexual predators, young adult child exploiters, homosexual criminals, and aggressive homosexual offenders.

  14. Computational Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tenreiro Machado

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex systems (CS involve many elements that interact at different scales in time and space. The challenges in modeling CS led to the development of novel computational tools with applications in a wide range of scientific areas. The computational problems posed by CS exhibit intrinsic difficulties that are a major concern in Computational Complexity Theory. [...

  15. Complex narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. It interrogates the different terms - forking-path narratives, mind-game films, modular narratives, multiple-draft films, database narratives,

  16. Communication Complexity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaikumar Radhakrishnan

    Communication complexity. Strategy I. Alice x ∈ {0, 1}n. ⇒. ⇐. Bob y ∈ {0, 1}n. Naive strategy. Alice sends x to Bob. Bob tells Alice if x = y. Cost. Requires n + 1 bits of communication. Jaikumar Radhakrishnan. Communication Complexity ...

  17. Complexity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William H K.

    2016-01-01

    A complex system consists of many interacting parts, generates new collective behavior through self organization, and adaptively evolves through time. Many theories have been developed to study complex systems, including chaos, fractals, cellular automata, self organization, stochastic processes, turbulence, and genetic algorithms.

  18. Complex derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

  19. Psychopathology in Female Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Angela; Howie, Pauline; Starling, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Background: The aim was to document the spectrum of present and lifetime psychological disorders in female juvenile offenders, and to examine the relations between mental health status and socio-demographic, family and trauma variables. Method: One hundred juvenile offenders were matched with a comparison group of 100 females on age and…

  20. Subordinates' Reactions to Female Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Donelson R.; Forsyth, Nancy M.

    Although recent reviews of the effectiveness of male versus female leaders reveal little evidence of male superiority, evaluative and perceptual biases (beliefs about what constitutes good leadership, and stereotyped beliefs about men and women) among group members persist. To examine attributional biases against female leaders, 85 college…

  1. A Case of Female Intersex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-03-09

    Mar 9, 1974 ... SUMMARY. A case of female intersex was admitted to the hospital with severe lower abdominal pain. ... A 29-year-old Black patient, apparently male, was referred to hospital (for the sake of simplicity the male ... General examination demonstrated the body configura- tion of a well-developed female with ...

  2. Female Superintendent Longevity in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, through narrative inquiry (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000), the leadership evolution of five female superintendents in California with longevity of 5 or more years in their current school district positions. The research question addressed was, "How do California female superintendents evolve to…

  3. Desire and the female analyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaverien, J

    1996-04-01

    The literature on erotic transference and countertransference between female analyst and male patient is reviewed and discussed. It is known that female analysts are less likely than their male colleagues to act out sexually with their patients. It has been claimed that a) male patients do not experience sustained erotic transferences, and b) female analysts do not experience erotic countertransferences with female or male patients. These views are challenged and it is argued that, if there is less sexual acting out by female analysts, it is not because of an absence of eros in the therapeutic relationship. The literature review covers material drawn from psychoanalysis, feminist psychotherapy, Jungian analysis, as well as some sociological and cultural sources. It is organized under the following headings: the gender of the analyst, sexual acting out, erotic transference, maternal and paternal transference, gender and power, countertransference, incest taboo--mothers and sons and sexual themes in the transference.

  4. Prevalence of female sexual dysfunction among Indian fertile females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet V Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD is described as difficulty experienced by a female during any stage of a normal sexual activity including physical pleasure, desire, arousal, or orgasm. There are various factors responsible for FSD including psychological status of a person, gynecological or medical problems, long use of certain drugs, and social beliefs. Objectives: To study the prevalence and various factors associated with FSD. Materials and Methods: Study Design - This study design was a cross-sectional observational study conducted at Tertiary Care Centre, in Ahmedabad from June 2015 to March 2016. Sample Size - One hundred and fifty-three fertile females in reproductive age group (20-47 years were included in the study. Written and informed consent was obtained from all the females. Methods - FSD was assessed with a detailed 19-item female sexual function index questionnaire. All six domains of sexual dysfunction, i.e., desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were studied. Various associated factors such as gynecological or psychological problems were also studied. Exclusion - Infertile patients were excluded from the study. Results: The prevalence of FSD was 55.55% among 153 fertile females. FSD was more prevalent in the age group of 26-30 years and with duration of marriage >16 years. FSD was also more common in females with middle education and those belonging to upper middle socioeconomic status. Psychological stress was significantly associated with FSD. Conclusion: It is right of every female to lead healthy sexual life as it is key to happiness in marriage. Females with FSD can be managed with proper counseling and treating the underlying etiology.

  5. Do (Female) Founders Influence (Female) Joiners to Become Founders too?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Female founders are scarce, certainly those employing personnel. Do (female) founders affect the likelihood of (female) joiners to become founders too? Recent research demonstrates that joiners are more sensitive to contextual influences than founders. Joining a startup could provide a context...... to experiment provisional founder identities, especially if the founder is perceived as a role model. Role models are more likely to be influential, the more similar they are to the focal person, especially if both are minorities, as is the case for women in entrepreneurial environments. We study how joiner...

  6. Female rose bitterling prefer MHC-dissimilar males: experimental evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Reichard

    Full Text Available The role of genetic benefits in female mate choice remains a controversial aspect of sexual selection theory. In contrast to "good allele" models of sexual selection, "compatible allele" models of mate choice predict that females prefer mates with alleles complementary to their own rather than conferring additive effects. While correlative results suggest complementary genetic effects to be plausible, direct experimental evidence is scarce. A previous study on the Chinese rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus demonstrated a positive correlation between female mate choice, offspring growth and survival, and the functional dissimilarity between the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC alleles of males and females. Here we directly tested whether females used cues associated with MHC genes to select genetically compatible males in an experimental framework. By sequentially pairing females with MHC similar and dissimilar males, based on a priori known MHC profiles, we showed that females discriminated between similar and dissimilar males and deposited significantly more eggs with MHC dissimilar males. Notably, the degree of dissimilarity was an important factor for female decision to mate, possibly indicating a potential threshold value of dissimilarity for decision making, or of an indirect effect of the MHC.

  7. A salutogenic perspective on adult female survivors of childhood incest

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    M.A. Incest can be defined as, “The involvement of dependant children or adolescents in sexual activities they do not truly comprehend, to which they are unable to give informed consent, or that violate the social taboos of family roles” (Kempe & Kempe, 1978, p.60). Incest may include a multitude of activities, such as fondling, masturbation, exposing genitalia, exposure to pornographic material, as well as intercourse (Gilmartin, 1994). In our sexist patriarchal society, sexual abuse of c...

  8. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  9. FEMALE SEXUAL AUTONOMY: THE FEMALE CONDOM IN EROTIC PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grayce Alencar Albuquerque

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to learn about the experiences of women from a Health Strategy in view of the experience of sexual autonomy in the face of the female condom. It is an exploratory and qualitative study, completed in April 2010, which used semi-structured interview as data collection technique and the theory of social constructionism to aid in data analysis. Of the total of 25 women participants, after six months, only 12 were still in continuous use of the female condom. They pointed out the female condom as able to provide them with bargaining power, since it is inserted into their bodies. For some, the difficulty of trading remained for failure partner's approval. It is observed that in practice, the female condom becomes hostage of gender relations.

  10. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Lains Mota

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training, surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence.

  11. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. PMID:28124522

  12. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  13. Carney Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at least one of the features listed. Major diagnostic features for Carney Complex Spotty skin pigmentation with ... called large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor (LCCST) Thyroid cancer Psammomatous melanotic schwannoma, meaning tumors that grow on ...

  14. Complex Covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Kleefeld

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to some generalized correspondence principle the classical limit of a non-Hermitian quantum theory describing quantum degrees of freedom is expected to be the well known classical mechanics of classical degrees of freedom in the complex phase space, i.e., some phase space spanned by complex-valued space and momentum coordinates. As special relativity was developed by Einstein merely for real-valued space-time and four-momentum, we will try to understand how special relativity and covariance can be extended to complex-valued space-time and four-momentum. Our considerations will lead us not only to some unconventional derivation of Lorentz transformations for complex-valued velocities, but also to the non-Hermitian Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, which are to lay the foundations of a non-Hermitian quantum theory.

  15. ACL tears in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugliano, Danica N; Solomon, Jennifer L

    2007-08-01

    With the growing number of female athletes, an increase is occurring in the number of sports-related injuries, which can cause physical, psychological, academic, and financial suffering. Female athletes are reported to be two to eight times more likely to sustain an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury than male athletes. Further research on risk factors and preventative strategies for the female ACL is needed, because the cause of the disparity in injury rates remains equivocal and controversial. Individualized treatment for the injured knee is necessary and can include either conservative treatment or reconstructive surgery.

  16. The female runner: gender specifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Stacy L; Hoch, Anne Z

    2010-07-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of female runners of all ages and abilities in the past 35 years. Women who participate in running and sports are generally healthier and have higher self-esteem. However, unique medical and orthopedic issues exist for the female runner. This article reviews the history of women in sports, physiologic and biomechanic differences between genders, the pregnant runner, knee osteoarthritis, an update on the female athlete triad and the relationship between amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction associated with athletics. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Female sexual function and chronic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Gila

    2006-02-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a multifactorial set of conditions associated with multiple anatomical, physiological, biological, medical and psychological factors that can have major impact on self-esteem, quality of life, mood and relationships. Studies indicate that FSD is commonly seen in women who report a low level of satisfaction with partner relationship and in women with male partners who have erectile dysfunction. This complexity of FSD is augmented by the presence of chronic disease. Negative sexual effects are widely reported in studies of women with chronic diseases (such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, cancer, spinal cord injury, lupus, rheumatic diseases, Parkinson's disease, fibromyalgia and chronic pain) as compared to a general healthy female population. Physical problems, emotional problems and partnership difficulties arising from disease-related stress contribute to less active and less enjoyable sex life. Chronic pain, fatigue, low self-esteem as well as use of medications might reduce sexual function. These effects of chronic diseases on female sexual function still remain largely unstudied. The study by Manor and Zohar published in this issue of Harefuah draws our attention to the sexual dysfunction of women with breast cancer and examines their needs for information regarding their sexual function. In the absence of definite treatment evidence, psychological counseling, improved vaginal lubrication, low dose of hormonal therapy can be used to relieve FSD. Physicians must consider integrating diagnosis of their female patients' sexual needs and dysfunction, especially women with chronic diseases. Patients' education and counseling may contribute to a better quality of life in spite of their chronic disease.

  18. Caracterização histopatológica e imuno-histoquímica de neoplasmas mesenquimais da genitália em 43 cadelas Histopathological and immunohistochemical characterization of mesenchymal neoplasms of the genitalia in 43 bitches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyene O. de Souza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Os arquivos de biópsia do período de 2000 a 2010 do SPV-UFRGS foram revisados e levantados os casos de neoplasias mesenquimais de genitália (útero, cérvix, vagina e vulva de cadelas. Realizou-se estudo retrospectivo de 43 casos, incluindo caracterização histológica, coloração tricrômico de Masson (TM e imuno-histoquímica (IHQ. As principais raças acometidas foram Cocker, Poodle e Pastor Alemão, porém o maior número de casos foi observado em cães sem raça definida (SRD. A idade média dessas cadelas foi de 10,6 anos (variação de 3 a 10 anos. Quanto à localização dos tumores, 44,2% estavam na vagina, 27,9% no útero, 23,3% na vulva e 4,6% na cérvix. Histologicamente, 46,5% eram leiomioma, 41,9% fibroleiomioma, 7,0% fibroma e 4,6% leiomiossarcoma. Na coloração de TM, os fibromas apresentaram todas as células neoplásicas coradas em azul (colágeno, os leiomiomas e os leiomiossarcomas apresentaram menos de 50% de colágeno em meio às células neoplásicas musculares e os fibroleiomiomas mais de 50%. Na IHQ, os fibromas apresentaram marcação positiva para vimentina e negativa para desmina. Todos os leiomiomas eram positivos para vimentina (em mais de 50% células e para desmina (75% dos casos em mais de 50% das células e 25% em menos de 50%. Em um dos casos de leiomiossarcoma houve imunomarcação para vimentina e ausente para desmina e, no outro, ocorreu o oposto. Os fibroleiomiomas apresentaram marcação para vimentina em 94,4% (em mais de 50% células e para desmina em 77,8% (64,3% em menos de 50% das células e 35,7% em mais de 50%.The biopsies archives from SPV-UFRGS (2000-2010 were retrieved, and cases of mesenchymal neoplasms of genitalia (uterus, cervix, vagina, and vulva of 43 bitches were revised. Also Masson's trichrome staining (MT and immunohistochemical characterization were evaluated. The main breeds affected were Cocker, Poodle and German Shepherd, but the greatest number of cases were observed in mixed

  19. Gross anatomy of the female genital organs of the domestic donkey (Equus asinus Linné, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner-Martin, T F P; Forstenpointner, G; Weissengruber, G E; Eberhardt, L

    2009-04-01

    Although donkeys play an important role as companion or pack and draught animals, theriogenological studies and anatomical data on the genital organs of the jenny are sparse. To provide anatomical descriptions and morphometric data, the organa genitalia feminina, their arteries and the ligamentum latum uteri of 10 adult but maiden jennies were examined by means of gross anatomical and morphometric techniques. In comparison with anatomical data of horses obtained from literature the genital organs of jennies appear to be more voluminous in relation to the body mass and the position of the ovaries is slightly further cranial than in mares. In asses, the ovaries contain large follicles reaching a diameter of up to 40 mm. The mesosalpinx is much wider than in the horse forming a considerably spacious bursa ovarica. The asinine ligamentum teres uteri reveals a very prominent cranial end, the 'appendix'. Tortuous mucosal folds occur in the wall of the jenny's cervical channel. The vascularization of the female genital organs of asses is very similar to that of horses. One of the examined specimens reveals a large mucosal fold dividing the cranial part of the vagina into a left and right compartment.

  20. Foreign female immigrants in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Fakiolas, Rossetos

    2000-01-01

    Strong push, pull and network formation factors account for the over 600,000 foreign immigrants, mostly economic and with irregular status, who have been since the early 1990s in Greece, a traditionally emigration country. Over a quarter of them are females who have come alone, marking the new trend in female migration. And like their male counterparts, they find jobs due to their wage and job flexibility. The recent Greek policy to regularise irregular or undocumented immigrants (UI), that i...

  1. Being Victims or Beneficiaries? Perspectives on Female Genital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicate that the complexity of the persistence of FGC and RI goes far beyond being explained by subconscious patriarchal and maternalistic actions, related to socially constructed concepts of normality, female identity, tradition and religion in a “silent” culture between men and women. African Journal of ...

  2. Pattern of abdominal wall herniae in females: a retrospective analysis.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pattern of hernia presentation and outcome of man- agement between males and females owing to the ... who had hernia repair at Obafemi Awolowo University. Teaching Hospitals Complex Ile-Ife, Nigeria which ... cases of adult inguinal hernias (28.8%) were repaired with mesh prosthesis. Hernias were safely repaired in.

  3. Female Singlehood and Urban Space in Lesotho | Wright | Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the complex interactions between gender roles/relations in Lesotho and the (re)structuring of urban space in its rapidly growing capital city, Maseru. It focuses specifically on the increasing creation of an urban space, social and physical, occupied by single female household-heads, many of them ...

  4. Male flat lizards prefer females with novel scents | Lewis | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contrary to our original expectations, these experiments do not provide any evidence for a pheromonal pre-mating isolation mechanism within this species complex. However, our results suggest a preference for novel female scents by males, consistent with selection for genetic diversity. Key words: lizard, pheromones, ...

  5. Atrial fibrillation and female sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmino, Matteo; Battaglia, Alberto; Gallo, Cristina; Gili, Sebastiano; Matta, Mario; Castagno, Davide; Ferraris, Federico; Giustetto, Carla; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2015-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the most common supraventricular arrhythmia. Its prevalence increases with age and preferentially affects male patients. Over 75 years of age, however, female patients being more prevalent, the absolute number of patients affected is similar between sexes. Despite this, few data are available in the literature concerning sex-related differences in atrial fibrillation patients. The present systematic review therefore considers comorbidities, referring symptoms, quality of life, pharmacological approaches and trans-catheter ablation in female rather than in male atrial fibrillation patients in search of parameters that may have an impact on the treatment outcome. In brief, female atrial fibrillation patients more commonly present comorbidities, leading to a higher prevalence of persistent atrial fibrillation; moreover, they refer to hospital care later and with a longer disease history. Atrial fibrillation symptoms relate to low quality of life in female patients; in fact, atrial fibrillation paroxysm usually presents higher heart rate, leading to preferentially adopt a rate rather than a rhythm-control strategy. Female atrial fibrillation patients present an increased risk of stroke, worsened by the lower oral anticoagulant prescription rate related to the concomitant higher haemorrhagic risk profile. Trans-catheter ablation is under-used in female patients and, on the contrary, they are more commonly affected by anti-arrhythmic drug side effects.

  6. Complex chimerism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kimberly K.; Petroff, Margaret G.; Coscia, Lisa A.; Armenti, Vincent T.; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of women with organ transplantation have undergone successful pregnancies, however little is known about how the profound immunologic changes associated with pregnancy might influence tolerance or rejection of the allograft. Pregnant women with a solid organ transplant are complex chimeras with multiple foreign cell populations from the donor organ, fetus, and mother of the pregnant woman. We consider the impact of complex chimerism and pregnancy-associated immunologic changes on tolerance of the allograft both during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Mechanisms of allograft tolerance are likely dynamic during pregnancy and affected by the influx of fetal microchimeric cells, HLA relationships (between the fetus, pregnant woman and/or donor), peripheral T cell tolerance to fetal cells, and fetal minor histocompatibility antigens. Further research is necessary to understand the complex immunology during pregnancy and the postpartum period of women with a solid organ transplant. PMID:23974274

  7. Complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Freitag, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The guiding principle of this presentation of ``Classical Complex Analysis'' is to proceed as quickly as possible to the central results while using a small number of notions and concepts from other fields. Thus the prerequisites for understanding this book are minimal; only elementary facts of calculus and algebra are required. The first four chapters cover the essential core of complex analysis: - differentiation in C (including elementary facts about conformal mappings) - integration in C (including complex line integrals, Cauchy's Integral Theorem, and the Integral Formulas) - sequences and series of analytic functions, (isolated) singularities, Laurent series, calculus of residues - construction of analytic functions: the gamma function, Weierstrass' Factorization Theorem, Mittag-Leffler Partial Fraction Decomposition, and -as a particular highlight- the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which characterizes the simply connected domains in C. Further topics included are: - the theory of elliptic functions based on...

  8. How age influences phonotaxis in virgin female Jamaican field crickets (Gryllus assimilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Pacheco

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Female mating preference can be a dominant force shaping the evolution of sexual signals. However, females rarely have consistent mating preferences throughout their lives. Preference flexibility results from complex interactions of predation risk, social and sexual experience, and age. Because residual reproductive value should theoretically decline with age, older females should not be as choosy as younger females. We explored how age influences phonotaxis towards a standard mate attraction signal using a spherical treadmill (trackball and a no-choice experimental protocol. Female Jamaican field crickets, Gryllus assimilis, were highly variable in their phonotaxis; age explained up to 64% of this variation. Females 10 days post imaginal eclosion and older oriented toward the mate attraction signal, with 10- and 13-day females exhibiting the greatest movement in the direction of the signal. Our study suggests 10- and 13-day old females would be most responsive when quantifying the preference landscape for G. assimilis sexual signals.

  9. How age influences phonotaxis in virgin female Jamaican field crickets (Gryllus assimilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Karen; Dawson, Jeff W; Jutting, Michael; Bertram, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Female mating preference can be a dominant force shaping the evolution of sexual signals. However, females rarely have consistent mating preferences throughout their lives. Preference flexibility results from complex interactions of predation risk, social and sexual experience, and age. Because residual reproductive value should theoretically decline with age, older females should not be as choosy as younger females. We explored how age influences phonotaxis towards a standard mate attraction signal using a spherical treadmill (trackball) and a no-choice experimental protocol. Female Jamaican field crickets, Gryllus assimilis, were highly variable in their phonotaxis; age explained up to 64% of this variation. Females 10 days post imaginal eclosion and older oriented toward the mate attraction signal, with 10- and 13-day females exhibiting the greatest movement in the direction of the signal. Our study suggests 10- and 13-day old females would be most responsive when quantifying the preference landscape for G. assimilis sexual signals.

  10. Complex Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Elias M

    2009-01-01

    With this second volume, we enter the intriguing world of complex analysis. From the first theorems on, the elegance and sweep of the results is evident. The starting point is the simple idea of extending a function initially given for real values of the argument to one that is defined when the argument is complex. From there, one proceeds to the main properties of holomorphic functions, whose proofs are generally short and quite illuminating: the Cauchy theorems, residues, analytic continuation, the argument principle.With this background, the reader is ready to learn a wealth of additional m

  11. Complex manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Morrow, James

    2006-01-01

    This book, a revision and organization of lectures given by Kodaira at Stanford University in 1965-66, is an excellent, well-written introduction to the study of abstract complex (analytic) manifolds-a subject that began in the late 1940's and early 1950's. It is largely self-contained, except for some standard results about elliptic partial differential equations, for which complete references are given. -D. C. Spencer, MathSciNet The book under review is the faithful reprint of the original edition of one of the most influential textbooks in modern complex analysis and geometry. The classic

  12. Female genital mutilation in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J A; Debelle, G D

    1995-06-17

    The practice of female genital mutilation predates the founding of both Christianity and Islam. Though largely confined among Muslims, the operation is also practiced in some Christian communities in Africa such that female genital mutilation takes place in various forms in more than twenty African countries, Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, and by some Muslims in Malaysia and Indonesia. In recent decades, ethnic groups which practice female genital mutilation have immigrated to Britain. The main groups are from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Yemen. In their own countries, an estimated 80% of women have had the operation. Female genital mutilation has been illegal in Britain since 1985, but it is practiced illegally or children are sent abroad to undergo the operation typically at age 7-9 years. It is a form of child abuse which poses special problems. The authors review the history of female genital mutilation and describe its medical complications. Assuming that the size of the population in Britain of ethnic groups which practice or favor female genital mutilation remains more or less unchanged, adaptation and acculturation will probably cause the practice to die out within a few generations. Meanwhile, there is much to be done. A conspiracy of silence exists in medical circles as well as widespread ignorance. Moreover, none of a number of well-known obstetric and pediatric textbooks mentions female genital mutilation, while the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children has neither information nor instructional material. It is high time that the problem was more widely and openly discussed.

  13. [Female erotic dreams and female seed in ancient Greek medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andò, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses passages of the Hippocratic Corpus, of Aristotle and Galen about oneirogmòs, spermatic emission during sleep, referring specifically to women. Into the Hippocratic texts there is only one gynaecological case among many cases about males: for them this nocturnal emission is symptom of dangerous illness and De genitura gives a causal explanation of such phaenomenon. Instead, in Aristotle and Galen erotic dream is evidence for or against emission of female seed and female contribution to generation. As the argument ofHistoria animalium book X shows clear theoretical differences from that of De generatione animalium, the topic of erotic dream also concerns issues of authenticity.

  14. Managing Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Vandepitte, Sonia; Minacori, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing project to date- a project involving translation from Danish and Dutch into English and editing into American English alongside a project involving writing, usability testing, and translation from English into Dutch...

  15. phenanthroline complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    structural analyses. Mass spectral studies of the complexes indicate both the compounds to produce identical cationic species viz., [Co(phen)2Cl2]+ in methanol solution. ... Cobalt(III); X-ray structure; Catecholase activity; DNA cleavage; Anti-cancer activity. 1. ..... necrotic as judged by the staining, nuclear morphology.

  16. Lecithin Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    China). Lecithin from soya bean was a product of. Sangon (Shanghai, China). Methanol of HPLC grade was purchased from Tedia (USA). Other chemicals used were of analytical grade. Preparation of polydatin-lecithin complex. Polydatin (200 mg) and lecithin (400 mg) were dissolved in 50 mL of tetrahydrofuran and stirred.

  17. Complex Criminality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, D.; Abels, D.; van der Wilt, H.

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a collection of essays on the wide diversity of meanings of complex criminality. These essays were written to commemorate a national gathering of PhD candidates, from criminal law departments of different universities, at the University of Amsterdam on the 6th of June 2014.

  18. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  19. peroxo complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The investigation of dioxygen binding and activation in dinuclear iron complexes has attracted recent interest because of the presence of carboxylate bridged dinuclear iron sites in several biologically important proteins, such as the R2 protein of ribonucleotide reductase, the hydroxylase component of methane ...

  20. carbohydrate complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ferrocene-carbohydrate conjugates38,39 have lead to the design and study of the cytotoxic activity of metal com- plexes containing carbohydrate ligands. Hence, here we present the detailed synthesis and characteriza- tion of the carbohydrate triazole ligands and their Pd- complexes together with the crystal structures of ...

  1. Ntem Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zena

    New ages were obtained from charnockites and tonalites collected in the So'o Group in the Ntem Complex. The rocks were analyzed for their petrography, tectonics and 207Pb/206Pb zircon minimum ages of their zircons as well as .... Owona, Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, P.O. Box.

  2. Role of oxidative stress in female reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rakesh K

    2005-07-01

    embryopathies, preterm labour and preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. The review also addresses the growing literature on the role of nitric oxide species in female reproduction. The involvement of nitric oxide species in regulation of endometrial and ovarian function, etiopathogenesis of endometriosis, and maintenance of uterine quiescence, initiation of labour and ripening of cervix at parturition is discussed. Complex interplay between cytokines and oxidative stress in the etiology of female reproductive disorders is discussed. Oxidant status of the cell modulates angiogenesis, which is critical for follicular growth, corpus luteum formation endometrial differentiation and embryonic growth is also highlighted in the review. Strategies to overcome oxidative stress and enhance fertility, both natural and assisted are delineated. Early interventions being investigated for prevention of preeclampsia are enumerated. Trials investigating combination intervention strategy of vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation in preventing preeclampsia are highlighted. Antioxidants are powerful and there are few trials investigating antioxidant supplementation in female reproduction. However, before clinicians recommend antioxidants, randomized controlled trials with sufficient power are necessary to prove the efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in disorders of female reproduction. Serial measurement of oxidative stress biomarkers in longitudinal studies may help delineate the etiology of some of the diosorders in female reproduction such as preeclampsia.

  3. Female Consumers Recreational Shopping Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbjot Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the core meaning of intrinsic shopping to understand their experimental aspects of recreational and leisure shopping. The study focus only on female shoppers of age group ranging from 25-30, and understand their mall experiences because this segment is newly transform into self dependent segment which have less social and familial liabilities and have enough enthusiasm to explore the world or their boundaries. The Grounded theory use for identification of recreational shopping themes which are (a seeking experiences and (b experimental shopping and each have respective sub themes. The themes are connected to the key idea that shoppers are motivated by their expectations and desires. The study uses social constructivism to find and understand the shopper meanings in real terms rather than imposing and judgment on them. The findings described the way people do recreational shopping and how shopping malls use as leisure space and become facilitators of recreational shopping activities. Females use malls to fulfill their recreational and leisure shopping experiences as this is the great way of enjoying shopping for females of small towns. In malls females not only enjoy product experiences but services experiences also which makes their shopping interesting. The way the female of this age category use malls help the marketers and retailers to understand this segment shopping patterns.

  4. Female circumcision and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baasher, T

    1980-10-01

    WHO (World Health Organization) and a number of professional, national, regional, and other international organizations recently intensified efforts to discourage the practice of female circumcision still extant in several African countries and in isolated areas of the Arabian Peninsula, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Female circumcision is an operation frequently performed on females, between the ages of 5-10, in accordance with religious and cultural traditions. The operaton involves the complete or partial removal of either the clitoris prepuce, glans clitoridis, the clitoris, the labia minora, and labia majora. The operation can result in serious psychological and health problems for the young girls. Immediate complications include surgical shock, hemorrage, infection, tetanus, and damage to the urethera or anus. Late complications include infertility, keloid formation, dermoid Cyst dyspareunia, pelvic infection, and pregnancy complications. In 1976 WHO focused special attention on the problem and in 1979 the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office of WHO included a discussion of the problem in the agenda of a Seminar on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children. Seminar participants recommended that countries where female circumcision was still practiced should 1) abolish the practice by statute if necessary; 2) establish national commissions to deal with the problem; and 3) educate the public about the dangers of female circumcision. Somalia recently established a national commission on the problem, and the Cairo Society of Family Planning developed a set of recommendations for combating the practice.

  5. Complex chemistry with complex compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichler Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years gas-phase chemical studies assisted by physical pre-separation allowed for the investigation of fragile single molecular species by gas-phase chromatography. The latest success with the heaviest group 6 transactinide seaborgium is highlighted. The formation of a very volatile hexacarbonyl compound Sg(CO6 was observed similarly to its lighter homologues molybdenum and tungsten. The interactions of these gaseous carbonyl complex compounds with quartz surfaces were investigated by thermochromatography. Second-generation experiments are under way to investigate the intramolecular bond between the central metal atom of the complexes and the ligands addressing the influence of relativistic effects in the heaviest compounds. Our contribution comprises some aspects of the ongoing challenging experiments as well as an outlook towards other interesting compounds related to volatile complex compounds in the gas phase.

  6. Revision of the Grillotia erinaceus (van Beneden, 1858) species complex (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha), with the description of G. brayi n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, I; Campbell, R A

    2007-09-01

    Members of the trypanorhynch cestode genus Grillotia Guiart, 1927 belonging to the Grillotia erinaceus (van Beneden, 1858) species complex are redescribed. The type-species of the genus, G. erinaceus, is redescribed from Raja spp. in the eastern and western north Atlantic and the Mediterranean. The redescription establishes the presence of: an hermaphroditic sac; internal and external seminal vesicles (but absence of an accessory seminal vesicle); a uterine pore; and the attachment of the retractor muscle in the mid-region of the tentacular bulb. G. pseuderinaceus Dollfus, 1969 and G. recurvispinis Dollfus, 1969 from Raja spp. in the Mediterranean are considered to be synonyms of G. erinaceus, following Palm (2004). G. dollfusi Carvajal, 1971 from R. chilensis Guichenot off Chile is redescribed from the paratypes and features of the terminal genitalia, consistent with those of G. erinaceus, are described for the first time. G. musculara (Hart, 1936) is redescribed from new material collected from the type-host, R. rhina (Jordan & Gilbert), off Nanaimo on the western coast of Canada. The features of the terminal genitalia of G. musculara are similar to those of the G. erinaceus group. The morphological features of G. borealis Keeney & Campbell, 2001 from Bathyraja spp. in the Bering Sea and the Sea of Okhotsk are summarised and illustrations of this species provided. G. brayi n. sp. is described from Amblyraja radiata from the coasts of Iceland and Britain. The new species differs from other members of the complex in lacking modified hooks 1 and 1' at the base of the tentacle (differentiating it from G. erinaceus), a long pars vaginalis (differentiating it from G. dollfusi) and uncinate hooks in the band on the external surface of the tentacle (differentiating it from G. musculara). Brief descriptions are provided of two apparently new species of Grillotia currently represented in collections by single specimens.

  7. Female Fitness in the Blogosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Andreasson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes self-portrayals and gender constructions among female personal trainers within an Internet-mediated framework of fitness culture. The empirical material comes from a close examination of three strategically selected blogs. The result shows that some of the blogs clearly build upon what Connell calls emphasized femininity, as a means of legitimizing and constructing appropriate female fitness. In addition, there are also tendencies of sexualization in text and imagery present. As such, these self-representations are framed within a cultural history of body fitness dominated by stereotypical ways of perceiving masculinity and femininity. However, this does not capture the entire presentation of the self among the analyzed fitness bloggers. The blogs also point in the direction of ongoing negotiations and subversions of traditional gender norms. Among other things, they show how irony and humor are used as a means of questioning normative gender constructions while empowering female fitness and bodyliness.

  8. Endocannabinoid signaling in female reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaofei; Dey, Sudhansu K

    2012-05-16

    Marijuana is a preparation of the flower, as well as the leaves and seeds, of the plant Cannabis sativa. Marijuana has been used for medicinal and recreational purposes for thousands of years due to its psychoactive effects including euphoria, sedation, and analgesia. Although it has been suspected for decades that marijuana has adverse effects on female fertility, the underlying molecular mechanism was not clear. The discovery of cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoids has advanced studies if cannabinoid signaling. Since then, numerous studies have been published on cannabinoid signaling in female reproductive events, including preimplantation embryo development, oviductal embryo transport, embryo implantation, placentation, and parturition. This review focuses on various aspects of endocannabinoid signaling in female fertility.

  9. Decolonizing the Female Sexuality: What Nigerian Female Writers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women's experience of oppressions in the sphere of sexuality, it argues, is central to the issue of a liberal existence, and such oppressions are largely premised on traditional epistemologies which are basically patriarchal. Drawing upon various female-authored literary texts from Nigeria, it illustrates how Nigerian feminist ...

  10. Effect of female genital mutilation on female sexual function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manal Ibrahim Hanafi Mahmoud

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... Current address: Al-Madinah, University Road, Taibah Univer- sity, Medical College, Female Section, Saudi Arabia. Tel.: +966. 564864004. E-mail address: manal.azab@gmail.com. Peer review under responsibility of Alexandria University Faculty of. Medicine. Alexandria Journal of Medicine (2016) 52, ...

  11. Female

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the cervical stump to a Boari bladder tube. All patients were subjected to clinical, radiological and endoscopic examination, intravenous pyelography (IVP) and retrograde eystography. Ureteric catheterization was performed in every case of suspected ureteric involvement and in cases where the vesicovaginal fistulae were ...

  12. Eating Disorders Among Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgen, J S; Corbin, C B

    1987-02-01

    In brief: Research has indicated that 4% to 19% of female college students have eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, anorexia athletica, or bulimia. To determine the extent to which preoccupation with weight and tendencies toward eating disorders are problems among female athletes, we analyzed the responses to a questionnaire completed by 168 college women-101 nonathletes, 35 athletes whose sports emphasize leanness, and 32 athletes whose sports do not emphasize leanness. The results showed that 6% of the nonathletes, 20% of the athletes in sports that emphasize leanness, and 10% of all the athletes were either exceptionally preoccupied with weight or had tendencies toward eating disorders.

  13. Managing Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  14. Complex Questions Promote Complex Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degener, Sophie; Berne, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Intermediate-grade teachers often express concerns about meeting the Common Core State Standards for Reading, primarily because of the emphasis on deep understanding of complex texts. No matter how difficult the text, if teachers demand little of the reading, student meaning making is not challenged. This article offers a tool for teachers to…

  15. Ghrelin in Female and Male Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joëlle Dupont

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin and one of its functional receptors, GHS-R1a (Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor 1a, were firstly studied about 15 years. Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide hormone that affects several biological functions including food intake, glucose release, cell proliferation… Ghrelin and GHS-R1a are expressed in key cells of both male and female reproductive organs in several species including fishes, birds, and mammals suggesting a well-conserved signal through the evolution and a role in the control of fertility. Ghrelin could be a component of the complex series of nutrient sensors such as adipokines, and nuclear receptors, which regulate reproduction in function of the energy stores. The objective of this paper was to report the available information about the ghrelin system and its role at the level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in both sexes.

  16. Psychology of male and female communicative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyura, Svetlana A

    2008-05-01

    The article features a brief overview of theoretical and empirical studies in communication psychology and sociability of men and women, boys and girls. Russian and foreign studies are summarized to point out that girls and women place greater emphasis on communication and interpersonal relations than do boys and men. Moreover, female communication is more emotional. The article presents the results of the author's own empirical study of male and female communicative activity. Communicative activity is viewed as a complex psychological phenomenon, a degree of the subject's willingness to interact. Communicative activity was studied with the test proposed by the Russian psychologist, Krupnov, and designed to detect the following components of communicative activity: dynamic (natural), emotional, motivational, cognitive, regulatory, productive, and two sorts of communication difficulties (operational and personal). Gender differences in communicative activity are shown on a sample of 480 participants aged 18-40 (240 men and 240 women). The article then describes communicative styles of adolescents (130 boys and 130 girls, aged 19-24). Various communicative styles are featured, including "energetic, businesslike," "conformal, emotional," "diplomatic, externally oriented" for boys and "energetic, sociable," "emotional, difficult," and "complaisant, expressive" for girls. Every person's individuality and gender identity are shown to impact their communicative style.

  17. [Anorexia athletica's place in female sports athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afflelou, S

    2009-01-01

    This work analyzes the links between eating disorders and intensive exercise training and tries to define the anorexia athletica's place in this context. Through a review of the literature, we examined the arguments favoring the hypothesis of a "princeps" disorder, which would orientate girls towards some sports, and the arguments, which emphasize the capacity of some sports to lead to the apparition of these eating disorders. The description of a clinical case allows the evocation of the complexity of this relationship showing that intensive exercise training may be a facilitatory factor as well as a limitatory factor of the severity of the anorexia nervosa. In this situation, it seems interesting to use the anorexia athletica's concept to improve coach and doctor's vigilance around the young female athlete. Lastly, we propose to replace the concept of sport by "exercise practice" where the intensity, the sport "centration", the weight stress became risk factors and to define populations at risk (adolescents, females). Based on these data, prevention actions should be started in populations particularly exposed.

  18. Catherine II as Female Ruler: The Power of Enlightened Womanhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Ivleva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines some of the complexities of female rule during the reign of Catherine II (1762-1796. It argues that in addition to the Baroque scenarios of power inherited from her predecessors, the German-born Russian empress employed the cultural roles of an “enlightened” woman of merit – a matriarch, a craftswoman, a house manager, and an educator – roles that projected positive values of womanhood, in order to position her femininity as beneficial to the state and to thereby legitimize her authority as a female sovereign.

  19. Tuberous sclerosis complex in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xin; Tu, Wen-Jun; Shi, Xiao-Dong

    2012-09-01

    To study the prevalence rate of tuberous sclerosis complex in autistic disorder. We studied one cohort of children followed up since 2005 until 2009, with autistic disorder, to determine the incidence of tuberous sclerosis complex. We established an autistic disorder registry in 2005 at China Rehabilitation Research Center. During the 4-year period (2005-2009), we collected a database of 429 children (390 boys and 39 girls; male to female ratio 10:1) with autistic disorder and pervasive developmental disorders. We routinely examined all children with autistic disorder for any features of tuberous sclerosis complex by looking for neurocutaneous markers such as depigmented spots. In those with infantile spasm or epilepsy, the clinical features of tuberous sclerosis complex were monitored regularly during follow-up. Of these, five had tuberous sclerosis complex. Thus, the prevalence rate of tuberous sclerosis complex in autistic disorder is 1.17%. All of these children were mentally retarded with moderate to severe grades. Their IQ or developmental quotient was less than 70. The prevalence rate of tuberous sclerosis complex in autistic disorder was 1.17% in our region; autism spectrum disorder is a condition that might be associated with development of tuberous sclerosis complex.

  20. Female stalkers and their victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, J Reid; Boyd, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    Demographic, clinical, and forensic data were gathered in an archival study of 82 female stalkers from the United States, Canada, and Australia. Female stalkers were predominantly single, heterosexual, educated individuals in their mid 30s who had pursued their victims for more than a year. Major mental disorder and personality disorder were suggested, especially borderline personality disorder. They usually threatened violence, and if they did threaten, were more likely to be violent. Frequency of interpersonal violence was 25 percent, but there was limited use of weapons, and injuries were minor. Stalking victims were most likely to be slightly older male acquaintances; but if the victim was a prior sexual intimate of the female stalker, her risk of being violent toward him exceeded 50 percent. Unlike male stalkers who often pursue their victims to restore intimacy, these female stalkers often pursued their victims to establish intimacy. Common emotions and motivations included anger, obsessional thoughts, rage at abandonment, loneliness, dependency, jealousy, and perceived betrayal. Results are interpreted from a clinical and risk management perspective.

  1. Debunking myths about female circumcision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catherine deVries

    Center for Global Surgery, Department of Surgery (Urology), University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA1. Received 5 November 2012; received in revised form 7 December 2012; accepted 7 December 2012. KEYWORD. Female circumcision. LastmonthitwasannouncedthatintheUnitedStates,onethirdofall doctors and lawyers ...

  2. Handwashing among female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drankiewicz, Danielle; Dundes, Lauren

    2003-04-01

    Handwashing has been recognized as a critical factor in infection control policies. Whereas handwashing compliance among health care workers and school-aged students has been previously documented, practices among college students remain relatively unknown. The objective of this study was to determine handwashing compliance of female college students after using the bathroom. A researcher situated in a toilet stall unobtrusively observed handwashing compliance among 100 female students. Most students (63%) washed their hands, 38% used soap, 32% washed with soap for 5 or more seconds, but only 2% washed their hands with soap for 10 or more seconds. Fewer students left without handwashing when someone else was present in the sink area (9%) than when they were alone (45%) (P =.002). Substantial bacterial colony counts were found on a female bathroom sink faucet and toilet seat confirming the need for programs to increase handwashing compliance. Potential strategies to optimize infection control include harnessing the influence of peer pressure on handwashing and the installation of motion-activated faucets, disposable seat covers, and exit doors that can be pushed open. These results should be confirmed in a larger study that includes both male and female college students.

  3. Adolescent Leadership: The Female Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archard, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the female adolescent view of leadership by giving voice to student leaders through focus group discussions. The questions: What is leadership? Where/how was leadership taught?, and How was leadership practised? were explored within the context of girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South…

  4. Trends in Female Circumcision between

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The international movement against female circumcision gained momentum in the past two decades. Although recent studies report ... tradition, religion, beauty, health or social status. One of the most persistent ..... Women and Children, Ogun State Chapter, Above all our gratitude goes to the people. Abeokuta, and Live ...

  5. Female sperm storage in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, David M

    2002-02-01

    The three orders of extant amphibians are Gymnophiona, Anura, and Urodela. Although all gymnophionans apparently have internal fertilization and many are viviparous, female sperm storage is unknown. Internal fertilization has convergently evolved in a few anurans, but females of just one species, Ascaphus truei, are known to possess oviductal sperm storage tubules (SSTs). The SSTs of A. truei are similar anatomically to such glands in squamate reptiles. This similarity is convergence due to similar functional adaptations and/or internal design constraints. In salamanders and newts (Urodela), absence of sperm storage in females is the ancestral condition (three families). In the derived condition, sperm storage occurs in cloacal glands called spermathecae, and their possession is a synapomorphy for females in the suborder Salamandroidea (seven families). Salamandroids are the only vertebrates with cloacal sperm storage glands. In this paper, a phenetic analysis of variation in spermathecal characters reveals patterns of convergence in certain spermathecal characters in unrelated taxa that breed in similar habitats. In the family Salamandridae, a role in sperm nutrition for the spermathecal epithelium is questioned, and the widespread occurrence of spermiophagy is related to other reproductive strategies. I propose how the packaging of sperm in structurally different types of spermathecae may influence male paternity. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Some Ethical Considerations Regarding Medicalization of Female Genital Mutilation/cutting (Female Circumcision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed R. A. Ragab

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available According to each society's condition the ethical attitude of the individual may be colored by the attitude of the society. It is therefore not surprising to find what is ethical in one society might not be ethical in another. Female Genital Cutting, as an example, is seen in some societies as a must and something good for the whole community in general and for girls in particular, while in others, it is seen as mutilation and violation of human rights. The practice of female genital cutting is a complex issue that ties the traditional gender roles, superstition, local concepts on health and sexuality, as well as several other social relations. Worldwide, an estimated 130 million girls and women have undergone FGC. The current paper examines medicalization of female genital cutting from ethical point of view. The paper discusses the issue in the following themes: definition of the practice, the justifications of the practice, the complications and lastly the ethical reflections. The paper argues that laws that prohibit the practice would not work, without wide socio-cultural change; any effort to eradicate the practice would not succeed.

  7. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  8. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Joseph L

    2011-01-01

    The text covers a broad spectrum between basic and advanced complex variables on the one hand and between theoretical and applied or computational material on the other hand. With careful selection of the emphasis put on the various sections, examples, and exercises, the book can be used in a one- or two-semester course for undergraduate mathematics majors, a one-semester course for engineering or physics majors, or a one-semester course for first-year mathematics graduate students. It has been tested in all three settings at the University of Utah. The exposition is clear, concise, and lively

  9. Complex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carleson, Lennart

    1993-01-01

    Complex dynamics is today very much a focus of interest. Though several fine expository articles were available, by P. Blanchard and by M. Yu. Lyubich in particular, until recently there was no single source where students could find the material with proofs. For anyone in our position, gathering and organizing the material required a great deal of work going through preprints and papers and in some cases even finding a proof. We hope that the results of our efforts will be of help to others who plan to learn about complex dynamics and perhaps even lecture. Meanwhile books in the field a. re beginning to appear. The Stony Brook course notes of J. Milnor were particularly welcome and useful. Still we hope that our special emphasis on the analytic side will satisfy a need. This book is a revised and expanded version of notes based on lectures of the first author at UCLA over several \\Vinter Quarters, particularly 1986 and 1990. We owe Chris Bishop a great deal of gratitude for supervising the production of cour...

  10. and complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrin Ken

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular materials have a strange propensity to behave as either a complex media or a simple media depending on the precise question being asked. This review paper offers a summary of granular flow rheologies for well-developed or steady-state motion, and seeks to explain this dichotomy through the vast range of complexity intrinsic to these models. A key observation is that to achieve accuracy in predicting flow fields in general geometries, one requires a model that accounts for a number of subtleties, most notably a nonlocal effect to account for cooperativity in the flow as induced by the finite size of grains. On the other hand, forces and tractions that develop on macro-scale, submerged boundaries appear to be minimally affected by grain size and, barring very rapid motions, are well represented by simple rate-independent frictional plasticity models. A major simplification observed in experiments of granular intrusion, which we refer to as the ‘resistive force hypothesis’ of granular Resistive Force Theory, can be shown to arise directly from rate-independent plasticity. Because such plasticity models have so few parameters, and the major rheological parameter is a dimensionless internal friction coefficient, some of these simplifications can be seen as consequences of scaling.

  11. Gender verification of female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsas, L J; Ljungqvist, A; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Simpson, J L; Genel, M; Carlson, A S; Ferris, E; de la Chapelle, A; Ehrhardt, A A

    2000-01-01

    The International Olympic Committee (IOC) officially mandated gender verification for female athletes beginning in 1968 and continuing through 1998. The rationale was to prevent masquerading males and women with "unfair, male-like" physical advantage from competing in female-only events. Visual observation and gynecological examination had been tried on a trial basis for two years at some competitions leading up to the 1968 Olympic Games, but these invasive and demeaning processes were jettisoned in favor of laboratory-based genetic tests. Sex chromatin and more recently DNA analyses for Y-specific male material were then required of all female athletes immediately preceding IOC-sanctioned sporting events, and many other international and national competitions following the IOC model. On-site gender verification has since been found to be highly discriminatory, and the cause of emotional trauma and social stigmatization for many females with problems of intersex who have been screened out from competition. Despite compelling evidence for the lack of scientific merit for chromosome-based screening for gender, as well as its functional and ethical inconsistencies, the IOC persisted in its policy for 30 years. The coauthors of this manuscript have worked with some success to rescind this policy through educating athletes and sports governors regarding the psychological and physical nature of sexual differentiation, and the inequities of genetic sex testing. In 1990, the International Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF) called for abandonment of required genetic screening of women athletes, and by 1992 had adopted a fairer, medically justifiable model for preventing only male "impostors" in international track and field. At the recent recommendation of the IOC Athletes Commission, the Executive Board of the IOC has finally recognized the medical and functional inconsistencies and undue costs of chromosome-based methods. In 1999, the IOC ratified the abandonment of on

  12. Cosmic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  13. Dirphia Hübner (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae, Hemileucinae: descrição de uma espécie nova do sul do Brasil e da fêmea de D. rufescens F. Johnson & Michener Dirphia Hübner (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae, Hemileucinae: description of a new species from Southern Brazil and the female of D. rufescens F. Johnson & Michener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. C. Mielke

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma nova espécie de Dirphia Hübner, [1819] do Rio Grande do Sul e de Santa Catarina, Brasil é descrita. Aproxima-se de D.sombrero (Le Cerf, 1934, mas difere pelo tamanho menor e pela genitália masculina (edeago com vesica dorsal, sendo esta provida de espículas dispersas. A fêmea de DirphiarufescensF. Johnson & Michener, 1948 é descrita pela primeira vez e a sua distribuição atualizada.A new species of Dirphia Hübner, [1819] from Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, Brazil is described. Closely related to D.sombrero (Le Cerf, 1934, the new species differs by its smaller size and male genitalia (aedeagus bears dorsal vesica and this shows disperse spiculae. The female of DirphiarufescensF. Johnson & Michener, 1948 is described for the first time and its geographical distribution is updated.

  14. Plant-Mediated Female Transcriptomic Changes Post-Mating in a Tephritid Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burg, Chloé A; Qin, Yujia; Cameron, Stephen L; Clarke, Anthony R; Prentis, Peter J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Female post-mating behaviors are regulated by complex factors involving males, females, and the environment. In insects, plant secondary compounds that males actively forage for, may indirectly modify female behaviors by altering male behavior and physiology. In the tephritid fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, females mated with males previously fed on plant-derived phenylpropanoids (=“lures” based on usage in tephritid literature), have longer mating refractoriness, greater fecundity, and reduced longevity than females mated with non-lure fed males. This system thus provides a model for studying transcriptional changes associated with those post-mating behaviors, as the genes regulating the phenotypic changes are likely to be expressed at a greater magnitude than in control females. We performed comparative transcriptome analyses using virgin B. tryoni females, females mated with control males (control-mated), and females mated with lure-fed males (lure-mated). We found 331 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in control-mated females and 80 additional DEGs in lure-mated females. Although DEGs in control-mated females are mostly immune response genes and chorion proteins, as reported in Drosophila species, DEGs in lure-mated females are titin-like muscle proteins, histones, sperm, and testis expressed proteins which have not been previously reported. While transcripts regulating mating (e.g., lingerer) did not show differential expression in either of the mated female classes, the odorant binding protein Obp56a was down-regulated. The exclusively enriched or suppressed genes in lure-mated females, novel transcripts such as titin and histones, and several taxa-specific transcripts reported here can shed more light on post-mating transcriptional changes, and this can help understand factors possibly regulating female post-mating behaviors. PMID:29220418

  15. Plant-Mediated Female Transcriptomic Changes Post-Mating in a Tephritid Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Nagalingam; van der Burg, Chloé A; Qin, Yujia; Cameron, Stephen L; Clarke, Anthony R; Prentis, Peter J

    2018-01-01

    Female post-mating behaviors are regulated by complex factors involving males, females, and the environment. In insects, plant secondary compounds that males actively forage for, may indirectly modify female behaviors by altering male behavior and physiology. In the tephritid fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, females mated with males previously fed on plant-derived phenylpropanoids (="lures" based on usage in tephritid literature), have longer mating refractoriness, greater fecundity, and reduced longevity than females mated with non-lure fed males. This system thus provides a model for studying transcriptional changes associated with those post-mating behaviors, as the genes regulating the phenotypic changes are likely to be expressed at a greater magnitude than in control females. We performed comparative transcriptome analyses using virgin B. tryoni females, females mated with control males (control-mated), and females mated with lure-fed males (lure-mated). We found 331 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in control-mated females and 80 additional DEGs in lure-mated females. Although DEGs in control-mated females are mostly immune response genes and chorion proteins, as reported in Drosophila species, DEGs in lure-mated females are titin-like muscle proteins, histones, sperm, and testis expressed proteins which have not been previously reported. While transcripts regulating mating (e.g., lingerer) did not show differential expression in either of the mated female classes, the odorant binding protein Obp56a was down-regulated. The exclusively enriched or suppressed genes in lure-mated females, novel transcripts such as titin and histones, and several taxa-specific transcripts reported here can shed more light on post-mating transcriptional changes, and this can help understand factors possibly regulating female post-mating behaviors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  16. Social representations of female orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie-Ajayi, Maya; Joffe, Hélène

    2009-01-01

    This study examines women's social representations of female orgasm. Fifty semi-structured interviews were conducted with British women. The data were thematically analysed and compared with the content of female orgasm-related writing in two women's magazines over a 30-year period. The results indicate that orgasm is deemed the goal of sex with emphasis on its physiological dimension. However, the women and the magazines graft onto this scientifically driven representation the importance of relational and emotive aspects of orgasm. For the women, particularly those who experience themselves as having problems with orgasm, the scientifically driven representations induce feelings of failure, but are also resisted. The findings highlight the role played by the social context in women's subjective experience of their sexual health.

  17. Determinants of female sexual orgasms

    OpenAIRE

    Kontula, Osmo; Miettinen, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    Background: The pursuit of sexual pleasure is a key motivating factor in sexual activity. Many things can stand in the way of sexual orgasms and enjoyment, particularly among women. These are essential issues of sexual well-being and gender equality.Objective: This study presents long-term trends and determinants of female orgasms in Finland. The aim is to analyze the roles of factors such as the personal importance of orgasms, sexual desire, masturbation, clitoral and vaginal stimulation, se...

  18. [Energy balance among female athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arieli, Rakefet; Constantini, Naama

    2012-02-01

    Athletes need to consume sufficient energy to meet their training demands, maintain their health, and if young, to ensure their growth and development. Athletes are often preoccupied by their body weight and shape, and in some sports might be subjected to pressure to lose weight by coaches, peers or themselves. Eating disorders and poor eating habits are prevalent among female athletes, especially in sport disciplines where low body weight is required to improve performance or for "aesthetic" appearance or in weight category sports. Low energy intake has deleterious effects on many systems, including the cardiovascular system, several hormonal pathways, musculoskeletal system, fluids and electrolytes, thermoregulation, growth and development. Various fitness components and overall performance are also negatively affected. All these, together with poor nutritional status that causes vitamin and mineral deficiencies, poor concentration and depression, put the athlete at an increased injury risk. Energy availability is now recognized as the primary factor initiating these health problems. Energy availability is defined as dietary energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure. If below 30 kcal/kg fat free mass per day, reproductive system functions, as well as other metabolic systems, might be suppressed. The case presented is of a young female Judoka, who complained of fatigue and weakness. Medical and nutritional assessment revealed that she suffered from low energy availability, which slowed her growth and development, and negatively affected her health and athletic performance. This case study emphasizes the importance of adequate energy availability in young female athletes in order to ensure their health.

  19. Melanoma of the female urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Ramos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a malignant tumor that can affect any area of the anatomical economy. Its appearance in the female urethra is extremely rare, with approximately 121 cases in indexed literature since 1966. The subject to be described is an 86-year-old woman who seeks assessment for intermittent macroscopic hematuria with blood clots of 3 months progression. On physical examination, there are no suspicious lesions detected on the surface of the skin. On external genital examination, it is observed a friable lesion at the level of the urethral meatus, with heterogeneous digitations, dark brown to black, and irregular polycyclic borders. No inguinal adenomegalies were palpated. Cystourethroscopy and biopsy of the lesion confirm the diagnosis. Melanoma of the female urethra is an extremely infrequent pathology. Due to lack of published case reports and the absence of prospective randomized trials on treatment outcomes, treatment must be directed using the same anatomical and surgical criteria for female urethral tumors, adding also the concepts of treatment of mucosal melanoma, even though its prognosis is different from the before mentioned.

  20. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy LL

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lauren L Levy, Jason J Emer Department of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification. Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride, prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost, and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. Keywords: androgenetic alopecia, female pattern hair loss, minoxidil, finasteride, antiandrogens, spironolactone

  1. Female genital mutilation – why does it still exist in Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Schmöker

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM includes all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia for non-medical reasons. FGM is practised in many parts of the world – including 28 African countries, some countries in the Middle East and Asia, and some population groups in Central and South America. Its prevalence rates range from 0.6% up to 97.9%, and it has been classified as a violation of human and children’s rights. Consequently, several countries have passed laws against the practice and many international programmes have been implemented to abandon it. Yet, FGM still prevails in many countries. This literature review aimed at identifying the underlying reasons for the perpetuation of FGM, ascertaining forces that foster its promotion and persistence and who is responsible for pushing its continuation. The main goal was to try to understand the underlying causes that make FGM resistant against initiatives and campaigns targeting its elimination. A literature search was carried out using several databases. All sources that approached the topic of FGM were incorporated including literature reviews, systematic reviews, qualitative and quantitative as well as mixed-method studies that described attitudes towards FGM and factors associated with its practice. Different factors that were interlinked could be identified at the individual, interpersonal, organisational/institutional as well as the community/societal level as the underlying causes of the perpetuation for FGM. These factors varied within and between different settings, and include individual characteristics such as parents’ level of education, place of residence, personal beliefs (aesthetics, health benefits, hygiene about FGM as well as the medicalisation of FGM and the involvement of health care professionals at the institutional level. Cultural factors like gender inequality, social norms and pressure also played an important role. Surprisingly

  2. Digitonthophagus Balthasar, 1959: taxonomy, systematics, and morphological phylogeny of the genus revealing an African species complex (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Génier, François; Moretto, Philippe

    2017-03-31

    The taxonomy and systematics of the genus Digitonthophagus Balthasar (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae: Onthophagini) is revised. A detailed study of the male genitalia combined with external morphology suggests that the variability, previously recognized, for D. gazella is hiding a species complex within the Afrotropical region and the Arabian Peninsula. The current study recognizes 16 species; 13 from the Afrotropical region and Arabian Peninsula and three from the eastern portion of the Saharo-Arabian region and the continental Indomalayan region. Species are organized into six species groups based on the results of the morphology-based phylogenetic analysis. The following 12 species are described as new: D. aksumensis Génier new species; D. biflagellatus Génier new species; D. dilatatus Génier new species; D. eucatta Génier new species; D. falciger Génier new species; D. fimator Génier new species; D. namaquensis Génier new species; D. petilus Génier new species; D. sahelicus Moretto new species; D. uks Génier new species; D. ulcerosus Génier new species; and D. viridicollis Génier new species. In order to stabilize nomenclature, lectotypes are designated for Scarabaeus bonasus Fabricius, 1775; Scarabaeus catta Fabricius, 1787, and Onthophagus gazella lusinganus d'Orbigny. A neotype is designated for Scarabaeus dorcas Olivier, 1789 whose status and synonymy need to be altered in order to clarify the status of Scarabaeus gazella auctorum, the widely introduced species with economic importance. A naming scheme is presented for the sclerites of the internal sac. External and male genitalia are illustrated and distribution maps are provided for each species.

  3. Tenure Insecurity, Climate Variability and Renting out Decisions among Female Small-Holder Farmers in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisdom Akpalu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Land tenure arrangements in Africa are generally skewed in favour of males. Compared to males, female plot owners face complex sets of constraints and systemic high tenure insecurity which culminate in low yields. In order to obtain better returns, some females rent their plots to males, but risk losing the plots to their tenants. A model has been constructed to explain renting-out decisions of female small landholders, an issue largely ignored in the agricultural economics literature. The results, based on a survey of female landholders in Ethiopia, highlight the factors that explain renting-out decisions.

  4. Invocation Receptivity in Female of Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fik

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The target of this work was verified effect of transport females in the car for advance state of receptivity in young females broiler rabbits. We used nulliparous females of broiler hybrid HYCOLE (age 4-5 months, weight 3.5-3.8 kg. Experiment was realizated twice. First in half of November (31 females, second in half of February (32 females. Females was layed individually in boxes. After they were transported by car 1 hour (50 km. Before and after experiment we detected state of receptivity in females with coloration of vulva. The state of receptivity was determited from 1 for 4 colour of vulva. ( 1 – anemic coloration of vulva, 2- pink, 3 – red, 4- violet. We detected positive state of transport, on the receptivity. In November before transport was average of receptivity 1.87, after transport 2.25. The state of receptivity will be improve in 12 females (38.71 %. Improve from 1 to 2 was detected in 4 females, from 2 to 3 in 8 females. Improved from 2 to 4 , or from 3 to 4 wasn´t noticed in this group. The state of receptivity wasn´t changed in 19 females (61.29 %. In the state of receptivity 1 stayed 2 females, in the state 2 stayed 15 females, in the state 3 stayed 2 females and in the state 4 wasn´t any female. In February after the end of experiment, state of receptivity was improved with transport in the car from 2.19 to 2.65. The state of receptivity was improved in 13 females  (40.63 %.  Improve from 1 to 2 we detected in 1 female, from 2 to 3 we detected in 8 females, from 2 to 4 we detected in 2 females, from 3 to 4 in 2 females. In 19 females (59.38% we don´t noticed change state of receptivity. In the state of receptivity 1 were 2 females, in 2 were 11 females, in 3 were 5 females, in 4 was 1 female.

  5. Adolescent Females and Their Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkman, Julie E.; Silk, Kami J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research indicates environmental factors and personal behaviors are related to breast cancer risk, but adopting a healthy lifestyle as early as adolescence can serve a protective function. To investigate perceptions of breast cancer risk and the environment, 10 focus groups (N = 91) were conducted with adolescent females (n = 55) and mothers (n = 36) across four counties in the Midwest, USA. The Uncertainty Management Theory provides a framework for discussing statements, and results suggest that uncertainty is maintained through ambiguity about environmental risk factors and breast cancer. Recommendations for prevention messages are presented. PMID:18987091

  6. Female facial appearance and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Alan W; Boothroyd, Lynda G

    2012-02-01

    The current study addressed whether rated femininity, attractiveness, and health in female faces are associated with numerous indices of self-reported health history (number of colds/stomach bugs/frequency of antibiotic use) in a sample of 105 females. It was predicted that all three rating variables would correlate negatively with bouts of illness (with the exception of rates of stomach infections), on the assumption that aspects of facial appearance signal mate quality. The results showed partial support for this prediction, in that there was a general trend for both facial femininity and attractiveness to correlate negatively with the reported number of colds in the preceding twelve months and with the frequency of antibiotic use in the last three years and the last twelve months. Rated facial femininity (as documented in September) was also associated with days of flu experienced in the period spanning the November-December months. However, rated health did not correlate with any of the health indices (albeit one marginal result with antibiotic use in the last twelve months). The results lend support to previous findings linking facial femininity to health and suggest that facial femininity may be linked to some aspects of disease resistance but not others.

  7. Aging changes in the female reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004016.htm Aging changes in the female reproductive system To use ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the female reproductive system result mainly ...

  8. Gender and computer games: Exploring females' dislikes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hartmann, Tilo; Klimmt, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    ... important reasons why females disliked the games. Study 2, an online survey (N = 795), revealed that female respondents were less attracted to competitive elements in video games, suggesting an explanation for gender-specific game preferences...

  9. Female Principals and Gender Equity: Dreams Deferred

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barbara Polnick; Dianne Reed; Sylvia Taube; Carrie Butler

    2007-01-01

    ...). One would suspect that there would be an increase in the number of gender equity practices and strategies incorporated in female led schools and that female principals would feel a responsibility...

  10. 7820 THE PREVALENCE OF OBESITY AMONG FEMALE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    -. 35years). ... by establishing the prevalence of obesity among female teachers of child-bearing age. MATERIALS AND ...... Metabolic Complications of Obesity are Reduced in Prader- Willi Syndrome. Female Adults: Evidence ...

  11. The Female Image in Children's TV Commercials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verna, Mary Ellen

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of advertising on children's television programs shows that more than half were male-dominant ads and fewer than one-seventh were female dominated. Female roles were almost entirely dependent and passive. (LS)

  12. The effect of exercise on carbohydrate preference in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, R J; Zelinski, E L; Fehr, L; McDonald, R J

    2014-02-01

    Exercise has a myriad of health benefits, including positive effects against heart disease, diabetes, and dementia. Cognitive performance improves following chronic exercise, both in animal models and humans. Studies have examined the effect of exercise on feeding, demonstrating a preference towards increased food consumption. Further, sex differences exist such that females tend to prefer carbohydrates over other macronutrients following exercise. However, no clear effect of exercise on macronutrient or carbohydrate selection has been described in animal or human studies. This research project sought to determine the effect of voluntary exercise on carbohydrate selection in female rats. Preference for a complex (starch) versus a simple (dextrose) carbohydrate was assessed using a discriminative preference to context paradigm in non-exercising and voluntarily exercising female rats. In addition, fasting blood glucose and performance in the Morris water task was examined in order to verify the effects of exercise on performance in this task. Female rats given access to running wheels preferred a context previously associated with starch, whereas females with no running wheel access preferred a context previously associated with dextrose. No changes in blood glucose were observed. However, cognitive differences in the Morris water task were observed such that voluntary exercise allowed rats to find a new location of a hidden platform following 4 days of training to an old platform location. These results suggest that voluntary exercise may decrease preservative behaviors in a spatial navigation task through the facilitation of plasticity mechanisms. This study is the first of its kind to demonstrate the influence of exercise on taste preference for complex and simple carbohydrates with this context conditioning paradigm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Value Profiles of Male and Female Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Lloyd W., Jr.; Solomon, George T.

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of the values of 86 male and 74 female entrepreneurs found males' highest terminal values being pleasure and true friendship while females' highest terminal values were health and self-respect. High instrumental values for males were ambition and broadmindedness; while for females high instrumental values were honesty and…

  14. Sexual Attractiveness of Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peggy; And Others

    The most important characteristics for females judging the attractiveness of males, and for males judging females, were eyes, body build and facial complexion. Previously, females tended to place less importance on physical components of attraction for both themselves and men. Possible interpretations are: (1) women have become more egalitarian…

  15. Mentoring Connections between Coaches and Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Nancy L.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the role that mentoring could have in helping female athletes become leaders in their sports through coaching, focusing on: women in coaching; the importance of mentoring potential female coaches; successful mentoring relationships for female coaches; and strategies for mentors. This type of collaboration may help reverse the ongoing…

  16. Causes of Sexual Promiscuity Among Female Undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated causes of sexual promiscuity among female undergraduate students in university of Lagos. The sample comprised 150 female undergraduate students randomly selected from all the five female hostels in University of Lagos. A researcher-constructed questionnaire was administered to test the three ...

  17. Female sterilization safe, very effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, S

    1997-01-01

    Compared with other contraceptive methods, female sterilization is highly effective and convenient. Furthermore, with more than 150 million users worldwide, it is also the most widely used contraceptive method in the world. Sterilization does not have the side effects associated with most temporary methods, does not interfere with sexual intercourse, and does not require routine follow-up care or prescription refills. However, permanent and involving surgery, sterilization is not appropriate for every woman in need of contraception. Women interested in sterilization should compare the approach with reversible options and be encouraged to choose the method which is most appropriate for their circumstances and needs. Sterilization counseling must be done carefully and may require more time than counseling for other contraceptive methods. Young women are more likely than older women to later regret their decision to adopt a permanent method of fertility control. Long-term effectiveness, risk, restrictions, and contraindications are discussed.

  18. Social factors regulate female-female aggression and affiliation in prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Catherine M; Cushing, Bruce S; Carter, C Sue

    2002-08-01

    Although patterns of aggression and affiliation may play a major role in social organization, the mechanisms underlying these behaviors are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of social and hormonal experience on female-female aggression and affiliation in prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster. Prairie voles exhibit the traits of social monogamy and tend to live in communal families structured around a male-female pair. It is rare for two unrelated females within a family to successfully reproduce. In this study, the social and/or hormonal experiences of female prairie voles were varied and female-female aggression and affiliation were measured during dyadic encounters with unfamiliar, nonaggressive females. An increase in aggression and decline in affiliative behaviors toward a stimulus female was observed during pregnancy and following male-cohabitation, with or without mating. Pairing with another female did not result in changes in either aggressive or affiliative behaviors toward the stimulus female. Female-female aggression increased and affiliative behaviors declined, with a maximal effect following approximately 8-12 days of male cohabitation. Similar patterns of change were seen in both ovariectomized and gonadally intact females, and treatment with estradiol and subsequent sexual experience did not significantly alter the tendency of females to show aggression or affiliative contact. Social experiences associated with prolonged cohabitation with a male facilitate the induction of female-female aggression; however, ovarian hormones, pregnancy or mating are not essential to induce aggression.

  19. Developmental evidence for obstetric adaptation of the human female pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseynov, Alik; Zollikofer, Christoph P E; Coudyzer, Walter; Gascho, Dominic; Kellenberger, Christian; Hinzpeter, Ricarda; Ponce de León, Marcia S

    2016-05-10

    The bony pelvis of adult humans exhibits marked sexual dimorphism, which is traditionally interpreted in the framework of the "obstetrical dilemma" hypothesis: Giving birth to large-brained/large-bodied babies requires a wide pelvis, whereas efficient bipedal locomotion requires a narrow pelvis. This hypothesis has been challenged recently on biomechanical, metabolic, and biocultural grounds, so that it remains unclear which factors are responsible for sex-specific differences in adult pelvic morphology. Here we address this issue from a developmental perspective. We use methods of biomedical imaging and geometric morphometrics to analyze changes in pelvic morphology from late fetal stages to adulthood in a known-age/known-sex forensic/clinical sample. Results show that, until puberty, female and male pelves exhibit only moderate sexual dimorphism and follow largely similar developmental trajectories. With the onset of puberty, however, the female trajectory diverges substantially from the common course, resulting in rapid expansion of obstetrically relevant pelvic dimensions up to the age of 25-30 y. From 40 y onward females resume a mode of pelvic development similar to males, resulting in significant reduction of obstetric dimensions. This complex developmental trajectory is likely linked to the pubertal rise and premenopausal fall of estradiol levels and results in the obstetrically most adequate pelvic morphology during the time of maximum female fertility. The evidence that hormones mediate female pelvic development and morphology supports the view that solutions of the obstetrical dilemma depend not only on selection and adaptation but also on developmental plasticity as a response to ecological/nutritional factors during a female's lifetime.

  20. Delayed Diagnosis of a 17-Hydroxylase/17,20-Lyase Deficient Patient Presenting as a 46,XY Female: A Low Normal Potassium Level Can Be an Alerting Diagnostic Sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çamtosun, Emine; Şıklar, Zeynep; Ceylaner, Serdar; Kocaay, Pınar; Berberoğlu, Merih

    2017-06-01

    17-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency (17-OHD), a rare autosomal recessive defect in adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis, causes absence of secondary sexual characteristics and frequently associated with hypertension and hypokalemia. Here, we report a 46,XY case who had normal potassium levels and no hypertension. Our patient was a 2.5-year-old female admitted with female external genitalia and inguinal swelling. Pathology of biopsy revealed that this gonad was a testis. Karyotype was 46,XY. She had no hypertension and no hypokalemia. Serum luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels were high; testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and androstenedione were low. Human chorionic gonadotrophin stimulation resulted in partial testosterone response. She was initially diagnosed as partial gonadal dysgenesis or testosterone synthesis defect. In her follow-up after noticing low normal potassium levels at age 9 years, progesterone level was measured and detected to be high. Adrenocorticotropic hormone-stimulated steroid measurements were consistent with 17-OHD. Genetic analyses revealed p. R96Q (c.287G>A) homozygous mutation on exon 1 of CYP17A1 gene. In conclusion, evaluation of 46,XY disorder of sex development patients must include serum potassium levels, and near low levels of potassium levels should also suggest 17-OHD despite absence of hypertension or remarkable hypokalemia. Testosterone synthesis defects must be excluded before establishing the diagnosis of partial gonadal dysgenesis.

  1. Postcopulatory sexual selection: Darwin's omission and its consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, William G

    2009-06-16

    In one of his few major oversights, Darwin failed to appreciate that male-male competition and sexual selection can continue even after copulation has begun. The postcopulatory equivalents of both direct male-male battles (sperm competition) and female choice (cryptic female choice) occur within the female's body. Recognition of this hidden, but intense, sexual competition provides new insights into a variety of fields. These include the hyperdiverse and paradoxically elaborate morphology of both sperm and male genitalia, the equally puzzling and elaborate morphology of nongenitalic male structures that are specialized to grasp and stimulate females, powerful manipulative effects of substances in male semen on female reproductive physiology, paradoxical male courtship behavior that occurs after copulation has already begun, variability in parental investments, and the puzzlingly complex and diverse interactions between sperm and female products that surround animal eggs and between male gametophytes and female tissues in flowering plants. Many bizarre traits are involved, including male genitalia that are designed to explode or fall apart during copulation leaving behind parts within the female, male genitalia that "sing" during copulation, potent seminal products that invade the female's body cavity and her nervous system to influence her behavior, and a virtual Kama Sutra of courtship behavior performed after rather than before genital coupling, including male-female dialogues during copulation.

  2. Demography can favour female-advantageous alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harts, Anna M F; Schwanz, Lisa E; Kokko, Hanna

    2014-09-07

    When female fecundity is relatively independent of male abundance, while male reproduction is proportional to female abundance, females have a larger effect on population dynamics than males (i.e. female demographic dominance). This population dynamic phenomenon might not appear to influence evolution, because male and female genomes still contribute equally much to the next generation. However, here we examine two evolutionary scenarios to provide a proof of principle that spatial structure can make female demographic dominance matter. Our two simulation models combine dispersal evolution with local adaptation subjected to intralocus sexual conflict and environmentally driven sex ratio biases, respectively. Both models have equilibria where one environment (without being intrinsically poorer) has so few reproductive females that trait evolution becomes disproportionately determined by those environments where females survive better (intralocus sexual conflict model), or where daughters are overproduced (environmental sex determination model). Surprisingly, however, the two facts that selection favours alleles that benefit females, and population growth is improved when female fitness is high, together do not imply that all measures of population performance are improved. The sex-specificity of the source-sink dynamics predicts that populations can evolve to fail to persist in habitats where alleles do poorly when expressed in females. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Vitamin D deficiency among healthy Egyptian females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botros, Raif M; Sabry, Inas M; Abdelbaky, Rania S; Eid, Yara M; Nasr, Merihan S; Hendawy, Laila M

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is becoming endemic in many parts of the world. To study vitamin D status in Egyptian females of different age groups. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 404 females, who were categorized into group 1 (51 nursing females); group 2 (50 pregnant females); group 3 (208 females of childbearing age); group 4 (38 elderly females); and group 5 (57 geriatric females). Females completed a questionnaire regarding dietary calcium and vitamin D intake, sun exposure, and clothing habits, and performed laboratory tests including calcium, PO4, alkaline phosphatase, intact PTH, and 25-OH vitamin D levels. Median and IQR of vitamin D levels across groups 1, 2, 3 and 5 were in the deficient range, being lowest in groups 3, 5, and 1, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 72.6% of the nursing group, 54% of the pregnant group, 72% of the childbearing age group, 39.5% of the elderly group, and 77.2% of the geriatric group. Vitamin D was significantly higher in non-veiled females [23ng/dl] as compared to veiled females [16.7ng/dl]. Vitamin D levels with poor, fair, and good sun exposure were 14.1, 14, and 37ng/dl, respectively. These results show a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy Egyptian females. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. The Physiology of Female Sexual Function and the Pathophysiology of Female Sexual Dysfunction (Committee 13A)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levin, Roy J.; Both, Stephanie; Georgiadis, Janniko; Kukkonen, Tuuli; Park, Kwangsung; Yang, Claire C.

    Introduction: The article consists of six sections written by separate authors that review female genital anatomy, the physiology of female sexual function, and the pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction but excluding hormonal aspects. Aim: To review the physiology of female sexual function

  5. An incident of female-female aggression in the house wren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alworth, T; Scheiber, IBR

    In this paper we describe one example of female-female aggression in the House Wren (Troglodytes aedon). An intruding female usurped the resident female and paired with the resident male. House Wrens are known for committing infanticide as well as puncturing and removing eggs of conspecifics and

  6. Male age and female mate choice in a synchronizing katydid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartbauer, M; Siegert, M E; Römer, H

    2015-08-01

    In acoustically communicating species, females often evaluate the frequency content, signal duration and the temporal signal pattern to gain information about the age of the signaller. This is different in the synchronizing bush cricket Mecopoda elongata where females select males on the basis of relative signal timing in duets. In a longitudinal approach, we recorded songs of M. elongata males produced 2 weeks (young male) and 9 weeks (old male) after their ultimate moult. Signal timing of both age categories was studied in acoustic interactions, and female preference was investigated in choice situations. Young male chirps were significantly shorter and contained less energy compared to "old chirps". In mixed-age duets younger males timed their chirps as leader significantly more often. Females preferred the young male chirp when broadcast as leader over the old male chirp, but choice was random when the old male chirp was leader. This choice asymmetry was abolished after reducing the duration of the "old chirp". Results were mirrored in response of a bilateral pair of auditory neurons, where the asymmetry in spike count and first-spike latency correlated with behaviour. We suggest that older males may compensate their disadvantage in a more complex chorus situation.

  7. The influence of menstrual cycle and androstadienone on female stress reactions: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka Chun eChung

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Communicating threats and stress via biological signaling is common in animals. In humans, androstadienone (ANDR, a synthetic male steroid, is a socially relevant chemosignal exhibited to increase positive mood and cortisol levels specifically in (periovulatory females in positively arousing contexts. In a negative context, we expected that such effects of ANDR could amplify social evaluative threat depending on the stress sensitivity, which differs between menstrual cycle phases. Therefore, this fMRI study aimed to examine psychosocial stress reactions on behavioral, hormonal and neural levels in 31 naturally cycling females, between 15 early follicular (EF and 16 mid-luteal (ML females tested with ANDR and placebo treatment in a repeated-measures design.Regardless of odor stimulation, psychosocial stress (i.e. mental arithmetic task with social evaluative threat led to elevated negative mood and anxiety in all females. A negative association of social threat related amygdala activation and competence ratings appeared in ML-females, indicating enhanced threat processing by ANDR, particularly in ML-females who felt less competent early in the stress experience. Further, ML-females showed reduced performance and stronger stress-related hippocampus activation compared to EF-females under ANDR. Hippocampal activation in ML-females also correlated positively with post-stress subjective stress. Contrarily, such patterns were not observed in EF-females or under placebo in either group. Strikingly, unlike passive emotional processing, ANDR in a stressful context decreased cortisol concentration in all females. This points to a more complex interaction of ovarian/gonadal hormones in social threat processing and stress reactivity.Our findings suggest that ANDR enhanced initial evaluation of self-related social threat in ML-females. Female stress reactions are related to stress sensitivity through enhanced awareness and processing of social cues in a

  8. The Influence of Menstrual Cycle and Androstadienone on Female Stress Reactions: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ka Chun; Peisen, Felix; Kogler, Lydia; Radke, Sina; Turetsky, Bruce; Freiherr, Jessica; Derntl, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Communicating threats and stress via biological signaling is common in animals. In humans, androstadienone (ANDR), a synthetic male steroid, is a socially relevant chemosignal exhibited to increase positive mood and cortisol levels specifically in (periovulatory) females in positively arousing contexts. In a negative context, we expected that such effects of ANDR could amplify social evaluative threat depending on the stress sensitivity, which differs between menstrual cycle phases. Therefore, this fMRI study aimed to examine psychosocial stress reactions on behavioral, hormonal and neural levels in 31 naturally cycling females, between 15 early follicular (EF) and 16 mid-luteal (ML) females tested with ANDR and placebo treatment in a repeated-measures design. Regardless of odor stimulation, psychosocial stress (i.e., mental arithmetic task with social evaluative threat) led to elevated negative mood and anxiety in all females. A negative association of social threat related amygdala activation and competence ratings appeared in ML-females, indicating enhanced threat processing by ANDR, particularly in ML-females who felt less competent early in the stress experience. Further, ML-females showed reduced performance and stronger stress-related hippocampus activation compared to EF-females under ANDR. Hippocampal activation in ML-females also correlated positively with post-stress subjective stress. Contrarily, such patterns were not observed in EF-females or under placebo in either group. Strikingly, unlike passive emotional processing, ANDR in a stressful context decreased cortisol concentration in all females. This points to a more complex interaction of ovarian/gonadal hormones in social threat processing and stress reactivity. Our findings suggest that ANDR enhanced initial evaluation of self-related social threat in ML-females. Female stress reactions are related to stress sensitivity through enhanced awareness and processing of social cues in a stressful

  9. Stress, cortisol and reproduction in female pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, A I; Tilbrook, A J

    2006-01-01

    Two key hypotheses emerge in the literature regarding the impact of stress on reproduction in females of any species. First, prolonged stress impairs reproduction in females. Secondly, acute stress impairs reproduction, if it occurs at a critical time during the precisely timed series of endocrine events that induce oestrus and ovulation. We reviewed studies conducted in female pigs to find support or opposition for these hypotheses in female pigs. We also considered the role of cortisol. We found confirmation that prolonged stress or the prolonged elevation of cortisol can impair reproductive processes in female pigs, but also found that there appear to be some female pigs in which reproduction is resistant to such treatments. Reproduction in female pigs appears to be resistant to acute or repeated acute stress or elevation of cortisol, even if these occur during the series of precisely timed endocrine events that induce oestrus and ovulation. Thus, we propose modified versions of the above hypotheses that are specific to female pigs. Furthermore, while cortisol may mediate the effects of prolonged stress on reproduction in female pigs, there is evidence that, in female pigs, ACTH may require the presence of the adrenal glands to impair reproduction rather than having direct effects.

  10. Taurodontism in females with extra X chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varrela, J; Alvesalo, L

    1989-01-01

    The association between taurodontism and extra X chromosomes was studied in four 47,XXX-females and in two 48,XXXX-females. Occurrence of the trait in the permanent mandibular molars was noted from orthopantomograms. Five first-degree relatives and a sample of 157 normal males and females were investigated as controls. Two of the 47,XXX-females and both 48,XXX-females each had at least one mandibular molar classified as taurodont. The two affected 47,XXX-females had hypotaurodont or mesotaurodont teeth, whereas both 48,XXXX-females showed hypertaurodontism. The manidubular molars of the other two 47,XXX females had normal root morphology. The only control relative with taurodont teeth was a sister to a 48,XXXX-female. In the population control group, four females had taurodont teeth. These results support the concept that a prevalence of taurodontism increases as the number of X chromosomes increases and also indicate that expression of the trait and the number of X chromosomes may be positively correlated. It is suggested that the X chromosome gene(s) influencing development of enamel may be involved in the development of taurodontism.

  11. Female song in New World wood warblers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadje eNajar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances have revealed that female birdsong is widespread and multifunctional. Female song was likely ancestral among songbirds and persists in many lineages today. Nevertheless, many species lack female song, and researchers are interested in understanding the selective factors that promote and counter the persistence of this trait. Female song is associated with life-history traits including year-round territoriality, non-migratory behavior, sexual monochromatism, and monogamy. Most studies examining these relationships have looked at clades with a migratory ancestor and have found that gains of migratory behavior are strongly correlated with losses of female song (and duetting. Here we ask if the reverse pattern exists: in a large clade of songbirds with a migratory ancestor, do losses of migratory behavior correlate with gains of female song and visual signaling traits? We investigated correlations between female song, migration and dichromatism in 107 species of New World Warblers (Family Parulidae. All of these species are predominantly monogamous and territorial when breeding, 50 (47% are migratory, 49 (46% are monochromatic, and 25 (23% show female song. On a robust genetic phylogeny maximum likelihood methods recover migration and monochromatism as the ancestral state in warblers. Female song is generally not reconstructed as present in any deep nodes of the phylogeny, indicating that most extant species with female song evolved this trait independently and relatively recently. Gains of female song do not correlate with losses of migration. Losses of dichromatism do correlate with losses of migration. Thus, in this clade, visual signals are associated with sedentary versus migratory lifestyles, but female acoustic signals are not. Our results show a different pattern from that seen in similar studies and support the hypothesis that losses, but not gains, of female song are driven by life history.

  12. [Female urinary incontinence: An update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ruiz de León, C; Pérez-Haro, M L; Jalón-Monzón, A; García-Rodríguez, J

    The urinary incontinence is a highly prevalent symptom in the adult female population. It has important psychosocial and economic connotations, and affects the quality of life of these patients. As it is an under-diagnosed problem due to patients not always consulting for it, it is very important to keep this in mind and to provide an opportunistic screening from Primary Health Care. It is difficult to determine the costs of this, but it is estimated to be the 2% of the health budget. Because of all of this, it is very important to know how to make a correct diagnose of this condition, to determine the different types of incontinence, possible causes, and treatments available. The purpose of this review is to show the different diagnostic and therapeutic tools available, to show the Primary Health Care role in this condition, and when to refer to specialist care. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Anatomy and transcript profiling of gynoecium development in female sterile Brassica napus mediated by one alien chromosome from Orychophragmus violaceus

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Wen-qin; Zhao, Zhi-gang; Ge, Xian-hong; Ding, Li; Li, Zai-yun

    2014-01-01

    Background The gynoecium is one of the most complex organs of angiosperms specialized for seed production and dispersal, but only several genes important for ovule or embryo sac development were identified by using female sterile mutants. The female sterility in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) was before found to be related with one alien chromosome from another crucifer Orychophragmus violaceus. Herein, the developmental anatomy and comparative transcript profiling (RNA-seq) for the female ste...

  14. Physical therapy management of female chronic pelvic pain: Anatomic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Susan E; Clinton, Susan C; Borello-France, Diane F

    2013-01-01

    The multisystem nature of female chronic pelvic pain (CPP) makes this condition a challenge for physical therapists and other health care providers to manage. This article uses a case scenario to illustrate commonly reported somatic, visceral, and neurologic symptoms and their associated health and participation impact in a female with CPP. Differential diagnosis of pain generators requires an in-depth understanding of possible anatomic and physiologic contributors to this disorder. This article provides a detailed discussion of the relevant clinical anatomy with specific attention to complex interrelationships between anatomic structures potentially leading to the patient's pain. In addition, it describes the physical therapy management specific to this case, including examination, differential diagnosis, and progression of interventions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Performance or appearance? Young female sport participants' body negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunde, Carolina; Gattario, Kristina Holmqvist

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to examine young female sport participants' experiences and thoughts in terms of sport, their bodies, and social appearance norms. Six focus groups with female sport participants (N=25) from Sweden were conducted. Participants raised many positive experiences in relation to their sport participation, but they also witnessed a conflict in the intersection between the culture within their sport (emphasizing physical performance) and the culture outside their sport (emphasizing physical appearance). Through thematic analysis, four themes illustrating the balancing act between these two cultures were formed: (a) the performing body versus the objectified body, (b) food as fuel versus source of shame, (c) appreciation of body type diversity versus appearance prejudice, and (d) empowerment and agency versus disempowerment and restraints. The findings of this study indicate that young women who engage in sport have to face complex, ambiguous, and restricting norms and notions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Body Image and the Female Adolescent Oncology Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Alison Joy

    2016-01-01

    Female adolescent oncology patients undergo many physical changes throughout treatment that have challenging psychological, emotional, and social implications. Body image for this population is a subject that tends to be overlooked in the midst of the cancer experience. This article will examine the complex concept of body image and discuss why female adolescent patients are at such high risk for negative body image. Assessment and care strategies are needed to foster a positive body image, resiliency, and overall well-being. Although survivorship studies may offer insightful information about the effects of the cancer journey on long-term body image, focus should be on prevention and holistic care as part of the treatment itself. The health care team, especially nursing professionals, should acknowledge, recognize, and address this vital issue as a critical part of oncology care. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  17. Standard Operating Procedures for Female Genital Sexual Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl-Meyer, Kerstin S; Bohm-Starke, Nina; Damsted Petersen, Christina

    2012-01-01

    , but rather a localized genial pain syndrome, others adhere to using clearly sexually related terms such as dyspareunia and vaginismus. Aim.  The aims of this brief review are to present definitions of the different types of female GSP. Their etiology, incidence, prevalence, and comorbidity with somatic...... and psychological disorders are highlighted, and different somatic and psychological assessment and treatment modalities are discussed. Methods.  The Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) committee was composed of a chair and five additional experts. No corporate funding or remuneration was received. The authors...... therapeutic interventions. However, this international expert group will recommend guidelines for management of female GSP. Conclusions.  GSP disorders are complex. It is recommended that their evaluation and treatment are performed through comprehensive somato-psychological multidisciplinary approach. Fugl...

  18. A Major Locus Controls a Genital Shape Difference Involved in Reproductive Isolation Between Drosophila yakuba and Drosophila santomea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluffo, Alexandre E; Nuez, Isabelle; Debat, Vincent; Savisaar, Rosina; Stern, David L; Orgogozo, Virginie

    2015-10-28

    Rapid evolution of genitalia shape, a widespread phenomenon in animals with internal fertilization, offers the opportunity to dissect the genetic architecture of morphological evolution linked to sexual selection and speciation. Most quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping studies of genitalia divergence have focused on Drosophila melanogaster and its three most closely related species, D. simulans, D. mauritiana, and D. sechellia, and have suggested that the genetic basis of genitalia evolution involves many loci. We report the first genetic study of male genitalia evolution between D. yakuba and D. santomea, two species of the D. melanogaster species subgroup. We focus on male ventral branches, which harm females during interspecific copulation. Using landmark-based geometric morphometrics, we characterized shape variation in parental species, F1 hybrids, and backcross progeny and show that the main axis of shape variation within the backcross population matches the interspecific variation between parental species. For genotyping, we developed a new molecular method to perform multiplexed shotgun genotyping (MSG), which allowed us to prepare genomic DNA libraries from 365 backcross individuals in a few days using little DNA. We detected only three QTL, one of which spans 2.7 Mb and exhibits a highly significant effect on shape variation that can be linked to the harmfulness of the ventral branches. We conclude that the genetic architecture of genitalia morphology divergence may not always be as complex as suggested by previous studies. Copyright © 2015 Peluffo et al.

  19. Restorative justice with \\ud female offenders: The \\ud neglected role of gender in \\ud restorative conferencing

    OpenAIRE

    Osterman, Linnea; Masson, Isla

    2018-01-01

    This article presents findings from a new qualitative study into female offenders’ experiences of restorative conferencing in England and Wales. It is argued that gendered factors of crime and victimization have a definite impact on the restorative conference process, particularly in the areas of complex and interacting needs, differently natured conference engagements, and risks around shame, mental health, and stereotypical ideals of female behavior. For women to reap the full benefits of r...

  20. SEXAGEM FETAL PELA ULTRA-SONOGRAFIA IDENTIFICANDO-SE O TUBÉRCULO GENITAL OU A GENITÁLIA EXTERNA DE CAPRINOS DA RAÇA ALPINA AMERICANA FETAL SEXING BY ULTRASONOGRAPHY IDENTIFYING THE GENITAL TUBERCLE OR EXTERNAL GENITALIA OF AMERICAN ALPINE GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Pereira Neves

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho objetivou-se diagnosticar precoce¬mente o sexo de fetos caprinos da raça Alpina Americana através da ultra-sonografia, identificando-se a posição final do tubérculo genital (TG ou visualizando-se as estruturas anatômicas da genitália externa, bem como avaliar a acu¬rácia da sexagem fetal resultante de exame único ou repe¬tido. No Grupo I (GI, identificou-se o sexo levando-se em consideração o posicionamento final do TG, e no Grupo II (GII a presença de estruturas anatômicas da genitália externa. Realizaram-se os exames por via transretal com aparelho de ultra-som (240 Parus - Pie Medical equipado com transdutor linear de 6 e 8 MHz. No GI, 52 fetos de 32 matrizes foram monitorados em intervalos de doze horas, do 40º ao 60º dia de gestação. No GII, submeteram-se 34 fetos de 24 matrizes com gestação entre 45 e 70 dias a exame único. A acurácia da sexagem no GI foi de 100% na gestação simples, 87,5% na dupla e 66,7% na tríplice, sen¬do registrada diferença significativa (P < 0,05 entre gesta¬ção simples e tríplice. No GII, a acurácia foi de 85,7% na gestação simples e de 80,0% na dupla, não sendo obser¬vada diferença (P > 0,05 entre ambas. A migração do TG genital ocorreu, em média, no 46,4 ± 2,1 dia de gestação. Os resultados permitem concluir que a ultra-sonografia é um método apropriado para diagnosticar precocemente o sexo fetal através da identificação da posição final do TG ou da visualização de estruturas anatômicas da genitália externa e que exames repetidos não aumentam a acurácia da sexagem fetal na gestação múltipla. PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Bolsa escrotal, prepúcio, tetas, vulva. The aim of this study was to diagnostic previously the gender of American Alpine fetuses by ultrasonography identifying the final position of the genital tubercle (GT or viewing the anatomical structures of external genitalia, as well as to evaluate the accuracy of fetal sexing by single

  1. Factors that drive female entrepreneurship in Armenia

    OpenAIRE

    Hayrapetyan, Meri; Nunes, Alcina; Turyan, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurs play a key role in any economy. Entrepreneurship includes creativity, innovation, risk taking, planning and management and is described as transferring ideas into action. In the light of recent world events, female entrepreneurship has become a crucial area to study and understand, especially with respect to motivations, obstacles, constraints and consequences of female entrepreneurship. The research work focuses on female entrepreneurship in a developing country ...

  2. Injury prediction in female gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, V A; White, J A

    1986-01-01

    In order to identify injury-proneness in female competitive gymnasts, 20 measures of flexibility, hypermobility, spinal posture and anthropometry were performed on 40 competitive gymnasts and injury scores were derived from the severity and extent of previous gymnastic injury and inherent hypermobility traits. Results were compared between contrasting groups of "low" and "high" injury gymnasts respectively (both N = 10). Nine variables demonstrated significant differences between the "low" and "high" injury risk status groups namely, weight (p less than 0.001), height (p less than 0.001), age (p less than 0.001), mesomorphy (p less than 0.01), Quetelet Index (p less than 0.01), shoulder flexion (p less than 0.05) and lumbar extension (p less than 0.05), standing lumbar curvature and total peripheral flexibility score (both p less than or equal to 0.05). Multiple regression analysis was applied to determine the relative contribution of these variables to the estimation of injury-proneness as evidenced by previous history of injury and hypermobility traits. Using 9 independent variables, multiple regression yielded a multiple correlation coefficient (R) = 0.840, accounting for over 70% of the observed variance (R2 = 0.706) in injury scores among the total group of gymnasts. However, a subset of five variables, (weight, mesomorphy, standing lumbar curvature, age and height) yielded a multiple correlation coefficient (R) = 0.834 accounting for almost 70% of the observed variance (R2 = 0.696). This was not significantly different from the larger subset. Using injury classification system of "low", "medium", and "high" risk categories, comparisons were made between predicted and observed injury scores in the respective risk categories. In "high" risk and "low" risk gymnasts, injury scores could be classified correctly with 70% and 79% accuracy respectively, so that relative risk status could be determined from simple physical tests which may be employed by practitioners

  3. Transplantation of female genital organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännström, Mats; Díaz-García, César

    2011-04-01

    Transplantation of gynecological organs is a medical field where considerable advancements have been made in research during the last 25 years and with some procedures already introduced as clinical treatments. These types of transplantations aim at curing permanent infertility. Uterus transplantation has been proven to be a feasible procedure in different experimentation animal models with proof of concept concerning surgery, control of rejection and fertility. There has already been one human transplantation attempt, which, however, was unsuccessful. Based on the progress in this area, we predict that the first successful uterus transplantation attempt will come within 2-3 years. Orthotopic ovarian cortex transplantation has overcome the status of an experimental procedure since more than 20 pregnancies have been reported. Its main field of application is fertility preservation in oncologic patients undergoing high gonadotoxic risk therapies. The role of heterotopic ovarian cortex transplantation still remains at the research level, although co-transplantation with an orthotopic cortex might facilitate a more accurate endocrine environment. The major drawback of ovarian cortex transplantation remains the long ischemic interval between re-implantation and the establishment of neovascularization. Whole ovary cryopreservation followed by transplantation through vascular anastomosis may emerge as an important procedure in this field, because the warm ischemic time would be reduced from several days to less than 1 h, which will most likely improve follicle survival. In summary, transplantation surgery is also entering the field of gynecology and in the future several types of transplantations of organs/tissues of the female reproductive tract may become established clinical procedures. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Psychosocial and sexual aspects of female circumcision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abdel-Azim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual behavior is a result of interaction of biology and psychology. Sexual excitement of the female can be triggered by stimulation of erotogenic areas; part of which is the clitoris. Female circumcision is done to minimize sexual desire and to preserve virginity. This procedure can lead to psychological trauma to the child; with anxiety, panic attacks and sense of humiliation. Cultural traditions and social pressures can affect as well the unexcised girl. Female circumcision can reduce female sexual response, and may lead to anorgasmia and even frigidity. This procedure is now prohibited by law in Egypt.

  5. The evolution of female sex pheromones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ally R. HARARI, Hadass STEINITZ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of female sex pheromones in natural selection, particularly as a means for species recognition to avoid the generation of hybrid offspring with low fitness, has been widely explored and is generally accepted by scholars. However, the significance of sex pheromones in shaping mate choice (sexual selection and in competition over breeding resources (social selection has been largely ignored. The effect of sexual selection on sex pheromones as a sexually dimorphic signaling trait has been discounted because the amount of pheromone released by females is typically minute, while the role of sex pheromones in competition over breeding resources (other than mates has not yet been considered. As a result of natural selection, variation in sex pheromones among females is expected to be low, and males are not expected to choose their mates among pheromone-releasing conspecific females. Sexual selection, on the other hand, should drive the increase in pheromone variance among females, and males are expected to choose females based on this variation. Moreover, social selection resulting from more general social interactions, for example competition among females for breeding sites and food, should also promote variance among female sex pheromones. Here, we review the current evidence for each of the three selection processes acting on sex pheromones of female moths as an advertising trait. We suggest that the three selection types are not mutually exclusive but rather act together to promote different fitness components in diverse ecological situations [Current Zoology 59 (4: 569–578, 2013].

  6. Low Complexity Bayesian Single Channel Source Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beierholm, Thomas; Pedersen, Brian Dam; Winther, Ole

    2004-01-01

    . Simulations with separation of a male and a female speaker using priors trained on the same speakers show comparable performance with the blind separation approach of G.-J. Jang and T.-W. Lee (see NIPS, vol.15, 2003) with a SNR improvement of 4.9 dB for both the male and female speaker. Mixing coefficients...... keeping the complexity low using machine learning and CASA (computational auditory scene analysis) approaches (Jang and Lee, 2003; Roweis, S.T., 2001; Wang, D.L. and Brown, G.J., 1999; Hu, G. and Wang, D., 2003)....

  7. Structure and function of the spermathecal complex in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... relationships between the volumes of the sperm and the spermatheca were calculated to determine sperm utilization and fecundity of P. papatasi. As the females of P. papatasi mate polyandrously, the anatomical and physiological complexity of the spermathecal complex may be related to post-copulatory sexual selection ...

  8. Behavioral and physiological female responses to male sex ratio bias in a pond-breeding amphibian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grayson Kristine L

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The phenomenon of sexual conflict has been well documented, and in populations with biased operational sex ratios the consequences for the rarer sex can be severe. Females are typically a limited resource and males often evolve aggressive mating behaviors, which can improve individual fitness for the male while negatively impacting female condition and fitness. In response, females can adjust their behavior to minimize exposure to aggressive mating tactics or minimize the costs of mating harassment. While male-male competition is common in amphibian mating systems, little is known about the consequences or responses of females. The red-spotted newt (Notophthalmus viridescens is a common pond-breeding amphibian with a complex, well-studied mating system where males aggressively court females. Breeding populations across much of its range have male-biased sex ratios and we predicted that female newts would have behavioral mechanisms to mitigate mating pressure from males. We conducted four experiments examining the costs and behavioral responses of female N. viridescens exposed to a male-biased environment. Results In field enclosures, we found that female newts exposed to a male-biased environment during the five-month breeding season ended with lower body condition compared to those in a female-biased environment. Shorter-term exposure to a male-biased environment for five weeks caused a decrease in circulating total leukocyte and lymphocyte abundance in blood, which suggests females experienced physiological stress. In behavioral experiments, we found that females were more agitated in the presence of male chemical cues and females in a male-biased environment spent more time in refuge than those in a female-biased environment. Conclusions Our results indicate that male-biased conditions can incur costs to females of decreased condition and potentially increased risk of infection. However, we found that females can also

  9. End-of Life Care and Barriers for Female Inmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Susan J.; Penrod, Janice; Hollenbeak, Christopher S.; Smith, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    The number of female inmates is growing, and their average age is increasing. As a result, end-of-life care is situated in a highly restrictive environment with a focus on security rather than comfort. We describe the need for and potential barriers to humane care and provide care strategies that can be useful in a complex organizational system. Frontline workers such as nurses who understand the balance between care and control must promote change in the women’s prison system. PMID:21645114

  10. Determinants of female sexual orgasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontula, Osmo; Miettinen, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    Background The pursuit of sexual pleasure is a key motivating factor in sexual activity. Many things can stand in the way of sexual orgasms and enjoyment, particularly among women. These are essential issues of sexual well-being and gender equality. Objective This study presents long-term trends and determinants of female orgasms in Finland. The aim is to analyze the roles of factors such as the personal importance of orgasms, sexual desire, masturbation, clitoral and vaginal stimulation, sexual self-esteem, communication with partner, and partner’s sexual techniques. Design In Finland, five national sex surveys that are based on random samples from the central population register have been conducted. They are representative of the total population within the age range of 18–54 years in 1971 (N=2,152), 18–74 years in 1992 (N=2,250), 18–81 years in 1999 (N=1,496), 18–74 years in 2007 (N=2,590), and 18–79 years in 2015 (N=2,150). Another dataset of 2,049 women in the age group of 18–70 years was collected in 2015 via a national Internet panel. Results Contrary to expectations, women did not have orgasms that are more frequent by increasing their experience and practice of masturbation, or by experimenting with different partners in their lifetime. The keys to their more frequent orgasms lay in mental and relationship factors. These factors and capacities included orgasm importance, sexual desire, sexual self-esteem, and openness of sexual communication with partners. Women valued their partner’s orgasm more than their own. In addition, positive determinants were the ability to concentrate, mutual sexual initiations, and partner’s good sexual techniques. A relationship that felt good and worked well emotionally, and where sex was approached openly and appreciatively, promoted orgasms. Conclusion The findings indicate that women differ greatly from one another in terms of their tendency and capacity to experience orgasms. The improvements in gender

  11. Determinants of female sexual orgasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontula, Osmo; Miettinen, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    The pursuit of sexual pleasure is a key motivating factor in sexual activity. Many things can stand in the way of sexual orgasms and enjoyment, particularly among women. These are essential issues of sexual well-being and gender equality. This study presents long-term trends and determinants of female orgasms in Finland. The aim is to analyze the roles of factors such as the personal importance of orgasms, sexual desire, masturbation, clitoral and vaginal stimulation, sexual self-esteem, communication with partner, and partner's sexual techniques. In Finland, five national sex surveys that are based on random samples from the central population register have been conducted. They are representative of the total population within the age range of 18-54 years in 1971 ( N =2,152), 18-74 years in 1992 ( N =2,250), 18-81 years in 1999 ( N =1,496), 18-74 years in 2007 ( N =2,590), and 18-79 years in 2015 ( N =2,150). Another dataset of 2,049 women in the age group of 18-70 years was collected in 2015 via a national Internet panel. Contrary to expectations, women did not have orgasms that are more frequent by increasing their experience and practice of masturbation, or by experimenting with different partners in their lifetime. The keys to their more frequent orgasms lay in mental and relationship factors. These factors and capacities included orgasm importance, sexual desire, sexual self-esteem, and openness of sexual communication with partners. Women valued their partner's orgasm more than their own. In addition, positive determinants were the ability to concentrate, mutual sexual initiations, and partner's good sexual techniques. A relationship that felt good and worked well emotionally, and where sex was approached openly and appreciatively, promoted orgasms. The findings indicate that women differ greatly from one another in terms of their tendency and capacity to experience orgasms. The improvements in gender equality and sexual education since the 1970s have not

  12. Female sexuality, regulation and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, R; Price, J

    1994-06-01

    India was the context for this discussion of female sexuality, rigid social norms, women's strategies for resistance, the evolution of norms from colonial India, prostitution, myths, and self-help women's activities. Sexuality is a changing set of ideas, and women have contributed to the redefinition. The biological view without consideration of the sociocultural and historical influences proscribes what is deviant and may be used to reinforce patriarchy and colonialism. Management and control of sexuality has been influenced by class, religion, caste, and ethnicity. During the colonial period, women's sexuality and treatment was challenged by the missionaries. The abolishment of "sati" as a traditional practice was used by the British to expand their rule and control over a wider regional area. Attempts were also made to regulate prostitution as means of protecting the health of the British army. The law requiring registration, examination, and commitment for treatment of prostitutes was not adhered to by the women involved. The notion of mothers as irresponsible came into being about 1900, and encouraged abandonment of traditional child- rearing ways for the Western standard of health and hygiene, and lifestyle. In Bengal, motherhood and mother qoddesses became the symbol of the liberation movement. The maternal role could be strengthened through education. The notion of mother and nationhood was supported by the women's movement in Great Britain and the US through positive eugenics ideas of quality race, which supported the ruling elite of British and Indians. Thus, the high class women were to be protected from early marriage, and encouraged to produce children fit to govern; the poor were to be protected from prostitution and overpopulation. Post colonial ideas about sexuality reflected a number of influences both from within and outside India. Health was a focus, and program targets were those who were outside the norm: women with too many children

  13. Determinants of female sexual orgasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmo Kontula

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pursuit of sexual pleasure is a key motivating factor in sexual activity. Many things can stand in the way of sexual orgasms and enjoyment, particularly among women. These are essential issues of sexual well-being and gender equality. Objective: This study presents long-term trends and determinants of female orgasms in Finland. The aim is to analyze the roles of factors such as the personal importance of orgasms, sexual desire, masturbation, clitoral and vaginal stimulation, sexual self-esteem, communication with partner, and partner’s sexual techniques. Design: In Finland, five national sex surveys that are based on random samples from the central population register have been conducted. They are representative of the total population within the age range of 18–54 years in 1971 (N=2,152, 18–74 years in 1992 (N=2,250, 18–81 years in 1999 (N=1,496, 18–74 years in 2007 (N=2,590, and 18–79 years in 2015 (N=2,150. Another dataset of 2,049 women in the age group of 18–70 years was collected in 2015 via a national Internet panel. Results: Contrary to expectations, women did not have orgasms that are more frequent by increasing their experience and practice of masturbation, or by experimenting with different partners in their lifetime. The keys to their more frequent orgasms lay in mental and relationship factors. These factors and capacities included orgasm importance, sexual desire, sexual self-esteem, and openness of sexual communication with partners. Women valued their partner’s orgasm more than their own. In addition, positive determinants were the ability to concentrate, mutual sexual initiations, and partner’s good sexual techniques. A relationship that felt good and worked well emotionally, and where sex was approached openly and appreciatively, promoted orgasms. Conclusion: The findings indicate that women differ greatly from one another in terms of their tendency and capacity to experience orgasms. The

  14. Adolescent Erotica and Female Self-Concept Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurowitz, Laurie; Gaier, Eugene

    1976-01-01

    Focuses on one specific kind of information and guidance employed by many adolescent females as a source of information on sexuality, female erotica, and for information on the female role--the female self concept. (Author/RK)

  15. Complex analysis and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Alessandro

    1993-01-01

    The papers in this wide-ranging collection report on the results of investigations from a number of linked disciplines, including complex algebraic geometry, complex analytic geometry of manifolds and spaces, and complex differential geometry.

  16. Reflections on Female Circumcision Discourse in Hargeysa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In communities where female circumcision is carried out, increasingly large segments of the population have been exposed to strong arguments against the practice. This study aimed to explore diverse discourses on female circumcision and the relationship between discourses and practice among informants who have ...

  17. Knowledge and Attitude of Nigerian Female Undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the knowledge and attitude of female undergraduate students in Nigeria toward STIs/HIV/AIDS pandemic. Quantitative research technique was adopted to examine this objective using University of Lagos female students as study population. The specific research method adopted in the study is ...

  18. Sport participation motivesof Kenyan female university athletes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected through participation motivation questionnaire (PMQ) from 132 female athletes participating in university sport championship. ... gender, athletes' sexual orientation, student athletes'residence and as well as the influence of friends/family, could affect participation of female athletes in university sport.

  19. Neurogenetics : sex and the female brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Levine, Joel D

    2014-01-01

    Male flies put on a multimedia show during courtship involving dance, song, perfume and even vibrations; if a female likes it, she pauses to let him know. Recent studies shed new light on how development and experience contribute to neural mechanisms of female sexual receptivity.

  20. The Dutch Female Board Index 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lückerath – Rovers, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch Female Board Index 2010 shows for the fourth year a survey of female representation on the Executive Boards and Supervisory Boards of 99 Dutch NVs listed on Euronext Amsterdam. The companies were classified by the percentage of women in their joint Executive Board and Supervisory Board.

  1. AB14. Female urology: update and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Donna

    2014-01-01

    The biggest controversy in female urology in the past few years is the use of mesh in vaginal surgery. The major societies of Female Urology and Urogynecology has announced position statements in regards to the use of mesh sling for incontinence surgery. Lecture will also include transvaginal and trans-abdominal methods to repair pelvic prolapse given the complications from mesh.

  2. Female alcoholism: Gender differences as victimogenic predispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović-Vilić Slobodanka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is an analysis of stereotypical social reactions to women’s alcoholism in the micro and macro social and cultural environment. The social stigma and blame that female alcohol abusers are exposed to have become part of deeply rooted gender-related labels. In a broader social context, they lead to discrimination and social exclusion. In the contemporary society, female alcoholism is turning into a growing social and health problem and because of that it is essential to make the social environment more sensitive to the issue of female alcoholism in order to eliminate the causes of female alcoholism and fully support women’s medical treatment,. It would have a preventive effect in suppressing female alcoholism and it would significantly reduce victimization of women who are, in such circumstances, much more vulnerable and exposed to physical and sexual violence. The aim of this paper is to point out to the basic phenomenological and etiological feature of female alcoholism, prejudices and stereotypical attitudes they are exposed to, social and cultural implications of female alcoholism, which is perceived as a predisposition for women’s victimization and exposure to violence, so as to promote a different social approach to female alcoholism and advocate for instituting social and educational policy based on the concept of gender equality and support of social control measures.

  3. Female Intercollegiate Athletes. Changes and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinde, Elaine M.

    1989-01-01

    Data from several surveys and studies which examined the sports experience of over 2,000 female college athletes is summarized. Issues explored include reasons for and conditions surrounding sport participation, academic performance of female athletes, reactions to college sport, and post-college sport participation patterns. (IAH)

  4. The Dynamics of Female Employment around Childbirth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlasblom, J.D.; Schippers, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    There is a strong effect of childbirth on female labour supply. This effect is expected to be influenced, among others, by the institutional context. This paper uses panel data on the last two decades on three European countries (The Netherlands, Germany, United Kingdom) to link changes in female

  5. Characteristics Related to Female & Male Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Agnes M.

    2004-01-01

    The following research investigated gender and the leadership role and determined if there are differences in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and characteristics between female leaders and male leaders. Literature suggests there are specific gender leadership differences between males and females in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and…

  6. 1 Isabel Allende: Carnalismo and Female Identity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isabel Allende: Carnalismo and Female Identity. Paper accepted on 27 April 2015. Abstract ... attempt to represent various facets of Latin American female identity, this article uses carnalismo as recurring trope while reinstating the particular ..... I am aware of my gender; I am aware of the fact that being born a woman is a ...

  7. Are female top managers really paid less?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiler, P.H.M.; Renneboog, Luc

    2015-01-01

    We study the gender pay gap for all top managers (CEO and executive directors) of listed UK companies and find mixed evidence: female CEOs do not face a pay gap, but the other female executive directors (e.g. CFO, COO, Deputy CEO) are discriminated against (while controlling for position, tenure,

  8. Are Female Top Managers Really Paid Less?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiler, P.H.M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Are female top managers paid less than their male counterparts? Is the gender gap higher in male-dominated industries? What effect on pay do female non-executive directors and remuneration consultants exert? While we find no pay gap for the figure-head (CEO), there is strong pay

  9. Female genital mutilation : Conditions of decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldwell, JC; Orubuloye, IO; Caldwell, P

    Female genital mutilation (or female circumcision) has been experienced by over 100 million women in sub-Saharan Africa and the Nile valley Efforts to suppress the practice were made in the earlier decades of the present century, especially by missionaries in Kenya in the 1920s and early 1930s.

  10. Modus operandi of female serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W; Hilton, T

    1998-04-01

    The modus operandi of female serial killers was examined from a chronology of 58 cases in America and 47 cases in 17 other countries, compiled over 25-year intervals. Female serial killers in other countries accounted for a disproportionately greater number of victims, but those in America managed a longer killing career when associated with a low profile modus operandi.

  11. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  12. Female gender stereotype in French advertising texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А С Борисова

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of female gender stereotypes in French advertising texts. On the ground of the practical analysis of advertising texts published in some modern French periodicals, we managed to expose and define general and national-cultural female gender stereotypes fixed in collective consciousness of the French.

  13. Promoting the female condom to refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Papo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available UNHCR and its partners have been providing male condoms since the late 1990s. However, uptake remains alarmingly low. Will the agency be more successful in promoting the female condom, a female-initiated barrier method of contraception and disease prevention?

  14. Gender and computer games : Exploring females' dislikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Tilo; Klimmt, Christoph

    On average, girls and women are less involved with video games than are boys and men, and when they do play, they often prefer different games. This article reports two studies that investigated the dislikes of German females with regard to video games. Study 1 applied conjoint analysis to female

  15. Subcutaneous Sarcoidosis in a Nigerian female

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the body but intrathoracic involvement (pulmonary and hilar nodes) ... affecting both genders with slight female preponderance. (4). All age ... in a Nigerian female. Summary. Sarcoidosis is relatively uncommon in indigenous black Africans, especially along the West African coast. There has not been any report of isolated ...

  16. Male versus Female Attitudes toward Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the extent to which differences existed between public attitudes of males versus females. Method: One hundred adults, 50 males and 50 females, were chosen at random from each of 50 study samples comprising a total of 3371 respondents in a database archive who had completed the "Public Opinion Survey of Human…

  17. Antenatal Diagnosis of an XXX Female

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krone, Lawrence R.; Prichard, Lorraine L.; Bradshaw, Christy L.; Jones, Oliver W.; Peterson, Raymond M.; Dixson, Barbara K.

    1975-01-01

    This report describes the first antenatal diagnosis of an XXX female. Over 150 postnatal cases of XXX females have been described. There is no specific phenotype associated with the sex chromosome abnormality and most such persons are fertile. The frequency of XXX females in mental institutions is 3.9 per 1,000 female subjects whereas the frequency in consecutive newborn infants is 1.1 per 1,000 newborns. Chi-square analysis shows this difference cannot be due to chance. On the other hand, data from consecutive newborn studies suggest that intellectual development in XXX newborns is within normal range. Available evidence favors normal development in XXX female infants although the risk for developmental disabilities may be higher for the XXX than for the XX infant. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:1154778

  18. Motivations of female Black Hills deer hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Covelli Metcalf, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    State fish and wildlife agencies are particularly interested in attracting female participation because of the potential to offset declining participation in hunting. Understanding female hunters’ motivations will be critical for designing effective recruitment and retention programs for women hunters. Although female participation in hunting is increasing, males still outnumber females by about tenfold. Gender differences in deer hunters were explored by comparing ratings of eight motivations (social, nature, excitement, meat, challenge, trophy, extra hunting opportunity, and solitude). Hunter types were defined by hunters’ selection of the most important motivation for why they like Black Hills deer hunting. Overall, females and males were relatively similar in their ratings of the eight motivations, and we found 85% gender similarity in the selection of the most important motivation. Women were slightly more motivated by the food aspect of the hunt while men placed slightly more value on the hunt as a sporting activity.

  19. Determinants of Female Labor Force Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Adiqa Kausar Kiani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors related to female entering the labor market. For example, household income, household expenditure, education and status of the head of the household (male/ female. The degree of correlation between each variable and female labor force participation rate varies throughout the country. This study focused on the factors due to which women enter in labor market. Tobit model is used for this analysis. It is concluded that education and household expenditures have positive but insignificant impact on the female LF, whereas household income and head of the household has negative impact on FLF. It is suggested that in order to improve the working condition of female labor force government should take necessary action, for example women education etc.

  20. Gender Inequality in Female-Dominated Occupation: The Earnings of Male and Female Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Richard R.; Schneider, Jeffrey M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines earnings differentials between male and female teachers, using data from the 1987 Schools and Staffing Survey by the U.S. Department of Education. The estimated cost of being a female teacher is 5% in annual contract salary. In the female-dominated teaching profession, despite regulated pay scales and other structures to ensure pay…

  1. RHAMM deficiency disrupts folliculogenesis resulting in female hypofertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaibiao Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The postnatal mammalian ovary contains the primary follicles, each comprising an immature oocyte surrounded by a layer of somatic granulosa cells. Oocytes reach meiotic and developmental competence via folliculogenesis. During this process, the granulosa cells proliferate massively around the oocyte, form an extensive extracellular matrix (ECM and differentiate into cumulus cells. As the ECM component hyaluronic acid (HA is thought to form the backbone of the oocyte-granulosa cell complex, we deleted the relevant domain of the Receptor for HA Mediated Motility (RHAMM gene in the mouse. This resulted in folliculogenesis defects and female hypofertility, although HA-induced signalling was not affected. We report that wild-type RHAMM localises at the mitotic spindle of granulosa cells, surrounding the oocyte. Deletion of the RHAMM C-terminus in vivo abolishes its spindle association, resulting in impaired spindle orientation in the dividing granulosa cells, folliculogenesis defects and subsequent female hypofertility. These data reveal the first identified physiological function for RHAMM, during oogenesis, and the importance of this spindle-associated function for female fertility.

  2. Genitalia burn: accident or violence? Concerns that transcend injury treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Lúcia Ferreira; Juliana Montez Ferreira; Paula Marques C. da Silva; Dilene Francisco Constancio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of genital burn which raised the suspicion of maltreatment (sexual abuse and neglect by lack of supervision). CASE DESCRIPTION: An infant was taken to the Emergency Room of a pediatric hospital with an extensive burn in the vulva and perineum. The mother claimed the burn had been caused by a sodium-hydroxide-based product. However, the injury severity led to the suspicion of sexual abuse, which was then ruled out by a multidisciplinary team, based on the consiste...

  3. Genitalia burn: accident or violence? Concerns that transcend injury treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana Lúcia; Ferreira, Juliana Montez; da Silva, Paula Marques C; Constancio, Dilene Francisco

    2014-06-01

    To describe a case of genital burn which raised the suspicion of maltreatment (sexual abuse and neglect by lack of supervision). An infant was taken to the Emergency Room of a pediatric hospital with an extensive burn in the vulva and perineum. The mother claimed the burn had been caused by a sodium-hydroxide-based product. However, the injury severity led to the suspicion of sexual abuse, which was then ruled out by a multidisciplinary team, based on the consistent report by the mother. Besides, the lesion type matched those caused by the chemical agent involved in the accident and the family context was evaluated and considered adequate. The patient had a favorable outcome and was discharged after four days of hospitalization. Outpatient follow-up during six months after the accident enabled the team to rule out neglect by lack of supervision. Accidents and violence are frequent causes of physical injuries in children, and the differential diagnosis between them can be a challenge for healthcare workers, especially in rare clinical conditions involving patients who cannot speak for themselves. The involvement of a multidisciplinary trained team helps to have an adequate approach, ensuring child protection and developing a bond with the family; the latter is essential for a continued patient follow-up.

  4. Elements of morphology: standard terminology for the external genitalia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekam, Raoul C. M.; Allanson, Judith E.; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Carey, John C.; Opitz, John M.; Vilain, Eric

    2013-01-01

    An international group of clinicians working in the field of dysmorphology has initiated the standardization of terms used to describe human morphology. The goals are to standardize these terms and reach consensus regarding their definitions. In this way, we will increase the utility of descriptions

  5. Bacteriology of the Anterior Genitalia of the Domestic House Cat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 33, No 4 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Genitalia burn: accident or violence? Concerns that transcend injury treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of genital burn which raised the suspicion of maltreatment (sexual abuse and neglect by lack of supervision.CASE DESCRIPTION: An infant was taken to the Emergency Room of a pediatric hospital with an extensive burn in the vulva and perineum. The mother claimed the burn had been caused by a sodium-hydroxide-based product. However, the injury severity led to the suspicion of sexual abuse, which was then ruled out by a multidisciplinary team, based on the consistent report by the mother. Besides, the lesion type matched those caused by the chemical agent involved in the accident and the family context was evaluated and considered adequate. The patient had a favorable outcome and was discharged after four days of hospitalization. Outpatient follow-up during six months after the accident enabled the team to rule out neglect by lack of supervision.COMMENTS: Accidents and violence are frequent causes of physical injuries in children, and the differential diagnosis between them can be a challenge for healthcare workers, especially in rare clinical conditions involving patients who cannot speak for themselves. The involvement of a multidisciplinary trained team helps to have an adequate approach, ensuring child protection and developing a bond with the family; the latter is essential for a continued patient follow-up.

  7. Dog bite injuries of genitalia in male infant and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Bothra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to highlight genital dog bites in male infant and children in developing countries and their management. We managed three cases (9 months, 5 years, and 8 years of genital dog bite between January 1997 and July 2008. Two had unprovoked stray dog bites and the third was bitten by his pet dog when disturbed during eating. Extent of injury varied from small-lacerated wound to near emasculation. Primary repair was done after thorough washing and debridement under antibiotic cover. In the 9-month-old male infant who was near emasculated, scrotum was closed with the available skin and a small penile stump was reconstructed after meatoplasty. Immunization against tetanus and rabies was done for all cases.Postoperative recovery was uneventful, and the wound healed primarily in all cases. Parents of the infant were asked for feminizing genitoplasty but they refused so they were advised for hormonal replacement and penile reconstruction at adolescence. Male children are the most common victims of genital dog bites. These injuries can be repaired primarily with good outcome provided strict cleaning, debridement, wound repair, antibiotic cover, and immunization is applied.

  8. Female Sex Offenders: Public Awareness and Attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Calli M; Anderson, Amy L

    2016-12-01

    Traditional gender roles, sex scripts, and the way female sex offenders are portrayed in the media may lead to misconceptions about who can commit sexual offenses. Sexual crimes by women may go unnoticed or unreported if there is a general lack of awareness that females commit these crimes. Data from the 2012 Nebraska Annual Social Indicators Survey were used to determine whether the public perceives women as capable sex offenders and the perceived causes of female sex offending. The traditional focus on male sex offenders by researchers, media, and politicians, in addition to gender stereotypes, introduces the possibility of group differences (e.g., between men and women) in perceptions of female sex offenders. Consequently, two secondary analyses were conducted that tested for group differences in both the public's perception of whether females can commit sex offenses and the explanations selected for why females sexually offend. The findings suggest that the public does perceive women as capable sex offenders, although there were group differences in the causal attributions for female sex offending.

  9. Motivation Factors for Female Entrepreneurship in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cantú Cavada

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper is to analyse motivation factors for female entrepreneurship in Mexico. In the proposed article, the authors discuss the factors which compelled women to start their enterprises in Mexico. Research Design & Methods: Based on in-depth interviews with female entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship experts, the authors show which factors motivated women to start their own business in Mexico. Findings: The study proves that women in Mexico are motivated by a combination of push and pull factors, where the majority of the factors are pull factors. The findings of the study help to conclude that female entrepreneurship development is influenced by different factors including the entrepreneurs’ personal traits, social and economic factors. Due to their conservative traditional attitude, risk adverse tendency, and non-cooperation of family members, etc. women entrepreneurs are sometimes deterred to start a business in Mexico. Implications & Recommendations: It is necessary to raise the awareness of different factors that promote female entrepreneurship in Mexico. Governmental programmes which support female entrepreneurship, business incubators, and networking could be very helpful for women when starting their own business. Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in studying motivational factors for female entrepreneurship in Mexico. The Mexican society faces a big revolution towards female entrepreneurship. Based on the change of family structure and traditions, women nowadays are having more opportunities to develop as entrepreneurs.

  10. Female Clergy as Agents of Religious Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Niemelä

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on female clergy as potential agents of change in the Church. I argue that the adoption of female clergy is one of the main factors that cause the Church to change its practices, policies and theological orientation. The first female ministers were ordained in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland in 1988. This is fairly late compared to other Nordic countries. However, the number of female ministers and female students has been growing fast and nowadays about 70 percent of theology students are female.The paper is based on quantitative surveys conducted among the members of the Clergy Union in 2002, 2006 and 2010 (N = about 1,000 each and among the applicants for university studies in theology in 2010. The research shows that clergywomen are changing the Church in a clearly more liberal direction. They do it in various areas of church life: they change the perception of faith and dogma, the policies of the Church as well as daily practices in parishes. Clergymen are notably more traditional in their orientation, even young clergymen. Therefore it is especially the female clergy who serve as agents of religious change in the Church.

  11. Photocytotoxic lanthanide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Tb(III) complexes in UV-A light of 350 nm.61 The complexes are thus of importance for therapeutic appli- cations in the treatment of accessible tumours like skin melanoma. 3.3 Photoactive non-macrocyclic lanthanide complexes. Lanthanide complexes of non-macrocyclic ligands have recently been studied mainly by ...

  12. Understanding Patterns of Intimate Partner Abuse in Male-Male, Male-Female, and Female-Female Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaman, Alexandru; McAfee, Scot; Homel, Peter; Jacob, Theresa

    2017-06-01

    Intimate Partner Abuse (IPA), a major social problem, can lead to mental health conditions and is implicated in 30 % of female and 5 % of male homicide deaths. We hypothesized that due to distinct relationship structures and power dynamics which are immersed in varying sociocultural contexts, victims of male-male, female-female and female-male dyads experience different patterns of IPA. Our objectives were: (1) To examine the demographic and clinical characteristics of victims of male victim-male abuser (M-M), female victim-male abuser (F-M), male victim-female abuser (M-F), and female victim-female abuser (F-F) dyads. (2) To compare patterns of IPA reported by the victims in these groups. Out of 397 subjects in the general population that attempted this Internet-based study, 214 English-speaking subjects were older than 18 years, had experienced IPA, and provided complete information for the analysis. Victims of IPA were screened and specific methods of abuse were evaluated. M-Ms were significantly more educated (70 %) than other groups. F-Fs experienced more abuse before age 18 by a parent or relative. F-Fs experienced the most physical abuse while M-Ms the least (p = 0.004). Physical abuse or threats of abuse in front of children was reported more in F-Fs (p < 0.01) and least in M-Ms. IPA patterns differ significantly with F-Fs presenting the most physical profile and M-Ms presenting the least.

  13. Female vs. Male Ampelmännchen-Gender-Specific Reaction Times to Male and Female Traffic Light Figures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid I. Kandil

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Traffic signs are important visual guiding signals for the safe navigation through complex road traffic. Interestingly, there is little variation in the traffic signs for cars around the world. However, remarkable variation exists for pedestrian traffic signs. Following up from an earlier study, we investigated the visual efficacy of female vs. male German Ampelmännchen pedestrian traffic signs. In a Stroop-like test, 30 subjects were presented with female and male go and no-go traffic light figures that were shown either in the corresponding or opposing color. Subjects had to indicate, based either solely on the form or the color of the figure, whether they were allowed to go. Accuracy and response times across all subjects did not differ for the female vs. male signs, indicating that Ampelfrau and Ampelmann signs have equal visual efficacy. However, subjects responded faster to signs of their own vs. the opposite gender. This preference for signs of one's own gender is in accordance with effects in social psychology described by social learning theory. An introduction of such novel traffic lights may, thus, contribute to higher compliance with the traffic sign signals.

  14. Prolactin induces apoptosis of lactotropes in female rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Ferraris

    Full Text Available Anterior pituitary cell turnover occurring during female sexual cycle is a poorly understood process that involves complex regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis by multiple hormones. In rats, the prolactin (PRL surge that occurs at proestrus coincides with the highest apoptotic rate. Since anterior pituitary cells express the prolactin receptor (PRLR, we aimed to address the actual role of PRL in the regulation of pituitary cell turnover in cycling females. We showed that acute hyperprolactinemia induced in ovariectomized rats using PRL injection or dopamine antagonist treatment rapidly increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation specifically of PRL producing cells (lactotropes, suggesting a direct regulation of these cell responses by PRL. To demonstrate that apoptosis naturally occurring at proestrus was regulated by transient elevation of endogenous PRL levels, we used PRLR-deficient female mice (PRLRKO in which PRL signaling is totally abolished. According to our hypothesis, no increase in lactotrope apoptotic rate was observed at proestrus, which likely contributes to pituitary tumorigenesis observed in these animals. To decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying PRL effects, we explored the isoform-specific pattern of PRLR expression in cycling wild type females. This analysis revealed dramatic changes of long versus short PRLR ratio during the estrous cycle, which is particularly relevant since these isoforms exhibit distinct signaling properties. This pattern was markedly altered in a model of chronic PRLR signaling blockade involving transgenic mice expressing a pure PRLR antagonist (TGΔ1-9-G129R-hPRL, providing evidence that PRL regulates the expression of its own receptor in an isoform-specific manner. Taken together, these results demonstrate that i the PRL surge occurring during proestrus is a major proapoptotic signal for lactotropes, and ii partial or total deficiencies in PRLR signaling in the anterior pituitary

  15. Malignant mammary tumor in female dogs: environmental contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bissacot Denise Z

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mammary tumors of female dogs have greatly increased in recent years, thus demanding rapid diagnosis and effective treatment in order to determine the animal survival. There is considerable scientific interest in the possible role of environmental contaminants in the etiology of mammary tumors, specifically in relation to synthetic chemical substances released into the environment to which living beings are either directly or indirectly exposed. In this study, the presence of pyrethroid insecticide was observed in adjacent adipose tissue of canine mammary tumor. High Precision Liquid Chromatography - HPLC was adapted to detect and identify environmental contaminants in adipose tissue adjacent to malignant mammary tumor in nine female dogs, without predilection for breed or age. After surgery, masses were carefully examined for malignant neoplastic lesions. Five grams of adipose tissue adjacent to the tumor were collected to detect of environmental contaminants. The identified pyrethroids were allethrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and tetramethrin, with a contamination level of 33.3%. Histopathology demonstrated six female dogs (66.7% as having complex carcinoma and three (33.3% with simple carcinoma. From these tumors, seven (77.8% presented aggressiveness degree III and two (22.2% degree I. Five tumors were positive for estrogen receptors in immunohistochemical analysis. The contamination level was observed in more aggressive tumors. This was the first report in which the level of environmental contaminants could be detected in adipose tissue of female dogs with malignant mammary tumor, by HPLC. Results suggest the possible involvement of pyrethroid in the canine mammary tumor carcinogenesis. Hence, the dog may be used as a sentinel animal for human breast cancer, since human beings share the same environment and basically have the same eating habits.

  16. Programmed Cell Death During Female Gametophyte Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drews, Gary, N.

    2004-09-15

    Endosperm is a storage tissue in the angiosperm seed that is important both biologically and agriculturally. Endosperm is biologically important because it provides nutrients to the embryo during seed development and agriculturally important because it is a significant source of food, feed, and industrial raw materials. Approximately two-thirds of human calories are derived from endosperm, either directly or indirectly through animal feed. Furthermore, endosperm is used as a raw material for numerous industrial products including ethanol. A major event in endosperm development is the transition between the syncytial phase, during which the endosperm nuclei undergo many rounds of mitosis without cytokinesis, and the cellularized phase, during which cell walls form around the endosperm nuclei. Understanding how the syncytial-cellular transition is regulated is agriculturally important because it influences seed size, seed sink strength, and grain weight. However, the molecular processes controlling this transition are not understood. This project led to the identification of the AGL62 gene that regulates the syncytial-cellular transition during endosperm development. AGL62 is expressed during the syncytial phase and suppresses endosperm cellularization during this period. AGL62 most likely does so by suppressing the expression of genes required for cellularization. At the end of the syncytial phase, the FIS PcG complex suppresses AGL62 expression, which allows expression of the cellularization genes and triggers the initiation of the cellularized phase. Endosperm arises following fertilization of the central cell within the female gametophyte. This project also led to the identification of the AGL80 gene that is required for development of the central cell into the endosperm. Within the ovule and seed, AGL80 is expressed exclusively in the central cell and uncellularized endosperm. AGL80 is required for expression of several central cell-expressed genes, including

  17. Impact of oxidative stress on female fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Elizabeth H.; Hartman, Terryl J.; Goldman, Marlene B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review To review the role of oxidative stress in the context of female fertility. Recent findings Oxidative stress is associated with decreased female fertility in animal and in-vitro models, but no studies to date have directly assessed the relationship in women. Exposures associated with oxidative stress and with evidence to influence the timing and maintenance of a viable pregnancy include pregnancy complications (e.g. preeclampsia), extremes of body weight, alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine intake. Intake of antioxidant nutrients, including use of multivitamins, impacts the generation of reactive oxygen species and may play a beneficial role in female fertility. Summary Infertility is a significant public health problem and diagnosis and treatment are stressful, invasive, and costly. The role of oxidative stress in female fertility is an understudied and compelling area for investigation. Identifying modifiable factors to decrease oxidative stress in the gynecologic environment may be an inexpensive and noninvasive therapy for increasing fertility. PMID:19469044

  18. Secondary Amenorrhea among Female Athletes. Current Understandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasiene, Gwen Hagenbuch

    1983-01-01

    Research pertaining to female athletes' problems with secondary amenorrhea is reviewed. Studies point to stress, weight loss, anorexia nervosa, obesity, arduous athletic training, and age of onset of training as factors which may contribute to this disorder. (PP)

  19. Menstrual cycle disorders in female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarska, M; Witkoś, J; Drosdzol-Cop, A; Dąbrowska, J; Dąbrowska-Galas, M; Hartman, M; Plinta, R; Skrzypulec-Plinta, V

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relation between increased physical activity and menstrual disorders in adolescent female volleyball players. The study was conducted on 210 Polish female volleyball players, aged 13-17 years, the authorship questionnaire was used. The results of the study showed that irregular menstruation occurred in 19% of girls, spotting between menstrual periods in 27% and heavy menstruation was reported in 33% of girls. Out of all volleyball female players participating in the study, 94 girls (45%) declared absence of menstrual periods after regular cycles. Statistical analysis showed that the more training hours per week, the bigger probability of the occurrence of irregular menstruation. It was concluded that the number of hours of volleyball training per week affects regularity of menstrual cycles in female volleyball players. The absence of menstruation might be caused by the duration of training per week or years of training.

  20. International efforts on abandoning female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Edouard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM, sometimes referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting, is a harmful cultural practice without any known health benefit. Its short-term and long-term health risks have led to numerous initiatives toward its eradication at international and local levels, over the last two decades. While major challenges remain and millions of girls and women are still at risk of being subjected to FGM, there is growing evidence that interventions that take into account the social dynamics that perpetuate FGM are yielding positive results toward its reduction. Well-recognized as a human rights violation in international treaties, the elimination of female genital mutilation requires ongoing interventions through cross-sectoral approaches that address attitudinal, cultural and behavioral change.

  1. The medicalisation of female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Foldes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ‘medicalisation’ of female genital mutilation should be denounced on two counts.Firstly, it is usually anatomically more damaging and, secondly, it goes against the ethical basis of the medical profession.

  2. Gender Identity in Female Football Players

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wiliński, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to define the relationship between gender identity, the perception of the body, depressiveness, and aggression in female football players who represent different levels of competence...

  3. Ecdysteroid receptors in Drosophila melanogaster adult females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecdysteroid receptors were identified and partially characterized from total cell extracts of whole animals and dissected tissues from Drosophila melanogaster adult females. Binding studies indicated the presence of two ecdysteroid binding components having high affinity and specificity consistent w...

  4. Female Athletes Thrive, but Budget Pressures Loom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Welch

    2001-01-01

    A "Chronicle" survey finds significant progress for female athletes at the college level and budget constraints looming for all sports programs. The article includes several data tables on sports participation by women, scholarships, and athletic budgets. (EV)

  5. Questionnaires for assessment of female sexual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra; Pfaus, James G

    2011-01-01

    There are many methods to evaluate female sexual function and dysfunction (FSD) in clinical and research settings, including questionnaires, structured interviews, and detailed case histories. Of these, questionnaires have become an easy first choice to screen individuals into different categories...

  6. Behavioural and hormonal responses of male rhesus monkeys introduced to females in the breeding and non-breeding seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, I S; Rose, R M; Gordon, T P

    1977-08-01

    Six adult male rhesus monkeys were introduced individually to an all-female group for 10 days during the mating season. The initial aggressive responses of the females were rapidly replaced by positive social behaviour, and each male achieved alpha status and had access to social and sexual partners. A repetition of this paradigm in the non-breeding season produced significantly more female aggression, and no male attained high rank or engaged in sexual or other social behaviour. Male testosterone levels rose following introduction to the females in both seasons, but were significantly higher during the breeding season. Hormonal levels following removal from the females suggest a complex interplay between social, sexual and seasonal variables and recent social experiences. The differences in female social behaviour with newly introduced males, as a function of season, suggest an explanation for the seasonal limitation of male troop transfers.

  7. [Between caring and monitoring: ambiguities and contradictions in the discourse of a female penitentiary officer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcinski, Mariana; Altenbernd, Bibiana; Campani, Cristiane

    2014-07-01

    The scope of this paper was to establish how the discourse of a female penitentiary officer working in a prison for women reflects, in different ways, the inherent contradiction of prisons, namely their double mission of punishing and resocializing criminals. The data collected in a female prison in Rio Grande do Sul were evaluated using Critical Discourse Analysis, which seeks to understand how discursive productions reflect social power relations. The analyses show that this officer's practice is based simultaneously on punitive and resocializing ideologies, expressed in contradictory feelings of anger and affection towards incarcerated women. Results point to the centrality of gender in the relationship established between officers and interns. Thus, the fact of being a female officer caring and monitoring other women makes this daily relationship even more complex. This complexity extrapolates the limits imposed by prisons.

  8. Female Psychology in August Strindberg's the Stronger

    OpenAIRE

    Sutandio, Anton; Apriliani, Erica

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to offer interpretations of August Strindberg's The Stronger through the lens of female psychology. The Stronger is unique as it seemed very simple yet so intense and powerful with layers of interpretations. Written during 1888-1889, The Stronger, which only had two characters and only one speaking character, had become one of Strindberg's shortest yet important plays during his career. The female psychology approach used in the analysis would cover the discussion of gende...

  9. The Contaminant Cobweb: Complex Characters and Monstrous Mashup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech Albertsen, Anita Nell

    2017-01-01

    This article maps out character complexity in Penny Dreadful by focusing on the intertextuality of monstrous female characters. The aim of this study is twofold. First, it seeks to examine show how mashup characters gain complexity through textual contamination as they are woven into an intertext......This article maps out character complexity in Penny Dreadful by focusing on the intertextuality of monstrous female characters. The aim of this study is twofold. First, it seeks to examine show how mashup characters gain complexity through textual contamination as they are woven...... into an intertextual cobweb of signification. Secondly, it aims at examining how monstrous complex characters like Vanessa Ives can be conceived as mashups contaminated by different manifestations of the monstrous-feminine as coined by Barbara Creed. An overarching hypothesis of this study is that interfigural...

  10. Effects of hormone treatment on sexual functioning in postmenopausal women : pharmacological intervention and female sexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, Esmé Aurelia

    2008-01-01

    Effects of hormone treatment on sexual functioning in postmenopausal women. Pharmacological intervention and female sexuality: a complex, controversial clinical and social issue. The studies presented in this thesis have been conducted to investigate the effects of hormone therapy (HT) and tibolone

  11. Agency and Female Teachers' Career Decisions: A Life History Study of 40 Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joan

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on some of the findings of a wider, life history study on the factors affecting the career decisions of 40 female secondary school teachers in England. By using life history interviews, it was possible to gain rich and nuanced insights into the complexity of factors influencing women's career decisions. While acknowledging the…

  12. Unbiased survival estimates and evidence for skipped breeding opportunities in females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, Erin L.; Scherer, Rick D.; Lambert, Brad A.

    2010-01-01

    1. Estimates of demographic parameters for females, in many organisms, are sparse. This is particularly worrisome as more and more species are faced with high extinction probabilities and conservation increasingly depends on actions dictated by complex predictive models that require accurate estimates of demographic parameters for each sex and species.

  13. Mastitis in the lactating mink female (Mustela vison S.) and the development of "greasy kits"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, T.N.; Dietz, Hans H.

    2000-01-01

    "Greasy kits" is the result ufa multifactorial disease complex with few known definitive aetiological factors. Mastitis has been hypothesized as a triggering factor although classical clinical signs of mastitis (rubor, tumor, dolor, calor) are rarely seen in lactating Danish mink Females. In this...

  14. Heterosexual men's attitudes toward the female condom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, D W; Ehrhardt, A A

    1999-04-01

    This article addresses heterosexual men's familiarity with the female condom and their attitudes toward this barrier method. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 71 ethnically diverse and heterosexually active men who were recruited in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics or through word of mouth in communities with high HIV/STD seroprevalence in New York City during fall 1994 to fall 1995. Only one man reported previous experience with the female condom. The large majority of men had no or limited knowledge of the female condom. Men's reactions to learning about this method ranged from positive to negative, although most men reported willingness to have sex with a partner who wanted to use the female condom. Positive reactions included: endorsement of a woman-controlled condom and her right to use it, the potential for enhancing one's sexual pleasure, and an eagerness to have a new sexual experience. Negative reactions centered on the "strangeness" and "bigness" of the female condom, concerns about prevention efficacy, and concerns about reductions in sexual pleasure. Our findings highlight the need for HIV prevention programs that target heterosexual men and promote the use of the female condom.

  15. Microphysiologic systems in female reproductive biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alexandria N; Moyle-Heyrman, Georgette; Kim, J Julie; Burdette, Joanna E

    2017-11-01

    Microphysiologic systems (MPS), including new organ-on-a-chip technologies, recapitulate tissue microenvironments by employing specially designed tissue or cell culturing techniques and microfluidic flow. Such systems are designed to incorporate physiologic factors that conventional 2D or even 3D systems cannot, such as the multicellular dynamics of a tissue-tissue interface or physical forces like fluid sheer stress. The female reproductive system is a series of interconnected organs that are necessary to produce eggs, support embryo development and female health, and impact the functioning of non-reproductive tissues throughout the body. Despite its importance, the human reproductive tract has received less attention than other organ systems, such as the liver and kidney, in terms of modeling with MPS. In this review, we discuss current gaps in the field and areas for technological advancement through the application of MPS. We explore current MPS research in female reproductive biology, including fertilization, pregnancy, and female reproductive tract diseases, with a focus on their clinical applications. Impact statement This review discusses existing microphysiologic systems technology that may be applied to study of the female reproductive tract, and those currently in development to specifically investigate gametes, fertilization, embryo development, pregnancy, and diseases of the female reproductive tract. We focus on the clinical applicability of these new technologies in fields such as assisted reproductive technologies, drug testing, disease diagnostics, and personalized medicine.

  16. Complex differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Fangyang

    2002-01-01

    The theory of complex manifolds overlaps with several branches of mathematics, including differential geometry, algebraic geometry, several complex variables, global analysis, topology, algebraic number theory, and mathematical physics. Complex manifolds provide a rich class of geometric objects, for example the (common) zero locus of any generic set of complex polynomials is always a complex manifold. Yet complex manifolds behave differently than generic smooth manifolds; they are more coherent and fragile. The rich yet restrictive character of complex manifolds makes them a special and interesting object of study. This book is a self-contained graduate textbook that discusses the differential geometric aspects of complex manifolds. The first part contains standard materials from general topology, differentiable manifolds, and basic Riemannian geometry. The second part discusses complex manifolds and analytic varieties, sheaves and holomorphic vector bundles, and gives a brief account of the surface classifi...

  17. Mates of Competitive Females: The Relationships between Female Aggression, Mate Quality, and Parental Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristal E. Cain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though rarely mate-limited, females in a wide variety of species express traits commonly associated with mate competition in males. Recent research has shown that these competitive traits (ornaments, armaments, and intense aggression often function in the context of female-female competition for nonsexual reproductive resources and are often positively related to reproductive success. Increased success could occur because competitive females acquire limited ecological resources (nest sites, territories, etc. or because they pair with high quality males, that is, older, more ornamented, or more parental males. Further, males paired with aggressive/low care females may compensate by increasing their paternal efforts. Here, I examined patterns of social pairing and parental care in free-living dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis, a biparental songbird. I found no detectable relationship between female competitive behavior (aggression and male quality (age, size, or ornamentation or male provisioning. Thus, neither of the mate choice hypotheses (females compete for males or males prefer aggressive females was supported. Instead, these results suggest that females compete for nonsexual resources and mate quality is a secondary consideration. I also found a negative relationship between male and female provisioning rates, suggesting that partners adjust their level of parental effort in response to their partner’s efforts.

  18. Complex and symplectic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Medori, Costantino; Tomassini, Adriano

    2017-01-01

    This book arises from the INdAM Meeting "Complex and Symplectic Geometry", which was held in Cortona in June 2016. Several leading specialists, including young researchers, in the field of complex and symplectic geometry, present the state of the art of their research on topics such as the cohomology of complex manifolds; analytic techniques in Kähler and non-Kähler geometry; almost-complex and symplectic structures; special structures on complex manifolds; and deformations of complex objects. The work is intended for researchers in these areas.

  19. Localizing brain regions associated with female mate preference behavior in a swordtail.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Y Wong

    Full Text Available Female mate choice behavior is a critical component of sexual selection, yet identifying the neural basis of this behavior is largely unresolved. Previous studies have implicated sensory processing and hypothalamic brain regions during female mate choice and there is a conserved network of brain regions (Social Behavior Network, SBN that underlies sexual behaviors. However, we are only beginning to understand the role this network has in pre-copulatory female mate choice. Using in situ hybridization, we identify brain regions associated with mate preference in female Xiphophorus nigrensis, a swordtail species with a female choice mating system. We measure gene expression in 10 brain regions (linked to sexual behavior, reward, sensory integration or other processes and find significant correlations between female preference behavior and gene expression in two telencephalic areas associated with reward, learning and multi-sensory processing (medial and lateral zones of the dorsal telencephalon as well as an SBN region traditionally associated with sexual response (preoptic area. Network analysis shows that these brain regions may also be important in mate preference and that correlated patterns of neuroserpin expression between regions co-vary with differential compositions of the mate choice environment. Our results expand the emerging network for female preference from one that focused on sensory processing and midbrain sexual response centers to a more complex coordination involving forebrain areas that integrate primary sensory processing and reward.

  20. Access to information and decision making on teenage pregnancy prevention by females in Tshwane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masemola-Yende, J P F; Mataboge, Sanah M

    2015-11-05

    The increase in the number of teenage pregnancies and its negative consequences has encouraged various researchers to explore the possible causes of teenage pregnancy. Findings from previously-conducted research have indicated different preventable factors that predispose female teenagers to pregnancy, such as staff attitudes and the lack of information resulting from poor access to health facilities. To explore and describe access to information and decision making on teenage pregnancy prevention by females using a primary healthcare clinic in Tshwane, South Africa. In this study, the researchers used a descriptive qualitative and exploratory research design to explore and describe the verbal reports regarding prevention of teenage pregnancy by females using a primary healthcare clinic in Tshwane, South Africa. Face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 female participants aged between 15 and 26, who had been pregnant once or more during their teens. Two themes emerged, namely, access to information and decision making by female teenagers. Five categories that emerged were: access to information on pregnancy prevention; ignoring of provided information; the use of alternative medicine with hormonal contraception; personal reasons for use and non-use of contraception; and decisions made by teenagers to not fall pregnant. Females in this study fell pregnant in their teens, even though they had access to information. Given the complexity of this problem, female teenagers should use their families as primary sources of information for reproductive health promotion and educational institutions should build on this to aid the prevention of teenage pregnancy.